close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

Глава 2 Экономика домохозяйства

код для вставки
В§ 8. 3K
В§ 8. 3
e C K fA e
<1> y H K ~ fA fA
AOMOX03SIHC T Ba
K 0 H 0 M fA '-1
2. AC
LJ:oMOJ
3KOHO
1. I<JlACC~<l>~KAI..U-151 AOMOX0351~CTB
• ITOTJ
CTOHTeJibHO ITp11HMMaTh peweH11e 06 l1CnOJJh30-
rrpe1
BaHI111 3apa60TaHHbiX COBMeCTHO cpeLI,CTB. T11ITH'-I3KOHOM11'-!eCKMe areHThl -
3TO BCe, KTO MO)J(eT
MMeTb C06CTBeHHOCTb, BeCT11 X035!MCTBeHHyro )leHTeJJbHOCTh, nOJJ)"!aTb )lOXO)lhl 11 HeCTI1 paCXO)lhi.
LJ:oMOX035!MCTBO -
nepBbiM 3KOHOMWieCKMM areHT,
d:>YHKl1110HI1posaHI1e KOToporo Mhi pa36epeM. 0Ho
B Ml1HI1aTIOpe OT06pa)J(aeT BCIO COBOKYfiHOCTh l!eJIOBe'-!eCKHX CB5!3eM 11 OTHOIIIeHI1M, KaK MaTep11aJJbHhiX, TaK 11 .IzyXOBHblX 11 HB.JIJJeTCH nepBWIHhTM 3JieMeHTOM 3KOHOMWiecKoi1 CI1CTeMhl. OcTMbHhre 3KOHOMI1'-!ecKMe areHThi -
cp11pMbi 11 rocyaapcTBO -
B HeKOTOpOM CMhiCJie BTOp11'-1Hbl no CpaBHeHHIO
C )lOMOX035!MCTBaMl1.
11
Ha npe)lnp115!TI15!X, 11 B fO-
cyaapCTBeHHOM annapaTe TPYLlHTCH Te )J(e caMbie
JIIO)l11, KOTOpbie BeqepOM ITOCJJe pa60Thl COCTaBJI5!IOT )lOMOX035!HCTBa. 3TH )J(e JIIO)ll1 ITOJIY':IaiOT cpaKTOpHbie )lOXO)lbl. focyaapCTBO TaK)J(e C03)laHO JIIO)lbMl1 11 CJJY)KMT )lJI5! 3all]I1Tbi I1X 11HTepecoB. B OTJII1q11e
OT LlPYf11X 3KOHOMI1'-!eCKHX areHTOB B )lOMOX035!MCTBe JIIO,LI,11 )leHCTByiOT OT ce6H JIWIHO, a He OT JIMUa
cpl1pMbl 11Jll1 rocyaapCTBa. LJ:oMOX035!HCTBO BJia)leeT
Q:>aKTopaMM npoM3BO)lCTBa -
TPYLlOM, 3eMJJeti:, Ka-
ITI1TMOM, npe)lnpi1Hl1MaTeJihCK11MI1 cnoco6HOCTHMM. fJpO)laBM npaBO Ha I1X MCITOJih30BaH!1e, '-!JieHbl
)lOMOX03HHCTBa ITOJIYl!aiOT Q:>aKTOpHbie )lOXO)lhl, KOTOpble 11CnoJJb3yiOT Ha norpe6neHI1e 11 c6epe)J(eH11e.
AOMOX03fli:tCTBO
(household) -
COB OI<YITHOCTb lj> I1-
311YeCI<I1X 11111...\, npO)f(I1BaiOL1.li1X COBMeCTHO 11 o 6ecn e YI1 BaiOLlli1X c e6Sl BCeM He06XOA11 M biM AJ1Sl )f(I13 HI1 , ITOI1HOCTbiO 111111 Ya CTI1YHO 06beAI1HSlSl 11 paCXOAYSl cso11 cpeAcrsa.
• npo
HbiM11 rrpMMepaMM TaKHX Jl,OMOX03HHCTB 5!B.JIJJIOTC5!
ITOTJ
3aKJIIO'!eHHhle B TIOpbMe, nauHeHTbl Jl,OMOB npe-
• BOCI
CTapeJlhiX 11 l1HTepHaTOB, nau11eHThl ITCI1XJ1aTp11l!e-
IT11T
CK11X Jle'-!e6HMU, MOHaxM B MOHaCTblp5!X 11 LI,pynte
npo
rpyrrnbT JIIOLI,eti:, KOTOpbie ITO KaKMM-JJH60 np11-
LJ:oMOJ
'-IHHaM peWMJII1 l1Jil1 BbiH)')K)leHbl )J(J1Tb BMeCTe,
HOMW
COBMeCTHO o6ecrre'-!l1BaTh ce65! BCeM He06XOLI,11MbiM
Kan111
11 COBMeCTHO TpaTMTb 3apa60TaHHhie cpe)lCTBa.
CTHMM
Bo3MO)J(Ha cneayiOruaH KJJaccu!llnKauuH )J,OMoxo-
TI1T C
3HifcTB:
• no MecmonO/lOJ/CeHU/0 -
Hhie
Jl,OMOX03HHCTBa, pacno-
r
CTI1PY
JIO)J(eHHble B ropO)lCKOM l1Jil1 CeJJhCKOM MeCTHO-
lleps~
CTI1, onpeLI,eJJeHHOH np11pOLI,HO-KJI11MaT!1'!eCKOH
MOX03
30He 11Jil1 per11oHe CTpaHbi. MecTonoJio)J(eHI1e
rpe6JT
Ba)J(HO, ITOCKOJihKY ITOTpe6HOCTI1 11 np0113BOLI,CTBeHHbie B03MO)f(HOCTI1 Jl,OMOX035!MCTB, pacno-
norpe
JIO)J(eHHhJX, Hanpl1Mep, B 60JibWOM npOMbTIIIJJeH-
TOBap
HOM ropone 11 aaneKOM cene, B patioHax Kpatf-
al1bHb
Hero Cesepa 11 lJepHo3eMh5!, 6y,a:yr pa3HhiMH;
• no oeMocparjJut.teCKUM xapaKmepucmuKOM-
To sap
ceMeti-
CBOM!
Hhie Jl,OMOX035!HCTBa, BKJIIO'-!a5! ITOJIHbie 11 HenOJI-
<f:>opMI
Hhle ceMbl1 c neThMH HJIM 6e3 LI,eTetf, HeceMeti-
opraH
Hhie Jl,OMOX035IMCTBa. flp11 3TOM 60JibWYJO pOJJb
X03HHI
11fpaeT B03paCT l!JieHOB LI,OMOX035!MCTB, l1X '!l1C-
llOB, 2
JIO. Ol!eBI1LlHO, '-ITO noTpe6HOCTI1 11 B03MO)f(HO-
HblXU
CT11 Jl,OMOX035!HCTBa, COCTOHIUero 113 MaTepl1
C LI,eThMH 11 6a6ywKH, 6yLI,yT OTJI11qaTbC5! OT Jl,O-
norp€
MOX035!HCTBa, o6pa3oBaHHoro napoti Tpyaocno-
TOBap
co6Horo B03pacTa 6e3 LI,eTeti;
11eTBO
• no ooxoi)y HQ OOHOcO 't/leHa OOMOX03fiUCmea.
IloHHT-
CSl B I
HO, '!TO Jl,OMOX035!MCTBO CeMbl1, B KOTOpOM paLJ:oMOX035!MCTBa )leJI5!TC5! Ha )),Be 60JibWHe K3Te-
6oTaJOT o6a pO,li;MTeJI5!, 11MeeT 60JJhWI1e B03MO)f(-
I lp e)l!
rop u u :
HOCT11 )lJIH ITOTpe6JJeHH51, '!eM )l0MOX035IHCTBO 113
• no ;
• t.tacmHbte ooMoxo3flucmea.
3Ta KaTeropHH LI,OMO-
yqHThiBaeTcH KOJJI1-
BO~
nOLI, KOTOpOti: B 3KOHOMI1Ke ITOH11MaiOT '-IJJeHOB
'-!ecTBO TpyLI,OCITOC06HbiX '!JleHOB )l0MOX035!MCTBa,
6en
LI,OMOX03HHCTBa, CBH3aHHhiX poLI,CTBOM. BMecTe
ypOBeHb HX o6pa30BaH115!, OTpaCJib 3aHHTOCTI1 ,
pH,
C TeM '!aCTHOe )lOMOX035!MCTBO MO)J(eT 06be)li1-
cooTHoweHI1e Tpyaocrroco6HbiX 11 HeTpynocno-
nyn
HHTh HeCKOJihKO CeMeM , BKJIIO'-IaTb Jl,MhHI1X pOLI,-
co6HhiX l!JieHOB , yqaCTMe B npeLI,np11Hl1MaTeJJb-
CTBeHHI1KOB l1JI11, HarrpOTMB, COCTOHTh 113 O)lHO-
CTBe 11Jll1 pa6oTa no Hai1My;
KYlf
• no J
xo3Hti:cTB '!aCTO COBnaaaeT C ITOH5lT11eM В«CeMb5!>>,
fO l!eJIOBeKa. fJJaBHhlM npl13HaK LI,OMOX035IHCTBa
• no npoU3eoocmeeHHbLM xapaKmepucmuKOM -
TeJJ J
)lOMO-
HJUl
X03HHCTBa MOfyT 3aHI1MaTbC5! .11HLI,l1BI1Jl,yaJJhHOM
BMeCTHOe ITp0)J(J1BaH11e , HMM'!Me o6ruero 6IOLI,-
TpyLI,OBOH )leHTeJibHOCThJO , '-!aCTHbiM rrpeanpMHH-
oae.
)f(eTa ( 06be)ll1HeHl1H 11M11 CBOI1X LlOXOLI,OB 11 CO-
MaTeJibCTBOM, CeMeHHOH apeHLI,OH .11JI11 CLI,a'leH
cpa
BMeCTHOe OCYIIIeCTBJJeHI1e paCXO)lOB) 11 6biTa;
B HaeM C06CTBeHHOCT.I1 , npe)lMeTOB )lJI11TeJihHO-
ITOJI
fO ITOJib30BaH1151, pa60'-!efO CKOTa , BeLI,eH11eM JTH'l-
TO
pble Jl,OJifOe BpeMH )J(J1ByT BMeCTe 11 He MOryT CaMO-
~
• no mpyooeoMy nomeHu,uQ/ly-
He POLlCTBO BXO)l5!1UI1X B Hero JIIO)leM , a l1X CO-
• UHcmumyu,uoHallbHbte/ K0/1/leKmueHbte OOMOX03RUcmea - rpyrrrra JIMU, He CB5!3aHHbiX p0)lCTBOM, KOTO-
-
npo
OTLI,eJibHO )f(HByLU,ero neHCl10Hepa;
~
-
~--
~
BOO
TOpfOBJieti 11 nocpe)lH11qecKOM lleHTeJibHOCTblO.
, . - .,.- -- =------===-- -_
.;:'~
HHe
HOfO ITOLlC06HOfO X035!HCTBa , HHLli1BI1LlYaJihHOH
~ ~- _:~ -
-------- ~-В·
.
-~
В§ 8.
59
3KOHOMI-1YeCKI-1e cjlyHKI..II-11-1 AOMOX035li1CTBa
2. AOMOX03s:t~CTBO I<AI< nOTPE6~TEnb
ilp1106peTM TOBapbi 11 ycJiyrl1, .IJ:OMOX03HHCTBa Hecyr paCXO.IJ:bl. ilpaKTmeCKH BCe paCXO.IJ:bi .IJ:OMOX0-
)l,oMOX03SIHCTBa BbiTIOJIHSIIOT HeCKOJibKO OCHOBHbiX
3KOHOMU'!eCKHX iJ>YJIKIIHH:
>30-
1114-
)TCSI
lpef'Ie~nte
ipHCTe.
.[bL'1
HcKJTIO'IeH11e cocTaBJIHIOT pacxo.IJ:bi Ha rrp11o6peTe-
• norpe6AAIOT TOBapbi 11 ycnyrH, npoi13Be.IJ:eHHhie
rrpe.IJ:ITP 11HTMMI1;
IIOTpe6JieHM 11JII1 rrpO.IJ:a)KH Ha pbiHKe;
rnoKOH
HHe
~0.1-
II11TaJT H rrocTaBJTHIOT TPY.IJ: Ha pbiHOK <PaKTopoB
np0113BO.IJ:CTBa.
)l,OMOX03HHCTBO BbliiOJIHHeT 11 MHOfl1e .IJ:pynie 3KOHOMl.PieCKHe WYHKU,11H, Harrp11Mep BJia.IJ:eeT 3eMJTei1,
Kaii11TaJIOM, npe.IJ:ITp11HI1MaTeJibCK11M11 CIIOC06HO-
THT C 3THX .IJ:OXO.IJ:OB HaJTOrH 11 LI:PYT11e 06H3aTeJTb-
CTHpyeT c6epe)!(eHHH.
IlepBaH Ba)!(Heti:rnaH 3KOHOMI14ecKaH <l>YHKliHH .IJ:OMOX03HHCTBa 11 BXO.IJ:HUI11X B Hero '!JleHOB -
IIO-
Tpe6JieH11e.
noTpe6neHHe (consumption) -
JaH-
allbHbiX 1-1 KOJlJleKTI-IBHbiX norpe6_HOCT8H.
I-1CnOJlb30B8HI-Ie
me-
mo-
В·epH
.10-
;no-
(OT JiaT.
ego -
51) -
MOpaJibHbiH I1p11H-
li11II ){(H3HeHHOM Op11eHTaQI111 11 IIOBe)J,eHHH JT11lfHOCTH, npe.IJ:ITOJTaraiOUI11H rrpe)J,IIOlfTeHI1e C06CTBeHHbiX HHTepeCOB 11HTepecaM ,JJ,pyr11X 'IJleHOB
o6mecTBa. 3ro113M BhiTeKaeT 113 rrp11pO.IJ:hi qeJio-
ynoBOJihCTB11IO, o6mecTBeHHOMY rrp113HaH11IO.
Teop1110 3rOH3Ma B qenoseqecKoM rroBe.IJ:eHI111
Ha 11.IJ:ee 3f0113Ma IIOCTpOeHa TeOpHH npe.IJ:eJibHOH
I10Jie3HOCT11 11 paQI10HaJTbHOfO I10Tpe611TeJIH ( CM.
В§ 9),
BCerna MaKC11MH311pyiOlllero IIOJTe3HOCTb
nmHo
(eM.
В§ 10).
B 3KOHOMI1Ke MaKCH-
ToBaphi 11 ycnyr11 .IJ:OMOX03HHCTBO rrpno6peTaeT 3a
MI13ai111H I10Jie3HOCTI1 nyTeM I10Jiy'IeHI1H Ma-
CBOH C'IeT Ha pbiHKe 111160 IIOJIY4aeT B HarypaJTbHOH
KC11MaJibHO IIOJTe3HOf0 3<lJ<lJeKTa OT IIOTpe6JTeHHH
<lJopMe OT rrpaBI1TeJibCTBa 11JII1 HerrpaBI1TeJibCTBeHHbiX
C'II1TaeTCH rrpeo6Jia.IJ:aiOllleH MO.IJ:eJlhiO IIOBe.IJ:eH1151
opraH113aUJ{ti:. HarrpHMep, rrpO.IJ:YKThi II11TaHHH .IJ:OMO-
3G npeae!lGMU ceoe20 aoMOX035lUCmea;
• G!lbmpyU3M ( OT JiaT. after - .IJ:pyroti:) - MOpaJTb-
X03HHCTBO IIp1106peTaeT 3a ClfeT C06CTBeHHbiX .IJ:OXO -
lfeJTOBeKa
.IJ:OB, a ycnyr11 o6pa3oBaHHH .IJ:eTeti: B rocy.IJ:apcTBeH-
HbiH Ilp11Hli11I1 ){(H3HeHHOH Op11eHTaQI111 11 IIOBe-
HhiX IIIKOJiax rronyqaeT 3a ClfeT rocy.IJ:apcTBa.
)leHHH Jl11'IHOCT11, OCHOBaHHbiH Ha CIIOC06HOCT11
noTpe6HTenbCKHe TOBapbl (consumer goods)
TOBapbl 1-1 ycnyrl-1, KOTOPbl8 HenocpeACTBeHHO YAOB J18TBOpS'IIOT norpe6HOCTI-1 YenoeeKa 1-1 yHH'HO>KaiOT-
fUIT-
• 320U3M
.IJ:JTH ce6H
ff:
>0.1h
IOT )J,Ba OCHOBHbiX iJ>nJIOCOiJ>CKHX DO)J,XO)J,a:
pa3B11BaJT11 Cn11H03a, feJibBeii11M, IIIorreHray3p .
TOBapOB 1-1 ycnyr AJIS'I YAOBJleTBOpeHI-!Sl 1-!HAI-IBI-IAY-
.teft-
ilp11 aHaJI113e rroTpe6JieH11H 'IeJioBeKa BHYTP11 cBo-
BeKa, ero CTpeMJieHHH K C'IaCTbiO, HaCJia)!()J,eHHIO,
IeH-
10.1-
neHHH, 11 paCXOJlbl Ha HHX ClfHTaiOTCH HHBeCTl1U11eM.
ero JlOMOX03HHCTBa 11 3a ero npe.IJ:eJiaM11 Bbi.IJ:eJI51-
:no-
.teA -
11CKYCCTBa, aHTHKBap11aTa 11 IOBeJII1pHbiX 113.IJ:eJI11H.
3TH TOBapbi He YfiWITO)!(aiOTCH B npoQecce rrorpe6-
• BOCI1p0113BOMT 11 <lJopMHPYIOT 4eJTOBe4eCKJ1H Ka-
Hbie IIJiaTe)I(M rocy.IJ:apCTBy, HaKaiiJTHBaeT H 11HBe-
:no-
HHe 11 KaiiHTaJTbHbJM peMOHT )!(J1JlbiX 11 I10.IJ:C06HhiX
IIOMeUieH11H 11 paCXO.IJ:bi Ha IIOKYfiKY npOH3Be.IJ:eHJ1ti:
• ITp0113BO.IJ:HT TOBapbi 11 YCJTYTI1 .IJ:AA C06CTBeHHOfO
CT51MI1 11 I10JIY4aeT 3a 3TO <lJaKTOpHbie .IJ:OXO.IJ:bl, IIJia-
lXO-
351HCTB C'!I1TaiOTCH paCXO.IJ:aMI1 Ha IIOTpe6JieHI1e.
lfeJIOBeKa 6eCKOpbiCTHO )!(epTBOBaTb Jl11lfHbiMI1
11HTepecaM11 PMH 6Jiara ,JJ,pyr11x. AiihTPY113M MO.IJ:eJTb qeJioBelfecKoro rroBe.IJ:eH11H, rrponmorroJIO)!(HaH 3f0113My. ilOHHTI1e aJTbTpyH3Ma 6hiJlO
cs:t e npo~ecce norpe6neHI-IS'I.
BBeneHo <lJpaHQY3CKHM <lJI1Jioco<PoM
pa-
A
KoHTOM,
[0)1(-
IIpe.IJ:MeTbl norpe6neuuH .IJ:OMOX03HHCTB pa3JII1lfaiOT:
OCHOBaTeJieM COQ110JTOfl111, HO OCITapHBaJIOCb
0 H3
• no xapaKmepy yaoeAemeop5teMbtX nompe6Hocmeu:
HHQIIIe, KOTOpblH 11HTepnpeTHpOBaJT ero KaK
npO.IJ:YKTbl I1HTaHI1H, O)le)!(.IJ:a 11 o6yBh; )!(11Jlbe,
ypaBH11Baromee CTa.IJ:HOe qyscTBO. Ha Mee MbT-
)."lJil-
BO)la 3JleKTpHlfeCTBO, ra3 11 .IJ:pyroe TOriJIHBO; Me-
PYH3Ma rrocTpoeHa Teop11H aJihTPY11CTH'IecKoro
:TBa,
6eJih, rrpe.IJ:MeTbl .IJ:OMaiiiHeH o6cTaHOBK11 11 yrBa-
IIOTpe611TeAA, 6eCKOpbiCTHO rrpecJie,JJ,yiOlllero QeJI11
CTH,
~noВ­
e.:Ih-
MaKC11MH3aQHtl IIOJie3HOCT11
TaHCb CO CBOI1MI1 11HTepecaMI1. 3Ta H.IJ:e5[ Jie)KHT
KYJibTYPhl, CBH311 11 T..IJ:.;
B OCHOBe 3KOHOM11K11 CeMb11, OTHOIIIeH11H Me)!(.IJ:y
• no xapaKmepy nompe6Jl5leMbtX moeapoe:
l.\10-
>HOH
fHH-
l'IeM
bHO-
:nf'l-
,HOH
biO.
JlJl5l
pH, peMOHT )!(11JihH; TpaHCIIOpTHbie ycnyr11; ycJIYT11 B c<lJepe 3.IJ:pasooxpaHeHI1H, o6pa3oBaHI1H,
rroTpe611-
TeJihCK11e TOBapbi HeMe)lJieHHOfO HCIIOJib30BaHHH -
IIPO.IJ:YKTbi II11TaH11H, TOIIJT11BO, JTeKapCTBa,
O.IJ:e)!(.IJ:a, T.e. BCe, 'ITO I10Tpe6JISieTCH rrpaKTH'!eCKJ1
cpa3y; IIOTpe6HTeJTbCK11e TOBapbi .IJ:JT11TeJlbHOfO
I10Jib30BaH1151 -
)!(J1Jlbe, Me6eJTb, aBTOM0611JI11, T.e.
TO, 'ITO I10Tpe6JT51eTCH (113Haiii11BaeTCH)" B Te'IeH11e pH.IJ:a
neT;
rroTpe6HTeJibCKI1e ycJiym (3.IJ:pa-
sooxpaHeHI1e, TpaHcnopT, pa3BJielfemm).
ee lfJTeHaMH (eM.
В§ 14).
,II,pyrHX, He ClfH-
B 3KOHOMHKe aJThTPYH3M
C'I11TaeTC51: npeo6JTa.IJ:aiOIUeH MO.IJ:eJibiO ITOBe.IJ:eHHH
BHympu ceoezo aoMOX035lUCmea.
3aKOHbt o 3GUJ,Ume npae nompe6umefl5l, no KOTOpbiM rocy,II,apcTBO
lfeJIOBeKa
Bo MHOrl1x cTpaHax cymecTByiOT
Tpe6yeT OT npOH3BO)J,11TeJieti: npe.IJ:OCTaBJTHTb orrpe,JJ,eJTeHHbiH M11H11MYM HH<lJOpMaUHH 0 TOBape
JlJl5l
np11HHT11H noTpe611TeJTeM HH<lJopM11poBaHHhiX perneH11H rrp11 11X ITOKYfiKe.
60
r
~. AOMOX0351 IIICTBO
nP0~3 BOA~TEnb
B npHHJJ,I1ne
11 o6pa6aTbiBaJOU1eti TlpOMbllllJieHHOeT11 (nOUIHB
~OMOX03HMeTBa
O~e~bl ~ np0~3)1(11) , eTp011TeJibeTBe (peMOHT
K(l)I(,[(Oe ~OMOX03HMeTBO
fO)I(eT paeeMaTpHBaTbeH KaK He60JihWOe npO-
i3BO~eTBO.
O;maKo,
B OTnwme OT npe~np11HT11M
4eJIOBe'-IeeKI1H Kal
KI10eKH) J.1 npOH3BO~eTBe npaKTH'leeKM JIJ06b1X
l.JaeTHOe JlOMOXC
B11~0B yenyr (nporpaMM11posaHHe no ~orosopy,
CTBeHHhiM MeTO'-I
peneT11TOpeTBO e 6y~yWHMH a6HTypl1eHTaM11).
uaeT PMOM yuuKaJibHbiX 'lepT:
TaKMe npe~npH5ITH51' MOryT npaKTH'feeKM soo6we
• npOH3BO~eTBO ~OMOX03HHeTBa He Tpe6yeT perl1-
He 11MeTb KanHTaJia (yJIH'fHbiM 'lHeTHJibll1HK o6y-
HOfO
!Op~M':leeKOfO
OT~eJibHOro
JII1JJ,a,
lfenoBe"'eCKHH H
lJ.IeHH biH B 'i eil OB
H8BbiKOB H M OTI
B11) HJIH paenonaraTb eyweeTBeHHbiM KaTIHTaJIOM
OTero BJia-
KOMTibJOTep, nporpaMMHOe
YposeHb qenose'l
o6eene'feH11e). PhiHO'fHbie ~oMaUIHHe npe~npHHВ­
~eHHhiX cnoeo61
(y nporpaMM11eTa -
~eJibJJ,eB;
[II cpaKTOpbl np0113BO~eTBa HaXOMTeH BO BJI~eHHI1
TH51' MOryT 6hiTb e03~aHbl npe~eTaBI1TeJI.HMH pa3-
ero o6pa3 osaHM
':!JieHOB 1lOMOX0351'MeTBa, a He 11X npennpHHT1151
HbiX ,ttOMOX03HHeTB (JlBa 6paTa, y K(l)I(,[(OrQ 113 KO-
1..1,1111 ,
3~0pOBhH
I
HJIH cpHpMbJ;
TOpbiX eeTb eBOH eeMbH, eOBMeeTHO peMOHTHpyiOT
BeCTHI..I,M5IM11 B
1
JlOMOX03Hi1cTBO KaK TaKOBOe He MO)I(eT BeTyrrHTb
aBTOM06HJI11) HJI11 ~3)1(e MHOfHX JlOMOX03HHeTB
3aTpaTbJ Ha o6p
npe~np11-
(6p11ra~a pa60THHKOB- MHrpaHTOB, eTp05IU1aH
BO~eTse ;
TOJlbKO OTJleJibHbie
~a411). qame Beero 3TO ~Ba HJIH HeeKOJibKO ~BOВ­
11 ITOMep~
':!JleHbl Jl0MOX03HMeTBa, 3aKJIIO'fHB, HanpHMep,
KaTOB HJI11 Bpa'feH, 11Mel0ll1HX HHJlHB11~YaJihHYIO
pa6oTKH; noMeJ
n orosop Ha apeH,JJ,y )I(HJihH;
JIHJJ,eH3HIO Ha 3aHHT11e eOOTBeTeTBYIQU1eH npaK-
pa3a )1(113HM ;
THKOH, HO pa6oTaJOWMX B O~HOM Oq)f1ee B JJ,eJI.HX
Do OJJ,eHKaM, 'f
f.
B JlOfOBOpHble OTHOWeHH51' e JlpyrHMH
HTH5IMH; 3TO MOryT
e~eJiaTb
• BJia~eJibl..l,bl ~OMaUIHefO npe~npH51THH TIOJIHOe-
3KOHOMH11
TbiO OTBe'lalOT no eBOHM 06513aTeJibeTBaM JIM'fHbiM
paexo~oB
no ero
:0 pe~npH5ITHe , OHO eTaHeT IOPHJlH'feeKHM JIHJJ,OM,
• HepbLHOttHble iJoMaULHue npeiJnpURmUfl oeyweeTBJlHlOT np0113BO~CTBO ~ JIU'1H020 ICOHettH020 nompe6JleHUJl. K H11M OTHOe5ITeH KpeeTb51'HeKHe ( cpep-
11MyweeTBOM.
~eJI11
'fJleHbl
~OMOX03HHeTBa
3apemeTpHpYIQT esoe
He 6y~eT e':li1TaTbe51 JlOMaUIHI1M npe~np115IT11eM
MepeKHe) X03HHeTBa 6e3 o6pa30BaHH51' 10pH~I1Y.eeKOfO JII1JJ,a 11 JIH'fHbie TIOJle06Hbie X03HHeTBa ,
Ti pH5IT11e 11Jll1 qmpMa.
3aHHTbie npOH3BOJleTBOM eeJibeKOX03HHeTBeHHOH
Y'laeTH11KM ~oMaUIHero npe~np11HTH51' BbieTynaJOT,
npO~KJJ,H11 MH eo6eTBeHHbiX H~; ~OMalllHI1e
e O~HOH eTOpOHhl, KaK npe~np11H11MaTeJI11, OTBeT-
X0351HeTBa , 3aHHTble HH~HBI11lYaJibHbiM eTp011-
eo3~aH11e
npe~npHHTH51'
11 yrrpasne-
TeJibeTBOM HJIH peMOHTOM esoero )I(J.1Jib51 11Jl11
HHe 11M, a e ~pyroJi- KaK ero pa6oTHHKH, npe~oВ­
Jla'f; np0113BOJleTBOM ~ ee6H 3epHa, MyKH, Mae-
eTaBJI51IOU1He eBOIO pa60'-IYIO eHJiy MH BbJnyeKa TO-
Jia, ebrpa, BI1Ha, nHBa, KOHeepB11pOBaH11eM tPPYK-
npe~np11HHMaTeAA 'fJleH
TOB , OBOU1eM 11 ~p.; 3arOTOBKOH MH eo6eTBeH-
.lOMaUIHero X0351HeTBa JlOeTaeT ~eHhfH MH o6ee-
HOfO nOTpe6JieHHH ~pOB, TOpcpa, 1lHKOpaeTYUl11X
nel!eHJ.151 np0113BO~eTBa , HaX0~11T He06XO~I1MOe
paeTeHI1H , rpH60B, TIJIO~OB 11 Hro~, nyUIHMHhl,
eTBeHHbie 3a
sapos H yenyr.
B Ka'-IeeTse
TIOMeU1eHHe, npH06peTaeT
o6opy~OBaH11e, HaHH-
JlWlH;
~pyri1MH
BM~aMH npOI13BO~eTBa,
Mep npOM3BO~eTBOM ~Jl.H ee6H TKaHeM, o6yBI1,
eBH3aHHhre e 3THM p11eKM. KaK npennp11HI1MaTeJib
roH'lapHbiX M3~enMti , Me6en11 11 np . K(l)l(,[(oe ~oВ­
'fJleH ~oMOX03HMeTsa noJIYY.aeT npH6hJJib.
MOX0351MeTso TaK)I(e 3aHMMaeTeH np0113BOJleTBOM
Ka'!e-
eTBe pa60TH11Ka TOT )l(e 'fJieH ~OMaUIHero X0351M-
yenyr ~ eo6eTBeHHOfO noTpe6JieHI151 -
eTBa MO)I(eT npe~oeTaBJIHTb eMy esoi1 TPYll, Hepen-
fOTOBJieHMeM nMU111, y6opKOM ~OMa, BOenMTaHHeM ~eTeM, yxo~OM 3a 60JibHbiMM 'fJleHaM11 eeMb11,
~tOX0351HeTBa B Ka'-IeeTBe pa60THI1Ka e'fHTaeTeH ero
3a6oToH o npeeTapenhrx po~MTeAAx.
TP
KYВ·
3anaea
Ka ITMTaJia CTaJIH
Hble
npHpO~Hbl
KOHf, lO)I(Ha5f ~
,LI,OMOX0351MeTBO
~YIOWHe (jlynKII
cKoro KanuTana '
• C030GHUe y CJ/Ol
Kanuma/la -
CeMeHHOfO 61
3a e'feT eeMe ~
4 11TeJI bH aH 'fa
Karri1TaJI . Ce.
Ha'-IaJibHOfO
noseKa Ha rrp
• eocnpou3eoiJcn
MbH
po~a101
JIJO~eKMe
peCJ
C11eTeMY ITYTe
npM-
KO BbieOKOKBaJIHcpHJJ,J.1pOBaHHblM. ,LI,OXO~ ':!JleHa ~OВ­
80%
3JlpaBC
np11MepOM 6biC
Hanp11-
~1aeT ~OnOJIH11TeJibHYIO pa60'-fY10 eHny 11 HeeeT Bee
B
~o
eo~ep)l(aHlf.JO.
~i ~OJI)!(HO paeeMaTpi1BaTbeH KaK 06bl':lHOe npe~В­
o6weHH51' K K
• pea/lU3GU,Ufl 'II
11H~HBHJlYaJib
HO'-IHOM npml
3apTIJiaTOH.
CneuHcpMY.eeKoM MH HeMHOfi1X cTpaH, BKJIJO'faH
CymeeTsyJOT ~Be oeHOBHbie ljlo p M bi ~oMamuero
Poce1110, Q>opMoi1 npoH3BO~CTBa HBJIHeTCH JIH'fHoe
,LI,OMOX03HMeTBC
U pe,!J,IIpHHTHSI.
no~eo6Hoe xo3HHeTBO, r~e Tosapbi MoryT npo-
30BaHI1H -
• PbLHOttHbLe iJoMaULHue npeiJnpURmUfl oeyweeTBJIHJOT
np0113BO~eTBO iJJlfl npoiJaJICU Ha pblHKe. ,LI,OMOX03HM-
H3BO~MTbeH KaK M5I C06eTBeHHOf0 TIOTpe6neH11.H,
Be':leeKOfO Ka m
TaK 11 MH npo~a)((J1 Ha pbiHKe (eM.
ne'II1BaeT npe
eTBa KaK
npOH3BO~HTeJIH
MOryT
np0113BO~J.1Tb
В§ 8.5).
Bapbi J.1 yenyrH ~ HX np0~3)1(11 Ha pbiHKe B 60Jib-
'li1TeJ1bHO MeHee B3)1(Ha
W11HeTBe ecfJep 3KOHOMH'leeKOH neHTeJibHOeT11,
HeHHIO C ero cPYHKJJ,I1eM KaK TIOTpe6HTeJI.H.
~:
3HMeTBa, opn
<l>yHKJJ,H51' ~OMOX03HMeTBa KaK npOH3B0~11TeJI51 3Ha-
TO-
- - ------------ ---- -
~
~-=---- - --
-
T peTbH ВўYHKUH51'
'-fY)I(}fX KBapTHp) , p03HH'fHOM TOprOBJie (yJIWIHble
1 cpHpM, ~OMOX03HHCTBO KaK npon3BO~HTeJib o6Jia-
eTpai..I,HH B Ka'feeTBe cpHpMbl, T.e. eaMOeT051TeJib-
3KOHOMHYeCK~
4 . AOMOX03S
TPYA A
OBOWeH 11 cPPYKTOB ~ npo~3)1(11), ~06biBaJOUieti
OeHOBHaH cpyHKI..I,HH
~ pOYt3BOnJ1Tb.
В§ 8.
'fame seero B eeJlbCKOM X03HHeTBe (BbTpalllMB3HHe
kAK
~TOpaH
n A s A 2. 3KOHOMV1KA AOMoxo3s:Jii1CTBA
~
KOB , KOTOpble 1
3KOHOMHKM no cpaB-
~
---В· - - - " '
OeH
• cjJopMGJlbHOe
0
ro, eneJJ,I1aJihl
'1111
61
CTBA
В§ 8.
iHHe
4. AOMOX03SHi!CTBO KAK nOCTABLUli!K
TPYAA
mei1
JlHB
3KOHOMI-14eCKI-1e ВўYHKL.11-11-1 ,QOMOX03~i1CTB8
poro o6pa30BaHHSI , rrpoВўeCCI10Ha.JlbHOH TIO,ll,f0TOBKI1 Ha rrpo113BOLI.CTBe 11 np. XoTH rocy.uapcTBO
11 Вў11pMbl 06bi'IHO OTIJia'IHBaiOT '!aCTb ВўopMa.JJb-
fOHT
TpeTb5! ВўYHKIIH5! )],OMoxo35!HcTBa -
Hbie
'!enose'!ecK11H Kamnan 11 nocTaB.JUITb TPYA Ha pbiHOK.
3Tl1X 11HBeCTHl.I,HH B 3Ha'IHTeJibHOH CTeiieHH ocy-
6hiX
qaCTHOe )],OMOX035!HCTBO (CeMb5!) 5!BJI5!eTC5! e)],HH-
ll.l,eCTBJI5feTC5! LI.OMOX035!HCTBaMH;
opy,
CTBeHHbiM HCTO'IHHKOM BOCTip0113BO)],CTBa '!eJIOBeKa.
~m).
5me
)6y-
socnpoH3BOAHTh
4enoae'leCKHff KanHTan (human capital) - sonnoUleHHbliil B YenoBeKe aanac cnoco6HOCTeii1, 3HaHHii1,
HaBbiKOB H MOTHBa~Hiil.
HOro o6yqeHI15! COTPYLI.HI1KOB, ВўHHaHc11posaHI1e
• HerjJopMMbHOe o6y'1eHue -
3TO caMoo6pa3oBaHHe
qenoseKa IIYTeM H3YlJeHH5! crreUHaJihHOH JIHTepaTyphi, yqaCTI15I B ITPOcPeCCHOHa.JlbHbiX aCCOL.I,I1al.l,l15fX 11 KJiy6ax, IlO)l.Uep)f(aHJ.ffi KOHTaKTOB C KOJIJieraMH no cneUHaJibHOCTI1 , yqacTI15! B KOHKYPCax ,
;10M
r oe
Yposem 'leJioBe'lecKoro Karnuana 3aBHCMT oT spo)f(-
KOHВўepeHL.I,l15!:X , CeMI1 Hapax 11 T.TT. <l>HHaHCI1pO-
)J.ffi-
)],eHHhiX CTIOC06HOCTeH
TaJiaHTOB HH)],HBI{)],Y)'Ma,
BaHI1e 3TI1X 11HBeCTHl.I,HH rrpaKTM'!eCKH ITOJIHO-
pa3-
ero o6pa30BaHJ.ffi 11 npH06peTeHHOH KBaJIHВўHKa-
CTbiO OCyll.l,eCTBMeTC5f CaMHMI1 LI.OMOX035IHCTBa-
KO-
l.I,HH, 3)],0p0Bb5I J1 MHOfOfO )],pyroro. Il03TOMY HH-
MI1, nocKOJTbKY 'lame scero TaKoe HeВўopMa.nh-
'}'JOT
BeCTHl.I,H5fMH B '!eJIOBe4eCKHH KaTTHTaJI C'IHTaiOTC5!
Hoe o6y'!eHwe paccMaTpl1saeTCH pa6oTo.LJ,aTeJI5IMH
i CTB
3aTpaTbl Ha o6pa30BaHHe, TlO)],fOTOBKy Ha npOK3-
tu a5!
BO)],CTBe; 3)],paBOOXpaHeHHe; TTOHCK HHВў0pMal.I,HH
I{
KaK JII1'1Hoe .ueno qenoseKa.
3ВўВўeKTHBHOCTb HHBeCTHl.I,HH B '!eJIOBe4eCKHH Ka-
LBO-
11 no)],)],ep~ TPYAOBOH MHrpal.I,HH; HayqHhie pa3-
TTHTa.Jl 3aBHCHT oT HX rrpo,li,O]J)f(}1TeJTbHOCTH. HanpH-
ff)'JO
pa6oTKH; noMep)f(aHwe 3KonorHH 11 3)],oposoro o6-
Mep, OT.LJ,a'!a OT o6pa30BaHJ.ffi HaMHOfO BbiiiJe ,li,Jl5!
>aK-
pa3a )1(}13HH; KyJibTYPY H )],OCyr.
TeX, KTO 3amiT npocl:>eCCHOHa.JlbHOH LJ.eHTeJibHOCTbiO
:JUIX
ITo oueHKaM, Yenose'!eCKHH KanHTaJI cocTaBJIHeT
)],O
CTB-
pe6-
)ep~11-
rsa,
HOM
J.me
K>H-
11JIH
laC -
1YKleH-
iuMx
Hbi,
pH11,
..10BOM
[PHliMlbH,
80%
3anaca Kam!TaJia B pa3BHTbiX CTpaHax.
flpHMepOM 6hTCTpOrO HaKOTTJieHH5f 4eJIOBe4eCKOfO
CB5IJ..UaeT LJ.OMJ'. Pa3JIH'll15f Me)f(Ay rronaMI1 KaK 611o-
KanHTaJia CTaJII1 cTpaHbi A3KH, rinoxo o6ecneYeH-
norH'leCKoro ()f(eHI..UHHbl BbiKapMJIHBaiOT .LJ,eTeti) ,
Hbie npl1pO)],HbiMH pecypcaMI1, -
51IIOHI15f, fOH-
TaK H COUHa.JJhHoro (s npoct:>eccHH waxTepa rrpe.LJ,-
KOHf, }O)l(}fa5! KopeSI, CHHranyp.
no'ITeHMe OTD.aeTcH MY)]('IHHaM) csoficTsa no6y)](-
)J,OMOX03SIHCTBO B ВўopMe CeMbH BbiHOJIHSieT CJie-
.uaiOT JIIOLJ.eH CTTel.I,Ha.Jli13HpOBaTbC51 Ha HaKOTIJieHHH
AYIOlllHe <J>yuK~HH no <J>opMnposaunw 'leJioBe'le-
'!eJIOBe'!eCKOfO KaTTHTa.JJa KaKOfO-TO OLI.HOfO nma,
cKoro KanHTaJia:
TTOBbiiiJaiOll.l,ero np0113 BOLI.HTeJibHOCTb npe11MYW.e-
• C030QHUe yCJl06UU 0/IJl npOU3600Cm6a '1eJl06e'1eC/<:020
KanumaJla - ВўopMHpOBaHHe J1 HCTTOJib30BaHI1e
CTBeHHO LJ.OMaJJlHero JII160 pblHO'IHOro Tpy.ua .
oe
lloMHMO qenoseqecKoro KanHTaJia 3KOHOMWJeCKHH
ceMeHHOrO 6JO)l)f(eTa, Be)],eHI1e )],OMOX035!HCTBa.
UOTeH~aJI )l0MOX03HHCTB3 BKJUO'IaeT CJie,ll,yiOUJ,ee:
3a C'!eT ceMeHHoro 6IOLJ.)f(eTa oTIJia'II1BaeTcSI 3Ha-
• He)],BJ1)](11MOCTb -
'IMTeJihHaJr '!aCTb 11HBeCTHL.I,l1H B '!eJIOBe'!eCKHH
3eMeJTbHbiH yqaCTOK (rrpHyCa-
LJ.e6HblH, .ua'IHhiH, no.u crpoeHI15!MH), 3LJ.aHI15f 11 co-
KarmTaJI. CeMb5! 51BJISieTCSI 11CTO'IHI1KOM nepso-
opy)](eHJ.ffi (npHBaTH3l1pOBaHHa5! KBapT11pa, )lalJa,
Ha'!aJibHoro ВўopMHpOBaHKSI 11 o6y'!eHHSI Ye-
LJ.OM, rapa)f(, rro.uco6Hble noMell.l,eHJ.ffi);
JIOBeKa Ha rrpHMepe pOA11Tenefl;
• KaTTI1TaJibHble aKTHBbl -
• eocnpou3eoocmeo '1eJl06e'1ecKoco Kanuma;w -
ce-
MalllHHbl 11 06opyLJ.O-
BaHHe 'lHCTO npOH3BOLI.CTBeHHOfO Ha3Ha'!eHI1Sl
MhH pO)I(LJ.aiOT LJ.eTeti, BOCTip0113B0)],5f TeM CaMblM
(HanpKMep, JTMYHblH rpy30BI1K, TpaKTOp, CTaHOK)
JIIO)],CKHe pecypCbl , BKJIIO'!aiOT l1X B COl.l,l1aJibHyiO
11 pa60'll1H CKOT;
CHCTeM)' nyTeM BOCilHTaHM5!, o6pa30BaHJ.ffi, npH06ll.l,eHJ.ffi K KyJihType;
• ¢KHaHCOBble aKTHBbl Ke, l.l,eHHbre 6yMarl1
• peaAu3aU,Ufl '1e!lo6e'1ecKoco KanumMa -
.UeHe)f(Hbie BKJiaAbl B 6aH-
(aKU11H,
o6JIMral.l,l111) , HaJI11'1Hbie
y'laCTHe
LJ.eHbfl1, LJ.pyrne Henp0113BO)],CTBeHHbJe aKTHBbl, KO-
HH)],I1BI{)],YaJibHbiX 'IJieHOB )],0MOX035fHCTB B pbl-
TOpble MO)](HO 6bJCTpO npespaTI1Tb B LJ.eHbrn (.uparo-
HO'IHOM rrpOH3BOLJ.CTBe, BeLJ.eHI111 LI.OMaiiiHefO X0l'la5!
TTOJIHbTH pa60'!HH .LJ,eHb, TIO cpaBHeH1110 C TeMH , KTO
pa6oTaeT TOJTbKO IlOJI,li,H5!, a OCTa.JlbHOe BpeM5! IlO-
35fHCTBa, OpraHH3aUHH CeMeHHOfO 6H3Heca.
l.l,eHHOCTI1, aHTMKBapHaT, npOH3Be)],eHJ.ffi HCKyCCTBa);
• HMYil.l,eCTBO -
TlOTpe6HTeJTbCKHe TOBapbi D.JIHTeJib-
)J,OMOX035fHCTBO MrpaeT pewaiOll.I,YIO pOJib B o6pa-
HOfO TIOJTb30BaHI15!, KOTOpble MO)l(}fO l1CTTOJib30BaTh
[PO-
30BaHHI1 -
B l.l,eJUIX KaK JIHlJHOfO TTOTpe6JieHJ.ffi, TaK 11 np0113-
!lUI,
Be'leCKOfO KaiiHTaJia . 0HO Вў11HaHCHpyeT H o6ec-
BOLI.CTBa (HanpHMep , aBTOM0611JTb, KOMIIbiOTep).
rre'li1BaeT npe)],JIO)f(eHI1e Ha pbiHOK Tpy.ua pa60THH-
OT 3KOHOMmecKoro noTeHU11aJia LJ.OMOX035IHCTBa
KOB, KOTOpble npOlllJIH ,li,Be <J>opMbl OOyqeHHH:
BO MHOfOM 3aBMC5IT pa3Mepbl ero TTOTpe6neHH51.
• rjJopMMbHOe o6y'1eHue -
06 OCHOBaX 3KOHOMI1KH TTOTpe6JieHJ.ffi -
I
Ha,
as-
OCHOBHOM CIIOC06e HaKOITJieHJ.ffi '!eJIO-
3TO rronyqeHI1e cpe.LJ,He-
ro, CITel.I,HaJibHOfO H BblCWero 06pa30BaHI15! , BTO-
J..Ul1H naparpact:>.
CJie.UyiO-
В§ 9. Pa1..1110Ha
В§ 9. P a ~ ~ o H a 11
n o T p e 6 11 e H ~ e
b Hoe
2. nOJlE3
l1TaK, nep1
1. PAU~OHAJlbHbl~ nOTPE6~TEJlb
HI1SaeTC5I TIOTpe611TeJJeM C TO'lKM 3peH1151 flOJle3HOCTI1 ,li.Jl5l Hero 11 IlpO)l.OSOJlhCTB1151 , 11 OJJ,e)(()J,hi;
OMOX0351HCTBO B 3 KOHOMI1Ke BhJCTynaeT npe)(()J,e
scero noTpe6MTeJJeM. IloTpe611Tem1 npe.LJ.b51BJJHJOT
• npeano'1meHuR pau,uoHGJlbHOcO nompe6umeJIR xapaKmepu3yiOmcR ceoucmeoM mpaH3umueHocmu.
cnpoc Ha TOBapbi l1 ycnyr11. TeM caMhiM npeo6na-
nycTb ITOTpe6HTeJTb Bbi611paeT 11X Tpex pa3HhlX
natomei1 MO.LJ.eJJbto nose)l.eHI151 ''ieJIOBeKa 3a npene-
Ha6opOB, B Ka)!(,li.OM 113 KOTOpbiX pa3Hhle KOJTI1-
naMM CSOero ,li.OMOX035IHCTBa C'll1TaeTC51 ,li.OCTI-DKe-
qeCTSa npo.n.oBOJTbCTB1151 11 OJJ,e)(()J,hl. Tor)l.a , ecn11
HI1e MaKCl1MaJJbHOH ITOJie3HOCTI1 OT ITOTpe6JJeHU5I
sToporo, a BTopott npeJJ,nO'ITI1TeJihHee TpeTbe-
se)l.eT ce651 pau11oHaJJhHO. TaKotl: nOTpe611TeJJb see-
ro, nepBblH HaQOp 6y)l.eT TO'IHO npeJJ,TIO'ITI1TeJlb-
rna np11HI1MaeT peweH1151, se.LJ.yWI1e K nony'leHI1JO
JieHI151. OH HI1Kor.n.a He np11MeT peweHI151, KOTO-
Hee TpeTbero;
• pGU,UOHGJlbHblU nompe6umellb 8Cecaa npeanol.fumaem 6oJibUJe JII06oco moeapa, l.feM MeHbUJe. OycTb
poe MO)!(eT Tipl1SeCn1 K COKpaw,eHI1JO ITOJle3HOCTI1
S nepBOM Ha6ope
OT TIOTpe6JJeHIDI. C 3TOH TO'IKI1 3peHI151 ITOSe,ll.eHI1e
1923)
B.
IIapeTO (
1848-
3
TO)((e
3
2
e,ll..
Kf npO)l.O-
e,ll.. Tof)l.a TIOTpe611TeJTb
SbJ6epeT BTOpOH Ha6op.
ВҐ13
Ha6opos TOSa-
poB paU110HaJJhHbiH noTpe611TeJih scer.n.a SbJ6epeT
1904-1989).
Pal.jHOHanbHblff norpe6uTenb (rational consumer) norpe6Hrenb, ecerAa MaKCHMH3HPYIOIJ.IHH noneaHOCTb norpe6neHH51.
Kf npOJJ,OBOJibCTBI151 11
SOJlbCTB1151, HO O,ll.e)(()J,bl
l1 o6o6w,eHO aHrmiHCKI1M 3KOHOM11CTOM
)l)((. XMKCOM (
3
O,ll.e)!(,ll.hl , a SO STOpOM -
noTpe611TeAA snepsbie 6hiJIO npoaHaJJl1311posaHo
wsewuapCKMM 3KOHOMI1CTOM
sap onpene
HI1Ubl TOBa
fli1Tb.
IloTpe611Te
'ITO C'li1Tael
Ml1 eMY )l.1UI
rrepBbiH Ha6op KR)((eTCH eMy npeJJ,nO'ITI1TeJTbHee
TosapoB 11 ycnyc Ilpe)l.nonaraeTCH, 'ITO nOTpe6rneJih
MaKCI1MaJJhHO B03MO)KJIOf0 3<j:)<j:)eKTa OT ITOTpe6-
cnpoca Ha
TOT, B KOTOpOM XOT51 6b! Ha O,li.I1H TOBap 60JlbWe;
• pau,uoHGJlbHbtu nompe6umeJ/b o6bt'1HO Jiecl.fe J!Cepmeyem nompe6JieHueM moco moeapa, Komopoco y Heco 6ollbUJe. IlycTh s Ha6ope I 0 Kr npO.Ll.OSOJlbCTB1151
11
I
eJJ,. OJJ,e)(()J,bl. TioTpe611TeJJb, B03MO)!(HO, roTOB
3
)lnH noTpe(
'laeT ero ro
py10 MaKcHJ
TepHeT-Mar
MaKCJ1MaJJh
3annaTHTb,
Ka npeJJ,eJJb
ueHa 6yJJ,el
TII1Te.
Cyw,ecTBY~
HOCTH:
• o6UJ,aR no
IJepe)l. pal.(I10HaJJbHhiM ITOTpe611TeJieM CTOI1T IIp0-
llO)!(epTBOBaTb UeJTbiMI1
6JJeMa Bbi6opa. OH MO)((eT Bbi611paTh 113 6ecKOHel.f-
'IT06hi ITOJJY1.fi1Tb ew,e XOT51 6bT O.Ll.HY e)li1H11UY
yJJ,osneTBC
Horo MHO)((eCTSa TOBapOB 11 YCJIYf, KOTOpbie TipO-
o)l.e)((Llbi. CooTBeTCTBeH'Ho '!eM MeHhwe KaKoro-To
LlaHHOfO I
,ll.aJOTC51 Ha pbiHKe. Ho JIJ06oMy noTpe611TeJJto ~В­
TOSapa B Ha6ope, TeM Hl1)((e CKJTOHHOCTb ITOT-
• cpeaHRR n
HbJ ,ll.aJieKO He see 113 HI1X, a TOJThKO KaKOH-TO
Kf npOJJ,OSOJlbCTBI15I,
noneaHocrb
CTBa TOBapi
norpe61o1ren
pe6l1TeAA 3aMeHHTb ero .Ll.PYn1M TOBapOM.
Jle3HOCTb
l1X orpaHWieHHbiH Ha6op, KOTOpbiH ,li.Jl51 ynpolll,e-
Pau11oHaJTbHbiH noTpe611TeJJb He 6onee 'JeM aKcH-
none3HOC
HIDI np11H5ITO ClJI1TaTh COCT051Ul,I1M TOJThKO 113 ,li.Byx
oMa , T.e . yrsep)((LleHI1e, np11HI1MaeMoe 6e3 JJ,OKa3a-
neHHoro В·
Tosapos. Hanpi1Mep , rrpaKTM'IeCKM Ka)I(,UhTH noTpe-
TeJJbCTB. 3TO KpatiHe ynpomeHHOe npe)l.CTaSJleHHe
• npeaeJibHa
611TeJih nep110,ll.l1lJeCKM flOKynaeT Ha6op, COCT05I-
0 llOSe)l.eHI111 peaJJhHOfO llOTpe6HTeJJ51, KOTOpOe TeM
np11pocT '
lli,I1H 113 IIPOLlOBOJlbCTB1151 11 O,ll.e)(()J,bl.
He MeHee no3BOJJHeT ycTaHOSI1Tb ero Ha116onee
Jli1YeH1151
IIpe)l.nonaraeTC51, 'ITO noTpe611TeJJh seJJ,eT ce651 pa-
xapaKTepHbTe 'lepTbl. 0HO npe)l.TIOJJaraeT, 'ITO JliO)l.H
ABcTpwi1cJG
U110HaJJhHO, eCJJI1 OH OIII1paeTC51 S CBOMX ,ll.eHCTBI1-
TO'IHO 3HaJOT SCe 0 CBOeM 6y)l.yWeM 11 llp11HJ1MaiOT
JlJOCTp11pOB1
51X Ha cne)l.ytow,l1e aKCHOMbi pauuouaJJbHoro noT-
peweHHe Ha OCHOBe CJTO)((HbiX paCYeTOS MaKCH-
flpe)l.ITOJlO)(
peoJJeuuH:
MaJJbHOH IIOJle3HOCTI1.
poro O.Ll.MHO
• pGU,UOHGJlbHbiU nompe6umeJlb 6 COCmORHUU pGHJICUpOBGmb (cpaeHueamb) Ha6opbt moeapoe no cmeneHu UX npeanol.fmumeJlbHOCmU. np11 HaJJI1'111l1 ,li.Byx
3TI1 BeCbMa CI1Jl bHbie )l.OITYllleH 1151 flO)l.SepratoTC51
co csoero n
cepbe3HOH Kpi1TI1Ke CO CTOpOHbT CTOpOHHI1KOB Te-
He06XO)l.I1M
Op1111 <<OrpaHWieHHOH pal.(I10HaJThHOCT11В». 0)l.HaKO
.n.a .Ll.O cne~
Ha6opOB TOSapOB, COCT051UJ,I1X 113 pa3HOfO KOJUt-
ITO cei1 )l.eHb OHH JJe)((aT B OCHOSe TeOpl111 ITOTpe6-
MewKa eMY
lJeCTSa npOJJ,OSOJThCTSIDI 11 OJJ,e)(()J,bl, pal.(l10HaJTh-
JleHI-f51.
CTOJlbKO, 'IT
TI1H MeWOK
HbiH TIOTpe6HTeJlb BCer.n.a MO)((eT onpeJJ,eJli1Th,
B
'ITO ,li.Jl51 Hero 0)].11H 113 HI1X rrpe)l.TIO'ITI1TeJlbHee
HI151 3aBI1C51T OT npe)l.ITOYTeHHH flOTpe611TeJJ51, ero
Kyp, 'lT06bJ ,
,ll.pyroro JTI160 'ITO TIOJle3HOCTb 11X 06011X ,li.Jl51 Hero
.Ll.OXOJJ,a 11 ueH Ha Tosapbl 11 ycnym. CooTseTCTBeH-
lfeTsepTbiH
HO TeOpiDI paU110HaJJbHOro ITOTpe611TeJT51 OTSelJaeT
roToBJJeHMe
OJJ,I1HaKOBa;
• pau,uoHallbHbtu nompe6umeJib ou,eHueaem JWJicabtU
HG60p moeap08 C m0'1KU 3peHUR nOJle3HOCmU aJlR HecO
KaJICaoco U3 exoaRUI,UX 8 Ha6op moeapoe. Ha6op,
COCT051llli1H 113 npO,li.OBOJlbCTSI151 11 O,ll.e)(()J,bl, OUe-
rrpocTei1weM cnyqae cocTaB 11 o6beM noTpe6ne-
Ha HeCKOJihKO sonpocos: •IeM onpeJJ,eJIHeTcH ueHa
waeT ynorp
cnpoca Ha Tosap 11JTI1 ycnyry? KaKoi1 Ha6op Tosa-
HIO KOTOpb!
pos rrpe)l.TIO'ITeT noTpe6wTeJJb? KaK noTpe6neHMe
flyCTb Tem
3aSI1CI1T OT JJ,OXO,ll.a?
Tbipe
Mew~
33KOHOM•Ka
)Q. JJ
65
9. Pau,l-!oHanbHoe n
2. nOJlE3HOCTb
xne6a, OH He 6y.neT OTKa3b!BaTh ce6e B caMoi1 Heo6xo,ni1MOi1 TI11Uie, npO,UOJT:>Ka51 rHaTb BO.UKY 11
)Jie3-
Kllhi;
~
xa-
•cmu.
3HbiX
.OJIMeCJTM
lbHee
eTberenb-
umaJycTb
2 e.n.
o.norrenh
'OBa5epeT
fbllle;
cepmyHe.:TBllil
rOTOB
rBMH,
HJ.1UY
ro-To
noTlKCHKa3a!eHMe
e TeM
ionee
IO.UJ.1
!a lOT
lKCJ.1iiOTCH
IB TeLHaKO
;rpe6 e6nel. ero
rBeHt.taeT
ueHa
"fOBaJeHJ.1e
l1TaK, nepBbJH. sonpoc: '!eM onpe,neJUleTcH ueHa
cnpoca Ha Tosap? 0TBeT - ueHa cnpoca Ha To-
KopMI1Th Kyp 1-1 nonyraes. OH ynoTpe6HT '!eThipe MewKa xne6a Ha y.nosneTsopeHHe ':!eTbipex
sap onpe.nenHeTCH none3HOCTbiO nocne.nHei1 e,ni1-
Ba:>KHeMllJHX rpynn TIOTpe6HOCTeM, OTKa3aBllii1Cb
OT y.nosneTsopeHI151 noTpe6HOCTH HaHMeHee
HJ.1Ubi TOBapa, KOTOpyiO TIOTpe6HTeJib rOTOB KyTIJ.1Tb.
f1oTpe611TeJib TIOKYTiaeT TOBap HJIH yCJiyTy, TIOTOMY
':!TO C':!I1TaeT l1X ,UJUl ce6H TIOJie3HbiMM, T.e. H)I)KHbiMH eMy
,UJUl
Y.UOBJieTBOpeHHH TIOTpe6HOCTei1.
noneaHOCTb (utility, U) - noTpe61-nenbcKHe csoiiiCTBa TOBapa HllH yc11yn1 H HX CTOHMOCTHaSl Ol..leHKa
noTpe6HTeneM.
Ba:>KHOM, npe,ncTaBJI51IOIIIeH npe,neJTbHYIO TIOJie3HOCTh, - OH TipOCTO pelllJ.1T He ,nep:>KaTb nonyraeB. IJ,eHHOCTb O,UHOfO 113 TI51Tl1 MelliKOB ,UJI5l Hero
HeBeJII1Ka.
npe.nnono:>KHM Tenepb, t.tTO y noceneHua ecTb
TOJibKO TPM MewKa XJTe6a. KaK senHKa 6y.neT MH
Hero ueHHOCTb o.nHoro MewKa Teneph? OH MO)((eT
y.nosneTBOPHTb TPM Ba)((Hei1lllHe noTpe6HOCTI1,
L(JIH TIOTpe6HTeJI5l npe,neJibHaH TIOJie3HOCTb 03Hat.taeT ero TOTOBHOCTb 3aTIJiaTHTb 3a TOBap HeKOTOpyiO MaKCJ.1MaJibHYIO ueHy. Ecn11 Bhr HallJJIJ.1 s l1H-
a .nse MeHee sa)((Hbie ocTaBMT 6e3 y.nosneTBopeHAA.
ECJIH y Hero TOJTbKO ,nsa MewKa, TO OH orpaHH'!MTCH JII1lllb y.nosneTBopeHHeM .nsyx caMbiX Ba)((-
TepHeT-Mara3J.1He nneep iPod 3a 8 TbJC. p . 11 3TO
MaKCI1MaJibHaH UeHa, KOTOpyiO Bbl TOTOBbl 3a Hero
HhiX rpynn TIOTpe6HOCTei1 l1 OTKa)((eTC51 OT Y.UOBJieTBOpeHI151 TpeTbeM TIOTpe6HOCTM - B M51CHOM
3annaTI1Tb, 3TO 11 eCTb Ballla CTOHMOCTHaH OUeHKa npe.nenhHOi1 none3HOCTH ::noro Tosapa. Ecn11
nume. IJ,eHHOCTb ,nn51 Hero Ka:>K,Uoro noTep51HHoro
MellJKa yBeJIJ.1.Y.MBaeTC5l.
pe.nnoJTO)((HM, HaKoHeu, '!TO Halll noceneHeu
ueHa 6y,neT Bhlwe, 3TOT nneep Bbi y)((e He KYnHTe.
CyUieCTBYIOT Tpu ocuoBHbiX H3Mepeuus none3uocTu:
• o6w,afl no!le3HOCmb (total utility, TU) - o6wee
y.nosneTsopeHHe, nOJIYI..JaeMoe oT noTpe6neHHH
,UaHHOfO KOJII1':!eCTBa TOBapoB;
• cpeaHflfl no!le3HOCmb (average utility, AU) - none3HOCTb e,nJ.1H11Uhi Tosapa HJIH ycnym; o6ma51
TIOJie3HOCTb, ,UeJieHHa5f Ha KOJTI1'IeCTBO TIOTpe6JieHHOfO TOBapa;
• npeae!lbHOfl no!le3Hocmb (marginal utility, MU) np11pocT o6mei1 none3HOCTH B pe3yJibTaTe yseJIHt.teHH51 TIOTpe6JieHI15l Ha e,UI1HMUY.
AscTpl1i1CKMi1 3KOHOMI1CT E. EeM-EasepK TaK HJIniOcTpHposan 3TY H,UeiO npe.nenbHoi1 none3HOCTI1.
r1pe.nnono)((HM , Y.TO noceneHeu, 1136yrnKa KOTOporo O,UHHOKO CTOHT B nepB06biTHOM Jiecy, C06pan
co csoero noJUl TI5lTb MellJKOB XJTe6a. O.nHH MernoK
He06XO,U11M eMy, ':!T06bl TOJibKO He yMepeTb C rOJTO,na .no cne.nyiOwei1 :>KaTBhL r1pH noMOUIH .npyroro
MelliKa eMy H)I)KHO YJTY'IWl1Tb CBOe TIHTaHHe HaCTOJibKO, t.tT06bi coxpaHHTb 3,noposbe J.1 CHJihJ. Tpenli1 MeWOK OH npe,nHa3Hat.taeT ,UJUl OTKapMJTHBaHI15l
Kyp, ':!T06bJ .no6aBHTh B csoi1 pauMoH KYPHHoe M.51co.
lJeTBepTbiH MeWOK ,UOJI)((eH TIOMTI1 y Hero Ha npl1fOTOBJieHHe xne6HOM BO.UKH. lliTbiH MelliOK OH pewaeT ynoTpe6HTb Ha KOpM ,nn51 norryraes, 6onTOBHIO KOTOpbiX eMy HpaBI1TC51 CJIYUiaTb.
r1ycTb Tenepb nepeceneHeu co6pan TOJibKO t.teTblpe MellJKa. 5JCHO , ':!TO, TIOTepHB O,UJ.1 H Melli OK
3 3Kouot.HtKa 10-1 I KJJ.
n
npM TOM :>Ke ypOBHe TIOTpe6HOCTeM MMeeT TOJlbKO
O,UHH MellJOK XJTe6a. 5J.CHO, ':!TO 3TOT MeUIOK 6y,neT ynoTpe6neH .nnH y.nosneTBopeHllil nepsei1rnux
TIOTpe6HOCTei1 B TIMIIIe. 06JTa,UaHHe MM 03HaYaeT
)((113Hb, ero yTpaTa -
CMepTb.
B
.naHHOM CITYI..Jae
UeHHOCTb MeWKa 3epHa - COXpaHeHHe )((M3HH H
oHa pasHa ero npe.nenhHOi1 none3HOCTH. O':!eBH.UHO, Y.TO TIOJie3HOCTb nepsoro 11 e,UMHCTBeHHOfO
MernKa ,nn5l nepeceneHua HaMBbicrnaH, BToporo MeHbllle, t.teM nepsoro, TpeTbero -
MeHbllle, t.teM
BToporo, 11 T. .n. 0TclO.na ueHa nepBoro MernKa
caMaH BhiCOKa51, BToporo MeHbrne, TpeTbero eure
MeHbllle H T. ,U.
lb aHaJIM3a npe,neJibHOH TIOJie3HOCTM BbiTeKaiOT
,UBa Ba)((HbiX TIOJIO)((eHI15l:
• ._eua cnpoca ua Tosap unu ycnyry pasua CTOHMOCTuou O..eHKe DOTpe6uTeJieM HX npe~eJibHOH DOJie3HOCTH: p = MU;
• 3aKOH y6bL6arow,eii npeoeAbHOii noAe31tocmu (law of
deminishing marginal utility) - no Mepe pocTa
DOTpe6JieHUB npe~eJlbH3B DOJie3HOCTb K~OH ~0DOJIHHTeJibHOH e~HHH ..bl DOTpe6JieHUB COKpa~aВ­
eTCB.
3aKOH cnpoca -
o6paTHOH 3aBHCHMOCTJ.1 06beMa
cnpoca OT ueHbl (eM§ 3.2)- BbiTeKaeT l13 3aKOHa
y6hmaromei1 npe.nenbHOi1 none3HOCTH noTpe6neHl151. '-leM 6oJibllle Bbr noTpe6n5leTe, TeM MeHbllle
y.nosoJibCTBHe OT Ka:>K,Uotl .nonoJIHMTeJibHOtl e,nHHHUbi TIOTpe6JieHl15l H HH:>Ke ueHa, KOTOpyiO Bbl roTOBbi 3a Hee 3annaTI1Th.
66
r n ABA
3. nOTPE51.-1TEJlbCKI.-11i! Bbi50P
npo.uosonhCTBHH 11
2. 3KOHOMI-1KA ,ll,OMOX035'lii!CTBA
7 e.u.
o.ue)[()l.hi B TO'-I.Ke
qeM none3HOCTb Ha6opos
BTOpOH BOTipOC -- KaKOH Ha6op TOBapOB TIOTpe611TeJib KYTIHT? 0TBeT -- TO, '-ITO OH npe)l.TIO'-ITeT
cpe)l.H J1MeJOl.li)1XCH nepe)l. HI1M Ha6opOB TOBapOB.
Ecn11 u:eHhi 11 .uoxo.uhr noTpe611TeJIH HeH3MeHHhi,
y Hero eCTb HeCKOJlhKO BapHaHTOB Bbi60pa. Jl106aH
J1X KOM611Hal.(MH )l.aeT TIOTpe611TeJIJO O)l,HHaKOBYJO
o6ru:yro none3HOCTh. EMy, cTporo rosopH, .uoJDKHo
6hiTh 6e3pa3JIM'-IHO, KaKOH Ha6op TOBapOB Bbi6paTb.
Kpuaafl 6e3pa3JIH'IHfl (indifference curve) -
rpa-
<!>H'ieCKoe H30fipa>KeHHe BC9X B03MO>KHbiX KOMfiH-
A, B
11
C.
D Bhiille,
3To csoti-
CTBO -- CJJe)l,CTBI1e nepBblX '-leTbipex aKCl10M pal.(HOHaJihHOfO TIOTpe6JJeH 1151.
OTP11UaTeJJbHhiH yron HaKJioHa. Ilp11 3TOM nonHaH TIOJJe3HOCTb Ka)[()l.OfO Ha6opa TOBapa )l,OJI)f(Ha
OCTaBaTbCH )l,JI5[ Hero Hei13MeHHOH. floTpe6HTeJJb
6y.ueT roToB 113MeHI1Th Ha6op TOBapoB 113
4 e)]..
1 e)]..
4. 51
Tpeu
xo.ua?
• Ilompe6ume!lb 2omoe 3aMeU(amb coKpaU(eHue nompe6!leHUR oiJHo2o moeapa pocmoM nompe6!leHUfl
iJpy2020. fpaВў11'-leCKH Kp11BaH 6e3pa3JJH'-IMH HMeeT
npO)l.OBOJlbCTBHH 11
В§ 9. P<
O)l,e)[()l,bl) Ha
C (6
B (3
e.u.
e)].. npo-
H84H~ ABYX TOBapOB, HM910W,HX OAHHBKOBYIO no-
)l,OBOJibCTBHH 11
O)l,e)[()l.bl) , TIOCKOJTbKy OH C'-111-
Jle3HOCTb All~ norpe6HTeJ1~, K Bbi60py H3 KOTOpbiX
TaeT TIOJTe3HOCTh 060l1X Ha6opOB 0)1.11HaKOBOH.
OH 6e3p8311H'i9H.
3TO CBOHCTBO -- TaK)[(e CJie)l,CTB11e nepBbiX '-leTbi-
CTBa
ero .u'
6anat
COCTa
3)l.ech
KaK r
6ophr
)l,OBOJl
.ua 11
)'MHO:
H11U:
pex aKCHOM pal.(I10HaJJbHOfO TIOTpe6JJeHHH.
r
TeM
Ha rpaВў11Ke noKa3aHhl )l.Ba TOBapa -- npo.uosonh-
• CfeM 6o!lbute y nompe6ume/lfl oiJH020 U3 moeapoe, meM
CTBHe 11 o.ue)[()l.a. IIone3HOCTh )l.JIH noTpe611Temr
6o!lbutUM e2o KOflULtecmeoM OH 2omoe noJICepmeoeamb
paiJu no!lyLteHUR iJono!lHume!lbHou eiJuHUU,bt iJpy2020
moeapbt. fpaВў11'-leCKH Kpi1BaH 6e3pa3JI11'-IMH BhrnyK-
norpe
JTa K Ha'-laJTy KOOp)l.HHaT. lJT06hi TIOJTe3HOCTb OCTa-
TeM
BaJiaCb TIOCTOHHHOH, yseJJl1l.JeHI1e TIOTpe6JieHI1H
o6m11
Ha6opa
A,
npe.unonaraJOU(ero noTpe6neHHe
HI111, npO)l.OBOJJbCTBMH J1
)f(e KaK 11 Ha6opoB
.UOBOJihCTBMH J1
4
B,
8
2
e.u11-
e)l,J1HJ111, O)l,e)[()l,hl, TaKaH
B KOTopoM
3
e.U11HHU:hi npo-
e)l,I1HI1l.(bl O)l,e)[()l,hl, HJIH
C.
BHeiiiHe KpHBaH 6e3pa3JJWlliH O'-leHb TIOXO)f(a Ha Kp11-
Hl1l.(bl
o6pe1
O)l.HOfO TOBapa )l,OJI)[(HO 6hiTb KOMTieHC11pOBaHO
IIo.u .
BYJO cnpoca. Ho B OTJlM'-IHe OT Hee OHa TIOKa3biBaeT
coKparu:eHHeM norpe6neHHH .upyroro Tosapa. lJTo-
.ueHe)l
He 3aBI1CHMOCTh Me)f()l.y l.(eHOH TOBapa l1 CTipOCOM Ha
6bi noMeHHTb Ha6op
Hero, a Bbi6op nOTpe6wTeJl5r Me)f()l.y
)l.BYM5f
TOBapa-
AHa B 11
np11o6pecT11 .uonon-
TIOJIK
(3 - 2 = 1),
4 e)l,l1Hl11.(
TOBap
HHTeJihHYJO e)l,I1Hlili,Y npO)l.OBOJlbCTBMH
M11, era CKJIOHHOCTh 3aMeHHTh O)l,HH TOBap )l.pYf11M.
TIOTpe6wTeJTb )l,OJl)[(eH OTKa3aTbCH OT
HcxoM 113 csoucTB KPUBbiX 6e3pa3JIU'IIDI, MO)f(HO
o.ue)[()l.bi
ycTaHOBI1Th, llTO 11MeHHO, CKOpee BCero, 3aXO'-IeT
TO '-IT06bi noMewiTh Ha6op
KYTII1Th pau:woHaJihHhiH noTpe6wTeJih np11 Hei13-
CTI1
MeHHhiX ll,eHaX 11 )l,OXO)l,ax:
(6 - 3
• Pa3!lU"lHbte Ha6opbt iJeyx moeapoe xapmcmepu3yIOmCfl pa3HbtM ypoeHeM no!le3Hocmu iJ!lfl nompe6ume/lfl. fpa¢11qecKH Kpi1Bbie 6e3pa3JJH'-IMH noTpe-
(4 - 8 = -4).
Ho ecJIH o.ue)[()l.bi MeHbllie,
B
Ha
C
11 npl1o6pe-
3 )l,OTIOJIHl1TeJlbHbJe e)l,I1Hl1Ubl npO)l.OBOJlbCTBHH
= 3),
norpe6wTeJib COfJiaCI1TCH OTKa3aThCH
seem OT Tpex e)l.I1H11U o.ue)[()l.bi
(1 - 4 = -3).
6/0t!Hi
KOM61
TOpbiE
CTBYIC
3TO
CBOHCTBO -- CJie)l.CTBI1e BCeX TIHT11 aKCI10M pa11,110HaJlbHOrO TIOTpe6JieHHH, B3HThiX BMeCTe.
EJO.LOI
HOeK
KOTO~
611TeJIH He MoryT nepeceKaThCH. Ecn11 nocrpo-
)l.Byx TOBapoB, 11MeJOII.(HH onpe)l.eJieHHbiX ypoBeHb
npeAen&Hafl HOpMa 3aMe~eHIIIfl (marginal rate of substitution, MRS) - MaKCHMBJlbHOe KOI1H'iecrao OAHoro
TIOJie3HOCTI1 )l.JlH TIOTpe6!1TeM, a 3aTeM TIOCTpO-
TOBapa, OT KOTOporo norpe6HT911b fOTOB OTK838TbC~,
H11e H
l1Th Kp11Bble 6e3pa3JIM'-IMH 11 )l,JI5[ BCeX OCTaJibHbiX
'iT06bl nony'iHTb AOnOI1HHTel1bHYIO 9AHHH4Y APYroro
pel.liH
11Th O.UHY Kpi1BYJO 6e3pa3JII1'-IMH )l.JI5[ HeKOTOpbiX
Ha6opOB TOBapOB, HMeJOII.(I1MI1 .UPYfOH ypOBeHb
TIOJie3HOCTI1, MO)f(HO TIOJIYl.fl1Tb KapTy 6e3pa3JII1l[J1H -- MHO)f(eCTBO Kpl1BbiX 6e3pa3JIM'-IJ15l, Ka)[()l,aH
113 KOTOpbiX npe)l.CTaBJIHeT pa3JI11'-IHbiH ypoBeHb
TIOJie3HOCTl1 )l,JI5[ TIOTpe6!1TeM. 3TO CBOHCTBO -CJie)l.CTB11e nepBbiX TpeX nepBbiX aKCI10M pa11,110HaJibHOrO TIOTpe6JieHMH (CM.
В§ 9.1).
• Jlompe6ume!lb npeiJnoLtumaem 6o!lbutee KOflULtecmeo moeapoe MeHbuteMy. fpa¢11'-leCKH Kp11BaH
6e3pa3JIH'-IMH, pacnoJJO)[(eHHaH Bhiille, npe.ucTaBMeT 6onee BhiCOKHH ypoBeHb none3HOCTI1. Ha6opbi C 60JJbllii1M KOJIH'-IeCTBOM TOBapOB Ka)f(yT-
TOBapa, npH H9H3M9HHOM ypOBHe TIOJ193HOCTH.
1~ I
s ~
6 ~
I
5+
4+
r
+
I
4
1
tt
oT
OH CM
npo.u<
secb'
KYf1111
o.ue)[(J
TIOTpe
TaM l
)[(eM
CTBIDl
.upyrH
2 ~
C MeHblliHM KOJII1lleCTBOM TOBapOB -- MeHee TIOe.u.
t
3-
1t
4
l I!I
f
7 ~
CH noTpe611TeJJJO 6onee none3HhiMl1, a Ha6opbi
JJe3HblMH . IIone3HOCTh Ha6opa TOBapos 113
TI
Ham
np11 2
KPI-1BA5'l 6E3PA3/li-1YI-15'l
0Ae>K,11a
IOU(Hi
I
1
i
2
1~ j I
3 4 5
OHM l
-1 -- t-
8
j
9 10
TIPOAOBOnbCTBHe
Kax 6
Pau:n
MaKCI
CTBA
lllle,
!OH-
pa-
no-
eHU5l
fteer
~0-1-
XHa
r e.Th
e~.
JPO-
Clfil.-
I
~
~ 011.
ITbl-
67
В§ 9. Pau,t-loHanbHOe norpe6neHI-1e
4. 610A>KETHOE OrPAH~LfEH~E
ITpl106peTeT MaKeHMaJibHO ,[(OeTynHoe eMy KOJII1-
Tpenri1 sonpoe: KaK norpe6neHwe 3aswewT or .uo-
)I(eT TTOJIHOeTblO.
xo.ua? Orser O'leBH,UeH -
Ilorpe6HTeJih MO)I(eT rrp11o6peeT11 11 JJJ06ble Ha-
4eeTSO Ka)l(,[(oro Tosapa, M3pacxo.uosas esotf 6JO.Upaexo,nhi .UOMOX0351H-
ersa Ha norpe6neHHe He Moryr 6hiTh Shirne , '-!eM
ero ,llOXO,[(bl.
6ophi, Jie)l(aiiJI1e HI1)J(e 6JO.u)l(eTHOH JII1HI1H, spo.ue
Ha6opa
EanaHe seex .uoxo.uos H paexo.uos .UOMOX03JJi1crsa
eoerasm1er ero 6JO)I)KeT (eM.
В§ 11.3).
PaeeMoTp11M
C,
1 e.u.
S KOTOpblH SXOMT TOJibKO
3
SOJiheTBilll 11
ITpO,llO-
e.u. o.ue)I()J.hl. Ilp11 npwo6peTeHHH
TaKI1X Ha6opos TTOTpe6HTeJib 3KOHOM11T 'laeTb CBO-
3,[(eeh ynpomeHHhiM e.JIY'IaH, KOf,LJ,a .UOMOX0351MeTSO
ero 6JO)I)KeTa, He wenoJih3yeT ero. Ho o.uHospeMeH-
KaK norpe6wreJih paexo.uyer esol1 .uoxo.u Ha Ha-
HO OH Tep51eT '-!aeTb ITOJJe3HOeTM OT ITOTpe6JJeH1151 ,
6opbl, eoeT051IIJHe TOJihKO 113 .[(Syx TO SapOS -
TTOCKOJlbKY pernaeT ,llOSOJibeTBOSaTbe51 MeHblli11M
,[(OSOJihCTSIDI l1 O,[(e)I()J,bl.
ll npO,Ll,OSOJihCTB11e,
npo-
l1 O,[(e)l(-
KOJII1'-IeeTBOM ITpO,UOBOJibeTSilll l1 O,[(e)l(,[(bl , XOT51 11
.ua wMeJOr ueHy. UeHa e.uwHHUhi npo.uosonbeTSHJJ ,
Mor 6bi no3BOJIHTb ee6e KYITHTb HX 6oJibrne. Cne.uo-
YMHO)J(eHHa51 Ha KOJII14eeTSO ITpl106pereHHbiX e,[(l1-
sareJihHO, e T04Kl1 3peHH51 TeOpHH paUHOHaJibHO-
Hl1U ITPO.UOSOJibeTSJUI, eoeTaSHT 3aTpaTbl ITOTpe6H-
ro TTOTpe6JieHH51 OH Be,[(eT ee651 HepaUHOHaJibHO.
meM
iamb
TeJI51 Ha npo.uosonheTsHe. AHanorwmo ueHa e.uH-
CymeersyeT H MHO)I(eerso Ha6opos rrpo.uosoJih-
H11Uhi O,[(e)I()J,bT, YMHO)I(eHHa51 Ha KOJIH'leeTSO np11-
eTsilll l1 O,Ue)l(,[(hi, KOTOpble ITOTpe611TeJib ITpl106pe-
'2020
o6peTaeMbiX e,llHHHU O,[(e)I()J,bl, eoeTaSHT 3aTpaTbl
eTl1 He MO)I(eT. HanpwMep, Ha6op
rrpo.uosonheTsilll 11
A
H3
7
e,nHHHU
JYK-
TTOTpe6HTeJIJJ Ha O,[(e)I(,Ll,y. CyMMa 3aTpaT ITOTpe6H-
cra-
TeJI51 Ha ITPO.UOSOJibeTSHe l1 Ha O,[(e)I()J.y eoeraBI1T
ITpHo6peTeHHe TaKOfO KOJIH'leeTBa Ka)I(,[(OfO TOBa-
Hilll
06IIJHe paeXO,llbl ITOTpe6!1TeJIJJ Ha 3TI1 ,[(Sa TOSapa.
pa IIpOeTO BbiXO,UI1T 3a paMKH S03MO)J(HOeTeJ1 ero
TY
'laeTh o6mero
5 e.u.
o,ne)l(,[(hi eMy He,noeryneH ,
a Ho
Ilo.u .uoxo.uoM 6y,neM noHwMaTh
ITo-
,[(eHe)J(HOfO ,UOXO,lla ,llOMOX03JJHeTsa, KOTOpaJJ He-
ron-
ITOJlh3yeTe51 Ha TTp1106peTeHHe 'TOJihKO 3Tl1X .USYX
UeH .[(Syx TOSapOS . . 3TO y)l(e 3HaKOMa51 aJibTepHa-
= I)'
TOBapos.
TI1SHaH eTOHMOeTb (eM.
fВЈ1111
6/0AH<erHoe orpaHH'IeHHe (budget constraint) -
lpe-
KOM611HaLV1fl BCeX Ha6opOB 113 AByx TOBapOB, KO-
rBIDI
3TO
fJ-iO-
TOpble ITOTpe611Tellb MO)f(eT np1106peCTI1 np11 CYUieCTBYIOU111X l.leHaX Ha HI1X 11 CBOeM ypOBHe AOXOAa.
nJO)I)KeTHoe orpaHwieHHe noKa3hiBaeT MaKeHMaJihHoe KOJIH'leeTBO Ka)I(,[(OfO TOBapa SO seex Ha6opax ,
KOTOpbie TTOTpe6HTeJib MO)I(eT ITpl16peeTI1 Ha 11Me-
;ub-
lOIIJHHe51 y Hero ,UOXO,[(. floeMOTpHM Ha rpaВўHK.
wro
Ha HeM JIHHMel1 rroKa3aHo 6JO.u)l(eTHoe orpaHHYe-
bCfl,
HHe HeKoero rrorpe6wreAA . Ecnw 3TOT rroTpe6HTeJJb
В·oro
HaKJIOH 6JO)I)KeTHOH JIHHHH paseH eooTHOWeHHJO
В§ 1.3),
Sbipa)l(eHHa51 4epe3
eOOTHOWeHHe UeH ,UByx TOSapos. flpe.[(eTaBJieHHa51
1rne,
[bCJJ
6JO,LJ,)J(eTa.
pelliHT ITOTpaTHTh seeb CBOM .UOXO.U Ha O,[(e)I()J.y,
OH eMO)I(eT Kyni1Tb MaKeHMYM
10
e.u. O,[(e)l(,[(hJ, HO
Ha rpaВў11Ke 6JO)I)KeTHa51 Jli1H1151 11MeeT HaKJIOH
MJJ e,[(I1H11UaMM O,Ue)I()J,hi, 4T06bi rrp1106peeTH O.UHY
.uonoJIHHTeJihHYJO e.UHHHUY rrpo.uosoJiheTsilll. E.uwHwua rrpo.uosoJibeTBI151 s .usa pa3a .uopo)l(e no epasHeHHJO e e,[(MHHUeH O,[(e)l(,[(bl.
Ho paUHOHaJibHbiM rrorpe611TeJih He rrpoero rpaTI1T seeb esotf 6JO)I)KeT Ha HeKOTOpYJO KOM6HHaUHJO o.ue)I()J.hi 11 npo.uosonbeTsHH. OH .uenaer 3TO
e UeJiblO MaKel1Ml1311pOSaTb fiOJie3HOeTb OT fi0Tpe6JieHilll. 0
TOM , KaK 3TO ,[(OeTwraeTe51, -
seeb eSOM ,[(OXO,[( Ha npO,UOSOJiheTSMe, OH eMO)I(eT
Kyn11Tb
5
610A>KETHOE OfPAHW-IEHI-1E
0Ae>KAa
10
O,[(e)l(,[(bl. 0'-IeBH,llHO, liTO B 60JiblliHHeTse eJiy'laeB
raM Ha6op, S KOTOpbJH BXO,llJJT o6a TOBapa, eKa)l(eM Ha6op
ersilll w
4
6to.q)l(eTHaH
J;H1Hk1H
9 .L
e.[(. npO.[(OBOJibeTBI151, HO OeTaHeTe51 6e3
rrorpe6wreJih npe.uno'-ITeT 3THM Kpai1HHM sapHaH-
B,
eoeT051IIJHM 113
3
e.u. npo.uosoJJb-
e.u. o,ne)l(,[(hl. LJ:oerynHhi eMy 11 nJ06bie
7 ;6 +-
5t
4
r Ij
.l
'
T
+
+В·
c.
'8
1
2 .._
. AocrynHble .
PauMoHaJihHhiH norpe6HTeJih 6y.ueT crpeMHTheJJ
MaKel1Ml13l1pOBaTb ITOJJe3HOeTb H, eJie,[(OBaTeJibHO ,
+ rosapos
Ha6opbl
Of
0
rosipo~
I
rt
1
t-
1-
-+
~
+
4 -1--l--
+
•
\
3 .L
OHH HaXO,U51Te51 Ha 6JO.U)I(eTHOM Jli1H11H, T.e. B paM-
1
__
HeApcrynHble
t
r a6opbt
;
~
,UpyrHe Ha6ophl ,llByx TOSapos, HO ,[(0 TeX nop, ITOKa
KaX 6JO)I)KeTa, npe,UHa3HaYeHHOro .[(ml 3Tl1X TOSapos.
eJie.UyJO-
UIHM naparpaВў.
rrp11 3TOM He eMO)I(eT Kynl1Th HH O,UHOH e,Ul1Hl1Uhl
npo.uosoJibeTsilll. EeJIH )l(e OH pernHT noTpaTHTh
-2 ,
TTOCKOJibKY TTOTpe6HTeJIIO Ha,UO fiO)J(epTBOSaTb .UBY-
+-
I
j
1
1
2 3 4
1
5 6
7 8
9
I
w
npOAOBOilbCTBk1e
В§ 10. Ma~
В§ 10. M a K C H M
H3
a
~ H Sl
n0
11
e3
H 0 CT H
2.
~3r.J
TaKMM o
1.
PABHOBEC~E nOTPE6~TEnS1
flp11 KaKHX yeJIOSI151X ;::r:OeTHraeTeSl paSHOSeeHe
CTH 3aKJJ
noTpe6HTeJISl? EeJIH noTpe6wTeJJb nonaraeT, YTO
floTpe6viTeJib .uo611saeTe51 MaKeHMaJibHoro y.uos-
npe)J,eJJbHa5! ITOJle3HOeTb npO)J,OBOJlbeTS1151 .U:JI51
JieTsopeHM51 eso11x 3anpoeos , Hanpas11s see eso11
Hero Sbrme , YeM o;::r:e)(()J.hi, OH 6y.ueT npHo6peTaTh
epe.ueTsa Ha rrpHo6peTeHHe nyqmero 113 .uoeTyrrHhiX
60JJbWe npO.U:OSOJibeTSH51 11 MeHbWe O)J,e)I()J,bl.
eM)' Ha6opos Tosapos.
O.uHaKo no 3aKoHy eoKpaweHHSl npe;::r:eJibHoi1: rro-
OH MaKeHMM3HpyeT rroJie3HOeTh ITOKyrrKH , Sbi611paSl
JJe3HOeTH no Mepe yseJIHYeHHSl noKynoK npono-
HaH6onee rrpMsJieKaTeJihHhlH )l,Jl51 ee6Sl Ha6op TO-
soJJbeTS11Sl noJie3HOeTb Ka)((JIOH eJie;::r:yiOIJJ:eH KYIT-
sapos , eoeTOSliJJ:11H 113 rrpO.UOSOJibeTS115I 11 O)J,e)(()J.bl.
neHHOH ero e;::r:11H11Uhi 6y;::r:eT eoKpalllaTbeH. O.u-
Bee so3MO)((Hbie Ha6ophi 113 3TMX .usyx Tosapos ,
HOSpeMeHHO npe)leJibHa51 noJJe3HOeTb O.U:e)(()J.bi,
KaK Bbl 3HaeTe 113
В§ 9.3,
MOfYT 6bJTb ITOKa3aHbl
Kp11BbJM11 6e3pa3JI11'111Sl. Jli060i1: Ha6op , ITOKa3aH-
e51,
TeJTb nOHMeT, YTO npO)lOSOJJbeTSI151 eMy )')l(e )lOeTaTOYHO H '!TO 60JibWe eOKpamaTb llOKYllKH
OT 060HX TOSapos. Ho ITOTpe611TeJib, pa3yMeeTe51,
O)le)(()J,bl OH He MO)((eT, )la)((e np11 OrpaH11YeH-
XOYeT KyrrHTb KaK MO)((HO 60Jibllle Ka)(()J.OfO 113 )J,Syx
HOM 6JO;::r:)((eTe Ha)lO 11 see-TaK11 HOpMaJibHO ITH-
В§ 9.4,
TaTbeSl , 11 no Mepe Ha)l06HOeT11 06HOSJI51Tb rap.nepo6.
Ha np1106peTeH11e Ha6opa 113 npO.U:OSOJibeTS1151
B 3TOT MOMeHT norpe6wTeJib He 6y.neT roTos rpa-
11 O)J,e)(()J.bl TOJibKO KaKYIO-TO OrpaH11YeHHYlQ YaeTb
THTb HH Ha py6Jlb 60JlbWe Ha npO.U:OSOJTbeTSHe ,
.uoxo.ua, 11MeiOllleroe51 s paerrop51)((eH1111 ero .uoMo-
HH Ha py6nb MeHbwe Ha one)(()J.y. OH He 3axoYeT
X03Hi1eTsa. EJO.u)((eTHa51 JI11HM rroKa3bJBaeT MaK-
npo.uoJT)I(aTh 3aMemaTb O)lHH Tosap ;::r:pymM. OH now-
eHMaJihHoe KOJl11YeeTSO Ka)(()J,OfO TOSapa BO seex
MeT, '!TO .UaJihHei1:wee H3MeHeHHe eTPYKTYPbi ero
Ha6opax, KOTOpbre nOTpe611TeJih MO)((eT npwo6pe-
noTpe6neHH51 TOJihKO yxy.umwT ero 6naroeoeTOSl-
eT11 Ha 11Mel0lll11He51 y Hero )J,OXO)J,.
HHe -
Hap11eyeM Terrepb Kp11shre 6e3pa3JIHY1151 11 6ro.u-
KOTOpOe 6y)leT nOpTHTbeSl, JJH60 HeXBaTKa O)le)(()J,bl, H flaJlbTO 6y)J,eT He Ha '-ITO Kyrr11Tb .
9.4.
KoHeYHO, rro-
):Ln51
SOJlbeTSIDl flO OTHOllleHHIO K ero ueHe H e)J,HHHU:bl
O)J,e)(()J.bi no OTHOWeHHIO K ee ueHe OKa3biBaeTe51
HO He MmKeT -
eJIHWKOM )J,Oporo, 3TO 3a paMKaM11 ero S03M0)((HOeTeH. Kyrr11B Ha6op, HaXO.U51IJJ:HHeSl Ha KpwsoH:
esoi1: ,ll
PasHOS(
11 eTpyr<l
.ueneHHbi
see Hax<
TIOYTeHH
3TO pasr
JieHHeM
enpoc H1
HanHTKO
SOJibCTBI
HOYHOH
py6awKI
eH113HTb
eTsa MO
llpH llOJ
nOTepe
6HTeJI5I npe)J,eJlbHa51 ITOJJe3HOeTb e)J,HHHllhl llpO)lO-
sapos, HaXO)J,Sll.lJ:HHeH Ha paenOJJO)((eHHOH Sbillle
U3,
• noTpel
TIOTpe-
Tpe611TeJib XOTeJI 6bi KYITHTb KaKOH-TO Ha6op TO-
seex Kp11soti: 6e3pa3JI11YH51
Ha o.a:e
S03HMKHeT JIH60 H36b!TOK npO)J,OSOJlbeTSIDl,
)((eTHoe orpaHWieHHe Ha O)J,HOM rpaQ)J1Ke, rrpoeTO
11
Ha np
Jle3HOI
Tipe)lno•
pa11110HaJJbHhiH llOTpe611TeJib MO)((eT Sbl)l,eJI11Tb
В§ 9.3
11x uer
norpe6
6y;::r:eT paeT11. B KaKoi1-To MOMeHT noTpe611-
Tpe6MTeJJIO 0)1,1-IHaKOBYIO eTerreHb Y.U:OSJieTSOpeHM5!
eosMeeTHS rpaQ:>11K11 s
eMhiX 1
OT noKynKM KOTOpOH npHXO)J,11TeSl OTKa3biBaTb-
HhiH TOYKOH Ha O)J,HOH 113 KpMBbiX, ITp11HOe11T ITO-
Tosapos. O;::r:HaKo, KaK Shi TO)((e 3HaeTe 113
• npe.neJJ
Se)J,eT K
611Tenei1:
o.nHHaKosoH:. YposeHh ero noTpe6neHM51 eTaHOS11Te51 onTHMaJihHhiM. TaKoe noJIO)((eH11e 11 Ha3biBaiOT
mO/IbKO I
paBHOBeCHeM DOTpe6HTeJI51.
aoxoa He
H3MeH51e
6e3pa3JJ11YI151 ~' OH MO)((eT e3KOHOM11Tb )J,eHbfH,
6e3pa3m
HO He .U:OeTHrHeT ueJI11 ITOTpaT11Tb see HMeiOIJJ:11eeSl y Hero Ha llOKYITKY )J,eHhfH e MaKe11MaJlhHOH
f
JihMeHeJ
PABHOBECHE rrOTPE6HTEJls:l
Tpe6HTe.
0TSeT11T
noJJb30i1: .
Pau11oHaJihHhiH rroTpe611TeJih s HaweM npwMepe
KOTOpbJe
HeTpaT11T see eS011 )J,eHhf11 Ha )J,OeTH)((eHHe MaK-
HUH M021
eHMaJlbHO .U:OeTyrrHOH eMy noJJe3HOeTH OT llOTpe6-
• B
JieHJ1Sl s TOYKe
A,
KpOI
cmeem
T.e. TaM, r.ue 6IO.u)((eTHa51 JIHHIDI
KaeaeTeSl KpHsoi1: 6e3pa3JIHYIDI ~- MaKeHMyM, YTO
3aS11C5
MO)((eT ee6e TI03SOJIHTb TaKOH nOTpe611TeJib npH
neHM51
HMeiOllleMe51 ypOSHe )J,OXO)J,a, 3TO
eTSHSl 11
4
3 e)],.
JIHYM51
npO)J,OSOJlb-
HO He
e.u. o;::r:e)(()J.bi.
TeJih, 1
PaaHoaecHe norpe6HrenR (consumer equilibrium) -
IBM,
Clo1T)'aLV1SI, B KOTOpO~ llOTpe6HTe11b MaKCHMH3Hpy-
pa3JIH'
eT ll011e3HOCTb OT llOTpe611eHHSI npH Cyl.l..leCTBYIOI.l..leM
5
6IOA>KeTHOM orpaHHl.feHHH.
~
--
-----~--
-
В·------
-~~-
t-rl---r-1
9 10
pee sc
llPOAOBOilbCTB~e
H51TC51.
6
7
8
.
-
.
В§ 10.
71
MaKC~M~3al..\~fl none3HOCT~
2. l-13MEHEHl-1E nPEAnOYTEHl-1~
TaKMM o6pa30M, npauuno MaKCHMHJau,un noneJno!C~te
•no
.1JUI
TaTb
llbl.
no-
:uocyn -
O.aUbi,
aTb:6li.10TIK M
teH m -i rap-
Tpa-
Biie ,
O'leT
iiOHero
roH-
BUH,
te)l(-
Tpe-
• Ec11u moeapbt 63GUM03aMeHReMbte (eM. § 3.2), naoeHue UHmepeca " OOHOMY U3 HUX yee/IU"'U6aem
cnpoc HG iJpyi!OU. LJ:onyeTMM, IlOTpe6HTeJIIO 6e3-
CTH 3aKJIIO'laeTCH B CJie)l;YJOI.l.(eM:
pa3Jil1'lHO , TTMTb Ke<lJMp MJII1 iforypT, eeTb eBMHM-
• npe)l;eJibHbie IlOJie3HOCTU Ka)l()l;OfO U3 IlOTpe6mt-
HY l1Jll1 fOBMMHy, exaTb Ha aBT06yee l1Jll1 TpOJI-
B
eMhlX TOBapOB )l;OJDKHbl 6b!Tb IlpOilOPUl10HaJibHbl
Jiei1:6yee.
11X UeHaM. llHblMU CJIOBaMl1, IlOJie3HOCTb .ll:JIH
TTpMJiaBKe Ke<!Jwpa l1 CBMHUHbl l1Jll1 He )l;O)I(.ll:eTeH
IlOT{)e6J1TeJI51 IlOCJie)l;Hero py6m1, IlOTpa'leHHOfO
aBTo6yea, OH rrpoeTo KYTTHT rtorypT M roBMHHY
Ha IIpO)l;OBOJibCTBI1e, )l;OJI)I(Ha paBHHTbCH IlO-
u noe)l;eT Ha Tponnei1:6yee. KpMBaH 6e3pa3JIM'll151
pe3yJibTaTe ecnw oH He YBM.D:MT Ha
Ill,
Jie3HOCTM IlOCJie)l;Hero py6JIH, IlOTpa'leHHOfO
eTaHOBMTeH rrpHMOH, KaK y rroTpe6MTeJIH
Ha O.D:e)l(.ll:y;
l1 rrpe)l;eJibHaH HOpMa 3aMellleHMH Me)l(.ll:y TaKJ1-
• IlOTpe6!1TeJib )l;OJI)I(eH IlOJIHOCTblO l1CTpaTI1Tb
Ml1 TOBapaMM paBHa e)l;MHMIJ,e.
11 CTPYKTYPY rroTpe6wTeJibCKoro enpoea Ha orrpe-
• JlpeiJno"tmeHUfl 6 OfflHOuteHUU 63GUMOOOnOIIHfleMblX moeapoe o6bt"'HO U3MeHRIOmCR napall/lellbHO. TaKMe TOBapbi MOfYT IlOTpe6JI51TbeH TOJibKO
.D:eJieHHbiH MOMeHT. Ho B pbiHO'lHOH 3KOHOMMKe
BMeeTe. DoTpe6wTeJib He MO)I(eT ucnoJib30BaTb
CBOH .D:OXO)l;.
PaBHOBecMe noTpe6uTeJIH noKa3MBaeT pa3Mep
Bee HaXO)l;MTeH B nOeTOHHHOM )l;BJ1)1(eHMl1. flpe)l;-
KOMTTbiOTep, y KOTOpOrO HeT MOHI1TOpa, CJie-
TTO'lTeHl151, UeHbl 11 )l;OXO.ll:, KOTOpbie OIIpe)l;eJIHIOT
.ll:MTb 3a BpeMeHeM IlO 3JieKTpOHHblM qaeaM 6e3
3TO paBHOBeeMe, MOryT HeO)I(J1)l;aHHO 113MeHJ1TbeH.
6anpei1KM MJIM ne'!aTaTb Ha rrpHHTepe 6e3 Kap-
Dpe.D:IIO'lTeHMH MoryT M3MeHUTbeH -
e HaeTyrr-
TPH.D:)I(a. Do3TOMY poeT MHTepeea K KOMn biO-
JieHMeM 311Mb! TTOTpe6MTeJib MO)I(eT rrpe)l;'bHBJIHTb
Tepy, qaeaM MJIM Ilpl1HTepy Hel136e)I(HO Be)l;eT
enpoe Ha 60JibiiJee KOJIM'!eeTBO TTaJibTO l1 MeHbWee
K pOCTY enpoca Ha eOBMeCTMMbie e Hl1Ml1 MO-
HarruTKOB , '!eM neToM. UeHbi Ha O.D:e)l(.ll:y M rrpo)l;o-
HHTOpbi, 6anpei1:KM 11 KapTpM.ll:)I(M. KpMBbie
BOJihCTBMe MOryT M3MeHHTbe51: orpaHI1'leHJ1e 'leJI-
6e3pa3Jil1'Il151 B eJiyqae TaKMX TOBapOB 6y.D:yT
HO'lHOH TOprOBJil1 -
IlO)l;HHTb UeHbl Ha KMTaifeKMe
py6aiiJKH, a ypo)l(aJ1 B KpaeHO.D:apeKOM Kpae eHl13HTb UeHbl Ha IIOMJ1.ll:Opbl. LJ:oXO.ll: .ll:OMOX03HHeTBa MO)I(eT TaK)I(e l13MeHMTbe51 -
yBeJIJ1'll1TbeH
npM IlOJiy'IeHJ1l1 rrpeMMM l1Jll1 COKpaTJ1Tbe51 npM
HMeTb <lJopMy yrna, KaK y
rroTpe6HTeJIH
IV,
a npe.D:eJibHaH HopMa 3aMel1IeHMH Me)l(.ll:y HMMM
paBHa HYJIIO.
• Jlpeono"tmeHUR JaeucRm om oocmumymozo o6U{ezo YP06Hfl nompe6JleHUfl. no Mepe HaCbil1IeHl151
D.lo -
TTOTepe pa60Tbl O)l;HMM 113 'IJieHOB.
npe)l;eJibHaH IlOJie3HOeTh Ka)l(.ll:OH .ll:OilOJIHHTeJib-
lfllbl
H3MeHeHue rrpe.D:TTO'lTeHMH, .D:OXO.D:OB u ueH rrpH-
HOH e.D:MHHUbi y6hmaeT. Do3TOMY .ll:JI5I oueHKM
eTCH
Be.D:eT K M3MeHeHMIO B eTpyKType enpoea rroTpe-
MaeiiJTa6a H3MeHeHl151 npe)l;IIO'lTeHMH Me)l()l;y
MemuomcR
mollbKO npeono"'meHuR nompe6ume11eu, a u,eHbt u ux
OOXOO HeU3MeHHbl . fpa<lJwqeeKM 3TO 03HaqaeT, 'ITO
.ll:BYMH TOBapaMH Ha)l;O 3HaTb, eKOJibKO O.D:HOfO
M3MeHHeTC51 TTOJIO)I(eHHe l1 )l;a)l(e <!JopMa Kpl1BOH
HMe rJiaBHOMY 6JIIO.ll:Y 6y)l;eT MeHbWe, '!eM y fO-
6e3pa3Jil1'lMH. KaK B pe3yJibTaTe M3MeHMTeH rro-
eTeH , TOJlbKO 'ITO nepecTynHBIIJMX nopor Bawe-
Tpe6wTeJibeKMif errpoe?
fO roeTenpHHMHOfO )l;OMa.
B~iTВ­
IalOT
6MTenei1:. Dpe.D:IIOJIO)I(J1M eHa'lana, 'ITO
H3 TOBapoB ~e HMeeTcH y rroTpe6wTeJIH. Eenw
roeTI1
~e
HaeJIHeb 3aKYeOK, TO l1X npe)l;TTO'lTe-
0TBeTl1Tb Ha 3TOT BOTTpOe O'leHb eJIO)I(HO, HO HeKOTOphle 06l.l.(He npaBHJia H3MeHeHHH npe)l;OO~TeВ­
-.-----,-
HHH MO)I(HO Bee-TaKJ1 yeTaHOBMTb.
- --.
• B KpamKocpo"'HOM nepuooe npeono"tmeHUR cyU{ecmeeHHo He MeHRIOfflCfl.
0Hl1 KOHeepBaTMBHbl,
3aBMe51T OT eJIO)I(J1Bllil1Xe51 Tpa)l;MUMH TTOTpe6JieHMH. HaKJIOH w <lJopMa wx Kpi1BbiX 6e3pa3Jil1'lMH, eKOpee Beero, HeO)I(J1)l;aHHO CYIIJeCTBeHHO He H3MeHHTeH. ManoaepoHTHO, 'ITO rroTpe6wTeJih, MHOfO JieT TTOJib3YlOilli1HC51 KOMilbiOTepOM
IBM,
pewMT nepeifTM Ha
pa3JIH'IMH noTpe6MTeJIH
I
Apple.
11
li
KpMBbie 6e3-
pa3Hbie M cKo-
pee Beero HeO)I(M)l;aHHO cyweeTBeHHO He M3MeH51Te51.
~
1
9 10
Tosap A
72
I
~3MEHEH~E
3.
U.EHbl
Pa3Mep H eoeTaB ITOTpe6neHHH 3aBHeHT OT ~eH
sapOS Ha HX l.l,eHbl )l,aeT paeXO)l,bl ITOTpe6MTeHH,
KOTOpbie orpaHMYeHbl ero )l,OXO)l,OM. Ilpe)l,ITOHO-
U3MeHRemcfl L(eHa ooHoco U3 6;wc,
a L(eHa opycOcO 6Aaca, OOXOO U npeono~meHUfl nompe6umeAfl HeUJMeHHbt.
)I(MM rerrepb, YTO
IJyeTb 1.1,eHa erropTMBHOH KYPTKM
10
6
4
Tbie. p . M Ha-
Tble. p. ITpH o6meM )l,OXO)l,e
Tble. p. l1pM raKMX l.l,eHax 11 )l,OXO)l,e O)l,Ha KYPT-
Ka 11 Ha6op rrpO)l.YKTOB -
3TO Bee, YTO ITOTpe6M-
TeJib MO)I(eT J<YITMTh. Ho rrepe)l, rrpa3)l,HMKOM erropTMBHhiH Mara3MH )l,aeT eKH)l,Ky Ha
eTOHT Terrepb
2
2. 3KOHOMV1KA AOMOX03s:lii1CTBA
HbiM, MO)I(eT 03HaYaTb, YTO TlOJie3HOeTb OT ITO-
TOBapOB H yenyr. IJpOH3Be)l,eHHe J<YITHeHHblX TO-
6opa rrpO)l,YJ<TOB -
Jl ABA
50%,
M J<YpTKa
Tb!e. p. Ilpo)l,yKTbl eTOHT eTOJibKO
)l(e , )l,OXO!l. He M3MeHHJieH. KaK M3MeHMTeH eTpYJ<-
TOBapOB OeTaeTCH )l,JIH T10Tpe6MTeJIH npe)I(HeH
HJIM YTO OH B eoeTOHHMM TlpMo6peeTM H3HaYaJih-
• 3lfJlfJeKm OOXOOG (income effect) -
M3MeHeHHe enpo-
ea B pe3yJihTaTe M3MeHeHMH peaJibHOfO )l,OXO)l,a
rrpH HeM3MeHHbiX OTHOeMTeJibHbiX
~eHaX
TOBa-
pOB. B pe3yJihTaTe eKH!l.KM Ha KYPTKM HOMHHaJihHhlH )l,OXO)l, ITOTpe6MTeAA TaK l1 OeTaJieH
10
TbTe . p.
UeHa Ha rrpo)l,OBOJiheTBMe TaK)I(e oeraJiach HeH3MeHHOi1. Ho noeKOJibKY ~eHa KYPTKM ynaJia,
3a Te )l(e )l,eHbfH T10Tpe6HTeJib Terrepb MO)I(eT KyITMTb 6oJibiiie Ka)l()l,oro M3 rosapos. Cne)l,oBaTeJihHO, ero peaJihHhri1 )l,OXO!l. ysenwmneH. KpoMe
TOfO, y
ITOTpe6MTeJIH eeTb Bbi60p -
KYITHTh
JIM6o )],Be KYPTKM 11 eTOJihKO )l(e npO!l.YKTOB,
B pe3yJihTare eHM)I(eHHH l.l,eHhi KYPTKH M3MeHHJIHeb
!l.YKTOB. BenoMHHM, YTO no esoi1ersaM KPHBhiX
)l,Ba Ba)I(HbiX rrapaMeTpa. Bo- rrepBbiX, M3MeHHJIOeh
6e3pa3JIMYH5I (eM .
В§ 1.3):
В§ 9.3)
nOTpe6MTeJih seer)l,a
MeHbllleMy, ITOCKOJihJ<Y Ha6opbl e 60JihlllMM KO-
)1,0 eHH)I(eHMH l.l,eHa Ha6opa rrpO)l,YKTOB eoeTaBJIH-
JIMYeeTBOM TOBapOB HBJIHJOTeH )l,JIH Hero 6oJiee
4/6
KYPTKH, TO noeJie eKM)l,KM -
~e
2/6
KYPT-
ITOJie3HbiMM M paenOJIO)I(eHbi Ha 6onee BhiCOKOH
KM. Bo-srophrx, M3MeHMJieH peaJibHhiH !l.OXO!l. rro-
KpHBOH 6e3pa3JIHYMH. B
Tpe6HTeAA. OH eTaJI Bhiiiie, rroeKOJibKY Ha Te )l(e
ITOTpe6MTeJib MO)I(eT npM06peeTM 60JibWe 0)1,-
1Q Tble.
pe3yJibTare roro, YTO
p. T10Tpe6MTeJih MO)I(eT Terrepb KYITMTh
HOfO HJIH 060MX TOBapOB , ero Y!l.OBJieTBOpeHMe
60Jibiiie Ka)l()l,oro H3 )l,Byx rosapos. Cne)l,oBaTeJib-
OT ITOTpe6JieHM5f B03pacTaeT. 3TO M eeTb 3Q:lQ:leKT
HO, B03)l,ertersHe M3MeHeHHH ~eHbT Ha eTpYJ<TYPY
)l,OXO)l,a.
0KOHYaTeJibHOe B03)l,eHeTBHe Ha ypOBeHb errpoea
H3MeHeHHe OTHOeHTeJibHbiX l.l,eH TOBapa H M3Me-
3aBHeHT OT )l,BYX Q:laKTOpOB: OT COOTHOilleHMH
HeHMe peaJibHoro )l,OXO)l,a rroTpe6MTeJIH. B pe3yJih-
eHJibl 3Q:lQ:leKTOB 3aMeii.I,eHMH H- )l,OXO)l,a H OT TMna
TaTe B03HMKaJOT )J,Ba 3ciJВ«<JeKTa:
Tosapos (eM .
M3Me-
HeHMe errpoea Ha rosap B pe3yJihTare M3MeHeHHH
OTHOeHTeJibHblX
~eH
Hbl u n
BH)l,eH:
YeM 6o
Ha H3bD
)l,a 6rot
eTKMM,
Ilorpee
rpe6ne ,
pei1TH t
JIOfMYH
)l(eTHOf
6HTeJib
l1 O)l,e)!(
6e3pa3J
0)l.HaK<
KOTOpb
OeHOBI1
В§ 10.4)
Bo3)l,ei1eTBMe 3Q:lQ:leKTa )l,O-
xo)l,a Ha errpoe Ha HOpMaJibHhiH TOBap ITOJIO)I(MTeJibHOe -
V HopMa,
norpe6
ysem1Y
Ilo)l,aBJ
Hhie: y ,
OH 11X
6oJiee 1
6y)l,eT I
ITOTpe6JieHHH MO)I(HO pa3)l,eJIMTh Ha )],Be YaeTM -
• 3rjJrjJeKm JaMeUJ,eHUfl (substitution effect) -
Ilpe)l,Tl<
rrpe)l,ITOYMTaeT 60Jiblllee KOJIHYeeTBO TOBapOB
eeJIM
Jia
~31
eTp)'Kl)
HYIO KOM6MHa~HIO )l,Byx TOBapos;
JIM6o see-TaKH O!l.HY KYPTKY M 6oJibllle rrpo-
eOOTHOIIIeHHe l.l,eH Me)l()l,y !l.BYMH TOBapaMM (06 aJib-
4.
Tpe6JieHMH M3MeHMBWeHCH KOM6MHai.I,MM !l.BYX
rypa errpoea rroTpe6MTeAA?
TepHaTMBHOH eTOMMOeTM TOBapOB eM.
В§ 10. M<
eTBeHH
Ha3biBa
MaJihH!
• 8blCOI
TOBaJ
l.JeM 60Jihllle y JIJO)l,eH eB060)l,HhiX )l,e-
Ta !l.O
TaKM'
)J,BYX TOBapOB TlpH Helf3-
Her, TeM 6oJihllle OHM rrorpe6JIHJOT, crrpoe paereT.
MeHHOM peaJihHOM )J,OXO)J,e. UeHa KYPTKM B pe-
Bo3)l,ei1eTBI1e 3ВўВўeKTa )l,OXO)l,a Ha TOBaphr, noTpe6-
KOllll
3YJihTaTe eKH)J,KH He rrpoeTO eoKpaTHJiaeb eaMa
JieHMe KOTOpblX 06biYHO eOKpamaeTeH ITO Mepe
• moea,
ITO ee6e, HO 11 ynaJia OTHOeMTeJibHO l.l,eHbi rrpo-
poeTa )l,OXO)l,OB, OTpMI.I,aTeJibHOe -
YeM 60Jibllle
saphi
)l,OBOJiheTBMH. IJOHHB 3TO, pa~MOHaJibHhiM ITOTpe-
y JIJO)l,etf eB060)l,HbiX )l,eHer, TeM MeHhWe OHM Ky-
)l,OXO)
6HTeJib MO)I(eT peiiiHTb 3aMeeTHTb B esoeM T10-
ITHT TaKH-X TOBapOB, errpoe Tla)l,aeT. COBOKYfiHOe B03-
Tpe6JieHMM OTHOeMTeJihHO 6oJiee )l,OpOfOH TOBap
)l,eHeTBHe Ha enpoe Ha o6a rosapa 3Q:lQ:leKTa 3a-
\. I1Ht/)ep1
OTHOeMTeJibHO 6oJiee )l,eiiieBbiM, HaiTpMMep Ky-
MemeHMH MO)I(eT 6bTTh TlOJIO)I(MTeJibHbiM lf OTplf~aВ­
norpe6
pocra 1
ITMTb 3a
6
Thie. p. rpM KYPTKH BMeero O!l.HOH ,
ITOKa OHM )l,emeBble, OeTaBMB Ha ITpO)l,OBOJibeTBMe
TOJibKO
4
Tbie. p. EeJIH, 3aMeeTHB B rrorpe6Jie-
TeJibHbiM. EenH JIJO!l.M pelllaT 3aMeCTMTh B esoeM
T10Tpe6JieHHH 60JihWee KOJIH'IeeTBO OTHOeHTeJih-
IJpM T1l
HO TlO)l,OpO)I(aBillefO TOBapa Ha MeHhWee KOJilf-
6oTbi n
HMM qaeTb TlpO)l,OBOJibeTBHH O)l,e)l()l,OH, ITOTpe6M-
yeeTBO OTHOeHTeJibHO TlO)l,ellleBeBillero, pa3Mep
HO KaY
TeJib OeTaeTeH Ha TOH )l(e KpHBOH 6e3pa3JIH'fHH,
errpoea Ha )l,Ba TOBapa BMeeTe MO)I(eT eoKpaTHTb-
KaYeeT
HO OKa3biBaeTeH Ha HHOH ee TOYKe, ITOeKOJlhKY
eH. Eem1 )l(e OHM pelllaT 3aMeeTHTb B rrorpe6Jie-
saphr -
KOJIMYeeTBO Ka)l()l,OfO M3 TOBapOB B ero ITOTpe6-
HMM MeHblllee KOJIHYeeTBO OTHOeMTeJibHO ITO)l,OpO-
<<MaKn
Ji eHMH H3MeHHeTeH, TO 3TO H eeTb 3QlcpeKT 3aMe-
)I(aBillero TOBapa Ha 60Jiblllee KOJilfl.JeeTBO OTHOeM-
c 60Jibl
memm. YenosMe 3Q:lQ:leKTa 3aMemeHIUI o TOM,
TeJibHO no)l,ellleseswero, enpoe Ha o6a Tosapa
CeTHTh
YTO peaJibHbiH )l,OXO)l, )l,OJI)I(eH OeTaBaTbeH HH3MeH-
BMeeTe BbipaeTeT.
raM6yp
ICTBA
no-
asyx
mew
aJib-
10. Ma
4.
73
none3Hocn1
~3MEHEH~E
JJ,OXOJJ,A
6yce. TaKHe TOSapbl Ha3bfBaiOT TaK)I(e HI13KOKa'Ie-
I1pe)];noJio)I(J1M Tenepb , lВЈTO MellflemcJl ooxoo, a l{eHbt u npeanoLtmeHuJl HeU3MeHHbt. KaK H3MeHHTCSJ
cTpYKfYPa noTpe6neHI1SJ? Ka3aJIOCb 6hi, OTBeT OlJe-
npo-
xo.ua
osa-
laJib-
!C. p.
He-
taJia ,
r KY-
jeJJb-
)OMe
HITb
TOS ,
;t pO-
lBbiX
er.ua
BH.UeH: 'IeM MeHbllle )];eHer, TeM HH)I(e noTpe6neH11e;
qeM 6oJThWe .ueHer, TeM Bhrwe noTpe6neHHe. l1n11,
Ha 513biKe 3KOHOM11KH, B pe3yJTbTaTe ITa)];eHHSJ: .[I,OXOlla 6IOll)l(eTHoe orpaHMY.eHHe cTaHeT 6onee )l(eCTKHM, ero rpaqn1K CMeCTHTCSJ sneso (eM .
В§ I 0.1 ).
I1oTpe6HTeJJh 6y.D,eT SbJHY)I(.[I,eH coKpaTHTb csoe noTpe6JTeHHe 11 Olle)l(.llbl, 11 npO.llOBOJJbCTBI1JI 11 nepeHTH Ha 6onee HI13KyiO KpHByiO 6e3pa3JIWIHSJ: . AHanorulВЈHbiM o6pa3oM np11 pocTe llOxo.ua JJHHHSJ: 6JOll)l(eTHoro orpaHH'IeH1151 CMeCTHTCSJ: BnpaBO 11 fiOTpe6HTeJTb yseJJI1'li1T fiOTpe6JieHI1e 11 npO.D,OBOJlbCTS1151,
11 Olle)l(.llbl 11 OK~eTCSJ: Ha 6onee BbiCOKOM Kp11SOH
6e3pa3JJWIHSJ.
OJi ee
>KOM
Y.TO
O.ll-
!HHe
peKT
p oe a
IH11 Sl
run a
.uo~)10.1-
LJ:JTSI Ka)l(.llOfO TIOTpe611Tellil KJiaCCI1<j:>HKaiJ,1151 TOSapOB CBOSJ: 11 3aBI1CI1T OT ero ypOBHSI .llOXO)];a.
IIOTpe6HTeJib MOJKeT HCUOJlb30BaTb .llOXO)l Ha DOTpe6neuue unu c6epeJKeuue. qacTh llOXO.li:OB, KOTO-
0llHaKO MHOrOe TaK)I(e 3aBHCI1T OT Tl1na TOSapOB,
CTBa 11JII1 BCeX .[I,OMOX03SIHCTB B IJ,eJJOM, eCJJ11 11X
llOXO.ll: no KaKOH-JJ1160 npWIMHe 113MeHMTC51. 3TO
ycTaHaBJI11BaeTCSI SbN11CJJeHMeM .usyx noKa3aTenew:
• npeoe!l bHou CK!lOHHocmu K nompe61leHUIO (marginal
M3MeHeH1151 B pa3Mepropensity to consume) pax TIOTpe6JieHI1SI, Bbi3BaHHbie 113MeHeHI1eM .[1,0XOlla Ha e)l11H11IJ,y. EcJTM pacxo)lbi Ha noTpe6ne-
4
TblC. p. B pe3yJJbTaTe
5 TbiC.
p. , npe.ueJJbHaSJ CKJlOH-
HMe yseJTI1Y.HJI11Cb Ha
HOCTb K TIOTpe6neHI110 3TOfO llOMOX0351HCTSa C0-
4
CTaBI1T
\....- HopManbHble roaapbl (normal goods) - rosapbl,
norpe6neHHe KoropbiX s pe3ynbrare pocra AOXOAa
ysenl1411 saercSJ.
3KOHOM11Ke
JTeHI1eM 11 c6epe)l(eH11RM11 OT.D,eJJbHOfO .llOMOX03SIH-
KOTOpbie noK}'naeT norpe611TeJib. Pa3nl1'-laJOT .nsa
OCHOSHbiX THITa TOSapoB:
B
paSI He nOTpe6IDieTCH, c6eperaeTcSJ.
KpatfHe Ba)I(HO 3HaTb, Y.TO np0113oHJI,eT c norpe6-
pOCTa llOXO)lOS Ha
~ pOB
KO-
CTBeHHblM11 11Jll1 TOSapaM11 Hl13llleH KaTerop1111 .
S=
0,8;
• npeae!lbHOu CK!lOHHocmu K c6epe:>ICeHuiO (marginal
propensity to save) - 113MeHeHMSI s pa3Mepax
c6epe)l(eHMSI , Bbi 3 SaHHOf0 113MeHeHMeM .llOXOlla
Ha ell11HMIJ,y. Ecn11 .UOMOX03SIHCTBO OTKJIMbiBaeT
Ilo)];aBIDIIOIUee 60JJblUI1HCTBO TOBapOB- HOpMaJJb-
B c6epe)l(eHH51
Hbie: l.feM Bb!We llOXOll fiOTpe611Tellil, TeM 60JJbllle
Ha
5 TbTC.
I
Thrc. p . np11 pocTe ero .noxo)];a
p., ero npelleJJbHaSI CKJIOHHOCTh K C6e-
OH 11X fiOK}'naeT. 0Y.eBI1)lHO , lВЈTO np11 TIOJ1yqeH1111
6oJTee BbiCOKOOnJTal.f11BaeMOH pa60Tbl TIOTpe6J1TeJJb
pe)l(eHHIO COCTaBI1T
SJ =
0,2 .
6ylleT TIOKYflaTb 60JJbWe MOllHOH Olle)l(.llbl 11 KaY.e-
3HaSJ: 3TH K03<j:><j:>11U11eHThi, scer.11:a MO)I(HO cnpor-
CTBeHHOfO npo.uosoJibCTB1151. TaKUe TOBapbi TaK)I(e
H0311posarb, HaCKOJlbKO yseJT11'IaTC51 TIOTpe6JieH11e
Ha3bJBaJOTCSJ KaY:eCTBeHHbiM11 11JJM o6bllВЈHbiMH. Hop-
11 c6epe)l(eH11e np11 pOCTe .llOXO.llOS llOMOX03SIHCTSa
MaJJbHhie TOBapbl .UeJJSJ:TCSI Ha:
Ha n106yro seni1'II1Hy. HanpMMep , ecn11 .li:OXOll yse-
• BbtCOKOKaLtecmeeHHbte moeapbt (superior goods) -
JTM'II1JICH Ha
20
TbTC. p., CKOpee BCero,
20
X
0,8 =
Tosapbr, noTpe6JTeHI1e KOTOpbrx s pe3yJTbTaTe pac-
r .ue-
= 16
Ta )lOXO)la yseJIJ1Y.J1SaeTCSI 6b!CTpee pOCTa .D,OXO.D,a.
JTeHMe 11
CTeT.
TaKHe Tosapbi Ha3bJBaJOT TaK)I(e npellMeTaMH poc-
KY pacnonaraeMbJH .uoxo.u JTI16o noTpe6nSJ:eTCSI,
KOlll11 (luxury goods);
JTI160 c6eperaeTCSI , CYMMa npelleJTbHOH CKJIOHHO-
pe6f( epe
• moeapbt nepeou Heo6xoauMocmu (necessities)
-TO-
ThiC. p . ll0MOX03SIHCTBO l1CTpaTI1T Ha TIOTpe6-
20 x 0,2 = 4
ThiC. p. c6epe)l(eT. 11ocKOJTh-
CTH K noTpe6neHI1JO 11 c6epe)l(eH1151M .llOJl)I(Ha 6bJTb
=
h llle
sapbr, noTpe6neHI1e Koropbrx B pe3yJihTaTe pacTa
pasHa e.n:HHHIJ,e.
KY-
.li:OXOlla yBeJJ11Y.J1BaeTC51 Me)1;JieHHee pOCTa .li:OXO)];a.
f103TOMY, BhPII1CJT11B, Y:TO npelleJibHaSJ: CKJIOHHOCTb
B033a-
11I.laIOeM
\ 11H(/JepHopHble roaapbl (inferior goods) - rosapbl,
norpe6J19HI19 KOTOpbiX COKP811.189TCSI B pe3yllbT8Te
pocra AOXOAa.
B
HaweM npHMepe
0,8 + 0,2
.llOMOX03SIHCTBa K TIOTpe6JTeHHIO COCTaBJISJeT
l.
0,8,
scer)la MO)I(HO onpelleJJI1Tb ero npe.uenhHyiO CKJIOHHOCTh K c6epe)l(eHI110 KaK
1 - 0,8
= 0,2.
TaKUM o6pa30M , B03lleHCTBMe M3MeHeHH51 .noxo.11:a Ha
Jlb-
I1p11 nonyqeHI111 6onee SbJCOKOOnJTalВЈ11BaeMOH pa-
)JIJ1-
60Thl TIOTpe6HTeJJb 6ylleT TIOKynaTb 60JTblUe 11MeH-
sapos, Ha KOTOpble 3TOT )lOXO.ll TpaTHTCSI, T1 CKJ10HHO-
HO KalВЈeCTBeHHblX TOSapos 11 ycJTyr 11 MeHbWe He-
CTI1 nOTpe611TeJJSI K noTpe6neHl110 l1JII1 c6epe)l(eHI1JO.
I
:~.tep
UTb-
Ka'IeCTBeHHbJX.
5n e-
sapbr -
B
3TOM CMhiCJie HeKOTOpbie TO-
SJBHO 11H<j:>epl1opHbre, TaKUe , KaK ycnyr11
TIOTpe6JJeHI1e 3aBHCI1T OT ypOSHSI )lOXO)lOB, Tl1fla TO-
ECJII1 TI1Tihi rosapos -
npo6neMa M11Kp03KOHOMl1Kl1
llOMOX03HHCTBa, TO CKJlOHHOCTb K TIOTpe6JieHl110 I1JTl1
opo-
<< MaK.UOHan.uca>> 11n11 asTo6yca. 11oTpe611TeJJ b
c6epe)l(eHl1JO scex n<rrpe611reJTew, B351TbiX BMeCTe, -
ocH-
C 60JJbllli1M llOXO.llOM HaBepHS!Ka npe.UTIO'ITeT fiO-
Ba)I(Hei1IlntH TIOKa3aTeJTh MaKp03KOHOMl1Kl1.
sap a
CeTHTh raCTpOHOMHY.eCKI1H peCTOpaH, lВЈeM eCTb
fiOllp06Hee 0 .llOXOllax 11 pacxo.uax .llOMOX03HHCTSa
raM6yprep , 11 Sbl3SaTb TaKCI1, lВЈeM exaTb Ha aBTO-
B cne)lyiOIUeM naparpa<j:>e.
В§ 11.
'v В§ 11. Ei to A >K e T A 0
M0 X0 3
~ HC T B a
2. p
3a
1. AOXOAbl
3aKa30B K npa3)l,HI1KaM , 6ecnJiaTHbiX nyTeBOK
11 np . L(OMOX03HMCTBa MOfYT TaJOKe noJiy'laTb
L(llil y)lOBJi eTBOpeHIUI noTpe6HOCTeM )l,OMOX0351HCTBa )l,OJDKHhl nOJIY'-IaTh cpe)l,CTBa K cyiJJ,eCTBOBamno , )l,OXO)l,hi. CoBOKYnHbiM )l,OXO)l, )l,OMOX0351MCTBa
COCTOI1T 113 )l,eHe)I(HhJX )l,OXO)l,OB -
B py6JI51X, )l,OJI-
Jiapax, eBpO 11 T.n. 11 HaTypanbHbiX )l,OXO)l,OB B ВўopMe nOJI)"laeMhiX )l,OMOX0351T1cTBaMI1 npo)l,yKTOB ni1TaHM5!, TOnJII1Ba , )I(J1Jlh51 11 T.)l,. L(OXO)l,hl MO-
TpaHc<!;>epTbi OT )lpyri1X )l,OMOX0351MCTB, Hanp11Mep , B <!;>opMe aJII1MeHTOB MJII1 )l,eHe)I(HOH nOMOIII11 OT pO)l,CTBeHHI1KOB , )1(11BYIIII1X 11JTI1 pa6oTa-
C'l
pacxc
Hanp
• non
no1
)l,JUl
IOIIII1X 3a rpaHI1J..J,eH.
CoBOKYfiHOCTh Tpy)lOBbiX 11 11MYIIIeCT.BeHHhiX )l,Oxo)l,OB 11 TpaHcВўepTOB npe)lCTaBJUieT C060M BaJIOBOH )l,OXO)l,.
)],Be
11 11
B n
lOTI
fYT 6hTTb peryllilpHhiMI1 (Hanp11Mep , 3apnJiaTa 11JII1
cyMMa ,qoxo,qos,
CTP
llilpHhiMI1 (Hanpi1Mep, BbiMrpbllll B JIOTepeiO, no-
nOily'laeMbiX ,C\OMOX03SIHCTBOM H3 BCeX HCTO'lHHKOB,
CKC
)l,apKM, )l,OXO)l, OT KYnJI11-npO)l,IDKI1 aKJ..J,I1M 11Jll1 .Ba-
,C\0 TOro, KaK OHO OCYll.leCTBilSieT KaKHe-llH60 nna-
)l, e {
JIIOTbl).
Te>KH.
L(e
apeH)l,HaH nnaTa 3a c)l,aHH)'JO KBapT11py) 11 Hepery-
Banoaoff
.ttoxo.tt
(gross income)-
33 I
Pa3JIWiaiOT HecKOJihKO OCHOBHbiX BM)l,OB ,li,OXO,li,OB
0)l,HaKO npaKTM'leCKM .BCe )l,OMOX035IMCTBa 06H3a-
,li,OMOX03JIHCTB:
• mpyaoeou aoxoa (labor income) -
)l,OXO)l,hi 'lJieHOB
)l,OMOX0351HCTB , pa6oTaiOUII1X no HaMMy, 11 )],0XO)l,bl Jll11..1,, 3aHI1MaiOIJJ,I1XC51 CaMOCT051TeJihHOM
npe)lnpi1H11MaTeJihCKOM ,LJ,eHTeJihHOCTbiO. HaeMHhle pa60THI1KM noJTy'laiOT )l,OXO)l, OT npo)l,a)KI1
CBOero Tpy)la -
3apa60THYIO nnary, npeMI111, KO-
Hbl nnaTI1Tb Hanom 11 )l,enaTh )lpyme o6H3aTeJibHhie B3HOCbl. IJOCKOJibKY )l,OMOX0351MCTBa He MOfYT
11CnOJib30BaTh no CBOeMy YCMOTpeHHIO 3TY '!aCTb
)l,OXO)l,OB, B 11X pacnOpSI)f(eHI111 OCTaeTCSI pacnoJiaraeMhiM )l,OXO)l,.
PacnonaraeMbiH
H OI
)f(eВ·
KBc
HO
aBl
H M'
.ttoxo.tt
(disposable income) -
sa-
p a1
MI1CCI10HHbie , '!aeBbie, CBepxypO'lHbie 11 )lpyrl1e
nosorit ,C\OXO,C\ ,C\OMOX03SIHCTBa 3a Bbi'leTOM 06SI3a-
lOT
ВўopMbi )l,eHe)I(Horo B03Harpa)l()l,eHM5!. I1pe)lnpi1-
TellbHbiX nllaTe>KeH H B3HOCOB.
CTI
HI1MaTeJII1 nOJI)"laiOT )l,OXO)l, OT npO)l,IDKH )lpyroro
CKMX cnoco6HOCTeii -
Bbl
npeJ],np11HI1MaTeJTb-
3TO 'laCTb )l,OXO)l,a, ' KOTOpyiO )l,OMOX03SIMCTBa MO-
B b~
11 non)"laiOT npe)lnp11HI1-
fYT nOJIHOCTbiO 11CnOJib30BaTh no CBOeM)' yCMOT-
TOI
ВўaKTOpa np0113BO)l,CTBa -
peHI110. EcJTI1 Hanom HeH36e)f(Hbi H 11x pa3Mep
r o;
)l,OXO-
yCTaHaBJTI1BaeTCH 3aKOHOM, TO KOMMYHaJihHhie nna -
)f(e
)l,hl OT BJia)l,eHM5! C06CTBeHHOCThiO. 3TO npOJ..J,eHT
Te)f(l1 , KOTOpbie TO)f(e B np11HJ..J,I1ne Hel136e)f(Hhl,
11)
Ha np11Ha,LJ,Jie)f(a11111e 'lJieHaM )l,OMOX03SIMCTBa
3aBI1CHT oT pa3MepoB )f(l1JIOM nnoiJ..J,a)l,H . ITepeexaB
o61
BKJia)l,hi )l,eHer B 6aHKaX 11 06JIMra1..1,1111 ; )l,I1BM)l,eH-
B 60JihiiiYIO 11Jll1 MeHhlllYIO KBapT11py, )l,OMOX0351H-
n o.
)l,bl -
CTBa MOfYT COKpalllaTb HJII1 yseJTM'lHBaTh pa3Mep
<!;>e
nnaTe)f(l1 3a C)l,a'ly B HaeM no-
KOMMYHaJihHbiX nJiaTe)f(eM , COOTBeTCTBeHHO yseJII1-
KO
MeUieHI1M 11 peHTa 3a apeH)lOBaHHYJO 3eMJIIO; aB-
'111Ba51 11n11 coKpaiJJ,aH pa3Mep cBoero pacnonarae-
BC
TopcKMM fOHOpap OT JII1TepaTYPHbiX 11 11HbiX npo-
Moro )l,OXO)l,a.
ro
MaTeJTbCKMH )l,OXO)l,;
• UMyUJ,ecmeeHHbiU aoxoa (property income) -
)l,OXO)l, OT 11HBeCTI11..1,11H B npe)lnpi15IT11SI;
apeH)l,HaSI nnaTa -
113Be)l,eHI1M 11 npaB 11CnOJih30BaHM5! 11306peTeH11M;
• mpaHcrjJepmbt (transfers) -
)l,OXO)l,bi, 3a KOTOpbie
'!JieH )l,OMOX03SIHCTBa Hl1'1ero He OT)l,aeT JII1J..J,y,
npe)l,OCTaBI1BIIIeMy 11x. TpaHcВўepTbi MOrYT 6hiTh
POCCI1SI: AOXOAbl AOMOX03SiritCTB, %, 2005 r.
l1JI
AoxoAbl
or co6crseHHocn1 Apyr1-1e AOXOAbl ,
'
B ВўopMe )l,eHer, a Tal()f(e TOBapoB 11 ycnyr. 11cT0'1-
3%
6oJie3HI1 , CTI1neH)ll111 -
no
Ha
npeAnPI-iHI-1MaTe!lbCKI-1~
HI1KOB TpaHcВўepTOB HeCKOJihKO. IleHCI111, noco611H Ha )l,eTeif, no 6e3pa60TI1J..J,e, 11HBaJIM)l,HOCTI1,
• c6t
Bbln!laTbl,
AOXOA,
11%
3TO COJ..J,I1aJTbHhie Bhl-
raJ
liY
no
o6
nJTaThi, MJII1 TpaHcВўepTbi, oT rocy,LJ,apcTBa. Hero-
11<
cy)lapcTBeHHbie opraHI13aJ..J,I111 -
~
Ha
npoВўcoi03bi ,
'!aCTHbie npe)lnp115!TM5! , 6naroTBOp11TeJihHhie op-
Onnara TPYAa,
64%
raHI13aJ..J,I111, peJII1fi103Hhie 0611111Hbl, TBOp'leCKHe
COI03hl -
MOfYT )l,eJiaTh TpaHcВўepTbl CBOI1M '!Jie-
HaM B ВўopMe )l,eHe)f(HOH nOMOIJ..J,I1 , no)l,apKOB,
lo1CTOYHI-1K: <l>eAepa!lbHaSI C!ly>t<6a
craTI-1CTI-1KI-1 P<t> (http:/ jwww.gks.ru)
rocyAapCTBeHHO~
Hq
)f(f
HO
77
В§ 11. 6toA}I{eT AOMOX035l~CTBa
2. PACXOAbl
JJ,en0311Tbl H BKJla)J,bl cpH3H'!eCKMX JII1ll B 6aHKaX,
3a C'!eT LlOXOLlOB Ll0MOX03SIHCTBO OTIJJa'!H.BaeT CBOM
npeJJ,npHHHMaTenew w HeBhrnJJa'-!eHHbie nepeso-
pacxonhl. OcHOBHble pacxo.Ubi noMaUIHHX X03HMCTB
Llhi M3-3a rpaHI1llbi.
a TaK)I(e cpeL{CTBa Ha C'-leTaX 11H)J,l1BH)J,YaJJbHbiX
eBOK
rt.JaTb
npMo~wВ­
)OTa-
c no-
13Jlo-
>AOB,
KOB,
nna)H3are;rb-
oryr
laCTb
ton a-
- aa5Siaa-
HanpasneHbl Ha:
pacxonhr Ha
He npeJJ,Ha3Ha'!eHHbie LlJI5l HeMe)J,JieHHOro noTpe6-
B
noKynKy TOBapos w ycnyr, npeJJ,Ha3Ha'!eHHhiX
JieHIDI , T.e. ocYllieCTBJUJTh 11HBeCTI111MH.
LlJI5l noTpe6JJeHIDI. )l,OMOX03HMCTBa noTpe6JI5IIOT
CTBe npHMepa MO)I(HO np11BeCTI1 np1106peTeH11e
JJ,Be rpynnbi Tosapos H ycnyr: nOTpe6HTeJJbCKMe
He)J,BJ1)1(11MOCTI1 (KBapT11p, )J,a'!, 3eMJ1H), OTIJJaTy
11 MHBeCT11UHOHHble. Pa3JJI1'!aiOTCH OHM TeM, 'iTO
MaTepl1aJJOB 11 pa60T no CTp011TeJibCTBY 11 Kanl1-
s npouecce noTpe6neHIDI nepBbte <<YHI1'iTO)I(a -
TaJlbHOMy peMOHTy, pacxoJJ,hl Ha noKYnKY npo-
Ka'ie-
IOTCH >> npaKTM'ieCKM Cpa3y 11JIM )J,OCTaTO'iHO 6bi-
M3BeJJ,eHHi1 MCK)'CCTBa, aHTI1KBap11aTa 11 IOBeJI11p-
CTpO , a BTOpb!e -
HbiX 113)J,eJII1H, KOTOpble npwo6peTaiOTCSI B Ka'!e-
nOCTeneHHO, B Te'-leHMe He-
CKOJibKMX JJeT 11 Tpe6YJOT paCXO)J,OB Ha CBOe nO)J,JJ,ep)l(aHHe B pa60TOCTIOC06HOM COCTOHHI1M.
CTBe 11 H BeCTI11111H;
• mpaHcrjJepmbt (transfers) -
ocTaJJbHhie pacxoJJ,bi JJ,O-
)l,eMCTBI1TeJJhHO , CeMb5l MO)I(eT CbeCTb ap6y3
MOX03SJMCTB, KOTOpble He 11CnOJJb3YIOTCSI Ha no-
3a nOJI'iaca , caMhiM )J,JII1HHbiM TeJJecpOHHbiH 3BO-
Tpe6JJeHI1e MJIM c6epe)l(eHIDl. 3To npe)I()J,e scero
HOK BPHLl Jll1 6yJJ,eT 6onee CYTOK, BO)J,I1TeJib CO)I(-
065l3aTeJJbHbie nJJaTe)l(l1 H B3HOCbi fOCyJJ,apCTBY H
)I(eT 11 6aK 6eH311Ha 3a He)J,eJJIO.
A
BOT, CKa)l(eM,
npeJJ,npwHTMJIM -
KBapT11py Ha)J,O nep110)J,H'-leCKI1 peMOHTHpOBaTb,
Hanorw w c6ophr, nnaTe)l(ll no
CTpaXOBaHHIO, B3HOCbl B o6meCTBeHHbie 11 KOO-
HO paHO 11JlM n03)J,HO BeCb )J,OM 6yJJ,eT CHeCeH;
nepaTMBHbJe opraHH3auww, npoueHTbi 3a KpeJJ,11-
aBTOM06HJlb )J,OJI)I(eH peryJI5lpHO npOXOL{MTb TeX-
Thi, a TaK)I(e JJ,06pOBOJibHbie TpaHccpepTbl LlPYfi1M
HI1'-!eCKOe 06CJI~HBaHHe, HO KOf)J,a-TO ero BCe
)J,OMOX035IHCTBaM -
paBHO npHJJ,eTCH C)J,aTb B M(haJJJJOJIOM; KOMnh-
BO)J,bl 11 np. HanpwMep, IIITpacp 3a npeBbiUieHI1e
aJli1MeHTbi, )J,eHe)I(HbJe nepe-
IOTep Tpe6yeT TeXHI1'-leCKOH no)J,)J,ep)I(KJ1, HO 6bJ-
CKOpOCTI1 -
CTpO ycTapesaeT M )J,OJI)I(eH 6biTb 3aMeHeH Ha HO-
)J,eHb po)I()J,eHIDI TOBapHW.Y -
BbiH.
MO-
C6epe)l(eHMH no3BOJJHIOT np11o6peTaTb Tosapbr,
• nompe6fleHue (consumption, C) -
B
'iMCJle nOTpe6wTeJibCKMX msapos o6hNHO
Bbi)J,eJI5IIOT Tp11 rpynnhi -
npO)J,OBOJibCTBeHHbie
TpaHccpepT rocyJJ,apCTBy, TIOJJ,apOK Ha
TpaHccpepT ero )J,O-
MOX035IMCTBY.
B
Poccw11 JJ,OMOX03HWCTBa HanpaBJlSJIOT
72%
cso-
MOT -
TOBaphl, HenpO)J,OBOJibCTBeHHbie TOBapbl , aJJKO-
11X pacxoJJ,oB Ha noKYnKY Tosapos 11 ycnyr, BKJliO-
3Mep
fOJib H Ta6aK. I1oTpe6JleHI1e )J,OMOX03SIHCTB TaK-
nna-
'iaSI np1106peTeH11e He)J,BI1)1(11MOCTH,
)I(e BKJliO'-!aeT CT011MOCTb nOTpe6JieHIDl TOBapOB
Ha c6epe)l(eHHSI B cpopMe npwpocTa cpwHaHCOBhiX
aKTMBOB )J,OMOX03SIMCTB B 6aHKaX HJI11 )J,OMa,
KHhi ,
11 ycnyr B HaTypaJJbHOM cpopMe. )J,oMOX03HHCTBa
:exas
06bi'iHO npOM3BO)J,SIT TaKMe TOBapbl )J,JlH ce6H,
w
135IM -
nOJJy'-laiOT HX B BI1)J,e OnJiaTbl TpyJJ,a 11JII1 TpaHC-
Tbi 11 B3HOCbl.
3Mep
cpepTOB, HanpwMep, 6ecnnaTHhre )J,JIH COTPYLlHI1-
1enw-
KOB nMTaH He, TaJJOHbl Ha TpaHCnOpT, nyTeBKH
arae-
B CaHaTOpHM llJIM )J,OMa OT)J,biXa, yCJIYfl1 )J,eTCKO-
I0%
18 %
M)J,eT
pacxoJJ,yeTcs:r Ha o6SI3aTeJJhHbre TpaHccpep-
POCCI-151: PACXOAbl AOMOX035li1CTB, %, 2005 r.
ro caJJ,a;
• c6epe:>1CeHUJl (saving, S) -
HaKonJieHI1e JJ,eHer
11JIM He)J,eHe)I(HbiX aKTl1BOB C paC'-leTOM Ha 11X l1CnOJJb30BaHHe B 6yJJ,ylll,eM. To , '-ITO c6eperaeTCH
Ha 6yJJ,yw.ee, He noTpe6JI5leTcH ceroJJ,HH. C6epe-
HH-
raH, )J,OMOX03HHCTBa npOC'-ll1TbiBaiOT CBOe 6y-
<HH
LlYlliee nOTpe6neHI1e -
' -
npHo6peTeHHe
HeABH}I{HMOCTH ,
<I>HHaHCOBble
1%
B03MO)I(Hbie pacxoJJ,bi Ha
nOKYTIKY KBapTMpbr HJJH JJ,a'!w, Ha Jie'-!eHI1e MJJM
o6pa30BaH He JJ,eTeM, Ha OTnyCK l1JIM CBa)J,b6y.
llo3TOMY c6epe)l(eHIDI -
3TO OTJIO)I(eHHOe no-
Tpe6nemte. C6epe)l(eHIDJ o6byqHo HaKanJillBaiOTCSI
Ha C'!eTax rp3)1()J,aH B 6aHKax l1JlH B BJ1Lle HaJJH'-1-
OH
HbiX JJ,eHer HJIM 3anacos TOBapos LlOMa.
K
c6epe-
)l(eHI1HM TaK)I(e OTHOCSITCSl nOK)'nKa HHOCTpaHHOM BaJIIOThi, ueHHhiX 6yMar, HeJJ,Bl1)1(J1MOCTH ;
noKynKa
Tosapos 11 ycnyr,
71%
lt1CT04 HHK: <l>eAepall bHaH CJly}l{6a roCyAapCTBeH HO~
CTaTHCTHKH P<l> (http:/ jwww.gks.ru)
78
,LJ,OMOX035l~CTBA
В§ 11.1
pO,li,CTBeHHHK e)l(efO,li,HO TIOMOraeT ,LJ,eHe)I(HbiM
4. HI
I n A s A 2. 3KOHOMV1KA
3. CEMEii1Hblli1 510A}t{ET
nepeBO,LJ,OM Ha
)J.onyCHIM, ceMMI COCT011T 113 ':leTbipex 'feJTOBeK:
oTua, MaTepH, CbiHa H 6a6yunrn.
6anaHc AOXOAOB H paCXOAOB AOMOX03~HCTBa 38 onpe,LJ,eneHHbiH npoMe>t<yroK speMeHH.
2006 r.
AOX<
+ 110 + 60 = 500
330
L(JI5I t
TbiC. p.
,li,OXO,[
Pacxo,LJ,bi:
• 8biMG'ieHHble mpaHcrjJepmbL.
Bee o6513aHbi IIJTaTHTh
OHO C
HaJTOfM, KOTOpbie COCTaB11Jll1 B 06llleH CJTO)I(HO-
HOMH
55
TbiC. p. J1MH 06JlafaJTI1Cb BCe Tpy,li,OBbie
BeJTW
H 11MYllleCTBeHHbie ,LJ,OXO,ll,hi. KpoMe Toro, OTU:Y
BeJIH'
CTH
E)l(ero,LJ,Hhiti 6JO,LJ,)I(eT I1X ,LJ,OMOX0351ticTBa B
TbiC. B nepec':leTe Ha py6JTH.
TaKHM o6pa30M, coBOKYTIHhiH ,LJ,OXO,ll, ,LJ,OMOX035IMcTBa COCTaBHJI
6/0IPKeT .qoMOX0311HCTBa (household budget) -
15
5
CKJla,LJ,biBaJTC5I CJTe,LJ,y!OlliHM o6pa30M.
Tipl1IIIJTOCb 3aiiJTaT11Tb IIITpaВўhi
TbiC. p. 3a npe-
BTe~
)J,OXO,ll,bi:
BbJIIIeHHe cKopocT11. TaKHM o6pa3oM, o65I3aTeJTb-
HHua:
• mpyooBbLe ooxoobL.
OTeu: H MaTh pa6oTaJOT H 3a
fO,ll, COBMeCTHO IIOJTy'faJOT 3apiiJTary
0Teu -
20
HH)I(eHep -
250
TblC. p.
TIOJTY'-111Jl TaJOKe npeMHJO
ThiC. p. MaTh nporpaMMHCT 11 no,LJ,pa6aTbiBaeT
B Ka':leCTBe 11H,li,HBH,li,YaJTbHOfO npe,li,Tip11HHMaTeJl51
C03,ll,aHHeM liВЈHTepHeT-Ca:HTOB, 3a ':ITO TIOJTyYHJla
35
ThTC. p. Ha ,LJ,aqe co6pan11 HeiiJToxoti ypo)l(a:ti,
':laCTh KOToporo npo,LJ,aJTH Ha pbiHKe 3a
• UMyut,eCm8eHHbiU OOXOO.
25
TbiC. p.;
IJOCKOJlbKY 6a6yiiiKa
)I(J1BeT C ,LJ,eTbMM, ee KBapTMpy CeMMI C,LJ,aeT, TIOJTyYa5I
60
ThiC. p. CTaphiti aBTOM06HJib peiiiHJTH
c,LJ,aTb B apeH,LJ,y coce,LJ,y 3a
30
TbiC. p. qaCTb c6e-
pe)l(eHMi1 JTe)I(J1T Ha c6epKHIDKKe, ITO KOTOpbiM
6b1Jl0 Ha':IHCJieHO
15
TbiC. p. npoueHTOB. IJOCJie
npMBaTH3aUMM OCTaJTHCb aKU:HH, TIO KOTOpbiM
6b1Jl nepeBe,LJ,eH ,li,HBH,LJ,eH,LJ,
• no!ly'ieHHble mpaHcrjJepmbl.
5 TbiC.
p.;
Ea6yiiiKa TIOJTyYaeT
30 TbiC. p. 3a fO,ll,
IIOC06He 5 TbiC. p. KaK
HbJe IIJTaTe)I(J1 COCTaBHJl11
• pacnO!lGi!GeMblU OOXOO.
60
TbiC. p.;
Ilo E
IJOCKOJTbKY 065I3aTeJTbHblX
COCT2
IIJTaTe)l(eif H36e)l(aTh HeJib3H, pacnonaraeMblli ,LJ,O-
Ka ':IJ
xo,LJ, 3TOfO ,li,OMOX035IMCTBa B paC':IeTe Ha fO,ll, COCTaBHT
500 - 60 = 440
В§ 10.4) 3TOfO ,li,OMOX035IH0,8. Tor,LJ,a ero pacxo,LJ,bi Ha noTpe6neHHe cocTaB51T 0,8 X 440 = 352 TbiC. p. J1J HHX IIp11MepHO 70% (245 TblC. p.) paCXO,LJ,yeTC5I Ha TOBapbl
11 30% (107 TblC. p.) - Ha ycJTyrH.
K TIOTpe6JieHMJO (CM.
HeH11
Bapa
• c6epeJICeHufl.
HOM
yMeH
MO)I(e
Bee , ':ITO ocTaJTocb oT pacrrona-
Ecn11
raeMoro ,LJ,OXO,ll,hi nocne onJTaTbi noTpe6neHHH
XO,LJ,e
(440 - 352 = 88
:nora TIO':ITH ,LJ,Be
BapOI
TpeTH ,li,OMOX035IMCTBO npe,li,TIO':IHTaeT ,ll,ep)l(aTb
eTCH.
TbiC. p.).
113
,li,OMa, a OCTaJThHO,e KJia,LJ,eT Ha c6epKH~.
Bbl'fl1
TIOJIHHTeJibHOe
BeTe-
Ha 065I3aTeJibHhie TpaHcВўepTbl, TIOTpe6JieHHe 11
TbiC. p. )i(}fBYlliHH 3a rpaHHU:eH
,LJ,a (c
CTBa
TaKHM o6pa30M, pacxo,LJ,bi 3Toro ,LJ,OMOX035IHCTBa
10
pean1
IlycTb npe,LJ,eJTbHa51 CKJIOHHOCTb
H ,li,O -
CTMIIeH,LJ,1110
Ha 3'
,LJ,eJIMTb Me)l(,ll,y TIOTpe6JieHHeM 11 c6epe)l(eHHeM;
• nompe6!leHue.
neHCHJO OT rocy,LJ,apCTBa
paH BOB. Cbmy-cTy,LJ,eHTY rocy,LJ,apcTBO IIJTaTHT
HX 6 J
TbiC. p. 3TOT ,li,OXO,ll, Ha,LJ,O pa3-
c6epe)l(eH115I TaJOKe COCTaBHJTM
= 500
60
+
352
+
pee '-I{
ro,LJ,a ,
88 =
)J.ony
TbiC. p. Ero 6JO,ll,)l(eT 6b1Jl c6anaHCHpoBaH.
qJieH
B Me
6JO,!J)KET ,LJ,OMOX03fiHCTBA HA rO,LJ,, TbiC. P.
AOXOAbl
TPYAOBOH AOXOA
3apnnara
npeMI-1s:i
nwJHoe no;wo6Hoe xo3s:~~crso
Tipl-16blnb or npeAnPI-1HI-1MarenbCTBa
,[l,pyr1-1e TPYAOBble AOXOAbl
l'IMYiileCTBeHHbiH AOXOA
nnara 3a CAa4y >KI-1nbs:~
nnara 3a CAa4y I-1MYU\ecrsa
TipOL,\eHT Ha BKnaAbl B 6aHKe
,lJ,I-1BI-1AeHAbl no aKL\I-1S'IM
,[l,pyr1-1e 1-1MYU\eCTBeHHble AOXOAbl
nony"'eHHble TpaHcQ>epTbl
neHcl-1s:~
noco61-1s:~
CT1-1neHAI-1s:!
AAI-1MeHTbl
TIOMOU\b POACTBeHHI-1KOB
nonyYeHHbl~ KpeAI-1T
,LJ,pyr1-1e rpaHcВўepTbl
500
330
250
20
25
35
0
110
60
30
15
5
0
60
30
5
10
0
15
0
0
PACXO,LJ,bl
Bbmna"'eHHble TpaHcQ>epTbl
Hanor~-1
C6opbl
Wrpa<jlbl
noTpe6neHHe
Tosapbl
TIPOAYKTbl ni-1TaHI-1s:i
HenpOAOBOnbCTBeHHble TOBapbl
AnKoronb, ra6aK
,LJ,pyr1-1e rosapbl
YcnyrH
Ksapmnara
KoMMyHanbHble ycnyr~-1
MeAI-1L\I-1Ha
06pa3oBaHI-1e
TpaHcnopr
,LJ,pyr1-1e ycnyr~-1
C6epe>t<eHHR
nono>KeHo s 6aHK
CoxpaHeHo AOMa
---
~-----~-
500
HY
cВ·
20
Tbi
,LJ,a eu
CKOJIJ
60
55
0
5
Hhl
npH В·
peanJ
352
pa3a
245
160
70
10
5
107
30
20
10
5
5
37
Maiiii
Ha
H(
XO,ll, I
)l(e y
IIpHO
BoT I
MOXO:
• HOJ.
He:JI
88
pen
59
29
BO
rrp1
'
79
1CTBA
В§ 11.
HbiM
4. HOMI-1HAJlbHbiE 1-1 PEAJlbHbiE
AOXOAbl
• peaJlbHblU aoxoa (real income) -
,U;ur ,ll,OMOX035!MeTBa B3)[(Hbl KaK 06beM ,l],eHe)[(HbiX
PeaJihHhiM ,ll.oxon Bhi'IHeJTHeTeH KaK HOMHHaJih-
nH.
135!11-
6toA}!{8T AOMOX03S1CiCTBa
06beM TOBapOB
11 yenyr, KOTOpbie noMOX035IMeTBO MO)I(eT npH06peeTH Ha eBOH HOMHHaJTbHbie ,ll.OXO,ll.bl.
noxonoB, TaK H 06beM TOBapOB H yenyr, KOTOpbiM
HhiH ,ll.OXO,ll., neJieHHhiH Ha noKa3aTeJib H3MeHe-
lTHTb
OHO eMO)I(eT Ha 3TH noxonhr npHo6pecTH. B 3KO-
Hl15I l..(eH, H33hiBaeMbiM 11H,ll.eKCOM nOTpe6MTeJib-
>KHO-
HOMHKe pa3JIH'IaiOT HOMHH3JlbHbie H peaJibHbie
OBbie
seJIH'IHHhi (rronpo6Hee eM.
OTUY
BeJIWlllHbl 113Mep5!IOTe5f B neHe)[(HOM Bblp3)1(eHHH
npe-
B TeKYIUHX ueHax, a peaJThHhre BeJIH'IHHhi- B enH-
reJib-
HHuax TOBapos HJTH yenyr.
В§ 14.3).
HoMHHaJThHhie
eKHX ueH. HanpHMep, noene nonyqeHHH OTUOM
B npOIIIJTOM fO,ll.y Ha,ll.63BK11 K 3apnJiaTe HOMHHaJihHhiH ,ll.oxon eeMhH yBeJTH'IMJieH Ha
HaKo l..(eHbl B TOM )l(e fO,ll.y BblpOeJTH Ha
B
Ilo BeJTH'В·II1He HOMHH3JlbHbiX ,ll,OXonoB MO)I(HO
bHhiX
eoeTaBHTb npe.ueTaBJieHHe o6 yposHe 3apa6oT-
i:
,ll,O-
Ka 'IJTeHoB noMOX035IMeTsa, HO He o6 ypoBHe
DCTa-
HX 6JiafOCOeT05IHH51. ,UJT51 3TOfO Hano 3H3Th, 'ITO
pa3-
(.!.2_-1)xl00 =9%.
1,1
CeMbH eTaJTa peaJThHO 6oraqe TOJihKO Ha
peaJihHbiX noxonos. BenoMHHM 3ВўВўeKT .uoxo-
Ha
OeTb
na (eM.
HeHHH l..(eH Ha TOBap HJIH yenyry. ECJIH l..(eHa TO-
HaJihHbTM ,ll.OXOn yBeJIHqHJie5f Ha
e
Bapa BblpOeJia, TO npH HeH3MeHHOM HOMHHaJTb-
B03poeJIH Ha
Mep-
HOM noxone peaJibHhlM ,ll,OXO,ll, noTpe6HTeJI5I
xo3HMCTBa Ha C3MOM ,ll.eJie eOKpaTHTe5I:
Bapbi
yMeHbiiiaeTe51 -
ona-
EeJIH )l(e ueHa TOBapa ynaJTa, TO npH TOM )[(e no-
~H:IDI
)!(3Th
reTBa
11e H
88 =
13H.
500
a He
Bo3MO)[(Ha 11 npoTHBonoJIO)[(Ha5f eHryauH5I: HOMH-
30%.
20%,
HO ueHbl
Torna peaJTbHhiM noxon noMo-
npH 6oJTee Bh!eOKHX l..(eHaX OH
(.!.2_-l)xlOO =-8%
1,3
'
MO)[(eT KynHTb MeHbiiie TeX )l(e TOBapOB H yenyr.
r ,ll,Be
9%,
20%.
135IHeo-
10%.
yBeJIH'IHJIC5f TOJibKO Ha
Ha 3TH neHbfH MO)I(HO KynHTh, T.e. ypoBeHb
KOTOpbiH B03HHKaeT npH H3Me-
On-
pe3yJihTaTe peaJihHhiM noxo,ll. ,ll.OMOX035IHeTBa
M;
В§ 10.3),
20%.
xone noTpe6HTeJib eMO)I(eT KynHTb 60Jibiiie TOBapOB 11 yenyr, ero peaJihHhiM noxon yseJIHYHBa-
T.e. Ha
8%.
CeMhH eTaJTa peaJThHO Ha
HeeMOTp5I Ha poeT noXO,ll.OB Ha
8%
6e,ll.Hee,
20%.
HaH60Jiee npoeTOM enoeo6 eonoeTaBHTh HOMH-
eTe51.
Bhi'IHeneHHe peaJTbHoro noxona 3aKJiroqaeTe51 B ne-
HaJThHbiM H peaJTbHbiM ,ll.OXOnhi -
pee'!eTe TeKyiiiHX HOMHHaJTbHbiX noxonOB B l..(eHhl
B3Tb, eKOJThKO KOHKpeTHOfO TOBapa, Ha KOTOpblH
npoaHaJTH3HpO-
rona, Bhr6paHHoro 1a 6a30BhiM .UJT51 epasHemm.
yxo,ll.HT 3HaqHTeJibHa51 noJIH paexo,ll.OB eeMhH, MO)[(-
,UonyeTHM, eOBOKynHhiM HOMHH3JlbHbiM noxon
HO KynHTb Ha ee HOMHHaJThHbiM ,ll.OXO,ll.. HanpHMep,
YJTeHOB noMOX035IMeTB3 eoeTaBJT51eT
20
TbiC. p.
B
1970
f. epenHHH poeeHHHHH MOf KYfiHTb Ha eBOH
493 Kf KapTO2004 r. - Y%e
noKa3aTeJIIO, no 1999 r.
B MeeHu. Ha 3TH noxonhr MO)[(HO KynHTh on-
Mee5fqHbie HOMHHaJTbHble noxonhi
HY eTMpaJTbHYIO M3IIIHHy, KOTOpa5I eTOHT TO)[(e
cpeJT5I, B
20
nrc. p. EcnH HHTepHeT-Mara3HH eHH)I(aeT ueHy
770
1999 r. -
TOJlbKO
Kr. CynH no 3TOMY
295
Kf, a B
na eme naeT eKHnKy, npHo6peeTH 6a3oByro 11 He-
epenH5I5I poeeHMeKa5I eeMb5f eTaHOBHJTaeb 6e,ll.Hee,
60
CKOJihKO yeTapeBIIIYIO MoneJTh eTHpaJTbHOM M3IIIH-
a noene eTaJTa 3Ha'IHTeJihHO 6oraqe. Pa3YMeeTeH, ,ll.O-
55
0
5
Hbl MO)I(HO y)l(e 33
52
10
Tbie. p. IlonyqaeTe51, '!TO
20
MOX035IMeTBO noTpe6JI5feT MHOfO ,ll.pyfHX TOBapOB
TbiC. p.
H yenyr noMHMO KapT6ВўeAA. UeHhi Ha O,ll.HH H3 HHX
peaJihHhiM noxon noTpe6HTeJIH BhrpaeTeT B nBa
MOryT BhrpacTH, Ha ,ll.pyme ynaeTh. flo3TOMY pe-
npH TOM )l(e HOMHHa.JlbHOM noXO,ll.e B
.60
MaiiiHHhL Ilpw o6paTHOH eHTyauHH -
70
10
XO,ll. noTpe6HTeJI51 eOKpamaeTe51 B,ll.BOe. IlpH TOM
(no,ll.po6Hee eM.
)[(e ypOBHe noXO,ll.OB OH y)l(e He MO)[(eT B006me
oeTaeTcH npe)[(Heif: eeJIH poeT ueH B epenHeM H}[)l(e
npHo6peeTH eTHpaJTbHYIO M3IIIHHy.
poeTa HOMHHaJTbHbTX ,ll.OXOnOB, eeMh51 eTaHOBHTC5f
5
07
30
20
10
5
5
37
88
59
29
OH eMO)I(eT KynHTh y)l(e ,ll.Be eTHpaJTbHhie
aJThHhiM ,ll.OXO,ll. paccqHTbiBaeTe5f no l..(eHe KOp3HHbl
45
pa3a -
Ha HOBbie MO,ll.eJIH no
40
Tbie. p. -
poCTe ueH
TOBapOB, Ha KOTOpbie epe,ll.HeeTaTHeTH'IeeKHM no-
peaJTbHbiM no-
Tpe6HTeJib TpaTHT OCHOBHYIO noJIIO eBOHX noXO,ll.OB
В§ 13.3).
Ho o6IIIM 3aKOHOMepHOeTb
BoT no'IeMy pa3JIH'!aJOT ,ll.Ba H3MepeuwH ,ll.OXO,ll.a ,ll.O-
6oraqe. EeJIH poeT ueH Bhiiiie poeTa noxonoB HO-
MOX03BHCTBa:
MHHaJThHhiX noXO,ll.OB ceMbH, OHa eT3HOBHTe51 6en-
• HOMUHGJlbHblU aoxoa (nominal income)- eYMM3 ,ll.eHe)[(HbiX noXO,ll.OB 'IJieHOB noMOX035!HeTBa 33 on-
Hee.
qT06bi nOJIYlJHTb noxon, '!JieHbi ,ll.OMOX035IHeTBa
pe,ll.eJTeHHhiM nepHO,ll., HanpHMep 33 MeeJll..(, YTO
npo,ll.aiOT yenyrH eBoeif pa6oqeif CHJThT Ha pbiH-
npHHJlTO B PoeewH, HJTH 3a ro,ll., YTO npHHHTO
Ke Tpyna.
BO MHOfHX npyrHX eTpaHaX MHpa;
paВўe.
H
o6 noM -
B ene,ll.yromeM napar-
/
В§ 12.
В§ 12. P bl H 0
~-
TPYA
~ 3AH~TOCTb
Boenp0113BO~MTb qenoseYeeKI1H KanHTan 11 noerasmrTb rpy~ Ha pbiHOK- Ba)I<HetiwaH 3KOHOMHYeeKaH Q:>yHKIJ,H5! eeMbM, KOTOpa5! B 3KOHOMMKe
Y:aiJJ,e seero eosn~aeT e nOH51TI1eM YaeTHOfO ~OВ­
MOX035!HeTBa (eM. В§ 8.1 M 8.4).
PbtHOK TPYI1a (labor market) - c<t>epa ycroHYHBoro
o6MeHa ycnyr rpy,lla Ha 3apa6orHyto nnary Me>KAY
npo,llaBL.laMH H noKynaremiMH.
B epasHeHHH e pbiHKaMlf ~pymx Q:>aKTopos npoH3so~ersa (3eMnH, Kanwrana M npe~npMHHMaTenbeKHX
yeJJyr) pbiHOK TPYlJ.a o6JIMaer PMOM oco6eHHocTeu:
• Ha pbtHKe mpyaa npoaaiOmC5l u noKynaiOmcR moflbKO yCJly2u mpyaa, a He cGMu pa6omHuKu. Tpy,IJ,oBbre
yenyr11, KaK 11 mo6hre ,IJ,pyr11e yeJJynt, He eymeersyiOT OT,IJ,enbHO OT JliO,IJ,eH, KOTOpbie HX OKa3brBaiOT. B orn~11e or ,IJ,pyr11x Q:>aKTopos npo113BO,IJ,ersa rpy,IJ, B npoueeee ero 11enonb30BaH1151
He YH~TO)((aereH;
• pbtHoK mpyaa otteHb pa3HopoaHbtu. Cnpoe npe,IJ,nHBnHerea Ha rpy,IJ,OBhie yenym pa3Horo ypoBHH
KBM11Q:>11KaLJ,I111 ( OT pa3HOpa60Y:J1X ,Il,O n porpaMM11eTOB) 11 pa3HHY:aeTe5! reorpa<J:>I1YeeKH: HanpHMep, B MoeKBe HeT pbrHKa rpy,IJ,a waxTepos, TorlJ,a KaK B BopKYTe 3TO oeHOBHOH pbiHOK rpy,IJ,a;
• npuo6pemeHue YC!lY2U mpyaa ttaw,e 8Ce20 noapmyMeeaem 803HUKH08eHue aflumeflbHbiX OmHOUJeHUU
MeJICay noKynamefleM u npoaaeu,oM. B oTnHY:Me
OT TOBapa M 60Hbiiii1HeTBa ,Il,pYf11X yenyr, KOf,Il,a OTHOIIIeH1151 npo,IJ,aBLJ,a M noKYfiaTeAA eBO,Il,51Te5I K ynJJaTe ,IJ,eHer 3a noKynKY, rrp11o6pereHMe yenyr rpy,IJ,a Yame seero 03HaY:aeT HaeM YeJJoseKa Ha pa6oTY Ha onpe~eneHHhiH 11n11 Heonpe,IJ,eJJeHHhiH epoK;
• 3apn!lama - rjJaKmOpHbiU aoxoa U u,eHa ycfly2 mpyaa - fl8JlflemCfl HGUMeHee 2U6KOU U3 8CeX U,eH
e 3KOHOMUKe. Bo MHOfHX enyYa5Ix 3apnnara onpe,IJ,eJJ5!eTe5! ,Il,OfOBOpOM, KOTOpb!H Henb35l H3MeHHTb
B Te'leHI1e orrpe,IJ,eneHHOfO BpeMeHH. l103TOMY
8 yeJJOBM5!X eosepiiieHHOH KOHKypeHIJ,MH 3apnnaTa B OTHI1Y:I1e OT IJ,eH 60JJbWMHeTBa TOBapOB
He pearHpyeT MOMeHTMbHO Ha 113MeHeHHe enpoea 11 npe,IJ,no)((eHM.
Ha pbiHKe rpy,IJ,a noKYfiarorea M npo,IJ,aroTe5! yenyr11
npe11MYI1IeeTBeHHO 3KOHOMI1YeeKH aKTHBHOfO HaeeJJeHI151.
3KOHOMH~eCKH aKTHBHOe HaCe/leHHe (pa6o~aR CHJia,
labor force) - YaCTb HaceneHHSI, cnoco6HaSI K yYaCTHto B npOH3BO,liHTeJlbHOM Tpy,lle.
.......
-- ~-
--
K T
pyA a
2.
06brY:HO 3KOHOMH'leeKH aKTI1BHbiMI1 e4:MTaiOTe5I HIO,Il,l1 B B03paeTe OT 15 ,IJ,O 72 JJeT. XOT5! ,IJ,eTeKHH Tpy,Il,
11 rpy,IJ, erapi1KOB B npHHLJ,I1ne eymeeTsyer, 3TH ,IJ,Be
rpynnhi HaeeneHH5I o6biY:HO He BKJJIOYaroreH B eraTI1eTI1KY pbiHKa Tpy,IJ,a. 3KOHOMU'IeCKU aKTUBHOe
uaceJieuue cocTOUT u3 lJ,Byx rpynn:
• JaHRmbte (employed) - see, KTO BhmonHHeT onJJalJI18aeMYIQ 11 Heonna'li1BaeMYIQ pa6oTy no HaMMY, np11HOe5!W:YJO ,Il,OXO,IJ,, a TaK)((e Jli1LJ,a, KOTOpbie
BpeMeHHO OTeyreTBYIOT Ha pa6oTe (no 6one3HM,
yxo,IJ,y 3a pe6eHKOM 11 np .), pa6oTaiOT Ha eeMei1HbiX npe,Il,np115IT1151X 11 3aH51Tbie B lJ,OMaiiiHeM
X035THeT8e npOI13BO,IJ,eT80M TOBapOB M yenyr ,IJ,AA
peaJJI13aiJ,I111 Ha pbiHKe;
• 6e3pa6omHbte (unemployed) - npO)((HBaiOI1IHe
Ha TeppwropHH erpaHbi Tpy~oenoeo6Hhie rpa)I(,IJ,aHe, 1) He HMeiOI1II1e pa6oTbi 11 3apa6oTKa (rpy,IJ,Osoro ,IJ,oxo,IJ,a); 2) HI1Iyml1e pa6ory 11 3aperweTp11po8aHHbie B IJ,eHTpe 3aH5!TOeTI1 no MeeTy )((11TeJJbeTsa; 3) fOTOBbie npl1el)'ITMTb K pa60Te.
qeJJOBeK MO)((eT 6biTb np113HaH 6e3pa60THbiM, TOnbKO een11 OH B TeYeHHe Orrpe,IJ,eneHHOfO rrep110,IJ,a Y,IJ,OBJJeTBOpM seeM rpeM Kp11rep1151M. Hanpi1Mep, yYalliHeeH, ery,IJ,eHThi, rreHei10Hepbl 11 MHBa.TIJ1,1JJ>I TaK)((e e4:MTaiOTe5! 6e3pa6oTHbi~, een11 OHI1 He 11MeJm pa6orhr,
MeKaJJI1 ee 11 6binH roTOBhi npi1CTyllJ1Th K HeM. Pa6oroenoeo6HbiH YeJJoseK, He )((eJiaiOI1IMM pa6oTaTb
11 He 11WYI1IHH pa6ory, 6e3pa60TH'biM He e4:MTaeTe5l.
B Poee11M sonpoeaMH Tpy,IJ,a 11 3aH51TOeTH 3aHI1MaeTe5! cDe,IJ,epaJibHaH eJI~6a no Tpy,IJ,y 11 3aH5ITOeTH
(PoeTpy,IJ,) , KOTOpa5I HaxO,IJ,I1Te5! B Be,IJ,eHHH MHHHeTepeTBa 3,IJ,pasooxpaHeH1151 11 eou,l1aJJbHoro pa3BI1TI15l. 0Ha 5!BAAeTe5l <J:>e,IJ,epaJibHbiM OpraHOM HerronHI1TeJlbHOH BJJaeTI1, oeyl1IeeTBJ15!l01lii1M cPYHKIJ,I111
no KOHTpOJIIO 11 H~30py B e<J:>epe Tpy,IJ,a, 3aH5ITOeTI1
11 aJibTepHaTHBHOM rpa)I(,Il,aHeKOH e~6bi, no OKa3aHI110 roey,IJ,apeTBeHHbiX yenyr 8 e<J:>epe eo,IJ,eHeTB1151
3aH51TOeTI1 HaeeJieH1151 11 3aW:11Tbl OT 6e3pa60THIJ,bl,
rpy~OBOH MHrpaiJ,1111 11 yperyJJI1pOBaH1151 KOJIJieKTHBHbiX rpy,IJ,OBbiX enopos. Poerpy,IJ, oeymeeTBAAeT roey,IJ,aperseHHhiM H~30p 11 KOHTpOJJb 3a eo6JIIO,IJ,eHHeM Tpy)lOBOfO 3aKOHO)laTeJibeTBa, paeeJie,IJ,OBaHI1eM
HeeYaeTHbiX eJiyYaeB Ha ITp011380,IJ,eTBe, o6eeneY:eHI1eM roey,IJ,apCTBeHHhiX rapaHTI1M B 06JiaeTI1 3aH51TOeTI1 HaeeJieHI15!, rrpHeMOM Ha pa6ory 11HBaJJI1,Il,OB,
perl1eTpaiJ,Hei1, npoxo)((,Il,eHHeM rpa)((,Il,aHaMH aJibTepHaTI1BHOM rpa)((,Il,aHeKoM eJI~6bi. Poerpy,IJ, pemerpl1pyeT 6e3pa60THbiX rpa)I(,Il,aH 11 eo,IJ,eHeTByeT
11M B nOMeKe pa60Tbi, a pa60TO,IJ,aTeAAM - B nO,IJ,6ope pa6oTHI1Kos; paenpoeTpaH51eT 11HcPOpMaiJ,I1IO
0 ITOJIO)((eHI111 Ha pbiHKe Tpy,IJ,a 11 ,IJ,p.
- - - -- - --
-
c
PhiH•
rep11
Hb!M
Cnpc
TPY.lli
CTH r
Cnp<
51 BAA
611Te
,IJ,a T•
npe)l
lOT
~
sap
11 Ha
Hae
KlDKl
HOe I'
Topy
npet
Jabot
<I>H PI
60TH
ITo
Tpy,IJ,
3To
nom
enoc
KH:H
B KO'
6ye11
KOB
Hel1::
H~<
HOM
'feeT
BbieJ
Cro~
mar~
npet
83
В§ 12. PbiHOK TPYA8
2. CnPOC HA TPYA
flOCMOTpi1M Ha np11Be)l,eHHYJO HM)I(e Ta6J111Uy.
flyCTb <jmpMa HaH51Jla CHaYana
PhiHOK Tpy)l,a, KaK 11 mo6oi1 )l.pyroi1 pbiHOK, xapaK-
mo-
TpYJl.
I )],Be
eTa-
sHoe
Tep113yeTcH CTipOCOM, npe)l,JlO)I(eHI1eM, paBHOBeCHbiMI1 UeHOM 11 KOJ111YeCTBOM.
pbiM npoM3Ben
o6beM ycnyr
Tpy,Qa, KOTOpbli:1 npOI13BOA11TellH fOTOBbl npH06peCTI1 np11 cy~ecrey10~11x 4eHax Ha TPYA (aapnnarax).
x 10
= 30
e)],.
Cnpoc Ha TpYJl. -
npOI13BO)l,Hhrn cnpoc, OH npe)l,D-
rrai1-
HBJ15leTcH Q:>11pMaMI1 11 3aB11CI1T OT cnpoca llOTpe-
iphre
611TeJleM Ha np0113BO)l,11MbJe C llOMOIUhiO 3TOfO Tpy-
3H11,
)l,a Tosapbr. Kor)l,a cnpoc Ha Tosap coKpamaercH,
ce-
npe)l,llpHHTHH coKpamaJOT cnpoc Ha TPYJl. 11 ysoJibHH-
eM
K)T 113J111WHI1X pa6oTHI1KOB. Koma cnpoc Ha TO-
1UUl
sap pacrer, qmpMhi ysenHY11BaJOT cnpoc Ha rpy)l,
11 HaHI1MaJOT )l,OTIOJ1H11TeJlbHblX pa60THI1KOB.
lUI1e
HaeM pa6oYei1 c11nhr 11Meer CMhrcn , TOJlhKO ecn11
)aJK-
Ka)l()l,hiM .ll0llOJ1HI1TeJlbHO HaH51TblM pa60THI1K np11-
rpy-
HOC11T <jmpMe 60JlbWe )l,OXO)l,a, YeM 3apnnaTa, KO-
11CT-
TOpYJO eMy Ha)l,O llJlaTI1Tb.
0
e.u. -
e.u.
= 10
e.u.
3
TbiC. p. X
15
ThiC. p., np116hiJ1h qmpMhl
15
ThiC. p. -
TbiC. p. =
15
TbiC. p.
OKphrneHHaH ycnexoM, qmpMa MO)I(eT HaHHTh
BTOporo pa60TH11Ka. 0)l,HaKO, TIOCKOJlhKY KOJ111YeCTBO o6opy.llOBaHI151 OCTaeTCH Hei13MeHHbiM , )l,Ba
pa60THMKa MOfYT yBeJ111Y11Tb llp0113BO)l,CTBO TOJlbKO )],0
18
e)],. flpe)l,eJlbHbiH npo)l,yKT Tpy)l,a BTO-
poro pa60TH11Ka COCTaBMT TOJlbKO
- 10
(3
e)l,.
=
8
TbiC. p. X
8
e)],.
e.u.), a )l,OXO)l, OT HerO -
8
e)],.
= 24
(18 e.u.
24 TbiC.
p.
TbiC. p.). flp11 3apnnaTe
15
BTOpOrO pa60THI1Ka TO)I(e
ThiC. p. )l,OTIOJ1HI1-
TeJlbHa51 npM6biJlh, KOTOpYJO OH np11HeCeT <jmpMe, COCTaBMT ~e TOJlbKO
- 15
)1(11-
JO
ThiC. p. Ecn11 3TOT YenoseK 6hrn
HaH51T Ha 3apnnaTy
30
KOTO-
ThiC. p. 3a e)l,I1H11UY .llOXO.ll OT npe-
)l,eJlbHOfO llpO)l,YKTa Tpy.ua COCTaB11T:
COCTaBMT:
on-
3
1 YeJlOBeKa,
e)],. Tosapa. flpe)l,eJlhHhiM npo-
.llYKT ero Tpy)l,a COCTaBMJl:
flp11 UeHe
Cnpoc Ha TPYI1 (demand for labor) -
10
TblC. p. =
9
9 TbiC.
p.
(24
TbiC. p. -
ThiC. p.). ITpe.uenhHbJH npo.uyKT
npe,l1ellbHblt:i npo,l1yKT TPYAa (marginal product of
labor, MPL) - yeenHYeHHe o6beMa npo~o~aeo,Qcrea
oT Hai1Ma Tperhero pa6oTHMKa 6y)l,eT eme HJ1)1(e,
HeceT qmpMe, coKpaTI1TCH .uo
LUH-
Q>HpMbl B pe3yllbT8Te H8.:1Ma ,QOllOJlHHTellbHOfO pa60THI1K8.
;'ill:-
no Mepe pocTa npOI13BO.llCTBa npe)l,eJlbHbiH TIPO.llYKT
DJib-
!I.OB-
)Tbl ,
rpy)l,a o6hiYHO coKpamaercH (no.upo6Hee eM.
l6o-
3To llpOMCXO)l,HT BCJ1e)l,CTB11e TOfO, YTO HaHHTh )1,0-
raTb
TCH.
:\1a-
ICT11
HHIBI1IOJ1U1111
ICT11
IKaBHH
Uhl,
'11B-
roH11-
llOJlHHTeJlhHyJO pa6oYyiO C11J1Y -
В§ 16.3).
CaMbiM npOCTOM
cnoco6 pacWHpMTh npoM3BO)l,CTBO. Ho 1UUl ycTaHoBKM HOBOfO o6opy)l,OBaHMH 11 CTpOJUeJlbCTBa UeXOB,
B KOTOpblX 3T11 J110)],11 6y)l,yr pa60TaTb, 06hiYHO Tpe6yeTCH speMH.
B
pe3ynhTaTe KOJTMYeCTBO pa6oTHM-
KOB paCTeT, a KOJlMYeCTBO o6opy)l,OBaH115l OCTaeTCH
HeM3MeHHbiM. HanpMMep, ecn11 cl>poHT rpy)l,a orpaHMYeH .ll06bJYeM HecPTM 113 CKBa)I(I1Hhl onpe.ueneHHOM llp0113BO)l,11TeJlbHOCT11, TO yseJ111YeHMe KOJlMYeCTBa 3aHHTblX Ha HeM pa60YI1X He CMO)I(eT llO-
11 )l,OllOJ1H11TeJlbHa51 npM6biJlh, KOTOPYlO OH npM-
3
A
ThiC. p.
np11
HaMMe YeTBepTOfO 11 ~ TeM 6onee llHTOfO pa6oTH11Ka 06IUaH llp116biJlh qmpMbl HaYHeT yMeHbIIIaTbC51. Cne.uosaTeJlhHO, qmpMa npe)l,bHBI1T cnpoc
TOJlhKO Ha Tpex pa60TH11KOB.
fpacPMYeCK11 Kp11BaH, TIOKa3bJBalOIUa51 CTOMMOCTh
npe)l,enhHOro npoJl.YKTa rpy)l,a, 11 ecTb Kp11Ba51 cnpoca Ha Tpy)l, OT)l,eJlhHOM cPI1PMhl.
113
nose.ueHI1H cPMPMhi BbJTeKaJOT npaouna cnpoca
Ha Tpy)l,:
• cnpoc Ha TPYJl. pacTeT 11 cPMPMhi HaH11MaJOT pa6oTHMKOB, eCJ111 .IJ:OXO)l, OT npe)l,eJlhHOfO npO.IJ:YKTa rpy.ua 6onhwe 3apnnaThr;
• cnpoc Ha Tpy)l, COKpamaeTC5l 11 cP11PMbl YJ30JlbHHJOT pa60THI1KOB, eCJ111 )l,OXO)l, OT npe)l,eJlbHOfO
npo.uyKTa Tpy)l,a MeHhWe 3apnnaThr;
BhiCMTh )l,06biYY HecPTM.
• KOf)l,a )l,OXO.ll OT npe)l,eJlbHOfO npO)l,yKTa Tpy.ua
CToHMOCTb npe,l1ellbHOro npo,l1yKTa TPY.l1a (value of
marginal product of labor, VMPL) - npo~o~aee,QeHHe
paseH 3apnnaTe, cl>MpMa MaKCMMM311pyeT npl1-
npe.QellbHoro npo.QyKra rpy.Qa Ha 49HY roeapa.
Tpy)l, .
6hrnh 11 npe.Ub51BJ15leT MaKCMMaJThHhJH cnpoc Ha
eM
:qeHH-
K01111Y9CTBO
pa60THHKOB, eA.
I
K01111Y9CTBO
roeapa, eA.
[OB,
I
npe,QellbHbli:1
llPOAYKT TPYA8,
eA.
l...leHa 9AHHI14bl I CroHMOCTb npeTOBapa, TbiC. p. AellbHOrO llPOAYKTa
TPYA8, TbiC. p.
HaMeHeHHe
npH6blllH,
TbiC. p .
•Th-
pe1yeT
0)],-
;MIO
1
2
3
4
5
10
18
24
28
30
10
8
3
3
6
3
4
2
3
3
30
24
18
12
6
15
9
3
-3
-9
84
3.
rnA 8 A 2. 3KOHOM~KA ,D.OMOX035HiiCTBA
nPEAflO>KEH~E
TPYAA
3MpOBaTb IIOJie3HOCTb, eMy O)J,HOBpeMeHHO XO"!eTCH 3apa60TaTb KaK MO)I(HO 60JibWe )J,eHer 11
)J,OMOX035JHCTBa BhJCTynaJOT e;:IJtHCTBeHHhiM MCTO'-lHMKOM npe,li)IO)I(eHJUI Tpy)J,a Ha pblHOK.
npe,lVIOH<eHHe rpy;:1a (supply Of labor) -
yseJIM'-li1Th CB060)J,HOe OT pa60ThT BpeM51.
llyr TPYA8, KOTOpbiH AOMOX03RHCTBa roTOBbl npeA-
4. p
Hap
HaT(
KpwsaH npe)J,JIO)I(eHMH Tpy)J,a OT)J,eJibHhiM qeJio-
06beM yc-
В§ 12.
BeKOM IIOKa3aHa Ha rpaВўuKe. CHa"!aJJa OH CTpeMMTCH pa6oTaTb 60Jibiiie BpeMeHM, '-IT06bl yBeJIM-
KOM I
pbiHI<
roM
1
e
IlO>f<I!1Tb Ha pbiHOK np11 cyll.leCTBYIOil.II1X aapnnarax.
'-IHTh csotl 3apa6oTOK. 0)J,HaKo, )J,OCTHrHyB B Ha-
<l>aKTM"!eCKI1 3TO KOJJI1"!eCTBO JIIO)J,eH, pa6oTaJO-
IIpM BOCbMI1'-laCOBOM pa6o'-leM )],He 11 pa6oTaH
W:MX MJIM 11W:Yllii1X pa6oTy. Ha npe)J,JIO.>Keuue Tpy-
Ka)l()lbiH )J,eHh O)J,MH "'aC CBepxypO'-lHbiX, HaW pa-
MeCTI
)J,a B 3KOHOMHKe B QeJIOM BJIHHeT HeCKOJibKO 4JaK-
60THI1K He BM)J,MT CMbiCfla pa6oTaTb )J,OJibllie 11
JJOBeJ
TOpOB:
COOTBeTCTBeHHO 3apa6aTbiBaTb 60JibWe , IIOCKOJih-
MeCTI
KY )J,aJihHetiiiiee yseJII1"!eHue 3apa6oTKa He rrpw-
KeF
50
weM IIpMMepe MeCH"'HOfO 3apa60TKa
• p03.Mep mpyooeb/X pecypcoe.
3To HaceneHMe crpaHbi
B Tpy)J,ocnoco6HOM B03pacTe.
B
Pocc1111 K Tpy)J,o-
BhiM pecypcaM OTHOCHTCH MY)I('{MHbl B B03paCTe
16-59
JJeT 11 )l(eHliiMHhT
16-54 JieT,
pa6oTaJOW:He
HOCHT yBeJII1'-leHM5! IIOJJe3HOCTM -
ThiC. p.
y Hero HeT
cso6o)J,Horo speMeHM. Tio3TOMY np11 3apa6oTKe
60
TbiC. p. 11 6oJiee HaW pa60THMK , CKOpee BCe-
rro)J,pocTKI1 11 rreHCHOHepbr. Pa3Mep TPY,lJ,OBhTX
ro, coKpaTI1T npe,li)IO))(eHwe csoero Tpy)J,a 11 rrpe)J,-
pecypCOB MO)I(eT 113MeHHThCH B pe3yJihTaTe, Ha-
noYTeT 11CIIOJlh30BaTb 60JlhiiiYIO '-laCTb BpeMeHM
npMMep, COUMaJJhHhiX npOUeCCOB -
Ha )J,OCyr.
COKpamemrn
3)J,eCb Mbl OIIHTh CTaJlKMBaeTC5! C aJlbTepHaTI1BHOH
M11rpaum1 HaceJieHMH 11 np.;
CTOI1MOCTbiO (CM.
3TO nepeMell(eHI1e Tpy)J,O-
BhiX pecypCOB Me)l()ly CTpaHaMM 11Jll1 perMOHa-
HOM
Ke
C
)l(eHJ;
UMT
seeM
Mhl t
TIJlaTI
BhiX
MJIM yseJJI1'-leHI15! po)I()J,aeMOCTMMJIJ1 CMepTHOCTM ,
• MU2pGU,Ufl HGCeJleHUfl.
seH
В§ 1.3)
fiOKa
11 B3aHMO)J,eMCTBI1eM 3WQleK-
)J,a 11
В§ 10.3). l..J.eJIOBeK )J,OJJ-
rrnar:
TOB )J,OXO)J,a 11 3aMeW:eHI151 (eM.
)I(eH flO)I(epTBOBaTb onpe)J,eJieHHhTM KOJlH'-leCTBOM
MM O)J,HOH CTpaHbl. 0Ha MO)I(eT 6biTh Bhi3BaHa
CBOero CB060)J,HOfO BpeMeHM , '-IT06bi IIOCBHTI1Th ero
3apa
3KOHOMJ1'-leCKMMM, IIOJIMTI1'!eCKJ1 M 11 11 11HhiMJ1
Tpy)J,y. [Jpu OTHOCMTeJibHO H113KOM 3apnJiaTe qe-
AeHI1
ВўaKTOpaMM -
IIOI1CKOM BhiCOKOOIIJJa•msaeMOM
JJOBeK 06bi'-IHO OXOTHO 3aMemaeT )J,Ocyr Ha Tpy)J,,
poe
pa6oTbi, ynyYrneHweM ycnoswti: )I(J13HM, soeH-
cTpeWICb pa6oTaTb, 60JJhwe, '-IT06hi 6oJihiiie 3apa-
fiOJlb,
HhiMM KOHWJIMKTaMM, CTHXMMHhiM11 6e)J,CTBM5!-
6oTaTh. 3Вў<PeKT 3aMew:eHHH rrpeo6JJa)J,aeT Ha)J,
MM 11 J],p. 3MMrpaUMH (Bble3)J, HaCeJJeHM5!) CO-
3cfJВўeKTOM )J,OXO)J,a. 0)J,HaKO IIpM BhiCOKOM 3apnJJaTe
KpamaeT npe)J,JIO)I(eHI1e Tpy)J,a B cTpaHe MJIM
JIIO)J,M Ha"!MHaiOT 60Jihiiie UeHMTh CB060)J,HOe Bpe-
perMOHe, 11MM11rpaUMH (B'be3)J, HaCeJJeHM5!) yBe-
WI, KOTOpOe MO)I(HO 6hill0 6hi HCIIOJih30BaTh Ha TO,
Jl11"111BaeT ero. 0)J,HaKO Ml1rpaUMH C)J,ep)I(11BaeT-
"'T06bi IIOTpaTHTh 3TH )J,OXO)J,hl B CBOe y)J,OBOJihCTBMe
C5! Bl130BbiM pe)I(MMOM , npOITMCKOH, 60Jihllii1-
(Ha OT)J,hJX, TYPH3M 11 rrp.). 3<P<PeKT )J,OXO)J,a rrpe-
MM pacxo)J,aMM Ha nepee3)J, 11 J],pyri1MH orpaHH-
o6Jia)J,aeT Ha)J, 3ВўВўeKTOM 3aMellleHl15!.
cTa6HJJbHhiH ypoBeHh 3apnnaTbi B orrpe)J,eJieHHOH o6nacTI1, rrpeBbiWaJOW:Mti: cpe)J,HI1ti: B 3KOHOMI1Ke, II06y)l()laeT CTy)J,eHTOB o6yYaTbCH 3TOM
nPE.[\JlO>t<EH~E
TPY.[\A
llc
3apnnara,
p.
100 ,
peKBaJJ11W11UHPOBaTbCH, '-ITO IIOBbiWaeT rrpe)J,-
50
Thl B OT)J,eJibHhlX OTpaCJI5IX MJJI1
np0113BO)J,-
CTBaX IIpi1BO)J,MT K COKpameHMIO npe)J,JJO)I(eHMH
pal
Tp~
KaJ
90180 .J_
JIO)I(eHI1e Tpy)J,a.
lla)J,eHwe ypoBHH 3aprrJia-
ue1
KO
3Hi
HJ1
(c
40
30-
HH
3Hl
20 ~
Tpy,lJ,a;
To spe-
10i
M5!, KOTOpOe '-leJIOBeK TpaTMT Ha Tpy)J,, OH He MO-
o'
• npeiJnolfmeHUfl MeJICOy mpyiJoM u oocy20M.
3cj:l<)leKT AOXOAa <
J<)l<)let<ra 3aMeU1ek~>~Sl
-t.
4
1
2
I
3
+
4
~
5
В·-t
6
J.
7
'
8
JIO.
В·i
9 10
)I(eT noTpaTI1Th Ha )J,Ocyr. ITocKOJihKY Ka)I()J,biH pa-
'-lacbl
UHOHaJJhHhiH IIOTpe6HTeJib CTpeMMTCH MaKCMMM-
pa60Tbl
.
В·~~,.....,~В·
~
--
~ --=----
~ ,
Tp)
xo:
TbiC.
70 "
60 -i
crreuwaJJbHOCTI1, a 3peJihiX crreu11aJIHCTOB rre-
Mbl
ue1
3apnnaTbJ 3a orrpe)J,eJJeHHbie pa6oTbJ, TeM 6oJih-
HaBhiKaMI1 roTOBhT ee BhTIIOJIHHTh. Eonee Toro,
• rjJy,
MO.
06hi"'HO '-!eM BhiWe yposeHb
wee KOJll1"!eCTBO JIJO)J,etf C COOTBeTCTBYIOW:MM11
CKOJII
• rjJy,
'-leHMHMI1;
• ypoeeHb 3apn;Jambt.
)],oCT
- -__
.....--.. ~-
-
KO
CT
~-
ICTBA
xo-
er 11
85
В§ 12. PbiHOK TPYA8
4. PABHOBECl-iE l-1 3APA60THAfl nJlATA
pblHO'IHOfO npe,UJIO)((eHMH Tpy,na 11MeeT nOJI0)((11TeJibHhiH HaKJIOH, 'ITO noKa3aHO Ha pMCYH-
H a pbiHKe Tpy.na qntpMbi npe,nbHBJIHJOT cnpoc
Ha Tpy,n, a 1lOMOX0351HCTBa BhiCTynaJOT HCTO'lHH-
eno-
Tpe-
enw Ha-
KOM npe,nJIO)((eHHH pa6oqeti CHJihi. PasHosecwe Ha
pa60THHKOB npH Cylll,eCTBYJOIIJ.eH paBHOBeCHOH
fOM pbiHKe) , Kor.ua cnpoc Ha pa6o'fyJO cwny pa-
3apnnaTe onpe.nenSieTCSI nepece'IeHHeM rrpSIMOM
seH ee npe,UJIO)((eHHJO. Ha rpaВўwKe npw 3apa6oTHOti llJiaTe
; pa-
MeCTO 6e3pa60THUa , paBHaH
11
OJih-
lpHHeT
Ke
60
Tb!C. p. npe,UJIO)((eHHe Tpy,na B TO'l-
C rrpeBhiWaeT
crrpoc Ha Hero B TO'!Ke
8- 2= 6
JIOBeK. Ilp11 3apa60THOH nJiaTe
20
Ke
F
Ha
5
D. B
)((eH11e B TOYKe
sec11e 6y,neT .nocTHrHyTo B TO'IKe
pen -
Mhi HaHMYT
rrnaTe
BhiX
:IOJI-
TbiC. p. 11MeeT
pe3yJihTaTe B03H11KaeT .ueВў11-
see-
l>eK-
HMeeT
TbiC. 'le-
TbiC . YenoseK rrpeBhiwaeT ero npe.nno-
UHT pa6oqeti C11Jibi.
IH011
B,
MeCTO o6paTHa51 C11TyaUH51: cnpoc Ha TPY1l B TO'l-
OTKe
reHM
30
DL
5
B
KOHe'IHOM c'IeTe pasHo-
A,
r.ue Вў11p-
TbiC. pa60TH11KOB npM 3apa60THOH
ThiC . p. 3Ta TOYKa nepece'IeHHH Kp11-
crrpoca Ha TPY1l 11 ero rrpe,UJIO)((eHHSI
SL
llOKa)((eT paBHOBeCHOe 3Ha'IeHHe KOJIH'feCTBa Tpy-
3apa6oTHaR nnaTa (wage, salary) -
eoaHarpa>K-
poe BbinJiaYHBaeTCR HaeMHOMY pa60THHKy aa HC-
apa-
fiOJlb30BaHHe ero TPYAa.
~
TO,
mwe
n pe-
D,
KOTOpaSI rroKa3hiBaeT crrpoc Ha Tpy.n.
6onee
5 TbiC.
30
TbiC. p. ВўwpMbi Hat!MYT
'IeJIOBeK, OHM OKa)((YlCSI B y6biTKe ,
llOCKOJihKY CTOHMOCTb rrpe,neJibHOfO npo,nyKTa
Tpy,na HaHHTbiX pa60TH11KOB 6y,neT MeHbWe HX
3aprrnaThi, T.e. H3,nep)((KH ВўwpM Ha 3apnnaTy 6y-
1lYT
rrpeBbiWaTb ee .uoxo,nbi. Ecnw qmpMhi Hati-
MYT MeHbiiie
5 TbiC.
pa60THHKOB, OHM He CMOfYT
MaKCHMH311pOBaTb llp116hillh -
,UOnOJIHHTeJibHbie
pa60TH11KH MOfJil1 6bi o6ecne'lHTb BbiilYCK 60JibIIIero KOJIH'IeCTBa TOBapoB. Ilo3TOMY BCe cPHPMbl Ha pb!HKe , KaK 11 MHllMBH1IYMbHa5! Q>MpMa
(eM.
PYll ,
spe-
H Kpwsoti
Ecnw npw 3apnnaTe
CTOHMOCTb rrpe,UeJibHOrO npO.uyKTa Tpy,na ,UOnOJI-
AeHHe B AeHe>KHOH HJIH HarypaJibHOH <!>OpMe, KOTO-
.1aTe
noKa3biBaJOwett HeorpaHH'leHHoe npe,UJIO)((e-
rrnaTy.
qe-
Hall
S',
H11e Tpy,na CO CTOpOHhl pblHKa Tpy,na B IJ,eJIOM ,
,na 11 ero paBHOBeCHYIO IJ,eHy, T.e. 3apa60THYIO
rBOM
, ero
S;
pblHKe Tpy,na ,UOCTHraeTCH (KaK 11 Ha JIJ060M ,npy-
c. p.
naH
te
Ke Kpwsoti
• 3apn!lama paeHa cmouMocmu npeae!lbH02o npoayKma mpyaa. KonHYeCTBO HaHHMaeMhiX ¢MpMaMH
В§ 12.1),
rrpe,nbHBJIHJOT crrpoc Ha Tpy.u , noKa
HHTeJibHblX pa60THHKOB He cpaBHHeTCSI C 11X 3ap11JlaTOH.
IlOMHMO COOTHOWeHHSI Crrpoca cPHPM Ha pa6oY:yJO
cwny 11 ee npe1lJIO)((eHH51 pa3Mep 3apa6oTHOH nnaThi KOHKpeTHOfO pa60TH11Ka 3aBHCHT OT ero KBa-
LJ:ocTH)((eHHe pasHosecHSI Ha phiHKe TPY.Ua 11MeeT ne-
JIMcpMKaU1111, CJIO)((HOCTH , KOJIH'IeCTBa, Ka'leCTBa
CKOJibKO OC06eHHOCTeu:
11 yCJIOBHH BhlllOJIH51eMOH pa60Thl , a TaK)((e rrpe,n-
• r/JyHICU,UU cnpoca HO mpya CO cmopOHbl oaHoU r/JupMbl u (J ompac/lu (J u,ellOM oauHaKOfJbl. Cnpoc Ha
naraeMbiX cpHpMOM BblllJiaT KOMileHCaiJ,110HHOfO
11 CTHMYJIHpyJOIIJ.ero xapaKTepa.
Tpy.u, KaK 11 cnpoc Ha Tosap, no Mepe pacTa ero
OT ypoBHH 3apnnaTbi so MHoroM 3aB11CHT 6naro-
ueHhi coKpaw.aeTcH ;
cocTOHHHe YeJIOBeKa.
• r/JyHKU,UU npea/loJICeHUfl mpyaa omae/lbHbiMU aoMOX03flUCmeaMU U fJ ompaC/lU fJ U,e/lOM pa3/lU'1Hbl.
IloKa pacTeT 3apa6oTHaH nnaTa, 'IJieHhi ,noMo -
ll
06 3TOM -
B CJie,UyJOIIJ.eM
naparpaВўe.
PABHOBECI-1E HA PbiHKE TPYAA
X03HHCTB B 11pl1HU1111e 6y,nyT 3a11HTepeCOBaHbi
pa6oTaTh 6onbwe .
Tpy,na
S
B
pe3yJihTaTe npe.nno)((eH11e
11H1ll1 BH,UyaJibHblM ,UOMOX03HHCTBOM,
KaK 11 npe1lJIO)((eHHe Tosapa, no Mepe pacTa ero
ueHhi BHa'Iane 6y.neT ysenH'IHBaThCH. O.nHaKo
100 3apnnaTa, 90 -+Tbtc. p.
80-
KOr,Ua ,UeHer y)((e ,UOCTaTO'IHO, 'lJieHbl 1lOMOX0-
70 60 -
3SIHCTBa 3aXOTSIT nOCBHill,aTb 60Jibiiie BpeMe-
50 -<
HH ,nocyry 11 COKpaTHT npe,UJIO)((eHMe Tpy,na
40 -
(eM.
В§ 12.3).
HoB 3TOT )((e MOMeHT coKpawe-
20 ~
3SIHCTB 6y,neT KOMileHCHpOBaHO pOCTOM npe,n-
10-+
Jie'IeHHbiM11 Bb!COKHMH 3apa60TKaM11, 'IJieHbl
KOTOpb!X XOTHT 3apa6oTaTb 60Jibiiie . IJ03TOMY
C TO'IKH 3peHl151 OT,UeJibHOH cPMPMhl Kpl1BaSI
l-136btTOK TPYAa
(6e3pa'6oTi-1l.lil) -- r
'
--.J
30"
HHe npe,UJIO)((eHMSI CO CTOpOHhl O,UHHX 1l0MOX0-
JIO)((eHMH 1lPYf11M11 llOMOX0351HCTBaM11, npl1B-
s
D
o'
'"
t
1
.Qe<!>HI:\Hnpy,&a
r
J
-i
2 3 4
T
--i-
5 6
r
;-
7 8
i
9
~
w
KonHYecrso
pa60THHKOB,
TbiC. Yell .
В§ 13.
В§ 13. 5 11 a r o c o c T o Sl
'v 1. nPII1YII1Hbl PA3Jlii1YII1~ B AOXOAAX
H 11
e
2.
n
AOXI
p11CTOM HJIH JieTYHKOM-11CTpe611TeJieM. Ka)I(,UhiH
Cyw1
rrpe~eВ­
wecT
KoHeYHoti u,eJibJO 3KOHOMI1YecKoro pa3BI1TI15l HB-
HI1H, 11, •IeM Bbillle crrpoc 11 HJ1)((e n e)lJIO)((eHHe
XO,UOI
JIHeTcH poeT 6narococTOHHI1H qenoseKa 11 o6we-
JllO)leH onpe,UeJieHHOH cneQI1aJibHOCTI1, TeM Bblllle
Вўepe
crsa s u,enoM.
11x 3aprTJiaTa. Crreu,HaJII1CTbi YHHKaJihHhiX npo-
naMl1
<PeccH'H ITOJIYlfaJOT BbiCOKYJO 3apnJiaTy, ITOTOMY
pa3BJ
'-ITO 3aMeHHTb HX no cyrw HeKeM;
np11p
pbiHOK 11MeeT csow 6anaHc cnpoca H
creneHb
y,~:~oenereoВ­
peH~~ Marep~anbH~x norpe6Hocre~
YenoeeKa,
6narococTORHHe (welfare) -
• pa3ilU'tU51 e ypoeHe o6pa:JoeaHU51.
Pa6oTHHKH c Bhi-
cKJia,
COKI1M ypOBHeM o6pa30BaHJ151 B Cpe,UHeM 3apa-
K 3KC
(В§ I L.l),
6aTb!BaJOT 60Jlbllle. IlpH'!HHa B TOM, liTO KBaJII1-
11CITO.
COCTOHT 113 TPY.UOBbiX .UOXO.UOB, 11MylUeCTBeHHbiX
Qli1LI,11pOBaHHbiH pa60THI1K _C03,llaeT npeJJ,eJlbHbiH
.uoxo.uos 11 TpaHc<j)epros. Hanpi1Mep, B .UOMOX035IH-
ITPO.UYKT 60JlbllleK CTOI1MOCTI1.
CTBe, COCT05llUeM 113 pa6oTaJOW)1X B3pOCJlbiX JlJO-
3afiJiaTI1Tb eMy 3a 3TOT IIPOJlYKT 6onee BbiCOKYJO
,[(eH, He 11MeiOlUHX C06CTBeHHOCTI1, rrpi1HOCHWeH
3apnJiaTy. Ilo OLI,eHKaM, tieJIOBeK CO Cpe,UHHM o6-
,UOXO.U, OCHOBHbiM ,UOXO,UOM 06bi'-IHO 6y,UeT 3ap-
pa30BaHI1eM rronyqaeT npi1MepHo Ha
ero KaYeCTBO
>K~3H~.
LI,oxo.Ubi .UOMOX03Hi1crsa, KaK }')Ke H3BeCTHO
11
cPI1pMa fOTOBa
80%
6oJib-
ITJlaTa, TOf,Ua KaK B .UPYfOM .UOMOX0351HCTBe, COCTO-
we, '!eM lfeJIOBeK C Hal!aJibHbiM o6pa30BaHI1eM,
HWeM 113 C06CTBeHHI1Ka npe,UITQI1IJTI1H HJ111 fte.UB11-
a C BblCIJJ11M o6pa30BaHI1eM -
70%
Ha
'-!eM co cpeJJ,HI1M. 3apa6oTKI1 o6pa3oBaHHhiX JIJO-
OT C06CTBeHHOCTJ1 B <j}opMe ,[(11B11.UeH,UOB 11 peHT-
.uew He npOCTO 60J1biiie, OHI1 11 paCTyr 6bTCTpee,
HbiX nJiaTe)((eH. Il03TOMY lfT06bi ycTaHOBHTb np11-
'-!eM JlJO,UeH MaJiorpaMOTHbiX;
• cmpaHOBbte u pec:uoHG.!lbHOe pa3ilU'tU51.
--
nnaTbi 3aBHCI1T OT ypOBH51 3KOHOMJ1'!eCKOfO pa3-
pa3Jll1lfi1H )lOXO)lOB !13 Ka)I(,UOfO 11CTOlfHI1Ka.
BI1TI15l CTpaHhT, TlOCKOJlbKY npe)lCTaBJUieT C060H
TeM He MeHee yposeHh 6narococTOHHI1H 6oJib-
lfaCTb C03,UaHHOf0 Hall,J10HaJibHOfO )lOXO,Ua, pac-
W11HCTBa JlJO,UeH 3aBI1CI1T B OCHOBHOM OT 3apa60T-
rrpe)leJ151eMOf0 JlJQ)lHM B Ka'-!eCTBe nJiaTbl 3a 11X
HOH ITJlaTbl, 51BJUIJOW:eHC51 OCHOBHbiM 11CTOl!HHKOM
Tpy)l. qeM 60Jlbllle MOfYT npOI13BeCTI1 TOBapOB
.uoxoaos HaceneHI15l. O.uHaKo HapH.uy c .uoxoaaM11
11 ycnyr ee pe311,[(eHThi, TeM Bbillle cpe)lHHH ypo-
ITOH51TJ1e <<6JiafOCOCT051HJ1e>> BKJlJOYaeT YCJIOBH5l
BeHb 3apnJiaT. He cny<rai1Ho spaq11 MHOrHX crpaH
Tpyaa 11 6biTa, o6neM 11 CTPYKTYPY pa6oqero 11 cso-
M11pa, HarrpHMep, xoTeJII1 6hJ yexaTb pa6oTaTb
6oaHoro speMeHI1, rroKa3aTeJII1 KYJihTypHoro 11 o6-
B CiliA -
He:>.
cen
• cpe
11Jll
Ha
Pacrr
.uyrue
K
B 60J1blliHX
pa3oBaTeJibHoro ypoBHH, 3JlOPOBbH 11 3KOJIOfi1Ye-
Bhillle, YeM Ha po.uwHe.
Hl1 3apnJiaT MOfYT 3HalfHTeJibHO pa3nl1'-!aTbCH B 3a-
• oeu.
pel'
COl
coc
HeY.
COil
Hl1:
3apnnaTa ycTaHaBJIHsaeTc51 B onpeaeneHHhiX 3KO-
BI1CI1MOCT_!! OLJ)_eri10Ha, 'ITO He06H3aTeJlbHO CB513aHO c pa3JlHlfHOH rrpoH3BO.U11TeJibHOCThJO rpy.ua;
• opyc:ue rjJaKmOpbt. B
11X '!11CJle -
pa3
crpaHax ypos-
HOMHlleCKHX npe,UeJiaX. 0Ha He MO)((eT 6biTb Bblllle
ca
JlO
Hb[
Ha~
ypoBeHb pHCKa,
u
OCI
JJ,OB (
TaM HX 3apiTJiaTa 6yaeT 3Halfi1TeJihHO
CKOH CI1TyaU,HH.
CTOI1MOC~_!!Pe.lle~oro rrpo,[(YKTa TPYM paoo"THHKa
11C'
LI,J110
YposeHb 3ap-
MI1, Heo6XO)li1MO 113YlfHTb HX crpyKTypy, npl1lfi1Hbi
f
• .um
60Jlbllle,
)I(J1MOCTI1 11 ero CeMbl1, OCHOBHbiM 6y.ueT .UOXO.U
l-H'IlfbT pa3JII1'!11H B .UOXO,UaX Me)I(,Uy .UOMOX0351HCTBa-
v
Вў11
----::;
11 HJ1)((e MI1HI1MaJihliOfOJJ. O)((J1TOtiHoro ypoBHH Ye-
CB513aHHbll1 C BbiiTOJIHeHI1eM onpe)leJieHHOI1 pa-
noseKa. <DHP'Mbl He 6yJJ,yr nJiaTJ1Tb pa60TH11KY 60Jib-
60Tbl, T5lfOCTb Tpy.ua, yqacTI1e B rrpo<t>coJ03ax, pe-
we , '-!eM .UOXOJJ,, KOTOpbiH OH 11M np11HOCI1T 3a npo-
rynl1po aHHe 3aprrJiaT H 11
113BeJJ,eHHbiH HM TOBap. Ho <j}11pMa He 11MeeT npasa
ycTaHOBJieHI1e, rrpe)I(,Ue BCero B rocy.uapCTBeHHOM
101
ceKTOpe 3K6HOMHKH. HanpMMep, BbiCOKaH 3ap-
6HJ
nnaTa waxTepos B HeMaJioi1 cTeneHM CBH3aHa
KO:
ITJ1aTJ1Tb MeHbllle, tieM Tpe6yeTC51 )((11BOMY YeJIOBeKY
MH <j)I1311YecKoro Bhi)((J1BaHI1H.
B
3THX npe.uenax
3aT
Pa~
a,UMI-fH11CTpaTI1BHOe
C OnJiaTOH p11CKa, pa6o•me Ha Bpe)lHbiX XHMH<re-
ITo
<l>aKTOpbi, BJIHHIOUJ,He ua ypOBeHb 33pUJI3Tbl, )lO-
CKI1X Tlp0113BO)J,CTBaX MOryT IIOJiylfaTb 60Jlbllle
.uer:
CTaTO'-IHO Ol!eBH.UHbi:
11H)((eHepos Ha o6bilfHhiX rrpe.unp1151TI1HX, rrpo<Pco-
Kl1
103bi )J,aJOT B03MO)I(HOCTb KOJlJieKTHBHO OTCTaMBaTb
MH'
3apnJiaTa MO)I(eT CI1JlbHO pa3JIH'-!aTbC51.
• cnpoc u npeoJJOJICeHue Ha KOHKpemHOM ceZMeHme
pbtHKa mpyoa. PbiHKI1 Tpyaa CI1JihHO ВўparMeH-
yposeHb 3aprrnaTbT 11 o6ecne<ri1BaTb ee OTHO-
THposaHbi, ITOCKOJlbKY B Ka)I(,UOH c<t>epe Tpe6o-
CI1TellbHY10 cTa611JlbHOCTb, 3apnnaTa rocy.uapcT-
HI1J
•
Kp~
LIO!
BaHI151 K KBaJI11Ql11KaUJ111, o6pa30BaH11JO, OTlblTY
seHHbTX cJiy)((aw:wx ycTaHaBJII1BaeTCH no pellle-
pa6oTHHKOB oYeHh cneu,11Вў11YHbJ. ITporpaMMI1CT
HI1JO npaBI1TeJlbCTBa, a He Ha OCHOBe crrpoca
KaY.
He KOHKyp11pyeT Ha pbiHKe Tpy)la C pOK-rHTa-
11 npe)lJlo)((eHI15l Ha pbiHKe Tpyaa.
pat
В§ 13.
89
5narococTOHH~e
2. noKA3ATEn~
AOXOAOB
A~CI>CI>EPEHU.~AU.~~
.llO HaH60JibiiiHX 11 paeelfHTbiBaJOT .llJl5l Ka)l()l.blX
20%
.llOJIIO 11X .llOXO.llOB B eOBOKYITHOM .llOXO.lle
Beex .llOMOX0351HeTB. llo fOpi130HTaJibHOH OeH
:.JihiM
CYIIIeerseHHbiM noKa3aTeJieM 6naroeoeT051HI151 o6-
))l(e-
w.eeTBa B UeJIOM 51BJI51eTe51 He TOJlbKO ypOBeHb LI.O-
351HeTB, a ITO BepTHKaJThHOM -
XO.llOB HaeeJieHI151, HO 11 eTeneHb pa3JIWHHI (LJ.11Q:>-
KynHOfO .llOxo.ua. TaK, KpwsaH Ha rpaВў>11Ke no-
20% .ll0MOX0351MCTB IIOJiy5% Beex .llOXO.llOB, 40% - 15, 60% - 30,
80% - 50, 11 100% .llOMOX035lMeTB- 100% .llOXO.llOB. OY.eBH.llHO , YTO Ha rroene.llHHe 20% .llOMO-
~HHe
biiiie
Q:>epeHU11aU1151) .llOXO.llOB Me)l()zy pa3JIWIHbiMI1 rpyn-
iiPO-
naMI1. YposeHb noxo.uos B uenoM -
roMy
pa3Bl1Tl151 3KOHOMI1KI1 erpaHbl 11 HaJII1'll151 B HeH
pe3yJibTaT
n p 11PO.llH hiX peeypeo s;)!.lliM>~P~Hl.!J:I~!ill.R.llOXOnon
Bhl-
eKJiaLf.hiBaeTe.a TIO.ll B03.lleMeTBI1eM eOU11aJibHbiX
apa-
ff 3KOHOMI1'leeKHX ВўlaKTOpOB.
amt-
HhiM
rosa
IKYJO
o6-
0Jib-
fleM,
,IIIe,
•110-
pee,
3ap-
pa3-
160M
pae-
l l1X
lpOB
ypo-
rpaH
raTh
lliHO
pos-
3 3a-
CB51'. lla;
CKa,
V
)J,.Jrn ee BbT'lHeJie~~
OTKJia.llbiBaeTe51 TipOUeHT KOJTWieeTBa .llOMOX0-
Ka3hiBaer, 'ITO nepBbie
lfaJOT
xoJHHeTB e H31160JibWI1Ml1 .llOXO.llaMH Tipi1XO.lli1Te51
50%
Ha nepBbTe
•
.llOxo.uaMH -
11eY.HeJIHeTe51 neneHI1eM ro.uosoro o6beMa ne-
12
He)I(HbiX LJ.OXO.llOB Ha
11 Ha lfHeJieHHOeTb Ha-
eeJieH115I;
HJII1 fO.llOBOM .llOXO.ll .llOMOX0351HeTBa, .lleJieHHbiH
Ha 'lHeJIO ero lfJieHOB .
351HeTsa IIOJIY4aJI 11 O):Q:IHaKOBbiВ·M .llOXO.ll, KpHBa51
JiopeHua rrpespaTI;j"naeb 6bi B rrpHMyiO. lleM 6oJibHepaBeHCTBO .llOXO.llOB;
• K03rjJrjJuu,ueHm /(JICUHU -
IIOKa3aTeJib CTeneHH
ewHeKoM eTaTHeTHKe 3TOT TIOKa3aTeJTb Ha3biBaeTe5l HH.lleKeoM KOHUeHTpaUHH .uoxo.uos. BhrYHC-
UHJO HaeeJieHH51 no ypOBHIO 6JiaroeoeT051Hl151.
JIHerei K~ .ll0Jl51 TIJI01U3.ll11 Me)l()l.y Kpi1BOM Jlo-
K ocuoBHhiM noKaJaTemtM ,ll,n!J>!J>epeuuuauuu ,li,OxonoB OTHOC51TC51 CJienyiOUJ,He:
• aeU,UilbHblU K03rjXjJUU,UeHm - IIOKa3aTeJib LJ.H¢l¢le-
peHUa 11 JIHHHeH a6eOJIIOTHOfO paBeHeTBa .llOXO.llOB
OT 06W.eM IIJIOW.3.ll11 ITO.ll np51MOH a6eOJIIOTHOfO
paseHCTBa .uoxo.uos. B~a-Ko3Q:>qn-tuHeHTa
peHUHaU11H noxonos, xapaKTepH3YJOW.11H eTeneHb
MO)I(eT l13MeH51ThC51 oT
eouHaJibHoro paecnoeHHH. Orrpe.lleJIHeTeH KaK
eHT 6JIH30K K
eOOTHOWeHI1e Me)l()l.y epe.llHHMI1 ypOBH51M11 ne-
10%
He)J(HblX .llOXOLI.OB
eOKHMH .llOXO.llaMI1 11
HaeeJieH1151 e eaMbiMI1 Bbl-
I0%
HaeeneHHH e eaMbTMI1
HI13K11MH .uoxo.uaMI1 (aeu,ullb -
10%). B Poee1111
pa3pbrB eoeTaBJIHeT B epe.uHeM
15
pa3: Ha
I 0%
eaMbiX 6oraThiX .llOMOXo351MeTB Ilpl1XOLf.HTe51 OKOJIO
30%
HaM.
scex noxonos, a Ha
2%.
Hhrx -
0 no 1.
Een11 Ko3Q:>ВўlHU11-
B o6w.eeTBe eymeCTByeT paBeH-
eTBO B paenpe.ueneHHI1 .uoxo.uos; '!eM Bhiiiie ero
3Ha'leHHe, TeM 6onee HepaBHOMepHo paenpe.ueJTeHbi .llOXO.llhi. B Poee1111 K03Q:>Q:>HUHeHT Jl.)I(MHH
0,4. B
eoeraBJIHeT nop5l.llKa
3ana.ua OH paBeH npHMepHo
pa3BHThiX CTpaHax
0,3.
XapaKTepH3yeT
CTeiieHb OTKJIOHeHH51 JIHHHH ВўlaKTH'leeKOfO pae-
eaMhiX 6e.u-
npe.lleJieHHH o6w.ero o6beMa .ueHe)I(Hhix .uoxo.uos
HaeeJTeHH51 OT Jli1HI1l1 HX paBHOMepHOfO paenpe-
B MoeKBe,
6,
10%
02
0YeHb eHJibHhi paJJIWll151 no pemoHarrpwMep, .ueUHJihHhiH Ko3Вў>-
JaTeJib -
56. B
.lleJieHH51.
CiliA 3TOT noKa-
B Espone KOJie6neTe51 oT
5
.uo
8.
% COBOKynHoro AOXOAa
IHOe
Pa3phiB B noxonax B o6w.eeTBe, npeBhiWaJOW.11H
HOM
10 pa3,
3ap-
6HJibHOeTH. 3TOT TIOKa3aTeJib Ha3biBaeTe51 T3K)I(e
90В·
mHa
K03ВўlВўlHUHeHTOM )J,HВўlQ:>epeHUHaUHH .llOXOLJ.OB.
t:'le-
lloeJTe.llHHe naHHbie MO)I(HO H3MTH Ha eaHTe <J>e-
80 В·
70 1
elfHTaeTe51 onaeHbTM .llJl51 eOUHaJibHOH eTa-
100 -
l>co-
Kl1 P<l> B pa3.lleJie OCHOBHbiX eOUHaJibH0-3KOHO-
60 50 -;
13<iTh
MJ1lieeKHX HH.llHKaTOpOB ypOBH51 )1(113Hl1 HaeeJie-
40 -
'HO-
Hl151
loea
Een11 6hr see .llOMoxo-
HepaBeHersa B paerrpe.ueneHHH .uoxonos. B poe-
Paenpe.lleJieHHe HaeeneHI151 no senwrHHe epenHe-
pe-
we-
5%.
.llYIIleBbiX .llOXOLI.OB xapaKTep113yeT .lll1ВўlВўlepeHU113-
Q:>HUHeHT coeTaBJIHeT
per-
.llOMOX0351HCTB e Ha11MeHbiiiHM
TOJibKO
IIIe Kp11Ba51 OTKJIOH51eTe5l OT np5lMOH, TeM 60JibWe
• epenHe.llyiiieBOH .llOXO.ll eeMhl1, T.e. Mee514HbiH
pa-
biiie
Beex .llOXO.llOB B eTpaHe, TOf.lla KaK
20%
11eTIOJih3YIOTe51 eJie.llYIOW.11e noKa3aTeJII1:
.llOXO.ll Ha .llYIIIY HaeeJieHH51 B Mee51U, KOTOpb!H
rrpOUeHT COBO-
.uepaJTbHOH eJiy)l(6bi rocy.uapeTBeHHOH eTaTHeTI1-
(www.gks.ru);
• KpueG.R JlopeHu,a -
rpaQ:>wlfeeKoe rrpe.ueTasneHI1e
t
I
+
30В·
20 В·
.llOJIH eOBOKynHOfO .llOXO.lla, Ilpl1XO.ll51W.eHe51 Ha
K~ rpyrrny HaeeneHI151. Bee .llOMOX0351HeTsa
paH)I(l1pYJOT no ypOBHIO .llOXO.llOB OT Hai1MeHbWI1X
'
0
1'
•
•
-t-
i
'
-1:
...
..,
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
% AOMOX035li1CTB
90
1 n A sA 2. 3KOHOMV1KA ,D,OMOX035H;:,crBA
3. nOTPE61-1TEnbCKAs:l KOP31r1HA
l1 JieHC110Hepa, IIIKOJihHHKa Ha'!aJThHhiX KJiaCCOB
11 acn11paHTa YHI1BepcHTeTa, ,IJ;a 11 npocro
)J,OXO,II;hl He MOfYT 6hiTh HIDKe He06XO,LU1MhiX )J)I5I
rro,II;llep)!(aHJm MHHI1MaJThHOro ypoBH5I )!(113He,IJ;eH-
M~I1H
11 )!(eHIIIHH, pa3HhTe. Tl03TOMY IIOTpe611TeJibCK35I
KOp311Ha paCC'!I1TbiBaeTC51 ,IJ;JI5I HaCeJieH1151 B UeJIOM
TeJihHOCTI1 'IeJioBeKa. M11HHMYM Heo6xo,li,11Moro
l1 ,IJ;JI5I rpex era OCHOBHbiX rpynn: Tpy,IJ;ocnoco6Ho-
,IJ;JI5I coxpaHeHJ151 3,II;OpOBhH 11 o6ecrre'!eHHH )!(J13He-
ro HaceneH11H: MY)!('!HH B B03pacTe
,IJ;eHTeJihHOCTI1 OIIpe,IJ;eJI5IeTC51 Ha OCHOBe Hay'!HhiX
11 )!(eHIIIHH B B03pacre
MeTO,li,OB 11 ,ll,aHHhiX 0 peaJTbHOM IIOTpe6JieH1111.
eM Hepa6oTaiOIII11X HHBaJTI1,IJ;OB
norpe6HrenbCI<BH I<Op31AHB (consumer basket)
MHHHMaJlbHbiH Ha6op IIPOAYKTOB IIHTaHHSI, HenpoAOBOJlbCTBeHHbiX TOBapOB H ycnyr, He06XOAHMbiX
AJlSI COXpaHeHHSI 3AOPOBbSI YeJlOBeKa H o6ecneYe-
16-54
16-59
neT
JieT, 3a 11CKJIIO'!eH11-
1
11
II
rpyrrn 3TO-
В§ 13.
4. IV
O,IJ;Ho
,IJ;OMO
,IJ;eHe:
o6be
Tep11<
CTI1M'
ro B03pacra; neHCI10Hepos: My)!('!I1H B B03pacTe
OT
60
JieT 11 )!(eHIII11H B B03pacTe OT
55
JTeT, a TaK-
)J(e JIHU, IIOJTyqaiOIIIHX neHC1110 IIO l1HBaJTJ1,IJ;HOCT11;
,IJ;eTeit: HaceJieHJ151 B B03pacTe ,IJ;O
15
neT.
CocTaB norpe611TeJThCKOH KOp311Hhi ycmmrn.mmaeT-
lloK~
CH 3aKOHOM, 06bi'!HO nepecMaTp11BaeTC51 no Mepe
11CnO.
B Pocc1111 3Ta KOP311Ha BKJIIO'!aeT:
113MeHeHHH caMHX rpynn HaceJieHl151 He pe)!(e O,IJ;HO-
• ,llJUl
• 11
ro pa3a B Il5ITh JTeT. HanpHMep, no 3aKOHY <<0 no-
pa6
2006 r., rrpe,IJ;-
• ,llJUl
HHSI ero >KH3HeAeS!TeJ1bHOCTH.
rpyrrn IIpO,II;OBOJibCTBeHHhiX TOBapoB, B TOM
'!11CJie XJie6 11 KpyrrHHhie KYJihTYPhi, KapTocpeJih,
rpe6HTeJlhCKOH KOp311He>> , IIpi1H5ITOMY B
osow,11 11 6ax'!eBble, cppyKThi cse)!(11e, caxap
noJiaraeTCH, 'ITO rpy,IJ;ocnoco6Hhrn poccl151HHH ,IJ;OJT-
11 KOH,li,11TepcKHe 113,IJ;eJII151, M5ICOIIpO,IJ;YKThi, pbi-
)!(eH Cbe,IJ;aTh He MeHee
37 Kf M5Ica, 16 Kf pbi6hi, 23 Kf
Thl
• ,llJUl
6onpo,IJ;yKThi, MOJIOKO, 5IHUa, MaCJIO paCTI1TeJib-
cPPYKTOB B fO,ll,; CeMb JieT ,li,OJI)!(Ha CJIY)Kl1Tb rp3)!(,II;a-
TaK
HOe 11 ,I1;pyr11e )!(J1phl, COJih, qait, CIIeU1111;
HaM BepXH5I5I O,ll,e)J(,ll,a B BI1,II;e Ha6opa l13 naJTbTO, nJTa-
• ,IJ;Jlf
rpyrrrr HeiipO,II;OBOJibCTBeHHhiX TOBapoB, B TOM
w,a 11 KYPTKH; 3a rp11 fO,IJ;a OH CHOCHT IIIeCTh rrap o6y-
)!(e-
'!11CJie IlaJlbTO, KOCTIOMhl 11 IIJiaThH, 6eJibe, '!yJIO'!-
Bl1. Pa3JTJ1'-l1151 B nOTpe6JieH1111 OCHOBHhiX TOBapOB
qTo6
HO-HOCO'!Hbie 113,IJ;eJil151, fOJIOBHbJe y6opbi, o6yBh,
Me)J(,ll,y Tpy,IJ;OCJIOC06HbiM HaCeJieHJ1eM, JieHC110Hepa-
HJ1)J(e
IIIKOJibHO-III1CbMeHHbie TOBaphl, IIOCTeJibHOe 6e-
MI1 11 ,ll,eThM11 secbMa CYIIIeCTBeHHhie. HanpHMep, qe-
XO,ll, C
Jibe, KYJihTYPH0-6biTOBhie 11 X035IHCTBeHHhie TOBa-
JIOBeK rpy,IJ;ocrroco6Horo B03pacm cHaiiiJ1BaeT
o6ys11 3a
6 nap
2 ro,ll,a.
ypoBJ
pbl, rrpe,IJ;MeThi caH11Tap1111 11 neKapcTsa (eM. Ta6n.);
B11,li,OB YCJIYf, B TOM '!11CJie OIIJiaTa )!(J1Jlh51, UeH-
B 6oJihiiiHX crpaHax norpe611TeJThCKaH KOp3HHa pa3-
)l,eHe:
TpaJibHOe OTOJIJieH11e, BO,II;OCHa6)!(eHI1e, fa30-
JII1'IHhiX pernOHOB TaK)!(e OTJIJ1'IaeTC51 113-3a pa3HhiX
cpe,IJ;J
CHa6)!(eHI1e, 3JieKTpOCHa6)!(eHI1e, TpaHCIIOpTHble
rrpHpO,IJ;Ho- KJI11MaTI1'!ecKHX ycnos11it, HaUHOHaJTh-
HOfO
• 10
• 7
11 ,1J,pyr11e ycnyr11.
3 ro,IJ;a,
a ,IJ;eTH -
MeHee '!eM 3a
11 np<
IIi
HhiX Tpa,1],11U11H 11 MeCTHhiX oco6eHHOCTeH noTpe6-
eT
TlOCKOJihKY aJTKOfOJib, Ta6aK 11 T.II. He BXOMT B 'II1C-
JieH1151 npO,IJ;YKTOB III1TaHl151, HeiipO,li,OBOJlbCTBeHHhiX
BeJTI1
JIO Tosapos, Heo6xo,IJ;11MhiX ,IJ;JI5I o6ecne'!eHI1H )!(J13-
TosapoB 11 ycJiyr. lloHHTHO, '!TO B Pocc11J1 M11H11-
Jl5IeTC
He,ll,eHTeJibHOCT11 qeJIOBeKa, B KOp3l1He OHM He npe-
MaJihHaH norpe6HTeJihCKaH KOp311Ha )!(J1TeJieti Tait-
ro pa
,IJ;YCMOTpeHbi.
MhipcKoro noJTyocTposa 11 KpacHo,IJ;apcKoro KpaH
0'!eBI1,li,HO, '!TO M11H11MaJThHhie Ha60pbl IIOTpe611-
6y,ll,eT pa3HOH XOTH 6hi y)!(e nOTOMY, 'ITO nepBhiM )J.JIH
M!AHI-
TeJihCKOH KOp3l1Hbi, KOTOpbie Hy)!(Hhl )J)l51 COXpa-
Bhl)!(J1BaHl151 H~O 60Jihiiie TeiiJIOH O,IJ;e)J(,ll,hl, '!eM
ycTaH
HeHl151 )!(J13He,1],e5ITeJibHOCTJ1 rpy,li,HOfO MJia,IJ;eHUa
BTOphiM.
neYHI
Bnp1
POCCHfl: nOTPEiiHTE/lbCKMI KOP3HHA- HEnPO,D,OBO/lbCTBEHHbiE TOBAPbl, HA '-IE/lOBEKA B fO,D,
Ilpl151
Cocrae norpe6HrenbcKoi1 KOP3HHbl
(HenpO.QOBO/lbCTBeHHble TOBapbl)
Tpy.Qocnoco6Hoe
HaceneHHe
neHCHOHepbl
H11Ka
,[l,eTH
YpOBI
WT.
H3HOC, rO.Qbl
WT.
H3HOC, rO.Qbl
WT.
H3HOC, rOAbl
3
8
9
7
5
6
3
14
19
10
7,6
4,2
2,4
1,4
5
3,2
1
7
10,5
3
8
10
4
4
6
3
14
19
10
8,7
5
2,9
1,9
5,6
3,5
1
7
10,5
3
11
11
6
4
7
27
14
19
10
2,6
2
1,8
1 ,3
2,8
1 ,8
1
7
10,5
JIHBa<
TO,II; OJ
BepxHee nanbTO
KOCTIOM
5enbe
'-lynKvt, HOCKVI
ronosHble y6opbl
06ysb
WK011bHO-nvtCbM8HHble TOBapbl
nocTenbHOe 6enbe
Tosapbl KYI1bTYPH0-6biTOBoro Ha3Ha4eHvt51
CaHvtTapHble Tosapbl vt neKapcma (% pacxo.Qa)
co6a
3apru
HhiX
B
Po
3apae
Thl
ft
HhiM
Thl 31
91
~CTBA
В§ 13.
lCCOB
4 . Mlt1Hit1MAJlbHAs:t onnATA TPYAA
5narococTOf!H~e
nonHOCThJO oTpa6oTasrnero HOPMY pa6oLJero speMeHI1 11p11 Bbii10JIHeHI111 npOCTblX pa60T B HOp-
K'!I1H
.CKM
eJTOM
6HO-
) neT
eHI13TO-
JacTe
TaK-
~CT11;
O,li,HOH 113 rnaBHhiX xapaKTep11CTI1K 6JTarococT051.HH51.
)l0MOX0351.HCTBa 51.BJT51.eTCH CTeneHb COOTBeTCTBI15f ero
)leHe)I(HbiX )lOXO)lOB npmKI1TO'lHOMy MI1HI1MyMy:
o6beMy 11 CTPYKType rroTpe6neHH51. Ba)I(Hei1wl1x MaTep11aJihHhiX 6nar l1 yCJTYT Ha MI1HHMaJibHO ,)],OI1yCTI1MOM ypOBHe.
MaJibHbiX ycnOBI1HX Tpyn.a. B senwqi1HY MI1H11MaJihHOro pa3Mepa onnaTbi Tpy)la He BKJlJOl{aJOTCH Han.6aBKI1,
npeM1111
11
n.pyr11e
noowpi1TeJibHhie,
KOMI1CHCaU,I10HHbiC 11 COU,I1aJibHblC Bb!I1JlaTbl.
XoTH MPOT B Pocc1111 perynHpHo nOBhrwaeTC5f,
)lOrHaTb nOCTOHHHO paCTYW.YIO CTOI1MOCTb npO)I(J1-
npoH<HT0'4Hb/H MHHHMYM (subsis tence level) -
CTO-
HMO CT Ha~ Ol..leH Ka I1 0Tpe6HTeJlbCKOH KOp3 HHbl B Te KYIJ.IHX PbiH O'l HbiX l..leHax.
TOl.JHOfO MI1H11MyMa nOKa He y):(aeTCH. )],eJlO B TOM,
cno noKa3aTeJib MPOT JlC)I(l1T s ocHoBe EJJ:11Hoi1
Tapi1QJHOM CCTKI1, 110 KOTOpOM paCCl.JI1Tb!BaJOTCH
3apnJiaTbl pOCCI1HCKI1X 6JO):()I(eTHI1KOB -
JIIO):(CM,
BaeT-
noKa3aTeJib np0)1(11TO<IHOfO M11HI1MyMa 06hi'lHO
pa6oTaJOll111X B fOCy,ll,apCTBCHHblX opraHI13aU:11HX ,
~tepe
11CI10JTh3YeTC5f B HeCKOJlbKMX U,eJUix:
M 11HI1CTCpCTBaX, OpraH aX MCCTHOM BJlaCTI1, ro-
I.LI:HO-
• M51. oU,eHKI1 ypoBH51. )1(113HI1 HaceneHH5f np11 pa3-
cy):(apCTBCHHblX 60JibHI1U,aX 11 WKOJlaX. 3apnJiaTbl
) no-
pa6oTKe 11 peaJIH3aU:1111 COU,HaJihHOH I10Jli1T11KH;
6oJihWI1HCTBa l13 HI1X (HanpHMep, spaLJetf l1 Y'li1-
rpe)],-
• MH o6ocHoBaHI151. MI1HI1MaJibHoro ypoBH51. onna-
Tenei1) QJ11HaHCHpYJOTC51 MeCTHblMI1 opraHaMI1 BJia-
li.OJI-
23
KT
DKll.a-
nnao6y-
Tbi Tpy,ll,a 11 neHCI111 no CTapOCT11;
• )lJlH onpe,ll,eJleHH51. pa3MepOB COU:11aJibHbiX BbrTIJiaT,
TaKHx, KaK CTI1ITeH,ll,l111 11 noco6115r;
• )lJUI QJOpM11pOBaHl151 fOCy)lapCTBeHHOrO 6JO)l-
CTI1.
A
OHI1 B 60Jibllli1HCTBC CBOCM He MOryT no-
3BOJ111Tb ce6e TpeXKpaTHO I10Bb!CI1Tb 3apnJiaTbl.
YacTHhie QJ11pMbl TaK)I(e He noBhilllaJOT MI1H11MaJibHhre 3apnnaTbi ):(O ypoBH51. MPOT.
B Pocc1111
)l(eTa.
npe):(ycMoTpeHo no3TarrHoe noBblll!CHI1e
:apos
l.ВЈT06hi Onpe,ll,eJ111Tb, CKOJibKO JIJO,)],eH 11MeJOT ,li,OXO)l
MPOT 11 MI1HI1MaJihHOro pa3Mepa rreHCI1H no cTa-
tepa-
HJ1)1(e npO)I(J1TOLJHOro ypoBH51., cpe,li,Hell,yweso:H )lO-
poCTI1 ):(0 BCJ111l.JI1Hbl 11p0)1(11TOl.JHOf0 MI1H11MyMa.
,, 'le-
XO.ll, CpaBHI1BaiOT C ycTaHOBJleHHbiM npO)I(J1TO<IHbiM
CooTHoweHI1e Me)l():(y MI1HI1MaJihHhiM pa3MepoM
i nap
a.
yposHeM . Pa3Hl1U:a Me)f()ly )lOXO)lOM Ha LJenoseKa
OI1JlaTbT Tpy):(a, MHHI1MaJibHblM pa3MCpOM neHCI111
11 npmKI1TOl.JHbiM ypOBHeM COCTaBJIHeT ll,eQJ11U:11T
110 CTapOCTH 11 BCJIJ1<{11HOH I1p0)1(11T0l.JHOfO MI1HI1MyMa Ha O<repe)lHOH QJHHaHCOBbiM fO):( ycTaHaBJII1-
pa3-
,ll,eHe)I(HbiX cpeli,CTB ,li,JUI ,li,OMOX0351HCTBa. CeMhH,
3HhiX
cpe)lHe)],yrneBOH li,OXO,ll, KOTOpOH HJ1)1(e npO)I(HTO<I-
BaCTCH QJe):(epaJibHblM 3aKOHOM 0 QJC):(epaJibHOM
[aJib-
HOfO MI1HI1MyMa, C'li1TaeTC5f MaJI011Myui,eH 11 11Me-
6JO):()I(eTe Ha COOTBeTCTBYIOll111M ron..
'Pe6-
eT npaBO Ha noJiyl.JeHI1e COU,I1aJibHOH nO)J,)lep)I(KJ1.
)],OXO.ll,bl JIJO)leH 11, CJie):(OBaTCJlbHO, 11X 6naroCOCTO-
IHbiX
Beni1LJI1Ha rrpO)I(I1TO<rHoro MI1HI1MyMa o6hiLJHO HB-
HHHe BO MHOfOM 3aBI1C5fT OT TOro, CKOJlbKO 11 'lCfO
HI1-
JIHeTcH OCHOBOH llJU[ ycTaHOBJleHI15! MI1HI1MaJihHO-
OHI1 B COCT05fHI111 np0113BCCTI1. 06 3TOM -
ro pa3Mepa onnaThi Tpy,ll,a (MPOT).
JJ:YIOW,eM rnase.
Ta:f!-
B CJie-
Kpa51.
[ llJU[
'!eM
MHHHManbHBR onnara TPYilB (minimum wage) YCT8HOBJleHHbiH 38KOHOM ypoBeHb 38pi1118Tbl, o6ec -
KAK MEHHnCH MPOT B POCCIВ·H-1 ,
ne'lHB810lJ.IHH r pa>K,QaHaM npO>KHTO'lHbiH M HHHMyM.
p.
B npHHu:HTie Hl1 rocy):(apCTBeHHoe, HH LJaCTHoe npe):(np115ITI1e He 11MeeT npaBa I1JiaTI1Tb CBOI1M pa6oTHI1KaM 3apnnaTy Hl1)1(e onpe,ll,eJieHHoro ypoBH5f.
YposeHb MI1HI1MaJihHOH 3aprrnaThi o6bi'lHO ycTaHaBJli1BaeTC51. KaK pac<reTHOe COOTHOWeHI1e K Cpe,li,HefO,)],OBOMY npo)I(HTOLJHOMY MI1H11MYMY Tpy,ll,ocno co6Horo HaCeJleHI151.. 06bll{H0 110 MI1HI1MaJibHOM
3api1JiaTe OI1Jlal.JI1BaeTC51 Tpy,ll, HeKBaJI11QJI1U:11pOBaHHbiX pa60THI1KOB.
B Pocc1111 no TpyJJ:oBoMy KOJJ:eKcy MI1H11MaJihHaH
3apa6oTHa51 nnaTa (MHHI1MaJibHhiH pa3Mep onnaThl Tpy,ll,a, MPOT) -
ycTaHaBJ111BaeMbiH Q:le)lepanb-
01.11.1995
01.12.1995
01.01.1996
01.04.1996
01.01.1997
0 1.0 7.2000
01.01.2001
01.07.2001
01.05.2002
01.10.2003
01.01.2005
01.09.2005
01.05.2006
B M e CR l.l
57,75
60 ,50
63 ,25
7 5,90
83,49
132
200
300
450
600
720
800
110 0
r. •
r. •
r. -
r. r. -
r.
r.
r.
r.
r.
r.
r.
r.
HhiM 3aKOHOM pa3Mep MeC5fl.JHOM 3apa60THOM nnaTbl 3a Tpy,ll, HeKBaJI11QJ11U:11pOBaHHOfO pa60THI1Ka,
Jfcmo<tHUJC:
113secTI1H,
2006. 3
Ma5r.
Автор
69   документов Отправить письмо
Документ
Категория
Школьные материалы
Просмотров
42
Размер файла
1 513 Кб
Теги
глава, экономика, домохозяйства
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа