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Патент USA US3100490

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Aug. 13, 1963
Filed March 7, 1961
3 Sheets-Sheet l
F0 5:05 G. BMWZETT JR.
Aug- 13, 1963
Filed March 7, 1861
3 Sheets-Sheet 2
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Aug” 13, 1963
Filed March 7, 1961
3 Sheets-Sheet 3
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United States Patent 0
Patented Aug. 13, 1963
duces a sensation of suffocation that induces a tendency
Roscoe G. Bartlett, .lr., Liliian, Ala.
Filed Mar. 7, 1961, Ser. No. 94,691
5 Claims. (Cl. 128-142)
toward induced rapid and deep breathing. The use of
respiratory apparatus presents di?erent pressures to the
respiratory tracts and lungs which, again, leads to hyper
ventilation, even in the experienced.
(Granted under Title 35, US. @0113 (1952), see. 266)
In using oxygen from a compressed source in a respira
tory apparatus, it is obvious that some oxygen will be
The invention described herein may be manufactured
lost to the surrounding atmosphere.
As the supply of
and used by or for the Government of the United States
oxygen is naturally and necessarily limited, due to weight
of America for governmental purposes without the pay 10 and space limitations, every effort must be made to con
ment of any royalties thereon or therefor.
serve this ?uid and prevent its loss.
This invention relates generally to respiratory apparatus
and particularly to an improved respiratory apparatus
The principal object of my invention, therefore, is to
provide a respiratory apparatus, particularly for aviators
providing adequate moisture transfer, self-regulating
flying at high altitudes, including space ?ight, which will
breathing stimulus, and economical use of supplied pres 15 eiilciently incorporate the foregoing features of moisture
surized oxygen.
transfer from expired to inspired breath; the alleviation
To prevent the freezing of valves, gauges, and other
and prevention of hyperventilation; and planned economy
gear associated with the storage of ‘oxygen, both the liquid
in the use of-the limited supply of additive respirant ?uid.
and compressed forms of this gas are supplied to the‘user
Another object of my‘invention is to provide a respira
in as dry a form as possible, i.e., all water or water vapor 20 tory apparatus wherein the mask used to couple the ap
has been extracted. Although breathing of dry oxygen
for a short time is without serious effects, prolonged
breathing results in drying of the mucous membranes of
‘the respiratory tract with accompanying discomfort, sore
throat, and head colds. Where, at high altitudes or other 25
paratus to the respiratory tracts may be extremely sim
ple, valveless, light of weight and offer no obstructions
to voice communications when a proper microphone is
borne thereby.
must be supplied to a user, some means of humidifying
the oxygen breathed by the user must be supplied. Such
A further object of my invention, contrary to the stand
ard practice heretofore employed, is to provide an added
anatomical dead space to and in the respiratory apparatus
for promoting better and more effective breathing by the
humidi?cation could be accomplished by bubbling the
perhaps clinical reasons, pure oxygen without air dilution
oxygen through water, passing it through a water spray, 30. A still further object of my invention is to provide res
or passing it through or over water containing material.
piratory apparatus wherein the ‘functions of moisture
Such means have the principal disadvantage that the
transfer and increased, improved ventilation are self
moisture must be supplied from an external source which,
priming and self-perpetuating in that no external sources
with the necessary apparatus, increases the weight of the
of moisture orrother external arrangements for promoting
device and limits the duration of its use.
Another approach to the problem concerns the recycl
ing of water from the moist expired breath to the dry in
coming oxygen. This method has several merits. First,
the device would be self-perpetuating in operation and ob
35 breathing are necessary.
Other objects and advantages of my invention will ap
pear in connection with the following detailed descrip
viously would be much lighter than if water were‘ con
tinuously supplied from an outside source. Second, in
tion and the accompanying drawings wherein:
FIGURE 1 is a partly sectioned perspective view of
my improved respiratory apparatus;
FIG. 2 is a partly sectioned plan view of the principal
a small con?ned space, such as a cockpit or space capsule,
respiratory member;
this method of recycling would be advantageous in main
taining low humidity of the atmosphere therein, thus pre
FIG. 3 is a sectional side elevation of the respiratory
member taken on the line 3—~3 of FIG. 2;
FIG. 4 is a partly ‘sectioned end elevation of the res
venting many of the problems associated with the- con
densation of water on the instruments or viewing ports.
The undesirable effects of hyperventilation leading to
an abnormal loss of carbon dioxide from the blood are
piratory member taken on the line 4-—4 of FIG. 3;
FIG. 5 is a partly sectioned end elevation of the res
piratory member taken on the line 5-5 of FIG. 3; and
FIGS. 6-11, inclusive, are diagrammatic views illus
well known. On ‘an average, the human body maintains a 50
trating the principles of operation of my improved res
constant volume of carbon dioxide in the lungs, approxi
mately 5.6%. This CO2 is necessary ‘for the health and’
well being of the body. A rise in the percentage of CO2
piratory apparatus.
With reference to FIG. 1, my improved respiratory ap
paratus comprises a valveless mask 20, a ?exible tube 21, a
increases the rate of breathing; an increase of 0.2% gen
erally doubles the rate of breathing. A fall in the per» 55 respirant supply vflexible tube 22, and the principal respira- r
tory member 30.
centage decreases the rate of breathing with danger of
The ‘mask ‘20' may be of a modi?ed standard variety
cessation and dangerously upsets the acid-alkaline balance
adapted to sealingly cover the nose and mouth of the
of the human physiological system leading to alkalosis.
user. The usual fastening means for securing the mask
Hyperventilation may be caused by various physiologi
cal, psychological and physical factors. One of these fac— 60 to the head of the user (not shown) may be supplied.
Since this mask is valveless and needs only hear the usual
tors is that the respiratory passages o?er little resistance to
communication microphone secured to the side (not
the movement of the rare?ed atmosphere at high altitudes.
shown), it will naturally be much lighter in weight than
This condition leads to the user’s sensation of an inade—
the valved kind and furthermore, the absence of valves
quate alveolar ventilation. The use of the mask, itself, pro
will allow more e?icient use of the microphone. The
3 .
tested, a commercial'disposable hand towel, made of rag
presence‘ of valves in the mask near the microphone not
only present a noise problem due to the operation of the
and wood ?bers laid down by a felting process, was found
_ valves but the latter also serve to distort the sound waves
to give the best performance. Other materials could, of
‘course, be specially designed and constructed for this pur
between the larynx and the microphone.
The tube 21 between the mask and the respiratory mem
her 31} is provided for the important function of designed
ly increasing the anatomical dead space between the lungs
and the necessary “expiratory and inspiratory valves.
'Heretofore, it has been considered mandatory to ‘keep the
connections between the mask and the source of added
respiratory fluid as short as possible. vSuch limitation
has been imposed apparently because of the fancied over
stressed difficulties in breathing at high altitudes and also
possibly because the designers envisaged the use of open
cockpits subject to the extreme low temperatures there
encountered. In the latter prior art, showing the addition
of‘ a “rebreather” bag between the valved mask and the
oxygen source, it is universally asserted that the volume
of the rebreather bag must always be less than the normal
volume of air contained in the expanded lungs of the 20
average user. This requirement was based on the assump
tion that some provision had to be made to expel as much
of the expired CO2 as possible. Actually, it has been
found that, at high altitudes and under conditions re
quiring the breathing of practically 100% oxygen for pro
Top plate 35 supports the vertically extending expira- tory valve v6i). As shown in 'FIG. 3, this valve may be
of more or less standard construction and consists prin
cipally of a spring loaded valve plate 62 pressed against its
seat 63. By varying the loading of the spring 64, this
valve may be set to allow discharge of the expired breath
at a desired pressure relationship. Aperture 61, of course,
provides the egress from the chambers in the respiratory
member 30 to and through the valve 60.
. The inspiratory valve 7%, as shown in-FIGS. 2 and 3,
which is supported by end piece 51, may also be of stand
ard construction. It- consists principally of 1a supporting
case 71 which may be screwed into a threaded hole in
the end piece.‘ This casing bears the tube 22 connector
‘72 with its usual sealing rings 73. A thin perforated
diaphragm 77 is supported in the other end of the casing.
A ?exible rubber diaphragm 74 is supported inwardly of
the other diaphragm by the spider 75 and the spindle 76.
When inspiring, the partial vacuum created in the respira
tory member 30 with the pressure of the incoming res
pirant forces the rubber diaphragm to open to the left or
inwardly, as indicated in phantom in FIG. 2.
The end piece 50, FIGS. 2 and 3, is formed with an
integral connector 52 for connection to the tube 21. This
long-ed periods, such arrangements eliminated too much
002 from the respiratory system and resulted in the
physiological effects previously mentioned with reference
to the lowering of the CO2 content of the lungs.
end piece 50 is provided with an internal, rectangular
quently, tube 21, having a volume of approximately 250
cc. in the prototype has been added to correct this de
cavity 513 which connects the bore of connector 52 with the
?ciency. The actual use of this added anatomical dead
space and its important functions will be more fully de
four ports adjacent thereto.
As previously noted, end piece 42 of the bottom por
tion 40 is formed with two oblong ports 46 which are the
Tube 22 is supplied to furnish the necessary connection 35 same size as ports 39 formed in the top portion end piece
37. Thus, at the mask end of the respiratory member 30'
vbetween the respiratory member 30 and the source of pres
there are four ports, two ‘above the wicking and two below.
surized respirant (not shown).
At the pressurized gas end, there are only two ports and
Respiratory member 30, as shown in FIGS. 2-5, inclu
these are situated above the wicking. With this porting
sive, consists of a ‘hollow box-‘like structure 32 having a
arrangement expiratory ?uid can pass both below and
top lid portion 34; a bottom portion 40; end pieces 50, 51;
above the wicking while the inspired ‘supplied respirant ‘
an expiratory valve 60; an inspiratory valve 70; a flexible
must pass above the wicking.
bellows or diaphragm S0; and a wicking or moisture trans
scribed later.
fer membrane 85.
The principles of the operation of my invention will
now be described in connection with FIGS. 6-11, inclu
Top lid portion 34 may be hollowed out or may be con
structed, as shown, from ?ve rectangular pieces of mate
rial, i.e., top plate 35, side pieces 36 and end pieces 37.
FIGS. 6 and 7 illustrate diagrammatically the recycling
These' pieces may be rabbeted, ‘as shown, and are her
metically-sealed to each other by adhesive or cement re
infoirced by the screws 38. An aperture 61 is provided in
of the moisture from the expired to the inspired breath. .
top plate 35 for communication with the expiratory valve
60. Upper ports 39 are provided in the end pieces 37 for
warm ‘air; the bellows or diaphragm .80 collapses on the
the passage of breathing fluids as will be more fully ex
condenses out on the walls of the chamber and the upper
plained later.
The bottom portion 40 is constructed to match the lid
portion 34 and may consist of sides 41, end pieces 42, 43,
and a perforated bottom'plate 44. As in the lid portion,
surface of the bellows. As the expiration continues, the
expired air passes into and through the upper chamber
the side and end pieces may be rabbete-d and adhesively '
secured together, further reinforced by the screws 45.
Lower ports 46; may be formed in the left hand end
piece '42 for purposes to be hereinafter described. Bottom
plate 44 is provided with a plurality of apertures 47 for
leading atmospheric air into the bottom portion.
During the ?rst part of the expiration, FIG. 6, the lower
chamber of the respiratory member is ?lled with moist
perforated bottom plate 44. As this air cools, the moisture
over the wicking 85 and then the remainder passes out
wardly through the expiratory valve 60. During this latter
period, as the velocity of the expired air is diminished,
condensation of moisture is occurring also throughout
the length of the added anatomical dead space represented
by the tube 21.
During the ?rst part of the inspiration, as shown in
FIG. 7, the negative pressure or suction produced empties
the lower chamber of the respiratory member 30 before
the inspiratory valve opens to admit the oxygen or other
The ?exible impervious diaphragm or bellows 80 is en
closed in the bottom portion 40 and is secured hermetical
respirant from either a liquid or compressed ?uid source.
ly between the sides 41, end pieces 42, 43, and the lower
bottom plate 44. This bellows is of a size suflicient to 65 The air or ?uid trapped in this lower chamber is, of
‘course, 100% humidi?ed. When the bellows or diaphragm
substantially ?ll the entire bottom portion v4t) when dis
is forced against the wicking material, all of the con
densed moisture is transferred to and through the wick
The wicking or moisture transfer membrane 85 is
ing or moisture transfer membrane. The ?rst part of
stretched and hermetically sealed between the upper and
the inspired breath, then, should be 100% moisture sat
bottom portions of the respiratory member 30. This wick
urated. The second part of the inspiration is respirant
ing may be of any suitable material with the important
which has been drawn over the upper surface of the wick
limitation, however, that its structure must produce trans
ing where it is partly humidi?ed. As the partially humidi
verse channels for the capillary action required in trans
?ed respirant is drawn along the added dead space tubing,
ferring moisture from the lower portion to the upper por
tion of the respiratory member. 0f the many materials 75 it picks upfurther moisture from that condensed on these
surfaces until, as the respirant reaches the mucous ‘mem
of standard materials, textile or rubber. The respiratory
branes and lungs of the user, it has been substantially
.member 30 may be constructed of plastic or thin light
humidi?ed. Because of the temperature difference be
metals. While the latter might be more advantageous in~
tween the ambient atmosphere and the‘body of the user,
sofar as maximum condensation is concerned, provision
it should be stressed that only 50% of themoisture ‘from C21 must be made for the hermetic sealing required. The
the expired breath need be trapped to saturate completely
materials of the bellows 80 and wicking 85 have been men
the inspired breath. It should also be noted here that
tioned previously.
excess moisture is eliminated during expiration through
Having thus described a preferred embodiment of my
the expiratory valve and as the remaining moisture trapped
invention,‘I do not intend, however, to be limited thereby.
in the added dead space and the respiratory member and 10 Such modi?cations as may suggest themselves to those
on the wicking ‘is utilized completely in humidifying the
skilled in the art will undoubtedly fall within the spirit of
inspired breath, including the 100% dry respirant, no mois
the invention and the scope of the appended claims where
ture can collect as an unused liquid.
This collection of
unused moisture, which gradually ?lled the receptacles
in I claim:
l. A respiratory apparatus for users of pressurized res
provided, was the ‘fatal defect in all the “rebreather” types 15 pirant comprising:
of apparatus found in the prior art.
a valveless mask adapted to hermetically cover the
FIGS. 8 to 11, inclusive, illustrate the functions and
mouth and nose of a user;
provisions of my invention in preventing hyperventilation,
a ?rst ?exible tubular connection leading outwardly from
promoting better breathing, and saving respirant. These
said mask, said ?rst connection constituting an added
provisions consist of the added anatomical dead space
anatomical dead space and a moisture collector from
provided by the tubing 21 and the respiratory member 30
the expired breath of said user;
which ‘are used in the prevention of hyperventilation and
a source of dry pressurized respirant;
the lower collapsible chamber of the respiratory member
a second ?exible tubular connection leading from said
which traps the unused oxygen or respirant ‘and makes
source of dry pressurized respirant;
it available as the ?rst portion of the inspired breath.
a respiratory member interposed between said ?rst and
FIG. 8 shows the beginning of expiration. The air
second connections and connected thereto, said res-'
in the upper portion of the lungs 86, the anatomical dead
piratory member de?ning a ?rst chamber open only
space 87, and the added anatomical dead space 21 is rich
to said l?rst connection for the trapping of the ?rst
in unused oxygen or other provided respirant. This is ?rst
portion of the expired breath and the collection of
expelled and is collected and trapped in the lower cham 30
moisture therefrom, and a second chamber open‘
ber of the respiratory member 30 by collapsing the bellows
to both ?rst and second connections, said second
or diaphragm 85 against the perforated lower or bottom
chamber having an expiratory check valve leading
plate 44. As the expiration continues, FIG. 9, and the
to ‘ambient atmosphere and an inspiratory check
lower chamber is completely ?lled, the latter portion of
valve between said second chamber and said second
this air passes across the top of the wicking v85 and out
connection to said source of respirant, said second
through the expiratory valve 60. This latter portion is, of
chamber constituting a channel for conducting a por
course, less rich in' oxygen. During the last stage of ex
tion of said expired breath to atmosphere and for
piration, the alveolar air 88, which is rich in CO2, is ex
conducting said dry pressurized respirant to said ?rst
pelled from the lungs into the anatomical and added
connection incident to the controlled opening of said
anatomical ‘dead spaces. The shaded portion 89, FIG. 9,
valves, and said respiratory member having a mois
indicates that portion of the air remaining in the anatomi
tune transfer membrane separating said ?rst and sec
cal dead space which is richest in CO2.
ond chambers whereby the miosture collected in said
As inspiration commences, FIG. 10, the expiratory
?rst chamber is transferred to the dry respirant pass
valve 60 ‘closes and the ?rst part of the breath drawn
ing through said second chamber.
into the lungs is the CO2 rich portion 89 which was
A respiratory apparatus as de?ned in claim 1 where
present in the anatomical dead space and part of the added
?rst chamber of said respiratory member has a
anatomical dead space tube 21. This CO2 rich mixture
main inner horizontal wall- consisting of said moisture
increases somewhat the rate and depth of respiration, as
transfer membrane and a main router horizontal wall condesigned, and effectively prevents hyperventilation and its
of a ?exible diaphragm, said ?exible diaphragm
accompanying symptons of light-headedness, dizziness and 50
being capable of closely lining the other walls of said ?rst
disorientation. This portion is then followed by the O2
chamber, including contacting the entire undersurface of
rich portion which was trapped in the lower chamber of
the respiratory member due to the ambient pressures ‘forc
ing the bellows 8t) upwardly against the wicking 85. Upon
said membrane.
3. A respiratory apparatus as claimed in claim 1 where
in said respiratory member is a box-like structure com
the exhaustion of the O2 rich gas ‘from the lower chamber, 55 prising:
FIG. 11, the inspiratory valve 70 opens and fresh oxygen
a shallow lid portion having side ‘and end walls depend
or other respirant 91 enters the upper chamber over the
ing from a horizontal top plate;
wicking 85 and on into the succeeding passages and the
an opening through said top plate;
upper part of the lungs.
said expiratory check valve mounted 'on the outer
As has thus been explained, the purpose ‘of the added
surface of said top plate over said opening;
anatomical dead space is two-fold: (1)“ to provide a self
a plurality of ports in each end wall, said ports leading
regulating stimulus for increasing the rate and ‘depth of
to said ?rst and second connections;
breathing; and (2) to provide a self~limiting reservoir of
a bottom portion having side and end walls extending
CO2 .for the prevention or reduction of hyperventilation.
upwardly to meet the walls of said lid portion;
Although breathing tubing 21 has been used to produce 65
a perforated bottom plate in said bottom portion se
these eifects, the added dead space could also be provided
by a box or channel or space within an airtight helmet.
The use of a breathing tube, however, permits the plac
ing of the other components of the device at some con
venient distance from the user’s mask.
While dimensions and materials are of no critical im
portance in the
tion, tubing 21
fluid while the
proximately 45
construction and operation of my inven
could contain approximately 250 cc. of
respiratory member 30 may occupy ‘ap
cu. in. of space. The tubing 21 may be 75
cured to said end and side walls;
a flexible diaphragm hermetically secured between
said bottom portion end and side walls and said
perforated bottom plate;
a plurality of ports in one end wall of said bottom por
tion, said ports leading to said ?rst connection;
a moisture transfer membrane hermetically secured be
tween the respective end and side walls of said lip
and bottom portions; and
said inspiratory check valve interposed between the
plurality of ports in one of the end walls of said
lid portion and said second connection.
4. A respiratory apparatus as claimed in claim 2 Where
inrlsaid ?rst chamber ‘of said respiratory apparatus has an
additional perforated rigid outer yvall disposed in juXta> position to said flexible diaphragm whereby the interior
surface of said diaphragm is subject to the pressures of
the ‘expired breath trapped therein and its exterior surface is subject to ambient atmosphere pressures.
References Cited m the ?le of thls Patent
2,387,123 '
Deming _____________ __ Oct 16’ 1945
Phillips ______________ __ Sept 9’ 1952
wenenstein et a1 _______ __ Oct’ 24, 1961
France ______________ __ Apr. 30’, 1956 >
-5. A respiratory apparatus as claimed in claim 2 where- 10
in said ?exible diaphragm constitutes the means vto‘ transfer the moisture collected on the walls ofssaid ?rst cham-
her, including the inner surface of the diaphragm, to the
underside of said moisture transfer membrane;
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