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Патент USA US3100390

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Aug. 13, 1963
United States Patent O?ice
Patented Aug. 13, 1983
Pipelines must be led through ‘the wall by means of
Rudolf Becker, Munich-Sella, and Ernst Wittmann, Lud
wigshafen (Rhine), Germany, assignors to Geselischaft
fur Linde’s Eismasehinen Aktiengesellschaft, Holl
riegelskreuth, near Munich, Germany, a German com
Filed July 25, 1960, Ser. No. 45,028
Claims priority, application Germany Mar. 31, 1960
1 Claim. (Cl. 62-447)
This invention relates to apparatus for and processes of
separating land rectifying gas mixtures at low tempera
tures, and is concerned with improving the insulated low
stu?lng boxes, passage ?ange-s, or the like.
An object of the present invention‘is, therefore, to
overcome the defects of the lowatemperlature insulation's
heretofore known; that is, to» provide :a better arrangement
of insulation, which has the advantages of the present
techniques while excluding their disadvantages.
This problem is solved with the aid of ‘a unit for the
separating or purifying of gas mixtures at low tempera
10 tures, in which the lowatemperature part for the purpose
of insulation is surrounded by a mantle, the space en
closed by ‘this mantle being ?lled with a bulk insulating
material and which is distinguished by the fact that in the
space ?lled, in the usual way, with insulating material, at
temperature parts of gas-separating ‘and purifying units. 15 those points at which apparatus parts are located in
In the designing of gas-separating and purifying units
leaks can occur, spaces accessible [from outside are pro.
for low temperatures, the problem of insulating low
videcl, while
such ‘a space there are placed only
temperature parts constitutes an important part in the
technology, ‘since energy consumption is determined in
part by the quality of insulation.
that units which bridge ‘a considerable difference in tem
Cold insulation has, up to now, been elfected in either
one of two different ways: In
and middle-sized units,
sulating material.
parts with a temperature diiference of at most 50“ C.
It is ‘further prodded-according to this invention—
perature be surrounded, between head and foot, with in
the so-oalled “plugged complete insulation” has been ap
This invention is illustrated, for example, in the accom
plied. All the parts to be insulated were enveloped in a
panying drawing which is a schematic representation of
single jacket and the space between them filled with in 25 the cold box of ‘a plant for separating gas mixtures at
sulating material, for example, mineral wool.
In this
way a very effective insulation was achieved, it is true,
low temperatures. The drawing shows the outer jacket
surrounding all parts of the separation plant which have
but ‘this method has not proved practical, especially for
a ‘temperature of below 230 to 27 3° K., and iurther the
‘larger units, since even in assembling the same the pro
separate inner jackets, each of them surrounding those
viding and placing of such large amounts of insulation 30 parts of the separation plant which must be accessible
material was troublesome. If repairs were necessary in
for repair purposes and which have a maximum tempera
side the lowatemperature part, the insulation material
rture difference of 50° C.; the drawing ?nally shows the
had to be completely cleared from inconvenient locations
bulk insulation material between the ‘outer and inner
in the place to be repaired, and had to be stored dry.
jackets indicated by hatching, which the regenerators
Since such Work could not be carried out during opera 35 which bridge a considerable temperature di?erence and
tion-because of dust ‘and lack of space——a repair of a
adsorbers which do not have to be repaired hrequently
fully insulated unit always meant a long interruption of
are embedded, and the manholes by :which the inner
its operation. In the case of smaller repairs near the
jackets‘ may be entered. In particular, the cold box
jacket, the insulation did not need to be fully removed,
shown in the drawing consists of several coolers, 1, 2, and
but the hollow spaces had to be supported by wood cou
3, ‘in which the crude gas flowing in at A absorbs‘ the
structions which often could not be removed and in
cold of the residual gases led out of the unit at B and of v
creased the danger .of ?re. .Another disadvantage of
stu?lng insulation is that it grows damp in time, and then
the pure gas removed at C. In the present case, three heat
exchangers are provided for the cooling of the crude gas
to 100° K., ‘of which the ?rst has at the warm end a
contained in the insulation material is cooled in
the cooling of the ‘apparatus, so that moist air may flow .
can be reached by ammonia cooling
of about 230° K. and at the cold end a temperature of
190° K. In the second counter ?ow cooler (heat ex
changer) the crude gas is cooled tol50° K, and in the
third to 100° K. The part of the crude gas which is.
sulating large units it has been proposed that the low 50 fluid at
temperature is removed into a separator 4,
temperature part be surrounded by 1a double jacket, and
sent through a detachable pair of ?lters 5a and 5b to re
only the space between ‘the walls of the same be ?lled
move the solid substances precipitated, and utter deep
with insulation material; that is, that the ‘apparatus be
cooling in the 'counte-rdlow cooler 6, introduced into the
center of column 7. The gaseous part of the crude gas
set into .a cold chamber. This, too, has presented con‘
leaving separator 4 is fluidized in a coil 8 in the sump or
siderable di?‘iculties. The inner Wall of the chamber is
column 7, and fed to» the head of the column as a washing
exposed, in cooling, to a temperature di?erence of almost
?uid. The temperature at the head of the column amounts .
200° C. ‘and therefore to considerable ‘change in length.
through the leaks in the jacket. Finally, a unit so in
sulated is hard to inspect, since it is quite riif?cult to con
trol ‘the oxygen content within the insulation.
On the other hand, as a solution to the problem of in
to about 80° K.
To prevent cracks in ‘this wall it must consist of elements
The insulation of such :a vunit is e?ected as follows:
which can compensate the dimensional changes in the 60
First, a single jacket 9 of sheet metal is ‘arranged around
plane of the wall. For example, the wall is formed of
plates lapped like roo?ng tiles, which overlapping plates
hang on supports which can move lengthwise freely.
Since, also, during operation considerable differences in
all the low-temperature
Moreover, all apparatus
parts in which leaks might occur, such as the ?anges and
pipes to and from the heat ‘exchangers, as well as the re
tus, parts which can take different temperatures during .
spective valves, and also the rectifying column
heat exchanger and separator, ‘are surrounded by jackets
operation ‘are insulated [from each other. Otherwise there
is danger of cold losses t ‘rough convection inside the
chamber. To prevent the insulating material inside the
ture differences of less than 50° C. are placed within such
a jacket. The intermediate spaces between the outer
jacket 9 land the
jacket .10 are then- ?lled with in
temperature occur between different parts of the appara
10 in such manner 1 aton-ly such par-ts as have tempera
double-walled jacket from becoming moist, the sealing 70 sulating material (cros‘shatohed’i-n the drawings). The
of the jacket on the outside must be watched closely.
spaces not ?lled with insulating material inside jacket 10
are accessiblle ?nom the outside, for example, through’
We claim:
doors 11, 11.
A system for separating gas mixtures by cooling and
a The conventional stu?ed full insulation is thus im
' ?nactionation at low tempenatures, which consists of a
parts which are likely to need repair. In the case of the
cold box comprising heat exchangers, separators, counter
?ow subcoolers, adsorbers and rectifying columns, said
cold ‘box having a plurality of chambers individually in~
gas purifying unit shown, the pipelines leading to the
' sulated, which insulation consists of an outer jacket suri
warm end of the
cooler are placed in a special cham
her. The cold end of the ?rst, and the
end’ of the
second, heat exchanger 2 have about the same tempera
rounding all plants of the system which have a terncera
ture of \belowlabout' 230° K. to 273” K., which further
10~ consists \of separate inner jackets, each of said inner
proved according to this invention by the fact that within
' this insulation, spaces are provided adjacent to apparatus
ture and so are situated in a common chamber, The
jackets surrounding parts of the system which must he ,
accessible for repair purposes and which have between
true for the cold end of the second and the warm
end of the rthird heat exchanger 3. The recti?cation co -
umn 7 is placed in another chamber,‘ together Withthe
cold end of the third cooler, the separator 4, the heat ex~
, each other a
temperature di?erence ‘of no more
than about 50° C.;jone of said inner jackets surrounding
the warm end of the ?rst heat exchanger, vfurther inner
changer 6 and the pipelines belonging thereto, while for
jackets surrounding the cold end of each heat exchanger
the ?ltens 5a 1a11d'5b no special spaces are provided.
illhe advantages of such an insulation lie in the rtact that
the amount of insulating material can ‘be reduced to a
together With-the
tolerable amount, and that the ‘good insulating e?ect
realized ‘by stutfed full insulation is still substantially re
tained. Moreover, the parts which must most often be
repaired, such as the connections, for example, the con
nections ‘between the vessels and the pipelines are easily
accessible, while'c‘old losses through convection, as they
occur in so-called chamherinsulation, 133'?’ hardly to be
dreaded, since the temperature-differences between the
individual chambers are relatively slight. Those parts in
particular which show a considenable tern-penature gnadi
out, such as heat exchangers ‘for example, are still prac
subcooler :and la rectifying column; in which the space
between the outer jacket and said inner jackets is ?lled
with bulk insulating material thereby embedding the
heat exchangers which have between their warm and
‘ cold ends a considerable temperature difference particu
larly a temperature difference ‘of more than 50° C. and
further embedding the adsorbe-rs which are inaccessible.
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
tically completely insulated for their whole length, as well
as parts which must be stnained, that is, heated, during‘
' 652,058
Tripler ________ __"____'__ June 19, 1900
B10011 a a1 ____________ __ Jan. 20, 1942
operation, such iasythe ?lters 5n and 5b; for example.
12,951,346 7
Collins et a ____________ __ Sept. 6, 1960 7
Bun-n ________________ __' 0a. 24, ‘1961
Loveday _____ __‘______ __ Apr. 24, 1962
To prevent the ‘occu-nuence of air-gas mixtures in the
' spaces within the insulation, and thus to reduce the dan-_ 35,
ger of fire, it is advantageous to blow nitrogen into thesev
tree spaces.
end of each following heat ex
_, changer, .a Vfu-nthrer inner jacket surrounding the cold end
or the last heat exchanger, 1a separator, a counter-?ow
Great Britain _________ __ Apr. 19, 1923
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