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速食業經營策略之研究 How to Make Right Strategy in Fast Food

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關鍵字:速食業、經營策略、行銷、餐飲服務業
How to Make Right Strategy in Fast Food Centers?
Tai-Hua Shih, Assistant Professor
Department of Business Administration, Diwan University
Chai-Chu Liu, Associate Professor
Department of Hospitality Administration, Diwan University
Mey-Lan Wu, Assistant Professor
Department of Hospitality Administration, Diwan University
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Kuo-Shin Chen, Lecture
Department of Hospitality Administration, Diwan University
Yi-Tsun Ho, Administration Lecture
Department of Hospitality Administration, Diwan University
Abstract
Jollibee is one of the Philippines’ phenomenal business services centers. Day in,
day out, Jollibee serves over one million Filipinos who flock to its more than 400 stores
all over the country. From a modest beginning, Jollibee has grown to become not only the
number one fast food center in the Philippines but also in the world because of its
distinction of being the world’s most admired company (Eastern Economic Review,
2004). To reinforce its capability and enhance its leadership, the management embarks on
a broad range of strategic initiatives.
Fast food center’s current market status will be explored and referable marketing
strategy will be proposed according to the results of this study. Suggestions focusing on
the development of market targeting at Manila’s customer will be made for fast food
center’s reference in marketing planning. The results would application and give fast
food industry more competitive power in global market.
Keyword : Fast Food Centers, operational strategies, marketing, Food Service
Industry
1. Introduction
Jollibee is one of the Philippines’ phenomenal business services centers. Day in,
day out, Jollibee serves over one million Filipinos who flock to its more than 400 stores
all over the country. In some ways, small and grand Jollibee tasty food cheerful service
and friendly crew touch to the lives of so many people who come for a meal and leave its
stores with happy, lasting memories.
Starting in 1975, the company has expanded tremendously. The phenomenal
growth is attributed to the company’s unwavering quest to serve and delight the Filipino
customers as well as to its ability to anticipate and adapt to the ever-changing
environment. To meet the challenges of a more intensely competitive market and to
manage business more effectively, the company undertook a major initiative to realign
structure of Jollibee Philippines. The new organization, which has successfully been put
in place, has the capacity of enhancing continued dominance in the quick service industry.
In year 2000, Jollibee Philippines was decentralized into four autonomous Regional
Business Units (RBUs), corresponding to the country’s major geographic markets: Mega
Mall, North Luzon, South Luzon, and Visayas-Mindanao. It is true that Jollibee remains
firm in its management to maintain its dominance in the fast food industry, to
continuously push forward its strategic programs, and to aggressively pursue further
network expansion to ensure superior market coverage nationwide. Most importantly, it
will continually apply itself to the paramount task of consistently delivering superior
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lasting products at the most affordable prices and services of the highest standards, bright
and clean store environment.
For more than two decades now, the operation and management of Jollibee Fast
food Centers have been delivering quality food and service to Metropolitans. Within this
period, no study was undertaken yet in this aspect. It is on this premise why the author
was motivated to undertake a study entitled: The Operation and Management of the
Jollibee Fast food Centers in Metro Manila: An Analysis.
The main goal of this study is to analyze the operation and management of the
Jollibee Fast food Centers in Metro Manila. This study is specifically anchored on the
following inputs: the profile of the respondents as to age, sex, educational attainment,
position, and nationality; the status of the Jollibee Fast food Centers (JFCs) in terms of
capitalization, number of personnel, type of service offered and food served, average
number of daily customers, number of years in operation, volume of food developed/sold
(in kgms.) from 2001-2004, and volume of sales from 2001-2004; the management
policies implemented by the JFC managers in the maintenance of the following areas of
concern: kitchen equipment, energy, sanitation and food safety, quality service delivery,
controlling costs, employees’ performance, and customers’ loyalty; the operational
strategies employed by the JFC managers in terms of: food development/designing,
marketing/promotion, pricing, food service delivery, and facilities/equipment
maintenance; the satisfaction level of the customers towards the following operational
factors: food, location, timing, pricing, servicing, and amenities; the problems
encountered by managers in the operation and management of the JFC and the solutions
offered to overcome them.
The researcher will appraise the satisfaction level of customers towards the
following operational factors: food, location, timing, pricing, servicing, and amenities.
Final assessment is on the problems encountered by the managers in the operation and
management of the JFCs and the solutions offered to overcome them. Ultimately, amidst
the problems, it is expected that the implementation of effective management policies and
employment of effective operational strategies have served as means for enhancing and
maintaining the satisfaction level of customers towards the JFCs’ delivery of quality food
and service.
1.1 Hypothesis
This study postulated the following null hypothesis:
1. No significant differences exist in the levels of effectiveness of the
management policies implemented by the JFC managers when the respondents
are grouped according to their profiles.
2. There are no significant differences in the perceived effectiveness of the
operational strategies employed by JFC managers when the respondents’
profiles are considered.
1.2 Significance of the Study
It is indeed of paramount significance to analyze the operation and management
of the Jollibee Fast food Centers (JFCs) in Metro Manila. The managers would benefit
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from this study in the sense that their knowledge of their strengths and weaknesses would
propel them to implement more effective management policies and employ more
effective operational strategies to ensure not only the maintenance of customers’ high
level of satisfaction towards the Jollibee’s delivery of quality food and service but also
the highest distinction of being the world’s most admired company.
The findings of this study may provide the managers insights which will motivate
them to implement more effective management policies in the maintenance of the kitchen
equipment sanitation, availability of energy, food safety, quality service delivery,
controlling costs, and customers’ loyalty and satisfaction level. Having gained knowledge
of their strong and weak power of enhancing and maintaining the local and global
competitiveness of their Jollibee Fast food Centers, the managers would be stimulated to
employ more effective operational strategies in terms of: food development/designing,
marketing, pricing, food service delivery, and facilities/equipment maintenance. In so
doing, they may ensure the maintenance of the satisfaction level of customers towards the
following operational factors: food, location, timing, pricing, servicing, and amenities.
Aware of the problems encountered in the operation and management of the JFCs,
the managers may offer effective solutions to overcome them. Finally, this study would
serve as a guide for managers in Metro Manila in particular and managers of the country
in general to implement more effective management policies and employ more effective
operational strategies to ensure the maintenance not only of customers’ level of
satisfaction towards the Jollibee’s delivery of quality food and service but also its
distinction of being the world’s most admired company.
2. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES
The literature review begins with an overview of concept of food service industry,
service quality, operational factors, management factor, sanitation, and customer
satisfaction. In addition, this literature review provides a theoretical foundation, and
empirical studies for this study.
2.1 The Importance of Food Service Industry
In Mill’s opinion (2002), the importance of the food service industry, like the Jollibee
Foods Industry, can be seen from the following: (a)The restaurant industry provides work for
almost 8 percent of those employed in the United States,(b)forty-four percent of the customers’
food dollar goes to meals and snacks prepared away from home, (c)there are almost 800,000
locations offering food service in the United States,(d) the restaurant industry employs more than
10 million people. The number is projected to reach 12 million in 2006, (e) more than 37 percent
of all adults have, at some time during their lives, worked in the restaurant industry, (f) almost 50
billion meals are eaten each year in restaurants and school and work cafeterias.
2.2 Product Development
NRA (2000) declares that all food restaurants have products. However, the
formats of products vary greatly depending on a variety of factors.
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Frequency of Change: Products can range from those that are completely fixed
to those that change completely daily or yearly. The former is simpler to plan for, than
the latter. Products, that are completely fixed, are used in fast food centers and specialty
operations. Changes are made only when individual product items are dropped or added
for reason of popularity or profitability. In some operations, the product is essentially
fixed but changes are made depending on the season of the year or when daily specials
are added. In the former case, products may change tow or four times a year to
accumulate seasonally popular items. Salads and lighter items may predominate in
summer, while stews and other heavy items provide the mainstay in winter. Certain
popular items may be kept year-round.
Daily specials help where there is repeat business. Customers who tire of the
regular product may find the specials appealing. The appeal to the customer also comes
from the perception that if a dish is prepared that day, it is a fresher or specially prepared.
For the operator, daily specials can be a way of recycling leftovers. The baked chicken
from one day becomes chicken a la king the next. Daily changes can be cyclical or
complete. Cyclical changes are used when the customer base is captive; that is, when they
are tied to a particular operation such as in instructional feeding in college dorms or
prisons. In such an operation, a menu product is repeated on a cycle that can range from
two to six weeks in length. A complete change would be appropriate for a captive
audience in a resort setting where people stay for two weeks at a time. In this situation,
the entire menu product is often changed daily.
Type of Offerings: Products tend to be a’ la carte, table d’ hote or some
combination of the two. On a’ la carte (menus) products, items are priced individually.
The appetizers, entrees or main course, potatoes, vegetables, and desserts are priced
separately. A table d’ hote product (menu) features a complete meal at a set price, with,
for example, a choice of appetizers, main course, and dessert from several options. A
combination of (menu) product might price appetizers and desserts separately, while
including salad, bread, potato and vegetable in the price of the entrée. An advantage of a’
la carte (menus) products is their perception of being classier. They tend to be more
expensive. By packaging a dessert in with the main course, the average check – total
revenue divided by the number of customers – can be increased. People are “forced” to
buy an item – the dessert – they might not purchase otherwise. If they feel the value is
there, they will be satisfied and the restaurant will have sold an item that would not have
been purchased had it been priced separately.
Size of Products: Restaurants or fast-food stores range from those that have
limited (menus) products to those that have extensive products. A limited product offers
fewer choices to the customers and relies on creating a larger number of customers
willing to purchase a small number of product items. Care must be taken so that the items
offered are desired by a relatively large percentage of people. A limited product
restricts the number of customers. If all the restaurant (food store) offers salads and a
party of four is eating out together, one person in the party who does not like salads can
loss the restaurant four customers. For this reason, fast food operations tend to start out
with a basic product and as the concept moves through the life cycle and items to the
(menu) product to attract a larger base of people.
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Kitchen Equipment: The acquisition and maintenance of kitchen equipment are
important. They strongly depend on the basic considerations in the selection of it.
According to Khan (1997), the seven basic considerations involved in the selection of
equipment are: capacity, need, cost, functional attributes, and sanitation and safety.
Capacity: The required equipment capacity can be determined, as follows:
1. Analyze each food item on the menu to estimate the number of portions to
be prepared for every meal period. If menus are changed daily, it will be
necessary to use a sample of dishes to be served.
2. The portion size for every menu item is then determined.
3. Multiplying prepared number of portions by the portion size will give the
total volume of food to be prepared at each meal period.
4. The method of preparation and production is selected next for each item on
the menu.
5. The batch size is then determined for those items to be prepared in batches.
The smaller and more frequently prepared batches, the less equipment
capacity is needed and the fresher the end product.
6. For items prepared to order, the number of portions to be prepared at any one
time is estimated based on the prepared number of customers, which items
are likely to order and their arrival pattern.
7. Equipment catalogs can be consulted to determine the number of pieces of
equipment to be prepared. Some types of equipment are selected on the basis
of the number of pans they can hold. In this case, it is necessary to divide the
number of portions to be prepared by how many can fit into a standard-sized
pan to get the capacity of the equipment in number of pans required.
Need: Equipment should not be bought or leased unless it is needed. A piece of
equipment is “needed”, if it improves the quality of the food being prepared, produces
product and/or labor cost saving; results in increased quantity of finished product and/or
contributes to the profitability of the operation. The need for a particular piece of
equipment should be classified as either essential, high utility, or basic (Kotschevar and
Torrel, 1995). In this way, priorities can be established in the event of cash shortage.
Cost: Various costs are involved in the purchase of a piece of equipment (Khan,
1997). In addition to the initial purchase price, the equipment must be handled, insured,
maintained, and repaired, financed, and operated. Part of the cost analysis involved is
preparation. The cost of preprocessed vegetables should be compared with the cost of a
vegetable peeler plus the labor cost of peeling the items in-house.
Functional Attributes: It is important that equipment do what it is intended to do.
Performance relative to cost and compared to the performance of other equipment should
be examined carefully. Consideration should also be given to likely changes in the menu
that they render an expensive piece of equipment obsolete. Qualities of operation,
availability of parts and ease of maintenance are also important. Finally, the type of
energy used must be noted as part of the cost consideration.
Sanitation and Safety: The National Sanitation Foundation (NSF) certifies
equipment that meets the sanitary standards required for food service operation. NSF
approved equipment should be a consideration in making equipment purchases. Safety is
also important consideration. All materials used should be non-toxic. Parts should be
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easily disassembled for easy cleaning, moving, and sharp parts need to be protected and
safety locks are desirable on all equipment.
Sanitation: Rubenstein (1999) agrees that cleaning and sanitation are necessary
and often costly aspect of the restaurant. Most operators do not have standards for
purchasing cleaning and sanitizing products as they do for food purchases. Random
purchases make it difficult to track costs or gauge product utilization. However, the Wall
Street Deli Sandwich chain of stores created a portion control sanitation program that will
save thousands of dollars for the chain.
The sanitation program is centered on a line of Sysco-branded cleaner product
that is packaged in single-use, color-coded pockets. The packages encourage efficient use
of the products while increasing the level of sanitation. The program at Wall Street Deli
is sustained with employees’ manuals and on site training performed by a Chicago-based
consulting company.
The operator’s program utilizes pre-measured sanitizers for use in the stores’
sinks; decarbonizes and window, wall and floor solvents. All of the products comply with
Occupational Health and Safety Administration by providing material safety data sheets.
Wall Street’s program has received praise from state health departments in the states in
which they operate.
The single-use packets provide more control for employees and operators
resulting in less waste and lower costs countering the higher cost of the single-use
packets as compared to bulk products. The packets allow managers to monitor use by
employees; they will know employees are over or under using the products.
Controlling Costs: According to Jun Sullivan (1995), managers have direct
responsibility for only 3 percent of daily controllable costs while hourly employees
“control” the other 97 percent. Here are his ideas on how to control costs by lowering
monthly costs:
1. Audit your garbage for items that should not have been thrown out.
2. Recycle paper. Notepads can come from computer-generated reports.
3. Play safety bingo. Everyday that the operation runs without an accident, post a
bingo
number. Whenever there is an accident, clear the numbers and start again.
4. Recycle food waste to cut down on solid waste collection costs.
5. Use shallow bus tubs to reduce brokerage from overstocked bus tubs.
6. Publicize and track daily waste.
7. Tell employees: “Never go into the dining room or kitchen empty- handed.”
8. Keep backup employees on call.
9. Move silverware-soaking solution away from trash cans.
10. Offer employees 1 percent of the savings of any ideas they come up with.
11. Double check point-of-sale orders.
12. Train employees to sell.
13. Create a strategic mix of cost – essential for profitability in restaurant
business.
14. Buy only cost-saving equipment
Service: Minor and Achy (1998), claim that service is a major concern for both
customers and operators. Indeed, service complaints dominate, far exceeding customer
complaints about food or atmosphere. Five elements have been identified as important:
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providing timely service, answering customer questions, handling complaints, delivering
accurately totaled guests checks, and recommending appropriate menu or food items.
Customers seem most satisfied with the accuracy of the check and the server’s ability to
answer questions, although only 75 percent rated staff as good servers, “good or
excellent” in recommending appropriate menu or food items.
The two most common complaints in the categories above-mentioned concerns
are speed of service and inattentive staff. The former can involve service that is too slow
or the feeling of being rushed. It is important to tailor the speed of service to the
individual and the occasion. In the latter case, customers are upset by having to summon
employees to give an order or by waiting for a check. Delays during a meal seem shorter
than waits either before or after the meal. Customers are most dissatisfied with the way
that complaints were handled. Mill (2002) points out that as servicing increasingly
becomes a method of differentiating one restaurant from another, managers will have to
become adept to getting feedback from customers and providing service to an
increasingly diverse customer base. To allow employees to deliver the level of servicing
needed, managers will have to empower them, giving them training to be flexible in
dealing with customers as well as the authority to handle requests and complaints. This
means that managers will spend more time on customer relations and on setting the
standards required to ensure that employees perform to the level needed to produce
satisfied customers. They will spend more time talking to customers to get feedback on
the service provided and giving that feedback to employees.
Furthermore, best quality servicing will increase not only the number of
customers but also the level of profitability of the restaurant.
The study on customers expectations from fast food restaurants which Mill (2002)
included in his book: “Restaurant Management” revealed the respondents to this study
identified 28 different expectations fro when they went out to dine. They were broken
into the following seven broad categories: a. Hallmarks of a Great Place, b. Timing, c.
Location, d. Pricing, e. Appeal to Kids, f. Dieter’s Choices, and g. Amenities.
Customers’ Satisfaction: There are a number of ways in which restaurants can
determine the extent to which customers are satisfied with the level of service they are
being provided (Reed, 1998). Comment cards are probably the most commonly used
method for collecting the information and thought. A card may be available on the table
or it can be brought by the server at the conclusion of the meal experience. The concern
with common cards is that they tend to be filled out either by people who have had a
wonderful time or by those who have major complaints about the meal and/or the service.
In other cases, those who respond are not typical of most customers.
On indirect measure of customer satisfaction is the percentage of repeat customers.
If it is correct to assume that customers will not return to a place they are not satisfied
with, this indicates potential problems with the operation. Similarly, increasing sales
indicate satisfied customers, while decreasing sales are a sign of problems. Care must be
taken to measure sales changes in real terms, discounting sales increases by any change in
food prices. In addition to looking at sales trends, management can consider changes in
market share. If the size of a marked decreases but a restaurant’s share of that market
increases, sales overall may be down but the operation is more than holding its own. It is
much more difficult to get a handle on the size of a particular market segment than on
individual sales.
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2.3 Justification of the Study
The researcher is justified to incorporate some studies of local and foreign
origin, as they are moderately related to the present work. Among them are: operation
and management of Chow King restaurant outlets (Teng, 2003), operating and managing
a restaurant business (Roldan, 1999), food service restaurant managers’ skills (NRA,
2000), table service restaurant trends (NRA, 1998), marketing strategy (Barakat, 1990),
customers’ performance and satisfaction (Kim, 1998), food service employees’
performance and satisfaction (hung, 1995), and management policies/practices,
performance, and satisfaction of hotel personnel (Chang, 1995 and Kim, 1996). The
difference between the previous studies and the present one lies on the time frame,
respondents, and statistical tools to be used.
3. Research Design and Methods Used
This research is non-experimental and descriptive in nature. The study is designed
to use a quantitative research method. A quantitative research methodology is selected
in this study and a big sample is intended to generalize the consequences of the study to
the population (Gay, 1996). This research design is intended to describe, explore, and
explain present conditions including causal relationships (Gay, 1996). To confirm
theoretical propositions about operation and management of the JFCs, correlation and
explanatory survey research was conducted.
Copies of the questionnaire will be issued to the target respondents to obtain
substantial data pertaining to the operation and management of the selected JFCs in
Metro Manila. According to Daleon, et. al. (1997), in this sampling technique, researcher
may simply pick the persons whom researcher think are representative of the population
to which researcher want to make an inference to the purpose of the study. Two
hundred respondents, composed of 100 JFC personnel and 100 customers, were used in
this study. They were chosen by random sampling technique from the total population
of selected JFCs in Metro Manila during the 2004-2005. The data obtained were
consolidated, organized, and tabulated in distribution tables. They were analyzed and
interpreted using the following statistical tools: percentage, weighted mean, and
chi-square test of independent samples. The chi-square (X2) test of independent
samples was computed to determine the levels of effectiveness of the management
policies implemented by JFC managers in maintaining the areas of concern and the
perceived effectiveness of the operational strategies employed by the JFC managers when
the respondents’ profiles are considered. The chi-square (X2) test formula used by
Daleon, et. al. (1997) is defined X2 = E ( 0-E )2 where X2 is chi-square value; E, sum
of or summation; 0, observed data, and E is expected data or frequencies.
4.Findings
From the foregoing results of the analysis and interpretation of data, the following
findings were drawn and presented.
1. The profile of the respondents as to:
1.1 Age The average age of the respondent-personnel was 33 years while the
average age of the respondent-customers was 35 years. Highest percentages
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(23.50%) of the respondents were within 21-30 years old, while lowest
percentages (6%) of them were within 61 years old and above.
1.2 Sex More than one-half (59%) of the respondents were females. They
exceeded in percentage the males by 18 percent.
1.3 Educational Attainment Highest percentages (22.50%) of the respondents
were college undergraduates, while lowest percentages (10.50%) of them
were doctoral degree holders.
1.4 Position Highest percentages (50%) of the respondents were customers,
while lowest percentage (10%) of them was managers.
1.5 Nationality Highest percentages (64.50%) of the respondents were Filipinos,
while lowest percentages (7%) of them were Taiwanese.
2. The Status of the Jollibee Fast food Centers (JFCs) in terms of:
2.1 Capitalization The average capitalization of the respondent JFCs was Php
67.4 M. More than one-half (55%) of them had big capitalization, while only a
little below one-third (30%) of them had small capitalization.
2.2 Number of Personnel More than one-half (55%) of the JFCs had more than
one-hundred personnel while 9 (45%) of them had below one-hundred number
of personnel.
2.3 Type of Quality Service Offered As confirmed by the average mean rating
of 4.11, the JFCs have often offered quality service to customers, most
particularly the following: superior service (5.00), dependable service (4.35),
and friendly service (4.40).
2.4 Type of food Served The average mean rating of 4.15 is a proof that the
JFCs had often served different types of food to customers, most especially
the following: Jolly Spaghetti (4.95), Jolly Crispy Fries (4.65), Palabok Fiesta
(4.65), Jolly Shakes (4.95), Peach Mango Pies (4.90), Jolly Hotdog (4.60),
Chicken Joy (4.70), and Burger Steak (4.70).
2.5 Average Number of Daily Customers The average number of daily
customers was 1629. Many (70%) of the JFCs had big average number of
daily customers. They exceeded in percentage the JFCs with small number of
daily customers by 40 percent.
2.6 Number of Years in Operation The average number of years in operation of
the JFCs was 20 years and 4 months. Highest percentage (65%) of the JFCs
were with twenty years and above years in their operation while lowest
percentage (5%) of them was with ten years and below years in their
operation.
2.7 Volume of Food Developed/Sold From 2001-2004 From 2001-2004, the
average percentage of the growth in the volume of food developed/sold was
20.54 percent. The JFCs had registered consistent upward growth in the
volume of food developed/sold, most particularly the following: Mabini
JFC33.68%), Las Pinas JFC (29.18%), Malabon City JFC (24.18%), and SM
City North EDSA JFC (22.78%).
2.8 Volume of Sales of the JFCs From 2001-2004 The average percentage of the
growth in the volume of sales of the JFCs was 8.16%. The JFCs had
recorded high percentage of upward growth in the volume of sales, most
especially the following: Maysilo JFC (12.71%), Katipunan JFC (10.16%),
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Lagro and Tayuman JFCs (10.13%), Baclaran LRT JFC (9.72%), Divisoria
Mall Cinema JFC (9.63%), Fairview Quezon City JFC (9.19%), and
Morning Breeze JFC (9.13%).
3. The Management Policies implemented by the JFC managers in the maintenance of:
3.1 Kitchen Equipment As confirmed by the average mean rating of 4.37, the
management policies implemented by the JFC managers in maintaining the
kitchen equipment were effective. Most common among
them
are:
keeping the kitchen equipment always functional (4.49), requiring assigned
employees to examine daily and carefully the equipment (4.45), ensuring that
equipment do what they intend to do
(4.42), and ensuring that the
equipment’s finished products contribute to the productivity and profitability
of the firm (4.40).
3.2 Energy Control/Usage The average mean rating of 4.44 is a proof that the
management policies implemented by the JFC managers in maintaining
energy control/usage were effective. Most popular among them are: ensuring
the availability of electrical energy for cooking, lighting, and ventilation
(4.46), ensuring that the gas for gas stove is always available and its tank is
locked safely (4.47), and ensuring that sanitary, safe, and clean water for
washing, cooking, and drinking is always available (4.50).
3.3 Sanitation and Food Safety The management policies implemented by the
JFC managers in maintaining sanitation and food safety were (4.33) effective.
Most prominent among them are: ensuring that the fastfood center has
genuine Sanitation and Food Safety Certificate (4.49), requiring employees
to maintain the sanitation and safety of the place where the food is being
prepared (4.47), constantly communicating to employees the importance to
health of sanitation and food safety (4.40), adhering to Sanitation and Food
Safety Standards (4.43), and requiring employees to always use sanitary
equipment for preparing safe food (4.38).
3.4 Quality Service Delivery As attested by the average mean rating of 4.30, the
management policies implemented by the JFC managers in maintaining
quality service delivery were effective. Most common among them are:
promptly attending to customer’s needs, requests, and complaints (4.47),
critically and consciously handling customer’s special request
(4.39),
striving to maintain customer’s satisfaction and loyalty by delivering best
quality service (4.42), and requiring employees to provide or offer timely
service (4.45).
3.5 Costs Control/Usage The average mean rating
of 4.29 is an evidence
that the management policies implemented by the JFC managers in
maintaining costs control/usage were effective. Most popular among them
are: using a recycled paper (4.41), double-checking the point-of-sale orders
(4.32), creating and using a strategic mix cost (4.46), buying and using
cost-saving equipment (4.49), and recycling food waste to cut down
on
solid waste collection cost (4.28).
3.6 Employees’ Performance The management policies implemented by the JFCs
managers in maintaining employees’ performance were (4.38) effective.
Most prominent among them are: encouraging the employees to perform
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their tasks to the best of their ability (4.42), ensuring that employees
accomplish their work according to the performance standards(4.48), and
appreciating and recognizing performance of deserving employees (4.45).
3.7 Customer’s Loyalty The management policies implemented by the JFC
managers in maintaining customers’ loyalty were effective as attested by the
average mean rating of 4.39. Most common among them are: warmly
welcoming customers exhibiting unwavering allegiance to the firm (4.50)
and offering the best food/service quality to customers demonstrating trust to
the firm (4.48).
4. Values of X2 . The computed values of X2 on the comparison in the levels of
effectiveness of the management policies implemented by the JFC managers with
respect to respondents’ age (57.699), educational attainment (74.819), and
position (55.091) were regarded significant.
The older respondent-personnel (managers and employees) with higher
educational attainment ascertained very effective the management policies implemented
by the JFC managers, while the younger respondents, customers, and with lower
educational attainment declared them effective.
The computed values of X2 on the comparison in the effectiveness of the
management policies implemented by the JFC managers with respect to
respondents’ sex (4.205) and nationality (3.031) were considered insignificant. Both the
make and female respondents who were either Filipino, Chinese, Taiwanese, or Korean
equally ascertained effective the management policies.
5. Problems The average mean rating of 2.84 is a confirmation that the problems
encountered by the managers in the operation and management of the
JFCs
were
slightly serious. Most common among them are: lack of capabilities of employees in
repairmen and maintenance of facilities and equipment (3.48), lack of knowledge and
skills of some employees (3.45), lack of concern of some employees towards their jobs
(3.43), inability of employees to display extra effort and resourcefulness (3.40), tardiness
and absenteeism of some employees (3.37), and customers’ disorderly behavior (3.88).
6. Solutions The solutions offered by the respondent-personnel were (4.39) effective,
most particularly the following: hiring employees expert on repair and maintenance of
facilities and equipment (4.49), conducting job-orientation and on-the-job training (4.47),
conducting skills-training and development (4.46),stimulating employees to improve their
service and performance (4.45), and enforcing work ethics and code of conduct (4.40).
5.Conclusions and Recommendations
5.1 Conclusions
In the light of the foregoing findings, the following conclusions were arrived at
and presented:
1. Many of the respondent Jollibee Fast Food Centers (JFCs has big capitalization,
small number of personnel, offered quality service to personnel, served
different types of food, big average number of daily customers, few years un
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their operation, upward growth in the volume of food developed and volume of
sales.
2. The management policies implemented by the JFC managers are effective,
more primarily in maintaining the kitchen equipment, energy control/usage,
employees’ performance, and customers’ loyalty, and secondarily in
maintaining sanitation and food safety, quality service delivery, and costs
control.
3. No significant differences exist in the levels of effectiveness of the
management policies implemented by the JFC managers when the respondents
are grouped according to sex and nationality. Therefore, the null hypothesis is
accepted.
4. Significant differences exist in the levels of effectiveness of the management
policies implemented by the JFC managers when the respondents are grouped
according to age, educational attainment, and position. Therefore, the null
hypothesis is rejected.
5. There are significant differences in the perceived effectiveness of the
operational strategies employed by the JFC managers when the respondents’
age and educational attainment are considered. Therefore, the null hypothesis is
rejected.
5.2 Recommendations
Based on the findings and conclusions arrived at, the following recommendations
were evolved and forwarded.
1. JFC managers should keep on providing more comfortable, safe, and inviting
location and amenities for more enhancements of customers’ satisfaction and
loyalty.
2. JFC managers should prepare newly-hired employees for their respective work
by conducting job-orientation and on-the-job training for them.
3. Concerned managers should try to enhance further the employment of
operational
strategies
towards
food
development/designing,
marketing/promotion, and food pricing.
4. Concerned managers should exert more their effort by periodically conducting
skills-training and development to upgrade and improve employees’ knowledge
and dexterity towards their jobs.
5. JFC managers should provide employees’ adequate incentives/benefits to
stimulate them improve more their performance in their jobs and contribute to
the productivity of their firm.
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References
Books:
1. Daleon, Sixto, et.al. (1997) Fundamentals of Statistics; Manila: National Book Store,
Inc.
2. Denton, Ketih (2000) Quality Service; India: Abdul Majeed and Company, 2004
Food
Service Manage, Facility Maintenance; Washington DC: National Restaurant
Association.
3. Kazarian, Edward A. (2000) Facility maintenance; New York: Van Nostraud
Reinhold.
4. Katschevar, Lendel H. and Margaret Terrel (1995) Food Service Planning, Layout,
and
Equipment; New York: John Wiley Inc.
5. Khan, Mathmood (1997) Food Service Operation; Westport C.T: AVT Publishing
Company.
6. Landau, Sidney I.(1997) Webster Illustrated Contemporary Dictionary:
Encyclopedia Edition; Illinois: J.G. Ferguson Publishing Company.
7. Lovelock, Christopher H(2005) Developing and Managing Customer Service;
Lexington,
Massachusetts: D.C., Health and Company.
8. Mill, Robert C.(2002) Restaurant Management: Customers, Operation, and
Employees; New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
9. Minor, Levis and Ronald f. Cichy(1998) Food Service systems Management;
Westport C.T: AVT Publishing Company.
10. NRA, (2000) Food Service Manager 2000, Current Issues Report; Washington DC:
National Restaurant Association.
11. Reid, Robert D.( 1999) Hospitality Marketing Management; New York: Van
Nostraud Reinhald.
12. Roldan, Amelia S.(1999). Operating and Managing Hotel and Restaurant Business;
Metro
Manila: AR Skills Development and Management Service.
13. Senberg, Albin(1998) Food Designing, Merchandizing, and Marketing; New York:
Van Nostraud Reinhald.
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New York, March.
2. Fisher, Bill and Fisher, William(1999). “Service” National Restaurant News;
Volume 15, No.3, March.
3. Leonard, Stew(1999) “Love Your Customer” Customer Newsweek, and June 27,
1998 Marlani,
4. John, “The Best Restaurant: NRN Top 100” National Restaurant News, June 28.
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American Productivity Center Quality Forum.
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New
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7.
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Products”, National Restaurant News, Volume 53, No. 9, March.
Sullivan, Jun(1995) “A Dozen Good Ideas to Control and Lower Monthly Costs”,
National Restaurant News, February 13.
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Value: A Menus-End Model and Synthesis of Evidence”; Journal of Marketing,
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Kim, Woo-Hyung,(1998)“The Level of Customers’ Performance and Satisfaction
of the Selected First Class Hotels in Seoul, Korea” Unpublished Doctoral
Dissertation, GAUF, Malabon.
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Kim, Young-Hee,(1996) “The Management Practices and Satisfaction of Selected
Hospitals in Metro Manila”, Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, GAUF, Malabon.
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Hernandez, Edgardo C.(1993)“The Satisfaction Level of Civilian Employees in the
PNP General Hospital”, Unpublished Master’s Thesis.
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Hung, Wam-Soo(1995). “Food Service Company’s Satisfaction in Fourteen (14)
Hospitals’ Food Service Systems”, Unpublished Master’s Thesis, Yontee University,
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University,
Malabon City.
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APPENDIX
Jollibee is one of the Philippines' phenomenal business success stories. Starting in 1975
as a two-branch ice cream parlor, it later expanded its menu to include hot sandwiches
and other meals. With encouraging success, Jollibee Foods Corporation was incorporated
in 1978 with seven outlets to fully explore the possibilities of a hamburger concept. Thus
was born the company that revolutionized the fast food industry in the Philippines.
In 1984, Jollibee reached the P500 million sales mark, catapulting the company into the
list of Top 500 Philippine Corporations. In 1987, barely 10 years in the business, the
company joined the ranks of the Philippines' Top 100 Corporations. It then became the
first Philippine fast food chain to break the P1 billion sales mark in 1989. In 1993,
Jollibee became the first food service company to be listed in the Philippine Stock
Exchange; thus broadening its capitalization and laying the groundwork for sustained
expansion locally and beyond the Philippines.
Jollibee is the country's leading fast food chain. The size, geographic expanse and breadth
of the company's operations have grown exponentially - from a handful of Jollibee stores
twenty-eight years ago to over 500 stores in the Philippines and twenty two international
stores in countries like the United States and Hong Kong. It is now an international brand
with phenomenal milestones that has made millions of Filipinos proud.
But Jollibee's leadership is not only reflected by market share (the company enjoys more
than half of the entire fast food industry); numerous local and global awards attest to this
as well.
In line with its long-term goal to be the dominant food service leader in the country, the
company acquired Greenwich Pizza in 1994 enabling it to penetrate the pizza-pasta
segment. From a 50-branch operation, Greenwich has established a strong presence in the
food service industry. A year later the company acquired the franchise of Delifrance, an
international food company. This further expanded its penetration in the food service
industry particularly in the French caf, a growing segment of the Philippine food market.
In 2000, the strategic acquisition of Chowking solidified the company's position as the
dominant leader and allowed it to have leadership in a major fast food market - the
Oriental quick service restaurant segment. The incorporation has revitalized Chowking;
providing a platform for the growth of the business and further increasing the enterprise
value of the Jollibee Group.
The foundation of Jollibee's rapid growth has been its strategy to establish dominant
market coverage complemented by its superior menu line-up, creative marketing
programs and efficient manufacturing and logistics facilities in support of its widening
restaurant chain. It is powered by teams of well-trained individuals embracing the culture
of integrity and humility, working in a family-like environment of fun and togetherness.
As a corporate citizen, Jollibee is also committed to serve its host communities. The
company not only nourishes bodies but also people's spirits through countless socio-civic
projects.
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Jollibee dedicates its continuous success to those who have supported the company from
the very start - the Filipino people.
Jollibee has grown to be so well loved that every time a new store is opened, especially
overseas, Filipinos form long queues to the store without fail. It is not just a place where
they feel at home; it is a stronghold of heritage, a monument of Filipino victory.
Jollibee's advertising is deeply rooted in the traditional Filipino values of family and love
for children. Fueled by Filipino creativity, its expression "Atin ang Langhap Sarap!" is
anchored on its products' unique taste and superiority.
It aims to be perpetually in the public consciousness through television, radio, print,
cinema advertisements and billboards. The company also sponsors selected community
activities. Moreover, premium items and toys are offered to bring home and display on
the toy shelf.
Likewise, as a way to ensure that the superior equity is sustained and a strong, cohesive
and comprehensive visual identification in all Jollibee stores is created, a system - wide
Jollibee retail identity was initiated. The international graphic design group, Addison was
commissioned to formulate the new retail identity that is more dynamic and fun-oriented.
The new retail identity is an integrated system encompassing the total restaurant design
from the menu-board and various signages, the dining equipment and area, to the
Playland and other facilities.
The product menu is continually reviewed to sustain consumer excitement. Existing
products are improved and re-launched. New products are test-marketed in keeping with
the strategy of having a continuing fresh line up of products. All these to respond to
customers' changing needs and preferences which has been a major factor in Jollibee's
success.
At the forefront of innovative marketing and advertising program are the Value Meal
product upgrades and additions. This has indeed proven to be an effective response to the
narrowing consumer spending power brought about by the current economic crunch.
Jollibee owns the children market and will endeavor to keep its stronghold on this segment.
Hence, Jollibee continues with its Jolly Kiddie Meal promotions, offering a choice of Regular
Yum, Spaghetti Special or Chickenjoy
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