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How to:
Reference
your
academic
work
For Undergraduate and Postgraduate
Students
Contents
Acknowledgements
Illustration
4
4
Plagiarism and Referencing
Why do I need to reference my academic work?
What is Plagiarism?
How can I avoid plagiarising?
How do I reference sources in the text of my work?
How do I quote other people’s work correctly?
How do I paraphrase other people’s work correctly?
When are footnotes used?
How do I write Numbers and Dates?
What are Appendices?
Bibliography
5
5
6
7
9
10
12
13
14
15
16
What is a bibliography?
How do I compile a bibliography?
16
17
Examples of formats for your bibliography and
references
1.Books
2.Journal and magazine articles (hard copies)
3.Newspaper articles (hard copies)
4.Published reports
5.Conference proceedings or published conference papers
6.Tutor’s notes/handouts/lecture notes/seminars
7.Electronic sources
8.Films, videos, dvds, audiocassette, audio cds and cd-roms
9.Television and radio programme
10.Exhibitions/visits
11.Interviews
2
18
19
26
27
29
30
31
32
43
46
47
47
Illustrations
48
How do I reference illustrations?
How do I make a list for my illustrations?
Where do I include my reference list of illustrations?
Bibliography
48
51
52
53
3
Acknowledgements
With thanks to Sema Gupta, Phil Inchley, Rosemary Lidington, Naomi
Melbourne, Dave Missen, James Newton and Rageen Premji, students of
Ravensbourne College, for allowing examples of referencing from their
Advanced Researches to be used.
Illustration
Figure.1 Walker’s Plagiarism Continuum.
Walker, John. (1998) Student Plagiarism in Universities: what are we
doing about it? Higher Education Research and Development Journal,
Vol.17, No.1 (1998), pp.89 -106.
4
Plagiarism and Referencing
Why do I need to reference my academic work?
Students often think that they only have to reference actual quotations they
include in their work, but college writing often involves integrating
information from different sources such as books, journal articles,
recordings and web sites into your own writing. Therefore, you need to
acknowledge the source of your information, ideas or arguments, as well as
any quotations you use. This is called a �reference’ or a �citation’. How to
�reference’ or �cite’ sources is explained in this booklet, using the most
common method, known as the Harvard (author-date) system.
NOTE:
• Ravensbourne does not use the �endnote’ style of referencing.
• Footnotes are not used for referencing: they are used for additional
information. See page 13.
5
What is Plagiarism?
To plagiarise is to use the writings of others, either their expressions or their
ideas, without acknowledging the original author.
This type of intellectual dishonesty is considered a very serious academic
offence, so it is important that you are aware of the various types of actions
that may be construed as plagiarism. Another writer’s material should
never be presented without acknowledging the source.
Ravensbourne College tutors have access to electronic software that
checks for evidence of plagiarism.
For information about this software go to:
http://www.jiscpas.ac.uk
or
http://www.submit.ac.uk
6
How can I avoid plagiarising?
Types of Plagiarism
Description of Plagiarism
Sham Paraphrasing
Quoting word for word from another text with
acknowledgement to the source within your text,
but representing the quotation as a paraphrase
Illicit paraphrasing
Paraphrasing from another text without
acknowledgement of source within your text
Other plagiarism
Copying another student’s assignment with the
knowledge of the other student
Verbatim copying
Quoting word for word from another text without
acknowledgement of the source within your text
Recycling
Submitting the same assignment more than once
for different courses
Ghostwriting
Submitting an assignment written by a third party
as your own work
Purloining / passing
Copying from another person’s assignment without
off as your own
that person’s knowledge
Fig.1. Plagiarism Continuum (Walker, 1998, p.89)
7
Note: It is important that you learn how to quote, paraphrase and
acknowledge all sources of information used when submitting assignments
at college.
When writing an essay or dissertation, you must:
• Reference all information derived from other people’s work within the
text of your work, not only the quotations you use;
• Compile a bibliography of all the sources you used while researching
and writing the assignment, which will allow others to trace these
references if they wish.
8
How do I reference sources in the text of my work?
There are two usual ways to refer to other people’s work when writing your
assignment. You can:
• quote an author’s words exactly or
• paraphrase their work by expressing their ideas using your own words.
You will also need to reference your work when referring directly to another
source e.g. a statistic.
At the end of each quotation or paraphrase, you must put in brackets:
• the author’s surname,
• the year of publication
• the page number the reference is on.
EXAMPLE (Matthews, 2002, p.67)
Readers can then use this information to refer to your bibliography to find
out more about the source to which you are referring.
EXAMPLE
�The great strength of the crafts rests in their common visual language of
familiar shapes, forms and functions.’ (Dormer, 1990, p.32)
You will write the full details of this reference in your bibliography as follows:
Dormer, Peter. (1990) The Meaning of Modern Design. London. Thames
& Hudson.
9
• How you compile a bibliography will be explained later on page 17.
• For how to reference all sources both in your text and in your
bibliography, see page 18.
How do I quote other people’s work correctly?
1. Brief quotations, from one word up to 3 lines, should be indicated by
using single inverted commas (� ’), followed by the source information
in brackets (author’s surname, year of publication and page number).
EXAMPLE
�If Gaudi is seen as the chief agent in transforming Barcelona, he was also
utterly a product of the city, the region and his era.’ (Gill, 2000, p.10)
2. Longer quotations (more than 3 lines):
• should be indented as a separate paragraph
• single line spacing should be used (this shows up clearly when
the rest of the dissertation is 1.5 or double spacing 1 )
• no inverted commas (� ’) are used at the beginning or end of the
quote
• speech marks (“) should only be used to indicate a quotation
within a quotation.
1
To alter the line spacing in Microsoft Word: Format>Paragraph
10
EXAMPLE
If, as Charles Harrison has claimed, minimalist theory was “the most
coherent and the most powerful avant-garde discourse of the mid-60s”,
this was merely because of its “cultural adjacency to the discourse of
Abstractionism”. (Osbourne, 2002, pp 23 -24)
3. Words added by you to quotations for clarification should be set in
square brackets.
EXAMPLE
�The first observable effect of this event [the Paris 1925 exhibition] was
upon the furniture trade.’ (Author, year, page)
4. Words omitted by you from the quotation, should be indicated by the
use of 3 dots (…)
EXAMPLE
�Comfort is paramount …Cox does not believe in the agonies of fashion’
(Cox, 1998, p.13).
5. Titles of books and articles mentioned in your text should be typed in
bold or in italics and not placed in quotation marks.
Note: You can choose bold or italics, but keep to the same choice
throughout your piece of work. In this booklet bold is used.
11
How do I paraphrase other people’s work correctly?
When you are paraphrasing a passage from source, you should completely
rewrite the passage using your own carefully composed sentences. A
paraphrase accurately expresses all the essential information contained in
the original passage in a new form.
Your paraphrase will echo the meaning and tone of the original source, but
the actual sentences, structures and words will be different.
Quotation marks (� ’) should be used round any unique term of phrase that
is taken directly from the source.
At the end of your paraphrase, you reference the source in brackets as
usual (author, year, page number).
12
When are footnotes used?
Footnotes are used to make additional comment, which is not easily
assimilated in the main flow of the text. They should be numbered
sequentially in your text.
EXAMPLE
In your text you may write a sentence,
�According to Peter Dormer (1), there is no reason to believe that….’
and at the bottom (foot) of the page, you could add:
(1)Peter Dormer has written widely on craft, its history and conceptual
basis.
Superscript numbers (small ones created automatically by the computer)
are usual) 2
2
To create automatic footnotes in Microsoft Word, highlight the word where you want the number to be, then go to
Insert>Reference>Footnote.
13
How do I write Numbers and Dates?
Numbers up to nine in the text should be given in words; 10 and above in
figures:
EXAMPLES
The model was four metres long. 866 workers were employed.
Dates in the text should be written as follows:
20 September 1949.
Decades should be written thus: 1770s 1960s 1990s
Note: no apostrophe (’). This would also apply when writing words
consisting of initials, for example, DVDs, CDs.
14
What are Appendices?
If you have any detailed data, e.g. statistics, technical information, a
questionnaire or the transcription of an interview, that you want to include,
then put each one in a separate Appendix and place them in the
Appendices section at the end of your work, before your Bibliography.
In your text, you refer to your Appendix like this: (see Appendix).
If you have more than one Appendix i.e. Appendices, then you identify them
by capital letters like this: (see Appendix C)
15
Bibliography
What is a bibliography?
• At the end of your written work, you must give more details of the
quotations or paraphrases you have used in your text by giving a full
reference. This is often called a Reference List.
• You will also have researched information, which you may not have
quoted from in your text, yet has helped you build up the background
knowledge for your work. These sources can also be listed.
In the Harvard style of referencing, both the above lists can be combined
into one, known as a bibliography.
This is also where you can list places/exhibitions you have visited in
connection with your research and the details of the people you have
interviewed (not the transcripts of the interviews; they go in your
Appendices), which you may or may not have referred to directly in your
work.
See �How to compile a bibliography’
A Helpful Hint:
Make sure you record full bibliographic details of sources at the time
you use them. This overcomes the problem of trying to find them
when you have completed your work!
16
How do I compile a bibliography?
Your bibliography should be organised into sections according to the source
of the material, with appropriate headings so the reader can locate them
from the reference in the text. Every section should be set out in
alphabetical order by author’s surname. When the author and title are not
given, then just write the URL of the web page.
Section headings in your bibliography may include:
Books
Journals and magazines (Hard copies)
Newspaper articles (Hard copies)
Conference papers
Internet information
Electronic sources
Electronic journals
Electronic newspapers
Emails
Films, videos, DVDs
Visits: e.g. exhibitions/museums/conferences
Interview/s details (not the transcript/s)
NOTE: Use single spacing for the bibliography, leaving a line between
each entry.
17
Examples of the formats for your bibliography and
references
The entries in each section are in alphabetical order so your reader can
locate them.
The details should be set out following the order and punctuation as shown
in the examples below. In the bibliography the various parts of the
reference are separated by full stops. A colon (:) is used to divide a title
from a subtitle. In the text the reference parts are separated by commas.
18
1. BOOKS
The list should be organised in alphabetical order according to authors’
surname. Put the author/s last name first, e.g. Evans, B.J.W.
a) Citing information/quoting from a book.
Format in the bibliography
Author surname/s, author first name/s or initials. (Year of publication in
brackets) Title [in bold or italics]. Place of publication. Publisher.
You do not need speech marks (“ ”) nor quote marks (� ’) when you
write the title.
Format in the text written in brackets
Author’s surname, date of the edition you read and the page the quote
appears in the book (p. for one page; pp for more than one page)
EXAMPLE
Book with one author.
In your bibliography:
Spiller, Neil. (1998) Digital Dreams. London. Ellipsis.
In the text
(Spiller, 1998, p. 62)
19
• Book with 2 authors
EXAMPLE
In the bibliography
Martin, Richard and Koda, Harold. (1993) Infra-Apparel. New York. The
Metropolitan Museum.
In the text
(Martin and Koda, 1993, p.104)
• Book with more than two authors
EXAMPLE
In the bibliography
Anderson, Craig A., Gentile Douglas A., Buckley, Katherine E., (2007).
Violent Video Game Effects on Children and Adolescents: Theory,
Research and Public Policy. New York. Oxford University Press Inc,
USA.
In the text (write the first author’s surname followed by et al, instead of all
the other surnames)
(Anderson et al, 1997, p.87)
20
b) chapter/section of an edited book with one editor [ed] or more than one
editor [eds]
Format:
Author of the chapter/section (surname followed by initial/first name); year
of publication (in round brackets); title of chapter or section in quotation
marks � ’; in; the editor of the book; title (in bold/italics); place of publication;
publisher; pages of the chapter/section.
EXAMPLE
In the bibliography
Kadinsky, Wassily. (1968) ’ Concrete Art’, in Cill, H.B., (ed.) Theories of
Modern Art. University of California Press, Chapter 4 pp. 329 – 348.
In the text
(Kadinsky, 1968, in Cill, p.336)
21
c) A quote already quoted in a book
EXAMPLE
In the bibliography
Marsh, J., and Millard, E., (2000) Literacy and Popular Culture. London.
Paul Chapman Publishing Ltd
In the text
(Garvey, 1977, in Marsh & Millard, 2000, p.96)
d) Dictionaries 3 , encyclopaedia and atlases are usually cited by the title
EXAMPLE
In the bibliography
Chambers 21st Century Dictionary (2004) Edinburgh. Chambers
Harrap Publishers
In the text
(Chambers 21st Century Dictionary, 2004)
3
Also see http://intranet.rave.ac.uk/electronicDatabases.htm and scroll down to Credo Reference.
22
EXAMPLE
In the bibliography
Larousse Encyclopaedia of Archaeology (1974). England. The Hamlyn
Group
In the text
(Larousse Encyclopaedia of Archaeology, 1974, p.245)
EXAMPLE
In the bibliography
The Phaidon Atlas of Contemporary Architecture (2004). London & New
York. Phaidon Press Ltd.
In the text
(The Phaidon Atlas of Contemporary World Architecture, 2004, p.790)
23
e) Citing from Holy Books
i) The Bible
This uses the book name, chapter and verse (not the page number)
Format: Book of the Bible, Chapter: verse, version of the Bible.
EXAMPLE
In the bibliography
Matthew 5: 3-12, Revised Standard Version of the Bible.
Note: The date, place and publisher are not required
In the text
(Matthew 5: 3-12)
ii) Citing from the Torah
Format: Torah, Book, Chapter: verse.
EXAMPLE
In the bibliography
Torah. Shemot 3:14
In the text
(Shemot 3:14)
24
iii) Citing from the Qur’an.
Format: Qur’an (never in Italics), Surah (or chapter): verse
EXAMPLE
In the bibliography
Qur’an 9:11
In the text
(Qur’an 9:11)
25
2. JOURNAL AND MAGAZINE ARTICLES
(HARD COPIES)
Format:
Author surname/s, author first name/s of article. (year of publication in
brackets). Title of article in quotation marks. Journal Name [or in italics],
issue information (volume number, part number, month or season) page
number/s.
EXAMPLE
In the bibliography
Burgoyne, Patrick. (May 2002) �The Chosen Ones’. Creative Review.
Vol.22, no.5, p.7.
In the text
(Burgoyne, 2002)
26
3. NEWSPAPER ARTICLES (HARD COPIES)
Format:
a) Author surname, author first name/s. (Date) Title of Article in quotation
marks. Newspaper Name [or in italics], (Location). Date, page number/s.
EXAMPLE
In the bibliography
Donachy, Jacqueline. (2002) �Mix Retro Furniture with Modern Design’.
Evening Times (Glasgow). 20th March, p.32.
In the text
(Donachy, 2002)
27
b) When no author is given use the following citation:
Title of publication (in bold or italics), Year of publication (in round brackets),
title of article in quotation marks, day and month, page reference.
EXAMPLE
In the bibliography
Northern Echo, (2003), �Mixed fortunes for schoolboy racer’, 11th July, p.8
In the text
(Northern Echo, 2003)
28
4. PUBLISHED REPORTS
Format:
Author surname/s, author first name/s (date of publication) Title of Report
[or in italics]. Publication location. Publisher/Institute. (Report code/number if there is one)
EXAMPLE: Author known
In the bibliography
Hewson,Tim., McKnight, C.E., Clarke, Anne., Marsh, Peter. (1994)
Desktop Video: a Report to the Advisory Group on Computer
Graphics. Loughborough. HUSAT Research Institute.
In the text
(Hewson et al, 1994, p.68)
EXAMPLE: Organisation as author
In the bibliography
Dell Inc. (2004) Client Server System Performance Benchmarks. Dell
Technology White Paper. April
In the text
(Dell Inc. 2004 Report. p.27)
29
5. CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS OR PUBLISHED
CONFERENCE PAPERS
Format:
Author/Editor surname/s, author first name/s, (Year). �Title of Article’. Title
of the Conference, location and date of conference. Place of publication,
publisher’s name, page numbers.
EXAMPLE
In the bibliography
Matlow, Erica. (1997) �Can Anyone Speak Binary: the impact of new
technologies on graphic design education. Digital Creativity.’ The CADE
Conference, London. April 1- 4 1997. Derby. University of Derby, pp. 6573.
(If found on the Internet then add the ULR and the Accessed date.)
In the text
(Matlow, 199, Conference paper p.18)
30
6. TUTOR’S NOTES/HANDOUTS/LECTURE
NOTES/SEMINARS
Format:
Author or tutor, (year of publication), �title of item’/ �title of lecture’ name of
academic module.
(Note: If the notes are online state where they are available and when
accessed)
EXAMPLE
In the bibliography
Cooke, Sian. (2003). �Dissertation preparation materials’. BA Graphics
Level 3 Handout 10th March
If citing an online copy add, for example: Available at learn@rave
Accessed 06.08.07
In the text
(Cooke, 2003, Lecture handout, p.2)
EXAMPLE
In the bibliography
Schaff, B. (2005). Contemporary Furniture. Lecture. 11.05.07.
In the text
(Schaff, 2005, Lecture handout)
31
7. ELECTRONIC SOURCES
For all electronic information you need to note the date you accessed the
information and include the database name or web address.
a) Internet document
Format:
Author surname, author first name/s or initials. (Year) �Title’. online. Place of
publication, publisher. Available at URL. Page number if applicable.
(Accessed date)
Sometimes no author is mentioned.
EXAMPLE
In the bibliography
Buchannan, Val. (2002) Web Guides: Fashion. [online] London. London
College of Fashion. Available at
http://www.lint.ac.uk/library/webguides/fashion.htm (Accessed 21/03/05)
In the text
(Buchannan, 2002, www.lint.ac.uk, p.23)
32
For web pages with no author, use the title and web page’s URL
EXAMPLE
In the bibliography
Renewable Energy
http://www.est.org.uk/myhome/publications/index.cfm?mode=listing&doctyp
e=51 (Accessed 04.04.07)
In the text
(Renewable Energy, www.est.org.uk)
For web pages with no author or title identified, you use the web page’s
URL
EXAMPLE
In the bibliography
http://www.levistrauss.com/Cpmpany/Cpmpamy/Tranformation.aspx
(Accessed 28.09.06)
In the text
(www.levistrauss.com)
33
b) Articles in Journals in an electronic format
Format:
Author’s surname/s, first name/s/initials. (Year) Document title. Journal
Title, Volume, [online]. Available at URL (Accessed date)
EXAMPLE
In the bibliography
Robertson, Alec. (1997) 4D Product Design, Mechatronics and
Multimedia Technologies: some conceptual challenges. 4th National
Conference on Product Design Education 7-8 July 1997. Brunel University.
Available at http://www.dmu.ac.uk/in/4dd/und.html (Accessed 30/11/2004)
In the text
(Robertson, 1997, journal article, p.41)
34
c) Articles and newspaper articles in an electronic format
Format:
Author’s surname/s, first name/s/initials. (year of publication).’Title of article’
(in quotation marks). Title of newspaper Day and month. [online]. Available
at URL. (Accessed date)
EXAMPLE
In the bibliography
Moore, Rowan. (2007). �The Tate Goes To Town’. The Evening
Standard. Monday 21 May.[online] Available at
http://www.thisislondon.co.uk/arts/artexhibition/ (Accessed 25.06.07)
In the text
(Rowan, 2007, www.thisislondon.co.uk)
35
d) Information from an electronic database
(e.g. LRC electronic databases)
1. Electronic Journal from InfoTrac electronic database
EXAMPLE
In the bibliography
Considine, P. (2003) �Ethnic Diversity: Understanding Ethnic Media’,
Campaign, September 26, p.26. InfoTrac Onefile [Online] Available at
http://find.galegroup.com/ (Accessed 05.10.07).
In the text
(Considine, 2003, Electronic Journal)
36
e) Electronic newspaper article from Proquest Learning News
database
EXAMPLE
In the bibliography
Wainwright, M. (2007) �Floods: Worst hit areas braced for yet more rain:
Nine-hour downpour if forecast for the weekend: Work to restore supply
goes on despite vandalism.’ The Guardian. 01 August [Online]. Available
at http://find.galegroup.com/ (Accessed 01.08.07)
In the text
(Wainwright, 2007, Electronic Newspaper).
37
f) Industry report from electronic database Business Insights:
EXAMPLE
In the bibliography
Band, J. (2003) �The Wireless Outlook: Dealing with Decline’, Business
Insights Interactive [Online]. Available at
http://www.biinteractive.com/index.aspx (Accessed 12 April 2007).
In the text
(Band, 2003, www.bi-interactive.com)
38
g) VLE and BLOGS
I. VLE (learn@rave)
Ravenbourne’s Virtual Learning Environment is called learn@rave. Tutors
can upload details such as course documents and briefs to this. Journal
articles and digitised books can also be found on VLEs. Firstly, you need to
distinguish what your source is, so you can reference it correctly. In the
example below it is a tutor’s notes.
EXAMPLE
In the bibliography
Colwell, S. (2007) �Unit 16 BRD 309: Professional Skills for Production’.
Factual Notes, [Online]. Available at
http://learn.rave.ac.uk/moodle/course/view.php?id=55 (Accessed 12 April
2007).
In the text
(Colwell, 2007, Factual notes, at learn@rave)
39
II. Blogs
These are produced by individuals or organisations. They contain updates
on issues or interests and give other people, not just the author, an
opportunity to add information.
EXAMPLE
In the bibliography
Rees, Roger (2007) �Networks and Complexity,19 July 2007. Available at
http://blogs.rave.ac.uk/blojsom/blog/rrees/?permalink=Networks-andComplexity.html (Accessed 20 July 2007).
In the text
(Rees, 2007, www.blogs.rave.ac.uk)
40
h) E-mails and other personal communications (by face-to-face
conversation, letter, telephone, text message or fax)
In the bibliography under the heading Personal Communication, list in
alphabetical order by surname, those people with whom you have been in
contact.
Format:
Sender/speaker/author (year). Medium of communication. Receiver of
communication. Day/month of communication.
EXAMPLE
In the bibliography
Faulkner, Mike. Creative Director D-Fuse (2006) email to the author (or
student’s own name), 16th September.
In the text
(Faulkner, 2006, email)
41
EXAMPLE
In the bibliography
Lashmar, Paul (2006) investigative journalist. Telephone interview with the
author (or student’s own name). 1st November.
In the text
(Lashmar, 2006, phone interview)
42
8. FILMS, VIDEOS, DVDS, AUDIOCASSETTE, AUDIO
CDS AND CD-ROMS
Format:
Title of film or programme. (Year of distribution)
Producer/director.[medium] Place of distribution. Distribution/Production
company.
N.B When you list a film you write the original year the film was released in
the country of production, and the original place and organisation that
produced the movie.
EXAMPLE of film
In the bibliography
Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon. (2001) Directed by Ang Lee. [Motion
picture] California. Columbia Tri-Star Home Entertainment
In the text
(Crouching Tiger, 2001, film)
43
EXAMPLE of video
Videocassette/DVD
Format:
Title of film or programmes. Year of distribution, Director,[videocassette],
Place of distribution, Distribution company.
In the bibliography:
Face to Face: Kate Adie. BBC2. 28 January, 1998. Produced by Julien
Birkett. [videocassette 1 hour]
In the text:
(Face to Face: Kate Adie, 1998, video)
44
EXAMPLE of DVD
In the bibliography
Outfoxed: Rupert Murdoch’s War on Journalism. (2004). Directed
by Robert Greenwald. [DVD 1 hour 14 minutes]. The Disinformation
Company.
In the text.
(Outfoxed: Rupert Murdoch’s War on Journalism, 2004, DVD)
45
9. TELEVISION AND RADIO PROGRAMME
Format:
Programme Title [or in italics]. (Year of transmission) Name of channel.
Day/month of transmission/broadcast.
EXAMPLE
In the bibliography
Found. (2007). BBC1. 30.04.07.
In the text
(Found, 2007, T.V programme)
46
10.
EXHIBITIONS/VISITS
List in alphabetical order with the date of when you made the visit.
11.
INTERVIEWS
List in alphabetical order of surname, followed by first name,
position/organisation, date of interview. You can also add a brief
description of the person for clarification.
EXAMPLES
Antoine, Karl and Brissett, Delaro .Dancers. Holland. 11 August 2004.
They are both leaders of the Nubian Step Dancers.
Davies, Wyn. Architect and Designer. Chislehurst, Kent. 25 November
2004.
Ellard, P. Lecturer. New Ash Green, 13 October 2004.
Patrick is the author of the Span-Kent website and an expert on the history
of Span housing. He is the author of �New Ash Green: Span’s latter 20th
century village in Kent,’ in Simms, Barbara, (ed.) Eric Lyons & Span.
(2006) London. RIBA.
47
Illustrations
How do I reference illustrations?
You may want to include illustrations in your work. This includes
photographs, which may be your own or from books, line drawings, maps,
models, statistical graphs etc. You need to think about the way you want to
present them, for example, whether situated on the page with the text of the
chapter, or placed all together on a separate page.
You will need to:
1. reference the actual illustrations you use
2. refer to them within the text,
3. make a list to give the full details
4. know where to place the list.
What do I write next to my illustrations?
Above/below/beside the insert of your illustration you write:
1. The figure number
2. The caption relating to the illustration
3. In brackets put the author, year and page number of the book or
journal, like you do with quotations in the text.
48
Fig. 1 Chair and �Dinner’ by Kate Millett. Examples to show mixed media .
(Simpson, 1968, p.86)
Students often take their own photographs, so the reference can be
�author’s own’ or the student’s name and the date it was taken.
Fig. 2 Distinctive profile of the mono-pitched roofs. (Author’s own April
2004)
49
How do I reference illustrations within the text?
You must also make reference to your illustration within the text. Reference
within the text could be the figure number in brackets for example, (See
Fig.2), or may be part of your sentence.
EXAMPLE
The Span homes are mono-pitched, meaning they are pitched at one end
and gives the homes a unique side profile (see Fig.2).
or
Figure 2 shows how the Span homes are…
EXAMPLE
Illustration 3 shows how the fashion industry models have changed since
the 1860s.
50
How do I make a list for my illustrations?
Your list includes:
• your figures in numerical order, with the caption
• the author and year
• the title, place of publication and publisher
• the page number on which the illustrations appear in your work.
EXAMPLES
Figure 1. Chair and �Dinner’ by Kate Millett.
Simpson, Thomas. (1968) Fantasy Furniture. Design and Decoration.
New York. Reinhold Book Co…………………………………………………19
Figure 2. Distinctive profile of the mono-pitched roofs.
Author’s own photograph. April 2004………………………………………...28
Figure 3. Pie chart showing how much television news is watched.
Results of Audience Survey. Author’s own. January 2004……………..47
Figure 4. Bethnal Green Slum, Colingwood Street, 1919.
www.raggedschoolmuseum.org.uk (Accessed date 24/03/04)…………..56
51
Where do I include my reference list of illustrations?
The list of illustrations goes at the front of your Advanced
Research/dissertation, after the �CONTENTS’ page.
52
Bibliography
Pears, Richard and Shields, Graham. (2006) Cite them right. Northumbria.
Northumbria Learning.
Sussex University Library Harvard Style Referencing
www.sussex.ac.uk/library [Accessed 08/04/07]
Updated July 2007
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Notes
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