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Патент USA US3100343

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Aug. 13, 1963
J. L. HENRY
3,100,338
METHOD OF JOINING
Filed April 21, 1958
6
/2
E I [5—__ 2 _
INVENTOR.
JACK L. HENRY
BY
United States Patent 0
ice
2
1
3,100,338
METHOD OF JQINWG
Jack L. Henry, Los Altos, Calif., assignor to Kaiser
Aluminum & Chemical Corporation, Oakland, Calif.,
a corporation of Delaware
.
3,100,338
- Patented Aug. 13, 1963
'
material for the practice of the invention is that which
consists essentially of at least one of the materials selected
from the group consisting of the carbides ‘and borides of
titanium, zirconium, tantalum and niobium and mixtures
thereof, such materials being found to exhibit all or sub-_
stantially all of the above properties.
Filed Apr. 21, 1958, Ser. No. 729,621 ,
,
20 Claims. (Cl. 29-4731)
‘
The expression “consists essentially” as used herein
after in the speci?cation and claims means that the refrac
tory. hard metal material of the carbides and ‘borides
This invention relates generally to the joining of metals
to refractory hard metal material. More particularly, it 10 referred to above does not contain other substances in
relates to the joining of aluminum metal to refractory .
amounts su?icient tov materially affect the desirable char
hard metals and to a flux composition for use in said
acteristics of the material, although other substances may
be present in minor amounts which do not materially
joining.
'
The expression “aluminum” as used in the speci?cation
affect such desirable characteristics, for example, small
and claimsmeans high purity aluminum metal and alu 15 proportions of oxygen, nitrogen and iron in titanium
minum alloys wherein the aluminum amount is 99% by
'boride.
According to this invention, the refractory hard metal
Weight or better, for example, Alloy 1100 wherein the
member is ?rst cleaned by a suitable method and then is
minimum aluminum content is 99% by weight and EC.
preheated to a high temperature and while at that tem;
(electrical conductor) Alloy wherein’ the minimum alu-_
20 perature is contacted with the molten flux of ‘the inven
min-urn content is 99.45% by Weight.
tion. The molten flux, which has a speci?c gravity less
Joints can be made between aluminum and refractory
hard metals by casting molten metal onto the refractory
than ‘that of aluminum, is preferably brushed on the re
fractory hard metal member surfaces by suitable‘ means,
hard metal; however, this procedure oftentimes results
e.g. a steel bristle brush. Then the refractory hard metal
in a bond which is both mechanically weak and has low
electrical conductivity. A joint can also be made by 25 and surface is contacted with molten aluminum and is
preferably brushed with the molten aluminum. There
?rst coating the refractory hard metal surface with an
after, the assembly of refractory hard metal and molten
electroplated coating, e.g. nickel, and then joining the
refractory member to an aluminum member by soldering
aluminum is allowed to cool.
‘
or brazing or by casting molten ‘aluminum onto the elec
In the accompanying drawings there is illustrated, by
way of example, suitable apparatus for carrying out the
troplated refractory member. This results in a bond
between the aluminum metal and the refractory hard
method of the invention as well ‘as novel embodiments of’
metal which has better characteristics than the former
a connection.
method; however, both the mechanical strength and the
, FIGURE 1 is a vertical elevation view in section show
electrical conductivity characteristics are still not 'as good
ing a casting assembly.
FIGURE 2 is a perspective view showing a refractory
as desired since there is av tendency for the aluminum to 35
break away from the refractory‘hard metal during use.
hard metal member and an aluminum metal member
joined according to the invention and wherein the cross
As refractory hard metal members are ?nding increas
sectional area of the aluminum member is substantially
ing use as current-conducting elements, e.g. cathodic ele
ments, in aluminum reduction cells, it is mandatory that 40 the same as the cross-sectional area of the refractory
a“ joint having both superior electrical and mechanical
hard metal member.
characteristics be “made between the refractory hard ‘
metal member .and an aluminum metal member for effect
ing the current connection to the refractory hard metal
I
.
FIGURE 3 is aperspective view partly in ‘section show_
ing a refractory hard metal member and an aluminum
member joined a-ccordinglto the invention’ and wherein
member. Accordingly, it is the primary purpose and 45 the aluminum member forms a sheath over the extremity‘
object of the present‘ invention to" provide a joining
of the- refractory hard metal member.
7
method and a flux composition for use therein for the
FIGURE 4- depicts a connection between a flexible
making of joints between aluminum metal‘ and refractory
hard metals‘ which joints have superior mechanical
strength and electrical conductivity characteristics.
aluminum member and a refractory‘ hard metal mem*
It is a further object of this invention to provide a ?ux
composition for effecting superior joints between refrac~
tory hard metals and aluminum metal.
'
'
-It is also an object of this invention to provide a joint
between aluminum metal and refractory hard metals,
which joint has superior mechanical strength and elec
her, which connection is a further embodiment of the
invention.
In the joining of the refractory hard metal member to
aluminum, the refractory member is preheated to a tem
perature in excess of the melting point of aluminum, pref
erably from 750° to '900" C. Prior to such preheating,
the portion of the surface ‘of the refractory hard metal
member where the joint is to be made is preferably
trical conductivity characteristics.
cleaned by a suitable method, such as cathodic ele‘c'tr'oe
cleaning in hot 10% sodium hydroxide's'olution followed
It is a still further object of this invention to provide
by pickling in a hot dilute HNO3=HF solution. While
a connection between aluminum ?ex member .and a re
fractory hard metal member, which connection has su 60 the refractory hard metal member is at the/preheating?
temperature, the surface to be bonded is contacted, in
perior mechanical and electrical conductivity charac
a suitable joining container, with molten flux of the in'veri
teristics.
'
tion which has a melting range of 660° to 680° C. ‘To1
These and other objects and advantages of the instant
invention will be apparent from the ensuing description
insure good contact,‘ it is desirable to scrub the surface
65 of the refractory hard metal member with a brush in
the presence of the molten ?ux.
'
As used herein in the speci?cation and the claims, the
After treatment with the molten flux the refractory
expression “refractory hard metal” refers to a material
hard metal member is contacted with molten aluminum,
which desirably possesses a low electrical resistivity, a low
in the presence of the llux. The refractory hard metal
solubility in molten aluminum and, molten electrolyte
under cell operating conditions, is wettable by molten 70 and molten‘metal are then cooled. Preferably,--the cool
ing is directional (from bottom up) which is promoted‘
aluminum under cell operating condtions and has good
stability under the conditions existing at the cathode of ' by cooling the refractory hard metal member slowly while
delaying the cooling of the aluminum, e.g., by maintain
a reduction cell.v The preferred refractory hard metal
thereof.
'
3,100,838
3
A
ing heat on the aluminum surface. This promotes direc
tional solidi?cation of the aluminum metal towards the
aluminum surface which is most remote from the joint
and gives a good solid bond with no shrinkage cavities be
tween the refractory hand metal member and the alumi
num.
7 "metal bar 5, at the extremity to be joined to aluminum
metal, is disposed within mold cavity 6 of mold 3‘. .
FIGURE 2 shows a refractory hard metal member
7 joined to an aluminum member 8. The cross-sectional
area of the aluminum member 8 is substantially the
' same as that of the refractory har-d metal member‘7.
'
A flux for the purpose of removing oxide ?lm, scale and
dross from the refractory hard metal surface should have
In FIGURE 3 there is depicted a refractory hard metal
member 9 joined to an aluminum member .10 wherein
the following properties: (1) low melting point range,
the aluminum member forms a sheath over the extremity
i.e., not over about 680° C., (2) ability to dissolve alumi 10 of the refractory hard metal member 9. The cross-sec
num ‘oxide and other metal oxidesvat this low tempera
tional area of member 10 is greater than that of member
' ture, (3) a density lower than that of molten aluminum
9 and can be formed by employing a mold ofrsuitable
at the samegtemperature (4) lowvvolatility, (5) non-hy
groscopic, (6). relatively inexpensive and (7) easy to
produce.
,
inner cross-sectional area in relation to the cross-sectional
area of the refractory hard'metal member.
15
.
It has been found that these requirements are satis?ed
by a' ?ux composition consisting essentially of the ?uorides
of sodium, aluminum and lithium, and sodium chloride.
The following ?ux compositions have been found to be
(TiBz) member two inches in diameter, after being'sub
jected to cathodic cleaning in hot 10% sodium hy
droxide solution ‘followed by pickling in a hot dilute ‘
HNO§=HF solution, was set vertically in a' graphite
particularly satisfactory:
‘
Flux'A
'
'
vIn an example of the invention,.a titanium diborid ‘
.
mold having an inside diameter of abouttwo inches, and
this assembly was packed in ?oury alumina in a steel
container, similar to the casting assembly shown in FIG.
>
Weight percent
1. The casting assemblywas preheated to above 800° C.
Sodium cryolite (Na3AlF6) _______________ __ 47 to 53
in a furnace. A small amount of the flux of the com!
Lithium ?uoride (LiF) ___________________ __ 22 to 28
25 position, set forth above as preferred composition of
Sodium chloride (N'aCl).._ ________________ __ 15 to 30
Flux B, was then placed into the mold cavity and allowed
v l The preferred composition of ?ux A is:
to melt. The ?ux was brushed on the titanium ,boride
surface with a steel bristle brush. At this point a small"
Sodium cryolite (Na3AlF6) _____ ________________ __ 5O
Lithium ?uoride ('LiF) _______________________ __»_ 25
Sodium chloride (NaCl) _______________________ __ 25 30
Flux B
Lithium aluminum ?uoride ('Li3AlF6)____‘_____ 43 to 51
amount of molten aluminum (electrical conductor grade
aluminum having a nominal composition of 99.45%"
aluminum) was placed in the cavity and the bar, was
brushed again to “tin” the surface. After this, the mold
cavity was ?lled with molten aluminum at 800° C. and ‘
Sodium cryolite (Na3AlF6) _____ .._ _________ __ 27 to 35
allowed to cool with the top elements of the casting fur
Sodium chloride (NaCl) __________________ __ 15 to 30
nace turned on to induce directional cooling. After cool
The preferred composition of \Flux B is a eutectic mix
ture of lithium aluminum ?uoride (lithium cryolite) and.
ing, the refractory hard metal member and aluminum cap
member ‘were removed ‘from the furnace and the joint was
found to possess superior mechanical strength and electri
sodium cryolite, 48% LlgAl‘Fe and 32% Na3AlF6 together
with 20% NaCl. vThis ?ux may be made by'fusing to 440 cal conductivity characteristics.
In mechanical testing of joints made as above, the,
gether the following mixture:
'
refractory hard metal and cast aluminum member was
.
Percent
Sodium cryoilte (Na3Al‘F6) ___________________ __
Aluminum ?uoride (AlF) ____________________ __ 24.9
Lithium ?uoride (>LiF) ______________________ __ 23.1
Sodiumchloride (NaCl) _____________________ __
20
placed in a testing ‘frame wherein the entire member was '
supported near the ends and loaded at the joint by means
‘From the‘ force required to break'
, of a hydraulic ram.
45 vthe join-t and the length of the span, the modulus of rup- - .
ture was calculated. fin the vast majority of cases'it has
It is to be understood that, vwhile in the foregoing ex
been ,found that the bar system will break in the refrac
amples the double salt Na3AlF6 (cryolite) is given, an
tory hard metal body, clearly indicating that the joint is
equivalent amount of this component, may be supplied
stronger than the refractory hardmetal phase adjacent
in the form of the single salts, sodium ?uoride and alumi 50 the joint.~ ~ ,
'
num ?uoride. The ?ux components should be of tech
In electrical testing, the voltage drop across the joint
nical grade or higher in purity.
.
was measuredby suitable apparatus, e.g., a potentiom
The flux components preferably should be of a parti
eter. From the joint voltage drop and the current the
ecle size of minus 28 mesh and should be'thoroughly
joint resistance ‘can bercalculated. .In determining the i
mixed. The mixed ?ux components may be charged 55 joint voltage drop a potential traverse method was em
dry‘ to the joining container which has been preheated to
ployed wherein voltage drops are measured at increas
the‘preheat temperature. In this case, the joining con
ing one half inch intervals while traversing the refractory
tainer must remain at temperature for a time su?icient to
hard metal member and aluminum casting from each exe
' permit melting of the .?ux. ‘If desired, the?ux com
tremity thereof across the joint location, the voltage drops
ponents can be fused and charged while molten into the’
of each traverse are then plotted against the distance from, ,
joining container, or the mixed ?ux components can be
the joint, and the difference or distance (joint voltage fused, mixed, frozen, ground and then the resulting pow
drop) between the two traverses at the joint location is
dered ?ux charged to the preheating joining container.
_, measured. By employing the potential traverse method
Alternatively, the ?ux components may be ‘fused, mixed,
for determining joint voltage drop, it was found that the
frozen, ground, re~fused and then charged as molten ?ux 65 joints produced by the method of the invention have joint
to the preheated joining container.
resistances less than ‘01.1 microhm, and‘ generally less than
The density of the ?ux when molten is less than that
0.05 microhm. These resistances are negligible for all
of molten aluminum so that the ?ux ?oats out of the mold
practical purposes and indicate complete or substantially
during casting of the molten aluminum.
complete wetted contact between the refractory hard
FIGURE 1 is an elevation view partly in section of a 70 metal material and the aluminum metal. .
casting assembly 1 suitable tfOI‘ the practice of the in—
. In certain instances it may be'desirable to plate a thin
vention. "Casting assembly '1 comprises a steel container
coating of a suitable metal on the refractory harp-‘d metal
2 and 'a graphite mold 3 disposed within container 2. Be
surface prior to the casting of the aluminum cap‘. Nickel,
‘ tween ‘mold 3 and container 2 is disposed a suitable pack
and cobalt are examples of suitable metals for the plating.
7 7 ing material 4, e.tg., ,?oury‘ alumina.
Refractory hard
A thin nickel plating, e.g.,‘ about ‘0.0005 inch, will sup»
3,100,338
.
. 5
ply airburn protection during the preheating of the refrac
tory hard metal. After cathodic cleaning of the refrac
tory hard metal in hot rl(l% sodium hydroxide followed
by a pickling in a hot dilute HNO3=HF solution, the re~
fractory hard metal surface may be electroplated in a low
6
contacting said refractory hard metal member with
molten aluminum, and then cooling said refractory hard
metal member and molten aluminum, thereby forming
a joint.
'
2. A method of obtaining I3. joint between a refractory
pH Watt-s bath. After electroplating, the refractory hard
hard metal member and an aluminum member compris
metal that‘ is placed in the casting assembly and pre
ing the steps of cleaning the portion of the surface of
heated and contacted and brushed with flux and molten
said refractory hard metal member where the joint is
aluminum as described in the above example.
to be made, preheating said refractory hard metal'mem
Refractory hard metal members of titanium diboride 10 her to a temperature above the melting point of alumi
num, contacting the’ surface of said refractory hard
(TiBz) with additions of titanium carbide (TiC) rang
ing from 10 to 40% were joined to aluminum members
metal member while at said preheating temperature with
in the manner described in the above example. In all
a molten flux composition consisting essentially of, in
cases the joints were found to possess superior mechani
percent by weight, about 43 to 51% Li3AlF6, about 27
cal strength and electrical conductivity characteristics in
to 35% Na3AlF6 and about ‘15 to 30% NaCl, contacting
comparison to prior art techniques.
said refractory h-ard metal member with molten alumi
An embodiment which is within the scope of the‘ in
. mum, and then cooling said refractory hard metal mem
stant invention is the joining of an aluminum ?exible con
her and molten aluminum, thereby forming a joint.‘
nection to a ‘refractory hard metal bar. A ?exible‘con
3. A method of obtaining a joint between a refractory
nection of this type has desirable application, e.g. for 20 hard metal member ‘and, an aluminum member compris
connecting the cathode lead to the cathode bus in a
ing the steps of cleaning the portion of the surface of
reduction furnace. The presently used method of con
said refractory hard metal member where the joint is
necting a flex to a refractory hard metal bar is :by IWClCl
to be made, preheating said refractory hard metal mem
ing the end of the flex to the aluminum metal cap which
ber to a temperature above the melting point of alumi
has been cast onto the end of the bar. The welding 25 num, contacting the surface of said refractory hard
operation is expensive since the refractory hard metal and
metal member while at said preheating temperature with
aluminum cap must be preheated and the welding care
a molten ?ux composition consisting essentially of, in
fully executed to control thermal shock to the refractory
percent by weight, about 47 to 53% NagAlFs, about 22
to 28% LiF and about 15 to 30% NaCl, contacting said
hard metal material. By the instant embodiment, this
welding step can be eliminated. A connection made ac 30 refractory hard metal member with molten aluminum,
cording to the invention is shown as 11 in FIG. 4 where;
and then cooling said refractory hard metal member and
in 12 designates the refractory hard metal member, 13
molten aluminum, thereby forming a joint.
_
the cast aluminum metal cap member and 14 a flex com
4. A method of obtaining a joint between a refractory
prising multiple leaves of aluminum. In makingv this
hard metal member, made of a material selected from
connection the aluminum cap is cast onto the refractory 35 ‘the gnoup consisting of the borides and carbides of
hard metal as described above. However, ‘before the
titanium, zirconium, tantalum and niobium and mixtures
aluminum metal has solidi?ed, one end of the flex, which
thereof, and an aluminum member, comprising the steps
has been preheated and pre-?uxed in molten ‘flux of the
of. cleaning the portion of the surface of said hard metal
invention, is set into the molten aluminum. Alternatively,
refractory member where the joint is to be made, pre
the end of the hex could be preheated and disposed in the 40 heating said refractory hard metal member to a tem
container holding the refractory hard metal member and
penature above the melting point of aluminum, contact
molten ?ux and thereafter the molten aluminum cast onto.
ing the surface of said hard metal‘ refractory member
the refractory hard metal and about the end of the ?ex.
while at said preheating temperature with a molten ?ux
The connection is then allowed to cool in the same man
ner as described previously.
_
'
In an example illustrating this embodiment, a three
- inch diameter titanium diboride bar was set into a casting
assembly similar to that shown in FIG. 1. The ?uxing
consisting essentially of the) ?uorides of sodium, alumi
45 mum and lithium, and sodium chloride, contacting said
refractory hard metal member with molten aluminum,
and then cooling said refractory hard metal member and
molten aluminum, thereby forming a joint.
5. A method of obtaining a joint between a refractory
regard to the previous example. The flex used consisted 50 hard metal member, made of a material selected from
the group consisting of . the borides and carbides of
of. ‘60 leaves of 0.026 inch aluminum, 2.5 inches wide.
The leaves were held together by a steel band three inches
titanium, Zirconium, tantalum and niobium and mixtures
from the end. While the cast aluminum was still molten,
thereof, and an aluminum ‘member, comprising the steps
of cleaning the portion of the surface of said refractory
the end of the ?ex, which had been preheated to 600°
C. and dipped in the molten ?ux of the invention (held 55 hard metal member where the joint is to be made, pre
heating said refractory hard metal member to a tem
at 700‘a C.), was set in the cast, ‘and the ‘flex held rigidly
and casting steps were the same as those described with
in place. Directional cooling was employed; that is, heat
perature above the melting point of aluminum, contact
was applied to the molten aluminum surface during cool-'
ing. It was found that the resistance of the connection
ing the surface of said refractory hard metal member
while at said preheating temperature with a molten ?ux
over .a span across the joint of approximately 2 inches 60 composition consisting essentially of, in percent by weight,
was only 0.33 microhm.
about 43 to 51% Li3AlF6 about 27 to 35% Na3AlF6 and
Various changes and modi?cations of the instant in
about 15 to‘ 30% NaCl, contacting said refractory hard
vention may be made without departing from the prin
metal member with molten aluminum, and then cooling
ciples and spirit of the invention.
said refractory hard metal member and molten alumi
What is claimed is:
. '
65 num, thereby forming a joint.
1. A method of obtaining a joint between a refrac
tory hard metal member and an aluminum member
, comprising the steps of cleaning the portion of the
surface of said hard metal refractory member where
6. A method of obtaining a joint between a refractory
hard metal member, made of a material selected from
the group consisting of the borides and carbides of
titanium, zirconium, tantalum and niobium and mixtures
the joint is to be‘made, preheating said refractory hard 70 thereof, and an aluminum member, comprising the steps
metal member to a temperature above the melting point
of cleaning the portion of the surface of said refractory
of aluminum, contacting the surface of saidhard metal
hard metal member wherethe joint is to be made, pre
refractory member while at said preheating temperature
heating said refractory hard metal member to a tem
, with a molten ?ux consisting essentially of the ?uorides
perature above the melting point of aluminum, con
of sodium, aluminum and lithium and sodium chloride, 75 tacting the surface of said refractory hard metal member
8,100,338
2?
5%
while at said preheating temperature with a molten flux
consisting essentially of, in percent by Weight, about 4-7
refractory hard metal member while .at ‘said preheating
temperature with a molten ?ux composition comprising
to 53% Na3AlF6, about 22 to 28% LiF and about 15
to 30% NaCl, contacting said refractory hard ‘metal
member with molten aluminum, and then cooling said
the ?uorides of sodium, aluminum and lithium and
sodium chloride, contacting and brushing the surface of
~
said refractory hard metal member with molten alumi
refractory hard metal member and molten aluminum,
thereby forming’ a joint.
7. A method of obtaining a joint between a refractory
hard metal member, made of a material selected from
the group‘ consisting of the borides and carbides of 10
titanium, zirconium, tantalum and niobium and mixtures
thereof, and an aluminum member, comprising the steps
of cleaning the portionof the surface‘ of said refractory
hard metal‘ member where the joint is to be made, pre
num, and then directionally cooling said refractory hard
metal member and molten aluminum by slowly cooling
said refractory hard metal member While delaying the
cooling of said aluminum, thereby forming a joint.
11. A method of obtaining a joint between a refractory
hard metal member, made of a material selected from
the group consisting of the borides and carbides of tita
nium, zirconium, ‘tantalum ‘and niobium and mixtures
thereof, and an aluminum member, comprising the steps _
heating said refractory hard metal member to a tem 15 of cleaning the portion of the surface of said refractory
hard metal member Where the joint is to be made, plating
perature ‘above the melting point of aluminum, con
tacting and brushing the surface of said refractory hard
the surface of said refractory hard metal member with
a thin nickel coating, preheating said refractory hard
‘metal member while at a said preheating temperature
metal member at a temperature greater than the melting
with a molten ?ux consisting essentially of the ?uorides
of sodium, aluminum (and lithium vand sodium chloride, 20 point of aluminum, contacting and brushing the surface
contacting and brushing the surface of said refractory
of said refractory hard metal member while at said pre
heating temperature with a molten ?ux consisting essen
hard ,metal member with molten aluminum, and then
tially of, in percent by weight, about 43 to 51% Li3AlF6,
directionally cooling said refractory hard metal member
and molten aluminum by slowly cooling said refractory
about 27 to 35% Na3AlF6, and 15 to 30% NaCl, con-r
hard metal member while delaying the cooling of‘said 25 tasting and brushing the surface of said refractory bard
metal member with molten ‘aluminum, and then direc
'ialumi-num, thereby forming a joint.
tionally cooling said refractory hard metal member and
8. A method of obtaining a joint between a refractory
molten aluminum by slowly cooling said refractory hard‘ A’
hard metal member, made of a material selected from
metal member while delaying the cooling of said alumi- '
the group consisting of the borides and carbides of tita
nium, zirconium, tantalum and niobium and mixtures 30 num, thereby forming a joint.
12. A method of obtaining a joint between a refractory
thereof, and an aluminum member, comprising the steps
hard metal member, made of a material selected from
of cleaning the portion {of the surfaceof said refractory
hard metal member Where the joint is to be made, pre
heating said refractory ‘hard metal member to a tem
perature above the melting point of aluminum, contacting
and brushing the surface of said refractory hard metal
member while at said preheating temperature with a
molten ?ux consisting essentially of, in percent by Weight,
the group consisting of the borides andlcarbides of tita
nium, zirconium, tantalum and niobium and mixtures
thereof, and an aluminum member, comprising the steps
of cleaning the portion of the surface of said refractory
hard metal member where the joint is to be made, plat—
ing the surface of said refractory hard metal member
with a thin nickel coating, preheating said refractory
about 43 to 51% LiaAlFs, 27 to 35% of Na3AlF6, and
about 15 to 30% NaCl, contacting and brushing the sur 40 hard metal member at a temperature greater than the‘
melting point of aluminum, contacting and brushingthe
face of said refractory hard metal member with molten
surface of said refractory hard metal member While at
aluminum, and then directionally cooling said refractory
hard metal member andv molten aluminum by slowly cool
I said preheating temperature with a molten ?ux consisting
essentially of, in percent by weight, about 47 to 53% '
ing said refractory hard metal member while delaying
the cooling of said aluminum, thereby forming a joint. 45 Na3AlF6, about 22 to 28% LiF and ‘about 15 to 30%
9. A method of obtaining a joint between a refractory
NaCl, contacting and brushing the surface of said refrac
tory hard metal member with molten aluminum, and then
hard metal member, made of a material selected from
directionally cooling said refractory hard metal member ‘ i
the group consisting of the borides and carbides of tita
and molten aluminum by slowly cooling said refractory
nium, zirconium, tantalum and niobium and, mixtures
thereof, and an aluminum member, comprising the steps 50 hard‘ metal member while delaying the cooling of said
aluminum, thereby forming ‘a joint.
of cleaning the portion of the surface ‘of said refractory
13. A method for joining in current carrying relation-v
hard metal member where the joint is to be made, pre
ship a refractory hard metal member, made of a material
heating said refractory hardmetal member at a tem
perature above the melting point of aluminum, contacting
selected from the “group consisting of the borides and
" and brushing the surface of said refractory hard metal
member while at said preheating temperature with a
v - molten ?ux consisting essentially of, in percent by Weight,
carbides of titanium, zirconium, tantalum and niobium
and mixtures thereof, to a ?exible, aluminum-member, ~t
“ comprising the steps of cleaning the portion of the sur
‘face of said refractory hard metal member where the joint
about 47 to 53% Na3AlF6, about 22 to 28% LiF and
about 15 to 30% NaCl, contacting and brushing the sur
is to be made, preheating said refractory hard metal
face of said refractory hard metal member with molten 60 member at a temperature above the melting point of
aluminum, contacting and brushing the surface, of said ,
aluminum, and then directionally cooling said refractory
refractory hard metal member while at said preheating
hard metal member and molten aluminum by slowly cool
ing said refractory hard metal member while delaying
the cooling of said aluminum, thereby forming a joint'
temperature with a molten flux consisting essentially'of
the ?uorides of sodium, aluminum and lithium- and
, 10. A method of obtaining a joint between a refractory 65 sodium chloride, contacting and brushing the surface of i
said refractory hard metal member with molten alumi- I
hard metal member, made of a material selected from
the group consisting of the borides and carbides of tita
num, preheating one end ‘of an aluminum ?ex member,
contacting the heated end of said ?ex member with said
nium, zirconium, tantalum and niobium and mixtures
thereof and an aluminum member, comprising the steps
?ux composition, immersing said end of said ?ex member
of cleaning the portion of the surface of said refractory 70 into said molten aluminum, ‘and then directionally cool‘
hard metal member where the joint is to be made, plating
ing said refractory hard metal member, molten aluminum
the surface of said refractory hard metal member with a
and aluminum ?ex member by slowly cooling said re‘-,
thin nickel coating, preheating said refractory hard metal
fractory hard metal member While delaying the cooling
member at a temperature above the melting point of
of said molten aluminum, thereby forming a joint.’
aluminum, ‘contacting and brushingthe surface of said 75 14.,A method for joining in current carrying relation
3,100,338
9
a
.
ship a refractory hard metal member, made of a mate-rial
mixtures thereof, to an aluminum ?ex member, com—
selected from the group consisting of the borides and car
prisingvthe steps of cleaning the portion of the surface
of said refractory hard metal member where the joint is
to be made, plating the surface of said refractory hard
bides of titanium, zirconium, tantalum and niobium ‘and
mixtures thereof, to a ?exible aluminum member, com
prising the steps of cleaning the portion of the surface of
said refractory hard metal member where the joint is to
be made, preheating said refractory hard metal member
metal member with a thin nickel coating, preheating said
refractory hard metal member at a temperature above the
melting point of aluminum, contacting and brushing the
surface ‘of said refractory hand metal member while at
at a temperature above the melting point of aluminum,
contacting and brushing the surface of said refractory
said preheating temperature with a molten ?ux compo
hard metal member While at said preheating temperature 10 sition consisting essentially of, in percent by Weight, about
with a molten ?ux consisting essentially ‘of, in percent
43 to 51% Li3A1F6, ‘about 27 to 35% Na3AlF6 and about
15 to 30% NaCl, contacting and brushing the surface
by weight, about 43 to 51% Li3AlF6, about 27 to 35%
of said refractory hard metal member with molten alumi
Na3AlF6 and about 15 to 30% ‘NaCl, contacting and
brushing said surface of said refractory hard metal mem
num, preheating one end of said ?ex member, contacting
the heated end of the aluminum ?ex member with said
ber with molten aluminum, preheating one end of said
?ux, immersing said end of said ?ex member into said
aluminum ?ex member, contacting said end of the ?ex
member with said flux, immersing said end of said ?ex
molten aluminum, and then directionally cooling said
refractory hard metal member, molten aluminum and
member into said molten aluminum, and then direction
aluminum ?ex memberby slowly cooling said refractory
ally cooling said refractory hard metal member, molten
aluminum and aluminum ?ex member by slowly cooling
said refractory hard metal member while delaying the
cooling of said molten aluminum, thereby forming a
hard metal member while delaying the cooling of said
molten aluminum, thereby forming a joint.
18. A method for joining in current carrying relation
ship a refractory hard metal member, made of a material
selected from the group‘ consisting of the borides and car
joint.
15. A method for joining in current carrying relation
ship a refractory hard metal member, made of a ma 25 bides of titanium, zirconium, tantalum and niobium and
terial selected from the group consisting ‘of the borides
mixtures thereof, with an aluminum ?ex member, com
prising the steps of cleaning the portion of the surface
of said refractory hard metal member where the joint is
to be made, plating the surfaces of said refractory hard
and carbides of titanium, zirconium, tantalum-and nio
bium and mixtures thereof, With an aluminum ?ex mem
ber, comprising the steps of cleaning the portion of the
surface of said refractory hard metal member Where the 30 metal member ‘with a thin nickel coating, preheating said
refractory 'hard metal member at a temperature above
joint is to be made, preheating said refractory hard metal
the melting point of aluminum, contacting and brushing
member at a temperature above the melting point of alu
the surface of said refractory hard metal member while
minum, contacting and brushing the surface of said re
at said preheating temperature with a molten ?ux compo—
fnactory hard metal member While at said preheating
temperature with a molten ?ux composition consisting 35 sition consisting essentially of, in percent by weight,
essentially of, in percent by Weight, about 47 to 53%
about 47 to 53% NaaAlFe, about 22 to 28% LiF and
about 15 to 30% NaCl, contacting and brushing the sur
Na3AlF6, about 22 to 28% LiF and about 15 to 30%
face of said refractory hard metal member with molten
N aCl, contacting said refractory hard met-a1 member with
aluminum, preheating ‘one end of said ?ex member, con
molten aluminum, preheating one end of said aluminum
?ex member, contacting said end of said ?ex member with 40 tacting the heated end of said ?ex member with said ?ux
composition, immersing said end of said aluminum ?ex
said ?ux, immersing said end of said aluminum ?ex mem
member into said molten aluminum, and then direction
ber into said molten aluminum, and then directionally
cooiing said refractory hard metal member, molten alu
minum and aluminum ?ex member by slowly cooling said
refractory hard metal member while delaying the cool
ing of said molten aluminum, thereby forming a point.
16. A method for joining in current carrying relation
ship a refractory hard metal member, made of a material
ally cooling said refractory hard metal member,_molten
aluminum and aluminum ?ex member by slowly cooling
said refractory hard metal member (while delaying the cool
ing of said molten aluminum, thereby forming a joint.
19. A method of obtaining a joint between a refractory
, hard metal member, made of a material selected from
the group consisting of the borides ‘and carbides of titani
selected from the group consisting of the borides and car
bides of titanium, zirconium, tantalum and niobium and 50 um, zirconium, tantalum and niobium and mixtures
thereof, and an aluminum member, comprising the steps
mixtures thereof, to a ?exible aluminum member, com
prising the steps of cleaning the portion of the surface
of said nefractory hard metal member where the joint is
to be made, plating the surfaces of said refractory hard
metai member with a thin nickel coating, preheating said 55
refractory ~hard metal member at a temperature above
the melting point :of aluminum, contacting and brushing ,
the. surface of said refractory hard metal member while
at said preheating temperature with a molten ?ux con
of cleaning the portion of the surface of said refractory
hard metal member where the joint is to be made, plat
ing the surface of said refractory hard metal member
with a nickel coating of about 0.0005 inch, preheating
said refractory hard metal member at a temperature in
the range of 750° to 900° C., contacting and brushing
(the surface of said refractory hard metal member While
at said preheating temperature with a molten ?ux com
sisting essentially of the ?uorides of sodium, aluminum 60 position comprising, in percent by weight, 48% Li3AlF6,
32% Na3AlF6 land 20% NaCl, contacting and brushing
and lithium and sodium chloride, contacting and brush
the surface of said refractory hard metal member with
ing the surface of said refractory hard metal member
molten aluminum, said aluminum being at a tempera
ture of 800° C., and then directionally cooling said re
num ?ex member, contacting said end of said aluminum
?ex member with said ?ux composition, immersing said 65 fractory hard met-a1 member and molten aluminum by
slowly cooling said refractory hard metal member while
end of said aluminum ?ex member into said molten alu
delaying the cooling of said aluminum, thereby forming
‘ minum, and then directionaliy cooling said refractory
a joint.
'
hard metal member, molten aluminum and aluminum
20. A method for joining in current carrying relation_
?ex member by slowly cooling said refractory hard metal
member While delaying the cooling of said molten alumi 70 ship a refractory hard metal member, made of a material
‘ num, thereby forming a joint.
selected from the group consisting of the borides and car
17. A method for joining in current carrying relation
bides of titanium, zirconium, tantalum and niobium and
ship a refractory hard metal member, made of a material
mixtures thereof, with an aluminum ?ex member, com
selected from the group consisting of the borides ad car
prising the steps of cleaning the portion of the surface of
bides of titanium, zirconium, tantalum and niobium and 75 said refractory hard metal member Where the joint is to
with molten aluminum, preheating one end of an alumi
3,100,338
‘12
be made, plating the surface of said refractory hard metal
References Cited in the ?le of this patent _
member with a nickel coating of about 0.100105 inch, pre
heating said refractory hard metal member at a tempera
ture in 'the rangewof 750° to 900° C., contacting and
UNITED STATES PATENTS
' brushing the surface of said refractory hard metal mem
ber while at said preheating temperature with a molten
?ux ‘composition comprising, in percent by Weight, 48%
Li3A1P6, 32% Na3A1F6 and. 20%’ NaCl, contacting and
brushing said refractory hard metal member with molten
aluminum, said aluminum being at 800° C., preheating
10
one end of said ?ex member, contacting the heated end
of said ?exv member with said ?ux composition, immers~
ing said end of said aluminum ?ex member into said
molten aluminum, and then directionally cooling said
refractory hard metal member, molten aluminum and 15
aluminum ?ex member by slowly cooling said refractory
hard metal member while delaying the cooling of said
molten aluminum, thereby forming a joint.
132,338
Warden _____________ __ Oct. 15,
. 1,581,446
Hoxie _‘_'_ ____ _; _____ __ Apr. 20,
1,813,657
2,414,231
2,569,097
2,612,442
2,682,101
2,735,919
2,785,084
1872
1926
Bootbman et a1 ______ __-___ July 7, 1931
Kraus _______________ __ Jan. 14,
Grange _____________ __ Sept. 25,
Goetzel _____________ __ Sept.
Whit?eld et a1. _______ __ June
Shower _____________ __~_ Feb.
Lundin ___________ __'._.__ Mar.
30,
29,
21,
12,
1947
1951
1952
1954
195-6
1957
FOREIGN PATENTS
Canada ______________ __ Jan. 13,
1953
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION
Patent No. 3, 100,338
August 13, 1963
Jack L. Henry
It is hereby certified that error appears in the above numbered pat
ent reqliring correction and that the said Letters Patent should read as
corrected below.
Column 2, line 25, strike out "and", first occurrence;
column 7, line 18, strike out "a".
Signed and sealed this 26th day of May 1964.
(SEAL)
Attest:
ERNEST W. SWIDER
Atlcsting Officer
EDWARD J. BRENNER
Commissioner of Patents
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