close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

How to Climb a 14er

код для вставки
Full Detail Version
п‚— Basic concepts
п‚— Selecting and packing gear
п‚— Staying safe and healthy
п‚— Camping responsibly
п‚— References
By Rick Light
Fall 2011
Note: This course is based in part on an earlier course
created by Geoff Irons.
1
1. To obtain course materials from the web, go to:
http://lamountaineers.org
2. Click the “DOWNLOADS” box at the top of the page.
3. Find “Backpacking Basics” course.
4. Click on link desired:
п‚—
п‚—
п‚—
A shortened slide presentation in pdf format.
This more detailed slide presentation in pdf format.
An example equipment list based on the 10 Essentials.
 See the “Bags, Pads, Shelters” course on this same web page
for details on sleeping bags and tents, et al.
2
пѓ�WHY ARE YOU GOING?
пѓ�BACKPACKER THINKING
пѓ�LEAVE NO TRACE
 Wilderness lands are not theme parks – you’re on your own.
 Nature is utterly indifferent to your presence – be prepared
for the unexpected, both good and bad.
4
пѓ�What is backpacking to you?
пѓ�Why do you want go to the wilderness?
пѓ�What are your goals and responsibilities?
пѓ�What is your mindset?
5
п‚— Backpacking is a means to engage the wilderness
and experience its richness: it is an opening to
extend wonder, see and feel exquisite beauty,
explore our inner selves, be present in our bodies,
share fantastic silence, do cool things in amazing
places, have fun!
 Backpacking requires a special kind of thinking…
6
Safety
1.
п‚—
Plan ahead, use common sense, be
flexible.
Leave no trace
2.
п‚—
Show respect for the land and water.
Have fun
3.
п‚—
Show respect for self and others.
Learn and grow from your
experiences
4.
п‚—
Be observant, open to wonder, learn
from the mountains and canyons.
In that order!
7
п‚— Safety
п‚—
You are accountable for your own
safety, hygiene, and health. You
are also responsible not to put
others at risk through your
actions.
п‚— Respect
п‚—
You are responsible for showing
respect: to yourself (humility and
confidence), others (willingness to
give up personal goals for the
safety of others), to the land and
water (Leave No Trace principles).
п‚— Know your limits
п‚—
If in doubt, ask advice from those
with more experience. Don’t be
cocky!
п‚—
Use common sense!
8
п‚—
Plan Ahead and Prepare: prepare for extreme weather, hazards, and emergencies; visit in small
groups; split larger parties into groups of 4-6.
п‚—
Travel and Camp on Durable Surfaces: use established trails; use campsites, or camp on rock,
gravel, dry grasses or snow, at least 200 feet from water.
п‚—
Dispose of Waste Properly: pack it in, pack it out (all trash, leftover food, toilet paper and litter);
deposit solid human waste in cat-holes dug 6 to 8 inches deep.
п‚—
Leave What You Find: preserve the past (examine, but do not touch, cultural or historic structures
and artifacts); leave rocks, plants and other natural objects as you find them.
п‚—
Minimize Campfire Impacts: campfires can cause lasting impacts; use a lightweight stove for
cooking and enjoy a candle lantern for light.
п‚—
Respect Wildlife: observe wildlife from a distance; never feed animals; protect wildlife and your food
by storing rations and trash securely; control pets, or leave them at home.
п‚—
Be Considerate of Other Visitors: respect other visitors; be courteous; yield to other users on the
trail; take breaks and camp away from trails and other visitors; let nature's sounds prevail; avoid loud
voices and noises.
9
пѓ�SELECTING GEAR
пѓ�ORGANIZING GEAR USING THE 10 ESSENTIALS
пѓ� Read books on wilderness skills, backpacking
basics, backcountry first aid, cooking and nutrition,
etc.
� Learn from experienced backpackers – pick their
brains for tricks and tips to make life easier when in
the wilderness.
пѓ� Research on-line for comparative reviews of
equipment.
11
п‚— Select equipment designed to perform in the toughest conditions you
anticipate experiencing… but don’t go overboard (your best asset is a
good head!) – common sense is often the most important skill to have.
п‚—
п‚—
п‚—
п‚—
п‚—
List the functions you need to do on this trip.
Pick the gear best suited for each function.
Take only what you need.
This will be different for each trip, and need to be done before each trip.
Experiment until you create the gear lists that work best for your trips.
п‚— Know your personal preferences and comfort level; keep your load light
but carry enough to stay happy and safe; your total pack should weigh
less than 1/3rd of your body weight, target less than 1/4th.
п‚— Price? Good stuff performs reliably and lasts for years.
12
п‚— There are many ways to pack a pack.
п‚— Short, quick day trips need less organization.
п‚— Backpacking is generally more fun, more efficient, and
less hassle if gear is logically organized.
п‚— Modular packing is one way to accomplish this.
п‚— Using the 10 Essentials is an obvious starting point for creating modules
13
п‚— Navigation: map and compass (plus trail description) (optional: GPS, altimeter)
п‚— Sun Protection: sun hat, sunglasses & sunscreen (SPF 15-30)
п‚— Extra clothing: warm hat, gloves, jacket, rain gear, socks
п‚— Illumination: headlamp or flashlight (with extra batteries)
п‚— First-aid: equipment (and first-aid knowledge) and whistle
п‚— Fire: fire starter and matches (storm-proof, or in a watertight container)
п‚— Repair: knife (or multi-use tool), duct tape, wire, safety pins, needle and thread,
fabric repair tape, cord
п‚— Nutrition: energy bars, gels, or food for one extra day
п‚— Hydration: water bottle or reservoir and treatment method
п‚— Shelter: emergency bivy or tarp
14
п‚ћCreating systems for modular packing:
 Pack each system’s gear together in one stuff-sack.
(Some systems may require more than one sack.)
1. [ Hiking System (things worn, not packed) ]
2. Clothing System
3. Shelter, Sleeping and Lighting System
4. Navigation System
5. First Aid, Repair, and Personal Hygiene System
6. Communication system
7. Fire System
8. Nutrition System
15
п‚ћ Everything you wear or carry while
hiking:
п‚— Pack, pack rain cover
п‚— Trekking poles
п‚— Hiking clothes plus outer layers
(rain gear, etc.) [These are also part of the
Clothing System of course.]
п‚— Boots, socks, gaiters
п‚— Watch or altimeter watch
16
• Hiking clothes
should be
included here
(not shown).
• Rain gear and
jacket are
shown here and
in clothing
system – part of
clothing but
packed
separately.
17
п‚— External Frame
п‚— Great for carrying moderately heavy loads over
easy, summer trails.
п‚— Inexpensive and comfortable.
п‚— Internal Frame
п‚— Streamlined profile allows for greater freedom of
movement and balance.
п‚— Feels more like an extension of your body; works
better in rugged terrain.
п‚— More efficient to pack.
18
 Murphy’s Law: You will fill the
available space! Don’t feel that
you have to completely fill the
pack. Just because there’s extra
space doesn’t mean you have to
use it!
п‚ћ A word about smaller-capacity
packs: Because there’s less
volume, you’ll have to make
tough decisions about what to
take or leave behind. But this
“weeding-out” process will
encourage you to pack lighter.
19
п‚— Before you go shopping ask yourself the following questions:
п‚— Where will I be using this backpack?
п‚— High altitude mountains?
п‚— Desert country?
п‚— Humid, rainy country?
п‚— How difficult is the terrain?
п‚— How long will I be on the trail?
п‚— Just over-night trips?
п‚— Mostly 2-4 night trips?
п‚— Week-long or longer treks?
п‚— How much will I be carrying?
п‚— Are others providing my food and cooking supplies?
п‚— Is group gear included in what I have to carry?
п‚— Do I need to carry extra water or special gear?
20
п‚—
Internal- or external-frame? What do you want to use it for?
п‚—
How many adjustments are there on the pack to customize the fit? Is the torso length adjustable? How
about the sternum strap? Are there load-lifter straps on the shoulder straps? Are there load stabilizer
straps on the hip belt? Any adjustments to the hip belt?
п‚—
Does the pack stay in place when there’s weight in it?
п‚—
How convenient are the pouches and bottle pockets? Does it have the features you need?
п‚—
Are there lash points for additional gear?
п‚—
Is it hydration-compatible?
п‚—
Does the pack have a zipper that allows access to the interior of the pack from the front or side?
п‚—
Most important: How comfortable is the fit?
п‚—
It’s not necessary to put more than 10-20 pounds in an adult-size pack to determine how the pack will carry
п‚—
Best to have the pack sized and fit to you by a professional (such as at REI)
21
22
п‚— Layering is the key:
п‚— Inner: wicking, quick-drying
underwear (synthetic or
merino wool); cotton kills!
п‚— Middle: insulation (fleece,
synthetic, down, or combos)
п‚— Outer: waterproof, windproof,
breathable shell
п‚— Hats, gloves, gaiters, socks
– important to keep the core
warm.
п‚— Specific choices are highly
dependent on personal
comfort level, location,
weather, and duration of trip.
23
Down jacket
Rain pants
Insulated pants
Micro fleece
nylon wind-shirt
(mid layer)
Nylon sun hat
Silk balaclava
Ski hat & neck
gaiter
Rain coat
Minimal set of
extra clothes:
socks, shirt,
skivvies only
24
Ski hat, neck
gaiter and
balaclava
Rain coat
Insulated pants
Down jacket
Mid-layer fleece
jacket
Rain pants
Extra clothes
25
п‚— Boots vs. trail-running shoes? Trail conditions?
п‚— Ankle support: arch and heel stability are more important than
height of boot… use Superfeet or equivalent insoles.
Ruggedness of terrain and ankle strength dictate choices.
 Waterproofing is important – you don’t want wet feet!
п‚— Break in new boots long before the backpack trip.
п‚— Socks: thin liner socks and thicker cushioning socks:
п‚—
п‚—
Made of wicking fabrics like wool or Coolmax, never cotton!
Bring extra socks – always dry socks in sleeping bag overnight.
п‚— Camp shoes (crocs or sandals) are a nice perk (weight and
space tradeoff here).
26
27
п‚ћ This system includes the shelter and
anything you need in the shelter:
п‚— Shelter, all parts (tent, fly, poles,
п‚—
п‚—
п‚—
п‚—
stakes, footprint, guy lines if
needed).
Sleeping bag, pad, pillow, bag
liner, ear plugs, etc.
Sleeping clothes.
Head lamp.
Pee bottle (if needed).
п‚ћ This system packs in several packages
(tent body + footprint, fly, stakes, tent
poles, sleeping bag + clothes, pad).
28
 Tents – complete shelter
 Tarps – partial shelter
 Bivy sacks – minimalist shelter
п‚ћ Use a ground cloth or footprint.
See Bags, Pads, and Shelters course for more details.
29
п‚— Down vs. Synthetic? Advantages and
disadvantages of each … compressibility,
weight, cost for a given level of warmth.
п‚— Weight: target as light as possible, but
depends on temperature rating, which
depends on where and when you’re
camping and how warm you sleep.
п‚— Proper care:
п‚— In the wild, use liner or wear clean
clothes; let bag air out daily.
п‚— At home, wash occasionally by hand
with mild soap (never dry clean!); dry
completely and hang, lie flat, or store in
large cotton bag (don’t use stuff sack for
storage ever!).
See Bags, Pads, and Shelters course for more details.
30
п‚ћ Essential for comfort and
insulation from the ground.
п‚ћ Closed-cell or open-cell foam?
п‚ћ Size and season determine
weight and comfort.
п‚ћ How much cush to do you need?
See Bags, Pads, and Shelters
course for more details.
31
Sleeping clothes,
silk base-layer top
and bottom
Waterproof drybag for sleeping
bag, with Event
bottom
Sleeping bag
Sleeping pad
Silk sleeping
bag liner
Spare head
lamp
Tent body
Tent poles
Tent stakes
Tent footprint
Tent rain fly
32
Sleeping pad
Tent rain fly
Sleeping bag
and sleeping
clothes.
Tent body and
footprint
Tent stakes
Tent poles
33
п‚— Navigation System
п‚— 1st Aid, Repair, Hygiene System
п‚— Communication System
п‚— Fire System
34
п‚ћ Maps
п‚ћ Compass
п‚ћ GPS
п‚ћ These are worthless without knowledge of how to
use them.
35
п‚ћ First aid kit.
п‚ћ Medications and reading glasses (if needed).
п‚ћ Repair kit.
 Toiletries kit, towel (don’t forget plastic bags for carrying
out used TP, and Purell or equivalent).
п‚ћ Sunscreen, sun glasses, sun hat, lotion.
п‚ћ Bug repellent.
36
п‚ћ Emergency signal tools (whistle, mirror).
п‚ћ Two-way radios.
п‚ћ Plan for using these.
37
38
Towel
Ditty bag with
repair kit, fire
starter, bear-bag
rope, headlamps,
etc.
First Aid Kit
39
п‚ћ Waterproof matches and lighter.
п‚— 0000 steel wool and battery are an alternative.
п‚ћ Fire starting tinder.
п‚ћ Knife or multitool.
п‚ћ Stoves and fuel.
п‚ћ Cooking pots.
40
п‚ћ Types of stoves
п‚—
п‚—
п‚—
п‚—
Liquid fuel
Compressed gas
Alcohol
Solid fuel
п‚ћ Altitude, temperature, location, kind
of cooking are determining factors
п‚— Liquid fuel: heavy & bulky, but
more reliable under wider
range of conditions.
п‚— Compressed gas: light, small,
easy to use.
п‚— Alcohol or solid fuel: lightest,
smallest, lowest maintenance.
41
п‚ћ Pots:
п‚— Titanium, aluminum, or stainless steel.
п‚— Take size of pot needed for size of group
and kind of cooking to be done.
п‚— If just boiling water, take one pot per stove,
one stove per every 3-4 people (have
contingency if a stove fails).
п‚ћ Utensils: Lexan or titanium
п‚— Eat out of the bag, or use cup or bowl; use
biodegradable soap, hot water for clean up.
п‚ћ Freeze dried vs. cooked meals?
п‚— Pros / Cons of each.
п‚— Often depends on location, duration of trip.
 Don’t cook in (or near) your tent!
Courtesy Geoff Irons
42
43
п‚ћ Hydration containers (water bottles or hydration
bladder, or both).
п‚ћ Water purification.
п‚ћ Water.
п‚ћ Trail snacks.
п‚ћ Camp snacks.
п‚ћ Meals, dishes, utensils.
п‚ћ Food storage bag and rope.
44
п‚— All backcountry water must be treated!
• Boil: slow, bulky, uses fuel,
but kills everything.
• Filter: fast, but bulky,
complex, and most don’t kill
viruses; for large groups,
consider a gravity filter.
• Chemical: small,
lightweight, most kill
everything, but requires
long waiting time.
• Ultra-violet light: small,
lightweight, fast, easy, kills
everything, but requires
clear water.
Courtesy Geoff Irons
45
п‚ћ Eat quality meals to give proper nutrition in the back country!
 2500-5000 calories a day – more than your usual diet:
п‚—
п‚—
п‚—
Carbohydrates: 50-70%
Fats: 20-30%
Proteins: 20-30%
п‚ћ Options, and opinions, are endless:
п‚—
п‚—
п‚—
п‚—
п‚—
п‚—
Fresh produce
Freeze-dried meals vs cooked meals
Lipton’s instant rice and pasta
Ramen
Granola
Oatmeal
 Don’t forget soups, tea, etc.
• Dried fruit
• Jerky
• GORP
• Cheese
• Energy bars
• Multivitamins
Tip: freeze-dried meals are expensive, but they are light, and at the end of a long day when
you only have energy to boil water, such a luxury is justifiable
46
Water filter
Stove and
stuffsack
Tea pot
Stuff sack for
food
(everything
but today’s
lunch and the
freeze-dried
dinners)
47
Food (everything
but freeze-dried
dinners and
today’s lunch)
Water filter
Collapsible canteen
Fuel canister
Freeze-dried dinners
in waterproof “bear
bag” dry-sack (note,
it’s not sealed)
Stove inside
cup inside
tea pot
48
п‚ћ Camera
п‚ћ Trekking poles
п‚ћ Binoculars
п‚ћ Helmet
п‚ћ Ice axe
п‚ћ Crampons
п‚ћ Climbing gear
49
п‚— Think first, then pack:
п‚— Organize for this specific trip
п‚— Food organization
п‚— Clothing organization
п‚— Larger gear items, smaller gear
items, heavy items, light items
 Planning ahead – What will be
needed when?
50
п‚— Keep heaviest items close to your back, centered along the spine,
between the small of your back and the shoulder blades.
 Pack logically – pack so you can easily find things, and such that
items are available when needed.
п‚— Use gear list(s) based on:
п‚— where you will be going,
п‚— what time of year it is,
п‚— the expected weather conditions,
п‚— the 10 Essentials, and
п‚— the functions you will need to perform.
51
Everything fits inside –
there is nothing tied
onto the outside of the
pack.
Heaviest items are packed next to
hiker’s spine, in the upper third of
the pack, and everything else is
packed around that.
52
Rick’s back (front
of pack).
Note that the divider
between bottom
compartment and
main pack is
unbuckled for more
efficient packing.
53
Tent poles
Hydration
bladder is
inside this
pouch
Chair
Sleeping pad
Tent stakes
Sleeping bag
Down jacket
Water filter
54
Fuel
Extra clothes
Insulated pants
55
Collapsible
water canteen
Stove, pot, cup
Tent rain fly
56
Food (heaviest item
in pack)
Tent body and
footprint
Freeze-dried dinners
in waterproof “bear
bag” dry sack
57
Lunch and trail
snacks
Fleece wind-shirt
mid-layer
58
Rain coat in side pocket
Rain pants in side pocket
First Aid Kit in back pocket
59
Ditty bag with
repair kit,
headlamps, and
personal
hygiene items
Ski hat, neck
gaiter, and
balaclava
Towel easily
accessible for
skinny dipping
SAM Splint
easily
accessible for
emergencies
60
• Pack is neat, tidy, well
balanced, logically organized.
• All compression straps are
tight.
• Nothing dangling from the
outside of the pack that could
get caught on trees or
bushes.
61
пѓ�LEAVING HOME
пѓ�EMBARKING WITH A FULL PACK
пѓ�HIKING SAFELY AND STAYING FOUND
пѓ�FIRST AID, LIGHTNING, AND ALTITUDE ISSUES
п‚— Practice at home before you go:
п‚— Know your gear
п‚— Know where it belongs in the pack
п‚— Know how to use each item
п‚— Know how to fix broken items
п‚— Break in your boots (and use other new
gear) before the trip
п‚— Study the map ahead of time, know your
route and alternates
п‚— Plan for contingency, what would you do if
…
63
п‚— Double check your preparations
п‚— Use a checklist
 Ensure you have all paperwork– maps, trail notes,
parking and wilderness permits
п‚— Carry enough cash for emergencies, unexpected fees,
etc.
п‚— Have contingency plans for unexpected situations
п‚— Leave an itinerary with someone
п‚— Time of departure
п‚— Names, addresses, phone numbers, and any relevant
medical conditions of all group members
п‚— Vehicle(s) make, model, and license plate number
п‚— Expected trailhead, route
п‚— Expected time of return
п‚— Check on road conditions and trail conditions
п‚— Check weather forecast
64
п‚—
п‚—
п‚—
п‚—
п‚—
Use common sense
Avoid high risk areas
Don’t leave any valuables in your vehicle
Don’t leave any food in your vehicle
Use a shuttle bus if available, or carpool
Leave a copy of
your itinerary under
your seat (search &
rescue may look for
this in case of
emergency)
65
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Be sure all gear and compression straps are secured.
Loosen hip belt, shoulder harness, load-lifter straps.
Face backpack harness squarely, with right leg forward.
Left hand grasps top handle, right hand grasps opposite
shoulder harness near the top (harness that will be on
right shoulder).
Bend knees, lift with straight back, raise pack to rest onto
bent forward knee (right leg).
Slip right arm through harness, left hand stays put.
Transfer weight to right shoulder and stand upright, stand
with legs apart, knees slightly bent, lean slightly forward.
Slip left arm through harness.
66
п‚— Once the pack is on your back:
1. Tighten waist belt (with belt centered
vertically on iliac crests – top of hip bone).
2. Tighten shoulder straps (buckles should be
aligned vertically with armpits).
3. Adjust load-lifters so weight is just balanced:
80% on hips, 20% on shoulders.
4. Adjust sternum strap so shoulder straps are
centered on shoulders, don’t dig in.
5. Tighten load balancing straps on hip belt.
6. Loosen shoulder straps just slightly.
67
п‚— Think through your plan:
п‚— What do you want to do?
п‚— Do research (guidebooks, park rangers, knowledgeable personnel).
п‚— Know your route, study map ahead of time.
п‚— Plan for contingencies, plan appropriately for changing weather conditions.
п‚— Go to a place close to home, easy trail, good water access.
п‚— Lay out your plan:
п‚— Where are you going? Exactly where will you camp? Exactly where are the
water sources?
п‚— Who is going? What experience do they need/have? Can they handle the
rigors of this trip? (Can they lead this trip?)
п‚— When are you going? When do you leave home / return home? How many
nights at each campsite?
п‚— How are you going? What are the travel logistics to get to/from the
trailhead? What group gear is needed?
68
 Gear up – plan appropriately, maybe rent some gear the first time out,
pack modularly. Break in your boots (and other other new gear) before
the trip (on training hikes).
 Prepare – get in shape and do day hikes with your gear, get permits,
study climatology and weather forecasts, have trip planning meeting to
go over trip plan with all participants. (For your first trip – go with an
experienced backpacker who can lead the trip and teach you the tricks
that make it more fun.)
п‚— Leave a copy of your itinerary with a friend at home.
п‚— Get to know your gear:
п‚— Know where it belongs in the pack.
п‚— Know how to use each item.
п‚— Know how to fix broken items.
69
п‚— Walk and breathe efficiently.
п‚— Stay hydrated by drinking often;
how often depends on terrain,
altitude, temperature, your
fitness.
п‚— Use trail snacks to keep
nourished.
п‚— Use trekking poles to become a
quadruped.
70
п‚— As a beginner, stay on well-marked,
well-maintained trails.
 Pay attention to where you’re going –
above tree line, look for cairns.
п‚— Keep the group together (especially
kids).
п‚—
п‚— Know your route (everyone should have
map and compass, and route
description).
п‚— On difficult routes, use a GPS in addition
to map and compass.
71
Stay
calm
Courtesy Geoff Irons
п‚— What should I do if someone is missing?
п‚— Keep calm
п‚— Discuss among the group:
п‚— What led to this situation?
п‚— Who saw the lost person last? When? Where?
п‚— Assess options, weather, daylight, dangers to group and to
individual who is lost.
 Some cases may require entire group to abort that day’s
mission in order to find the missing person.
 Some cases may allow splitting the group – sending search
party while others stay put.
п‚— Never randomly split the group or keep going blindly assuming
“he will just show up”.
п‚ћ Eat well and stay hydrated.
п‚— Snack often, use high quality foods.
п‚— Drink on the trail and in camp.
п‚– In the Southwest the following applies:
п‚– Drink 1 liter for every 3 miles.
п‚– Drink 1 liter between late afternoon and bed.
п‚– Drink 1 liter between awakening and beginning to
hike.
п‚ћ Keep yourself clean.
п‚— Use Purell or equivalent for hands and face.
п‚— Bathe or swim daily.
п‚— Wash up before bed and upon waking, brush teeth.
п‚ћ Keep bowels healthy.
п‚— Pee 4-6 times daily. Poop daily.
п‚ћ Keep dishes clean.
п‚— Wash at least 200 feet from streams and camp.
п‚ћ Keep your gear orderly and together.
74
п‚— Do what cats do!
п‚— Dig a small hole, poop in it, refill hole, disguise it.
п‚— Maximize decomposition.
п‚— Find environment helpful to decomposition like organic soil.
п‚— Avoid contact with insects and animals.
 Bury your poop such that it’s not available for contact.
п‚— Avoid polluting water sources.
п‚— Poop at least 200 feet away from water sources.
п‚— Minimize the chances of social impact.
п‚— Pack out used toilet paper.
п‚— Ensure trowel never touches human waste.
Adapted from The NOLS Wilderness Guide
75
Be sure you know how to handle these:
п‚ћ Blisters.
п‚ћ Dehydration (especially in the Southwest).
п‚ћ Sunburn (use SPF 15-30).
п‚ћ Heat cramps/exhaustion/stroke and hyperthermia.
п‚ћ Hypothermia.
п‚ћ Cuts, broken bones, sprained ankles, other common hiking injuries.
Take a First Aid course!
76
п‚— Start early! Be off summits by noon, and back in the valley by early
afternoon.
 If you can hear thunder, you are in danger– descend!
п‚— If you think a strike is eminent:
п‚—
Separate yourself from all metal (and graphite) objects– trekking poles, tent stakes,
ice axe, crampons, backpack.
п‚—
Disperse the group – at least 15 feet apart.
п‚—
Seek groups of trees or shrubs of similar height– avoid lone tall objects.
п‚—
If caught in the open, find a low spot (avoid open water), crouch on boot soles, feet
close together, put elbows on knees and hands over ears.
Bottom Line: Use common sense – don’t take chances just to bag a peak.
77
п‚— Be prepared for high altitude
п‚—
High Altitude
Very High Altitude
Extreme Altitude
8,000-14,000 feet (2438- 4267 m)
14,000-18,000 feet (4267-5486 m)
above 18,000 feet (above 5486 m)
п‚— Know ahead of time what you will encounter
п‚— Vitamin C, Calcium, hydration, food, acclimatization time
– these help
п‚— Altitude Sickness: very common
п‚— Early symptoms include dizziness, nausea
п‚— Drink water, eat high energy food, vitamin C
п‚— Descend if symptoms not gone in 20 minutes
п‚— Acute Mountain Sickness: very common, very dangerous
п‚— Headache, listlessness, loss of coordination, shortness of breath, cough,
nausea
п‚— Descend!
78
1. Balance your knowledge
and learning against your
ability to observe, be
aware, and know the
current situation.
ABILITY TO
OBSERVE
KNOWLEDGE
RISK
SAFETY
1. Balance the known risks
of activity with safety
measures available.
Learn from your
experiences.
The first one informs the
second, and from this you
can make an intelligent
choice of action.
79
пѓ�SELECTING A CAMPSITE
пѓ�SETTING UP CAMP
 Know in advance where you’ll camp.
 Don’t camp in closed areas.
п‚— Look for previously impacted areas (Use Leave No Trace techniques).
п‚— Try not to camp close to others.
п‚— Ensure water is nearby (but not closer than 200 feet).
 If you’re setting up a base camp, ensure shade over your tent during the day (but
early morning sun helps get you moving when it’s chilly).
п‚— Look for a windbreak in windy conditions.
п‚— Beware of low spots, which are colder and subject to flooding.
п‚— Arrive at least two hours before sunset.
81
п‚— Shelter:
п‚— Choose a flat spot.
п‚— Spread out footprint/ground cloth and lay on it.
п‚— Set up tent/tarp with door facing east; if warm, aim door into wind.
п‚— Do not dig drainage ditch around tent.
п‚— Place sleeping pad, bag (and sleep clothes) in tent, and zip door.
п‚— Kitchen (away from shelter!):
п‚— Keep food together and in sight.
п‚— Keep area clean, and do not feed any wildlife.
п‚— Filter/purify water and arrange food storage (e.g., cord over branch) before dark.
п‚— Use a flat, wind-sheltered spot for your stove.
п‚— In bear country, keep kitchen at least 200 feet from shelter, avoid aromatic foods, cook
in different clothing than you sleep in (and store your cooking clothes with your food).
Tip: If it’s late, consider stopping for dinner
prior to arriving at your planned campsite
82
п‚— Before bed:
 Critter-proof your campsite– hang food (“bear bag”), ensure nothing
aromatic (food, toothpaste, lotion, etc.) is inside tent.
п‚— Empty backpack, open all pockets/zippers, hang off ground.
п‚— Know location of headlamp, water bottle, toilet paper, trowel, pee bottle,
rain gear.
Take time to enjoy your surroundings!
83
пѓ�BASIC REFERENCES
пѓ�MORE ADVANCED REFERENCES
 The National Outdoor Leadership School’s Wilderness Guide, by Mark
Harvey (a NOLS book)
 The Outward Bound Backpacker’s Handbook, by Glen Randall
 Allen & Mike’s Really Cool Backpackin’ Book, by Allen O’Bannon and
Mike Clelland
п‚ћ Hiking and Backpacking, by Victoria Logue
п‚ћ LIGHTEN UP! A complete Handbook for Light and Ultralight
Backpacking, by Don Ladigin
п‚ћ The ULTRALIGHT BACKPACKER, by Ryel Kestenbaum
п‚ћ LIGHTWEIGHT Backpacking and Camping, by Ryan Jordan
Go to http://www.rei.com/expertadvice/camping
to explore tons of free information!
85
 The National Outdoor Leadership School’s Wilderness Guide, by Mark
Harvey (a NOLS book)
п‚ћ Wilderness Mountaineering, by Phil Powers (a NOLS book)
п‚ћ Wilderness First Aid, by Tod Schimelpfenig and Linda Lindsey (a NOLS
book)
п‚ћ The Outward Bound Wilderness First-Aid Handbook, by Jeffrey Isaac
п‚ћ AMC Guide to Outdoor Leadership, by Alex Kosseff
п‚ћ Mountaineering The Freedom of the Hills, by The Mountaineers
п‚ћ Cookery, by Claudia Pearson (a NOLS book)
п‚ћ Backcountry Nutrition, by Mary Howley Ryan (a NOLS book)
87
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
8
Размер файла
7 712 Кб
Теги
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа