Патент USA US3100283код для вставки
Aug. 6, 1963 ‘ R. w. REICH 3,100,278 ELECTROMAGNETIC PENDULUM DRIVE Filed Jan. 6. 1959 INVENTOR. ROBERT WALTER RE/CH BY WWW Bib-@278 United States Patent 0 ” ice Patented Aug. 6, 1963 1 2 lowing explanation thereof with the aid of the accom 3,100,278 ELECTROMAGNETIC PENDULUM DRIVE Robert Walter Reich, Rotaclrerstrasse Z, Freiburg irn Breisgau, Germany Filed Jan. 6, 1959, Ser. No. 785,197 Claims priority, application Germany Jan. 10, 1958 9 Claims. (till. 318-428) panying drawings, in which FIG. 1 shows schematic-ally a ?rst form of construc tion of the working arrangement according to the inven tion; FIG. 2 shows another form of construction of the in vention wherein a squegging oscillator circuit serves as osci-laltor circuit; FIG. 3 is yet another schematic representation of a ment for clocks, chronometers and time-signal transmit 10 form of construction of the invention similar to that il lustrated in FIG. 2; ting apparatus. _ ‘FIG. 4 is a schematic illustration of ‘another ‘form of All the hitherto known working arrangements for clocks construction of the invention which is particularly suit with tubes and transistor circuit schemes are based on able for .step-Iby-step mechanisms and the known principle of electric clocks with contacts. FIG. 5 ?nally shows schematically another .form of The transistor, for example, serves in all circuit schemes 15 construction of the invention which is particularly suit merely as substitute ‘for the electric switch with contacts. The invention relates to an electronic working arrange The contact-making for producing the working impulse able in the event where only very small permanent mag net-s can be used as swinging magnets. is effected by energizing the basic circuit of the transistor. As these ?gures will now be described in detail, and By a suitable coil arrangement and the employment of permanent magnets a potential impulse is induced on the 20 particularly FIGURE 1, it is pointed out that in the switching arrangements according to the invention the magnet passing into and out of a coil and this potential periodical drive is effected by an oscillator in a special ‘impulse excites the timebase emitter circuit so that the circuit arrangement. . transistor becomes conductive. Such circuit arrange In FIG. 1 is shown a transistor blocking oscillator in ments, as is generally known, are open to objections which practically outweigh the advantages of transistor cir 25 cluding a transistor 1 having a ?rst coil 2 connected across its base emitter path and having a sewnd coil 3 cuits. In particular, it is the holding current in the cir connected to its collector. A capacitor 11 shunts coil cuit arrangement and the exceptionally great dependency 3, and a battery 10 connects capacitor 11 and coil 3 to upon tempera-ture which have a disadvantageous effect the emitter of the transistor. on the construction of clocks and on their use. The bold 30 Coils 2 and 3 are disposed in coaxial relationship and ing current represents a loading of the source of current which is many times that of the working current. Through the dependency upon temperature, the accuracy of the a cup-shaped shield 4 made of this brass or aluminum is disposed between the coils thus decoupling them by clocks is reduced and, when dependency upon tempera~ magnetic shielding. ture ‘also exists in the case or" the mechanical parts, this reduction in accuracy is further augmented by the amount which emanates from the transistor circuit. Compensa Shield 4 decouples coils 2 and 3 to such an extent, that the oscillator will not run. There is further pro vided a pendulum in form of a permanent magnet 5, the tion is not possible because the inaccuracy ‘for the me chanical oscillating system and the inaccuracy from the transistor circuit add up. Moreover, the clock construc tion with coils and permanent magnets which swing in the coils also possess many other disadvantages. Primarily the unattractive appearance of the whole arrangement re stricts considerably the utility value of clock-s in the case ‘of the known system with cont-actless control for driving and energizing coils and permanent magnet in pendulum oscillation. Consequently the object of my invention is to produce an electronics arrangement for clocks, chronometers and time-signal transmitting apparatus, which is entirely independent of temperature, has an ex traordinarily low cur-rent consumption, works extremely accurately and is simple to regulate. Finally the elec north pole of which swings over the open end of coils ‘Z and 3 and cup 4. When magnet 5 is in or near the position indicated, the shielding effect of cup 4 is par tially over-ridden by the coupling ellect exerted by magnet 5 with respect to the coils. Whenever magnet 5 is de?ected from the position illus trated (see arrows 5'), the coupling eliect vanishes and the oscillator is blocked again. Magnet 5 exhibits another effect in that it induces a voltage in coil 2., for example when it approaches the illustrated zero position. This voltage opens transistor 1 and thus starts the oscillator. A third function of magnet 5 is to serve as a passive impeller. Whenever the oscillator is opened, the cur rent permitted to ?ow through coil 3 is determined by the direction of the collector current; the amplitude of the current through coil 3 is determined bythe ‘feed back tronic arrangement according to my invention is intended to make it possible to produce clocks which are Very action of coil 2 being, on one hand now inductively 55 attractive in appearance and very practical. coupled to coil 3, and being connected to base and emitter These objects are attained by the new electronic Work of transistor 1. This feed back action produces needle ing arrangement for clocks, chronometers and time-signal sharp pulses of one polarity. Current pulses of opposite transmitting apparatus, with a source of current, gear polarity are produced in coil 3, but they are of consider train, mechanical oscillating system and transistors or able lesser amplitude, because in this opposite direction, tubes, which arrangement is characterized in that an os ‘the now blocked emitter :base path serves as an open circuit for the coil 2, being a secondary winding of the existing transformer action between coils 2 and 3. The needle pulses impel magnet 5. The frequency of the means of metal covers or plates and is released by cou pling effected by the swinging over of a pendulum mag 65 oscillator and the amplitude of the oscillations are solely dependent upon the circuit constants of the oscillator. net, preferably with only one pole, in the direction towards Due to the magnetic accumulation, an induction current the coils, whereby a sequence of impulses composed of is produced in the working coil (2 or 3) at the switching like-poled needle-shaped impulses with high voltage in in and out of each swing and results in an increase of the frequency of the oscillator circuit arrangement, peri voltage. Under given conditions in the case of clock odically drives the mechanical oscillating system by re 70 constructions this increase in voltage amounts to about cillator circuit arrangement with coils and/or condensers is blocked in the inoperative position by uncoupling by pelling and attracting the swinging permanent magnet. The invention will be better understood from the fol~ 30 to 50 times. For the drive of such clocks a source of current with a working potential of‘ about 1 to 2 volts 3,100,278 3 is su?icient and the potential occurring on the driving be completely invisible. As these magnets do not swing coil attains about 30 to 50 volts. The frequency of the in any coils but only over them, it is not necessary to take oscillator lies in the order of magnitude between 3,000 into consideration the guiding of the pendulum. It is also possible to regulate the clock by varying the distance of the pendulum from the driving coils, which is not possible in the case of arrangements with swing-in magnets and 10,000 cycles. As the permanent magnet 5 swings over the coil arrangement, impulses are, as stated, re leased‘ in the order of ‘about 10 to 20 impulses at a base frequency of 3,000 to 10,000 cycles. The oscillation pull and when using a transistor system as contactless switch. itself, due to. the permanent magnet 5 of which only one For example, if the permanent magnet is accommodated pole (the N-pole in FIG. 1), becomes operative for the in a spherical or conical pendulum so that the screw». coupling, is already in the form "of needle-shaped im 10 thread can be provided directly on the housing of the pulses which, read on one side of the zero point, have very high amplitudes of 30 to 50 times the value of the basal voltage. On the other side of the zero point rela tively low impulse peaks are certainly produced but in relation to the needle-shaped high impulses scarcely be come apparent. The cscillographic diagram shows an oscillation pull similar to the known diagram in the pendulum. Also by providing a screw-thread on the pendulum rod it is possible, by merely turning the pendu lum housing, to effect regulation by changing the distance of the permanent magnet. Similarly, this can be eifected 15 in the case of rotary pendulum clocks by raising and lowering the pendulum balls in which the permanent magnets are ?tted. Any lcnown circuit arrangement can case of a direct current transformer in transistor circuit be employed as oscillator system, such as, for example, (the Meacham bridge, or the Hartley circuit, or a multiple arrangement with diode introduced for suppressing a half wave. The magnetic coupling thus produced in the vibrator circuit or a blocking oscillator circuit as shown arrangement according to the invention over a permanent magnet with only one pole, results in an oscillation dia in FIGURE 2, or any other suitable circuit arrangement for producing oscillations in the frequency range up‘ to gram of like-directed, needle-shaped impulses which, in about 10,000 cycles per second. The circuit arrange the driving coil, build up a magnetic ?eld which repels ment is built-up on the basic principle so that .the starting the magnet. In brushing over the driving coil the mag 25 in of oscillation is effected by the coupling via per net 5 itself is therefore repelled. This magnet 5‘ is now manent magnet or magnets. In inoperative position, arranged in a swinging pendulum or a rotary pendulum provision is made that no feed current flows by suitably or in a‘ balance-like construction, so that the oscillating uncoupling. system receives periodic impulses. These periodic im For very small clocks very advantageous constructional pulses are dependent in number and magnitude upon the 30 possibilities are obtained by using simple oscillating cir constants of the oscillating circuit of the transistor sys cuit arrangements with only one transistor of miniature tem. It is easily possible to provide several permanent size. Both s-tep-by-step switching mechanisms and also magnets in suitable arrangements, for example, in the mechanisms with mechanical oscillating systems can be case of'rotary pendulum clocks, in the mechanical oscil lating structure. In this Way a corresponding swing pull 35 built up in balance-like constructions. In the case of a step-by~step switching mechanism the frequency of the is produced in swinging over each permanent magnet, switch-in of the actual oscillating element is preferably causing a driving impulse for the further rotation. based on a second. The oscillating circuit arrangement The circuit illustrated in FIG. 2' contains all the ele of the oscillator is then so chosen that a basic frequency ments of the circuit of FIG. 1. Additionally, there is a resistor ‘28 inserted in series circuit connection with 40 of about 3,000 to 10,000 cycles is produced by suitably dimensioning the selfainductance coils or the condensers coil 2 for adjustment of the internal impedance of the and that this basic frequency always occurs every second. oscillator. A recti?er 6 short-circuits those voltages in As shown FIGURE 4 the simplest way of attaining duced in coil 5 which do not open the transistor 1. Fur this is by charging a condenser 43‘ in the base circuit of thermore, in FIG. 2 is shown a balance Wheel 27, biased by a spring 26 in the usual manner while a permanent 45 the transistor. The condenser 43 is so dimensioned that the charging time amounts to exactly one second. By magnet 25 oscillates with this balance and performs the connecting up in series a variable resistance 44, the charg same function as magnet 5 does in the device shown in ing time for the condenser can be accurately regulated to FIG. 5. the value of a second. It is evident that any other switch In the device shown in FIG. 3, the capacitor 11 of FIGS. 1 and 2 is replaced by a capacitor 31 connected 50 ing period can be used if the ratio of transmission in the train of gears is appropriately chosen. In the case of a across coil 2, and a blocking diode 36 is connected in balance-type of clock movement, either the balance itself series circuit connection to L-C circuit 2—-—31. There is is constructed as a disc-shaped permanent magnet or a also provided a. resistor 37 connected in series with diode suitable small permanent magnet is ?tted on the balance 36. There is a rotary pendulum or balance like struc 55 ture including a shaft 38 rotatably supported in stationary bearings 32 and '33. There is a balance spring 39 con nected to the shaft for recoiling a balance wheel 34. Balance wheel 34 supports small permanent magnets 35 and 35' performing a similar function as magnets 25 and 60 5 previously described. (see FIG. 3). The only important point is that the per manent magnet is periodically released by coupling the oscillating process in the transistor circuit. By using the above-described control arrangement according to the invention, very signi?cant advantages are obtained for the construction of clocks. Dependency upon temperature does not exist at all, because there is no holding current dependent upon temperature in the transistor circuit arrangement. The current consumption structed with only one coil as self-induction and a con is extremely low and amounts to about 10% as compared denser. The self-induction coil is this case the driv ing coil. When using two or more coils the manner in 65 with the switching arrangements in which the transistor which these are arranged is immaterial. They can be acts as contactless switch. Regulation can be carried out arranged side-by-side, one behind the other, one within in a very simple manner. The clock construct-ion itself the other or in some other fashion. The only important can be performed in ‘any desired manner, because no factor is that the permanent magnet establishes a coupling consideration need be paid to the electrical setup. As a between the coils and that normally uncoupling or turning 70 result clocks of extremely attractive appearance and very out by metallic screening occurs in inoperative position. practical design can be produced. It is very advantageous to accommodate the whole ar The constructional principle can obviously be applied rangement in the base of a clock so that it is entirely in a similar manner for chronometers and for standard out of sight. The permanent magnet or magnets can also time keepers and also for time-signal transmitters. For be built in the swinging or rotating pendulum so as to 75 standard time keepers a suitable quartz, adjustable by It is evident that the oscillator circuit can also be con 3,100,278 5 6 thermostats, can be included in the circuit arrangement. For chronometers and tirne~signal transmitters, the fre quency of the oscillator can be chosen to suit the range of measurement. For measurements of fractions of sec energy, the combination comprising: an electronic oscilla tor circuit inluding a transistor and a pair of coils coupled to the transistor for oscillator operation, one of said coils being connected to said source of energyand in series onds the basic frequency should preferably be chosen as with said transistor so that current can only pass in one high as possible. This frequency is only limited by the known transistor characteristics. When using tubes, the basic frequency can be of any desired height. In certain cases, which might arise on account of the construction direction through said series connected coil; a metallic plate for uncoupling said coils to block said oscillator cir cuit; and a plurality of permanent magnets constituting a mechanical oscillator, magnets having one of their re of the clock, the magnetic coupling cannot be effected over 10 spective poles movable over said coils so as to couple said one magnet pole but both poles are operative, it is then coils ‘for temporarily unblocking said oscillator circuit whereby during a short period of unblocking occurring during each cycle of said mechanical oscillator, a plurality of unidirectional high frequency current pulses are pro only very small permanent magnets are employed so that 15 duced in said series connected coil, setting up aunidirec~ the coupling is not strong enough to initiate an oscillating tional impelling ?eld for said permanent magnets. process with sufliciently high amplitude of oscillations, a 4. In an electronic clock having a source of electric necessary to cut-out a semi-wave in the current feed to the driving coil by introducing-a diode in front of the alter nating voltage which then occurs. 'If, in special cases, strong reaction is obtained, as shown in FIGURE 5, over energy, the combination comprising: an electronic oscil a small auxiliary coil 51 which is also arranged on the lator circuit including a transistor and a pair of coils cow driving coil 3‘, and a condenser 52 between the emitter and 20 pled to the transistor for oscillator operation, one of ‘said the base of the transistor‘l. If, in such a case, there is coils being connected to said source of energy and in very low current ?ux through the driving coil, that is if series with said transistor so that current can ‘only pass the negative voltage on the base of the transistor has only in one direction through said series connected coil, a metal attained a certain yet too low value, ‘the base receives lic plate for uncoupling said coils to block said oscillator via the auxiliary coil 51 and the condenser 52 a supple: 25 circuit, and a balance Wheel having a permanent magnet mentary negative voltage which accelerates considerably the reaction procedure and allows the amplitude of the oscillations to rise to the necessary value. The second mounted thereon and moving therewith, said balance wheel with magnet constituting a mechanical oscillator, with the. magnet having one of its poles movable over condenser or capacitor 53 serves a similar function as ca said coils so as. to couple said coils for temporarily un pacitor 43 in FIG. 4. In the case of clocks with stepaby-step switching mech anism, it is particularly advantageous to produce by means blocking said oscillator circuit whereby during a short of a small iron screw with a coating of plastic or some frequency current pulses are produced in said series con period of unblocking occurring during each cycle of said mechanical oscillator, a plurality of unidirectional high other non-magnetic material on its point, an armature nected coil, setting up a unidirectional impelling ?eld for adjustable in distance and on which the permanent magnet 35 said permanent magnet. pulls itself into inoperative position. In this manner a 5. In an electronic clock having a source of electrical clock is produced which runs in any position. During energy, the combination comprising: an electronic oscil the stepping impulse the magnet is attracted in this case by the driving coil system and in the intervals between lator circuit including a transistor and a pair of coils coupled to the transistor for oscillator operation, one of the progressive steps the permanent magnet pulls itself 40 said coils being connected to said source of energy and in again against the iron screw into inoperative position. series with said transistor so that current can only pass Thus, a spring or weight of any kind is entirely unnec in one direction through said series connected coil; a essary. metallic plate for uncoupling said coils to block said It will be understood that this invention is susceptible oscillator circuit; a diode connected across one of said to modi?cation in order to adapt it to different usages 45 coils; and a permanent magnet constituting a mechanical and conditions, and, accordingly, it is desired to compre hend such modi?cations within this invention as may fall within the scope of the appended claims. oscillator and having one of its poles movable over said coils so as to couple said coils for temporarily unblocking said oscillator circuit whereby during a short period of unblocking occurring during each cycle of said mechan 1. Impelling system for a clock comprising in combi 50 ical oscillator, a plurality of unidirectional high frequency I claim: nation: a transistor oscillator including two coils disposed current pulses :are produced in said series connected coil, for mutual inductive coupling; stationary means disposed setting up a unidirectional impelling. ?eld for said perma between said two coils for decoupling them; and a me nent magnet. chanical oscillator including a permanent magnet with one 6. In an electronic clock having a source of electric pole thereof oscillating in the vicinity of said coils so 55 energy, the combination comprising: an electronic oscil~ as to temporarily couple them thus overriding the effect lator circuit including a transistor and a pair of coils of said decoupling means. coupled to the transistor for oscillator operation, one of 2. In an electronic clock having a source of electric said coils being connected to said source of energy and in energy, the combination comprising: an electronic oscil series with the collector-emitter path of said transistor lator circuit including a transistor and a pair of coils cou 60 so that current can only pass in one direction through pled to the transistor for oscillator operation, one of said said series connected coil; a metallic plate means for coils being connected to said source of energy and in uncoupling said coils to block said oscillator circuit; a series with said transistor so that current can only pass diode connected in series with the base-emitter circuit in one direction through said series connected coil; metal of said transistor and being poled for current conduc lic plate means for uncoupling said coils to block said 65 tion in the emitter current direction; and a permanent oscillator circuit; and a permanent magnet constituting a magnet constituting a mechanical oscillator and having mechanical oscillator and having one of its poles movable one of its poles movable over said coils so as to couple over said coils so as to couple said coils for temporarily said coils for temporarily unblocking said oscillator cir~ unblocking said oscillator circuit whereby during a short cuit whereby during a short period of unblocking occur period of unblocking occurring during each cycle of said 70 ring during each cycle of said mechanical oscillator, a mechanical oscillator, a plurality of unidirectional high frequency current pulses are produced in said series con nected coil, setting up a unidirectional impelling ?eld for said permanent magnet. plurality of unidirectional high frequency current pulses are produce in said series connected coil, setting up a uni directional irnpelling ?eld for said permanent magnet. 7. In an electronic clock having a source of electric 3. In an electronic clock having a source of electric 75 energy, the combination comprising: an electronic oscil 3,100,278 7 . lator circuit including a transistor ‘and a pair of coils re and having one or its poles movable over said coils so as spectively connected to the collector-emitter circuit and to couple said coils for temporarily unblocking said oscil the base-emitter circuit of said transistor and being cou pl‘ed‘tor oscillator operation, one of‘said coils being con lator circuit whereby during a short period of unblocking occurring during each cycle of said mechanical oscillator, nected to said source of energy and in series with the col lector-emitter path of said transistor so that current can a plurality of unidirectional high trequency current pulses only pass in one direction through said series connected coil; metallic plate means for uncoupling said coils to block said oscillator circuit; and a permanent magnet unidirectional impelling ?eld for said permanent magnet. are produced in said series connected coil, setting up a 9. In an electronic clock, the combination as set forth in claim 2, comprising, in addition: a third coil and a ca distant~adjustably positioned with ‘respect to said coils 10 pacitor connected in series, said capacitor being connected and constituting additionally a mechanical oscillator, said to the base ‘of said transistor, said coil beinginductively magnet having one of its poles movable over said coils so coupled to said pair of coils. as to couple said coils for temporarily unblocking said oscillator circuit whereby during a period of unblocking References Cited in the ?le of this patent occurring during each cycle of said mechanical oscillator, 15 UNITED STATES PATENTS a plurality of unidirectional high frequency current pulses are produced in said series connected coil, setting up‘ a unidirectional impelling ?eld for said permanent magnet. 2,777,950 2,814,769 Doremus ____________ .__ Jan. 15, 1957 Williams ____________ __ Nov. 26, 1957 8. In an electronic clock having a sou-roe of electric 2,829,324 Seargent _____________ __ Apr. 1, 1958 energy, the combination comprising: an electronic oscil 2,843,742 Cluwen ______________ __ July 15, 1958 lator circuit including a transistor and a pair of coils OTHER REFERENCES coupled to the transistor \for oscillator operation, one or” said coils being connected to said source of energy and Gray, Wallace: Principles and Practice of Electrical in series with said transistor so that current can only pass Engineering, 6th edition, page 374. McGraw-Hill, New in one d-inection through said series connected coil;. a 25 York, 1947. metallic plate for uncoupling said coils to block said oscil lator circuit; a temperature stabilized quartz in said oscil lator as frequency determining element thereof; and a permanent magnet constituting a mechanical oscillator Terman, F.E.: Electronic and Radio Engineering, 4th edition, page 6134, FIG. 18—~18. McGraw~Hill, New York, 1955.