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Патент USA US3100560

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Aug- 13, 19.63
Filed Oct. 16. 1961
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
BY f4}: FM _
Aug. 13, 1963
Filed 001;. 16, 1961
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
i I
I 3.3
A/be/“l‘ A Ash fan
United Sims- Paw?t O
ice A Patented Aug. 13, 1963
l d
I ,
wherein assembly thereof will not wipe the‘adhe‘sive'
used to secure the members of the joiht together from
between their meeting surfaces, and the‘axial fo'r‘c‘es’t ap
Alberta. Ashton, Dallas, Texn', assiigimr' to The‘ Youngs
dtovmsheettand Tube CompanmpYoungstown, Ohio; a
corporation oi‘Uhi‘or
plied to the joint create only?!v lr'ninorylaite‘r'al force to
separate the joint before the adhesive hardenls. ’
‘ Filed Oct. 16, 1961; Sela‘Nd. 145,337 ‘ _
7' Ciaint's;
((21; 189-;49)
scription and the attached drawings wherein‘ the same
parts will be designated by like numerals in the various
legs composed of plastic tubular members and’ more par; 3
ticula'rly to the manner in‘ which the compone-ntsof the
areis assembled.
a need‘ for a.towers,
of‘l a derrick-like‘
' the tower of FIGURE 1 illustratingbne of ‘the plastic
joints interconnecting the leg ul'lfil?mbers to several brac
ing members with one such bracing member in a dis‘
these ?ttings limit the attachment of the btacing members
to certain ,locationson the leg members off‘the tower and
FIGURE} 3 is a partial horizontal sectional .' yiew
medially through the structure shown in FIGURE. 2;
7 FIGURE 4 is a vertical section takehthr ",gh ‘one of
the angular disposition of the bracing and legmembers
the novel plastic joints 'of’the tower
to thfe'?xed angle provided by the T or K type cotinec-v
tion‘. ‘ Because of. this, the bracing members can not'b'e
attached to converging leg members at random locations
1 ‘used
too rigidly interconnect adjacent lengths of‘ the tubular
leg members of the tower. into integral coaxialyaligninent.
In FIGURE 1 there is shown apl‘astic tower "on;
thereon and ‘angular-1y disposed to interconnect’ the leg
structed in its entirety‘ from ‘plastic tubular '
members at the optimum‘ angles thereto for ‘maximum
tower strength without having a large variety of such ?t
tings with slightly different angular eon?giiratiohs.
joints of this invention.‘ The plastic tubular "
This invention‘ is directed toward providing a tower
having legsco‘nvergiiig at any desired angle constructed
type having a woven body of ?bei'glas‘sjjimp'reg'
FIGURE 2 is a perspective viewtrom ‘thegcen‘ter of
interference so commonly a problem‘in metal towel-st“
in its entirety of plastic‘tubular'sti‘uctural members with
plastic joints arranged in accordaii‘ce with the present in-_
notjlcreate re?ections, ghosts and ‘other types ‘of electrical
novel plastic joints for assembling such members into
tubular bracing members rigidly ‘interconnected. ‘by novel
- structural; members. Such towers ‘Vareespecially useful
can ‘befrused for assembling plastic ‘towers;
FIGURE 1 ‘is an elevation of; an all plastic tower
constructed with cohve’rging?tubtilar’leg members’ ‘and
‘ fabricated “in their entirety from non-metallic plastic“
~ ‘ The linswnibintwsiin-g members sachets the Tend K.
type ‘connections, which’ generally _ resemble“ pipe’ ?ttings,
' ‘when read in conjunction with the following detailed “de- .
This invention relates to a towerhaving converging
in supporting electromagnetic wave antennahjsy'stem‘sysuch
‘ as‘futilized in ‘radio and radar services
like ‘uses.
Such plastic towers areljm‘ost desirable because theses
These and other objects will become tr‘norfe'rapparent ’
‘ "
assembled into rigid interconne'ctioiiuby the Xii‘ov
are of conventionaldesign andmay be plastic" ‘
plastic jointgallows the brat:-v
an epoxy resin. This constructiohprovides ‘a pipe that
is light in [weight but yet strong. ‘ {Such pipe ‘is presently
available ‘commercially from Freeman“ ‘ceilnpany ‘ ‘of
Tulsa, Oklahoma. Other types of plastic tiibulai‘ ‘them;
ing members to be‘ mounted onpthe leg members ‘at any
bers can be used if desired.
l I
H" 1"
location thereon, rotated into any desired angular dis;
has in
at ‘an’
members i7;
position relatively to the leg members for maximum tower -40 andThe
' strength and then rigidly‘ secured
such disposition by
meanstof'an adhesive interposed between their meeting
1A8; positioned
and, preferably
inv the‘the
has thi‘ee‘oi'
le'g them fbttr
‘e‘rs leg
surfaces. A modi?cation "of ‘such joint allows ‘random
members so that it is. self-supporting“
length of‘ such in'ember.
The leg membens 15 ‘and 16’ are rigidly interconnected
by bracing members 19, 20x21,‘ 22 land as Shawn its the
lower section of FIGURE 1, and similar inihiinibered
lengths of the plastic tubular ‘members to‘ be rigidly inter
connected into coaxial alignment to'provide any desired
“It is therefore an object of the present invention ‘to
l '
Anotherobject is to provide a plastic tower that is free
from ‘interference to electromagnetic waves and is easily
assembled from a few standard components.
so that ‘it can be readily transported and assembled ‘in re
A further object is to provide a novel plastic joint for
mountingvplastic tubular bracing‘ members at a’ny'location
onto converging‘plastictnblilar leg members with any de
sired angular relationship with the leg members.
.V e
_npper portion C of ‘such tower, The novel‘ jvoi'rit'pspof the
present inventi'on'are used‘ to pnovide the nigid intercon
nection of the tubular bracing and leg members of the
tower. It is noted that the b‘racing members harm dif
ferent angles with the leg members at diiieren't elevations
‘ '
‘Another object is to provide a plastic tower in secure
ance‘ with the preceding objects that is light in weight
bracing members are used for the middle portion B and
provide a plastic tower constructed vof converging tdbulai'
leg members and tubular braciiig members rigidly inter
connected by novel plasticjoints.
onthe tower.
In general, the joint comprises aplastic leg connector
member-or body integrally carried by the leg membei?and
provided with a’ portion preferably ‘extending vradially
therefrom. _A plastic end?tting‘is secured to the end
'of the bracing member. The ?ttingnand theyex we
{portion of the leg connector.‘ have wcoa‘oting proj tions
and depressions with preferably straight sidewallrsnrfiaces
thereon topivotally mount the ?tting,ontothe‘connector.
Another object is to provide a plastic joint that has a’
A11 adhesiveis. interposed‘ betweenlthe mating surfaces
structure that can be assembled, angular'ly' adjusted and’
of the, projections and depressions for integranyee
withstand moderate axial loads until t'he adhesive used 65 ing the connector and end ?ttingwhentheadhesiv h'
to integrally interconnect the coacting members of such
joint can harden without the use of auxiliary amps,
bolts or the like.
Yet another object is to provide a compact inexpensive
plastic joint that allows random lengths of tubular struc
ens whereby a ‘ rigid joint therebetiween is ob‘ta
Thus, the rigidity in the joint is achievedb'yther corn ‘ '
‘ tion of the projectionsand depressions with an adhesive
> More specifically, *a'jo'int is ‘shown in
tural members to be brought into coaxial alignment and 70
23 and2 24
.a plurality
to legofmember‘1-6,
bracing tnenib’er‘swijl,
Th“ bracing
then secured into a rigid ‘connection with adhesive)
Another further object is to provide a plastic joint - member 24 extends at right angles semi leg-‘member. 16‘
therebetween ‘can harden. This is an importantadvantage
of the present invention that permits each joint tobe ‘
assembled on an individual basis and allows the joint to”
be assembled, adjusted and held in the desired angular '
' j in‘ a horizontal plane relative to the other bracing mem
bers to lanother’leg member when more ‘than two con
verging leg members are used. The joint-between brac
’ ing member 23 and leg member 16 will be described in
detail but suchv description applies, equallyp'to the remain
adjustment of the bracing member and leg member until
ing interconnections 'of' ‘the bracing and leg members. ‘ It
the adhesive'33 can harden without clamps, bolts or the . , i
is'to be noted that the joint may interconnect one or more
>bracing members to a leg member. ‘ ‘Of course, the brac
in order to provide additional “adhesive area,‘ com-- ~
ing members include both girth ‘and diagonal braces.
plementary surfaces in addition to'those previously de
The joint comprises a plastic leg connector ‘25 having 10 scribed are provided on the‘ end ?ttings and .leg connectors.
Each leg connector is preferably provided with a curved
‘ a circular portion27>to receiveleg member 16 andsea
cured thereto by a fastening means, such as an adhesive.
surface 34.
This circular portion 27 ‘allows the leg connector 25 to
This surface curves about an axis coaxial
v with the axis of the pin and socket; As shown by the
be'm‘ounted at any desired location on the leg member ‘
g dotted lines 35 of FIGURE 3, the surface 34 extends
16 and‘on‘ an individual'basis Without regard to other 15> aboutyapproximately a semi-circle in the case of the cen
joints.‘ Thus, the problems of known joints, which re
tral‘ or horizontally extending brace 22. With reference
quire’ their end portions atgivenlocations on the leg
to FIGURE 2, it will be noted that the surface 34 inithe 1‘
_ case of the upper brace 23iterminates short of the center
The leg connector 25 has a section ZepreferabIyeX
line of'the pin and socket to permit the diagonal 2310 he ’ ‘5
tending ‘radially from the leg member 16 that is substan 20 angled ‘upwardly. The
, same construction would prevail
tially flatin cross-section. On the portion 26 is formed
in conjunction with the bottom diagonal 21.
membersiis' avoided.‘
a projection; The'projection preferably has a straight
The end ?ttings 28. are provided with surfaces 36
' ‘ j
are complementary to surfaces 34 and ‘inter?-t‘ therewith I j 7
side wall and is prefer-ably in the form of a frusto-conical '
plastic pin 29‘.
V i _
when the pin and socket are made up, This construction
The bracing member 23 is provided witha plastic end
25 provides a tremendous additional glue area as wen/as
7' ?tting 28 that is secured thereto. Fitting 28 is provided
‘ additional structural support against longitudinal loading
with a idepression'or socket 31 of a con?guration so as
' of the braces in compression.
V .
v ,
to coact with the pin on the leg connector 25 to pivotally
Referring to FIGURE 3, it Will be noted thatstill‘ addi- mount the bracing member 23‘ito‘body 25. The socket ' ' tional complementary surfaces are provided at 37‘ on'the
31 has a straight sidewall bounding surface 32 comple 30 legconnector and 38 ‘on the end'?t'ting. The dotted line
mentary to surface 30 of pin 29st) that when the joint
representation at 39 of FIGURE 3 shows the angular
‘ is assembled these‘surfaces int-er?t. vOf course, this an
extent of these complementary surfaces to be substantially’ ; . A
rangeinent may be interchanged so that the depression and
projection may be placed ‘on the body 25 and ?tting 28, '
The joint is assembled by integrally connecting the cir- .
cular portion 27 of‘body 25 to leg member 15 1at a desired
location by a fastening means such as adhesive 33. The
adhesive 33 may be of any desired conventional type that ‘
less thana semi-circle so that they will not interfere with ' ' angular positioning cfthe braces.
- 1
The ‘leg connector’ thus far described has employed
three‘ integral sections to provide for‘ connecting three
bracesthereto. As will be ‘apparent fnom FIGURE 2, the .
leg connector may have. any desired number of sections on f .
which pins or sockets, as the casemay be, are provided. '
can integrally seal the plastic tubular members together 40 In a towerconstructed in the manner illustrated. in FIG-i ' T
land is preferably of the epoxy type. Adhesive 33 is also
URE 1, it is preferred that the braces extending from one ‘ 7
applied. to the sidewall surface 301 of pin '29 and the
leg to the legs on opposite sides, ‘of said one leg'be con‘:
.socket 31 ofh?t-ting 28 is pivotally mounted over the pin ‘ nected to said one leg at a common elevation as shown in '- I
._ 29. The bracing member 23 is notated about its pivotal
FIGUREZ. For thispurpose, a single type leg connector‘, 1
" mounting on pin 29~to the desired angular disposition rela-‘ 45 25a is secured to the leg ‘16 at the same elevation as con
tive to leg memberildand maintained in such adjustment
nector 25. The construction of this connector is identical
until the adhesive hardens to rigidly interconnect the braca
with that of the 'V'previously ‘described connector except.
ing and leg members. Thus, the bracing members can
that item accommodate onlyv one brace. Of course, it is
be mounted‘ at any desired location on the leg members
turned over relative to connector‘ 25 so that the pin of
andintegrally connected. thereto at the desired angular
leg connector 25a extends away from the pin of leg con
relationship for maximum tower strength. A single joint
can be used for all bracing members regardless of the angle
between the leg members. ‘It will be noted that the cen
nector 25.
. _ It will be noted that the two legconnectors 25 ‘and 25a ' V
embrace leg '16 about substantially more ‘than a semi
1 tral axes of ‘the pins ‘and sockets are coaxial and perpen
surface It
be noted
a complementary
that leg connector
25 has'a
on 1_ .
dicular to the longitudinal ‘axis of the brace to which the 55 circle;
end ?tting is attached. This permits the brace to be
leg connector 25a. These "surfaces are also glued to; each
rotated to the desired angle andlat this angle be connected
other by adhesive 33 so that the two‘leg connectors form,
to adajcent legs of the tower.
in effect, a single integral connector which extendsjmore
' The sidewall surfaces 30 and 32 of the projection and
than half way around the leg '16. This construction gives
depression preferably are tapered rather than cylindrical 60 additional strength to the joint and, after one leg con- .
in order that When the joint is assembled adhesive 33 used
to rigidly interconnect the ‘body 25 and plastic p?ttingiza‘i ,
will not be wiped from the joint.
vnector 25 has been placed on leg 16, provides for orienta- -.
tion of the secondleg connector.
. Random lengths of tubular leg- members 16 may be.
This taper may be of any angular convergence relative
connected together without threaded connections, if de
tov thecentral axis of the projection and depression, but 65 sired, as shown in FIGURE 4. .A mandrel 43 having '
it has beenfound that ‘an angle of iappnoximately 5 de
oppositely extending frusto-conical portions 44 and 45 in‘?
grees. provides superior results. Such taper limits to a
ter?ts between two leg sections having frusto-co'nical ends
small degree the lateral forces produced by axial loading
46 and 47. Adhesive 33 is applied in the. frusto~conical
of the braces, bu‘tiyet prevents'adhesive 33 from being
joint surfaces to integrally glue the mandrel and leg sec- .
wipedifnom the joint as it is assembled. A taper of this 70 tions together. . The frusto-conical surfaces preferably’
magnitude .alloi'ws‘the ?tting 28 to be easily piv'o-tally.
have a taper of about 5° so that glue will not be wiped
mounted over the pin 29. The bracing member 23 can be
from the joint as the leg sections are moved into position b
rotated to. the desired angular disposition relative to the
over the mandrel.
leg member 16; and hold such disposition against axial .
_ The end I?ttings 28‘ may be connected to the braces in: ' '
loads tending to separate‘ the joint until the adhesive 75 similar manner. As best shown in FIGURE 3-, the end _
1 3,100,555 -
?ttings :28‘ ‘have frusto-conical'outer surfaces 48 adapted
'4. The tower of claim 3 wherein the'sidewalls of’ said
to mate with a frusto-conical inner surface 49‘ of the end
socket and pin have a slope of about 5°.
_~ 5. The tower‘ of claim 1 wherein two leg connectors
?tting. *These frusto-com'cal surfaces also preferablyhave
a taper of about 5‘? and the end ?tting and bracing-are
are glued to a legat the same elevation and to each other,
?rmly secured together by adhesive 33.
and wherein said two leg connectors extend about and are
'Theyforegoing disclosure and description of the inven
, glued to the pipe over more than half of a'circle.
, 6.3A plastic tower comprising, a plurality of upwardly ‘
is illustrative
‘in the size, and
and materials,
as ‘well
the ‘ ‘ converging plastic legs, a plurality of plastic leg connec
tors glued to said legs-at- spaced points therealong, each
details of the illustrated construction, may be" made within‘
.leg connector having ‘at least, one section5projectingsub
the spirit
‘scope of
of the
the invention.
appended claims without departing
stantially transversely of the leg to which it is attached, a
What is claimed is:
plurality of plastic braces extending between said leg‘con
nectors, plastic‘end ?ttings on said braces, said' leg con-'
1. A plastic tower comprising, a plurality of upwardly
nector sections and end ?ttings having mating parts pro- ‘
converging plastic legs,"a plurality ‘of plastic leg connec¢
tors glued to said legs at;spaced ‘points therealong, each
vided'by a pin on one of said leg connector sections and
end ?ttings and ‘a socket on the other of said leg connector
leg ‘connector having at least one section projecting sub
stanti'ally transversely of the leg to, which it is attached,
sections and end ?ttings, the central axis of each pair of
_ said'mating pin and socket extendingperpendicular to the '
a- plurality of plastic braces extending between said leg
connectors, plastic‘ end ?ttings on said braces, said‘ leg
connector sections and end ?ttings having-mating pants,
_ longitudinal axis of the brace‘ on which the end ?tting is
provided by a ‘pin on one of said leg connector sections
, having complementary‘ surfaces 'which confront each other ‘
carried, said leg connectors ‘and end ?ttings additionally '_
, ' when the pin ‘and socket are made up, said complementary .
and‘end' ?ttings and a socket on the other‘of said leg con
" , surfaces curved about ,anlaxis coaxial’with the axis ofthe
nector-sections‘ and end ?ttings, the central axis‘ of each"
pair‘of said mating pin and socket extending perpendicular
pin and socket, and an adhesive between said‘ pins and '
‘to‘th‘e ‘longitudinal ‘axis of the brace .onwhich the end ?t 25 sockets and said complementary‘ surfaces integrally con
. ‘ting is carried, and an adhesive between said pins and 1 necting the‘ end ?ttings to the leg connectors.
7. A plastic tower comprising, a plurality of upwardly
i , sockets integrally connecting them together.
converging plastic legs, a plurality of plasticleg connec
2. Aplastic tower comprising, a plurality of upwardly
tors glued to said legs at spaced points therealong, each
converging plastic legs, a plurality of plastic leg connec
tors gluedttoisaidlegs at spaced‘ points therealong, ‘each 30,. leg connector having at least one section projecting sub-1w
stantially transversely of the leg to which it is attached,‘ a
leg connector having at least one-section projecting sub
pluralityof plastic ‘braces extending between said ‘leg con
stantially transversely Iofthe ‘leg to which it is ‘attached,
nectors, plastic end ?ttings on said 'braces, said leg connec- '; '4
a plurality of plastic braces extending‘between said leg
tor sections and end ?ttings having mating partsj provided
7 COBIIBQIZOI‘Sy'Pl?SllCBIld ?ttings on said braces, ‘saidrleg
V connector sections‘and end ?ttingsfhaving mating parts 35 by a pin on one of said leg connector sections and end ?t
7 provided by a pin ‘on one of said leg connector sections’ . tings and a socket on the other of said leg connector sec
. tions and end ?ttings, the central'axis of each pair of said
and end‘ ?ttings'iand a socket on the other ‘of said'leg con
Imating pin and socket extending perpendicular to the
nector ‘sections anduend' ?ttings, the central axis of each
" pair ‘ of‘ said matinglpin' and ‘socket, extending, perpendicu
lar to the longitudinal ‘axis of thebrace on which the end
?tting is carried, the sidewalls of‘ said‘ socket and pin pro~
' longitudinal axis of the brace on which the end ?tting is
carried, the sidewallsof‘said socket and pin progressively
‘ decreasing in diameter along their'respective axes toward 7
, the free end of ‘said pin, said leg connectors and‘ end ?t- '
' gressively. decreasing in. diameter along their respective
tings‘additionally having complementary surfaces which
axes toward ‘the free end loffsaidfpin, ‘and an adhesive
, . between. said pins and sockets integrally connectingthem ; 45 said complementary surfacescurve'd about anaxis coaxial’ - ' " ,
icon-front each other when the pinv and socket are made up, ,
with the axis ofthe pin and.‘socket, and jan'Sadhesive be
3. ‘A plastictower comprising, atpluralit'y of upwardly 3' ‘Jtween'
said pins and socketsand said complementary sur
converging ,plastic'legs, ,a;plurality, of plastic rlegconnec-j T
' faces integrally connectingfthe end ?ttings to the le‘g 'con-'
' ‘ tors. glued ‘tosaid legsm'at 'spa-cedp'oints"th'erealong, each '
.- ,leg._§connector ‘having at least'ronetsection projecting'sub
1' stantialIy transversely. ofjtlie legtowhich itis attached,_1a _
. ;plur-ality,of,plastic braces'exten'ld-ing ‘between said leg con- . ' '
f ~nectors,“pla‘stic end?ttings on saidhbra-‘ces; said legcon
~ (nector ,jse‘c‘tion's, and end ?ttings'iiavingunating partsp'ro;
5» videdjby a pin odometer ,s'aid legconne-ctor sections and
‘ : end‘ ?ttings ‘and-a socket dn the other'of-saidle'g connec-_
' ‘tor sectionsand end ?ttings,the ‘icentralgaxis of eachpair»
' " of animating pin‘ahd socket; extending perpendicular to
1 : the-longitudinalaxis of the brace on‘which.,the end ?tting’
' [Avis carried, the sidewallsof'said socket’ and pin forming af'60
,. frustumv of a"cone.decreasingfiin‘idiameter‘falong their re
'_ '
spectivefaxesstowardthe freeiendiof said pingand an'adJl »
. , . iie'sivelfbetween said pins and ‘sockets integrallyrconnectingi.
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