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Патент USA US3100283

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Aug. 6, 1963
‘
R. w. REICH
3,100,278
ELECTROMAGNETIC PENDULUM DRIVE
Filed Jan. 6. 1959
INVENTOR.
ROBERT WALTER RE/CH
BY
WWW
Bib-@278
United States Patent 0 ” ice
Patented Aug. 6, 1963
1
2
lowing explanation thereof with the aid of the accom
3,100,278
ELECTROMAGNETIC PENDULUM DRIVE
Robert Walter Reich, Rotaclrerstrasse Z,
Freiburg irn Breisgau, Germany
Filed Jan. 6, 1959, Ser. No. 785,197
Claims priority, application Germany Jan. 10, 1958
9 Claims. (till. 318-428)
panying drawings, in which
FIG. 1 shows schematic-ally a ?rst form of construc
tion of the working arrangement according to the inven
tion;
FIG. 2 shows another form of construction of the in
vention wherein a squegging oscillator circuit serves as
osci-laltor circuit;
FIG. 3 is yet another schematic representation of a
ment for clocks, chronometers and time-signal transmit 10 form of construction of the invention similar to that il
lustrated in FIG. 2;
ting apparatus.
_
‘FIG. 4 is a schematic illustration of ‘another ‘form of
All the hitherto known working arrangements for clocks
construction of the invention which is particularly suit
with tubes and transistor circuit schemes are based on
able for .step-Iby-step mechanisms and
the known principle of electric clocks with contacts.
FIG. 5 ?nally shows schematically another .form of
The transistor, for example, serves in all circuit schemes 15
construction of the invention which is particularly suit
merely as substitute ‘for the electric switch with contacts.
The invention relates to an electronic working arrange
The contact-making for producing the working impulse
able in the event where only very small permanent mag
net-s can be used as swinging magnets.
is effected by energizing the basic circuit of the transistor.
As these ?gures will now be described in detail, and
By a suitable coil arrangement and the employment of
permanent magnets a potential impulse is induced on the 20 particularly FIGURE 1, it is pointed out that in the
switching arrangements according to the invention the
magnet passing into and out of a coil and this potential
periodical drive is effected by an oscillator in a special
‘impulse excites the timebase emitter circuit so that the
circuit arrangement.
.
transistor becomes conductive. Such circuit arrange
In FIG. 1 is shown a transistor blocking oscillator in
ments, as is generally known, are open to objections which
practically outweigh the advantages of transistor cir 25 cluding a transistor 1 having a ?rst coil 2 connected
across its base emitter path and having a sewnd coil 3
cuits. In particular, it is the holding current in the cir
connected to its collector. A capacitor 11 shunts coil
cuit arrangement and the exceptionally great dependency
3, and a battery 10 connects capacitor 11 and coil 3 to
upon tempera-ture which have a disadvantageous effect
the emitter of the transistor.
on the construction of clocks and on their use. The bold
30
Coils 2 and 3 are disposed in coaxial relationship and
ing current represents a loading of the source of current
which is many times that of the working current. Through
the dependency upon temperature, the accuracy of the
a cup-shaped shield 4 made of this brass or aluminum
is disposed between the coils thus decoupling them by
clocks is reduced and, when dependency upon tempera~
magnetic shielding.
ture ‘also exists in the case or" the mechanical parts, this
reduction in accuracy is further augmented by the amount
which emanates from the transistor circuit. Compensa
Shield 4 decouples coils 2 and 3 to such an extent,
that the oscillator will not run. There is further pro
vided a pendulum in form of a permanent magnet 5, the
tion is not possible because the inaccuracy ‘for the me
chanical oscillating system and the inaccuracy from the
transistor circuit add up. Moreover, the clock construc
tion with coils and permanent magnets which swing in the
coils also possess many other disadvantages. Primarily
the unattractive appearance of the whole arrangement re
stricts considerably the utility value of clock-s in the case
‘of the known system with cont-actless control for driving
and energizing coils and permanent magnet in pendulum
oscillation. Consequently the object of my invention is
to produce an electronics arrangement for clocks,
chronometers and time-signal transmitting apparatus,
which is entirely independent of temperature, has an ex
traordinarily low cur-rent consumption, works extremely
accurately and is simple to regulate. Finally the elec
north pole of which swings over the open end of coils
‘Z and 3 and cup 4.
When magnet 5 is in or near the
position indicated, the shielding effect of cup 4 is par
tially over-ridden by the coupling ellect exerted by magnet
5 with respect to the coils.
Whenever magnet 5 is de?ected from the position illus
trated (see arrows 5'), the coupling eliect vanishes and
the oscillator is blocked again.
Magnet 5 exhibits another effect in that it induces a
voltage in coil 2., for example when it approaches the
illustrated zero position. This voltage opens transistor 1
and thus starts the oscillator.
A third function of magnet 5 is to serve as a passive
impeller. Whenever the oscillator is opened, the cur
rent permitted to ?ow through coil 3 is determined by
the direction of the collector current; the amplitude of
the current through coil 3 is determined bythe ‘feed back
tronic arrangement according to my invention is intended
to make it possible to produce clocks which are Very
action of coil 2 being, on one hand now inductively
55
attractive in appearance and very practical.
coupled to coil 3, and being connected to base and emitter
These objects are attained by the new electronic Work
of transistor 1. This feed back action produces needle
ing arrangement for clocks, chronometers and time-signal
sharp pulses of one polarity. Current pulses of opposite
transmitting apparatus, with a source of current, gear
polarity are produced in coil 3, but they are of consider
train, mechanical oscillating system and transistors or
able lesser amplitude, because in this opposite direction,
tubes, which arrangement is characterized in that an os
‘the now blocked emitter :base path serves as an open
circuit for the coil 2, being a secondary winding of the
existing transformer action between coils 2 and 3. The
needle pulses impel magnet 5. The frequency of the
means of metal covers or plates and is released by cou
pling effected by the swinging over of a pendulum mag 65 oscillator and the amplitude of the oscillations are solely
dependent upon the circuit constants of the oscillator.
net, preferably with only one pole, in the direction towards
Due to the magnetic accumulation, an induction current
the coils, whereby a sequence of impulses composed of
is produced in the working coil (2 or 3) at the switching
like-poled needle-shaped impulses with high voltage in
in and out of each swing and results in an increase of
the frequency of the oscillator circuit arrangement, peri
voltage. Under given conditions in the case of clock
odically drives the mechanical oscillating system by re 70 constructions this increase in voltage amounts to about
cillator circuit arrangement with coils and/or condensers
is blocked in the inoperative position by uncoupling by
pelling and attracting the swinging permanent magnet.
The invention will be better understood from the fol~
30 to 50 times. For the drive of such clocks a source
of current with a working potential of‘ about 1 to 2 volts
3,100,278
3
is su?icient and the potential occurring on the driving
be completely invisible. As these magnets do not swing
coil attains about 30 to 50 volts. The frequency of the
in any coils but only over them, it is not necessary to take
oscillator lies in the order of magnitude between 3,000
into consideration the guiding of the pendulum. It is
also possible to regulate the clock by varying the distance
of the pendulum from the driving coils, which is not
possible in the case of arrangements with swing-in magnets
and 10,000 cycles. As the permanent magnet 5 swings
over the coil arrangement, impulses are, as stated, re
leased‘ in the order of ‘about 10 to 20 impulses at a base
frequency of 3,000 to 10,000 cycles. The oscillation pull
and when using a transistor system as contactless switch.
itself, due to. the permanent magnet 5 of which only one
For example, if the permanent magnet is accommodated
pole (the N-pole in FIG. 1), becomes operative for the
in a spherical or conical pendulum so that the screw».
coupling, is already in the form "of needle-shaped im 10 thread can be provided directly on the housing of the
pulses which, read on one side of the zero point, have
very high amplitudes of 30 to 50 times the value of the
basal voltage. On the other side of the zero point rela
tively low impulse peaks are certainly produced but in
relation to the needle-shaped high impulses scarcely be
come apparent.
The cscillographic diagram shows an
oscillation pull similar to the known diagram in the
pendulum.
Also by providing a screw-thread on the
pendulum rod it is possible, by merely turning the pendu
lum housing, to effect regulation by changing the distance
of the permanent magnet. Similarly, this can be eifected
15 in the case of rotary pendulum clocks by raising and
lowering the pendulum balls in which the permanent
magnets are ?tted. Any lcnown circuit arrangement can
case of a direct current transformer in transistor circuit
be employed as oscillator system, such as, for example,
(the Meacham bridge, or the Hartley circuit, or a multiple
arrangement with diode introduced for suppressing a half
wave. The magnetic coupling thus produced in the
vibrator circuit or a blocking oscillator circuit as shown
arrangement according to the invention over a permanent
magnet with only one pole, results in an oscillation dia
in FIGURE 2, or any other suitable circuit arrangement
for producing oscillations in the frequency range up‘ to
gram of like-directed, needle-shaped impulses which, in
about 10,000 cycles per second. The circuit arrange
the driving coil, build up a magnetic ?eld which repels
ment is built-up on the basic principle so that .the starting
the magnet. In brushing over the driving coil the mag 25 in of oscillation is effected by the coupling via per
net 5 itself is therefore repelled. This magnet 5‘ is now
manent magnet or magnets. In inoperative position,
arranged in a swinging pendulum or a rotary pendulum
provision is made that no feed current flows by suitably
or in a‘ balance-like construction, so that the oscillating
uncoupling.
system receives periodic impulses. These periodic im
For very small clocks very advantageous constructional
pulses are dependent in number and magnitude upon the
30
possibilities are obtained by using simple oscillating cir
constants of the oscillating circuit of the transistor sys
cuit arrangements with only one transistor of miniature
tem. It is easily possible to provide several permanent
size. Both s-tep-by-step switching mechanisms and also
magnets in suitable arrangements, for example, in the
mechanisms with mechanical oscillating systems can be
case of'rotary pendulum clocks, in the mechanical oscil
lating structure. In this Way a corresponding swing pull 35 built up in balance-like constructions. In the case of a
step-by~step switching mechanism the frequency of the
is produced in swinging over each permanent magnet,
switch-in
of the actual oscillating element is preferably
causing a driving impulse for the further rotation.
based on a second. The oscillating circuit arrangement
The circuit illustrated in FIG. 2' contains all the ele
of the oscillator is then so chosen that a basic frequency
ments of the circuit of FIG. 1. Additionally, there is
a resistor ‘28 inserted in series circuit connection with 40 of about 3,000 to 10,000 cycles is produced by suitably
dimensioning the selfainductance coils or the condensers
coil 2 for adjustment of the internal impedance of the
and that this basic frequency always occurs every second.
oscillator. A recti?er 6 short-circuits those voltages in
As shown
FIGURE 4 the simplest way of attaining
duced in coil 5 which do not open the transistor 1. Fur
this is by charging a condenser 43‘ in the base circuit of
thermore, in FIG. 2 is shown a balance Wheel 27, biased
by a spring 26 in the usual manner while a permanent 45 the transistor. The condenser 43 is so dimensioned that
the charging time amounts to exactly one second. By
magnet 25 oscillates with this balance and performs the
connecting up in series a variable resistance 44, the charg
same function as magnet 5 does in the device shown in
ing time for the condenser can be accurately regulated to
FIG. 5.
the value of a second. It is evident that any other switch
In the device shown in FIG. 3, the capacitor 11 of
FIGS. 1 and 2 is replaced by a capacitor 31 connected 50 ing period can be used if the ratio of transmission in the
train of gears is appropriately chosen. In the case of a
across coil 2, and a blocking diode 36 is connected in
balance-type of clock movement, either the balance itself
series circuit connection to L-C circuit 2—-—31. There is
is constructed as a disc-shaped permanent magnet or a
also provided a. resistor 37 connected in series with diode
suitable small permanent magnet is ?tted on the balance
36.
There is a rotary pendulum or balance like struc
55
ture including a shaft 38 rotatably supported in stationary
bearings 32 and '33. There is a balance spring 39 con
nected to the shaft for recoiling a balance wheel 34.
Balance wheel 34 supports small permanent magnets 35
and 35' performing a similar function as magnets 25 and 60
5 previously described.
(see FIG. 3). The only important point is that the per
manent magnet is periodically released by coupling the
oscillating process in the transistor circuit.
By using the above-described control arrangement
according to the invention, very signi?cant advantages are
obtained for the construction of clocks. Dependency
upon temperature does not exist at all, because there is
no holding current dependent upon temperature in the
transistor circuit arrangement. The current consumption
structed with only one coil as self-induction and a con
is extremely low and amounts to about 10% as compared
denser. The self-induction coil is
this case the driv
ing coil. When using two or more coils the manner in 65 with the switching arrangements in which the transistor
which these are arranged is immaterial. They can be
acts as contactless switch. Regulation can be carried out
arranged side-by-side, one behind the other, one within
in a very simple manner. The clock construct-ion itself
the other or in some other fashion. The only important
can be performed in ‘any desired manner, because no
factor is that the permanent magnet establishes a coupling
consideration need be paid to the electrical setup. As a
between the coils and that normally uncoupling or turning 70 result clocks of extremely attractive appearance and very
out by metallic screening occurs in inoperative position.
practical design can be produced.
It is very advantageous to accommodate the whole ar
The constructional principle can obviously be applied
rangement in the base of a clock so that it is entirely
in a similar manner for chronometers and for standard
out of sight. The permanent magnet or magnets can also
time keepers and also for time-signal transmitters. For
be built in the swinging or rotating pendulum so as to 75 standard time keepers a suitable quartz, adjustable by
It is evident that the oscillator circuit can also be con
3,100,278
5
6
thermostats, can be included in the circuit arrangement.
For chronometers and tirne~signal transmitters, the fre
quency of the oscillator can be chosen to suit the range
of measurement. For measurements of fractions of sec
energy, the combination comprising: an electronic oscilla
tor circuit inluding a transistor and a pair of coils coupled
to the transistor for oscillator operation, one of said coils
being connected to said source of energyand in series
onds the basic frequency should preferably be chosen as
with said transistor so that current can only pass in one
high as possible. This frequency is only limited by the
known transistor characteristics. When using tubes, the
basic frequency can be of any desired height. In certain
cases, which might arise on account of the construction
direction through said series connected coil; a metallic
plate for uncoupling said coils to block said oscillator cir
cuit; and a plurality of permanent magnets constituting
a mechanical oscillator, magnets having one of their re
of the clock, the magnetic coupling cannot be effected over 10 spective poles movable over said coils so as to couple said
one magnet pole but both poles are operative, it is then
coils ‘for temporarily unblocking said oscillator circuit
whereby during a short period of unblocking occurring
during each cycle of said mechanical oscillator, a plurality
of unidirectional high frequency current pulses are pro
only very small permanent magnets are employed so that 15 duced in said series connected coil, setting up aunidirec~
the coupling is not strong enough to initiate an oscillating
tional impelling ?eld for said permanent magnets.
process with sufliciently high amplitude of oscillations, a
4. In an electronic clock having a source of electric
necessary to cut-out a semi-wave in the current feed to the
driving coil by introducing-a diode in front of the alter
nating voltage which then occurs. 'If, in special cases,
strong reaction is obtained, as shown in FIGURE 5, over
energy, the combination comprising: an electronic oscil
a small auxiliary coil 51 which is also arranged on the
lator circuit including a transistor and a pair of coils cow
driving coil 3‘, and a condenser 52 between the emitter and 20 pled to the transistor for oscillator operation, one of ‘said
the base of the transistor‘l. If, in such a case, there is
coils being connected to said source of energy and in
very low current ?ux through the driving coil, that is if
series with said transistor so that current can ‘only pass
the negative voltage on the base of the transistor has only
in one direction through said series connected coil, a metal
attained a certain yet too low value, ‘the base receives
lic plate for uncoupling said coils to block said oscillator
via the auxiliary coil 51 and the condenser 52 a supple: 25 circuit, and a balance Wheel having a permanent magnet
mentary negative voltage which accelerates considerably
the reaction procedure and allows the amplitude of the
oscillations to rise to the necessary value.
The second
mounted thereon and moving therewith, said balance
wheel with magnet constituting a mechanical oscillator,
with the. magnet having one of its poles movable over
condenser or capacitor 53 serves a similar function as ca
said coils so as. to couple said coils for temporarily un
pacitor 43 in FIG. 4.
In the case of clocks with stepaby-step switching mech
anism, it is particularly advantageous to produce by means
blocking said oscillator circuit whereby during a short
of a small iron screw with a coating of plastic or some
frequency current pulses are produced in said series con
period of unblocking occurring during each cycle of said
mechanical oscillator, a plurality of unidirectional high
other non-magnetic material on its point, an armature
nected coil, setting up a unidirectional impelling ?eld for
adjustable in distance and on which the permanent magnet 35 said permanent magnet.
pulls itself into inoperative position. In this manner a
5. In an electronic clock having a source of electrical
clock is produced which runs in any position. During
energy, the combination comprising: an electronic oscil
the stepping impulse the magnet is attracted in this case
by the driving coil system and in the intervals between
lator circuit including a transistor and a pair of coils
coupled to the transistor for oscillator operation, one of
the progressive steps the permanent magnet pulls itself 40 said coils being connected to said source of energy and in
again against the iron screw into inoperative position.
series with said transistor so that current can only pass
Thus, a spring or weight of any kind is entirely unnec
in one direction through said series connected coil; a
essary.
metallic plate for uncoupling said coils to block said
It will be understood that this invention is susceptible
oscillator circuit; a diode connected across one of said
to modi?cation in order to adapt it to different usages 45 coils; and a permanent magnet constituting a mechanical
and conditions, and, accordingly, it is desired to compre
hend such modi?cations within this invention as may fall
within the scope of the appended claims.
oscillator and having one of its poles movable over said
coils so as to couple said coils for temporarily unblocking
said oscillator circuit whereby during a short period of
unblocking occurring during each cycle of said mechan
1. Impelling system for a clock comprising in combi 50 ical oscillator, a plurality of unidirectional high frequency
I claim:
nation: a transistor oscillator including two coils disposed
current pulses :are produced in said series connected coil,
for mutual inductive coupling; stationary means disposed
setting up a unidirectional impelling. ?eld for said perma
between said two coils for decoupling them; and a me
nent magnet.
chanical oscillator including a permanent magnet with one
6. In an electronic clock having a source of electric
pole thereof oscillating in the vicinity of said coils so 55 energy, the combination comprising: an electronic oscil~
as to temporarily couple them thus overriding the effect
lator circuit including a transistor and a pair of coils
of said decoupling means.
coupled to the transistor for oscillator operation, one of
2. In an electronic clock having a source of electric
said coils being connected to said source of energy and in
energy, the combination comprising: an electronic oscil
series with the collector-emitter path of said transistor
lator circuit including a transistor and a pair of coils cou
60 so that current can only pass in one direction through
pled to the transistor for oscillator operation, one of said
said series connected coil; a metallic plate means for
coils being connected to said source of energy and in
uncoupling said coils to block said oscillator circuit; a
series with said transistor so that current can only pass
diode connected in series with the base-emitter circuit
in one direction through said series connected coil; metal
of said transistor and being poled for current conduc
lic plate means for uncoupling said coils to block said 65 tion in the emitter current direction; and a permanent
oscillator circuit; and a permanent magnet constituting a
magnet constituting a mechanical oscillator and having
mechanical oscillator and having one of its poles movable
one of its poles movable over said coils so as to couple
over said coils so as to couple said coils for temporarily
said coils for temporarily unblocking said oscillator cir~
unblocking said oscillator circuit whereby during a short
cuit whereby during a short period of unblocking occur
period of unblocking occurring during each cycle of said 70 ring during each cycle of said mechanical oscillator, a
mechanical oscillator, a plurality of unidirectional high
frequency current pulses are produced in said series con
nected coil, setting up a unidirectional impelling ?eld for
said permanent magnet.
plurality of unidirectional high frequency current pulses
are produce in said series connected coil, setting up a uni
directional irnpelling ?eld for said permanent magnet.
7. In an electronic clock having a source of electric
3. In an electronic clock having a source of electric 75 energy, the combination comprising: an electronic oscil
3,100,278
7
.
lator circuit including a transistor ‘and a pair of coils re
and having one or its poles movable over said coils so as
spectively connected to the collector-emitter circuit and
to couple said coils for temporarily unblocking said oscil
the base-emitter circuit of said transistor and being cou
pl‘ed‘tor oscillator operation, one of‘said coils being con
lator circuit whereby during a short period of unblocking
occurring during each cycle of said mechanical oscillator,
nected to said source of energy and in series with the col
lector-emitter path of said transistor so that current can
a plurality of unidirectional high trequency current pulses
only pass in one direction through said series connected
coil; metallic plate means for uncoupling said coils to
block said oscillator circuit; and a permanent magnet
unidirectional impelling ?eld for said permanent magnet.
are produced in said series connected coil, setting up a
9. In an electronic clock, the combination as set forth
in claim 2, comprising, in addition: a third coil and a ca
distant~adjustably positioned with ‘respect to said coils 10 pacitor connected in series, said capacitor being connected
and constituting additionally a mechanical oscillator, said
to the base ‘of said transistor, said coil beinginductively
magnet having one of its poles movable over said coils so
coupled to said pair of coils.
as to couple said coils for temporarily unblocking said
oscillator circuit whereby during a period of unblocking
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
occurring during each cycle of said mechanical oscillator, 15
UNITED STATES PATENTS
a plurality of unidirectional high frequency current pulses
are produced in said series connected coil, setting up‘ a
unidirectional impelling ?eld for said permanent magnet.
2,777,950
2,814,769
Doremus ____________ .__ Jan. 15, 1957
Williams ____________ __ Nov. 26, 1957
8. In an electronic clock having a sou-roe of electric
2,829,324
Seargent _____________ __ Apr. 1, 1958
energy, the combination comprising: an electronic oscil
2,843,742
Cluwen ______________ __ July 15, 1958
lator circuit including a transistor and a pair of coils
OTHER REFERENCES
coupled to the transistor \for oscillator operation, one or”
said coils being connected to said source of energy and
Gray, Wallace: Principles and Practice of Electrical
in series with said transistor so that current can only pass
Engineering, 6th edition, page 374. McGraw-Hill, New
in one d-inection through said series connected coil;. a 25 York, 1947.
metallic plate for uncoupling said coils to block said oscil
lator circuit; a temperature stabilized quartz in said oscil
lator as frequency determining element thereof; and a
permanent magnet constituting a mechanical oscillator
Terman, F.E.: Electronic and Radio Engineering, 4th
edition, page 6134, FIG. 18—~18. McGraw~Hill, New
York, 1955.
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