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How to Study Effectively - Forgotten Books

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STUDY
TO
HOW
EFFECTIVELY
BY
MONTROSE
GUY
PROFESSOR
EXPERIMENTAL
OF
UNIVERSITY
Author
of "Manual
Observation,"
"Questions
OF
of Mental
"Questions
in
and
on
School
Psychology,"
Society
WHIPPLE
for
the
PUBLIC-SCHOOL
MICHIGAN
Physical Testa," "A
General
and
Hygiene,"
Editor
EDUCATION
of the
"Problems
Yearbooks
Guide
Educational
in
of the
Study|of Education,
PUBLISHING
Bloomington,Illinois
to
High-School
Psychology,"
Educational
National
etc.
Co.
Copyright,
1916
PUBLIC-SCHOOL
By
First
CO.
PUBLISHING
1,000
copies
printed
3,000
copies
printed
5,000
copies
printed
printed
July,
1916
Sept.,
1916
Dec.,
1916
July,
1917
10,000
copies
10,000
copies
printed
Aug.,
1919
10,000
copies
printed
Aug.,
1921
10,000
copies
Mar.,
1923
printed
INTRODUCTORY
long
Not
school
on
I
ago
students
to
to
present
knowledge
of
work
could
prepared
as
literature
seemed
art
of
was
that
should
be
series
a
sufficient
of
readily intelligible
the
that
are
not
now
and
conditions,
their
in
students
many
high
our
under
that
would
they
efficiency, if only they
rules
Most
students.
kept
profitably
teachers,
possible
pupils.
follow
which
whose
to
of
in
the
the
mind
right
by
how
to
to
of
needs
judge
colleges
possible
to
increase
do
it.
these
help
could
The
also
be
elementary-school
it should
habits
best
just
them
I
and
glad
be
suggestions
business
develop
for
schools
knew
laying
with
make
intended
are
direct
to
the
working
another
student.
college
or
the
upon
maxims,
serviceable
high-school
average
the
to
that,
for
room
comment
and
available
the
books
of
or
their
conclusion
the
rules
school
which
of
limited
that
idea
increase
survey
still
explanatory
the
by
number
a
there
of
down
of
study,
treatment
with
warrant
to
high-
suggestions
some
might
A
existence
the
despite
the
students.
efficiency
them
of
group
a
methods
better
be
by
studying,
of
technique
the
asked
was
be
of
as
study
early
in
as
their
TO
HOW
4
While
it is true
STUDY
EFFECTIVELY
that much
of what
is
presented in
to appeal directlyto the
the school is calculated
native interests of students, to elicit their curiosity,
and to challenge their attention,it is equally true
that most
studying is real work, and that most boys
and girlshave
to acquire the art
of studying as
other habits and skills
they have to acquire many
in life. Moreover, conditions
to success
necessary
such
elementary schools are unfortunately
kind
to
of
as
superficial
promote only the most
the
mere
studying, to put a premium
upon
of words, to permit fickle
committing to memory
in many
and
ill-sustained attention
intellectual
work.
and
Students
the avoidance
in
both
of hard
high
school
collegehave been studying,it is true, for years,
but too often they have not been studyingefficiently,
have not formed
right habits of mental work, and
how
know
about
the
to
indeed, do not even
go
development of an adequate method or plan for such
work.
They are often unable to recognizeas such
the problems set before them, nor
do they have clear
ideas as to the methods
by which problems should
Neither do they know
be solved.
fullyhow to deal
and
with
those
'lessons' that must
less verbatim.
be
'learned'
more
For
or
to include
by 'studying'I mean
the 'getting
of lessons/ like learninga list of words
in spelling,as
well as
of
studying in the sense
investigatory
solving problems and making an
of a topic.
examination
and critical survey
In what
universal
follows I propose
no
remedy
for these ills. The
fundamental
differences
between
EFFECTIVELY
STUDY
TO
HOW
5
bright children will remain
whether
they are taught to study or not. No scheme
to the same
of instruction will bring all students
the proficiencyof each
level of proficiency. But
student may
be increased
by teaching him to use
what brains he has. Thus, Breslich*,
more
skillfully
section studying
that a weak
for example, shows
only at school, but under careful supervision,
may
be brought up to the performance of a strong section
allowed to study at school without supervision,
plus
hour and a quarter a day at home.
an
Granting that
have
much
time must
these results are typical,
how
been wasted in the studying of the strong pupils?
industrial
is the watch-word
of modern
Efficiency
life. The school,after all,is a sort of brain factory.
Its material is found
in the subject-matterof the
various studies and in the mental
operationsof its
students. Studying is the method
by which subjectstupid
children
is converted
matter
in the
same
students
that
say
weak
is
into ideas that shall be effective
subsequent life of
the
at
and
shall be
failure
pointin
than
more
time
the
guide
the whole
a
mental
drilled and
to
direct
and
educational
fanciful
analogy
scientific management
control of the techniqueof
school.
*See
to
The
Suggestions
books
and
elimination
For
Further
articles dealing
Reading,
study
machine.
in
the
in modern
study in
'waste
of
with
It is safe to
trained.
between
and
by which
capacitiesof the
and
the students
appended
studying.
is the
There
parallel
industry
the modern
motion'
to the
in the
ences
text, for refer-
factory
'waste
this
TO
HOW
6
be
must
motion'
waste
lies
STUDY
EFFECTIVELY
paralleled
in
in
the
the
by
The
school.
process
the
of
elimination
chief
studying.
source
of
of
RULES
THE
1.
of your
like
central
nervous
other
part
any
insufficient
exercise,
From
much.
too
authorities
of
11.5
12.3
Hours
the
8
also
circulatory,
and
under
for
2.
often
obstructed
best
following
to,
auspices
and
remove
defective
nasal
mental
and
that
a
and
digestive,
the
body
and
removal
carried
exercise
affords
is
games,
the
of
8.5
8.75
strength,
nutrition
of
9.0
17
16
particularly
exercise,
systems
Further,
15
9.25
stimulating
supplying
weariness
9.6
requiring
for
excretory
handicap
eyesight,
or
sleep
six
14
recreation
for
pleasant
Attend
the
13
9.8
that
products.
mental
than
the
12
10.2
outdoor
active
more
of waste
10.5
merely
not
skill, but
the
11.0
11.2
11
10
9
of
form
valuable
of
recommend
Remember
Exercise.
in
food,
sleep:
7
6
inadequate
little
too
averages
may
suffers
rooms.
sleep
the
we
duration
Age
students
More
Sleep.
system
ill-digested
sleep,
ill-ventilated
in
confinement
efficiency
from
body
your
the
on
This
system.
of
condition.
physical
good
efficiency depends
mental
Your
in
yourself
Keep
useful
to
on
antidote
monotony.
treat
or
physical defects
activity,
hearing,
breathing.
defective
such
as
that
defective)
teeth, adenoids,
TO
HOW
8
Vision:
defective
STUDY
Thirty per
vision.
EFFECTIVELY
cent,
of school
children
have
high school and collegethe
a
percentage is larger. Consult
competent oculist
if you have difficulty
in seeingclearlyobjectsat a
distance (likewriting on the blackboard) or if you
experience,eye ache, twitching of the eyelids,
inflamed lids,headache, nervous
nervous
irritability,
of eye-strain,
after
dyspepsiaand similar symptoms
of the eyes at close range, even
use
though you see
the printedpage quiteclearly.
In
of
seriously affect the work
of food is
students, because
(a) the mastication
inadequate; (b) the neglected cavities afford a
of varieties of bacteria
breeding ground for scores
(includingthe germs of serious infectious diseases,
like diphtheriaand tuberculosis)
; (c) the pus which
and
into the blood
develops often finds its way
into the body
alimentary canal and thus pours
millions
of noxious
and
produces general
germs
bodily ailments, like intestinal catarrh, anemia,
lowered
vitalityand other general disturbances
Defective
which
local
teeth
disturbances
toothache
acts
to
indirectly
When
be
to
appear
we
in
in
no
the
directlyto
induce
consider
various
that
one
way
connected
with
teeth; (d) the
distract
reflex
or
nervous
more
the
pain
attention
of
and
irritations.
defective
teeth
in 90 per cent, of school children,the total
loss of efficiency
in school work
attributable to this
are
found
singlecause
Adenoids
upper
part
is
are
of
trulystartling.
enlargementsof spongy tissue
the throat
the
just where
in the
nasal
TO
HOW
passages
cent,
per
from
STUDY
into it.
open
of school
EFFECTIVELY
They
are
9
found
in
ten
some
of children
children,particularly
16 years
of age.
breathing,clog the Eustachian
3 to
They
tube
interfere
and
with
thus induce
of
hearing, mouth-breathing, snoring,
bodily growth and
projecting teeth, stunted
imperfectdevelopment of the bones of the nose and
of
a peculiarsort
they cause
jaw. In some
persons
with inability
mental
to
or
stupidity,
sluggishness,
control and direct attention for long to a difficult
task.
mental
They can be removed
by a relatively
simple operation and with marvelously beneficial
results to both mind and body.
hardness
3. See
that
temperature,
favorable
are
A
conditions
of
work
light,
"
humidity, clothing,chair, desk,
to study.
etc.,
quiet place for work that shall be reasonably
from interruption
and from distracting
conversation
is greatlyto be desired.
Too many
students
free
have
are
external
to
do
far from
demands
upon
their home
ideal.
work
Study, at
active attention.
work,
under
it must
be
conditions
least when
In order
withdrawn
to
it is
that
begun,
get attention
from
other
in which you
Every happening in the room
are
working makes a claim for your attention. A
portionof the energy you exert in attendingto your
work has to be expended to shut out these distracting
claims. Clearly,
in
then, if you can work in a room
which
these outside
the
to
appeals are reduced
minimum, you will gain that more
energy to devote
matters.
to
your
tasks.
TO
HOW
10
As
STUDY
EFFECTIVELY
direct all your
capacityto
get older,your
you
mental
work, even
against
energies upon
your
increase.
A
to
distraction, ought
profound
would
philosopherin the midst of his meditations
notice
never
the
immediately
distract
child.
child and
little noises
the
that
movements
attention
the
However,
and
of
difference
garten
kinder-
the
between
the
philosopheris largelyone of degree
of how much
has expressed
one
gunpowder, as some
have
his chair to
to be exploded under
it, would
his train of thought. This getting used to
wreck
distractions is a good thing to acquire,but stillthere
are
usually enough of them without
deliberately
placingyourselfin conditions that will increase their
the
"
number.
directlyinto your eyes.
Don't face a window
or
brightlylightedwall. Don't
let an artificial lighthang in the immediate
of
range
your eyes unless they are protectedby an eye-shade
or
by a suitable shade on the lamp. Nor should the
illumination be so directed as to be reflected directly
Light
from
should
or
paper
of illumination
and
to
for desk
shine
never
into your
books
should
work
the left of, your
be
from
eyes.
The
direction
predominantly from above
a point to the front of, and
body, in
order
that shadows
shall
by your head or by your
hand
(inright-handedpersons). For reading,when
the book is held in the hands, the lightmay
be placed
above
and somewhat
the right
on
behind, whether
be cast
not
or
on
left is then
desk
work
at
your
work
indifferent.
nightmay
An
ideal illumination
be secured
by
a
for
singlesmall
electric
opaque
STUDY
TO
HOW
EFFECTIVELY
11
lamp (perhaps 8 candle-power) under an
reflector,arranged to flood the desk with
The
light,but to be itself invisible to your eye.
of
cutting off of illumination from the remainder
tions,
the room
is restful and assists,
by lesseningdistracin concentrating attention
the work
upon
before
you.
65
68
degrees, particularlyunder
flushingof the face, headache
degrees is
workers.
Beyond
artificial heating,
and other signs of
discomfort
This
A
between
temperature
conceded
to
be favorable
to
most
70
are
apt
to
appear.
and
discomfort
is
of low humidity than
a
usually more
consequence
In the winter, therefore,any
of high temperature.
sort
of
device
that
(evaporationfrom
steam
or
hot-water
will
pans
of
add
water
moisture
over
to
furnace
the
or
radiators, etc.)will lessen
air
on
the
dryness of the indoor air (oftenexceeding that of
the Desert
of Sahara) and
comfort
the skin and
membranes
of the body. Recent
mucous
mental
experialso that the keeping of air in
studies show
felt in
the discomfort
motion
by fans will remove
ill-ventilated
to
extent
not
rooms
an
usually
dreamed
of.
terfere
Tight clothing,particularlytight neckwear, inwith mental
work
directlyby its discomfort
tion.
and indirectly
by impeding respirationand circulaA tightcollar checks the flow of venous
blood
from
the head and tends toward
flushingthe face
in the eyes and the
and increasingblood pressure
brain.
The
to
TO
HOW
12
study
shoulders,
high a
brings the
EFFECTIVELY
chair
and
Too
low
contracted
a
Too
should
desk
a
chest
and
is uncomfortable
desk
work
too
near
your
especiallywith the
desk, will often
the
to
difference
in
proceed.
\
The
desk
needs.
fit your
relative
STUDY
the
comfort
with
of
be
a
stoop-
encourages
a
height
congested head.
for your
A
eyes.
little
height of
make
which
a
and
arms
perimenting
ex-
the chair
wonderful
study
can
desk should be such as to
of your
'tools' of study conveniently
various
equipment
bring
the
before
you.
these
Have
'tools' of
study (pencils,
ruler, pen and ink, blotters, dictionaries,
erasers,
drawing sets, pads of paper and the like) in good
and
condition
so
placed as to be at hand when
wanted, but out of the way when not wanted.
Highschool and collegestudents who
afford it ought
can
for it,and
to buy a typewriter,have
a simple stand
of their work
do as much
as
possibleupon it. A rack
that will hold heavy books, like dictionaries used in
translation
work, at a reading angle of 45 degrees
is another
useful
4. Form
Have
a
a
desk
device.
place-studyhabit.
particularplace
"
particular desk, a
study. Do your
a
which
at
particularchair
you
warrant
studying there unless special conditions
At least,don't permit yourself
doing it elsewhere.
to do
anything but work at this particularplace.
"
Don't
chair
ever
loaf
dedicated
or
to
read
novels
or
newspapers
study. This advice
may
in the
strike
TO
HOW
you
this
take
as
a
13
EFFECTIVELY
STUDY
bit far-fetched.
By
means.
no
Once
get
place-studyhabit formed and you have only to
your place to start up the studying attitude.
5. Form
When
there
a
time-study habit.
school
can
be
work
follows
discovered
a
a
regular schedule
natural
sdhedule
for
tage
studying. For most persons there is a real advanin doing mental
work
by schedule, in setting
aside given periods for study and in followingthis
schedule rather closely.For one
thing,you are not
likelythen to get behind in your work. And again,
to be developed in the nervous
a tendency appears
system of turningto mental work at times ingrained
by habit.
this time-study habit should be more
Whether
that a particularsubject is studied at a
so
specific,
given day and hour (geometry, daily at 11; Latin,
Monday, Wednesday and Friday at 8 p. m.) is open
that the nervous
to question. I doubt
system can
be trained
of working with
to habits
particular
dents
stusubjectsat particularhours. However, many
convinced
that such a plan is valuable because
are
of the advantages of pursuing daily work
and sticking
methodically,of laying out a program
to
it.
so
again,different peopleare by nature
constituted as in general to do mental
work
best at
different portionsof the day, so that A is a "morning
worker/' B an "afternoon worker," C an "evening
to
worker," is also open
question. Habit would
I think that
to play a considerable role here.
appear
Whether,
TO
HOW
14
STUDY
EFFECTIVELY
could
become
evening workers
morning
workers
if they had
Several of the writer's
to.
friends think
they do creative and constructive
work
better late in the evening and
'hack' work
better in the day time.
By preferencethey would
write an essay at night and revise it in the morning.
most
6. When
in
a
possibleprepare the advance assignments
given subjectdirectlyafter the day's recitation
in it.
This is a
under
specialcase
study habit."
The
Rule 5
for it are
:
"Form
a
time-
(a) The
is 'set* or
mind
'tuned up' for the particular
ject;
subthere is a special
fitness for work in physiology
or
historyor whatever the work may have been, and
this 'swing' should be utilized.*
(b) The assignment
for the work
to follow is fresh in mind,
(c)
The study of a given topic is separated from the
recitation on
that topic by an
interval
probably
As is explainedbelow
twenty-threehours or more.
(Rule 25) two impressionsof a given material are
reasons
these
:
"
effective for permanent
more
by
order
"
much
of
an
interval.
study
favored
'recency*
"
Begin
by
once
that the
recite
x,
transposed
which
is
so
account
of the benefit
be recommended
for the best
on
promptly.
of
high-schoolstudents! shows
is little danger
material
at
students
cannot
work
Observation
*There
then
It follows
ated
separ-
results.
permanent
7.
x,
when
memory
studied
of loss of 'swing' through
will be different
tSee Breslich, Reference
1, page
from
105.
being bored.
that dealt with
that
The
tual
ac-
in the recitation.
when
even
available
to
to
is
Here
woeful
of
yourselfthe ideal
startingtime
your
help to this is to:
8. Take
Get
through
go
a
take
the motions
of time.
waste
of
from
minutes
to
or
getting
Get before
quick 'get-away/
a
ten
Reduce
seconds.
One
the attitude of attention.
on
materials
your
of them
Some
start.
fifteen minutes
started.
15
that only a short period is
they know
for studying a given lesson, nearly every
is slow
one
EFFECTIVELY
STUDY
TO
HOW
laid out
pencil. Sit
before
you.
Take
straight.Open your
book.
Carry out all the 'motions' of getting to
If you have drilled yourselfwell, this will be
work.
enough to start you to work. The beginning is often
the hardest
point; once
begun, you can keep on
your
or
pen
much
without
up
effort.
9. Work
intenselywhile
You
not
you
work:
Concentrate.
what
likelyto remember
you
with
half-heartedly.Vivid impressions are
lasting. Ideas flow most
rapidly when
you
are
'at white
work
heat/
into
as
E. B. Andrews
Put
your
as
much
play.
most
work
'steam'
Don't
President
deal
into your
dawdle.
When
of Brown
University
he used one
phrase in his Chapel prayers that might
well voice the attitude of all good students:
"Help
with unremitting assiduity."
us
to apply ourselves
was
Note, too, that this
well
as
in your
10. But
or
home
means
attentive
in class
as
work.
don't let intense
worry.
be
applicationbecome
ter
flus-
TO
HOW
16
You
STUDY
EFFECTIVELY
be intent without
being anxious, earnest
without
being flustered. There is a kind of hurry
In especial,
that "defeats its own
end."
don't worry
because you can't keep pace with the best student in
can
class.
your
and
No
admit
recite
of
two
readilyand
11. Do
your
work
alike.
are
limitations
your
more
us
if others
higher marks.
secure
with
your best
learn faster,
Do
the intent to learn and
to
remember.
Laboratory experiments with
different
the
the
conditions
important conditions
taking of the attitude of
the
Closely
materials
learning.
An
list of words
second
a
and
my
had
once
presented.
are
attitude
be
in
seen
occasion
to
student
with
a
amazement
third student.
that
I
dence'
'confi-
of
what
remember
may
remember'
was
one
the
read
enough times so
correctly. I repeated the
to
":ould recite them
to
this is the
illustration
I
'intent to
learned
abilityto
incident.
a
be
to
allied with
in one's
with
very
most
when
a
show
memorizing under
of
clearlythat one
of good memory
is
is
lowing
fol-
aloud
that he
process
I then discovered
unable
to
recite the list
by heart myself. Here not only the
most
charitable,but also the psychologicallycorrect
intended to learn the list
explanation,is that I never
myself. I had repeated it mechanically and not in
the memorizing attitude.
12. Seek
Some
You
a
school
would
motive
or,
better,several motives.
subjectsare intrinsically
interesting.
rather study them
than not.
Without
18
TO
HOW
sake.
that
Remember
yourselfwhen
Whoever
the form
attitude
X
Miss
you
watches
their tasks
Y
STUDY
be
must
and
and
EFFECTIVELY
reallyworking for
are
studying.
students
in the preparation of
struck
with
demands
insists
are
the extent
quality of their work
neat
on
looked
by the
of each
subject.
gets them.
Miss
shall be
looked
Z. is found
Mr.
up.
and
papers
knowledge of idioms, and they are
not
class, though his references may
in neat
rendered
up,
and
be keen
to
the
his papers
which
to
is dictated
of the teacher
insists that all references
they
are
you
known
on
in his
looked
be
up
form.
Admittedly,
for thus controllingyour
can
hardly be blamed
you
in some
of expedwork
measure
through motives
iency:
object is to get good grades.
your immediate
I urge is that beyond these lesser details you
What
should
see
clearly that in the larger view your
work
is, after,all,primarily done for yourself,not
nor
for your
teachers.
apply for help until
14. Don't
have
you
to.
Don't
give up the problem after the first failure to
solve it,but "try, try again." You
learn by your
effort and progress
failures.
own
through your own
It is the teacher's province,of course,
to give aid
to
students, but
comes
the
best
aid
to
students
mature
"Where
through suggestions,hints, queries
do you
method?"
"
think
the trouble
"Do
you
problem and that?"
again,"etc.
page
see
lies?" "Have
any
"Read
connection
over
such
you
tried this
between
and
this
such
a
15. Have
how
to
are
you
do,
verbatim, what
textbook
in
"
is for.
work
be
you
should
short, what
is made
lesson.
rapidlythe
The
The
The
attend
to.
reviewing
of
is
the
of
should
the teacher's
clear
work
work
on
fairlyobvious,
are
and
the
work, review
advance
hence
starts
directlyuseful
reviewed
business
in
student's
familiar
Your
be learned
assigning the
littleattention is paid by
for this rule
subject-matteris
to
the purpose
of
up* outside the
this particularpiece of
beginning the
previous lesson.
reasons
lines
'look
Unfortunately,too
teachers to steeringthe
many
coming lessons.
16. Before
not
"
methods
Naturally,it is
this aim
sure
is
or
pages
things,if any,
essential,what
and
task
are
you
posed
supaspects of the lesson are salient
work, what
to
the
what
but
assignment is, by what
the
19
of the aim.
definitelywhat
examples or
many
translation
to
EFFECTIVELY
clear notion
a
Understand
merely
STUDY
TO
HOW
to
not
(a)
cult
diffi-
easily, (b)
pression
deepen the imoff
material.
It aids you
later on.
(c) The
greatlyin recallingthat material
mental
to
activityused in the reviewing serves
'warm
for the studying
up* your mental processes
to follow,
(d) The subject-matterthus reviewed
will have
numerous
points of contact, numerous
'hooks'
upon
The
the
fundamental
which
the
new
material
can
reviewing helps,in other words
to the old,"which is one
of
new
in all learning.
maxims
be
to
ened.
fast-
sociate
"as-
the most
17. Next
STUDY
TO
HOW
20
make
a
EFFECTIVELY
of the
rapid preliminary survey
assigned material.
This
work
applicableto all subjects,but for
language, history,geography, physiology
rule is not
in
the like,and
and
in most
even
forms
of mathematics,
the ground gives a
preliminary canter over
useful notion of the 'lay-out'of the whole task and
this
frequently economizes
earlier part of the
otherwise
time
lesson
in
lost
struggling over
in
the
points
ary
prelimintogether
explained in the later part. The
also helps to hold the material
survey
in a more
unitary whole. It should never, of course,
replace the careful study that is to follow: it is
only preliminary to that.
that
are
18. Find
out
by
by beginning
with
task
of
when
you
trial whether
the hardest
confronted
are
or
better
succeed
you
with
with
the
easiest
several
tasks
unequal difficulty.
Individuals
differ in this respect.
anticipationof the
follow lightensthe
task.
"There,
It
that's
is
Many find that
pleasurable,easier task to
difficult and less pleasurable
more
more
a
done,
distinct
for
satisfaction
to
say:
something easier."
'warm
Others, especiallythose who
up' slowly and
do their best work
only after they have been mentally
active for a period, can
probably defer the
harder
task to some
advantage. A lengthy stint
with portionsof unequal difficulty
be done then
can
by 'cleaningup* the easier portions first and then
making a final spurt for the remainder.
now
19. In
general,use
will
activity that
21
studying the
in your
later be
form
when
demanded
of
the
is used.
material
You
EFFECTIVELY
STUDY
TO
HOW
will
nine times
your knowledge of spellingninetyin
in the writing of words
hundred
use
in
a
accordance, then, with this rule it
would be better to learn your spelling
by writingthe
words
than by learningthem merely orally; in fact,
it would
probably be still better to learn them by
than to learn them
writingthem in actual sentences
merely by writingthem in lists or columns.
Young
tables for
pupilsneed to know their multiplication
In
sentences.
use
in actual arithmetical
work
:
it follows
that these
tables will be
reallylearned only when they can be
used in actual problems. Teachers are
often surprised
have learned the
to discover that pupilswho
tables fairly
well as tables stillcannot
multiplication
multiply rapidlyand accuratelywhen
they try to
solve examples. Again, conversational
French
or
is to be employed presumably in talking:
German
let it be learned aloud,then, rather than by silently
perusing a textbook or by writingdozens of French
German
or
from
sentences
dictation.
Similarly,
students who
sometimes
complain that they "know
that stuff but can't answer
questionson it" would
do well to do their reviewing of it by asking themselves
it and practisingthe giving
questions about
of
answers.
20. Give
points in
your
This rule
time
most
knowledge
seems
attention
and
almost
or
to
the
weak
technique.
too
obvious
to
mention,
yet it is
doing what
piano
EFFECTIVELY
that is frequently infringed against,
one
human
because
STUDY
TO
HOW
22
nature
takes
is easiest.
Thus,
satisfaction
most
children
most
in
in taking
spend their time in playing over
and
over
simple 'pieces'that they have already
learned to do fairlywell, but have to be constantly
urged to devote time to the fingering of difficult
and to the important exercises with scales. In
runs
vote
school work, similarly,
teachers
and.texts often demuch
too
much
lessons
time
drill in "two
"eight
times
to
what
times
seven
are
that the latter connection
times
difficult to
more
is easy:
two
are
the child has
four"
as
he does
as
in
despite the fact
fifty-six,"
is probably several dozen
students
Mature
master.
are
weaknesses
enough to detect their own
selves
to seek
by special exercises to fortifythemman
translation of Gerat these points. If your
is interfered with by irregularverbs, spend an
half-hour
jugation
a
day for several weeks on the conIf your exercises in physics
of these verbs.
competent
and
extra
out
come
take
wrong
the
trouble
practicein
21.
number
because
of mistakes
remedy this
to
in arithmetic,
defect
work.
Carry the learning of all important items
recall.
for immediate
the point necessary
Adequate learning means
permanent
that is needed
Any bit of information
work
must
be studied
more
t" recall it for the purposes
"r
by special
next
month's
than
examination.
acquisition.
for your
is sufficient
of tomorrow's
Remember
yond
be-
life
barely
recitation
that
all
23
EFFECTIVELY
STUDY
TO
HOW
impressions tend to fade with time and that this
be met
by over-learning.If the process
fading must
be perfectly
to
of extracting a square-root needs
be drilled
ready for use at the age of forty,it must
in the grammar
grades far longer than is
upon
justto keep it in mind during the work in
necessary
the grammar-school arithmetic. Superficial
learning
for the immediate
of spellingmay
answer
-test,but
is totallyinadequate if the aim is to get the process
so
automatic
written
at
that
any
hesitation.
22.
you,
use
common
can
in your life correctlyand
Prom
this it follows :
time
be
out
with-
gree
daily pass judgment as to the deof importance of items that are brought before
and lay specialstress
the permanent
on
fixing
You
of those
must
items that
Naturally,young
make
in
all words
these
are
children
decisions.
teachers
to accentuate
suitable
emphasis
fundamental.
vital and
in
are
It is the
position to
no
business
these essential
of their
points and by
repetitionto insure their
But many
high-school and most
college
mastery.
students
mature
are
enough to appraise the items
of knowledge and to select for careful learningthose
that are
valuable for them.
These items might as
well be learned once
for all when
they appear.
At
the
thousands
same
and
time, this rule does
of less fundamental
thoroughly understood
they are encountered.
after
you graduate you
not
items
mean
are
that the
not
to
and
attentivelymastered
The
prospect that
will be unable
to
ten
be
as
years
recall the
STUDY
TO
HOW
24
EFFECTIVELY
third person, singularsubjunctiveof anw
to give
or
of Avogadro's hypothesis or to
clear statement
a
angle
angles of a triis equal to two
right angles does not prove
that you would better not spend time on them now.
If all the time and energy
we
spend studying the
demonstrate
the
time and
were
of the
sum
of facts that
thousands
recall
that
we
are
energy
afterwards
thrown
away,
unable
to
education
farce!
ridiculous
be, indeed, a most
known
but not
now
reality,knowledge once
is by no means
valueless.
In
would
(a) It
have had
may
an
immediate
callable
re-
ness
direct useful-
learned,sufficient to justifylearningit,
using it for a time and then forgettingit. I take a
when
quarter of
hour
an
generalsystem
I expect to be
to learn the main
streets
and
the
in London, though
transportation
in my life.
there only one
week
of
learn has value primarily
of what we
(b) Much
It furnishes the temporary
as
preliminaryinstruction.
of which the permanent
scaffolding
by means
doubt
be laid. No
structure
Latin, properly
may
taught, improves English composition, oral and
written.
At thirty you will have forgottenyour
Latin grammar,
but you will probably speak better
English for having done the Latin translation for
which
the grammar
prepared you.
in order to understand
(c) Somewhat
similarly,
and to retain permanently the largergeneralizations,
it is necessary
to assimilate
of the detailed observations
are
built.
Put
a
considerable
number
generalizations
one
might
quantitatively,
on
which
the
could
elaborate
on
those
his
new
to
bridge without 'sweatingup'
bridge designingthat pertainto
new
a
phases of
problem. In
so
train for life,it may
abilityto
the
long enough to
long as to suffer
properly seek
to
train this
periods of study
utilize 'warming-up/ but not
so
from
weariness
or
fatigue.
of your
duration
successful you
However
start
may
(Rule 7),you
'swing' after
minutes.
far,then, as the school aims
cram.
24. Make
prompt
EFFECTIVELY
STUDY
TO
HOW
26
five
It would
or
ten
are
in
become
likelyto
minutes
making
be in
a
a
ter
bet-
than after two
be unwise, therefore,to cut short
unless
your work at the end of ten or fifteen minutes
the task were
extremely
extremely hard, you were
tired and
you
had
come
to
a
natural
break
in the
the task is
Easy work, especiallywhen
tinued
changing from minute to minute, can often be conwith little
profitablyfor two hours or more
of
work, with
quick onset
interruption. Hard
weariness, is best interruptedoftener, say every
fifteen or twenty minutes, by short breaks, say of
one
minute, made at pointsthat afford natural stopping
places. Walk about a bit. Open the window.
Get a brief change and relaxation, but do not do
work.
other
mental
work.
impossible,then, to lay down any hard and
to
fast rule concerningoptimallength of study,save
the student, the longer he
(a) the maturer
say:
should be able to work; (b) the easier the subject
matter, the longer he should be able to work; (c)
the slower the student is to get 'warmed
up/ the
It is
HOW
longer he
is indicated
STUDY
TO
should
EFFECTIVELY
continue
at
work.
followingrule
in the
27
A
specialcase
:
ute
repetitionis necessary, distribthan one
more
over
period the time given to a
learning.
specified
25. When
drill
or
what is the
possibleto state justprecisely
the time to be devoted
to distribute
best possibleway
much
ous
to learning('so
depends upon the variindicated in Rule
of work
conditions
as
24).
Obviously,a small task that can be learned in a few
had better be learned in one
ously,
minutes
sitting.Obvidifficult task requiring,say four or
five
a
It is not
hours
of labor, had
The
better
present rule
be learned
means
in several
tings.
sit-
that,in general,the
economical
and efficient
studying is more
of time is divided into several
when
a given amount
it is taken in a singlesitting.
sittingsthan when
Experiments show, for example, that more
rapid
is made
in learning to typewrite if the
progress
practiceis in two periods of thirtyminutes each,
taken
separatedby a day, than if the practiceis all underin one
period of sixty minutes.
a
Similarly,
piece of piano music that can be learned by heart
in a singlesittingof 120 minutes
be learned
can
equally well in less than 120 minutes if taken in
sittingsof 15, 20 or 30 minutes each, separatedby
intervals of several hours
or
days. Especiallyin
the case
of college work, where
conditions
often
favor deferringapplication
until
to certain courses
a forth-coming'quiz'
compels extensive reading and
loss of efficiency,
reviewing,there is an undoubted
work
of
28
TO
HOW
because
the
shorter
EFFECTIVELY
of
amount
same
and
in
expended
more
The
distributed
learningscan
be undertaken
less
fatigue,with less fluster and worry.
over,
Moreit is probable that during the intervals between
these learningssome
of 'organization'
sort
or
'incubation'
of the material
find it profitable,
for
for
labor
frequent periods of study would
of the maconsiderably greater permanence
terial.
ensure
with
STUDY
a
paper
data
'come
26.
out'
When
natural
This
a
data
time.
interruptwork,
you
but
break,
sons
per-
several
essay
'stand' for
to
place. Many
instance,to assemble
tempt
days before they atthat these
it,as experience shows
in better shape for having been allowed
or
write
to
takes
also
leave
a
not
cue
only stop at a
for its quick resumption.
is
peculiarlyimportant when
undertaking a
relatively
long bit of constructive work, like writing
an
At
essay.
clearlyin
What
mind
have
you
to
propose
the moment
Everyone
do
knows
the general
is
more
how
perspectiveof
is fresh
done
'cold' and
piece of work can be when
to other
day or two devoted
memoranda
this, jot down
a
"Start
point
next
on
this and
page
a
discussion
of
4 for further
that in the
before
less
or
have
stop, you
you
you
task.
your
;
what
in
already
picked
up
To
matters.
you
outline.
distasteful
even
it is
fairly
such
after
a
remedy
leave
it:
so-and-so."
"Pick
up
treatment."
"Look
up
before
you
encyclopedia,"etc.
TO
HOW
27. After
STUDY
for
a
let your
anything else.
and
time
fallow before
or
29
to
especially
application,
intensive
material, pause
EFFECTIVELY
mind
new
lie
takingup
The impressionsjustmade are liable to be blurred
'swamped' by the second set, unless they have a
littletime to settle down.
It is
a
matter
of
common
seeing
day spent in sightin an environment
full of novel impressions,
Fair,for example, are
your first day at a World's
I once
hard to remember.
man
peculiarly
urged a Gerfriend who
America
for the first
was
visiting
time to meet
some
colleaguesat my home in the
evening. He declined courteouslyon the ground
that he had just spent a busy day in an intensive
less
study of the George Junior Republic and that unhe could spend a quietevening at the hotel,he
experiencethat
would
not
the details of
home
carry
with
a
him
the institution he had
a
clear memory
His attitude
of
was
justvisited.
His evening at the hotel would
fice
sufquitecorrect.
his impressions,
to arrange
to fix them
indelibly
in his memory,
unobscured
by other impressionsof
He would
a different sort.
spend his time,of course,
in thinkingover
and heard during
what he had seen
the day. This bringsus to a particularly
important
set
1
of rules.
8. Use
think
The
as
one
in
various
over
your
function
well
as
to
devices
to
compel yourself to
work.
of the recitation is to induce
'hear lessons.' Examinations
function the incitement
thought
have
as
through the reviewing
comprehensive survey
preparationfor them of a
of the ground covered by them.
TO
HOW
30
STUDY
EFFECTIVELY
are
sufficiently
plans for inducingthinkingrules.
as
specific
important to be embodied
Certain
the habit of
Form
29.
examples
This
of all
crete
conworking out your own
generalrules and principles.
to the
particularly
applicablemore
work
of students in collegeand in the upper
years
of study
the subject-matter
of the high school where
is more
apt to deal with abstract and generalized
A good textbook
statements.
or
a good teacher will
be sure
concrete
to supply one
or
more
examples of
such generalprinciples,
but the good student should
The
supplement these by examples of his own.
point is that your personal experience is different
is
that of the author
from
the
rule
teacher.
principleyou
the
that
one
for
your
to
occur
given you,
one
or
from
that of
If, then, you really understand
are
studying,it is probable that
illustration of it will
from
of the text
and
you
some
is different
quitelikelybetter than
purposes.
own
that
the
Teachers
who
credit for
insightwill always give more
even
student's own
a
attempt to apply a principle,
if it be a crude
than for a mere
parrot-like
one,
in the text or the
of the illustration made
repetition
have
real
classroom
30.
instruction.
Form
paragraph
the habit
as
soon
as
of
you
mentally reviewing every
have
read
it.
about
properly constructed paragraph centers
one
thought which may usuallybe epitomized in a
sure
a singlephrase. Make
even
or
singlesentence
'tease out' this thought. This habit
that you can
A
31
EFFECTIVELY
STUDY
TO
HOW
well
summarizing by paragraphs might
developed by teachers in the grade schools.
of mental
be
31. Don't
these
make
The
up
essential ideas
stand
marking
side-heads
do
to
decision
your
out
take the form
may
be
may
It is well
The
hesitate to mark
this after
to
to
visibly.
of
underliningor
against each paragraph.
reading each paragraph.
written
what
books
own
mark
or
what
write
to
will
gist of the paragraph.
The text is also left in better shape for subsequent
reviewing by topics. Naturally,this advice suggests
necessitate
that
each
reference
and
student
books
32. Whenever
that is
at
the
thinking out
should
desire
all extensive
and
is to
which
books
the
one
books
on
secret
to
me
collegestudents
scan
retain
to
material
make
this
an
the eagerness
the pages
of the
advertise
master
the
line
out-
material,
see
which
memory
of "how
texts
many
master
complex,
of it. If you also wish to
commit
your outline to memory.
It has often amused
as
possible.
as
your
own
to
with
ent*
'patteach
of
contents
singlereading,"and how sadlythey greet
the advice : "Read
the book carefully,
make
line
outan
of it and memorize
the outline."
Nevertheless,
this is perfectlysound
advice, psychologicallyand
ing."
pedagogically,for there is "no royal road to learnThe
at
a
outlines should
in noun-form
and
phrases rather
be
much
statements,
than
condensed, preferably
topics,catch-words
full sentences, and
the
most
32
TO
HOW
STUDY
EFFECTIVELY
tion
paid to their organizamain
headings,sub-headings,etc. The
get from the reading of a chapter or ?n
careful attention should
under
idea is to
or
essay
and
structure
that reveals its
33. In
much
set
to
work
possibleand
soon
There is scarcelyany
this
To
a
form
a
glance.*
as
your
as
rule
in
knowledge
possible.
apply
as
paper
on
organizationin
all your
as
this down
whole
of the
the framework
argument
an
be
fundamental
more
than
thing
thing,do somewith it,try it,use it,put it into function, tell
it to some
one, go to almost
any length to express
All teachers
what has been impressed upon
you.
and
knowthat
they reach most complete appreciation
retention of any topic when
they have
permanent
had occasion to teach it to others. The astounding
in the learned professions
displayedby men
grasp
one.
be
the thousands
over
is
a
these
a
ings
of intricate details of their callof the constant
consequence
of
making
remember
to
sure
Even
materials.
they
are
trivial
an
use
so
good story is
remembering of some
best met by telling
the story to some
one
as
soon
as
possibleafter hearing it or reading it. An excellent
plan for any student who is anxious to master
any
topicis to seek to explainit to another person.
issue
the
as
In this connection
group
of the individual student's
*Students
of law,
in J. H.
on)
a
of
WIGMORE,
a
mass
of evidence.
and
Principles of Judicial
valuable
plan
Does
:
the effectiveness
The
work?
debating:, argumentation
interesting- and
very
details
be raised
the query may
studying operate to increase
the
Proof
for charting
must
answer
like
will
find
(Part III.,
pp.
in visible form
scribed
de744
the
TO
HOW
34
formulas, dates
to
also understand
teachers
of
the
them.
commit
to
apt
are
and
memory
words
EFFECTIVELY
outlines,always provided, of
students
Younger
exact
and
that you
course,
STUDY
recite
to
their
sons'
'les-
in
parrot-like,
The
textbooks.
the
efforts
of
frequentlyexpended, and quite wisely,
too, in breaking up this habit or at least in ensuring
that these students
the meaning of
surely know
the other
On
what is reproduced in this fashion.
are
hand, older students
make
may
of avoiding
the mistake
reliance upon rote memory.
You should
entirely
understand
is perfectly
that committing to memory
the subject-matterhas but few
legitimatewhen
with many
for recall (as is the case
natural cues
formulas
and
the subject-matter
dates) or when
into brief compass
certain fundamentally
condenses
important principles(as is the case with definitions
stand
should aim to underand rules of procedure). You
this material, but
pains to
commit
of attentive
no
it to memcry
obvious
rational
artificialscheme
To
device.
that the volcano
year.
To
take
of
high by dwelling on
embraces
the
simple process
be learned
of this sort
a
for learning
is termed
a
monic
mne-
stock instance,I remember
Fujiyama
in
Japan
the circumstance
the twelve
avoid
by heart presents
associations,it is perfectly
to
artificialscheme
to invent
some
legitimate
it.
and recalling
An
the
by
take
also
repetition.
the material
35. When
should
you
months
gettingthe
and
wrong
is
12,365feet
that this
ber
num-
days of the
volcano I might
365
concoct
even
35
EFFECTIVELY
STUDY
TO
HOW
far-fetched association between
some
that
I remember
Fujiyama and fugitive
year. Or, again,
a
the age of one
the proverb "speech is silver,"etc.,
recalling
sixteen words
certain infant used
year
by
and
that
Bryan's speech
for "16 to 1 !"
of the books
of
the
on
at
silver
gued
question ar-
pointedout that most
patent recipesfor memorizing err
It may
be
in
urging the use of such artificial devices when a
rational association,
a
logicalconnection,would be
preferable.Thus, the scheme that they recommend
of learningvocabularies
by the insertion of artificial
it. You
connecting links has little to recommend
the
be sure,
to
can,
Latin
arbor
mast
mast;
harbor
and
far wiser
Day"
is
"arboreal
arbor."
suggests
ancestors"
In
trees.
by saying to yourself:"tree
suggests ship; ship suggests
for you to dwell on
day devoted to tree
a
device,invent
your
or
oration, do
learn it as
a
In other
to
be
said
method
formed
be
apes
must
use
who
a
our
lived
in
mnemonic
hand
adopt a secondforgetit on account
in constructingit.
to
not
tion
declamaa
poem,
memory
break it up into parts but
whole.
ginning
words, read it straightthrough from beend, then repeat this until the whole can
without
are
it would
rather than
own
committing
bor
har-
plantingand that
:
36. In
gests
sug-
the fact that "Arbor
you are less likelyto
of the very effort that you make
one
But
the
were
event, if you
any
of
learn that tree is the translation
several,
between
The
error.
the
(a) The
words
are
advantages
mental
of this
connections
distributed
evenly
TO
HOW
36
STUDY
EFFECTIVELY
the entire material,whereas, when
over
the
learning
is
'by parts/ certain portions,say the first line,
times than is necessary,
are
more
repeated many
while
other portions,say the connection
between
the eighth and
ninth lines,are
not
impressed as
these
at
times, so that forgettingappears
many
weak
links in the chain of associations,
(b) It is
easier to keep attention upon
the material when
it
is read
as
a
whole
than
when
a
small
bit of it is
and
over,
(c) The
repeated monotonously over
impressions made of any given section follow each
other after a longer interval when
learning is by
in acwholes
and thus there is a gain in efficiency
cordance
with the principlestated in Rule 25. (d)
The meaning of the material is kept to the front
when
it is learned as a whole, and this aids in its
retention.
fers
portion that ofin learning,
the rule justgiven,
specialdifficulty
should be modified to the extent
of devotinga few
section in orto this harder
der
extra, short repetitions
the remainder.
to bring it up on
a level with
You
feel discouraged when
the
first use
you
may
method
of committing to memory
cause,
'by wholes/ beafter you have expended some
time upon
the
erable
work, you find yourselfunable to repeat any considthat the
remember
part of it,but you must
In
case
there
is in the selection
entire selection is
a
alreadypartlyimpressedand that
when
recall does become
possible,it will pertainto
the whole
The
selection.
gain by the 'whole*
method
is greater when
the selection is a long one.
for
long as to take
singleperusal.
so
even
a
than
more
committing to memory,
and
aloud than to read silently
than slowly.
is
probably
better
better
There is
an
as
read
idly
rap-
when
the
to
sustained
reading is aloud, and in addition
made
directlyto the ear as well
assistance is given by the
some
in the throat and
singlesitting
a
it is better to read
37. In
Attention
37
EFFECTIVELY
STUDY
TO
HOW
appeal is
to
then
the eye, and
'feel' of the words
mouth.
gain by fast repetition
only in the sense
time for learning,a fast rate
that, given a specified
will be advantageous by permitting you to repeat
the material
times.
read
more
Thus, if you can
ing
learnthrough a poem
slowly in five minutes, more
will result by doubling the rate and thus reading
it through twice in five minutes.
a
38. If your
take
moderate
a
use
these
work
includes
of
at
during
of abbreviations, and
amount
system
a
attendance
notes
lectures,
the
tures,
lec-
rewrite
daily,amplified into a reasonably compendious
outline,organized as suggested in Rule 32.
notes
Collegestudents are seen to err in both directions
in taking notes.
Those
who
scribble away
triously
industhroughout the hour
undoubtedly take
down
too much
and on
the whole
lose something
of the lecturer's
the
few
think
students
they
to
the
presentation. On
who
take
do better
no
the
other
hand,
notes, because
they
tion
by giving undivided attenlecturer's presentation,are
equally de-
can
ceived,
for
the
for
subsequently
the
reference
simple
might
will
for
profitably
which, that,
You
will
will
you
take
the
not
rewrite
you
to
a
scrutinize
'warm/
will
and,
them
to
increase
what
valuable
impression
is
in,
up
at
least
time
to
to
make
their
by
a
in
the
the
them,
serviceability
interval
in
cured
se-
if you
do
enables
while
it
they
in
the
in
serves
(Rule
are
additions
and
alterations
if
run
notes
work
learning, separated
suitable
all
yourself.
long
over
go
This
equally important,
second
for
memoranda
such
dents.
stu-
for
used
be
revise
completely.
your
words
other
high-school
system
a
some
words
commonest
all
of
of, with, to, tion, ing,
on,
peculiarly valuable
retention.
the
an
daily work
the
should
pains daily
and
in
ing
read-
etc., is
discussions,
to
actually gain
in class
still
taught
Make
etc.
of
abbreviating
like
ture,
lec-
refer
can
college students,
and
single symbol
particles,
common
he
memoranda
and
recording
be
retain
typical
a
which
prominent
be
and
review.
and
systematically
A
of
class
books,
system
for
and
features
of notes
secondary-school
most
away
to
study
taking
activity that
as
essential
carry
memoranda
without
in
EFFECTIVELY
can
person
no
permanently
Since
STUDY
TO
HOW
38
from
25)
future,
itself
the
and
as
first
sequently
con-
assuring permanent
1.
2. Attend
often
to,
mental
nasal
favorable
are
a
5. Form
a
6. When
in
noids,
ade-
work
of
(light,
clothing, chair, desk, etc.)
habit.
place-study
habit.
time-study
advance
the
possible, prepare
given subject directly
a
teeth,
study.
to
Form
4.
that
defective
as
defective
conditions
humidity,
temperature,
defects
breathing.
external
that
such
activity,
hearing,
obstructed
See
physical
treat
or
defective
eyesight,
physical condition.
good
remove
handicap
3.
in
yourself
Keep
RULES
THE
OF
SUMMARY
after
the
assignment
day's
recitation
in it.
7.
Begin
8.
Take
9.
Work
10.
or
11.
work
promptly.
the
on
attitude
while
intensely
But
don't
of
attention.
let intense
Concentrate.
work:
you
application
ter
flus-
become
worry.
Do
your
work
with
the
intent
to
learn
and
to
remember.
the
12.
Seek
13.
Get
motive
a
rid
of
or,
the
idea
better, several
that
you
are
motives.
working
teacher.
14.
Don't
15. Have
apply
a
clear
for
help
notion
until
of
39
the
you
aim.
have
to.
for
STUDY
TO
HOW
40
EFFECTIVELY
beginning the
previous lesson.
16. Before
rapidlythe
17. Make
a
advance
review
work,
of the
rapid preliminary survey
signed
as-
material.
18. Find
trial whether
by
out
the
by beginning with
task
when
hardest
confronted
are
you
succeed
you
with
or
with
better
easiest
the
several
tasks
of
unequal difficulty.
in your studying the form of
when
the material
activitythat will later be demanded
19. In
general,use
is used.
20. Give
points in your
'-21.
attention
and
knowledge
or
to
the
weak
technique.
^
Carry the learning of all important items
recall.
for immediate
the point necessary
yond
be-
gree
daily pass judgment as to the deof importance of items that are brought before
the permanent
and lay specialstress
fixing
on
22. You
you,
time
most
of those
must
items
23. When
vital and
are
given bit of
importance and
a
subordinate
being, you
that
attention
to
24. Make
the
25. When
drill
hold
information
in
warranted
are
it
duration
fundamental.
over
is
clearlyof
only for the time
cient
giving to it only suffithe time in question.
useful
of your
periods of study
long enough to utilize "warming-up* but not so long
weariness
to suffer from
as
or
fatigue.
over
more
or
than
learning.
specified
ute
distribrepetitionis necessary,
one
period the time given to a
TO
STUDY
committing
to
HOW
42
37.
In
aloud
than
take
If
a
moderate
notes
includes
work
your
using*
these
and
is
better
better
to
read
to
read
idly
rap-
slowly.
than
38.
it
memory,
silently
read
to
EFFECTIVELY
of
amount
a
system
daily,
outline,
attendance
of
during1
notes
and
abbreviations,
into
amplified
organized
at
as
a
lectures,
the
rewrite
reasonably
suggested
in
tures,
lec-
pendious
com-
Rule
32.
SUGGESTIONS
FOR
FURTHER
READING
(1) Breslich, E. R.
Teaching high-schoolpupils
how
to study. School Review, 20 : 1912, 505-515.
(2) Breslich,E. R.
Supervised study as a means
instruction.
of providing supplementary individual
Thirteenth
Society for
Yearbook, Part I, National
the Study of Education, 1914, pp. 32-72.
raphy
(Bibliogof 19 titles.
a
to Learn
(3) Dearborn, G. V. N. How
Book
for Students, Teachers and Parents.
Easily:
Boston,
1916.
(4) Earhart, Lida B. Teaching Children to Study.
Boston, 1909. 181 pp.
(5) Giles, F. M.
Investigation of study-habits
high-schoolstudents. School Review, 22: 1914,
478-484.
(6) Hall-Quest, A. L. The direction of study as
the chief aim of the high school. (Chapter X in The
Modern
and
High School, by C. H. Johnston
others).
(7) Hinsdale, B. A. The Art of Study. New
York,
of
1900,
266
pp.
(8) Jones, Olivia M. Teaching Children to Study;
The
Group System Applied. New
York, 1910.
193 PP.
(9) Lunt, F. S. Some investigations
of habits of
study, Jour, of Educational Psychology, i : 1910,
344-348.
(10) McMurry, F. M.
How
to Study and
How
to Study. Boston, 1909.
324 pp.
43
ing
Teach-
S.
Parker,
(11)
Schools.
STUDY
TO
HOW
44
C.
Boston,
C.
W.
Teaching
of
529
in
High
pp.
T.he
of
importance
study-
Review,
School
pupils.
high-school
for
program
Methods
1915.
Reavis,
(12)
EFFECTIVELY
19
:
1911,398-405.
(13)
form
it.
(14)
Study.
(16)
Review,
30:
W.
Ruediger,
Boston,
York,
20:
W.
1912,
to
670-683.
1910,
Teaching
How
170
The
J.
New
Wiener,
L.
1915.
H.
Watt,
how
and
pupils
to
study.
437-446.
R.
Sandwick,
habit
study
C.
1909,
29:
Memory.
(17)
The
H.
Education,
Education,
(15)
S.
Rowe,
to
Study
What
to
pp.
Economy
1909.
Home-study
526-531.
and
and
128
Training
pp.
reform.
School
of
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