вход по аккаунту


Great Britain Period 4 - Loudoun County Public Schools

код для вставкиСкачать
Great Britain
By: Adam Gates,
Allison Pentony, Angie
Broglio, Dylan Seavey,
David Garvis
• The Romans invaded Britain in 55 B.C.
• As Rome’s was declining the country was again invaded
by Angles, Saxons, and Jutes in the 5th and 6th century;
up to the Norman conquest of 1066.
• Under Norman rule, Britain was safe from any other
invasions. And during this time Britain developed a
political, administrative, cultural and economic center
in London; a separate but established church; a system
of common law; distinctive and distinguished
university education; and representative government
• Area: 243,610 sq. km. (94,058 sq. mi.);
slightly smaller than Oregon.
• Cities: Capital--London (metropolitan
pop. about 8.615 million). Other cities-Birmingham, Glasgow, West Yorkshire,
Leeds, Sheffield, Liverpool, Bradford,
Manchester, Edinburgh, Bristol, Belfast.
• Terrain: 30% arable, 50% meadow and
pasture, 12% waste or urban, 7%
forested, 1% inland water.
• Land use: 25% arable, 46% meadows
and pastures, 10% forests and
woodland, 19% other.
• Climate: Generally mild and temperate;
weather is subject to frequent changes
but not often to temperature extremes.
Economic Conditions
The United Kingdom has the sixth-largest economy in the world, has the second-largest economy in the European Union,
and is a major international trading power.
GDP (2010): $2.247 trillion.
Annual growth rate (IMF, 2010): +1.25%.
Natural resources: Coal, oil, natural gas, tin, limestone, iron ore, salt, clay, chalk, gypsum, lead, silica.
Agriculture (0.8% of GDP; 2009): Products--cereals, oilseed, potatoes, vegetables, cattle, sheep, poultry, fish.
Industry (15.9% of GDP; 2009): Types--steel, heavy engineering and metal manufacturing, textiles, motor vehicles and
aircraft, construction (23.8% of GDP), electronics, chemicals.
Services (83.3% of GDP; 2009): Types--financial, business, distribution, transport, communication, hospitality.
Trade (2010): Exports of goods and services--$664.3 billion.
Major goods exports--manufactured goods, fuels, chemicals, food, beverages, tobacco.
Major export markets--U.S., European Union.
Imports of goods and services--$740.8 billion.
Major goods imports--manufactured goods, machinery, fuels, foodstuffs.
Major import suppliers--U.S., European Union, and China.
Social Conditions
• Underclass: Long-term unemployed, elderly pensioners, economic
immigrants and those dependent on state benefits.
• Working Class: These people would work in blue collar jobs,
traditionally in the construction and manufacturing industry. They
would typically have left school as soon as legally permissible and
not have been able to take part in higher education.
• Middle Class: The majority of the population of Britain. They
include industrialists, professionals, business people and shop
owners. Mostly white collar workers.
• Upper Class: Statistically very small and consists of the peerage,
gentry, and hereditary landowners. These people were traditionally
the wealthiest in the land having inherited money and position.
Ethnic, Caste, Religious Groups
Population (July 2011 est.): 62,698,362.
Annual population growth rate (2011 est.): 0.557%.
Major ethnic groups (2001 census): White 92.1% (of which English 83.6%, Scottish
8.6%, Welsh 4.9%, Northern Irish 2.9%), black 2%, Indian 1.8%, Pakistani 1.3%,
mixed 1.2%, other 1.6%.
Major religions (2001 census): Christian (Anglican, Roman Catholic, Presbyterian,
Methodist) 71.6%, Muslim 2.7%, Hindu 1%, other 1.6%, unspecified or none
Major languages: English, Welsh, Irish Gaelic, Scottish Gaelic.
Education: Years compulsory--12. Attendance--nearly 100%. Literacy--99%.
Health: Infant mortality rate--4.62 deaths/1,000 live births.
Life expectancy (2011 est.)--males 77.95 years; females 82.25 years; total 80.05
Work force (2009, 31.25 million): Services 80.4%; industry 18.2%; agriculture 1.4%.
No official caste
• Systematic Ideology
– developed by Walford
– Study of Great Britain’s ideologies
• Neoliberalism is Great Britain's dominant
philosophy and Tony Blair’s main ideology
appoints members of the Cabinet
is also, by tradition, the First Lord of the Treasury- and draws his or her salary in that role, rather than as
Prime Minister
presides over the Cabinet, is responsible for allocating functions among ministers and, at regular
meetings with the Queen, informs her of the general business of the government.
These include high-ranking members of the Church of England, senior judges and certain civil appointments.
Englands electoral system is first-past-the-post system. The winning party needs a simple majority vote in the House of
The Prime Minister can call an election any time within a five year period he was voted into the government. This can work
to his advantage because he can call an election when his population is up.
The Prime Minister can serve for as long as he wants.
The prime minister has a �Prime Minister’s Question Time’ once a week to answer to the House of Commons. With a recent
change he is allowed to know the questions before the session.
The Cabinet
• The Cabinet is the committee at the centre of the
British political system and the supreme decisionmaking body in government.
• The Prime Minister is first among equals simply in
recognition of the responsibility held for appointing
and dismissing all the other Cabinet members.
• Every Tuesday while Parliament is in session, the
cabinet room at 10 Downing Street to discuss the
issues of the day.
• Fun fact: Government Cabinets have met in the same
room since 1856, when it was called the Council
Political Parties
• The Labour Party- The centre- Left party
currently led by Ed Miliband
• The Conservative Party- the centre- Right
Party currently led by David Cameron
• The Liberal Democrat Party- the centrist,
libertarian part currently led by Nick Clegg
Civil Society
• A Free Media- Basically As long as they are not
being libelous, newspapers, radio and
television can say what they want about the
Parliament, the government and politicians
How political institutions exercise
• Government and State Officials exercise all
powers of the Crown
• It has a parliamentary democracy, so the
parliament can pass, repeal, or alter laws
which has to go through the House of
Commons and House of Lords
Inter-relationships between political
• There are two levels: County council and
District Council
– County council: provide public services, such as
social services, public transportation, school. Rule
over large areas
– District council: provide local services, such as
council housing, gyms, leisure facilities, recycling,
trash collection, and local planning. Cover smaller
Restraints on Political Institutions
• The Parliament System of Government was
started to be made through restraints on the
monarchy in the fifteenth century
• There are no legal restraints written in the
constitution, it can change or make laws,
overturn established conventions or turn
them into laws as long as parliament meets
their responsibility as a member of the
European Union.
Functions performed by Political
• British Monarchy- The sovereign, Queen
Elizabeth II, asks the leader of the majority
party in the House of Commons to form a
government and become Prime Minister. The
monarch gives a speech and as Head of State,
represents the sovereignty of the State. They
also grant military and civil honors and is
Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces.
Functions performed by Political
The Cabinet- The Cabinet relies on special committees to
handle political issues. They have responsibility to
Parliament- Public bills, Private bills, and Hybrid bills are
introduced in Parliament. The bills go through several
stages through the 2 houses. The first stage is formality
or “first reading.” Bills are debated and voted on in the
second stage. Parliament restricts the power of the
House of Lords to reject bills passed by the House of
Commons. The last stage is the granting of the Royal
Establishment of Internal Order
• Used to monitor costs and the revenues of
organizations or internal jobs
• Ex. Collecting business transactions
• Allows management to review Internal Order
activity for better decision making
External security
• M15- Great Britain's security service that
includes the protection of the British
parliamentary democracy, economic interests,
and counter-terrorism
• Secret Intelligence Service- focused on foreign
threats (SIS or M16)
Resolving conflict between different
• United Nations- peacemaking resolutions and
strengthens state institutions
• The Security Council and the General
Assembly work together to prevent and
manage conflict
National Service in Great Britain
• Great Britain is one such country in the world
that has a centralized, single payer health care
system. The spending on health care is quite
low (about 7.5% of the GDP) as compared
with the United States, who spends 16
percent of their GDP. However, Great Britain
has long lists of patients who are waiting for
some specialized treatment. Also the patients
have little choice of the provider and little
access to the specialists.
Service in Great Britain
• As of now, about 10% of the people of Great
Britain have private health insurance. The
private health insurance provides the same
coverage that is provided by the National
Health Service (NHS), but people availing the
private health insurance can get better access
to higher quality care with reduced waiting
• Education in Great Britain is compulsory and
free for all children between the ages of 5 and
16. At the age of 16 about 2/3 of pupils leave
school and get jobs. About 1/3 stay at school
until the age of 18. There are about 30,000
state schools with 2,000 private fee-paying
School System
• PRIMARY SCHOOLS Children attend a primary school for 6 years, from 5 to
11. Primary school may be housed in a single building with two
departments: Infant and Junior or in separate schools, Infants (5 to 7) and
Junior (7 to 11).
SECONDARY SCHOOLS A comprehensive school offers 5-year courses to
pupils of all levels of ability. Promotion to a higher class every year does
not depend upon examination results, it is almost automatic. Pupils never
repeat the year.
THE NATIONAL CURRICULUM One of the most important changes in
education brought the Education Reform Act in 1988. It was the
introduction of a National Curriculum for children aged 5 to 16 in all state
schools. It consists of 10 subjects which all children must study at school.
They are:
Foundation subjects: English, Math, Science, a modern foreign language
(for 11-16 year olds), Technology and Design, History, Geography, Music,
Art and Physical Education.
Religion in School
• Religious Education is required for pupils as
part of the basic curriculum, although parents
have a right to withdraw their children from
religious classes. Pupils progress in subjects is
measured by written and practical tests.
Taxation in Great Britain
• Taxation in the United Kingdom – involves payments to a minimum
of two different levels of government:
• The central government
Central government revenues come primarily from income tax,
National Insurance contributions, value added tax, corporation tax
and fuel duty.
• The local government
Local government revenues come primarily from grants from
central government funds, business rates in England and Wales,
Council Tax and increasingly from fees and charges such as those
from on-street parking.
• In the fiscal year 2007-08, total government revenue was 39.2 per
cent of GDP, with net taxes and National Insurance contributions
standing at 36.9 per cent of GDP.
Income tax: taxable bands and rates
Taxable income rate of tax
• 0 - £2,560 10 percent
• 0 - £35,000 20 percent
• £35,001 to £150,000 40 percent
• Over £150,000 50 percent
• The Parliament of the United Kingdom of
Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the
supreme legislative body in the United
Kingdom. It is located in Westminster, London.
Parliament alone possesses legislative
supremacy and thereby ultimate power over
all other political bodies in the UK and its
territories. At its head is the Sovereign, Queen
Elizabeth II. This Government is Legitimate.
• The parliament is bicameral, with an upper
house, the House of Lords, and a lower house,
the House of Commons. The Queen is the third
component of the legislature. The House of Lords
includes two different types of members:
• Lords Spiritual
• Lords Temporal
• These members are not elected by the
population at large, but are appointed by the
Sovereign on advice of the Prime Minister.
• The House of Commons is a democratically
elected chamber with elections to it held at least
every five years.
Great Britain's Court System
The Constitutional Reform Act 2005 created a
new Supreme Court of the United Kingdom to
take over the judicial functions of the House
of Lords and devolution cases from the
Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. The
Supreme Court began work in 2009, and
serves as the highest court of appeal in
England, Wales and Northern Ireland, and for
civil cases in Scotland. The High Court of
Justiciary remains the court of last resort in
Scotland for criminal cases.
Government of the United Kingdom - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (n.d.). Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Retrieved March 23, 2012, from
Government of the United Kingdom - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (n.d.). Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Retrieved March 23, 2012, from
Income tax rates. (n.d.). Choose your country. Retrieved March 23, 2012, from
custom., agenda, b. c., & forma, a. b. (n.d.). Parliament of the United Kingdom - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved March 23, 2012, from
post. (n.d.). GREAT BRITAIN - Education System. РљСЂРќРЈ. Retrieved March 23, 2012, from
Презентации по английскому языку
Размер файла
411 Кб
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа