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How to Hire and Retain Employees in a Changing Economy - seata

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SEATA, Point Clear, AL
July 2014
How to Hire and Retain Employees
in a Changing Economy
Randall Lohman
Workforce and Succession Planning
U.S. Office of Personnel Management
Prepared by
Danielle Novick Alfaro
Selection and Promotion Assessment
U.S. Office of Personnel Management
HR SOLUTIONS
CHOSEN EMPLOYER, CHOSEN PROVIDER п‚џ by Government, for Government
1
It’s Time to Hire
Consider:
• Have work processes changed since the last time you hired?
• Have you reorganized?
• Should you reorganize?
• Should duties and responsibilities be adjusted or
repackaged to match a new operational realities?
• What is driving your need to hire?
• What other factors need to be considered, like new
programs, laws, succession planning needs, and workforce
and workload factors and gaps
HR SOLUTIONS
CHOSEN EMPLOYER, CHOSEN PROVIDER п‚џ by Government, for Government
It’s Time to Hire
Consider:
• Determine the right mix of employment types to create
flexibility
– Intermittent staff for large projects and surge support
– Develop a source of excellent contract support
– Determine mission critical and inherently governmental
duties
– Hire full-time and part-time staff appropriately
• Develop on-point and defensible candidate assessments
• Fill the positions in the right order at the right speed
HR SOLUTIONS
CHOSEN EMPLOYER, CHOSEN PROVIDER п‚џ by Government, for Government
Assessment: Defining the Terms
• Assessment: a systematic approach to gathering
information about individuals; this information is used to
make employment or career-related decisions about
applicants and employees
• Assessment Tool: any test or procedure (for example: ability
test, structured interview, work sample) used to measure an
individual’s employment or career-related qualifications and
interests
U.S. Department of Labor, Testing and Assessment: An
Employer’s Guide to Good Practices, 2000
HR SOLUTIONS
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What is an Assessment
Strategy?
An assessment strategy is a plan for designing and implementing
assessment tools to measure and evaluate candidates for
selection, promotion, or development.
Identifying the most appropriate assessment tools requires
careful consideration of many key factors, costs, and benefits
associated with each option in relation to the needs and
priorities of the organization.
HR SOLUTIONS
CHOSEN EMPLOYER, CHOSEN PROVIDER п‚џ by Government, for Government
5
The Importance of Effective
Assessment
• Increases the likelihood of hiring employees who possess the
right competencies required for the job
• Results in placing greater numbers of superior performers
• Results in reduced turnover
• Results in cost savings to the organization
– Poor hire estimated to cost 2-3 X salary in year one
– Lower training and performance management costs
• Decreases the likelihood of a bad hire and associated
consequences
– Poor work quality
– Dissatisfied customers
– Lowered morale among fellow employees
HR SOLUTIONS
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Critical Considerations
Critical considerations for designing an assessment and
implementing assessment tools:
• Competencies to be assessed for the position(s)
• Reliability and validity evidence
• Potential for adverse impact on the basis of race, gender,
national origin, or other groups in the applicant population
• Cost, time, and expertise needed for development of
assessment tools
• Cost and feasibility of implementation plan
• Costs or consequences of a bad hiring decision
• Acceptability of assessment process and tools to applicants
HR SOLUTIONS
CHOSEN EMPLOYER, CHOSEN PROVIDER п‚џ by Government, for Government
7
Designing an Effective
Assessment Strategy
There are multiple steps to assessment strategy design,
including:
• Step 1: Job analysis to identify the tasks and competencies
most important for job performance
• Step 2: Identification of appropriate assessment tools or
methods and development of assessment content
• Step 3: Implementation of assessments in consideration of
key factors such as costs, resources, and scoring
• Step 4: Evaluation of results to determine whether
assessment tools achieved the desired effect
HR SOLUTIONS
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Assessment Strategy
Step 1:
Conducting
Job Analysis
Use a systematic approach to gather valuable job
information:
• Gather and review occupational information
• Conduct Subject Matter Expert (SME) panels or
site visits
• Develop and administer surveys to collect task
and competency data
• Analyze data and document findings in
compliance with legal and professional
guidelines and best practices
• Apply results of data analyses to identify critical
competencies
HR SOLUTIONS
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9
Assessment Strategy
Step 2: Identify
Assessment
Tools
• Assessment Tools include the following:
– Cognitive Ability Test
– Situational Judgment Test
– Job Knowledge Test
– Writing Assessment
– Structured Interview
– Accomplishment Record
– Assessment Center
HR SOLUTIONS
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10
Cognitive Ability Test
Applicants are asked to solve questions to
estimate their potential to use mental processes
to solve job-related problems or acquire job
knowledge; can also measure aptitude for jobrelated skills
HR SOLUTIONS
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Situational Judgment Test
Presents applicants with a description of a
work problem or critical situation, and asks
them to identify how they would deal with it
(can be paper, computerized, or video-based
format)
HR SOLUTIONS
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Job Knowledge Test
Comprised of specific questions developed to
determine how much the candidate knows
about particular job tasks or responsibilities
HR SOLUTIONS
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Writing Assessment
Presents applicants with exercises similar to the
writing that they would be required to perform
on the job
• Scored by raters using professionallydeveloped benchmarks or by complex
automated protocols
HR SOLUTIONS
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Structured Interview
Panel interview where all candidates are asked
the same job-related questions (often
competency-and behavioral-based)
• Interviewers use detailed rating scales,
evaluating all candidates according to the same
standards
HR SOLUTIONS
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Accomplishment Record
Applicants provide a written description of a
situation to illustrate their proficiency in critical
job-related competencies
• Evaluated by a panel of trained raters
against competency-based benchmarks
HR SOLUTIONS
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Assessment Center
Consists of multiple assessments to evaluate small
groups of applicants on a variety of job-related
competencies
• Designed to resemble actual challenges that
will be found in the job
• Applicant performance is observed and
evaluated by multiple trained assessors
HR SOLUTIONS
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Assessment Strategy
Step 3:
Implementation
of Assessments
• Ensure ongoing coordination and
collaboration among key stakeholders
• Develop implementation plan
– Costs, timeline, resource needs
– Logistics
– Training
• Develop communication plan
• Develop operation and maintenance plan
HR SOLUTIONS
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18
Assessment Strategy
Step 4:
Evaluate
Results
• Develop evaluation plan
– Define success and key metrics
– Collect data on continuous basis
– Determine effectiveness of assessments
– Evaluate impact and return on
investment
HR SOLUTIONS
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19
Consideration for Hiring in a
Changing Economy
How stable is the state budget?
How easy is it to recruit; what is the competition?
How many job openings and applicants are expected?
What is the nature and level of jobs to be filled?
What resources are available to develop and
implement assessments?
• What competencies need to be assessed?
• Have you evaluated each assessment option?
• In what order will the assessments be administered?
•
•
•
•
•
HR SOLUTIONS
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Branding
• Visually and verbally conveying a value proposition
that elicits excitement and enthusiasm about career
opportunities at the location.
• Use of media: social networking sites, virtual career
fairs, podcasts, realistic job previews, videos, etc.
– To establish and enhance career name recognition
among a variety of sources and potential partners
• Academic institutions
• Employment or job sites
• Professional associations
• Ethnically diverse organizations
• Veterans groups
• Physically challenged groups
HR SOLUTIONS
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Branding
• http://aflcmc.afacquisitioncareers.com/
• Hanscom AFB News
– "We continue to seek out the best candidates for
positions in the fields of finance and accounting,
engineering, contracting, program management and a
number of other disciplines. Prospective employees can
see from this ranking that our employees here are very
engaged in the mission, and appreciate the career
development, flexible work schedules and health and
wellness opportunities offered at Hanscom.“
– Rich Lombardi, Executive Director, ESC
HR SOLUTIONS
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Retention
• Only 20% of American workers are in a job related to
their education
• Nearly half say they would leave their job and do
something else if they were able
HR SOLUTIONS
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Retention
Causes for lack of job satisfaction and burnout
• Mayo Clinic
– Lack of control
– Unclear job expectations
– Dysfunctional workplace dynamics
– Mismatch in values
– Poor job fit
– Extremes of activity
– Lack of social support
– Work-life imbalance
HR SOLUTIONS
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Retention
Person – Organization Fit (P-O fit)
• The person’s fit with the organization associates a
person’s personality, goals, and values with those of
the organization
• The degree of fit between a person and the
organization has significant relationship to turnover
HR SOLUTIONS
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Retention
Person – Organization Fit (P-O fit)
• Process of hiring and selecting employees
– Actual P–O fit measures help provide information
on turnover risk before the individual is hired
– They go beyond KSAs matching
– Defining the organizational values and culture
during assessment help identify who will fit in
– Establish standardized metric to assess fit for
selection purposes
– Result in higher employee satisfaction and reduced
turnover.
HR SOLUTIONS
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Retention
Person – Organization Fit (P-O fit)
• Deliver communication/message during hire and
selection of employee
– During recruitment through long-term
employment, managers should communicate work
unit and organizational values
– Aids in attraction, hiring, and retention of
individuals who share those values and are inspired
by an organization that reinforces them
HR SOLUTIONS
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For more information:
Visit http://www.opm.gov/services-for-agencies/workforce-successionplanning/ or contact HRStrategy@opm.gov
Randall S. Lohman
Manager, Workforce and Succession Planning
601 E. 12th Street, Suite W-0139 | Kansas City, MO 64106
M: 202-369-8694 | F: 816-426-5104
Randall.lohman@opm.gov | www.opm.gov/HRS
HR SOLUTIONS
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28
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