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How to Reduce Your Labs Capital Operating Costs

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How to Reduce Your LabтАЩs
Capital & Operating Costs
University California Irvine
Grand Mosque, Mecca
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UHN: MaRS TMDT
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Presentation Overview For Deep Energy Reduction
! Introduce low flow lab design innovation
! Introduce a new tool for lab energy analysis
! Describe approaches/issues to safely hit 2 ACH
! Explain Demand Based Control
яГ╝тАп1st cost & energy savings impacts
! Describe low ACH case studies
! Analyze other innovative technologies
Low Flow/Energy Lab Design: A New Paradigm
! A focus on max savings
яГ╝тАпNot a grab bag of many ideas
тАУтАп Focus on a few, high impact concepts
! The foundation: Airflow reduction
яГ╝тАпAirflow has greatest energy impact
яГ╝тАпCan also reduce labтАЩs first cost!
! Need for a holistic approach to technologies
яГ╝тАпUse energy models for first cost & energy impact
тАУтАп Impact of low flow design & combining concepts often non-intuitive
тАЬIn God We Trust, All Others Must Provide Data!тАЭ
Goal: Dramatically Reduce Lab Energy Use
! Outside air use: Largest energy driver
яГ╝тАп Reducing OA reduces many energy uses
! New technologies can help:
яГ╝тАп Demand Based Control of ACH
яГ╝тАп Chilled beams
! Plus codes/standards also changing
яГ╝тАп New versions of NFPA 45, Z9.5, ASHRAE
! Result: Dramatic cut in energy use
яГ╝тАп Labs can often run as low as 2 ACH
яГ╝тАп Vivariums can run as low as 4 to 8 ACH
If these approaches are used a Net Zero lab is possible
even in Abu Dhabi, although many would call that
not just mission difficult but: Mission Impossible!
Holistic Strategies for Increased Savings
! Individually evaluating systems is suboptimal
яГ╝тАпDBC, chilled beams, hoods & heat recovery all interact
! To optimize lab safety, first cost & energy:
яГ╝тАп Combining systems based on analysis of Net benefits
яГ╝тАпAlso use a layered or pyramid approach:
*Heat Recovery
тАвтАп Recover some of heating and
cooling energy
HR*
Chilled
тАвтАп Decouple heat load from
ventilation flows
Beams
VAV Exh
тАвтАп VAV Exit Velocity Flow
Fan
Demand Based
тАвтАп Reduce flow
requirements
Control/ FH Min
VAV Lab Control
тАвтАп Basic control
approaches
Energy, First Cost, & Payback Analysis Tool
! Lab focused design analysis
яГ╝тАпCustomized lab analysis engine
яГ╝тАпCalculates both energy & 1st cost
яГ╝тАпPowerful тАЬWhat IfтАЭ tool for design
! Reviewed & approved by utilities
яГ╝тАпPG&E, S. Cal. Edison, Con Ed
яГ╝тАпCalculates Rebate incentives
! Validated by Emcor & JCI
! Holistic broad range tool
яГ╝тАпFor many technologies & concepts
тАУтАп Heat recovery, chilled beams, etc.
Toronto Example Analysis Assumptions
! Model typical bldg. w/ 125K GSF
яГ╝тАпLab & lab support area: 50K NSF
яГ╝тАпOffice area: 30K NSF
! Base dilution ventilation:
яГ╝тАпTypically 6 to 12 ACH, assume avg. of 8
! Energy Cost Assumptions:
яГ╝тАпElectric: $0.13/kWh Avg
яГ╝тАпHeating: $0.80/therm
яГ╝тАп$800/kW Demand & $.1/m3 gas incentive
! Low to moderate hoods:
яГ╝тАпOne 6тАЩ hood/ 667 ft.2 module (75)
! Manifolded exhaust fans:
яГ╝тАп 4 fans are staged plus 1 spare
8 ACH Baseline Energy Costs For Toronto
! Skin & solar gains typically small compared to OA
! Base flow rate (including offices):
яГ╝тАп151.6K m3/hr day & 138K m3/hr night
! Total baseline energy use is $474K/ year
Holistic Strategies for Increased Savings
! Individually evaluating systems is suboptimal
яГ╝тАпDBC, chilled beams, hoods & heat recovery
! To optimize lab safety, first cost & energy:
яГ╝тАп Combining systems appropriately is best
яГ╝тАпAlso use a layered or pyramid approach:
*Heat Recovery
тАвтАп Recover some of heating and
cooling energy
HR*
Chilled
тАвтАп Decouple heat load from
ventilation flows
Beams
VAV Exh
тАвтАп VAV Exit Velocity Flow
Fan
Demand Based
тАвтАп Reduce flow
requirements
Control/ FH Min
VAV Lab Control
тАвтАп Basic control
approaches
Achieving Down to 2 ACH Safely in Labs
! Goal: Achieve 2 ACH day/night or 3- 4 day / 2 night
! What are the drivers of lab airflow that affect this?
Ventilation rate (cfm)
яГ╝тАпHood flows, thermal loads & ACH rates
VAV
Hoods
Min
Flow
Hoods
VAV
Supply
Demand Based
Control of ACH
Min
Load
2 ACH
Min
Thermal Load
ACH / Dilution Requirement
To achieve lab flows down to 2 ACH to reduce energy & 1st
cost, all flow requirements need to be reduced
Reducing the Fume Hood Flow Drivers
! For low fume hood density:
яГ╝тАп Use VAV hoods, low FV not required
яГ╝тАп For poor sash behavior, use sash closers
! For moderate density:
яГ╝тАп Also use new ANSI Z9.5 fume hood min:
тАУтАп Old 6тАЩ fume hood min was ~250 cfm
тАУтАп New 6тАЩ fume hood min as low as ~100 cfm
! For high hood density:
яГ╝тАп Use VAV low FV hoods or VAV & sash closer
яГ╝тАп Ability to hit 2/4 ACH depends on density
тАУтАп Up to three 6тАЩ hoods per 900 ft2 = 2 ACH
тАУтАп Up to six 6тАЩ hoods per 900 ft2 = 4 ACH
For most labs: min hood flow < 2 to 4 ACH
What is the VAV Fume Hood Minimum Flow Rate?
! Fume Hood Min:
1000
Flow in CFM
800
яГ╝тАп For VAV hoods
Old Min (250 CFM)
600
яГ╝тАп Only affects
hood flow for
small or closed
sash positions
Fume
Hood
Exhaust
400
200
0
18"
Sash Position
6"
Constant
Volume
Mode
Variable
Volume
Mode
яГ╝тАп Independent of
face velocity
яГ╝тАп Changing min
will not reduce
face velocity
What is the VAV Fume Hood Minimum Flow Rate?
! Fume Hood Min:
1000
Flow in CFM
800
яГ╝тАп For VAV hoods
Old Min (250 CFM)
600
яГ╝тАп Only affects
hood flow for
small or closed
sash positions
Fume
Hood
Exhaust
400
200
100
0
New min range down to
~100 CFM for 6тАЩ hood
18"
Sash Position
2.4"
Constant
Volume
Mode
Variable
Volume
Mode
яГ╝тАп Independent of
face velocity
яГ╝тАп Changing min
will not reduce
face velocity
Reducing the Fume Hood Flow Drivers
! For low fume hood density:
яГ╝тАп Use VAV hoods, low FV not required
яГ╝тАп Helpful to use 18тАЭ design opening
яГ╝тАп For poor sash behavior, use sash closers
! For moderate density:
яГ╝тАп Also use new ANSI Z9.5 fume hood min:
тАУтАп Old 6тАЩ fume hood min was ~250 cfm
тАУтАп New 6тАЩ fume hood min as low as ~100 cfm
! For high hood density:
яГ╝тАп Use VAV low FV hoods or VAV & sash closer
яГ╝тАп Ability to hit 2/4 ACH depends on density
тАУтАп Up to three 6тАЩ hoods per 900 ft2 = 2 ACH
тАУтАп Up to six 6тАЩ hoods per 900 ft2 = 4 ACH
For most labs: min hood flow < 2 to 4 ACH
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