Забыли?

?

What is Wrong with the Group Sunspot Number and How to Fix it

код для вставки
```What is Wrong with the Group
Sunspot Number and How to Fix it
Leif Svalgaard
Stanford University
(with help from many people)
2 March, 2012
1
The Problem: Two Sunspot Series
Sunspot Number Series
200
Disagree
180
160
140
~1882
Agree
Wolf
Group
Eddy
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
1600 1625 1650 1675 1700 1725 1750 1775 1800 1825 1850 1875 1900 1925 1950 1975 2000
Researchers tend to cherry-pick the one that supports their pet
theory the best вЂ“ this is not a sensible situation. We should do better.
2
The Ratio Group/Zurich SSN has
Two Significant Discontinuities
At ~1946 (After Max Waldmeier took over) and at ~1882
3
Weighting of
sunspot count
223
227
228
231
232
233
234
235
3
4
13
4
4
6
9
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
8
46
11
223
227
228
231
232
233
234
235
3
4
13
4
4
6
9
3
1
1
6
1
2
4
4
1
8
46
20
126
100
26% inflated
Unweighted count red
4
Removing the Recent one [+20%] by
Multiplying Rz before 1946 by 1.20, Yields
Leaving one significant discrepancy ~1882
5
The [Wolf] Sunspot Number
J. Rudolf Wolf (1816-1893) devised his
Relative Sunspot Number ~1856 as
RWolf = k (10 G + S) [also RZ, RI, WSN]
The k-factor serving the dual purpose of
putting the counts on WolfвЂ™s scale and
compensating for observer differences
The Group Sunspot Number
Douglas Hoyt and Ken Schatten devised
the Group Sunspot Number ~1995 as
RGroup = 12 G using only the number, G,
of Groups normalized [the 12] to RWolf
6
But Groups have K-factors too
Schaefer (ApJ, 411, 909, 1993) noted that with
RGroup = Norm-factor G
S
Alas, as H&S quickly realized, different observers do not
see the same groups, so a correction factor, K, had to be
introduced into the Group Sunspot Number as well:
RGroup = 12 K G [averaged over observers]
And therein lies the rub: it comes down to determination of
a K-value for each observer [and with respect to what?]
7
With respect to what?
H&S compared with the number of groups per day reported
by RGO in the вЂ�Greenwich Photographic ResultsвЂ™. The
plates, from different instruments on varying emulsions, were
measured by several [many] observers over the 100-year
span of the data.
H&S вЂ“ having little direct evidence to the contrary - assumed
that the data was homogenous [having the same calibration]
over the whole time interval.
WeвЂ™ll not make any such assumption. But shall compare
sunspot groups between different overlapping observers,
assuming only that each observer is homogenous within his
own data (this assumption can be tested as we shall see)
8
Reminding you of some Primary Actors
1849-1863 Johann Rudolf Wolf in Berne
The directors of ZГјrich Observatory were:
1864-1893 Johann Rudolf Wolf (1816-1893)
1894-1926 Alfred Wolfer (1854-1931)
1926-1945 William Otto Brunner (1878-1958)
1945-1979 Max Waldmeier (1912-2000)
Wolfer was WolfвЂ™s assistant 1876-1893 so we have lots of overlapping data
9
WolferвЂ™s Change to WolfвЂ™s Counting Method
вЂў Wolf only counted spots that were вЂ�blackвЂ™ and
would have been clearly visible even with
moderate seeing
вЂў His successor Wolfer disagreed, and pointed out
that the above criterion was much too vague and
could be seen
вЂў This, of course, introduces a discontinuity in the
sunspot number, which was corrected by using a
much smaller k value [~0.6 instead of WolfвЂ™s 1.0]
вЂў All subsequent observers have adopted that
same 0.6 factor to stay on the original Wolf scale
for 1849-~1865
10
Wolf-Wolfer Groups
Number of Groups: Wolfer vs. Wolf
9
Wolfer
8
Yearly Means 1876-1893
7
6
Wolfer = 1.653В±0.047 Wolf
5
R2 = 0.9868
Wolfer
4
3
2
80mm 64X
1
Wolf
0
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
Number of Groups
12
10
Wolf*1.653
8
Wolfer
Wolf
6
4
Wolf
37mm 40X
2
0
1865
1870
1875
1880
1885
1890
1895
11
The K-factor shows in daily values too
1883
Month
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
9
Average
Day
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
1
Wolf G
3
3
3
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
4
3
4
4
6
6
5
3.29
Wolf S
4
6
6
5
3
3
4
4
4
4
8
9
12
10
12
16
15
7.35
To place on WolfвЂ™s scale with the
Wolf R Wolfer G Wolfer S Wolfer R
34
7
29
99
36
11
29
139
36
7
31
101
35
8
30
110
23
7
18
88
23
7
40
110
24
7
41
111
24
5
37
87
24
6
35
95
24
5
32
82
48
4
55
95
39
4
60
100
52
5
91
141
50
5
62
112
72
7
82
152
76
6
88
148
65
8
81
161
40.29
6.41
49.47
113.59
x1.5
G Ratio
S Ratio
x0.6
80mm
60
1.95
6.73
68
12
Number of Groups: Wolfer vs. Winkler
9
Wolfer
8
Yearly Means 1882-1910
We can make the
same type of
comparison
between observers
Winkler and Wolfer
7
Wolfer = 1.311В±0.035 Winkler
R2 = 0.9753
6
5
4
3
2
1
Winkler
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Number of Groups
9
Again, we see a strong
correlation indicating
homogenous data
8
Winkler*1.311
7
Wolfer
6
5
4
3
Again, scaling by the
slope yields a good fit
Winkler
2
1
0
1880
1885
1890
1895
1900
1905
1910
13
Number of Groups: Wolfer vs. Quimby
9
Wolfer
Yearly Means 1889-1921
8
And between
Rev. A. Quimby
Wolfer
7
Wolfer = 1.284В±0.034 Quimby
2
R = 0.9771
6
5
4
3
2
Same good and stable fit
1
Quimby
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Number of Groups
9
8
Quimby*1.284
7
6
Wolfer
5
The Rumrill data has
been considered lost,
but I have just recently
found the person that
has all the original data.
4
3
Quimby
2
1
0
1885
QuimbyвЂ™s friend H. B.
Rumrill continued the
series of observations
until 1951, for a total
length of 63 years.
1890
1895
1900
1905
1910
1915
1920
1925
14
Making a Composite
Comparison Sunspot Groups and Greenwich Groups
10
Groups
9
8
7
6
Average
Quimby*
Wolfer
Winkler*
Wolf*
5
4
RGO*
3
Matched
on this
cycle
2
1
Year
0
1875
1880
1885
1890
1895
1900
1905
1910
1915
1920
Compare with group count from RGO [dashed line] and note its drift
15
Composite on Logarithmic scale
Comparison Sunspot Groups and Greenwich Groups
10
Log Scale
Groups
50%
Average
1
1875
1880
1885
1890
1895
1900
1905
1910
1915
1920
Quimby*
RGO*
Wolfer
Winkler*
Wolf*
Year
0
Note that the discrepancy between the composite and RGO approaches 50%
16
RGO Groups/Sunspot Groups
Early on RGO count fewer groups the Sunspot Observers
17
Same trend seen in Group/Areas
Spot Groups vs. Spot Areas
2500
0.060
RGO Groups/Areas^0.73
0.050
RGO Areas
2000
0.040
1500
0.030
1000
0.020
0.010
500
0.000
0
1875 1880 1885 1890 1895 1900 1905 1910 1915 1920 1925 1930 1935 1940 1945
There can be several instrumental reasons for such a drift, but there is also a
вЂ�proceduralвЂ™ reason: Early on, there was a significant fraction of days with no
observations. H&S count these days as having a group count of zero.
18
Extending the Composite
Comparing observers back in time [that overlap first our composite and then
each other] one can extend the composite successively back to Schwabe:
Comparison Composite Groups and Scaled Zurich SSN
14
Zurich
12
Composite
10
8
6
4
2
0
1820
1830
1840
1850
1860
1870
1880
1890
1900
1910
1920
1930
There is now no systematic difference between the Zurich SSN
and a Group SSN constructed by not involving RGO.
1940
19
Why are these so different?
Observer
Wolfer, A., Zurich
2% diff.
Wolf, R., Zurich
Schmidt, Athens
Weber, Peckeloh
Spoerer, G., Anclam
Tacchini, Rome
Moncalieri
Leppig, Leibzig
Bernaerts, G. L., England
Dawson, W. M., Spiceland, Ind.
Ricco, Palermo
Winkler, Jena
Konkoly, Ogylla
Catania
Broger, M, Zurich
Woinoff, Moscow
Guillaume, Lyon
Mt Holyoke College
K-Factors
H&S RGO to Wolfer
1.094
1.117
1.135
0.978
1.094
1.059
1.227
1.111
1.027
1.01
0.896
1.148
0.997
1.604
1.44
1.248
1.21
1.39
1.251
1.603
1
1.6532
1.3129
1.5103
1.4163
1.1756
1.5113
1.2644
0.9115
1.1405
0.9541
1.3112
0.9883
1.5608
1.2844
1.1132
1.0163
1.123
1.042
1.2952
Begin
End
1876
1876
1876
1876
1876
1876
1876
1876
1876
1879
1880
1882
1883
1885
1889
1893
1897
1898
1902
1907
1928
1893
1883
1883
1893
1900
1893
1881
1878
1890
1892
1910
1896
1905
1921
1918
1928
1919
1925
1925
K-factors
1.8
This
analysis
1.6
1.4
1.2
1
H&S
0.8
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2
No correlation
Number of Groups
12
10
Wolf*1.653
8
Wolfer
6
4
Wolf
2
0
1865
1870
1875
1880
1885
1890
20
1895
Why the
large
difference
between
Wolf and
Wolfer?
Because Wolf either
could not see groups of
Zurich classes A and B
[with his small telescope]
or deliberately omitted
them when using the
standard 80mm
telescope. The A and B
groups make up almost
half of all groups
21
The H&S K-factor Problem
вЂў H&S calculated their K-factor for an observer to
RGO using only days when there was at least
one spot seen by the observer
вЂў This systematically removes about the lower half
of the distribution for times of low solar activity
вЂў Thus skews the K-factors
вЂў This is the main reason for the discrepancy
between the two sunspot number series
вЂў And can be fixed simply by using all the data as
we have done here
22
23
Removing the discrepancy between the Group
Number and the Wolf Number removes the
вЂ�backgroundвЂ™ rise in reconstructed TSI
I expect a strong reaction against вЂ�fixingвЂ™ the GSN from people that вЂ�explainвЂ™
climate change as a secular rise of TSI and other related solar variables
24
This is what I suggest TSI should look like
25
Following closely a recent re-evaluation
of the SunвЂ™s open magnetic flux
The minimal solar activity in 2008вЂ“2009 and its implications for longterm climate modeling
C. J. Schrijver, W. C. Livingston, T. N. Woods, and R. A. Mewaldt
GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 38, L06701,
doi:10.1029/2011GL046658, 2011
26
A plug for our Sunspot Workshop: http://ssnworkshop.wikia.com/wiki/Home
27
Abstract
We have identified the flaw in Hoyt & Schatten's
construction of the Group Sunspot Number (GSN). We
demonstrate how a correct GSN can be constructed using
only the Hoyt & Schatten raw data without recourse to
other proxies. The new GSN agrees substantially with the
Wolf Sunspot number, resolving the long-standing
discrepancy between the two series. Modeling based on
the old GSN of solar activity and derived TSI and open
flux values are thus invalidated. This will have significant
impact on the Sun-climate debate and on solar cycle
prediction and statistics.
28
```
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
9
Размер файла
1 065 Кб
Теги
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа