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Патент USA US3100682

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Aug- 13, 1953
J. M. FRANK ETAL
3,100,677
METHOD OF‘ MAKING REFRACTORY BRICK
Filed July 24, 19759
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
'/2
27% Km MW
Aug- 13, 1953
J. M. FléANK EI'AL
3,100,677
METHOD OF MAKING REFRACTORY BRICK
Filed July 24, 1959
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
F'G'3
FIG,I4
3/
L
3/
United States Patent 0 "
3z,l00~,677
Patented Aug. 13, 1963
2
1
3,10%,677
METHOD 0F MAKING REFRACTORY BRICK
Joseph M. Frank, Neil E. Boyer, and James A. Crookston,
Mexico, Mo., assiguors to A. P. Green Fire Brick Com
pany, Mexico, Mo., a corporation of Missouri
Filed July 24, 1959, Ser. No. 829,342‘
5 Claims. (Cl. 18-59)
described for forming the brick into a channel previously
inserted into the press cavity. In this instance, a second
channel of smaller cross-section ‘but the same length and
approximately the same height is placed inside the chan
nel forming the outside casing for the brick. The brick
is then pressed, simultaneously forming both the outside
metal casing on three sides and the two internal plates.
To form a single internal plate, a T-shaped metal form
is used in place of the smaller channel. The fourth side
The present invention relates to a novel method for
metal encasing refractory brick ‘for use in the construc 10 can be externally plated as described. Another method
which is used to provide the internal plates is to press
tion of various parts of furnaces, and to a novel metal
smaller brick and combine two or three of them into a
cased refractory brick made by said method. The brick
composite with separating plates to form a full-size brick
are widely used in metallurgical furnaces, and, in par
with both internal and external plates. Another method
ticular, in the basic open-hearth ‘furnace used for making
steel. ThQ‘bIlCk usually is encased on‘ four sides with 15 is to saw a full-size brick into two or three smaller brick
and combine these into a composite brick with separating
the ends uncased, however, less than four sides may be
plates to form a full-size brick with internal and external
cased and the ends also may be cased.
plates. Another recent method is to prefabricate a box
The ‘purpose of the external plates on the brick is pri
marily to provide a bonding medium between adjoining
Kbrick, which tends to make the furnace structure more
resistant to the effect of thermal shock and the attacks
of slags and furnace fumes in service. The metal plates
tend to oxidize and melt in service, fusing adjoining brick
of the same external dimensions as the brick which is to
be formed. This box is made up of the two side mem
bers and the end members but with no top and bottom
members. Inside the box one or two plates: of similar
size to the side members are fastened so as to divide the
width of the box into two or three equal parts. The‘pre
into a more or less monolithic structure on the surface
facing the interior of the furnace. At the same time the 25 fabricated metal box thus described is then placed into
the press cavity with the open top and bottom placed so
metal plate further back into the furnace wall retains its
that the action of the press will cause the brick mix to
integrity, thus providing support to the furnace wall dur
be compacted into the box. Thus on pressing, a brick
ing the life of the furnace structure. The brick without
is formed having metal plates on the ends and sides and
external plates are more subject to thermal shock and to
sheeting due to changes in structure resulting from at 30 with one or two internal plates inside the brick. , External
plates may then be fastened to the remainingtwo free
tack by slags and fumes than are brick with external
faces of the brick by means of adhesives or by welding
plates.
,
There are numerous methods used to apply these cas
to the other metal faces.
.
It is an object of the present invention to provide a
ings to refractory brick. One method is to press the
brick mix into a channel previously inserted into the press 35 novel method for forming a refractory brick having its
‘four sides encased with an integral sheet of metal and
cavity, thus forming a metal case on three sides of the
brick. The fourth side can then be left free of a metal
‘with the ends uncased.
casing, or a metal casing can be applied through pressure
A further object is to provide a novel method of form
ing a metal cased refractory brick which includes the
from the upper plunger of the press. In this latter case,
the applied metal plate has projections which anchor it 40 steps of inserting the refractory mix in a container and
to the brick. Another method which is used, is to attach
forming the container into a brick of the same perimeter
the metal plates to‘any or all sides of the brick by means
:as the container but having less volume, thereby com
of adhesives. Another method is to use a channel of
pressing the refractory mix. Another object is to pro
vide a cased refractory brick having a continuous meta
the proper size and to force the channel apart, insert
the previously formed brick into the channel, and then
to allow the channel to assume its normal position so
casing.
1
Still another object of the present inventionis to pro
that it is held to the brick by its spring. This method
may be used in conjunction with adhesives.
Another recent method of preparing cased brick is to
vide a method of forming a metal cased refractory brick,
form a refractory brick in a normal manner and then
place two U-shaped channels over the brick from oppo- ‘
site faces in a manner that the legs of the channels over
tinuous metal casing.
having internal plates. Another object is to provide a
casedrefractory brick having internal‘ plates and a con
,
These and other objects and advantages will become
apparent hereinafter.
-
lap. The overlapping legs are then spot welded together
The present invention comprises a process of making
to form a brick with a double thickness of metal on 55 cased refractories including the steps of placing a‘ refrac
each side.
‘
‘
.
1
In addition to the external plates described above, it
is also common practice‘ toplace one or two plates in
side the brick. The purpose of this is to provide the
brick with even more resistance to the effects of thermal
tory mix into a hollow geometrical shape and forming
that shape into the desired refractory ‘brick. The inven
tion further consists in the process hereinafter described
and claimed and in the refractory brick made by said
process.
H6. 1‘ is a perspective view of a sheet before it is
formed into the casing for a ?re brick,
FIG. 2 is a perspective view of a hollow geometric
shock and breaking-‘off or sheeting of the brick in service
due to attack ‘by furnace fumes and slags. The internal
plates ‘are placed inside the brick in such manner that
their long dimensions are perpendicular to the hot-face
shape formed in the brick making process, 3
.
‘of the brick as it occurs in service. Thus, the ‘internal
plates effectively divide each brick into two or three c5, FIG. 3 is a perspective view of the shape shown in
FIG. 2 ?lled with brick mix and diagrammatically show
smaller brick separated by metal‘ plates. By means of
ing a vibratory motion imparted to the ?lled shape,
these internal plates, the brick are made more resistant
FIG. 4 is a perspective view of the shape shown- in
to the destructive processes which occur in service than
brick having only external plates. ‘
p
70 FIG. 3 with a ‘diagrammatic representation of a brick
The principal method used to place the internal plates
in the brick is an adaptation of the method hereinbefore
forming press,
'
FIG. 5 is a perspective view of a ?nished brick,
-
3,100,677
.
3
4
7
FIG. 6 is a perspective view of a modi?cation of the
case 15 having sides 16 and free ends 17. The ends 17
hollow geometric shape shown in FIG. 2,
FIG. 7 is an end view of a geometric shape containing
can be left open or can have metal caps or plates at
tached thereto as by welding or ‘gluing.
Since the pe
rimeter of the cross-section of the original geometric
shape 11 is substantially equal to the perimeter of the
a spacer,
FIG. 8 is an end view of the brick formed from the
shape shown in FIG. 7,
cross-section of the ?nal brick 14, and the area of the
FIG. 9 is an end view of a geometric shape having a p _
modi?ed form of spacer contained therein,
cross-section of the original geometric shape 11 is greater
than the area of the cross-section of the ?nal brick 14, a
brick '14 is formed of the required volume and density
.FIG. 10 is an end view of the brick formed from the
shape shown in FIG. 9,
1O with a continuous metal casing :15 on four sides 16. The
refractory part 12 of the brick 14 has a greater density
since the cross-sectional area and consequently the vol
outer walls,
1
ume of the metal casing 15 is reduced in the brick-form
FIG. 12 is aipartially broken perspective view of a
ing process. The metal case 15 retains the refractory
modi?ed spacer plate having perforated ?anges,
15 portion 12 of the brick .14by the stresses set up in the
FIG. 13 is an end view of a geometric shape having
brick-forming process, ‘and cannot be removed without
FIG. 11 is a perspective View of a brick made of a
modi?ed form of casing containing perforations in the
another modi?ed form of spacer contained therein,
the destruction of the brick.
shape shown in FIG. 13, and
FIG. 15 is a perspective view of the brick shown in
FIG. 14.
,
The process may be modi?ed to allow the incorporation
of internal steel plates 29' in the ?nal \brick'14 (FIGS.
7—10). The plates 20‘ are introduced into ‘the hollow
‘geometric shape '11 prior ‘to ?lling it with brick ‘mix 12.
FIG. 14 is an end view of the brick {formed from the
.
A ?at sheet or metal plate 119‘ which preferably is car
The shape of the internal plates 20 can vary, two pos
sibilities being illustrated in FIG. 7 and FIG. 9. As can
determined length and width (FIG. 1) is conventionally
be seen, FIG. 7 shows the internal plates 2t?‘ formed in
rolled and the opposite edges joined into a hollow geo 25 the shape of a cross, while FIG. 9 illustrates the use of
metric shape ‘11 (FIG. 2) which has an in?nite number
plates 24} in ‘the-form of an X. Other possible designs
of possible dimensions for length, width and height. The
include the use of a concentric circle in the original hol
‘ hollow. geometric shape is ‘formed into the predetermined
low geometric shape, which on ?nal transformation in
cross-section of established-perimeter and shape by usual
the pressing operation becomes a small rectangle within a
sheet-metal forming techniques and joined to form a 30 larger rectangle. Another possibility is shown in‘ FIGS.
continuous cross-section. The cross-section of the hol
13—15 and comprises a corrugated or S shaped plate 30
' low shape is shown as circular in FIG. 2 and elliptical
positioned in the hollow geometric shape 31 so that
in FIG. 6 and can be any suitable cross-section having a v_
the ?nal brick forming pressure will act to reduce the
bon steel or a similar oxidizable metal and is of any pre
perimeter substantially equal to the perimeter of the re
distance between corrugations and increase the height of
fractory'brick. 'The important consideration is that the 35 the corrugations. Any design may be used for the internal
perimeter of the cross-sectionof the shape be substan-v
plates, so long ‘as the plates when introduced into the
tially equal to the perimeter of the cross-section of the
hollow geometric shape are not longer or wider than the
shape to which it will be transformed in the brick-form
corresponding ?nal brick dimensions. From these ex-
ing operation. The metal case may stretch slightly in
temples, it is apparent that many designs not speci?cally
the brick-forming process if a su?icient amount of refrac 40 mentioned in this description could be used which would
tory mix is placed in the geometrical shape before it is
-
‘not, however, depart from the spirit 1and scope of this
formed into a brick. However, the perimeter of the ?nal
brick is substantially the same as the perimeter of the
A modi?cation of this invention shown in FIG. 11 is
hollow geometrical shape in all cases. ‘In addition, it is
to use steel plate which is perforated rather than solid
an essential feature of the present invention that the area
to form the hollow geometric shapes. This produces a
of the cross-section of the hollow geometric shape be 45 brick 14 including a refractory portion 12 (and larmetal
greater than the area of the cross-section of the shape to
casing 15 having sides 16 with perforations 21 provided
which it will be transformed in the brick-forming opera
therein.
'
tion. This allows rigid control over the density of the
Expanded metal can also be used to form the outer
?nal brick. The end joint of the metal sheet 11)‘ can be 50 metal casing for the ‘brick, and the term perforated is
overlapped as shown in FIG. 2 to form a seam 11a, or
intended to include such casing constructions.
it can be butt welded, if desired.
FIG. 12 shows a modi?ed spacer plate 25 provided
invention.
Following the fabrication of the hollow geometric
shape 11 from the metal sheet 10 (FIG. 2), it is ?lled
(FIG. 3) with 'a predetermined amount of a refractory
55
brick mix 12. The refractory can be any known re
fractory, ‘but is preferably a basic refractory. The
amount of brick mix to be placed into the shape may be
V
'
with perforations 26 in the ?ange portions 27. This spacer
plate also may be made from expanded metal. Either the
solid or perforated form of the spacer can be used with
all types of casings and refractory mixes.
By the use of perforated sheet steel or expanded metal
as the casing and for the internal plates, a reduction in
weight ofthe ?nal brick is ‘elfected while at’the same 5
sults. [[n addition to'merely ?lling the shape with brick. 60 time providing the same support to the furnace structure
mix it is necessary to' compact it by means of vibration,
as is provided with non-perforated sheet steel. In addi
‘measured by weight or by volume with similar ?nal re
pressure, or' a combination of these two mechanisms. ‘
The vibratory compacting step is diagrammatically in
dicated by the arrows “A” in FIG. 3. The necessity for
compaction is two-fold'—one, to give a ?nal brick of re
quired density, “and two, to achieve a degree of compac
tion or stability of‘the brick mix in the geometric shape
' ~ to allow the assembly to be handled with a minimum of
loss of brick mix.
tion, if the internal plates have perforations in them,
the ‘density of the refractory mix will be more uniform,
since it can ?ow through the openings‘in the plates from
65 one compartment to another. 7 The use of non-solid oas
ings and internal plates results in more brick units being
available per ton of’ refractory than .if solid casingstand
plates are used.
_
’
'Ilhusit is seen that the present invention provides a
The hollow geometric shape v111 which has been ?lled
70 refractory brick and a method of preparing same which
and compacted with brick mix 12 is then introduced to a
achieves all of the objects and advantages sought therefor.
brick-forming press (diagrammatically indicated by the >
They present invention further’ provides a brick having
arrows 13 in FIG. 4), where the original geometric shape
an integral or continuous metal casing on four sides there
11 is transformed into the'?nal brick form 14 (FIG. 5).
of, said casing being formed around the brick during the
The brick 114 includes a refractory portion 12 and a metal
brick making process so that it becomes in effect an
3,100,677
6
integral part with the brick, tightly adhering, and resisting
single compression step applying pressure to the outer
surface of said metal shape along its length in a direc
any attempt at removal without destruction of the metal
case.
By reducing the volume of a given geometric shape
without substantially changing the perimeter of the cross
section from that of the original shape, it is possible to
control the density of the ?nal brick within close limits,
tion perpendicular to the direction of vibration and
forming the refractory ?lled geometrical shape into a
metal cased refractory brick having only one fabrication
scam in the casing and having uncased ends, said brick
being of susbtantially the same perimeter as and of a
smaller cross-sectional area and smaller volume than the
and to achieve a very high density in the brick.
The design of the internal plates in the brick can be
varied, and the internal plates also are an integral part
of the brick.
As indicated, the metal casings and spacers are usually
made of low carbon steel, although they can be any ordi
nary metal or alloy, preferably one which is oxidizable at
the temperature encountered in the installation. Stainless 15
2. A method of making a metal cased refractory brick
adapted to resist the destructive effects of heat consisting
of the steps of forming a tubular geometrical shape hav
ing a single longitudinal seam, open ends, continuous
steel can also be used.
sides and an established perimeter from a flat sheet of
original geometric shape, said refractory brick having un
cased ends and a tightly packed body with a. smooth con
tinuous metal casing integrally associated therewith.
oxidizable metal, placing a spacer plate within the tubu
lar geometrical shape through an open end thereof, tem
porarily closing one end of the tubular shape to effectively
prevent loss of refractory material during the subsequent
The brick mix used is preferably a basic refractory
type such as dead burned magnesite or chrome ore or
mixtures of chrome ore and magnesia. Any suitable basic
refractory mix may be used.
A binder should be utilized in the brick mix to enable
the brick to hold together without kihi ?ring. Binders
?lling operation, ?lling the tubular geometrical shape with
a basic refractory mix through an open end thereof,
vibrating said metal shape along its length to partially
such as dextrin, gum ara'bic, sulphite pitch, magnesium
sulphate, magnesium chloride, sodium dichroma-te, so
compact the refractory miX Within the shape to a suf?cient
extent to cause it to be self-supporting therein, placing
the ?lled tube into a mold housing side and end walls
5% by weight of the brick
of the ?nal desired form and in a single compression
A further variation of this invention is to use a hollow
step applying pressure to the outer surface of said metal
geometric shape, the perimeter of whose ‘cross-section is
shape along its length in a direction perpendicular to the
only slightly smaller than the perimeter of the cross-sec
tion of the ?nal brick vform or shape. If a su?icient 30 direction of vibration and forming the refractory ?lled
geometriacl shape into a metal cased refractory brick
amount of refractory mix is retained in the hollow geo
having only one fabrication scam in the casing and hav
metric shape, the ?nal brick-forming operation will act
dium silicate, etc. are suitable in amounts up» to about
to stretch the met-a1 slightly, resulting in the placement
ing uncased ends, said brick being of substantially the
of a residual tensile stress in the metal after the brick
same perimeter as and of a smaller cross-sectional area
is formed, thus providing a more tightly adhering metal 35 and smaller volume than the original geometric shape, said
refractory brick having uncased ends and a tightly packed
case. ‘The perimeter of the ?nal brick is still substantially
body with a smooth continuous metal casing integrally
the same as the perimeter of the hollow geometric shape.
associated therewith.
The cross-sectional area and the volume of the brick are
3. The method de?ned in claim 2 wherein said spacer
still reduced from that of the original geometric shape.
has a + shape.
This invention is intended to cover all changes and
4. The method de?ned in claim 2 wherein said spacer
modi?cations of the examples of the invention herein
has an X shape.
5. The method de?ned in claim 2 wherein said spacer
chosen for purposes of the disclosure, which do not con
stitute departures from the spirit and scope of the in
is corrugated and has an S shape.
vention.
45.
What is claimed is:
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
1. A method of making a metal cased refractory brick
adapted to resist the destructive effects of heat consist
UNITED STATES PATENTS
ing of the steps of forming a tubular geometrical shape
having a single longitudinal seam, open ends, continuous
shape to a suf?cient extent to cause it to be self-support
1,406,542
1,571,087
1,760,861
1,846,290
2,216,813
2,247,376
2,622,314
2,673,373
2,747,231
Crocker ____________ ___ 'Feb. 14,
Jackson ____________ __ Mar. 18,
Parker ______________ __ iMay 27,
Walter _____________ __ Feb. 23,
Goldschmidt __________ __ Oct. 8,
Heuer ________________ __ July 1,
Bergan ______________ __ Dec. 23,
Heuer ______________ .._ Mar. 30,
Reinhardt __________ __ May 29,
ing therein, placing the ?lled tube into a mold housing
side and end walls of the ?nal desired form and in a
2,759,256
2,791,116
Bergan ______________ __ Aug. 21, 1956
Heuer _______________ __ May 7, 1957
sides and an established perimeter from a flat sheet of
oxidizable metal, temporarily closing one end of the tubu
lar shape to effectively prevent loss of refractory material
during the subsequent ?lling operation, ?lling the tubular
geometrical shape with a basic refractory mix through
an open end thereof, vibrating said metal shape along its 55
length to partially compact the refractory mix within the
60
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