Патент USA US3100390код для вставки
Aug. 13, 1963 ERATURE UNITS WITH STOPPER INSULATION 3,100,385 w\" 11% \\\?! % United States Patent O?ice 3,l;®0,3%5 Patented Aug. 13, 1983 1 2 3,100,385 Pipelines must be led through ‘the wall by means of LBW TEMPERATURE UNlTS WIFE} STOPPER INSULATIUN ' Rudolf Becker, Munich-Sella, and Ernst Wittmann, Lud wigshafen (Rhine), Germany, assignors to Geselischaft fur Linde’s Eismasehinen Aktiengesellschaft, Holl riegelskreuth, near Munich, Germany, a German com Pally Filed July 25, 1960, Ser. No. 45,028 Claims priority, application Germany Mar. 31, 1960 1 Claim. (Cl. 62-447) This invention relates to apparatus for and processes of separating land rectifying gas mixtures at low tempera tures, and is concerned with improving the insulated low . stu?lng boxes, passage ?ange-s, or the like. . An object of the present invention‘is, therefore, to overcome the defects of the lowatemperlature insulation's heretofore known; that is, to» provide :a better arrangement of insulation, which has the advantages of the present techniques while excluding their disadvantages. This problem is solved with the aid of ‘a unit for the separating or purifying of gas mixtures at low tempera 10 tures, in which the lowatemperature part for the purpose of insulation is surrounded by a mantle, the space en closed by ‘this mantle being ?lled with a bulk insulating material and which is distinguished by the fact that in the space ?lled, in the usual way, with insulating material, at temperature parts of gas-separating ‘and purifying units. 15 those points at which apparatus parts are located in In the designing of gas-separating and purifying units leaks can occur, spaces accessible [from outside are pro. for low temperatures, the problem of insulating low videcl, while such ‘a space there are placed only temperature parts constitutes an important part in the technology, ‘since energy consumption is determined in part by the quality of insulation. that units which bridge ‘a considerable difference in tem Cold insulation has, up to now, been elfected in either one of two different ways: In and middle-sized units, sulating material. parts with a temperature diiference of at most 50“ C. It is ‘further prodded-according to this invention— perature be surrounded, between head and foot, with in _ the so-oalled “plugged complete insulation” has been ap This invention is illustrated, for example, in the accom plied. All the parts to be insulated were enveloped in a panying drawing which is a schematic representation of single jacket and the space between them filled with in 25 the cold box of ‘a plant for separating gas mixtures at sulating material, for example, mineral wool. In this way a very effective insulation was achieved, it is true, low temperatures. The drawing shows the outer jacket surrounding all parts of the separation plant which have but ‘this method has not proved practical, especially for a ‘temperature of below 230 to 27 3° K., and iurther the ‘larger units, since even in assembling the same the pro separate inner jackets, each of them surrounding those viding and placing of such large amounts of insulation 30 parts of the separation plant which must be accessible material was troublesome. If repairs were necessary in for repair purposes and which have a maximum tempera side the lowatemperature part, the insulation material rture difference of 50° C.; the drawing ?nally shows the had to be completely cleared from inconvenient locations bulk insulation material between the ‘outer and inner in the place to be repaired, and had to be stored dry. jackets indicated by hatching, which the regenerators Since such Work could not be carried out during opera 35 which bridge a considerable temperature di?erence and tion-because of dust ‘and lack of space——a repair of a adsorbers which do not have to be repaired hrequently fully insulated unit always meant a long interruption of are embedded, and the manholes by :which the inner its operation. In the case of smaller repairs near the jackets‘ may be entered. In particular, the cold box jacket, the insulation did not need to be fully removed, shown in the drawing consists of several coolers, 1, 2, and but the hollow spaces had to be supported by wood cou 3, ‘in which the crude gas flowing in at A absorbs‘ the structions which often could not be removed and in cold of the residual gases led out of the unit at B and of v creased the danger .of ?re. .Another disadvantage of stu?lng insulation is that it grows damp in time, and then the pure gas removed at C. In the present case, three heat exchangers are provided for the cooling of the crude gas the to 100° K., ‘of which the ?rst has at the warm end a contained in the insulation material is cooled in the cooling of the ‘apparatus, so that moist air may flow . temperature can be reached by ammonia cooling of about 230° K. and at the cold end a temperature of 190° K. In the second counter ?ow cooler (heat ex changer) the crude gas is cooled tol50° K, and in the third to 100° K. The part of the crude gas which is. sulating large units it has been proposed that the low 50 fluid at temperature is removed into a separator 4, temperature part be surrounded by 1a double jacket, and sent through a detachable pair of ?lters 5a and 5b to re only the space between ‘the walls of the same be ?lled move the solid substances precipitated, and utter deep with insulation material; that is, that the ‘apparatus be cooling in the 'counte-rdlow cooler 6, introduced into the center of column 7. The gaseous part of the crude gas set into .a cold chamber. This, too, has presented con‘ leaving separator 4 is fluidized in a coil 8 in the sump or siderable di?‘iculties. The inner Wall of the chamber is column 7, and fed to» the head of the column as a washing exposed, in cooling, to a temperature di?erence of almost ?uid. The temperature at the head of the column amounts . 200° C. ‘and therefore to considerable ‘change in length. through the leaks in the jacket. Finally, a unit so in sulated is hard to inspect, since it is quite riif?cult to con trol ‘the oxygen content within the insulation. On the other hand, as a solution to the problem of in to about 80° K. ~ To prevent cracks in ‘this wall it must consist of elements The insulation of such :a vunit is e?ected as follows: which can compensate the dimensional changes in the 60 First, a single jacket 9 of sheet metal is ‘arranged around plane of the wall. For example, the wall is formed of plates lapped like roo?ng tiles, which overlapping plates hang on supports which can move lengthwise freely. Since, also, during operation considerable differences in all the low-temperature Moreover, all apparatus parts in which leaks might occur, such as the ?anges and pipes to and from the heat ‘exchangers, as well as the re tus, parts which can take different temperatures during . spective valves, and also the rectifying column the heat exchanger and separator, ‘are surrounded by jackets operation ‘are insulated [from each other. Otherwise there is danger of cold losses t ‘rough convection inside the chamber. To prevent the insulating material inside the ture differences of less than 50° C. are placed within such a jacket. The intermediate spaces between the outer jacket 9 land the jacket .10 are then- ?lled with in temperature occur between different parts of the appara 10 in such manner 1 aton-ly such par-ts as have tempera double-walled jacket from becoming moist, the sealing 70 sulating material (cros‘shatohed’i-n the drawings). The of the jacket on the outside must be watched closely. spaces not ?lled with insulating material inside jacket 10 ‘3,100,385 , v .. _ 3 4 . are accessiblle ?nom the outside, for example, through’ We claim: doors 11, 11. V A system for separating gas mixtures by cooling and a The conventional stu?ed full insulation is thus im ' ?nactionation at low tempenatures, which consists of a . ‘y I 7 ~ , ' - parts which are likely to need repair. In the case of the cold box comprising heat exchangers, separators, counter ?ow subcoolers, adsorbers and rectifying columns, said cold ‘box having a plurality of chambers individually in~ gas purifying unit shown, the pipelines leading to the ' sulated, which insulation consists of an outer jacket suri warm end of the cooler are placed in a special cham her. The cold end of the ?rst, and the end’ of the second, heat exchanger 2 have about the same tempera rounding all plants of the system which have a terncera ture of \belowlabout' 230° K. to 273” K., which further 10~ consists \of separate inner jackets, each of said inner proved according to this invention by the fact that within ' this insulation, spaces are provided adjacent to apparatus ture and so are situated in a common chamber, The same jackets surrounding parts of the system which must he , accessible for repair purposes and which have between true for the cold end of the second and the warm end of the rthird heat exchanger 3. The recti?cation co - umn 7 is placed in another chamber,‘ together Withthe cold end of the third cooler, the separator 4, the heat ex~ , each other a temperature di?erence ‘of no more than about 50° C.;jone of said inner jackets surrounding the warm end of the ?rst heat exchanger, vfurther inner changer 6 and the pipelines belonging thereto, while for jackets surrounding the cold end of each heat exchanger the ?ltens 5a 1a11d'5b no special spaces are provided. illhe advantages of such an insulation lie in the rtact that the amount of insulating material can ‘be reduced to a together With-the tolerable amount, and that the ‘good insulating e?ect realized ‘by stutfed full insulation is still substantially re tained. Moreover, the parts which must most often be repaired, such as the connections, for example, the con nections ‘between the vessels and the pipelines are easily accessible, while'c‘old losses through convection, as they occur in so-called chamherinsulation, 133'?’ hardly to be dreaded, since the temperature-differences between the individual chambers are relatively slight. Those parts in particular which show a considenable tern-penature gnadi out, such as heat exchangers ‘for example, are still prac subcooler :and la rectifying column; in which the space between the outer jacket and said inner jackets is ?lled with bulk insulating material thereby embedding the heat exchangers which have between their warm and ‘ cold ends a considerable temperature difference particu larly a temperature difference ‘of more than 50° C. and further embedding the adsorbe-rs which are inaccessible. References Cited in the ?le of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS tically completely insulated for their whole length, as well as parts which must be stnained, that is, heated, during‘ ' 652,058 Tripler ________ __"____'__ June 19, 1900 ~12,270,407 B10011 a a1 ____________ __ Jan. 20, 1942 operation, such iasythe ?lters 5n and 5b; for example. 12,951,346 7 Collins et a ____________ __ Sept. 6, 1960 7 3,005,317 Bun-n ________________ __' 0a. 24, ‘1961 3,030,789 Loveday _____ __‘______ __ Apr. 24, 1962 To prevent the ‘occu-nuence of air-gas mixtures in the ' spaces within the insulation, and thus to reduce the dan-_ 35, ger of fire, it is advantageous to blow nitrogen into thesev tree spaces. end of each following heat ex _, changer, .a Vfu-nthrer inner jacket surrounding the cold end or the last heat exchanger, 1a separator, a counter-?ow V ' ‘ ' 181,352 FOREIGN PATENTS Great Britain _________ __ Apr. 19, 1923 ‘if‘a.