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Seminar on Organic Farming Research in Europe - European

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EUROPEAN COMMISSION
RESEARCH DIRECTORATE-GENERAL
Directorate E.03 – Safe food production systems
Seminar on Organic Farming Research in Europe
“How to facilitate the development of transnational co-operation in research
in Organic Farming by member and associated states”
Brussels, 24-25 September 2002
Consolidated report summarising individual contributions
Brussels, October 10, 2002
Index
Introduction …………………………………………………………… 2
Current research activities …………………………………………… 2
Funding of OF research by individual countries …………………… 6
Main research centres carrying out research in OF ………………... 8
Affect on policy at National level …………………………………….. 9
Scope for co-operation at European level …………………………… 9
Annex I: List of projects and main institutes and researchers
Annex II: Individual contributions
1
Introduction
The meeting aims to determine ways to improve co-operative research between states and,
thus, facilitate such research. As a background to the meeting, and to serve as an additional
basis for discussion, member and associated states were asked about current research in
organic farming and where they saw opportunities for trans-national research in Europe.
Twenty-one (of a possible 30) responses were received. Not all the responses commented on
all the points raised in the original letter, but those that were received are summarised here in
the form of a discussion document. A summary table of responses is included at Annex 1 and
the full responses are available electronically as Annex 2.
Current research activities
Current and recently supported research topics are summarised in Annex I. Research ranges
through the whole production cycle from inputs into crop and animal production, soil
condition, production systems, product development, quality monitoring, marketing and
socio-economic studies.
Austria considers organic farming research to be of high priority and has a full range of
research programmes throughout the production cycle from soil to the final product.
In Belgium, agriculture and agricultural research activities have been organised at the
regional level since the beginning of 2002. Although some of the current activities are
economic studies that could affect national and regional policies, the majority of them are of a
more demonstrative nature. For instance: research on new crop varieties more adapted to the
conditions of organic farming, as well as alternative methods on weed, plant disease and pest
control.
Switzerland has been carrying out research in organic farming for more than 70 years, the
first research starting in 1930 by the privately financed biological laboratory at the
Goetheanum in Dornach (CH). In 1973, focussed research work started at the Research
Institute of Organic Agriculture (FiBL). In the 80’s the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology
(ETH) Zurich and the Federal Research Station for Agricultural Economics and Engineering
(FAT) led in all aspects of animal welfare and ethology. In 2001, the Swiss Federal Research
Station for Agroecology and Agriculture (FAL) began OF research on arable crops, grassland
management, crop breeding and landscaping. Switzerland wants to promote research in all
fields of organic farming
.
In Cyprus, research on pests and pathogens has been carried out for over 30 years. More
recently (over the last 5 years) there has been a switch to a systems-orientated approach, for
example on organic vegetables.
Germany has a federal research programme launched in 2001, classifying research into 5
areas: Agricultural production, Recording and processing, Trade, Marketing and consumers,
Technology development and transfer and Accompanying measures. The Federal Government
set itself the aim of fostering the role of organic farming in the years to come. It strives for a
substantial increase in the share of the organic production within the total usable agricultural
area from the current 3.2% to 20% in 2010. A centralised website was created with details of
the research programmes (see Annex 1).
2
Throughout the 1990s organic production has grown rapidly in Denmark, and in 2002 the
organic area will approach close to 7 percent of the total agricultural area. This development
has been supported through the preparation of national policies (action plans) and the Danish
Research Centre for Organic Farming (DARCOF) was founded in 1995 to provide the overall
framework for Danish research on organic farming and to co-ordinate the activities for a
rational use of the allocated resources. DARCOF is a "centre without walls", where the
researchers remain in their own research environment but collaborate across institutes.
Current research activities involve about 140 scientists in 20 different institutes. This research
is intended to ease the transition from conventional to organic farming, while encouraging a
sustainable development of the economic, ecological and social aspects of agriculture. In
1999 a new major research initiative “DARCOF II” was initiated. The initiative consists of 42
major research projects and covers the period from 2000 to 2005 with a total budget of around
€30 million.
The main financial efforts on organic farming research in Finland has been supported by the
Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (MAF) either through the budgets of its research
institutes (mainly AgriFood Finland MTT and the Game and Fisheries Research Institute) or
through financing competitive research projects from its non-allocated research budget. The
Academy of Finland and Tekes - the National Technology Agency - have also supported
research in organic farming, but only in individual projects. An expert group appointed by the
MAF has produced an overview in organic farming research now available on a website (see
Annex I). The expert group calls for a more systematic approach to organic farming research
and a substantial increase in the funding. They also identified the following priority areas for
research: Quality and risks of organic food; Consumer oriented product development;
Maintenance of soil fertility; Safe recycling of organic waste; Improved production of seeds;
Improved production of organic milk and meat; Animal welfare and organic farming; Local
food systems; and Role of organic farming in multifunctional and pluractive agriculture.
In France, agricultural institutions and trade organisations have long viewed organic farming
as a marginal activity. Until recently, field experiments and training in organic farming were
provided only by the Technical Institute for Organic Farming (ITAB), which relies on a
professional network of organic farmers’ associations (21 regional technical centres, 4 organic
research centres). However, recent political recognition of organic farming has prompted
various organisations to draw up policies to promote it. This shift can be dated to the
December 1997 introduction of a medium-term plan for the development of organic farming,
which has resulted in the involvement of new partners in organic farming research: technical
institutes, INRA1, Chambers of agriculture. Since 2000, INRA supports a number of research
teams and experimental units working on organic farming, with the main objective of
strengthening such units and enhancing their research potential through the provision of
additional financing.
Recently the General Teaching and Research Department (DGER) of the Ministry of
Agriculture and Fisheries has set up a co-ordination platform with the INRA, ACTA2, and
ITAB. This group’s goal is to support the DGER in co-ordinating prioritised research
programs on organic farming.
1
2
National Institute for Agronomic Research
Union of Agriculture Technical Institutes
3
Research on organic farming in Ireland is principally supported through the Agriculture and
Food Development Agency (TEAGASC) and research is principally driven by the demands of
producers. There is pressure to carry out a commercial appraisal of key organic products and
also to address traceability and the identification of veterinary and chemical residues in
organic products. A deficit of information was seen as limiting the development of the sector.
Iceland established a fund for supporting research in organic farming in 1995, but this
finishes in 2002. It is expected that there will be a new programme of research. Many
mainstream agriculture projects have relevance to the organic sector. The market for organic
produce is growing, but traditional agriculture in Iceland has a good reputation so there is not
a powerful incentive for organic alternatives.
Organic farming is a fast growing sector in Israel, but the climatic and geographical situation
of the country also makes organic farming particularly susceptible to pests and diseases. Each
year, there is a call for research in organic farming in Israel covering 3 key areas: Pre- and
post harvest protection of organic crops against pests and disease agents; Development of
appropriate organic plant nutrition (adapted to various sites in the country, various soils and
under extreme water shortage conditions) and Development of the organic farming
technology in protected crops and open fields. In addition, much mainstream agriculture
research has relevance to organic farming. Israel set up a steering committee for organic
agriculture in 1998.
Italy is first in Europe in terms of agricultural surface cultivated organically and the number
of both surface and organic producers is constantly increasing. The total area under organic
farming (including conversion farms) is about 1,000,000 ha, corresponding to 7,2% of the
total cultivated area. Although these figures show a lively interest of farmers in the conversion
of their farms, there are neither publicly funded organisations nor specific research
programmes in support of organic farming in Italy. Research activities on organic farming are
carried out individually by different universities and national research institutes as part of
their overall research programmes.
Organic farming has developed in Latvia over the last 10 years at the same time as the
country has undergone restructuring. There are now around 200 organic farms, producing
food for market, for agri-tourism or on hobby farms. An association of Latvian organisations
for organic farming was established in 1995, and a certification system and label “Latvia Ecoproduct” have been developed. Latvia sees state-support as a necessity to develop organic
farming due to financial weakness of the sector.
In Lithuania the conversion from conventional to organic farming started in 1993. Since
then, the number of certified organic farms has grown and currently about 400 farms are
certified as organic by “Ekoagros”, the enterprise of organic agriculture certification
accredited by the IFOAM. “Ekoagros” inspects and certificates organic farms, processing and
marketing enterprises and organic products. However, no specific research programme and no
specific budget are foreseen for organic farming research.
The Netherlands support research in organic agriculture under twelve themes, Soil and
fertilisation, Living propagation stock, Crop protection, Animal health, Business
management, Business systems, Rural areas, Agro chains, Market and Consumers, Food
safety, People and society and Knowledge chains (see Annex I). They also have a website for
organic agriculture www.biologischelandbouw.net.
4
Organic farming is one of seven priority areas for research in agriculture within Norway. In
2002, the Norwegian Agricultural Authority took over responsibility for most research
projects.
Poland carries out research in organic farming at a number of universities and institutes, and
covers a wide range of topics throughout the organic production chain.
Research for organic agriculture in Romania is carried out by the Research Institute for
Cereals and Technical Plants (ICCPT), based in Fundulea and in other 10 ResearchDevelopment Stations co-ordinated by the Institute, but located in different climatic areas.
Organic farming research projects are co-ordinated by the Collective of Ecologic Agriculture,
which was established in 1994.
In Slovenia there is no specific national research programme for organic farming. However,
ecological farming is gaining increased importance. With the aim of promoting principles of
organic farming and certifying production in accordance with national and EU Regulations
and IFOAM standards, the Organisation for the Control of Ecological Farming was
established in 1997 at the Agricultural Institute in Maribor. Collaboration was established
with the largest Austrian accredited organisation Austria Bio Garantie (ABG). The special
trademark BIODARГ” is used for labelling ecological products from certified farms, the
number of which is increasing dramatically from a few farms in 2000 to around 300 in 2001.
Current research activities on organic agriculture and animal production in Sweden are
mainly funded by the Government. Institutes and Universities are the main actors, however,
there is a special body, the CUL, established by the Swedish University of Agricultural
Science (SLU) in 1997 to co-ordinate and inform about the work for a sustainable agriculture
in Sweden. Research topics are the following: Economy – market – consumption, The ecology
of crop production, Production systems within animal husbandry, Technical-biological
systems, Multifunctional farming systems, Circulation of plant nutrients, and Food – quality –
health. Other research is supported by the Ekhaga foundation, which owns an experimental
farm, and the Swedish FarmersВґ Foundation for Agricultural Research (LRF), but there are no
official reports showing the extent of these activities. In 1999 the Swedish Parliament set the
new goal that in 2005 the area cultivated according to organic standards should be 20% of the
total cultivated area, and that 10% of the production of dairy, cattle and lamb should be
organic.
The UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) has funded research
on organic production since 1991, as one of a number of measures to promote organic
production with an annual budget of about ВЈ440k. Over the last decade the level of spend has
increased 5-fold and currently stands at around ВЈ2.1 million per annum. The Programme has
four main scientific objectives: a) To assess the economic implications of converting to
organic production, b) To compare the environmental effects of organic farming compared to
other types of agriculture, c) To relieve constraints to organic production, so to make organic
farming more attractive, and commercially viable and d) To ensure that technology transfer is
maximised. The UK recently produced a report on European organic farming research,
available on the web at http://www.adas.co.uk/organic. It considers that many member states
have significant funding for organic farming research. The report concluded that in Denmark,
Norway, Sweden, Finland and Germany, research in organic farming is part of a national
programme, but national co-ordination in Austria and France was less formal.
5
Funding of OF research by individual countries
Approximate budgets for organic research are listed in the table below for those countries that
responded. Budget provision varies widely and in some cases the budget for organic farming
is difficult to separate from that for total agricultural research. Several countries commented
on the low level of funding from private sources, which has been attributed to a low level of
interest by industry, based on the assumption that organic farming would generate only a low
level of sales for farming inputs.
As summarised in table 1 (below), Germany has by far the greatest financial support for
organic farming (and also noted that there is, in addition, private and state, as well as the
federal, support), followed by The Netherlands, France, Sweden, Switzerland, Denmark,
the UK, Norway, Finland and Austria. Finland, though having a low level of industrial
support for organic farming research, finds the level of private support to be increasing. In
addition, some funds that support general research have contributed to specific projects in
organic farming research in Finland. An expert group has recently suggested that Finland
should take a more scientific approach to funding research in organic farming. In Norway
there is also funding at a regional and ministerial level as well as private and EU support.
Iceland, Latvia, Romania and Poland are the only countries with very low funding for OF
research. Iceland noted that private support for research in organic farming was difficult to
obtain, perhaps as a result of the smallness of the community and also reflecting the relative
lack of pressure for change there. In Latvia the limited budget available from the Ministry of
Agriculture and the Latvian Board of Science is mainly allocated to the Latvian University of
Agriculture and the State Breeding Centre of Stende. Romania calls for more external
financial support for organic farming research and Poland sees a need for private support, for
example from local food exporting companies.
Table 1 – Individual funding of OF research
Country
Austria
Funding description (in EURO)*
Total funding
(EURO / year)
From 673,000 in 2000 to 1.3m in 2005
ca 1m / year
Belgium
2m committed to current projects
ca 0.6m / year
Cyprus
Current budget 50,000
Proposed budget 1.8m over 5 years
Denmark
30m for 2000 - 2005
5m / year
Germany
35m for 2002 – 2003
17.5m / year
Finland
2.5m annually
2.5m / year
6
0.4m / year (proposed)
France
INRA – 5.5 m/year
Technical Institutes – 1,9 m/year
Chamber of Agriculture – 2 m/year
Regional Stations – 1,64 m/year
ITAB – 0,67 m/year
Israel
150,000 / year research grants
150,000 / year staff support
200,000 / year from Min Agric R&D budget
Ireland
TEAGASC 2.5m over 3 years
Univ of Cork 300,000 over 3 years
0.9m / year
Iceland
Specific state fund: 70,000 / year
0.07m / year
Min. of Agric. commissions research to:
The
Wageningen University
Netherlands
Louis Bolk Institute
Norway
Total agricultural research budget for 2002:
4.5m Norwegian Research Council
5.1m Norwegian Agricultural Authority
1.3m strategic projects
0.2m other projects
Poland
40,000 / year
Romania
85,000 for 1996 - 2001;
48,000 for 2000-2002;
5,000 Relansin project
Sweden
State funding - 6m / year
Ekhaga foundation - 0.5-1m / year
11,7m / year
0.3m – 0.5m / year
Ca 10m / year
ca 3m / year (estimation
for OF)
0.04m / year
Ca 0.03m / year
6.5m / year
Federal Office for Agriculture - 4-5m/year
Fed. Veterinary Office - 0.4m/y
Switzerland
Fed. Off. for Education and science - 0.5m/y
Others 0.5m/y
ca 6m / year
United
Kingdom
3.4m / year
3.4 m / year
Total funds for OF
ca 63m / year
* More detailed information can be found in Annex II – Individual responses
7
Main research centres carrying out research in OF
The main centres that carry out organic agriculture research in each country, together with
contact details, where available, are shown in Annex I.
Most countries undertook organic research at government-supported research stations and
many also had active university research systems. Farms tended to be linked to these research
establishments and of these also worked with private organic farms.
In the Flemish region of Belgium a Research Centre on Organic Production was established
in 1998 with the objective of co-ordinating most research activities. This centre has a farm
(still in conversion) and a greenhouse. In the Walloon region of Belgium the research
activities on organic agriculture are mainly performed at the agronomy faculties of the
different universities and at the Agricultural Research Centre in Gembloux.
In Denmark, DARCOF facilities include two organic research stations, crop rotation sites,
organic workshop sites as well as agreements with private organic farmers who make their
farms available for research. A Research School for Organic Agriculture and Food Systems
(SOAR) has been established in collaboration between DARCOF and The Royal Veterinary
and Agricultural University.
Research on organic agriculture and food production is carried out in Lithuania by some
research centres, using funds from the state budget through the Ministry of Education and
Science, the Ministry of Agriculture and the Science & Studies state foundation.
Countries responding that they had dedicated organic research farms were Austria, Ireland
and Norway (in Ireland’s case these were sections of larger research farms). Finland and
Norway both used private farms in research and Germany mentioned that most research
institutes would have their own farms where research would be carried out.
In Cyprus, there is only one research institute carrying out organic farming research. This
institute uses farmers’ land for field studies. In Germany research is carried out in a range of
universities and institutes, most having organic sections at their own farms. The primary
research centre in Finland is Agrifood Finland MTT, though there is a range of institutions
contributing to research (see Annex I). Ireland has two organic units (18 and 50 hectares) in
two larger farms and also has a training farm for organic agriculture. Austria’s research farm
is over 140 hectares.
In Poland there are four universities and one research institute concerned with research in
organic farming. These each have organic experimental plots, but no complete, dedicated
farm.
Research is carried out in Norway on 3 experimental organic farms as well as on private
farms and a specific body, the Norwegian Research and Extension Groups co-ordinates field
work throughout the country.
8
Affect on policy at National level
In Norway, policy has clearly driven research priorities in organic farming. Norway, Poland
and the UK thought that their organic farming research had also had some impact on driving
policy and in providing evidence to promote aspects of organic farming. Poland said that it
had created a basis for government regulations but that overall impact could be greater. In the
UK, research has been useful for directing policy on support levels for organic farming,
defining areas for support, defining limitations and has helped UK negotiators in the EU.
However, much research had no formal assessment for impact on policy.
In Ireland TEAGASC does contribute to the policy debate, though doubt was expressed if the
research has had much impact on policy. Others thought that effect on policy was difficult to
detect. While there is an interaction between research and SwedenВґs policy on organic
farming, research has been used more as a support for political commitments already taken
rather than as a driver of policy.
Scope for co-operation at European level
Countries were asked to list where they saw areas that would benefit from trans-national
research in organic agriculture. A summary of responses is shown in the table below.
Although responses were fairly diverse, there was some commonality around production
systems and novel methods of pest/disease/weed control. There was also interest in animal
health and welfare, product quality processing and marketing. Iceland sees participation in
co-ordinated research policies as important for the development or organic agriculture in
general, while Austria sees a need for a uniform technical setting for experiments in order
that results from different regions are comparable.
Crop productions systems came out as the topic that would most benefit from trans-national
cooperation, but several countries also flagged up studies relating to various aspects of
marketing in their submissions. For example, in Cyprus there is seen to be a need for research
into various aspects of marketing of organic produce, and for studies on country-specific
production methods.
The following table summarises topics indicated by some countries as suitable for
transnational co-operation.
9
Research topics flagged up by some countries for collaborative support
Quality control
Processing
Pest/weed/disease
control
Socio-eoconomics
and consumers
Animal health and
welfare
Ecology/biodiversity
Soil
Crop production
Animal production
Marketing
Specific issues
Details
Organic production
Crop breeding
Uniform setting for experiments
Austria
Switzerland
Crop breeding
Animal breeding
Animal health
Disease control / Pest control / Weed control
Food supply chains
Research on production and protection.
Marketing of organic products
Cyprus
Strategies in animal and crop production
Processing
Quality assessment and control
Management of soil fertility
Animal health
Ecology and biodiversity
Economics and marketing
Plant-nutrient cycling
Legumes
Sheep production, horticulture and fish
Marketing and distribution in rural areas
Organic seed growing
Animal nutrition
Soil fertility and using of composts
Organic grassland systems
Economy of organic agriculture
Control of parasites
GMO testing
Mycotoxins other toxins
Soil and fertilisation
Living propagation stock / Crop protection
Animal health
Farm management / Farming systems
Rural areas / Man and society
Agro-chains
Market and consumers
Knowledge chains
Germany
Ireland
Iceland
Latvia
Lithuania
The Netherlands
Norway
Development in Northern Europe
Animal health and welfare
Intercropping
Plant protection (weed, pest and disease control)
Consumer attitudes/food safety/ control reliability
10
Socio-economic studies of importance
Means of implementation
Production methods
Pest control
Weed control
Impact on biodiversity, landscape and rural
economy
HACCP
Food processing
Veterinary treatment and prophylaxis
Protection from GMO
Sustainability
Resistance to disease
Genetic resources
Organic farming and food quality
Poland
Sweden
11
Annex I: Current priorities, supported projects and main centres/researchers involved
Current priorities and supported projects
Major institutes, researchers, sources of data
Austria
•
Optimisation of plant production in organic agriculture
Improvement of soil management (e.g. organic fertilizers, increase of the
humus content with simultaneous attention of the nutrient losses, etc..)
Advancement of process engineering during cultivation, harvesting
techniques, mixed croppings
Improvement of crop rotations, especially in dry regions with cattleless
managements
Development of preventive and direct procedures and strategies for regulating
weeds, development of phytomedical bases including biological plant
protection
Increase the ecological stability of cultivation systems
Minimising impacts on the environment, including measures for increased
energy efficiency
Breeding of suitable cultivars for organic agriculture
•
Optimization of animal husbandry in organic agriculture
Increase of fitness, vitality and animal health by feeding (adequate fodder
rations) and breeding
Development of preventive and alternative therapeutic measures in animal
husbandry
Development of cost efficient and suitable animal husbandry systems
•
Production guidelines and product quality
Development of measures to guarantee on a long-term basis appropriate
production according to Reg No 2092/91 (e.g. free of GMOs, additives in
processing)
Advancement of the product quality and alternative holistic procedures for
quality determination
Current / ongoing projects financed by BMLFUW:
The role of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) in organic farming systems to
develop soil fertility under consideration of different strategies of crop
management and influence of long term cultivated soils on AM under the
conditions of organic farming
Bernhard Freyer, Institut für Ökologischen Landbau der Universität für
Bodenkultur
N losses due to leaching and beneficial effects on subsequent cereals crops of
Institute for Organic Farming, University of Agricultural Sciences, Vienna (IfГ–L)
Head: Univ.Prof. Dipl.-Agr.Biol. Dr.Ing. Bernhard FREYER
Gregor Mendel-StraГџe 33
A-1180 Wien, Austria
Phone: +43-1-47654-3751
Fax: +43-1-47654-3792
E-mail: bfreyer@edv1.boku.ac.at
Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Biological Agriculture and Applied Ecology
Head: Prof. Dr. Ludwig MAURER
Rinnböckstraße 15
A-1110 Wien, Austria
Phone: +43-1-7951497940
Fax: +43-1-795147393
E-mail: boltzmbioland@aon.at
Federal Research Institute for Agriculture in Alpine Regions
Abteilung Biologischer Landbau
Head: Dr. Gerhard PLAKOLM
Aussenstelle WELS
AustraГџe 10,
A - 4601 Wels/Thalheim
Phone: +43-7242-47012
Fax: +43-7242-47011-15
E-mail: plakolm@agrobio.bmlf.gv.at
Federal Research Institute for Agriculture in Alpine Regions
Abteilung Biologische Nutztierhaltung
Head: Dr. Leopold PODSTATZKY
Aussenstelle WELS
AustraГџe 10,
A - 4601 Wels/Thalheim
Phone: +43-7242-47012
Fax: +43-7242-47011-15
E-mail: podstatzky@agrobio.bmlf.gv.at
Federal Institute for Less-Favoured and Mountainous Areas
Dr. Michael GROIER
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
forage and green manure legumes in organic farming under site conditions of
the Pannonical region in Eastern Austria
Bernhard Freyer, Institut für Ökologischen Landbau der Universität für
Bodenkultur
Nitrogen uptake and yield of intercropping and their impact on yield and
quality of the following crop and nitrate content in soil under the conditions of
organic farming in the pannonican climate region
Bernhard Freyer, Institut für Ökologischen Landbau der Universität für
Bodenkultur
Comparison of the economic performance of farming systems using the
accounting data of the year 2000 and economic issues of organic pig
production
Walter Schneeberger, Institut für Agrarökonomik der Universität für Bodenkultur
Wien
Selection of wheat with tolerance to drought and small seed: Tackle the
problem at the roots!
Konrad Schulmeister, Verein zur Förderung der Mohn- und Getreidezüchtung
Establishment of an online data bank recording components and organisms,
which are on a risk of genetic engineering, with special regard to organic
farming (EU-Council regulation 2092/91, Annex II and VI)
Alexandra Hozzank, Infoxgen - Arbeitsgemeinschaft transparente Nahrungsmittel
e.V.
Investigation of plant production factors for the purpose of increasing protein
content of winter wheat under the conditions of organic farming
Josef Söllinger, Bundesanstalt für alpenländische Landwirtschaft, Abteilung
Biologischer Landbau
Investigation of measures against common bunt of wheat (Tilletia caries)
under the conditions of organic farming
Josef Söllinger, Bundesanstalt für alpenländische Landwirtschaft, Abteilung
Biologischer Landbau
Investigations of bitter dock control on biologically managed farms with
special regard to root ecology
Monika Sobotik, Bundesanstalt für alpenländische Landwirtschaft
Investigations of non-chemical regulation of creeping thistle with special
regard to root ecology
Monika Sobotik, Bundesanstalt für alpenländische Landwirtschaft
Organic Farming in Austria and Europe - Analysis on developments,
structures and perspectives
Michael Groier, Bundesanstalt fГјr Bergbauernfragen
Comparative investigations of effects of integrated and/or biological apple
production on yield-expense relations, quality of the fruits, state of health of
the trees as well as appearance of beneficial arthropods, parasites and diseases
Lothar Wurm, Höhere Bundeslehranstalt und Bundesamt für Wein- und Obstbau
Möllwaldplatz 5
A - 1040 Wien
Tel.: +43-1-504 88 69-19
Fax.:+43-1-504 88 69-39
E-mail: michael.groier@babf.bmlf.gv.at
Institute of Agricultural Economics, University of Agricultural Sciences
Univ. Prof. Dr. Walter SCHNEEBERGER
Borkowskigasse 5
A-1190 Wien, Austria
Phone: +43-1-47654-3551
Fax: +43-1-47654-3592
E-mail: schneeberger@boku.ac.at
Federal College and Research Station for Horticulture
Biologischer Zierpflanzenbau
Dr. Elisabeth LIBOWITZKY
GrГјnbergstraГџe 24, A-1131 Wien
Phone: +43-1-813 59 50-372
Fax: +43-1-813 59 50-99
E-mail: zierpflanzen@gartenbau.bmlf.gv.at
Department of Livestock Sciences, University of Agricultural Sciences
Head: Univ.Prof. Dipl.-Ing. Dr. Werner ZOLLITSCH
Gregor-Mendel-StraГџe 33
A-1180 Wien, Austria
Phone: +43-1-47654-3250
Fax: +43-1-47654-3254
E-mail: zoll@edv1.boku.ac.at
Institut für Tierhaltung und Tierschutz, Veterinärmedizinische Universität Wien
Head: Univ.Prof. Dr. Josef TROXLER
Veterinärplatz 1
A-1210 Wien, Austria
Phone: +43-1-25077-4901
Fax: +43-1-25077-4990
E-mail: josef.troxler@vu-wien.ac.at
Universität Innsbruck, Institut für Hochgebirgsforschung und Alpenländische Land- und
Forstwirtschaft
Dr. Markus SCHERMER
Technikerstr. 13
A-6020 Innsbruck
Phone: +43-512-507- 5690
Fax. +43-512-507-2806
E-mail: markus.schermer@uibk.at.ac
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Belgium
1. SSTC
“ How organic farming can contribute to more sustainable means of production and
consumption.” (CP/02/193)
Period: 2001- 2005 Budget: 93.713 € (for the period 2001-2003)
Network of research centres:
2. MinistГЁre des Classes moyennes et Agriculture
DG6 – Recherche subventionnée
“ Research and development of a methodology for the quantification of sustainability by
measuring the microbial diversity in the soil.” (S-6074)
Period: 2002-2003 Budget: 215.172 €
“ Development and optimisation of a diversity of techniques for mechanical weeding.”
(S-6076)
Period: 2002-2003 Budget: 537.929 €
“ Study on the influence of the quantity and quality of organic material on the C- and Ndynamics in the soil profile.” (S-6089)
Period: 2000-2004 Budget: 206.000 € (for the period 2002-2004)
“ Research on an optimal plant protection for organically produced apples.” (S-6007)
Period: 2001-2004 Budget: 514.528 € (for the period 2001-2002)
“ Animal food and the quality of organically produced pig meat.” (S-5997)
Period: 2000-2004 Budget: 255.330 € (for the period 2000-2002)
“ Research on the factors that influence the conversion to organic farming, feasibility
and consequences.” (S-5995)
Period: 2001-2003 Budget: 286.193 €
3. Agricultural Research Centre – Ghent
“ Literature study on the bacterial safety of organically produced food products.”
“ Trace-ability throughout the organic food chain.”
Period: 2002 Budget: 61.949 €
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Prof. M. Mormont
Fondation Universitaire Luxembourgoise
Mr. D. Stilmant
Centre de Recherches Agronomiques de Gembloux
Prof. G. Van Huylenbroeck Universiteit Gent
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Prof. W. Verstraete,
Prof. D. Reheul,
Prof. R. Bulcke – Universiteit Gent
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Prof. J. De Baerdemaeker,
Prof. H. Ramon – K.U.Leuven
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Prof. O. Van Cleemput
Prof. G. Hofman – Universiteit Gent
Dhr. Cl. Verheyden PCF- Koninklijk Opzoekingsstation van Gorsem
Mr. M. Lateur,
Mr. M. CavelierCentre de Recherches Agronomiques de Gembloux
Prof. G. Janssens – Universiteit Gent
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Prof. G. Van Huylenbroeck Universiteit Gent
Mr. A. Mottoule Centre de l’ Economie Agricole
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Dhr. R. Van Renterghem Department of Animal Product Quality and Transformation
Technology
Dhr. L. Carlier Department of Crop Husbandry and Eco-physiology
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Cyprus
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Market demand for organic products
Marketing of agricultural products and competition in the market
Private support for promoting production and products involved in production
(such as plant protection, compost etc)
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Agricultural Research Institute
Principal scientists
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Dr I. Papastylianou, Co-ordinator, Dr P. Charalambus, Entomologist
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Mrs Th. Kapari, Plant Pathologist, Mr G. Eliades, Soil Scientist
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Mr N. Vouzounis, Weed specialist
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Mr S. Gregoriou, Potato specialist
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Mrs M. Ioannou, Vegetable production specialist
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Dr A. Georgiou, Citrus-Olives specialist
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Germany
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Status quo analyses of different production procedures
Status quo analyses and the development of strategies for the solution of present
problems in organic agriculture (nutrition supply, crop protection including stock
protection). Analyses of organic seed and plant production and of special issues of
organic husbandry
Comprehensive issues of production technology
Processing of organic products and quality aspects
Socio-economic analyses in the area of organic agriculture and of processing of
organic products
Marketing of organic products and demand for bio-products including out-of-home
catering
Analysis of the contribution of organic agriculture to reaching social goals
Certification and control systems in the area of organic agriculture
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Hochschule fГјr Technik und Wirtschaft Dresden
Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg
Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin
Fachhochschule Neubrandenburg
Universität Rostock
Universität Kiel
Universität Hannover
Georg-August-Universität Göttingen
Universität-Gesamthochschule Kassel in Witzenhausen
Fachhochschule OsnabrГјck
Rheinische Friedrich Wilhelms-Universität zu Bonn
Universität Hohenheim
Technische Universität München/Freising-Weihenstephan
Fachhochschule Weihenstephan
Federal Agricultural Research Centre (FAL) with its Institute for Organic Agriculture in
Trenthorst (headed by Dr. G. Rahmann – plays an important role in research on organic
agriculture)
Leading scientists
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Prof. Dr. Hamm at the Fachhochschule Neubrandenburg (Agricultural Economy and
Agromarketing)
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Prof. Dr. Heß at the Universität Gesamthochschule Kassel in Witzenhausen (specialized
area Organic Agriculture)
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Prof. Dr. Fölsch at the Universität Gesamthochschule Kassel in Witzenhausen
(specialized area Applied Productive Livestock Ethology and Welfare-oriented Animal
Husbandry)
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Prof. Dr. Köpke at the Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms Universität (Institute for Organic
Agriculture)
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Information on Federal programme for Organic Agriculture www.bundesprogrammoekolandbau.de
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Denmark
I Crop production, environment and food quality
I.1 Organic production of cucumber and tomato grown in composted plant material from field crops (ORCTOM)
Kristian Thorup-Kristensen, Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Horticulture
I.2 Development of sustainable production systems for apples
Hanne Lindhard Pedersen, Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Horticulture
I.3 Interactions between nitrogen dynamics, crop production and biodiversity in organic crop rotations analysed by dynamic simulation models (BIOMOD)
JГёrgen Aagaard Axelsen, National Environmental Research Centre, Department of Terrestrial Ecology
I.4 Nitrogen management and cropping methods for enhanced bread wheat production (NIMAB)
Project leader Bent T. Christensen, Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Crop Physiology and Soil Science, Research Centre Foulum, P.O. Box 50, DK-8830 Tjele
I.5 Grain legumes and cereals – new production methods for increased protein supply in organic farming systems (GENESIS)
Erik Steen Jensen, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Department of Agricultural Sciences
I.6 Cultivation in ridges and mixed cropping - new approaches to organic row crop production (CARMINA)
Jesper Rasmussen, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Department of Agricultural Sciences
I.7 Soil quality in organic farming: Effects of crop rotations, animal manure and soil compaction (ROMAPAC)
Per SchjГёnning, Danish Institute for Agricultural Sciences, Department of Crop Physiology and Soil Science
I.8 Management of perennial weed species in organic farming (MPW)
Bo Melander, Department of Crop Protection, Danish Institute for Agricultural Sciences
I.9 Band heating for intra-row weed control
Martin Heide JГёrgensen, Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Agricultural Engineering
I.10 Development of organic vegetable cultivation methods, and the use of catch crops to improve the production and protect the environment (VegCatch)
Kristian Thorup-Kristensen, Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Horticulture
I.11 Clover and Grass Seed – production of high quality organic seed for forage mixtures (CLOGS)
Birte Boelt, Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Plantbiology
I.12 Preventing Mycotoxin Problems (PREMYTOX)
Susanne Elmholt, Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Crop Physiology and Soil Science
I.13 Dinitrogen fixation and nitrous oxide losses in organic grass-clover pastures: An integrated experimental and modelling approach (DINOG)
Per Ambus, senior scientist, RisГё National Laboratory, Plant Research Department
I.14 Control of scab in organic apple growing (StopScab)
John Hockenhull (JH), The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University (KVL), Plant Pathology Section
I.15 Nitrate leaching from dairy farming. Effect of grassland composition and frequency in crop rotation. (NIT-GRASS)
JГёrgen Eriksen, Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Crop Physiology and Soil Science
I.16 Regional Groundwater Protection by Optimised Organic Farming Systems (Г�KOVAND)
Ole HГёrbye Jacobsen, Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Crop Physiology and Soil Science
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II Animal husbandry, health and food quality
II.1 Organic dairy production systems
Troels Kristensen, Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Agricultural Systems
II.2 Production of organic milk of high quality considering the future demands for use of organically produced feed and natural vitamins (ORMILQ)
Jacob Holm Nielsen, Department of Animal Product Quality, Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences
II.3 Organic production of steers and use of bioactive forages in livestock (PROSBIO)
Stig Milan Thamsborg, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Department of Animal Science & Health
II.4 Improvement of animal health and welfare in organic dairy production with special focus on the calves (HEWDAICA)
Mette Vaarst, Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Animal Health and Welfare
II.5 Use of antimicrobials and occurrence of resistance in organic cattle herds
Frank MГёller Aarestrup, Danish Veterinary Institute
II.6 Poultry production systems - health and welfare (PPS-HW)
Poul SГёrensen, Danish Institute for Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Animal Breeding and Genetics
II.7 Pig feeding under organic farming conditions with emphasis on nutrient utilisation, product quality and health (ORGANICPIGFEED)
Viggo Danielsen, Danish Institute for Agricultural Sciences, Department of Animal Nutrition and Physiology
II.8 Management in relation to health and food safety in organic pig production (MANORPIG)
Jan Tind SГёrensen, Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Animal Health and Welfare
II.9 Resource use, environmental impact and economy in organic pig production systems (PIGSYS)
John E. Hermansen, Danish Institute for Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Agricultural Systems
II.10 Bacterial infection risk associated with outdoor organic pig production with special reference to Salmonella and Campylobacter infection (SaCaFree)
Dorte Lau Baggesen (DLB), Danish Veterinary Institute
II.11 Production of raw milk cheese from organic milk (RAWMICHEESE)
Jacob Holm Nielsen, Department of Animal Product Quality, Danish Institute for Agricultural Sciences
II.12 Product quality and consumer perception of organic beef and pork in relation to grazing system and feeding with bio-active crops (PROSQUAL)
Laurits LydehГёj Hansen, Dept. of Animal Product Quality, Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences
III Agriculture and society
III.1 Consumer demand for organic foods – domestic and foreign market perspectives (COF)
Mette Wier, Institute of Local Government Studies
III.2 Economic Analyses of the Future Development of Organic Farming. Effects at the Field, Farm, Sector and Macroeconomic Levels (ECON-ORG)
SГёren E. Frandsen, Danish Institute of Agricultural and Fisheries Economics
III.3 Closing the Rural-Urban Nutrient Cycle (CRUCIAL)
Jakob Magid, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Department of Agricultural Sciences
III.4 Organic food and health – a multigeneration animal experiment (Organic Health)
Kirsten Brandt, Danish Institute for Agricultural Sciences, Department of Horticulture
III.5 Nature Quality in Organic Farming
Jesper Fredshavn, National Environmental Research Institute, Department of Landscape Ecology
III.7 Future supply and marketing strategies in the Danish organic food-sector (SAMSON)
Mogens Lund, Danish Institute of Agricultural and Fisheries Economics
III.8 Distribution Channels for Organic Foods and Consumer Trust (DISTRUSTING)
Katherine O’Doherty Jensen, Research Dept. of Human Nutrition and Centre for Advanced Food Studies, Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University
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III.9 Organic Agriculture in Social Entirety - Principles versus Practices (OASE)
Jan Holm Ingemann, Agricultural Economics, Department of Economics, Politics and Public Administration, Aalborg University (AAU) IV Research facilities
IV Experimental units for research in organic farming systems (EXUNIT)
JГёrgen E. Olesen, Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Crop Physiology and Soil Science
V Coordination and synergy
V Increasing the width and depth of research in organic farming (SYNERGY)
Erik Steen Kristensen, Danish Research Centre for Organic Farming
VI Seed production and improvement
VI.1 Healthy seed for organic production of cereals and legumes (ORGSEED)
Bent J. Nielsen, Department of Crop protection, Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences
VI.2 Characteristics of spring barley varieties for organic farming (BAR_OF)
Hanne Г�stergГҐrd, Department of Plant Research, RisГё National Laboratory
VI.3 Tool for protection against contamination by GMO (TOPRO)
Gösta Kjellsson, National Environmental Research Institute, Dep. of Terrestrial Ecology
VI.4 Grain legumes for organic farming – improved disease resistance, weed competitive ability and feed quality (GRAINLEG)
Lars BГёdker, Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Crop Protection
VI.5 Vegetable and Forage Seed - development of an organic, GMO-free seed production (VEFOS)
Birte Boelt, Dept. of Plant Biology, Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences,
Finland
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Quality and risks of organic food
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Consumer oriented product development
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Maintenance of soil fertility
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Safe recycling of organic waste
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Improved production of seeds
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Improved production of organic milk and meat
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Animal welfare and organic farming
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Local food systems
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Role of organic farming in multifunctional and pluriactive agriculture
Funded projects
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Improving the degree of processing of organic food
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Use of Caraway oil to prevent fungal disease in potato
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Improving the cultivation technology of organic strawberry
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Quality production of outdoor vegetables for food industry
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Growing power for fodder cereals in organic farming
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Consumer views about proceeded organic food products
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Research on production chains for organic seed within EU and possible
applications in Finland
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Selenium in organic foodstuffs
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Greenhouse gas mitigation for organic and conventional dairy production
(MIDAIR)
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Environmental loading from organic farming
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AgriFood Finland MTT, address: 31600 Jokioinen, Finland / www.mtt.fi
Game and Fisheries Research Institute: P.O.Box , 00721 Helsinki, Finland / www.rktl.fi
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Technical Research Centre VTT, P.O.Box 1400, 02044 VTT / www.vtt.fi
University of Helsinki: www.helsinki.fi Dept. of Applied Ecology, Agroecology, address:
P.O.Box 27, 00014 University of Helsinki, Finland
Mikkeli Institute for Rural Research and Training, address: Lönnrotinkatu 3-5, 50100
Mikkeli, Finland
University of Kuopio: www.uku.fi, Dept of Ecology and Environmental Science, address:
P.O.Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio, Finland
University of Turku: www.utu.fi, Satakunta Environmental Research Institute, FIN28900 Pori, Finland
University of Joensuu: www.joensuu.fi/joyindex.html
Finnish Environment Agency SYKE: www.vyh.fi
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Overview of organic farming in Finland:
http://www.mmm.fi/julkaisut/tyoryhmamuistiot/5-2002tryhma.PDF
Researchers:
! BioVitro Oy/ Sari
Pajuniemi
! MTT, Kasvinviljely ja biotekniikka/ Marjo Keskitalo
! MTT, Ympäristöntutki-mus, Ekologinen tuotanto/ Harri Huhta
! MTT, Kasvintuotannon tutkimus, Puutarhatuotanto/ Terhi Suojala
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Quality and safety risk and their control in the production chain of organic cheeses
Management of earthworm communities in amelioration of structurally deteriorated
field soils
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MTT, Ympäristön tutkimus, Ekologinen tuotanto/ Jaana Väisänen
VTT Biotekniikka/ Liisa Lähteenmäki
Agropolis Oy/ Jukka Tuki
MTT, Kemian laboratorio/ Merja Eurola
MTT, Ympäristöntutki- mus, Maaperä ja ympäristö/ Martti Esala
MTT, Ympäristöntutki-mus, Maaperä ja ympäristö/ Eila Turtola
HY, Elintarviketeknologian laitos, Maitoteknologia/ Eeva-Liisa Ryhänen
MTT, Ympäristön-tutkimus, Maaperä ja ympäristö/ Visa Nuutinen
France
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Internal projects (INRA, 2000–2003)
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Cereal production: kinetics of crop requirements and soil nitrogen mineralization
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Fruit growing: fertilization, fruit quality, hedgerows, biodiversity
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Livestock production
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How to improve OF standards to meet consumer requirements?
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Development of production systems in potato growing
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Plant breeding for potato growing
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Environmental risk assessment in dairy farming
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Sustainability of OF holdings in dairy farming. Organic milk quality and supply
chain management
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Plant breeding in cereals, cabbage, cauliflower
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Influence of wheat cultivation management on mycotoxins
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Cultivation of organic oilseed rape
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Influence of OF on nitric waste in soil
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Development of organic rice and hard wheat in Camargue
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Organic fertilization in vegetable growing
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Organic feed quality for pig farming
Collaborative projects (Call opened by INRA and ACTA, 2001-2003)
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How to reduce the use of copper
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Controlling grapevine yellows
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Production of seeds and plants in OF
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Fertilization in OF
ITAB projects
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Plant propagation and breeding: organic seed breeding / production
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Plant propagation systems, variety screening in organic farming systems
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Fertilization, farmyard manure, soil fertility
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Cereal selection
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Alternatives/reduction for copper use
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Controlling grapevine yellows
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Food quality: improved holistic methods, influence of specific
production/processing methods on food quality parameters
Chambers of agriculture
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Crop production, animal husbandry
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Conversion, development of OF
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Economic aspects,..
Technical Institutes
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Parasite prevention in organic animal husbandry, animal feeding
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Weed control
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Cereal growing
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Fruits and vegetables growing
! Wine growing (copper, grapevine yellow..)
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INRA – National Institute for Agricultural Research
ACTA – Union of Agriculture Technical Institutes
ITAB – Technical Institute for Organic Farming
Chambers of agriculture
Technical Institutes
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Israel
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Pre- and post harvest protection of organic crops against pests and disease agents.
Development of appropriate organic plant nutrition adapted to various sites in the
country, various soils and under the extreme water shortage conditions of Israeli
agriculture.
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Development of the organic farming technology in protected crops and in open
fields
Supported projects:
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Integrated control of pests and diseases and nutrition of vegetables grown in
protective ambient
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Control of soil-borne disease agents in protected organic crops using cover crops
and rotation
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Sustainable farming for an organic fruit plantation
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Integrated approaches to prevent decay and improved post harvest storage of
organic produce
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Effects of compost on the populations of bacteria involved in nitrification and
nitrogen fixation
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Agricultural Research Organization
- in the Volcani Center
- in Newe yaar
- in Gilat
More info at: www.agri.gov.il.
Faculty of Agriculture of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem (www.agri.huji.ac.il)
Additional research is carried out by individual researchers at:
Tel Aviv University
Ben-Gurion University
Northern MIGAL Research Center.
Ireland
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Assessing the agronomic and economic performance of an organic liquid milk
system
Improving the yield and quality of arable crops in organic production systems
Overcoming barriers to organic food production in the European Union through
market for conversion products
Use of functional ingredients to improve organic bakery products
The economic performance and viability of the main alternative livestock
enterprises
Eating quality and consumer perception of organic and conventionally reared
meats
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Dr Noel Culleton, Teagasc, Johnstown Castle, Wexford. nculleton@johnstown.teagasc.ie
Mr Jim Crowley, Teagasc, Oak Park, Carlow.
Jcrowley@oakpark.teagasc.ie
Mr Cathal Cowan, Teagasc, The National Food Centre, Dunsinea, Castleknock, Dublin
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c.cowan@nfc.teagasc.ie
Dr Eimear Gallagher, Teagasc, The National Food Centre, Dunsinea, Castleknock, Dublin
15.
e.gallagher@nfc.teagasc.ie
Mr Liam Connolly, Teagasc, Athenry, Co Galway.
Lconnolly@athenry.teagasc.ie
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Hvanneyri Agricultural University, 311 Borgarnes
RГ­kharГ° BryjГіlfsson, Гћorsteinn GuГ°mundsson, ГЃsdГ­s Helga BjarnadГіttir
Agricultural Research Institute, Keldnaholt, 112 ReykjavГ­k
ГЃslaug HelgadГіttir, FriГ°rik PГЎlmason, JГіn GuГ°mundsson
Horticultural College, Reykjum, 810 HveragerГ°i
Sveinn Aðalsteinsson, Björn Gunnlaugsson
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Iceland
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Hay production in organic systems
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Organic horticulture
Non-organic projects with some organic relevance:
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Native legumes in Iceland.
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Use of nuclear technique in improving pasture management 1983-1986 and The
Icelandic Nitrogen Project 1990-1993.
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Comparison of rhizobium strains for white clover and red clover.
Overwintering and yield of white clover
White clover Rhizobium symbiosis:
Characterization of plant residue quality for prediction of decomposition and
nitrogen release in agricultural soils
Long term effects of sheep manure on cultivated hayfield; on yield, macrofauna and
soil respiration.
Effect of slurry application on establishment and yield of timothy and bent grass.
Production potential of warped meadows
Organic horticulture, especially for home gardening, the cultivation of berry bushes
and trials for strains of agricultural crop plants.
Influence of direct injection of manure and seed on yield and soil surface fauna.
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Г“lafur R DГЅrmundson Ph.D. Chief Advisor for Organic Farming in Iceland
Italy
University ( Department):
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DIPROVE Milano ( Prof. Stefano Bocchi , Prof. Mario Pirani)
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DIAAPV, Padova (Prof. Maurizio Borin )
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DIBAGA, Ancona (Prof. Raffaele Zanoli)
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DSEE , Perugia ( Prof. Fabio Santucci)
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DIAGAE, Pisa ( Proff.ri Concetta Vazzana, Marco Mazzoncinu)
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DISV, Camerino ( Prof. Francesco Ansaloni)
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DESAF, Palermo (Prof. Antonio Asciuto)
National Research Institutes:
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Istituto per la nutrizione delle piante (Prof. Sequi)
Istituto per la cerealicoltura Sezione S.Angelo Lodigiano (Dr. A. Boggini, Dr Maurizio
Perenzin)
Istituto Sperimentale Agronomico di bari ( Dr. Dario Petruzzella)
Centro Sperimentale di Laindburg Bolzano (Dr. Marcus Kelderer)
Regional and Provincial Organisations:
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CRPV, Emilia Romagna
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ISFOL, Roma
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Gruppo di Ricerca in Agricoltura Biologica (GRAB-it) presso DIBIAGA
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CEDAS, c/o FacoltГ di Agraria, UniversitГ di Bologna
Latvia
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There is some research activities in animal science with poultry and wildlife in the
Sigra research centre of Latvia University of Agriculture and with seed growing in
Stende’s Breeding Station. For these purposes there is a small budget from Ministry
of Agriculture and from Latvian Board of Sciences.
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Planned research activities for the next year is in Framework 6, “The sustainability
Latvia University of Agriculture ( LLU ):
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Research centres “Sigra” and “Skriveri” of the Latvia University of Agriculture,
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State breeding station at Stende
Leading scientists:
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and economic development of conservation and Eco-Organic Agriculture in the
Baltic States”.
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Professor Inara Turka ( LLU )
Professor Valdis Klasens (LLU )
Docent Dzidra Kreismane ( LLU )
Dr.agr. Janis Vigovskis ( Research Centre “Skriveri” of LLU )
Dr.agr. Mara Vaivare( Research Centre “Skriveri” of LLU )
Professor Aleksandrs Jemeljanovs ( Research Centre “Sigra” of LLU )
Dr.agr. Sanita Zute (State Breeding Station of Stende ).
Lithuania
Identified priorities:
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Mechanisms responsible for nutritional effects and nutritional control of
gastrointestinal parasites
Study on a new chamber for determination of Trichinella spp. larvae in pig meat
samples
Epidemiological situation and prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in
gastrointestinal nematodes in Lithuania
Tests of genetically modified products
Tests of mycotoxins in contaminants of natural origin (mould and its growth
products)
The measurement of microelements and toxic elements (lead and cadmium) which
emerge due to the geological setting
Doc. dr. Vida RutkovienД—
Institute of Environment of Lithuanian University of Agriculture
StudentЕі str. 11, LT-4324 Akademija, Kaunas
Prof. Petras Lazauskas
Lithuanian University of Agriculture
Department of Crop Science
StudentЕі str. 11, LT-4324 Akademija, Kaunas
Dr. ЕЅydrД— KadЕѕiulienД—
Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture
Instituto alД—ja 1, LT-5051 Akademija, KД—dainiai distr.
Habil. dr. Gediminas Staugaitis
Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture
Babtai, LT-4335 Kaunas distr.
Dr. Romas Zemeckis
Lithuanian Institute of Agrarian Economics
V.Kudirkos str. 18, LT-2600 Vilnius
Dr. Gediminas VaiДЌionis
Lithuanian Institute of Animal Science
R.ЕЅebenkos str. 12, LT-5125 Baisogala, RadviliЕЎkis distr.
Saulius Petkevicius, DVM, PhD
Deputy Director of the Lithuanian Veterinary Institute, Prof Vysniauskas
Lithuanian Veterinary Institute
Instituto 2, 4230 Kaisiadorys, Lithuania
Prof. Donatas KaДЌarauskis
Lithuanian Food Institute
Taikos pr. 92, LT-3031 Kaunas
Dr. Julijonas Petraitis and Dr. Bronius Bakutis
Lithuanian Veterinary Academy
Tilzes 18, LT- 3022 Kaunas
Irena Michalskiene
National Veterinary Laboratory J. Kairiukscio 10, LT-2021 Vilnius
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The Netherlands
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Soil and fertilisation (10 projects)
Living propagation stock (26 projects)
Crop protection (22 projects)
Animal health (3 projects)
Farm management (7 projects)
Farming systems (36 projects)
Rural areas (1 project)
Agro-chains (11 projects)
Market and Consumers (2 projects)
Man and society (3 projects)
Knowledge chains (11 projects)
Website: www.biologischelandbouw.net
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Wageningen University and Research Centre
Louis Bolk Institute
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Norway
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Cropping and farming systems research
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Apelsvoll cropping system research project (Norwegian Crop Research
Institute (Planteforsk), Apelsvoll research centre; Ragnar Eltun)
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Resource utilization in organic and conventional milk production systems
(Agricultural University of Norway (NLH), Dept. of animal science; Ulrik
Tutein BrenГёe, Erling Thuen, HГҐvard Steinshamn)
Crop protection
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Seed born diseases in cereals (Planteforsk, Apelsvoll research centre; Ragnar
Eltun & Planteforsk, Plant protection centre; Birgitte Henriksen)
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Diseases and pests in fruits and berries (Planteforsk, Apelsvoll research centre
& Plant protection centre; Gunnhild Jaastad. NORS�K; Atle Wibe)
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Intercropping – weeds: (Planteforsk, Plant protection centre; Lars Olav
Brandsæter)
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Management of late blight in potatoes (NORS�K; Theo Ruissen. Planteforsk,
Plant protection centre; Arne Hermansen)
Nutrient management in organic agriculture
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Legumes and N-fixation in leys and pastures – 6 projects: (Planteforsk,
Apelsvoll research centre; Tor Lunnan & Planteforsk, Kvithamar research
centre: Lars Nesheim & NORS�K; Sissel Hansen & University of Tromsø,
Department of biology; Mette M. Svenning)
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Nutrient management – mineralization in arable organic systems - 6 projects:
(Planteforsk, Apelsvoll research centre; Trond Henriksen and Trygve Aamlid
& NLH, Dept. of horticulture and crop sciences; Tor Arvid Breland & NLH,
Dept. of soil and water sciences; Steinar Tveitnes & NorsГёk; Anne-Kristin
LГёes)
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Compost: (Jordforsk; Henrik Lystad & NORS�K; Sissel Hansen)
Animal health and welfare in organic agriculture
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Prophylactics and alternative medical treatments in organic animal husbandry,
including homeopathic treatments: (NORS�K; Theo Ruissen, Britt I. Foseide
Henriksen, Turid StrГёm & Norwegian school of veterinary science (NVH);
Torleif LГёken)
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Mineral content in plants and mineral supply for ruminants in organic
agriculture: (NORS�K; Sissel Hansen)
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Ecological control of infections and unspecified immunity: (NVH, Hans
JГёrgen Larsen)
Farm management
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Risk and risk management in organic agriculture: (Norwegian Institute of
Agricultural Economics (NILF); Gudbrand Lien)
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Farmers attitudes to conversion to organic agriculture: (NTNU, Dept. of social
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Norges forskningsrГҐd (The Research Council of Norway), Postboks 2700 St.Hanshaugen,
N-0131 Oslo (http://www.forskningsradet.no)
Norges landbrukshГёgskole (Agricultural University of Norway), NLH, N-1432 Г…s
(http://www.nlh.no)
Norges veterinærhøgskole (Norwegian School of Veterinary Science), NVH, Postboks
8146 Dep, N-0033 Oslo (http://www.veths.no/)
Høgskolen i Hedmark (Hedmark College) avd. for landbruks- og naturfag, Blæstad, N2322 Ridabu (http://www.hihm.no/lnb/)
Norsk institutt for planteforsking (Norwegian Crop Research Institute), Planteforsk,
Postboks 100, N-1430 Г…s (http://www.planteforsk.no)
Planteforsk, Apelsvoll forskingssenter (Apelsvoll research centre), Rute 509, N-2858
Kapp
Norsk senter for Гёkologisk landbruk (Norwegian Centre for Ecological Agriculture),
NORS�K, N-6630 Tingvoll (http://www.norsok.no).
Norsk institutt for næringsmiddelforskning (Norwegian Food Research Institute),
MATFORSK, Osloveien 1, N-1430 Г…s (http://www.matforsk.no).
Jordforsk, Fredrik A. Dahlsvei 20, N-1432 Г…s (http://www.jordforsk.no)
Norsk institutt for landbruksГёkonomisk forskning (Norwegian Institute of Agricultural
Economics), NILF, Postboks 8024 Dep., N-0030 Oslo (http://www.nilf.no).
Norsk senter for bygdeforskning (Centre for Rural Research), Universitetssenteret, N7491 Trondheim (http://www.bygdeforskning.ntnu.no)
Veterinærinstituttet (National Veterinary Institute), Postboks 8156 Dep, N-0033 Oslo
(http://www.vetinst.no).
University of TromsГё, Department of biology, MNF, N-9037 TromsГё,
(http://www.uit.no).
Landbrukets forsГёksringer (The Norwegian Agricultural Research and Extension
Groups), Sagabygget, N-1432 Г…s (http://lfr.no).
Statens landbruksforvaltning (Agricultural Authority), Postboks 8140 Dep, N-0033 Oslo
(http://www.slf.dep.no)
Nordisk kontaktorgan for jordbruksforskning (Nordic Joint Committee for Agricultural
research), NKJ, Norges forskningsrГҐd, P.O. Box 2700 St. Hanshaugen, N-0131 OSLO
(http://www.forskningsradet.no/fag/bf/nkj/)
Jordbruksavtalen, the financial agreement between the Ministry of Agriculture and the
farmers unions. (http://odin.dep.no/aad/norsk/publ/stprp/002001-030028/index-ind001-bn-a.html)
14
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anthropology; Martin Thomassen)
Documentation of product quality
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Mycotoxins and microbiological quality in organic vegetables and cereals:
(National Veterinary Institute; Liv Marit RГёrvik, Aksel Bernhoft)
Meat production
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Organic production and trade of lamb / mutton: (NLH, Dept. of animal
science; Lars Olav Eik & Planteforsk, TjГёtta fagsenter; Ronald BjГёru & GildeNNS)
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Organic beef production: (NLH, Dept. of animal science; Jan Berg)
Development of organic products
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Market-oriented development of organic products: (Norwegian Food Research
Institute (MATFORSK); Г…shild Longva). This is the main programme for
organic product development, in co-operation between MATFORSK and the
Norwegian Agricultural Authority.
Markets, trade and consumption
•
Market strategies for the meat industry and the dairies: (Western Norway
Research Institute (Vestlandsforskning); Eivind Brendehaug & Tine Norske
Meierier BA & Norsk KjГёtt BA & Gilde-NNS & MATFORSK)
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Food systems: (NLH, Dept. of horticulture and crop sciences; Geir Lieblein &
Norwegian Institute of Consumer Research (SIFO); Eivind StГё)
•
Consumer attitudes to organic products: (Centre for Rural Research; Reidar
AlmГҐs, Arild Blekesaune)
Poland
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organisation and efficiency of production in the organic farms
valorisation of the rural areas in Poland for the purpose of organic agriculture
yield optimisation at the fields fertilised with the farmyard manure
methods of weed growth limitation in organic farming
pest and diseases occurrence in the organic and conventional farms
nutritive, sensory and storage quality of vegetables and potatoes from the organic
and conventional farms
comparison of health condition of the cows from the organic and conventional
farms
comparison of microbiological value of cow milk from the organic and
conventional farms
factors influencing demand for the organic food in Poland
impact of several types of organic fertilisation on sugar beets yield
comparison of yield and weeds population (including species content) in potatoes
and spring wheat cultivated in organic and conventional way
selection of potatoes and spring wheat varieties for the organic farming
impact of compost fertilisation on the seedlings microflora of sugar beet and yield
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Warsaw Agricultural University (SGGW), Warszawa (Faculties of Agriculture,
Horticulture, Agricultural Economy, Human Nutrition and Consumption Sciences)
Researchers: Prof. Henryk Runowski, Prof. Andrzej Radecki, Dr Wojciech StД™pieЕ„, Prof.
StanisЕ‚aw GawroЕ„ski, Prof. MieczysЕ‚aw GГіrny, Ass. Prof. Ewa RembiaЕ‚kowska, Dr
Wanda Karwowska and Dr Sylwia Е»akowska- Biemans
University of Warmia and Mazury, Olsztyn (Faculty of Environment Management and
Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Systems) Researchers: Dr JГіzef Tyburski and Dr
Tadeusz Sadowski
Agricultural University in Lublin (Faculty of Agriculture Departments of Agricultural
Ecology and of Grasslands Faculty of Horticulture) Researchers: Ass. Prof. Jerzy
Szymona, Ass. Prof. BogusЕ‚aw Sawicki and Prof. Andrzej Borowy
Institute of Soil Cultivation and Fertilization (IUNG), PuЕ‚awy Researchers: Prof. Jan KuЕ›,
Dr JarosЕ‚aw Stalenga, Dr Irena Duer and Prof. StanisЕ‚aw Krasowicz
Marine University, Gdynia (Department of Commodity and Cargo Science). Researchers:
Prof. Piotr PrzybyЕ‚owski and Dr Maria Ељmiechowska
15
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efficiency of roots and sugar
comparison of the fertilisation in organic, integrated and conventional farming
impact of fertilisation and rotation on yield of the fodder crops
comparison of weeds at organic and conventional fields
evaluation of the soils in the transition process and after transition (conventional в‡’
organic): contamination with heavy metals, content of humus, micro- and macroelements
comparison of the production and economic results of the organic and conventional
farms in north – eastern Poland
comparison of potatoes yield in the organic and conventional cultivation
impact of the organic method on crops yield (cereals and potatoes), soil properties
and environment
studies on commodity value and nutritive quality of potatoes and vegetables (a/o.
early varieties) from organic and conventional farms
Romania
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"Theoretic and applied research regarding ecologic agriculture"
"The management of soil fertility on organic matter accumulation by nonpolluting
methods economically efficient"
"Technologies and norms for biologic agriculture to produce vegetables, cereals
and technical plants".
Prof. Christian HERA, Ph.D.; D.Sc.
Member of the Romanian Academy
Slovenia
The Organization for Control of Ecological Farming is the only control organization in
the field of ecological farming in Slovenia and is striving to get accreditation in
accordance with the standard SIST EN 45011. The organization has following main
goals:
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distinction between conventional and ecological products and consumer protection
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preservation of environment and cultural landscape, preservation of natural
resources and biodiversity
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assuring healthy and safe food for consumers
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protection of producers
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updating guidelines for ecological farming
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clearly defined control criteria
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promoting marketing of ecologically produced food through control and
certification.
Dr. Livija Tusar
Ministry of Education, Science and Sport
Trg OF 13, 1000 Ljubljana
Phone: +386 1 478 4681
16
Sweden
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Economy – market – consumption
The ecology of crop production
Production systems within animal husbandry
Technical-biological systems
Multifunctional farming systems
Circulation of plant nutrients
Food – quality – health
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The Swedish Research Council for Environment
- Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning (Formas)
The Swedish Board of Agriculture (SJV)
The Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU)
The National Veterinary Institute (SVA)
The National Food Administration (SLV)
Swedish Farmers’ Foundation for Agricultural Research (LRF)
Switzerland
Switzerland wants to promote research in all
fields of organic farming:
! Crop production (arable crops, grassland,
horticultural crops) in breeding, variety
testing, production technique, plant
protection and quality improvement.
! Animal husbandry (small and big ruminants,
poultry, pigs and bees) in breeding, freerange systems, feeding and housing.
! Animal health (ruminants, poultry and pigs)
focussing on herd management, prevention,
biocontrol and complementary medicine.
! Socio-economics focussing on farm
management and economics, markets and
consumers, policy assessment and
sociological studies.
! Biodiversity and landscape improvements.
! Processing methods and technical procedures
esp. milk and other produce.
Research Institute of Organic Farming (FiBL) since 1973. Overall budget in research and knowledge transfer for organic
farming: 7.5 Million В¤: 85 scientific and technical staff. Director: Dr. Urs Niggli. Branch offices in Germany (FiBL Berlin and
FiBL Frankfurt). Leading scientists see http://www.fibl.ch/buehne/fibl/team-a-z.html
Swiss Federal Research Station for Agroecology and Agriculture, CH-8046 Zurich. Research focus in organic arable crops
and grassland in evolution. Contact person: Dr. Padruot M. Fried, Head Department for Production Systems.
For more information on the activities of FAL und of the 5 other Swiss Federal Research Stations see http://www.sar.admin.ch
Specialised bio-dynamic research activities:
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Agricultural Department of the Goetheanum: http://www.goetheanum.ch
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Research Institute for Vital Quality, Dr Ursula R. Graf http://www.fiv.ch
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Cereal Breeding Group of Peter Kunz, http://www.peter-kunz.ch
Alföldi, Thomas FiBL, CH-5070 Frick Tel. 0041-62-8657272, Fax 0041-62-8657273
E-Mail thomas.alfoeldi@fibl.ch, Homepage http://www.fibl.ch
Arncken-Karutz, Christine FiBL, CH-5070 Frick Tel. 0041-62-8657272, Fax 0041-62-8657273
E-Mail christine.arncken@fibl.ch, Homepage http://www.fibl.ch
Basler, Dr. Pierre Eidgenössische Forschungsanstalt für, Obst-, Wein- und Gartenbau Postfach 185, CH-8820 Wädenswil
Tel. 0041-1-7836257, Fax 0041-1-7836440 E-Mail Pierre.basler@faw.admin.ch
Bapst, Beat FiBL, CH-5070 Frick Tel. 0041-62-8657272, Fax 0041-62-8657273 E-Mail beat.babst@fibl.ch, Homepage
http://www.fibl.ch/
Berner, Fredy FiBL, CH-5070 Frick Tel. 0041-62-8657272, Fax 0041-62-8657273 E-Mail fredy.berner@fibl.ch, Homepage
http://www.fibl.ch/
Bill, Dr. Roland Eidgenössische Forschungsabstalt für Obst-, Wein- und Gartenbau, CH-8820 Wädenswil
Daniel, Claudia FiBL, CH-5070 Frick Tel. 0041-62-8657272, Fax 0041-62-8657273 E-Mail claudia.daniel@fibl.ch, Homepage
http://www.fibl.ch/
Dubois, Dr. David Eidgenössische Forschungsanstalt für Agrarökologie und Landbau (FAL), Research Station for Agroecology
and Agriculture Reckenholzstrasse 191, CH-8046 ZГјrich Tel. +41 1 377 71 11, Fax +41 1 377 72 01
E-Mail David.Dubois@fal.admin.ch, Homepage http://www.admin.ch/sar/fal/falhomee.html
FlieГџbach, Dr. Andreas FiBL, CH-5070 Frick Tel. 0041-62-8657272, Fax 0041-62-8657273
E-Mail andreas.fliessbach@fibl.ch, Homepage http://www.fibl.ch/
17
Forrer, Dr. Hans-Rudolf Eidgenössische Forschungsanstalt für Agrarökologie und Landbau (FAL), Research Station for
Agroecology and Agriculture Reckenholzstrasse 191, CH-8046 ZГјrich Tel. +41 1 377 71 11, Fax +41 1 377 72 01
E-Mail hansrudolf.forrer@fal.admin.ch, Homepage http://www.admin.ch/sar/fal/falhomee.html
Fried, Dr. Padruot Eidgenössische Forschungsanstalt für Agrarökologie und Landbau (FAL), Research Station for
Agroecology and Agriculture Reckenholzstrasse 191, CH-8046 ZГјrich Tel. +41 1 377 71 11, Fax +41 1 377 72 01
E-Mail Padruot.Fried@fal.admin.ch, Homepage http://www.admin.ch/sar/fal/falhomee.html
Fuchs, Dr. Jacques FiBL, CH-5070 Frick Tel. 0041-62-8657272, Fax 0041-62-8657273 E-Mail jacques.fuchs@fibl.ch,
Homepage http://www.fibl.ch/
Fuchs, Nikolai Goetheanum, Abteilung Landwirtschaft, Landwirtschaftliche Abteilung HГјgelweg 59, CH-4143 Dornach
Tel. 0041-61-7064212, Fax 0041-61-7064215 E-Mail landw.abteilung@goetheanum.ch, Homepage
http://www.goetheanum.ch/sektion/nws/home.html
Geier, Dr. Uwe Forschungsinstitut am Goetheanum, Postfach 4134, CH-4143 Dornach Tel. +41-61-706 43 63, Fax
E-Mail uwe.geier@goetheanum.ch,
Graf, Dr. Ursula R. Forschungsinstitut für Vitalqualität (fiv), Bildschaffende Methoden Tösstalstr. 38, CH-8620 Wetzikon 3
Tel. ++41 (0)1 930 35 31, Fax ++41 (0)1 930 35 68 E-Mail admin@fiv.ch, Homepage http://www.fiv.ch
Hertzberg, PD Dr. Hubertus FiBL, CH-5070 Frick Tel. 0041-62-8657281, Fax 0041-62-8657273 E-Mail
hubertus.hertzberg@fiblch, Homepage www.fibl.ch
Hirt, Helen FiBL, CH-5070 Frick Tel. 0041-62-8657272, Fax 0041-62-8657273 E-Mail helen.hirt@fibl.ch, Homepage
http://www.fibl.ch
Hurter, Markus Goethenum, Abteilung Landwirtschaft, HГјgelweg 59, CH-4143 Dornach Tel. Fax 0041-61-70642-15
E-Mail landw.abteilung@goetheanum.ch, Homepage
Klocke, Dr. Peter FiBL, CH-5070 Frick Tel. 0041-62-8657272, Fax 0041-62-8657273 E-Mail peter.klocke@fibl.ch,
Homepage http://www.fibl.ch
Koller, Martin FiBL, CH-5070 Frick Tel. 0041-62-8657272, Fax 0041-62-8657273 E-Mail Martin.koller@fibl.ch, Homepage
http://www.fibl.ch/
Kunz, Peter GetreidezГјchtung Peter Kunz, Verein fГјr Kulturpflanzenentwicklung Hof Breitlen 5, CH-8634 Hombrechtikon
Tel. +41-55- 264 17 87, Fax +41-55- 264 17 87 E-Mail getreidezuechtung@peter-kunz.ch, Homepage http://www.peterkunz.ch/
Landau, Bettina FiBL, CH-5070 Frick Tel. 0041-62-8657272, Fax 0041-62-8657273 E-Mail bettina.landau@fibl.ch,
Homepage http://www.fibl.ch/
LГ©vite, Dominique FiBL, CH-5070 Frick Tel. 0041-62-8657272, Fax 0041-62-8657273 E-Mail dominique.levite@fibl.ch,
Homepage http://www.fibl.ch/
Luka, Henryk FiBL, CH-5070 Frick Tel. 0041-62-8657272, Fax 0041-62-8657273 E-Mail henryk.luka@fibl.ch, Homepage
http://www.fibl.ch/
Mäder, Dr. Paul FiBL, CH-5070 Frick Tel. 0041-62-8657272, Fax 0041-62-8657273 E-Mail paul.maeder@fibl.ch, Homepage
http://www.fibl.ch/
Maurer, Dr. Veronika FiBL, CH-5070 Frick Tel. 0041-62-8657272, Fax 0041-62-8657273 E-Mail veronika.maurer@fibl.ch,
Homepage http://www.fibl.ch
Mayer, Dr. Jochen Eidgenössische Forschungsanstalt für Agrarökologie und Landbau (FAL), Research Station for
Agroecology and Agriculture Reckenholzstrasse 191, CH-8046 ZГјrich Tel. +41 1 377 71 11, Fax +41 1 377 72 01
E-Mail jochen.mayer@fal.admin.ch, Homepage http://www.admin.ch/sar/fal/falhomee.html
Menzi, Dr. Mathias Eidgenössische Forschungsanstalt für Agrarökologie und Landbau (FAL), Research Station for
Agroecology and Agriculture Reckenholzstrasse 191, CH-8046 ZГјrich Tel. +41 1 377 71 11, Fax +41 1 377 72 01
18
E-Mail mathias.menzi@fal.admin.ch, Homepage http://www.admin.ch/sar/fal/falhomee.html
Nentwig, Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Zoologisches Institut, Universität Bern Baltzerstr. 3, CH-3012 Bern Tel. 031 631 45 20, Fax
Nowack, Karin FiBL, CH-5070 Frick Tel. 0041-62-8657272, Fax 0041-62-8657273 E-Mail karin.nowack@fibl.ch, Homepage
http://www.fibl.ch/
Niggli, Dr. Urs FiBL, CH-5070 Frick Tel. +41-62-865-72-72, Fax +41-62-8657273 E-Mail urs.niggli@fibl.ch, Homepage
http://www.fibl.ch
Notz, Christophe FiBL, CH-5070 Frick Tel. 0041-62-8657272, Fax 0041-62-8657273 E-Mail christophe.notz@fibl.ch,
Homepage http://www.fibl.ch/
Oberholzer, Dr. Hans-Rudolf Eidgenössische Forschungsanstalt für Agrarökologie und Landbau (FAL), Research Station for
Agroecology and Agriculture Reckenholzstrasse 191, CH-8046 ZГјrich Tel. +41 1 377 71 11, Fax +41 1 377 72 01
E-Mail hansrudolf.oberholzer@fal.admin.ch, Homepage http://www.admin.ch/sar/fal/falhomee.html
Oberson, Dr. Astrid Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Postfach 185, CH-8315 Lindau Tel. +41-52-354 91 32, Fax +4152-354 91 19 E-Mail astrid.oberson@ipw.agrl.ethz.ch, Homepage
Pfiffner, Lukas FiBL, CH-5070 Frick Tel. 0041-62-8657272, Fax 0041-62-8657273 E-Mail lukas.pfiffner@fibl.ch, Homepage
http://www.fibl.ch/
Richter, Dr. Toralf FiBL, CH-5070 Frick Tel. 0041-62-8657272, Fax 0041-62-8657273 E-Mail toralf.richter@fibl.ch,
Homepage http://www.fibl.ch
Rist, Dr. Michael Johannes KreyenbГјhl Akademie, zur Synergie von Natur- und Geisteswissenschaft Im Boge 10, CH-8332
Russikon Tel. 0041-1-9540513, Fax 0041-1-9540513
Schachermayer, Dr. Gabriele Eidgenössische Forschungsanstalt für Agrarökologie und Landbau (FAL), Research Station for
Agroecology and Agriculture Reckenholzstrasse 191, CH-8046 ZГјrich Tel. +41 1 377 71 11, Fax +41 1 377 72 01
E-Mail gabriele.schachermayer@fal.admin.ch, Homepage http://www.admin.ch/sar/fal/falhomee.html
Schmid, Andi FiBL, CH-5070 Frick Tel. 0041-62-8657272, Fax 0041-62-8657273 E-Mail andi.schmid@fibl.ch, Homepage
http://www.fibl.ch/
Schmid, Otto FiBL, CH-5070 Frick Tel. 0041-62-8657272, Fax 0041-62-8657273 E-Mail otto.schmid@fibl.ch, Homepage
http://www.fibl.ch
Speiser, Dr. Bernhard FiBL, CH-5070 Frick Tel. 0041-62-8657272, Fax 0041-62-8657273 E-Mail bernhard.speiser@fibl.ch,
Homepage http://www.fibl.ch/
Spengler-Neff, Anet FiBL, CH-5070 Frick Tel. 0041-62-8657272, Fax 0041-62-8657273 E-Mail anet.spengler@fibl.ch,
Homepage http://www.fibl.ch
Spranger, Dr. Jörg FiBL, CH-5070 Frick Tel. 0041-62-8657272, Fax 0041-62-8657273 E-Mail joerg.spranger@fibl.ch
Homepage http://www.fibl.ch
Stolze, Dr. Mathias FiBL, CH-5070 Frick Tel. 0041-62-8657272, Fax 0041-62-8657273 E-Mail matthias.stolze@fibl.ch
Streit, Bernhard Eidgenössische Forschungsanstalt für Agrarökologie und Landbau (FAL), Research Station for Agroecology
and Agriculture Reckenholzstrasse 191, CH-8046 ZГјrich Tel. +41 1 377 71 11, Fax +41 1 377 72 01
E-Mail bernhard.streit@fal.admin.ch Homepage http://www.admin.ch/sar/fal/falhomee.html
Tamm, Dr. Lucius FiBL, CH-5070 Frick Tel. 0041-62-8657272, Fax 0041-62-8657273 E-Mail lucius.tamm@fibl.ch,
Homepage http://www.fibl.ch/
Uehlinger, Gabi FiBL, CH-5070 Frick Tel. 0041-62-8657272, Fax 0041-62-8657273 E-Mail gabi.uehlinger@fibl.ch,
Homepage http://www.fibl.ch/
Walkenhorst, Michael FiBL, CH-5070 Frick Tel. 0041-62-8657272, Fax 0041-62-8657273 E-Mail
michael.walkenhorst@fibl.ch, Homepage http://www.fibl.ch/
Weibel, Dr. Franco FiBL, CH-5070 Frick Tel. 0041-62-8657272, Fax 0041-62-8657273 E-Mail franco.weibel@fibl.ch,
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Homepage http://www.fibl.ch/
Willer, Dr. Helga FiBL, CH-5070 Frick Tel. 0041-62-8657272, Fax 0041-62-8657273 E-Mail helga.willer@fibl.ch, Homepage
http://www.fibl.ch
Widmer, Dr. Franco Eidgenössische Forschungsanstalt für Agrarökologie und Landbau (FAL), Research Station for
Agroecology and Agriculture Reckenholzstrasse 191, CH-8046 ZГјrich Tel. +41 1 377 71 11, Fax +41 1 377 72 01
E-Mail franco.widmer@fal.admin.ch, Homepage http://www.admin.ch/sar/fal/falhomee.html
Wyss, Dr. Eric FiBL, CH-5070 Frick Tel. 062-865-72-40, Fax 0041-62-8657273 E-Mail eric.wyss@fibl.ch, Homepage
http://www.fibl.ch/buehne/forschung/pflanzenschutz
Wyss, Dr. Gabriela FiBL, CH-5070 Frick Tel. 0041-62-8657272, Fax 0041-62-8657273 E-Mail gabriela.wyss@fibl.ch,
Homepage http://www.fibl.ch/
Zeltner, Esther FiBL, CH-5070 Frick Tel. 0041-62-8657272, Fax 0041-62-8657273 E-Mail esther.zeltner@fibl.ch, Homepage
http://www.fibl.ch/
United Kingdom
4 objectives:
! To assess the economic implications of converting to organic production;
! To compare the environmental effects of organic farming compared to other types of
agriculture;
! To relieve constraints to organic production, so to make organic farming more
attractive, and commercially viable;
! To ensure that technology transfer is maximised.
Project areas:
! Animal Production (9 projects)
! Animal Health and Welfare (4 projects)
! Nutrients and Soil Fertility (6 projects)
! Environmental (2 projects)
! Economics of Organic Farming (3 projects)
! Crops (17 projects)
! Plant Pests and Diseases (9 projects)
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ADAS Consulting Ltd. (Dr Ray Keatinge, Dr W. F. Cormack, Dr Mark Shepherd, Dr
Peter Gladders).
British Trust for Ornithology (Dr Rob Fuller)
Central Science Laboratory (Dr Nigel Hardwick)
Elm Farm Research Centre (Dr Bruce Pearce, Prof Martin Wolfe, Lois Philipps)
Henry Doubleday Research Association
Dr Margi Lennartsson, Dr
Francis Rayns, Chris Firth
Horticulture Research International (Dr Robin Wood, Dr Jerry Cross)
Institute of Grassland & Environmental Research (Dr R. F. Weller, Dr Steve Cuttle)
Institute of Arable Crops Research (Dr Elizabeth Stockdale)
John Innes Centre (Dr Phil Dale)
National Institute of Agricultural Botany (Dr Simon Kerr)
Newcastle University (Dr Carlo Leifert)
Scottish Agricultural College (Dr Christine Watson, Dr Audrey Litterick)
University of Reading (Dr Malla Hovi)
University of Wales, Aberystwyth, Institute of Rural Studies (Dr Nic Lampkin, Susanne
Padel)
Veterinary Epidemiology and Economic Research Institute, University of Reading (Dr
Malla Hovi)
DEFRA review of European R&D in organic agriculture: http://www.adas.co.uk/organic
20
Organic Farming Research in Europe
ANNEX II – INDIVIDUAL RESPONSES
AUSTRIA
…………………………………….. page
2
BELGIUM
……………………………………..
“
6
CYPRUS
……………………………………..
“
8
DENMARK ………………………………….….
“
9
FINLAND
……………………………………..
“
16
FRANCE
……………………………………..
“
19
GERMANY ……………………………………..
“
33
ICELAND
……………………………………..
“
35
IRELAND
……………………………………..
“
51
ISRAEL
……………………………………..
“
55
ITALY
……………………………………..
“
57
LATVIA
……………………………………..
“
60
LITHUANIA ……………………………………..
“
62
THE NETHERLANDS
……………………..
“
64
NORWAY
……………………………………..
“
73
POLAND
……………………………………..
“
79
ROMANIA
……………………………………..
“
83
SLOVENIA ……………………………………..
“
84
SWEDEN
“
86
“
88
“
95
……………………………………..
SWITZERLAND
……………………………..
UNITED KINGDOM
……………………..
AUSTRIA
Research on Organic Agriculture in Austria
The Austrian Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water
Management (BMFUW) has been funding research on organic farming since 1985 by
establishing research infrastructure, by personal support and by initiating and
financing research projects. To some extent funding for research on organic
agriculture is also provided by funds of the federal provinces and from the Federal
Ministry of Education Science and Culture (BMBWK).
Current / planned research
The Programme for Research and Development in the Federal Ministry of
Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management - PFEIL 05 (2002 –
2005)1 - defines the framework within which the department-related research centres
and contract research is implemented. Organic Farming is a high priority topic within
one of the four strategic key areas of the research programme PFEIL 05.
By taking into account the political priorities (Strategy on Organic Farming in
Austria; BMLFUW 20012) research in Organic Farming will be pushed forward and
the budget allocated for research in this area will increase from 673.000 Euro per year
in year 2000 to 1.346.000 Euro in year 2005.
The following areas of research on organic farming have been defined in the
programme PFEIL 05:
•
Optimisation of plant production in organic agriculture
- Improvement of soil management (e.g. organic fertilisers, increase of the
humus content with simultaneous attention of the nutrient losses, etc..)
- Advancement of process engineering during cultivation, harvesting
techniques, mixed cropping
- Improvement of crop rotations, especially in dry regions with cattleless
management
- Development of preventive and direct procedures and strategies for regulating
weeds, development of phytomedical bases including biological plant
protection
- Increase the ecological stability of cultivation systems
- Minimising impacts on the environment, including measures for increased
energy efficiency
- Breeding of suitable cultivars for organic agriculture
•
Optimisation of animal husbandry in organic agriculture
- Increase of fitness, vitality and animal health by feeding (adequate fodder
rations) and breeding
- Development of preventive and alternative therapeutic measures in animal
husbandry
- Development of cost efficient and suitable animal husbandry systems
1
2
Programm fГјr Forschung und Entwicklung im Lebensministerium PFEIL05: http://www.lebensministerium.at/land/
Aktionsprogramm Biologische Landwirtschaft fГјr die Jahre 2001 und 2002
2
•
Production guidelines and product quality
- Development of measures to guarantee on a long-term basis appropriate
production according to Reg. No 2092/91 (e.g. free of GMOs, additives in
processing)
- Advancement of the product quality and alternative holistic procedures for
quality determination
Since 1985 BMLFUW has funded 115 research projects on organic agriculture, listed
below are only the running projects.
Current / ongoing projects financed by BMLFUW:
-
The role of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) in organic farming systems to develop soil fertility
under consideration of different strategies of crop management and influence of long term
cultivated soils on AM under the conditions of organic farming
Bernhard Freyer, Institut für Ökologischen Landbau der Universität für Bodenkultur
-
N losses due to leaching and beneficial effects on subsequent cereals crops of forage and
green manure legumes in organic farming under site conditions of the Pannonical region in
Eastern Austria
Bernhard Freyer, Institut für Ökologischen Landbau der Universität für Bodenkultur
-
Nitrogen uptake and yield of intercropping and their impact on yield and quality of the
following crop and nitrate content in soil under the conditions of organic farming in the
pannonican climate region
Bernhard Freyer, Institut für Ökologischen Landbau der Universität für Bodenkultur
-
Comparison of the economic performance of farming systems using the accounting data of
the year 2000 and economic issues of organic pig production
Walter Schneeberger, Institut für Agrarökonomik der Universität für Bodenkultur Wien
-
Selection of wheat with tolerance to drought and small seed: Tackle the problem at the roots!
Konrad Schulmeister, Verein zur Förderung der Mohn- und Getreidezüchtung
-
Establishment of an online data bank recording components and organisms, which are on a
risk of genetic engineering, with special regard to organic farming (EU-Council regulation
2092/91, Annex II and VI)
Alexandra Hozzank, Infoxgen - Arbeitsgemeinschaft transparente Nahrungsmittel e.V.
-
Investigation of plant production factors for the purpose of increasing protein content of
winter wheat under the conditions of organic farming
Josef Söllinger, Bundesanstalt für alpenländische Landwirtschaft, Abteilung Biologischer Landbau
-
Investigation of measures against common bunt of wheat (Tilletia caries) under the
conditions of organic farming
Josef Söllinger, Bundesanstalt für alpenländische Landwirtschaft, Abteilung Biologischer Landbau
-
Investigations of bitter dock control on biologically managed farms with special regard to
root ecology
Monika Sobotik, Bundesanstalt für alpenländische Landwirtschaft
-
Investigations of non-chemical regulation of creeping thistle with special regard to root
ecology
Monika Sobotik, Bundesanstalt für alpenländische Landwirtschaft
-
Organic Farming in Austria and Europe - Analysis on developments, structures and
perspectives
Michael Groier, Bundesanstalt fГјr Bergbauernfragen
3
-
Comparative investigations of effects of integrated and/or biological apple production on
yield-expense relations, quality of the fruits, state of health of the trees as well as appearance
of beneficial arthropods, parasites and diseases
Lothar Wurm, Höhere Bundeslehranstalt und Bundesamt für Wein- und Obstbau
Main research centres, leading scientists
Institute for Organic Farming, University of
Agricultural Sciences, Vienna (IfГ–L)
Head: Univ.Prof. Dipl.-Agr.Biol. Dr.Ing. Bernhard
FREYER
Gregor Mendel-StraГџe 33
A-1180 Wien, Austria
Phone: +43-1-47654-3751
Fax: +43-1-47654-3792
E-mail: bfreyer@edv1.boku.ac.at
Institute of Agricultural Economics, University
of Agricultural Sciences
Univ. Prof. Dr. Walter SCHNEEBERGER
Borkowskigasse 5
A-1190 Wien, Austria
Phone: +43-1-47654-3551
Fax: +43-1-47654-3592
E-mail: schneeberger@boku.ac.at
Federal College and Research Station for
Horticulture
Biologischer Zierpflanzenbau
Dr. Elisabeth LIBOWITZKY
GrГјnbergstraГџe 24, A-1131 Wien
Phone: +43-1-813 59 50-372
Fax: +43-1-813 59 50-99
E-mail: zierpflanzen@gartenbau.bmlf.gv.at
Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Biological
Agriculture and Applied Ecology
Head: Prof. Dr. Ludwig MAURER
Rinnböckstraße 15
A-1110 Wien, Austria
Phone: +43-1-7951497940
Fax: +43-1-795147393
E-mail: boltzmbioland@aon.at
Department of Livestock Sciences, University of
Agricultural Sciences
Head: Univ.Prof. Dipl.-Ing. Dr. Werner
ZOLLITSCH
Gregor-Mendel-StraГџe 33
A-1180 Wien, Austria
Phone: +43-1-47654-3250
Fax: +43-1-47654-3254
E-mail: zoll@edv1.boku.ac.at
Federal Research Institute for Agriculture in
Alpine Regions
Abteilung Biologischer Landbau
Head: Dr. Gerhard PLAKOLM
Aussenstelle WELS
AustraГџe 10,
A - 4601 Wels/Thalheim
Phone: +43-7242-47012
Fax: +43-7242-47011-15
E-mail: plakolm@agrobio.bmlf.gv.at
Institut fГјr Tierhaltung und Tierschutz,
Veterinärmedizinische Universität Wien
Head: Univ.Prof. Dr. Josef TROXLER
Veterinärplatz 1
A-1210 Wien, Austria
Phone: +43-1-25077-4901
Fax: +43-1-25077-4990
E-mail: josef.troxler@vu-wien.ac.at
Federal Research Institute for Agriculture in
Alpine Regions
Abteilung Biologische Nutztierhaltung
Head: Dr. Leopold PODSTATZKY
Aussenstelle WELS
AustraГџe 10,
A - 4601 Wels/Thalheim
Phone: +43-7242-47012
Fax: +43-7242-47011-15
E-mail: podstatzky@agrobio.bmlf.gv.at
Universität Innsbruck, Institut für
Hochgebirgsforschung und Alpenländische
Land- und Forstwirtschaft
Dr. Markus SCHERMER
Technikerstr. 13
A-6020 Innsbruck
Phone: +43-512-507- 5690
Fax. +43-512-507-2806
E-mail: markus.schermer@uibk.at.ac
Federal Institute for Less-Favoured and
Mountainous Areas
Dr. Michael GROIER
Möllwaldplatz 5
A - 1040 Wien
Tel.: +43-1-504 88 69-19
Fax.:+43-1-504 88 69-39
E-mail: michael.groier@babf.bmlf.gv.at
4
Experimental farms:
A (semiprivate) experimental farm (143.20 ha) close to Vienna, where the production
will be converted to organic production, will serve as the research infrastructure for
the “Research Network on Agrobiology and Organic Farming” in the future. This
network includes all scientists in organic farming and is based on interdisciplinary
research.
Any other issues you feel are important in driving research on organic
agriculture
Research activities in the area of organic farming are connected closely to defined
methodological criteria as requirements for a systems oriented approach in organic
farming3:
- Interdisciplinary - holistic approach
- Long-term initiatives
- Site orientation
- Practical orientation
- Regionally related approaches
An expert roundtable has been initiated involving different stakeholders (researchers,
organic agriculture organisations, NGOs, etc.) to present results of organic farming
projects and to discuss organic farming research priorities.
Scope for co-ordinating national programmes at a European level
We have to take into consideration, that national programmes are worked out under
specific requirements and with different geographical conditions, nevertheless there is
a need for co-ordination in some areas and the support of networking at a European
level.
• uniform technical setting for experiments and the approach for model building
will be needed to compare different results from different regions
• research on production performance of Organic Farming
• crop breeding and variety testing for Organic Agriculture
BELGIUM
3
Lindenthal, T., Vogl, C.R., HeГџ, J. , 1996: Forschung im Г–kologischen Landbau - Integrale Schwerpunktthemen und
Methodikkriterien. Der Förderungsdienst, 2c, 92
5
Publicly funded research projects on organic agriculture in
Belgium
1. SSTC
“ How organic farming can contribute to more sustainable means of production and
consumption.” (CP/02/193)
Period: 2001- 2005
Budget: 93.713 € (for the period 2001-2003)
Network of research centres:
• Prof. M. Mormont
Fondation Universitaire Luxembourgoise
• Mr. D. Stilmant
Centre de Recherches Agronomiques de Gembloux
• Prof. G. Van Huylenbroeck
Universiteit Gent
2. MinistГЁre des Classes moyennes et Agriculture
DG6 – Recherche subventionnée
“ Research and development of a methodology for the quantification of sustainability
by measuring the microbial diversity in the soil.” (S-6074)
Period: 2002-2003
Budget: 215.172 €
Research centre:
• Prof. W. Verstraete, Prof. D. Reheul, Prof. R. Bulcke – Universiteit Gent
_____________________________________________________________________
“ Development and optimisation of a diversity of techniques for mechanical
weeding.” (S-6076)
Period: 2002-2003
Budget: 537.929 €
Research centre:
• Prof. J. De Baerdemaeker, Prof. H. Ramon – K.U.Leuven
_____________________________________________________________________
“ Study on the influence of the quantity and quality of organic material on the C- and
N-dynamics in the soil profile.” (S-6089)
Period: 2000-2004
Budget: 206.000 € (for the period 2002-2004)
Research centre:
• Prof. O. Van Cleemput, Prof. G. Hofman – Universiteit Gent
_____________________________________________________________________
6
“ Research on an optimal plant protection for organically produced apples.” (S-6007)
Period: 2001-2004
Budget: 514.528 € (for the period 2001-2002)
Research centres:
• Dhr. Cl. Verheyden
PCF- Koninklijk Opzoekingsstation van Gorsem
• Mr. M. Lateur, Mr. M. Cavelier
Centre de Recherches Agronomiques de Gembloux
_____________________________________________________________________
“ Animal food and the quality of organically produced pig meat.” (S-5997)
Period: 2000-2004
Budget: 255.330 € (for the period 2000-2002)
Research centre:
• Prof. G. Janssens – Universiteit Gent
_____________________________________________________________________
“ Research on the factors that influence the conversion to organic farming, feasibility
and consequences.” (S-5995)
Period: 2001-2003
Budget: 286.193 €
Research centres:
• Prof. G. Van Huylenbroeck
Universiteit Gent
• Mr. A. Mottoule
Centre de l’ Economie Agricole
3. Agricultural Research Centre – Ghent
“ Literature study on the bacterial safety of organically produced food products.”
• Dhr. R. Van Renterghem
Department of Animal Product Quality and Transformation Technology
Period: - N/A
Budget: - N/A
____________________________________________________________________
“ Trace-ability throughout the organic food chain.”
• Dhr. L. Carlier
Department of Crop Husbandry and Eco-physiology
Period: 2002
Budget: 61.949 €
7
CYPRUS
Organic Farming Research in Cyprus
•
The regulation on Organic Agriculture has been approved by the Parliament of
Cyprus on December 31, 2001, and is in accordance with the EU regulation
2092/91.
•
Research on biological control of pests and pathogens has been carried out at
the Agricultural Research Institute for the last 30 years. Organised research on
a “system approach” has been initiated in the last 5 years and involves
production of organic vegetables with a plan to be extended to a wider
spectrum of crops. The budget allocated in the last few years is around
€50.000 with a proposal to be increased to €1.800.000 for the next 5 years
(with the accession of Cyprus to the EU).
•
The Agricultural Research Institute is the sole Institute carrying out research
on organic agriculture in Cyprus. The team of scientists involved in this
research is as follows:
-
Dr I. Papastylianou, Co-ordinator
Dr P. Charalambus, Entomologist
Mrs Th. Kapari, Plant Pathologist
Mr G. Eliades, Soil Scientist
Mr N. Vouzounis, Weed specialist
Mr S. Gregoriou, Potato specialist
Mrs M. Ioannou, Vegetable production specialist
Dr A. Georgiou, Citrus-Olives specialist
Also three new recently appointed scientists, will be involved with organic agriculture
in their future studies.
•
Research is carried out in Stations of the Institute, and in farmers fields
•
Important issues in driving research on organic agriculture are:
a) Market demand for organic products
b) Marketing of agricultural products and competition in the Market
c) Private support for promoting production and products involved in
production (such as plant protection, compost etc)
•
Areas for co-ordinating national programmes at European level are:
a) Research on production and protection aspects
b) Organised marketing of organic products
•
Production in Cyprus at the moment depends on knowledge provided by the
regulation on organic production and research done in other countries. There is
an urgent need for production of a package of knowledge for production under
Cyprus soil and climatic conditions. Until this is succeeded the growth rate of
organic production will remain very slow.
8
DENMARK
Research in organic farming in Denmark
Erik Steen Kristensen, DARCOF, eriksteen.kristensen@agrsci.dk
Erik Steen Jensen, DARCOF, esj@kvl.dk
This note gives a brief introduction to the co-ordination of Danish research in organic farming.
Detailed information can be obtained from www.darcof.dk. In the later part some general
comments on research co-ordination are given.
Danish research in organic farming
Throughout the 1990s organic production has grown rapidly in Denmark. In 2002 the
organic area will approach close to 7 percent of the total agricultural area. This
development has been supported through the preparation of national policies (action
plans).
Coordinating centres
As a direct result of the first action plan for organic farming in Denmark the Danish
Research Centre for Organic Farming (DARCOF) was founded in 1995 with the
objective to provide the overall framework for Danish research on organic farming.
The remit of DARCOF is thus to coordinate Danish research and development (R&D)
for organic farming, with a view to achieving optimum benefit from the allocated
resources. Its aim is to elucidate the ideas and problems faced in organic farming
through the promotion of high quality research of international standard. This research
is intended to ease the transition from conventional to organic farming, while
encouraging a sustainable development of the economic, ecological and social aspects
of agriculture.
In relation to the overall objectives, the centre assignments are to:
• Initiate and coordinate R&D in the areas of organic plant and animal production,
examining the Interactions between these two facets at the farm level as well as
the associated accounting and management aspects
• Generate information relating to the environmental, health and social implications
of different types of ecological management.
• Contribute to the education of research scientists involved in the projects
• Assist in the further education of consultants and lecturers in primary production
• Communicate the findings of R&D to the organic farming community
Organisation
DARCOF is a "centre without walls", which is to say that the researchers remain in
their own research environment but collaborate across institutes. The collaboration in
DARCOF currently implicates about 140 research scientists working at 20 different
institutes. A board of directors consisting of research leaders from the central research
institutes leads DARCOF. To ensure the relevance of its R&D activities, including
9
contact with the various user groups, a user committee has been appointed with
representatives from farmers associations and NGOs within organic farming.
Research facilities
A series of unique research facilities are set up to provide opportunity for conducting
different projects simultaneously, using the same research fields, herds, etc. The
facilities included two organic research stations, crop rotation trials, organic workshop
sites and agreements with private organic farmers who make their farms available for
research.
Training of research scientists
A Research School for Organic Agriculture and Food Systems (SOAR) has been
established in collaboration in between DARCOF and The Royal Veterinary and
Agricultural University. The main aim of SOAR is to improve and strengthen
teaching of ph.d. students within research on organic agriculture and food systems.
Completed research
From 1996 to 2000 33 research projects at a total cost of app. 15 million EURO were
carried out within the framework of DARCOF. The research provided new knowledge
on the possibilities for establishing sustainable and productive organic production
systems.
Current research
Following the conclusion of the second Danish Action plan for organic farming
“Action Plan II – Development in organic farming” in 1999 a new major research
initiative “DARCOF II” was initiated. The initiative consist of 42 major research
projects, it last from 2000 to 2005 and is has a total value of app. 30 million EURO.
In Appendix 1 a list of projects and the leading scientists are given.
Challenges to organic research
Research at many different levels in the agricultural system can be of relevance to
organic farming. By establishing a "centre without walls" where the actual research is
performed in interdisciplinary collaboration between the participating research groups
situated at existent research institutions, it is possible to use the knowledge and
expertise of different research groups. The construction is thus especially suitable for
making both analytical research and solving complex and interdisciplinary problems
in organic farming.
The decentralised structure provides the framework for a flexible form of
organisation, as well as good opportunities to draw on the greatest expertise and the
best facilities available in the research system. Furthermore, synergistic interactions
are encouraged through collaboration between different research environments and
through the complementary nature of research in organic farming and other
disciplines.
On the other hand this decentralised structure carries the risk that the research effort
could become too diffuse and disjointed. This would impede the assimilation of new
10
knowledge on organic farming, as well as the scientific impact of new research
findings, nationally and internationally.
Among others, the challenge is therefore to maintain research of high quality and of
international standard. This can be achieved by:
•
•
Attracting and selecting the best qualified research scientists
Directing investigations to the best qualified research environments
•
Independently scrutinising the scientific quality of all new or proposed research
projects
Conducting a critical evaluation of annual status reports in dialogue with the
project leaders
Encouraging reviews and evaluation of research findings in international forums
Workshops, seminars etc. at which R&D methods and the quality of research are
discussed
Assisting in and raising the standard of research worker training
•
•
•
•
Methodology is an important aspect of all ecological research. However, organic
farming is characterised by a "recycling and prevention" rather than a "chain and
cure" approach. It is thus not so much the particular methodologies, which
characterise organic farming, but rather the overall context and mutual relationships
within which problems are defined. The concepts of "synthesis" and "systems" reflect
the fact that organic R&D will concentrate on relationships and entire systems, while
incorporating aspects of analytical research.
11
DK contribution - Appendix 1
I - Crop production, environment and food quality
I.1 Organic production of cucumber and tomato grown in composted plant material from field
crops (ORCTOM)
Kristian Thorup-Kristensen, Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Department of
Horticulture
I.2 Development of sustainable production systems for apples
Hanne Lindhard Pedersen, Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Department of
Horticulture
I.3 Interactions between nitrogen dynamics, crop production and biodiversity in organic crop
rotations analysed by dynamic simulation models (BIOMOD)
JГёrgen Aagaard Axelsen, National Environmental Research Centre, Department of Terrestrial
Ecology
I.4 Nitrogen management and cropping methods for enhanced bread wheat production
(NIMAB)
Project leader Bent T. Christensen, Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Department of
Crop Physiology and Soil Science, Research Centre Foulum, P.O. Box 50, DK-8830 Tjele
I.5 Grain legumes and cereals – new production methods for increased protein supply in
organic farming systems (GENESIS)
Erik Steen Jensen, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Department of
Agricultural Sciences
I.6 Cultivation in ridges and mixed cropping - new approaches to organic row crop production
(CARMINA)
Jesper Rasmussen, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Department of
Agricultural Sciences
I.7 Soil quality in organic farming: Effects of crop rotations, animal manure and soil
compaction (ROMAPAC)
Per SchjГёnning, Danish Institute for Agricultural Sciences, Department of Crop Physiology
and Soil Science
I.8 Management of perennial weed species in organic farming (MPW)
Bo Melander, Department of Crop Protection, Danish Institute for Agricultural Sciences
I.9 Band heating for intra-row weed control
Martin Heide JГёrgensen, Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Agricultural
Engineering
I.10 Development of organic vegetable cultivation methods, and the use of catch crops to
improve the production and protect the environment (VegCatch)
Kristian Thorup-Kristensen, Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Department of
Horticulture
I.11 Clover and Grass Seed – production of high quality organic seed for forage mixtures
(CLOGS)
Birte Boelt, Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Plantbiology
12
I.12 Preventing Mycotoxin Problems (PREMYTOX)
Susanne Elmholt, Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Crop Physiology
and Soil Science
I.13 Dinitrogen fixation and nitrous oxide losses in organic grass-clover pastures: An
integrated experimental and modelling approach (DINOG)
Per Ambus, senior scientist, RisГё National Laboratory, Plant Research Department
I.14 Control of scab in organic apple growing (StopScab)
John Hockenhull (JH), The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University (KVL), Plant
Pathology Section
I.15 Nitrate leaching from dairy farming. Effect of grassland composition and frequency in
crop rotation. (NIT-GRASS)
JГёrgen Eriksen, Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Crop Physiology
and Soil Science
I.16 Regional Groundwater Protection by Optimised Organic Farming Systems (Г�KOVAND)
Ole HГёrbye Jacobsen, Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Crop
Physiology and Soil Science
II - Animal husbandry, health and food quality
II.1 Organic dairy production systems
Troels Kristensen, Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Agricultural
Systems
II.2 Production of organic milk of high quality considering the future demands for use of
organically produced feed and natural vitamins (ORMILQ)
Jacob Holm Nielsen, Department of Animal Product Quality, Danish Institute of Agricultural
Sciences
II.3 Organic production of steers and use of bioactive forages in livestock (PROSBIO)
Stig Milan Thamsborg, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Department of
Animal Science & Health
II.4 Improvement of animal health and welfare in organic dairy production with special focus
on the calves (HEWDAICA)
Mette Vaarst, Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Animal Health and
Welfare
II.5 Use of antimicrobials and occurrence of resistance in organic cattle herds
Frank MГёller Aarestrup, Danish Veterinary Institute
II.6 Poultry production systems - health and welfare (PPS-HW)
Poul SГёrensen, Danish Institute for Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Animal Breeding and
Genetics
II.7 Pig feeding under organic farming conditions with emphasis on nutrient utilisation,
product quality and health (ORGANICPIGFEED)
Viggo Danielsen, Danish Institute for Agricultural Sciences, Department of Animal Nutrition
and Physiology
13
II.8 Management in relation to health and food safety in organic pig production
(MANORPIG)
Jan Tind SГёrensen, Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Animal Health and
Welfare
II.9 Resource use, environmental impact and economy in organic pig production systems
(PIGSYS)
John E. Hermansen, Danish Institute for Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Agricultural Systems
II.10 Bacterial infection risk associated with outdoor organic pig production with special
reference to Salmonella and Campylobacter infection (SaCaFree)
Dorte Lau Baggesen (DLB), Danish Veterinary Institute
II.11 Production of raw milk cheese from organic milk (RAWMICHEESE)
Jacob Holm Nielsen, Department of Animal Product Quality, Danish Institute for
Agricultural Sciences
II.12 Product quality and consumer perception of organic beef and pork in relation to grazing
system and feeding with bio-active crops (PROSQUAL)
Laurits LydehГёj Hansen, Dept. of Animal Product Quality, Danish Institute of Agricultural
Sciences
III - Agriculture and society
III.1 Consumer demand for organic foods – domestic and foreign market perspectives (COF)
Mette Wier, Institute of Local Government Studies
III.2 Economic Analyses of the Future Development of Organic Farming. Effects at the Field,
Farm, Sector and Macroeconomic Levels (ECON-ORG)
SГёren E. Frandsen, Danish Institute of Agricultural and Fisheries Economics
III.3 Closing the Rural-Urban Nutrient Cycle (CRUCIAL)
Jakob Magid, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Department of Agricultural
Sciences
III.4 Organic food and health – a multigeneration animal experiment (Organic Health)
Kirsten Brandt, Danish Institute for Agricultural Sciences, Department of Horticulture
III.5 Nature Quality in Organic Farming
Jesper Fredshavn, National Environmental Research Institute, Department of Landscape
Ecology
III.7 Future supply and marketing strategies in the Danish organic food-sector (SAMSON)
Mogens Lund, Danish Institute of Agricultural and Fisheries Economics
III.8 Distribution Channels for Organic Foods and Consumer Trust (DISTRUSTING)
Katherine O’Doherty Jensen, Research Dept. of Human Nutrition and Centre for Advanced
Food Studies, Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University
III.9 Organic Agriculture in Social Entirety - Principles versus Practices (OASE)
Jan Holm Ingemann, Agricultural Economics, Department of Economics, Politics and Public
Administration, Aalborg University (AAU)
IV - Research facilities
IV Experimental units for research in organic farming systems (EXUNIT)
14
JГёrgen E. Olesen, Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Crop Physiology
and Soil Science
V - Coordination and synergy
V Increasing the width and depth of research in organic farming (SYNERGY)
Erik Steen Kristensen, Danish Research Centre for Organic Farming
VI - Seed production and improvement
VI.1 Healthy seed for organic production of cereals and legumes (ORGSEED)
Bent J. Nielsen, Department of Crop protection, Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences
VI.2 Characteristics of spring barley varieties for organic farming (BAR_OF)
Hanne Г�stergГҐrd, Department of Plant Research, RisГё National Laboratory
VI.3 Tool for protection against contamination by GMO (TOPRO)
Gösta Kjellsson, National Environmental Research Institute, Dep. of Terrestrial Ecology
VI.4 Grain legumes for organic farming – improved disease resistance, weed competitive
ability and feed quality (GRAINLEG)
Lars BГёdker, Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Crop Protection
VI.5 Vegetable and Forage Seed - development of an organic, GMO-free seed production
(VEFOS)
Birte Boelt, Dept. of Plant Biology, Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences,
15
FINLAND
Research on organic agriculture in Finland
An expert group appointed by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (MAF) has
produced an overview in organic farming research in Finland published by the MAF
in
February
2002
(available
in
Finnish
at
http://www.mmm.fi/julkaisut/tyoryhmamuistiot/5-2002tryhma.PDF).
The overview concludes that the research volume in organic farming has been at a
level of MEUR 2,5 annually in recent years. The main part of it has been supported by
the MAF either by the budget of its research institutes (mainly AgriFood Finland
MTT and the Game and Fisheries Research Institute) or, by financing competitive
research projects from its non-allocated research budget.
The main research funding agencies, the Academy of Finland and Tekes and the
National Technology Agency have supported research in organic farming only in
individual projects. The participation of industries in the so-far carried out projects
have been very marginal, although it seems that the interest is rising.
AgriFood Finland MTT is the main research provider in organic farming. In addition,
substantial work is carried out in the University of Helsinki and in VTT. Also the
universities in Joensuu, Kuopio and Turku, the Finnish Environmental Agency
SYKE, and the Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute carry out organic
farming related projects.
The MAF has an annual budget of Meur 7,0 for agricultural and food research for
competitive research projects proposed by the scientific community. From the budget,
about 7%, or Meur 0,5 is annually spent for organic farming research.
Main research centres that carry out research on organic agriculture:
* AgriFood Finland MTT, address: 31600 Jokioinen, Finland / www.mtt.fi
* Game and Fisheries Research Institute: P.O.Box, 00721 Helsinki, Finland /
www.rktl.fi
* Technical Research Centre VTT, P.O.Box 1400, 02044 VTT / www.vtt.fi
* University of Helsinki: www.helsinki.fi
- Dept. of Applied Ecology, Agroecology, address: P.O.Box 27, 00014
*University of Helsinki, Finland - Mikkeli Institute for Rural Research and Training,
address: Lönnrotinkatu 3-5, 50100 Mikkeli, Finland
* University of Kuopio: www.uku.fi
- Dept of Ecology and Environmental Science, address: P.O.Box 1627, FIN-70211
Kuopio, Finland
16
* University of Turku: www.utu.fi - Satakunta Environmental Research Institute,
FIN-28900 Pori, Finland
* University of Joensuu: www.joensuu.fi/joyindex.html
* Finnish Environment Agency SYKE: www.vyh.fi
Organic farms are taking part in individual research projects voluntarily - no subsidies
are directed to that purpose.
The expert group proposed a more systematic approach to organic farming research
and a substantial increase in the funding. Therefore, the MAF has decided to launch a
Meur 3 research programme for 2003-2005 for research in this field. The expert
working group suggested the following priority areas for the next 3 years:
Quality and risks of organic food; Consumer oriented product development;
Maintenance of soil fertility; Safe recycling of organic waste; Improved production of
seeds; Improved production of organic milk and meat; Animal welfare and organic
farming; Local food systems; Role of organic farming in multifunctional and
pluriactive agriculture.
Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Dept. of Agriculture / Unit for Research & Extension
Funded research projects on ORGANIC AGRICULTURE in 2002 – MAF supported projects only
Research org/
Name of project
Start
Team leader
End Total MAF
Budget Funding
Total
Euro Euro
MAF
Funding
In 2002
Euro
1 BioVitro Oy/ Sari
Pajuniemi
Improving the degree of processing of
organic food
2000
2002
232 987
117 900
17 000
2 MTT, Kasvinviljely ja
biotekniikka/ Marjo
Keskitalo
Use of Carraway oil to prevent fungal
disease in potato
2000
2002
278 249
118000
33 600
3 MTT, YmpäristöntutkiImproving the cultivation technology of
mus, Ekologinen tuotanto/ organic strawberry
Harri Huhta
2000
2003
682 153
188000
95 900
4 MTT, Kasvintuotannon
tutkimus, Puutarhatuotanto/ Terhi Suojala
Quality production of outdoor vegetables for
food industry
2000
2003
466 949
166 500
55 500
5 MTT, Ympäristön
tutkimus, Ekologinen
tuotanto/ Jaana Väisänen
Growing power for fodder cereals in organic
farming
2000
2003
382 686
140 000
37 000
6 VTT Biotekniikka/ Liisa
Lähteenmäki
Consumer views about proceeded organic
food products
2001
2 002
150 024
90 600
57 000
7 Agropolis Oy/ Jukka Tuki
Research on production chains for organic
seed within EU and possible applications in
Finland
Selenium in organic foodstuffs
2001
2002
113 527
45 000
20 000
2001
2002
25 228
23 400
11 700
8 MTT, Kemian
laboratorio/ Merja Eurola
17
Greenhouse gas mitigation for organic and
conventional dairy production (MIDAIR)
2001
2003
10 529
28 360
6 000
Environmental loading from organic
farming
2001
2 004
271 624
135 000
42 000
11 HY,
Elintarviketeknologian
laitos, Maitoteknologia/
Eeva-Liisa Ryhänen
Quality and safety risk and their control in
the production chain of organic cheeses
2002
2005
434 000
260 000
60 000
12 MTT, Ympäristöntutkimus, Maaperä ja
ympäristö/ Visa Nuutinen
Management of earthworm communities in
amelioration of structurally deteriorated
field soils
2002
2004
280 000
88 000
30 000
3 327 956
1 400 760
465 700
9 MTT, Ympäristöntutkimus, Maaperä ja
ympäristö/ Martti Esala
10 MTT, Ympäristöntutkimus, Maaperä ja
ympäristö/ Eila Turtola
Research organisation's abbreviations above - explanation and wwwaddress:
* Agropolis Ltd./ www.agropolis.fi
* BioVitro Ltd./ www.helsinki.fi
* HY, elintarviketeknologian laitos, maitoteknologia/Dept.of Food Technology; Milk Technology/
www.helsinki.fi
* MTT, Ympäristöntutkimus, ekologinen tuotanto/AgriFood Finland, Environmental research,
Ecological production/ www.mtt.fi
* MTT, Ympäristöntutkimus, maaperä ja ympäristö/AgriFood Finland, Env.Res., Soil and
Environment/ www.mtt.fi
* MTT, Kasvintuotannon tutkimus, Puutarhatuotanto/ AgriFood Finland, Plant Production Research,
Horticulture/ www.mtt.fi
* VTT/ Technical Research Centre, Biotechnology and Food/
www.vtt.fi
18
FRANCE
Research on Organic Farming in France
(Contributions from DGER4, ITAB5 and INRA6)
French contribution 1
Ministry of Agriculture, Food, Fishery and Rural Affaires
Directorate General for Education and Research (DGER)
NOTE SUR EFFORT DU MAAPÄR DGER EN FAVEUR DE L’AGRICULTURE BIOLOGIQUE
L'APPEL D'OFFRES MAAPAR / ACTA
L'agriculture biologique se développant de façon soutenue, les besoins en matière de
recherche et d'expГ©rimentation deviennent trГЁs importants. La bio n'est pas un objet de
recherche en soi, mais offre un champ d'investigations posant des problГЁmes
pertinents Г la recherche. Aussi, le ministГЁre chargГ© de l'agriculture a mis en place une
plate-forme de coordination qui regroupait initialement l'INRA, l'ACTA, l'ITAB et le
réseau FORMABIO. Cette plate-forme a pour but de favoriser l’émergence de thèmes
de recherche jugГ©s prioritaires par les professionnels (agriculteurs et acteurs du
dГ©veloppement) et de les formuler en termes de projets structurГ©s visant Г lever les
obstacles techniques ou socio-Г©conomique prГ©sents dans certaines filiГЁres.
A l’instar de ce qui existe pour l’agriculture dite conventionnelle, ces projets peuvent
prétendre s’inscrire dans les appels d’offre Recherche-Développement gérés par le
MAAPAR et bГ©nГ©ficier ainsi de subventions Г©manant du Budget Civil de la
Recherche et du DГ©veloppement (enveloppe ACTA).
dans le cadre de la plate forme (PF) initiée par l’INRA et le MAAPAR (DGER) il y a
2 ans, des projets de recherche se montent (3 en 2002) et trouvent leur financement
(INRA et ACTA pour environ 250 000 € en 2002). Par ailleurs, il faut noter la bonne
intégration de cette plate-forme dans l’organigramme de l’agence Bio (commission
FRD en amont). Il est clair que nous pourrions aller plus vite si l’enveloppe ACTA
BCRD le permettait ou si l’INRA dont nous avons la cotutelle affectait plus de
moyens Г ce secteur.
L'INRA
Par ailleurs, l'INRA a dГ©fini les principes d'un programme de recherche confiГ© au
comitГ© interne "agriculture biologique" (CIAB). Les thГЁmes retenus par la plateforme doivent ГЄtre conjointement jugГ©s prioritaires par le bureau de l'ITAB et par le
CIAB.
En 2001 cette plate-forme a ainsi permis pour la premiГЁre fois que des projets bio
soient sГ©lectionnГ©s par le COST de l'ACTA et financГ©s par l'enveloppe recherche
dГ©lГ©guГ©e Г l'ACTA par le MAAPAR. Les projets retenus portent sur les thГ©matiques
suivantes:
4
General Directorate for Education and Research (Ministry of Agriculture, Food, Fishery and Rural Affairs)
Technical Institute for Organic Farming
6
National Institute for Agronomic Research
5
19
a) rГ©duction des doses de cuivre en viticulture: rГ©pondre aux problГЁmes
environnementaux causГ©s par l'utilisation du cuivre (accumulation dans le sol,
toxicité) + volonté interne mouvements AB de baisser les seuils. Il s’agit également
d’optimiser l'efficacité des produits pour réduire les doses + recherche d'alternatives.
b) lutte contre la flavescence dorГ©e de la vigne: causГ©e par un parasite de quarantaine
(lutte obligatoire) et en forte expansion. Peu de moyens de lutte en AB (2 spécialités à base de roténone), d’où un besoin de moyens de protection durables.
c) production et protection des plants et semences en AB: la rГ©glementation impose de
disposer de matГ©riel vГ©gГ©tal produit selon un mode biologique. Cette production
suppose une étude approfondie des interactions génotypes – milieux - bioagresseurs
(désinfection, stimulateurs de défense, de croissance, …)
En 2002, la premiГЁre rГ©union de la plate-forme a conclu sur la nГ©cessitГ© de faire
remonter des projets assurant la continuitГ© avec ceux de l'annГ©e prГ©cГ©dente, et d'initier
un nouveau projet sur la fertilisation, visant notamment Г Г©laborer une mГ©thode de
diagnostic alternative Г celle du CORPEN afin de mieux prendre en considГ©ration les
spГ©cificitГ©s des exploitations bio.
Enfin, la plate-forme a dГ©cidГ© de s'ouvrir Г la filiГЁre agroalimentaire afin de prendre
en compte les problГЁmes de transformation des produits bio. Pour cela, dans un
premier temps, la plate-forme a dГ©cidГ© d'intГ©grer l'ACTIA (Association de
Coordination Technique pour l'Industrie Agroalimentaire) et le Cemagref parmi ses
membres.
GIP ADEBIO (agence)
la PF s'articule avec la nouvelle Agence en Г©tant le maГ®tre d'Е“uvre des propositions
Г©mises par la commission Recherche Formation DГ©veloppement. Elle rendra compte
via la DGER des rГ©sultats obtenus mais ne sera pas un comitГ© scientifique chargГ© de
cautionner un argumentaire pseudo scientifique lors des polГ©miques entre
conventionnels et bios. Cette idée d’un comité scientifique avancée un temps par
certains responsables professionnels de l’Agence ne doit pas être relayée par les
pouvoirs publics. Elle restera sans suite si la tension entre questions posГ©es et
rГ©ponses apportГ©es reste gГ©rable au sein de la plate-forme.
RГ©seau FORMABIO
Il s’agit du réseau des formateurs d’une soixantaine de lycées agricoles qui échange
sur leurs expériences en matière de formation et d’expérimentation en agriculture
biologique. La DGER consacre 44 000 € à l’animation de ce réseau compte non tenu
du temps passГ© par les enseignants.
Le Centre National de Ressources en agriculture biologique
Le CNRAB basé à l’origine à Brioude va se déplacer à l’ENITA de Clermont
Ferrand. Ce centre fait de la veille technique et de la collecte de donnГ©es et de
publications en agriculture biologique. La DGER le soutien Г travers un poste de mise
à disposition (équivalent à 55 000 €).
20
French contribution 2
Technical Institute for Organic Farming (ITAB)
HГ©lГЁne Moraut - ITAB Manager
1. Organization of national research in organic farming
ITAB relies on a professional network of organic farmers’ associations (21 regional
technical centres, 4 organic research centres) and has been the sole provider of field
experiments and training for 15 years. It is the recognized and historical player for
applied research in that sector. The implementation of a medium-term plan for
development of organic farming, in 1997, has resulted in the involvement of new
partners in organic farming research: technical institutesChambers of agriculture...
Willing to set up longstanding partnerships with these new players in organic farming
research, ITAB has developed close relations with the organizations active in
conventional research. Thus, ITAB plays a central role in this network by liaising the
different actions and ensuring the link between farmers and researchers and is
recognize by ANDA7 as national coordinator for research and technical actions in the
field of organic farming.
Recently the General Teaching and Research Department (DGER) of the Ministry of
Agriculture and Fisheries has set up a co-ordination platform with the INRA, ACTA8,
and ITAB. This group’s goal is to support the DGER in coordinating few proprietary
research programs on organic farming.
2. The main actors in organic farming research and experimentation
Organism
INRA
Technical
Institutes
Chambers
of
agriculture
Regional
stations
7
8
Budget for
OF
M€
% of
total
budget
Full-time
research.ers
Main subject
5,5
1
32
See B. Sylvander and S. Bellon document
1,9
2
1,64
1,25
0,35
8,75
! parasite prevention in organic animal husbandry,
animal feeding
! weed control
! fruits and vegetables growing
! cereal growing
! wine growing (copper, grapevine yellow..)
! crop production, animal husbandry
! conversion, development of OF
! economic aspects,..
More than one hundred programs on
fruits and vegetables
21
36
nc
National Association for Agricultural Development
Union of Agriculture Technical Institutes
21
ITAB
0,67
100
! plant propagation and breeding: organic seed
breeding / production, plant propagation systems,
variety screening in organic farming systems
! fertilization, farmyard manure, soil fertility
! cereal selection
! alternatives/reduction for copper use
! controlling grapevine yellows
! food quality: improved holistic methods, influence of
specific production/processing methods on food
quality parameters
6
Other research centres:
! CEMAGREF: environmental risk assessment on OF
! INSERM: quality of organic product
! CNRS: soil fertility, environmental risk assessment in a dairy farming
! …
Agricultural and agronomic schools:
! ENITAC: food quality and improved holistic methods, animal husbandry, fertilization
! ENSAM: wine growing
! ENSAR: sustainability of organic farming
! ISARA: fertilization
! ESA Angers: organic feed quality for pig farming,
! ENESAD: energy supply based on renewable resources in organic farming systems
! …
OF organizations (CTS/CTS):
! GRAB: horticulture, fruit and wine growing
! CREAB: cereal growing
! ….
Private research:
! SETRABIO-Bioconvergence: contamination with mycotoxins and pesticides,…
! Biolait: quality of organic milk
! Danon : quality of organic product
! …
4. Organic farms owned for research purposes
Network
OF Organizations (CTR/CTS)
Agricultural schools
INRA
Technical Institutes
Number of farms or stations
Purposes
340 farms
demonstration, experimentation
22 farms (670 ha)
demonstration, experimentation
3 stations
research
9 farms and stations
experimentation, research
nc
experimentation
Chambers of agriculture
22
5. Priorities
! Co-ordination of research and dissemination of research results concerning organic
farming: ECODIS network, encouraging reviews of research findings in international
workshop…
! Definition of methodological criteria for research in the field of organic farming:
interdisciplinary, holistic approach, long term initiatives…
! Research funded by the Community should encourage and support the organic sector
ITAB Contribution - Appendix 1
Activities
Founded on 15th September 1982, its main goals are:
! the coordination of research and technical actions in the field of organic farming
! the provision of technical expertise
! the initiation support to organic farming programs
! the circulation of technical information: publication of technical documents,
organization of technical events.
Moreover, ITAB has recently started to elaborate and coordinate some multidisciplinary
research programs, regarded as first priority by organic farmers.
Organization
To conduct these actions efficiently, ITAB is organised in committees, for each production
(animal breeding, arable crops, wine growing, fruit and vegetables) and on crosscutting issues
(agronomy and production systems, product quality and seeds).
Members: a network of professionals and organic farmers’ associations
! 21 regional technical centres
! 4 organic research centres
! national organization involved in organic agriculture
! national organization involved in conventional agriculture
International partnership
! ITAB is a foundation members of ECOPB (European Consortium for Organic Plant
Breeding)
! ITAB is a member of ECODIS (European Co-ordination and Dissemination of Organic
Farming Research)
! ITAB is member of IFOAM (International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movement)
and in charge of technical animation for the French Group.
Publications and manifestations
The Technical Institute of Organic Farming publishes a technical review: Alter-Agri, some
technical guides (The quality of organic products, organic fertilisation, organic
arboriculture,...), technical booklets (arboriculture, viticulture, cereal,…).
23
Each year, the Technical Institute of Organic Farming organizes several technical
conferences. These conferences allow scientists and farmers to have technical exchanges.
8-9 October: Technical conference on organic animal breeding on the theme “ethics and
techniques”
3-4 December: Technical conference on organic fruit and vegetables
16- 17 January: Technical conference on organic wine growing
For more details, contact us: ITAB - 149, rue de Bercy – 75539 Paris cedex 12 – Tél.: (00 33)
1 40 04 50 64 – Fax: (00 33) 1 40 04 50 64 – Email: itab@itab.asso.fr, or visit our web site:
www.itab.asso.fr .
French contribution 3
The INRA9 and Organic Farming: toward a research program
Bertil Sylvander, Director of Research, INRA-ESR
StГ©phane Bellon, Research Engineer, INRA-SAD
Abstract
This paper sets out the way in which the INRA intends to develop its research into organic
farming (OF) through a commitment to both pluridisciplinary and partnership-based studies
wherein OF is considered an agricultural “prototype”. Although this starting point still leaves
scope for analytical research, it is also likely to reinforce the systemic approach. It leads to an
understanding of the processes employed in production under the constraints of regulatory
standards. The basic principles of partnership-based research presuppose that programs are to
be developed through consultation with organic farmers’ representatives. Those principles
therefore combine academic criteria and compliance with the requirements of OF.
So far work has begun on compiling a database of scientific literature, scientific seminars on specific
questions have been held in association with OF organisations (ITAB) and non-INRA researchers and
practitioners, and a research program is under development (by organising an in-house invitation-totender, in accordance with the applicable regulations). The INRA allocates 5.5 million Euro annually to
this program. So far 55 projects have been assessed and 20 are on-going. About 32 full-time
researchers work on those projects. The first subjects addressed are nutrition, health and OF, crop
protection and OF, genetic resources and OF, animal health and OF, animal welfare and OF, and the
environment and OF.
The following questions are crucial to the research program: What are the specific features of
research into OF? Subsequently, does science need to change its objectives and approaches
(increasing specialisation vs. cross-disciplinary research)?
Introduction
Agricultural institutions and trade organisations have long viewed organic farming
(OF) as a marginal activity. The INRA has been no exception, maintaining
reservations about the practice. However, recent political recognition of OF has
prompted various organisations to draw up policies to promote it. In France, this shift
can be dated to the December 1997 introduction of a medium-term plan for the
development of organic farming. The INRA, for its part, announced its commitment
to a research program in January 2000, while emphasising the need to comply with
9
National Institute for Agricultural Research
24
the rules governing all research activity. In this paper we indicate how the INRA
intends to move ahead in this area and we give examples of its activities.
The INRA serves as a platform for the objectives and resources of most scientific
disciplines with a bearing on agriculture, the environment, and food. At present, the
INRA has approximately 8,500 employees, of whom 1,780 are research scientists
working in teams that also include engineers, technicians, and administrative staff.
These teams are grouped into 17 research departments with each department pursuing
its own scientific objectives within the strategic framework laid down by the institute.
1. Basic principles
The INRA seeks to pursue an all-round approach combining cross-disciplinary and
partnership-based research. It views OF as an agricultural prototype and draws the
consequences of this in terms of its potential scientific repercussions. This starting
point still allows for analytical research while also reinforcing the systemic approach.
It leads to an understanding of the processes involved in farming to meet strict
production standards and should, in the long term, yield innovative solutions. A
further challenge is to understand the way in which the demands that society makes of
OF are to be analysed and ranked by order of importance, whether in terms of
production, processing, or control of the outputs of OF (product quality, ecological
balance, environmental impact, macro-economic optimisation, etc.).
The task of the INRA's Internal Committee on Organic Farming is to make progress
on various fronts: knowledge of OF (through the compilation of a database of
scientific reference works with links to other databases), scientific seminars (through
the organisation of conferences on specific topics in association with OF
organisations and with the participation of INRA and non-INRA scientists and
practitioners10), and the development of a research program (through the organisation
of an in-house invitation-to-tender under the applicable regulations). The aim of this
project is to identify motivated in-house teams and to construct a network that is both
consistent and reliable in terms of sharing information, defining objectives and
methods, providing research incentives, and evaluating and transferring results. The
INRA allocates € 5.5 million per year to this program.
Table 1: Research program objectives
Objectives
Fields
Bio-technical
Production systems
Economics
Descriptive
Transfer
New projects
Production rules
How to combine objectives
Statistics
Extension
Methodology and tools
Supply chains
Demand
Explanation
Conversion of new systems to OF
Organic Marketing Initiatives
*
The basic principles of partnership-based research presuppose that programs are to be
developed in conjunction with practitioners. Thus, the General Teaching and Research
Department (DGER) of the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries has set up a coordination platform with the INRA, ACTA (Union of Agriculture Technical
Institutes), and ITAB (Technical Institute for OF). This group is to support the DGER
in coordinating programs on research, development, and education.
10
The first subjects dealt with will be nutrition, health and OF, crop protection and OF, genetic resources and OF,
animal health and OF, animal welfare and OF, and the environment and OF.
25
2. Current activities: internal projects
In 2000, the INRA supported a number of research teams and experimental units
currently working on OF. The main objective was to strengthen such units and to
enhance their research achievements by providing additional financing. Here are three
examples from different domains.
Because, in organic crop farming, the discrepancy between the kinetics of crop
requirements and the soil nitrogen mineralisation rate affects wheat yield and grain
quality and in order to help reduce the shortage of organic cereals in France, support
was given to research into improving the nitrogen management of winter wheat by
optimising spring fertilisation.
In fruit growing, an experimental unit (SE France) has been working for several years
to optimise organic peach and apple production techniques. Fertilisation is being
investigated by monitoring both the nitrogen mineralization rate in soils and fruit
quality. This work has now been extended to apple growing. The effects of mixed
hedgerows on fauna that are beneficial to orchards is also under study and ties in with
the wider question of biodiversity.
In organic livestock farming, priority has been given to sheep farming in the central
mountain area of France. The aim is to compare two grass-based feeding systems with
a view to extending lamb production periods. The study specifically addresses
connections between animal feeding practices and health through a cross-disciplinary
approach combining technical and economic studies, and associating research,
training, and development activities across a range of structures.
3. Collaborative projects
During 2001, the INRA and ACTA11 invited tenders for specific projects in three
main areas identified by practitioners. These are described with examples below. As
expected, responses came from research units and technical institutes alike. A
common feature of the projects is their cross-disciplinary nature and the use of a
battery of methods (field and laboratory studies, modeling, and testing).
One project seeks to reduce the use of copper by identifying disease tolerant crop
varieties, optimizing copper application methods, and testing crop management
strategies. The project also tests alternative products (and bio-stimulators) and
evaluates the effects of applying copper on various soil types with perennial crops.
A second project is designed to control grapevine yellows caused by the
ampelophagous leafhopper ScaphoГЇdeus titanus (Ball). Special attention is given to
local situations where biological control is effective and/or resistant vineyard plants
are grown. The research seeks to understand the biological processes involved and to
develop alternative control strategies.
Proposed projects on the production of seed and plants suitable for OF relate mostly
to the actual planting material, particularly for field and tree crops. However, for seed
production, a sanitary quality insurance process is also planned, focusing on key crop
species and diseases.
For the future, the INRA considers it essential for research programs to investigate
organic food quality (taste, nutritional quality, and safety) and wider social issues
such as the environmental impact of OF as well as animal welfare, ethical trading, etc.
11
ACTA: Union of Technical Institutes for Experimentation in Agriculture
26
This is the direction that future projects should take. Finally, we intend to evaluate our
approach based upon systemic thinking and partnership-based research.
4. Discussion
We have little hindsight as yet and it is still too early for a review, but we can propose
a number of ideas.
The initial hypothesis that OF is a “prototype” leads to the questions of the specific
scientific status of a research program on OF compared with other research
programs. One approach would be to argue that science is the same everywhere for
everyone and that such a program should consider OF more as an area of research,
separating the applied objectives that are specific to OF from the scientific objectives
and resources that are generic (OF as an area of research). A second approach would
be to treat OF as a specific object of scientific research and to maintain that specific
objects involve specific mechanisms and methods, even if they must still bear the
hallmark of scientific rigor (OF as a scientific object).
We feel it is too early to decide either way and that the program should be assessed on
the basis of concrete experience. The options should therefore be kept open as far as
possible. However, we see the debate as an important one for two reasons. The first is
obviously scientific and epistemological, while the second is political and
institutional. The future of research programs on OF will probably be determined in
part by the way the debate is conducted and concluded. True, institutions’ programs
are influenced to some extent by political considerations, but funding for research is
not so much a limiting factor as might be thought. Institutionally, the main thing is to
convince research scientists themselves that a program on OF is scientifically worth
while and that they can make a successful career out of projects of this sort. If the
argument goes in favour of OF as a non specific area of research, the scientific
questions of interest will still need answering, although there may be fewer of them.
Conversely, if the argument goes in favour of OF as a specific scientific object, the
program may become even more worth while in the future.
This debate is an important one and should be conducted both within the scientific
community and between the scientists and the practitioners of OF within the context
of the partnership arrangements referred to earlier in this paper. An essential condition
for doing this is to show mutual respect for each party and its explicit rules.
Scientists must be willing to accept the constraints of production standards as defining
a model of farming under constraint and must construct their projects and protocols
accordingly and therefore by discussing their objectives and characteristics with
practitioners. This entails, in field experiments, constantly questioning the
practitioners so as to learn about farming in accordance with the rules and practices of
OF. Lastly, partnership-based research implies planning from the outset to include the
relevant categories for action (Sebillotte, 1999). For example, a research project on
fertilisation in OF must begin by asking about the adaptation of CORPEN indicators
to forms of production.
Likewise practitioners will find it helpful to understand the logic behind the scientific
approach: scientific questions are initially practical questions asked in different ways,
often by (over)simplifying; they must be innovative and should not aim merely to
apply or adapt tried-and-tested ideas; they are not therefore confined to experiments
designed to test a given technique; protocols must be rigorous; results may be
unexpected and even contrary to what was hoped for; they may sometimes be of little
27
immediate benefit and they may take a long time to acquire; finally scientific
knowledge is universal in character and must be certified by academic publication if it
is to exist at all.
This mutual respect implies that neither partner can demand that the other break with
the relevant ground rules. However, the partners may construct a common culture
around the debate without either side imposing its culture on the other.
In the day-to-day work of partnership-based research many things need to be
developed jointly, both when deciding on the research objectives and when deciding
how to achieve them.
First, partnership-based research cannot be conducted successfully without clear
objectives that are prioritised and agreed to by scientists and practitioners alike.
Experience shows that this is difficult to achieve. Should one opt for fast and
ambitious expansion of OF or slow but steady development based on a niche strategy?
Among other things, this question dictates which localised and generic production
techniques and systems are to be promoted as being consistent with the regulatory
standards. Are we moving toward exclusively mixed crop-livestock farming systems
or should specialised systems be developed? What are the consequences for major
crops and for fertilisation? What connections are there with research into varieties
suitable for OF? Should we seek to classify general objectives by rank order or to
define relevant and viable categories of situation? This option would be compatible
with localised production systems where the aim is not to maximise just one criterion
but to achieve objectives, to validate the technical and economic feasibility of well
defined systems, and/or to determine the limits of a given system.
In the case of genetic selection of wheat varieties in OF, for example, the ordering of
the criteria of productivity, nitrogen content, ground cover rate, disease resistance,
and straw length is necessarily related to the production systems employed. The
multiplicity of situations seems to call for several rank orders but assumes some
degree of openness in the choice of production systems which may not be agreed to
by all and which could explain why there is no unanimous agreement about the
criteria. It also assumes that we have data about the most relevant situations, which is
difficult at present.
Production standards are an obvious starting point (prototype) but they are liable to
change (in line with the technical and ethical logic of production or in accordance
with new objectives related to society's demands). In addition, standards may be
interpreted in accordance with situations and practices, which illustrates the diversity
and variability of production systems even within OF.
As concerns the research mechanisms, the first approach (OF as an area of research)
implies that once the objectives have been defined (e.g. selection criteria for varieties
suitable for OF), the resources are generic within the principles of OF, which
principles may be debated but on the sidelines of the research project. The second
approach entails reflecting about just how specific the research is. For example, OF
calls for a systemic approach in its very conception of production. This is not
completely exclusive, as systemic research is carried out for other production systems,
but the approach may help in differentiating some OF research from strictly analytic
approaches.
Nevertheless, this approach is complex because it entails varying several factors at the
same time, which infringes the principle of “all else being equal”. In some instances,
it seems that the system can be broken down into almost independent sub-units (this
28
might be the case for research in the Camargue on hard wheat and rice: genetic
research, production systems, and value-enhancement processes are all partly
independent). Conversely, in the case of INRA investigation of sheep farming
referred to above, it is helpful—in order to increase the flock's productivity through
three lambing sessions over two years—to conduct research simultaneously into
economics and sheep farming, the cross-influences of animal husbandry, flock health,
feed, and the quality of the meat produced. This is not self-evident and caused fierce
debate within the team and with the practitioners.12
To this extent, it can be asked whether the systemic and analytic approaches are
complementary, with the former looking into the way the system operates and at ways
of optimising it (Redon site in Massif Central) while the latter seeks to identify
phenomena and to study the action of one factor on one effect by comparing organic
and non-organic systems (as at the Orcival site in Massif Central). As such, it is
pointless opposing comparisons (suspected by some practitioners of tending to
"evaluate OF") and the study of how an actual organic system operates, as the two
approaches can be complementary.13 This is why there is a continuum between
experimental units, systemic arrangements, comparisons and pilot-farm networks,
depending on the specific objectives in view (U. Niggli and O. Schmidt, 2002).
Another source of specific features about research into OF could be the
understanding of biological variability, which is the corollary of agriculture based on
natural equilibria. This presupposes that practitioners and scientists alike come to
consider learning about the scientific management of variability of living organisms
in an uncertain environment as a primary objective. This is not a straightforward
question as it is beset by scientific and political controversies. It prompts scientists to
think about intentionally reducing variability (this is often the case in animal hygiene
and product hygiene), and goes as far as genetic engineering. Adapting varieties to
various situations may for example lead some geneticists to want to return to
"population varieties" while their colleagues only see progress in F1 hybrids. This
choice is not self-evident as it leads to controversy and contains very real challenges
for scientists and laboratories.
Practitioners too are confronted with this question, for example, about how far and in
what way to codify practices in production standards, which are necessarily
simplifications compared with the actual diversity of practices and local situations. In
doing this, legitimate questions are raised about generalising OF and about the limits
of the system.
Finally comes the question of approaches that are so radically new (compared with
"standard" scientific approaches) that they confound the scientists. This is the case,
for example, with the principles of biodynamic agriculture, of homeopathy, or the
"global" approach to quality based among other things on "tangible crystallisation".
Such approaches demand a special effort if they are to be changed into research
questions, and skills that are not necessarily found in institutes like the INRA, prior
studies of the literature in which validation by outside experts and scientific debate
are primordial in insuring stringent protocols and general results. This process is not
necessarily beyond reach but it will take time.
12
The same is true of the project for fruit tree growing (INRA Gotheron) where infestation by apple tree greenfly,
nitrate fertilization and the nitrate content of the soil, and the ecology of auxiliary insects close to hedgerows are
being investigated at one and the same time.
13
The same can be seen for research on the quality of organic products: the systemic approach seeks to describe a
phenomenon while the analytic approach seeks to explain it. See the AFSSA report**.
29
While fuelling the debate about the specificity of a research program on OF, the
foregoing developments raise the ethical question of the neutrality of science. From
the outset, they adopt a "procedural" posture of science in the making (by the
sociological interplay of the world of research and its environment, Latour, 1995) and
of scientific research programs advocated by Lakatos (Cabaret, 2002). This calls for a
large dose of modesty, both because scientific truth is by definition falsifiable and
consequently knowledge is historically dated and because what were thought of as
linear orientations of agronomic research defined by their own internal logic were in
fact greatly influenced by the objectives of a historically dated agricultural policy and
by the industrial rationale of the post-war period.
5. Conclusions and recommendations
In conclusion, it can be said that the complexity of the question and the specific nature
of research in OF, addressed in this paper, should prompt us to a good deal of
modesty and patience, since the various projects need to be evaluated with a view to
validating or rejecting many of the hypotheses set out here. The examples of
partnership-based research conducted by the INRA so far show that these are always
historically long processes14 that are time consuming and that entail gradual, mutual
learning processes with a view to defining common objectives as well as finalizing (as
joint constructions) mechanisms that are often complex and difficult to manage. In
addition, this type of research assumes, as we have seen, transverse scientific
leadership, continual project monitoring, evaluation from the standpoints of scientists
and practitioners and, of course, the unfailing support of the institutions and their
research departments.
On a more political front we need:
a) to lobby for a permanent network compiling the research projects in progress,
project results, and scientific publications throughout Europe. The ECODIS has been
rejected twice. This urgent question must be put before the EU
b) to work out a co-ordination system in order to gather practitioners' requirements for
further research: farmers, processors, consumers, institutions (certification bodies,
etc.) and to evaluate research results according to their ability to fulfil those
requirements. This system must extend to different levels: the projects themselves and
the overall political level
c) to complete research projects, in order to reach a single definition of what organic
farming is in Europe, since diverse interpretations of the EU regulations lead to unfair
competition within the organic market and mar the image of OF
d) to conduct projects in closer relationship with non organic research, in order to
legitimise the specificity of OF in scientific terms and to ensure positive exchanges
between research on conventional and organic farming systems
e) to diversify the fields of research: OF's impact on the environment and rural
development, better definition of animal welfare, nutritional and hygienic quality of
organic products, consumer expectations and general education concerning
agriculture in general (i.e. biology, economics, science); relations between overall
social and political aspects and OF production methods world-wide (fair trade, energy
balance, public policy evaluation, etc.)
14
GIS Alpes du Nord began in 1970, the Redon platform in 1980, Camargue project in 1988, the Gotheron unit in
1994.
30
Research co-ordination device
MinistГЁre de
l’Agriculture
GIP Bio
DGER
Plateforme
de
coordination
Autres
organismes de
recherche et
Instituts
Techniques
INRA
ITAB
ACTA
Experts
Organisations
professionnelles
Projet de recherche
Equipe de
recherche
Partenaire
professionnel
Entreprises
Bibliography
Benoit M., Laignel G. (2002): "Constraints under organic farming on French sheepmeat production",
paper submitted to Veterinary Research.
Cabaret J., Mage C., Bouilhol M. (2002): Helminth intensity and diversity in organic meat sheep
farms in center of France, Veterinary Parasitology, 2281 (2002) 1-15.
Cabaret J. (2002): MГ©thodes pour les programmes de recherche scientfiques : les apports de
l'Г©pistГ©mologie rГ©aliste, contribution Г l'Г©cole chercheurs INRA : construire des projets en agrobiologie,
mai 2002.
Lakatos I. (1984): Preuves et refutations, essai sur la logique de la dГ©couverte mathГ©matique,
Hermann, Editeur des sciences et des arts, Paris.
Latour B. (1995): Le metier de chercheur : regard d'un anthropologue, Sciences en questions, INRA
Editions, Paris.
Niggli U., Schmidt O. (2002): Le dГ©veloppement de l'agriculture biologique en Europe : la contribution
de la recherchГ©, FiBL, Frick, Switzerland.
Riba, G., Sylvander, B., Bellon, S., Gautronneau, Y., Savini, I. (2000): L'agriculture biologique et l'INRA :
vers un programme de recherche, INRA Mensuel NВ°104, mars avril 2000, pp 1-25.
Sebillotte M. (1999): Des recherches pour le développement local – partenariat et
transdisciplinaritГ©, in RERU, nВ°3.
Sylvander, B. (2000): L'agriculture biologique et l'INRA : vers un programme de recherche,
Alter Agri
31
INRA Contribution - Appendix 1
TABLE 2: CURRENT RESEARCH PROJECTS
Internal projects (INRA, 2000–2003)
Cereal production: kinetics of crop requirements and soil nitrogen mineralization rates
Fruit growing: fertilisation, fruit quality, hedgerows, biodiversity
Livestock production: sheep farming, extensive production, production periods, animal feeding, health.
How to improve OF standards to meet consumer requirements?
Development of production systems in potato growing
Plant breeding for potato growing
Environmental risk assessment in dairy farming
Sustainability of OF holdings in dairy farming
Organic milk quality and supply chain management
Plant breeding in cereals, cabbage, cauliflower
Influence of wheat cultivation management on mycotoxins
Cultivation of organic oilseed rape
Influence of OF on nitric waste in soil
Development of organic rice and hard wheat in Camargue (marshlands in southern France)
Organic fertilisation in vegetable growing
Organic feed quality for pig farming
Collaborative projects (Call opened by INRA and ACTA, 2001-2003)
How to reduce the use of copper
Controlling grapevine yellows
Production of seeds and plants in OF
Fertilisation in OF
32
GERMANY
Publicly-funded research on organic agriculture and food
production in Germany
In 2001, the Federal Programme "Organic Agriculture" was launched in Germany.
Just under EUR 35m will be available for the Federal Programme in 2002 and 2003
respectively. 30 measures were proposed for the Programme. These can be grouped in
three areas around the value-added chain, complemented by two interdisciplinary
areas:
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
"Agricultural Production"
"Recording and Processing"
"Trade, Marketing and Consumers"
"Technology Development and Transfer"
"Accompanying Measures"
At the core of the funded projects so far are:
-
-
Status quo analyses of different production procedures
Status quo analyses and the development of strategies for the solution of present
problems in organic agriculture (nutrition supply, crop protection including stock
protection). Analyses of organic seed and plant production and of special issues of
organic husbandry
Comprehensive issues of production technology
Processing of organic products and quality aspects
Socio-economic analyses in the area of organic agriculture and of processing of
organic products
Marketing of organic products and demand for bioproducts including out-of-home
catering
Analysis of the contribution of organic agriculture to reaching social goals
Certification and control systems in the area of organic agriculture.
In addition to research projects the construction of a central website “organic
agriculture”, road shows for farmers and the presentation of organic agriculture on
trade fairs is funded.
Detailed information on the programme and the funded projects so far is available on
the website www.bundesprogramm-oekolandbau.de (only German version).
Main research centres and leading scientists carrying out research on
organic agriculture, and organic farms owned specifically for research
purposes
Universities and Fachhochschulen (universities of applied sciences) offering study
courses in agriculture15 have one or several institutes, which deal exclusively or in
15
*Hochschule für Technik und Wirtschaft Dresden, Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, Humboldt-Universität
zu Berlin, Fachhochschule Neubrandenburg, Universität Rostock, Universität Kiel, Universität Hannover, GeorgAugust-Universität Göttingen, Universität-Gesamthochschule Kassel in Witzenhausen, Fachhochschule Osnabrück,
Rheinische Friedrich Wilhelms-Universität zu Bonn, Universität Hohenheim, Technische Universität
MГјnchen/Freising-Weihenstephan, Fachhochschule Weihenstephan
33
part with issues of organic agriculture. The Universität-Gesamthochschule Kassel in
Witzenhausen should be mentioned in particular because of the size of its organic
agriculture division. It has a separate department with 6 specialised areas in organic
agriculture. In addition, the Federal Agricultural Research Centre (FAL) with its
Institute for Organic Agriculture in Trenthorst – headed by Dr. G. Rahmann – plays
an important role in research on organic agriculture.
Leading scientists are Prof. Dr. Hamm at the Fachhochschule Neubrandenburg
(Agricultural Economy and Agromarketing), Prof. Dr. Heß at the Universität
Gesamthochschule Kassel in Witzenhausen (specialized area Organic Agriculture),
Prof. Dr. Fölsch at the Universität Gesamthochschule Kassel in Witzenhausen
(specialized area Applied Productive Livestock Ethology and Welfare-oriented
Animal Husbandry) and Prof. Dr. Köpke at the Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms
Universität (Institute for Organic Agriculture) among others.
Most universities and the FAL have their own test farms.
Other important issues in driving research on organic agriculture in
Germany
The private Institut fГјr biologisch-dynamische Forschung in Darmstadt as well as the
Forschungsinstitut fГјr Г¶kologischen Landbau e. V. in Berlin also run projects on
organic agriculture in Europe. Furthermore some Bundesländer fund and run projects
on organic agriculture.
Areas where there is scope for co-ordinating national programmes at a
European level
Co-operation at European level seems to be very useful, particularly in the areas of
developing new strategies in organic animal and crop production as well as in
processing, quality assessment and control.
34
ICELAND
Co-ordination of National Research Programmes in Organic
Agriculture
A short description of the state of research in organic agriculture in Iceland
FriГ°rik PГЎlmason
ГЃsdГ­s Helga BjarnadГіttir
Publicly-funded research on organic agriculture and food production
and budget allocated
The Icelandic government established a fund in 1995, ГЃform-ГЎtaksverkefni, with the
purpose of supporting organic agriculture as well as environmentally friendly
agriculture. The last six years the fund has supported projects in organic production
with about 6.000 kISK (69.000 Euro) each year. The Agricultural Productivity Fund
has in 1996-2001 supported projects in organic agriculture with 8.270 kISK (92.624
Euro).
The fund supporting projects in organic agriculture ГЃform-ГЃtaksverkefni will be
closed at the end of this year, 2002.
An official government policy or programme for research in organic agriculture is
being prepared by an Advisory Committee for Organic Agriculture, which has been
working on priorities in research in organic agriculture.
Research projects in organic agriculture
Plant and animal nutrition
A research programme on hay production in an organic system was carried out in
1996-1997. The project dealt with the utilisation of plant nutrients in organic wastes
(fish meal, shrimp shell and capelin) and raw phosphate, as well as comparing hay
production from clover/timothy grass without fertiliser application, timothy grass with
fish meal application. The programme was initiated as a beginning of research aimed
at the problem of building up and maintaining a fertile soil without artificial fertilisers
and to gain experience from the use of legumes in animal feeding.
The project was supported by the Research Council and Agricultural Productivity
Fund with 4.500 kISK (52.000 Euro) during a period of three years 1995-1997. The
support was restricted to the plant nutrition/crop part of the project and the planned
feeding experiments were therefore not carried out.
Horticulture
Another project especially designed for organic horticulture was carried out in 19961998. The purpose was to test the use of various organic wastes in greenhouse
cultivation of tomatoes. The project was supported by the Agricultural Productivity
Fund with 1.900 kISK (22.000 Euro)
35
Research projects related to organic agriculture
Older experiments with manure, fish wastes etc. are of some relevance to organic
agriculture. The results from these experiments expressed mainly as DM yields are
available in experimental reports published over a large number of years.
The table below summarises some research projects relevant to organic agriculture.
Native legumes in Iceland.
Jon GuГ°mundson: Seed production potential of native legumes in Iceland. Icelandic
Agricultural Sciences 11, 1997; 41-48
FAO/IAEA contract project: Use of nuclear technique in improving
pastur management 1983-1986 and The Icelandic Nitrogen Project
1990-1993.
F. PГЎlmason, S.K.A. Danso and G. Hardarson 1992. Nitrogen accumulation in sole and mixed
stands of sweet-blue lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.), rygrass and oats. Plant and Soil 142,
135-142.
S.K.A. Danso, F. PГЎlmason and G. Hardarson 1993. Is nitrogen transferred between field
crops? Examining the question through a sweet blue lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.)- oats
(Avena sativa L.) intercrop. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 25, 135-137
FriГ°rik PГЎlmason , JГіn GuГ°mundsson and ГЃslaug HelgadГіttir 1995. Symbiotic nitrogen
fixation in lupin and clover in Iceland. Nordisk Jordbruksforskning 77 (3), 77
FriГ°rik PГЎlmason, JГіn GuГ°mundsson and HalldГіr Sverrisson 2002. Symbiotic nitrogen
fixation estimated by the use of 15N dilution method in annual blue lupin and perennial
Nootka lupin in Iceland. Tenth International Lupin Conference. Wild and Cultivated Lupins
from the Tropics to the Poles. Program and Abstract Book p. 111. Laugarvatns Iceland 2002.
Comparison of rhizobium strains for white clover and red clover.
Halldór Sverrisson, 2000. Growth of rhizobia at low temperatures. “Plant and Microbe
Adaptations to Winter Environments in Northern Areas”, NJF seminar no311, Akureyri,
Iceland 19.-21. maГ­ 2000. Bls.9. Abstract.
36
Overwintering and yield of white clover
RP Collins, A HelgadГіttir, M Fothergill, I Rhodes (2002). Variation amongst survivor
populations of white clover collected from sites across Europe. II. Growth attributes and
physiological responses to low temperature. Annals of Botany, (accepted).
M Wachendorf, RP Collins, J Connolly, A Elgersma, M Fothergill, BE Frankow-Lindberg, A
Ghesquiere, A Guckert, MP Guinchard, A Helgadottir, A Lüscher, T Nolan, P NykänenKurki, J Nösberger, G Parente, S Puzio, I Rhodes, C Robin, A Ryan, B Stäheli, S Stoffel, F
Taube (2001). Overwintering of Trifolium repens L. and Succeeding Spring Growth: I.
Results from a COST 814 Common Protocol carried out at Twelve Sites in Europe. Annals of
Botany, 88:xxx-xxx.
M Wachendorf, RP Collins, A Elgersma, M Fothergill, BE Frankow-Lindberg, A Ghesquiere,
A Guckert, MP Guinchard, A Helgadottir, A Lüscher, T Nolan, P Nykänen-Kurki, J
Nösberger, G Parente, S Puzio, I Rhodes, C Robin, A Ryan, B Stäheli, S Stoffel, F Taube, J
Connolly (2001). Overwintering of Trifolium repens L. and Succeeding Spring Growth: II. A
model approach to plant-environment interactions. Annals of Botany, 88:xxx-xxx.
ГЃslaug HelgadГіttir, SigrГ­Г°ur DalmannsdГіttir, RP Collins, M Abberton (2001). Unsaturated
fatty acid analysis – a tool in white clover breeding for improved cold hardiness. XVIth
Eucarpia Congress: Plant Breeding – Sustaining the Future, 10-14 September 2001 (abstract).
ГЃslaug HelgadГіttir (2001). The role of introduced plant material for sustainable development
agriculture in northern areas. 4th Circumpolar Agricultural Association Conference, Akureyri,
27-29 August 2001 (abstract).
Dalmannsdottir S, Helgadottir A & Gudleifsson BE, 2000. Winter hardiness of white clover
(Trifolium repens). “Plant and Microbe Adaptations to Winter Environments in Northern
Areas”, NJF seminar no311, Akureyri, Iceland 19.-21. maí 2000. Bls.17. Abstract.
White clover Rhizobium symbiosis:
Svenning M. M., JГіn GuГ°mundsson, I-L Fagelri, P. Leinonen 2001. Competition for
Nodule Occupancy Between Strains of Rhizobium leguminosarum Biovar trifoli and
its Influence on Plant Production. Annals of Botany 88, 781-787
Svenning M. M., JГіn GuГ°mundsson, I-L Fagelri, P. Leinonen 2000. Interactions
between white clover (Trifolium repens L.) and different Rhizobium leguminosarum
biovar trifoli strains in Icelandic soil. Proceeding at Cost 814 Crop development for
cool and wet regions of Europe. Final Conference, Pordenone, Italy 10-13 May 2000
Management of clover, Nootka lupin and annual legumes.
Agricultural Research Institute Reykjavik. Experiment with white and red clover p. 25-32,
Nootka lupin p. 38-41 and Annual legumes p. 45-47 RALA report no. 205 Crop experiments
in 1999, in Icelandic.
The value of compost used in land reclamation
Agricultural Research Institute Reykjavik. RALA report no. 205 Crop experiments in 1999, p.
42, in Icelandic.
37
Characterization of plant residue quality for prediction of
decomposition and nitrogen release in agricultural soils
L.S. Jensen, B. Stenberg, T.A. Breland, T.M. Henriksen, F. Palmason, A Pedersen, T. Salo,
2001. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR) for characterization of plant residue quality. – A
new approach for predicting decomposition and nitrogen release in agricultural soils. 11th
Nitrogen Workshop. Book of Abstracts. 9-12 September 2001 Reims, Frakklandi, 107-108
Long term effects of sheep manure on cultivated hayfield; on yield,
macrofauna and soil respiration.
The Agricultural College Hvanneyri. [Long term effect of anmal manure] Report no. 24 1998,
p. 16-17, in Icelandic.
RГ­kharГ° BrynjГіlfsson 1992. [Two experiments with animal manure at Hvanneyri.] In The
utilization of animal manure. Report from the Agricultural College Hvanneyri. No. 1, p. 103112. In Icelandic.
Þröstur Aðalbjarnarson and Þorsteinn Guðmundsson 2002. Respiration in peat soil- the effect
of organic and artificial fertilizer. RГЎГ°unautafundur 2002, p. 285-288. In Icelandic.
Effect of slurry application on establishment and yield of timothy and
bent grass.
Production potential of warped meadows
HeiГ°rГєn FrГ­Г°a GrГ©tardГіttir and Гћorsteinn GuГ°mundsson 2002. [Warped meadows at HvГ­tГЎ.
Soil and yield.] RГЎГ°unautafundur 2002, p.281-284. In Icelandic.
Organic horticulture, espesially for home gardening, the cultivation of
berry bushes and trials for strains of agricultural crop plants.
Ongoing project.
Influence of direct injection of manure and seed on yield and soil
surface fauna.
New project 2002.
The projects above are not especially designed for organic agriculture but are also of
use for organic farmers e.g. the breeding and use of legumes, the use of manure and
the decomposition and nitrogen release from plant residues. Other studies, e.g. on fish
meal feeding to sheep, are relevant in this context too.
Main research centres and leading scientists carrying out research on
organic agriculture in Iceland
Hvanneyri Agricultural University, 311 Borgarnes
RГ­kharГ° BryjГіlfsson, Гћorsteinn GuГ°mundsson, ГЃsdГ­s Helga BjarnadГіttir
Agricultural Research Institute, Keldnaholt, 112 ReykjavГ­k
ГЃslaug HelgadГіttir, FriГ°rik PГЎlmason, JГіn GuГ°mundsson
Horticultural College, Reykjum, 810 HveragerГ°i
Sveinn Aðalsteinsson, Björn Gunnlaugsson
38
Other important issues in driving research on organic agriculture
A private support may be difficult to obtain in a small community like Iceland as long
as the production of organic agricultural products and the market for them is small.
However the market is growing.
One of the main reasons for the slow development of organic agriculture in Iceland is
probably the good reputation of conventional agriculture in the country with almost
no use of herbicides and pesticides and moderate use of inorganic fertilizers, the
greatest technical obstacle are, however, shortage of organic fertilizers and lack of
suitble legumes for crop rotations. It seems that only a offical policy increasing
support to organic agriculture can have an effect, provided there is also a market for
organic products. Moreover it would be helpful if offical policy targets were set.
Areas where there is scope for co-ordinating national programmes at
European level
For a small community like Iceland the participation in co-ordinated research
programmes has proven to be a valuable support for the development of research. But
it is most important that projects can be realized on a scale manageable for the smaller
countries, in relation tothe additive effects of expertise, exchange of ideas etc.
Important areas of research, which might benefit from co-ordination
1. Plant nutrient cycling. The maintenance and building up of soil fertility in
organic farming has to be based on incorporation of legumes in crop rotations
as well as the use of manure and composts. A long-term co-ordinated program
in this area on field or even farm level seems to be suited to organic farming.
The level of available phosphorous and other nutrients in soil should be
monitored over the years.
2. Legume projects. As listed above a Cost project dealing with overwintering
and yield of white clover has been going on. A continued research in this field
seems to be valuable for organic agriculture.
3. Projects in sheep production, horticulture and fish farming.
4. Marketing and distribution of organic products in rural areas e.g. in
relation to farm tourism
39
ICL Contribution – Appendix 1
Organic Agriculture under Northern Conditions - Iceland16
Г“lafur R. DГЅrmundsson, Farmers Association of Iceland
E-mail: ord@bondi.is
Summary
This workshop contribution reviews the scientific and technical prospects of organic
farming under Icelandic conditions with special reference to soil fertility, crop
production, rangeland management, animal husbandry and rural development. The
contribution is based on written information, interviews and personal experience.
Organic agriculture is still in its early stages of development in Iceland with only
some 40 farmers and processors involved in certified organic production. Although
organics still account for less than 1% of the total agricultural produce there appears
to be a scope for growth in several enterprises. Beginning with outdoor vegetable
growing and glasshouse production the range has extended into hay, silage, barley,
herbs, meat, milk, eggs, trees, flowers and seaweed products according to a national
law and regulations on organic agricultural production, within IFOAM and EU
frameworks. Other certified products are likely to follow in the future such as arctic
char, salmon and eiderdown. Recently there has been a growth in imports of organic
food, mainly of fruits not grown in Iceland. Although the growing season is short and
the climate is cool in Iceland, a mountainous country of 103.300 km2 just south of the
Arctic Circle, there is clearly great potential for the development of organic
agriculture in Iceland. For example, the use of drugs and agrochemicals is at low
levels and there is little pollution in a sparsely populated and isolated country, which
is free from several well-known animal and plant diseases. The standard of animal
welfare is generally high. On the other hand, there are several obstacles to be
overcome, for example, difficulties in growing legumes, such as clover, shortage of
organic fertilisers and feeds, soil erosion in some parts of the country and reluctance
to accept organic growing practices. The enhanced interest in the conversion to
organic farming practices in all parts of Iceland is indeed a great challenge to the
scientific community to seek sustainable solutions to such problems. This is reflected
in certain measures to strengthen research, development, teaching and advisory work
and parallel to this progress special efforts are being made to promote and market
ecolabelled produce. More financial resources are needed, however, to accelerate the
development of the organic sector. Since sustainable agriculture is on the agenda of
the Government of Iceland, it is logical to believe that greater attention will be paid to
organic farming in the future. Furthermore, official policy of quality control in all
branches of agriculture should benefit the organic sector with its favourable public
image. Rural depopulation is a major problem in Iceland. Ways and means are being
sought to provide stable employment based on local resources. The development of
organic production can certainly be one means of strengthening farming communities
and local processing industries throughout Iceland. A growing market in which fair
prices are paid is vital in the light of increasing globalisation and stronger competition
in all sectors of the national economy.
16
- Proceedings from the the 13th International Scientific Conference, IFOAM 2000, Basel
Switzerland
40
Introduction
Iceland is probably better known in the world for volcanoes, glaciers and fishing than
2
for agriculture. However, on this mountainous island of 103.300 km just south of the
Arctic Circle on the western edge of Europe, with a population of 270.000, agriculture
is of great importance. Thus the 4000 farmers of Iceland produce sufficient food of
animal origin for the domestic market, and some for export, as well as substantial
amounts of vegetables, partly in geothermally heated glasshouses. Although organic
agriculture is still at the early stages of development in Iceland there appears to be a
great potential for its development. This presentation reviews the scientific and
technical prospects for organic farming under Icelandic conditions with special
reference to soil fertility, crop production, rangeland management and animal
husbandry.
Climate
Due to the warming effect of the Gulf Stream the climate of Iceland is not as cold as
its name and global position suggest. However, the summer may be described as
short and cool. There is considerable variation in temperature within the country and
more so in precipitation, as shown in Table 1.
Table 1
Temperature and precipitation at four locations in Iceland
Mean annual
Mean Temperature (0C)
precipitation
Location
(mm)
January
July
Year
South
-0,4
11,3
4,8
1261
East
-1,6
10,4
3,6
679
North
-2,1
10,4
3,4
474
West
-1,3
9,9
3,7
704
(Source: The Icelandic Meteorolgical Bureau)
In fact, rangeland vegetation in the highlands of the Northeast may even suffer from
droughts at times. More than half of the total area of Iceland is 400 m or more above
sea level and the effect of climatic variation on vegetation growth at varying altitudes
(1) and on carrying capacity of rangeland pastures (2) has been clearly demonstrated.
Soil
In geological terms Iceland is a young country where volcanic eruptions, on the
average once every five years in historic times, greatly influence both the formation
and nature of soils. Such soils are fragile and susceptible to erosion and they are
generally characterised by a coarse and weak structure. Contents of both clay and
organic matter are normally low. However, peat bog soils, where a large proportion
of the cultivation has taken place, are high in organic matter (3, 4). For the cultivation
of grass and other arable crops Icelandic soils are by and large deficient in the basic
soil nutrients N, P and K, and the same applies to rangeland soils with the exception
that the K content is normally satisfactory for the natural vegetation growing there.
Soil erosion, mainly due to wind and water, has for centuries been and still is, a major
problem, particularly in the rangeland areas of the greatest volcanic activity stretching
from the Southwest to the Northeast (5). Since relatively small areas of cultivated
41
land are ploughed up per year soil erosion in Iceland is generally looked upon as a
rangeland problem only. There are, however, cases of soil erosion on arable land,
particularly where potatoes are grown continuously on sandy soils (6).
Vegetation
The Icelandic flora comprises relatively few plant species due to the isolation of the
country, harsh climate and short growing season. Furthermore, the soil erosion has in
many areas resulted in widespread deterioration of the natural vegetation (7). Table 2
shows that large areas of the country are poorly vegetated.
Table 2.
Categories
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Vegetation cover of Iceland
km2
Good vegetation cover
Fairly good vegetation cover
Rather sparse cover
Sparse cover
Gravel and boulders
Sand and lava
Glaciers
Lakes and rivers
Total land area
(Source: The Iceland Geodetic Survey)
14.500
14.000
15.600
8.300
14.700
22.600
11.300
2.300
Vegetation
(chlorophyll reflection)
more than 75%
more than 50%
more than 33%
more than 10%
very little
very little
none
none
103.300
However, most of the cultivated land and large rangeland areas in all parts of the
country have a potential for certified organic agricultural production. On the
rangelands where native grasses and sedges are the most important grazing plants, no
fertilisers are applied. On the cultivated land which is only 1% of the total land area
and most of which is used for hay and silage making, sown imported grass species
such as Timothy (Phleum pratense) dominate the sward and fertilisers are applied
annually. Common application rates for hayfields are 100 kg N, 20 kg P and 50 kg K
per hectare, they are somewhat higher for arable crops such as Italian ryegrass,
turnips, potatoes, cabbages and carrots but barley grown for grain production receives
lower N rates (8). A rough estimate of the national fertiliser usage is 80% artificial
fertilisers and 20% organic fertilisers, mainly farmyard manure (9).
Agricultural production
Although the human population of Iceland has more than doubled over the last 50
years and the number of farmers has fallen considerably, agricultural production has
for several years been more than sufficient to meet domestic market demand for
livestock products such as meat, milk and eggs and there is a growing supply of
vegetables and barley. The use of geothermally heated glasshouses enables farmers in
some districts to grow a wider range of crops such as cucumbers, tomatoes and
peppers. Table 3 below summarises the estimated proportional value of agricultural
products in Iceland. It underlines the fact that grassland-based enterprises, mainly
cattle and sheep production, are of the utmost importance.
42
Table 3
Estimated value of agricultural products
Production sector
Value
Cattle
40%
Sheep
20%
Horses
5%
Pigs
6%
Poultry
8%
Vegetables
7%
Aquaculture
5%
Eiderdown, fur animals,
farm tourism + misc. enterprises
9%
Total
100%
(Source: The Farmers Association of Iceland)
Organic farming
Having summarised some important background features of Icelandic agriculture and
the natural resources it is based on I shall now discuss the development and future
prospects of organic farming in the country. Although organic growing has only
attracted widespread attention in recent years it should be kept in mind that Icelandic
agriculture was largely based on organic principles until the middle of the 20th
century. Moreover, the influence of Rudolf Steiner reached Iceland just after 1930
when a young lady, Sesselja Sigmundsdóttir, who had studied at Rudolf Steiner’s
centre in Dornach in Switzerland, started growing vegetables biodynamically at
SГіlheimar Farm in South-Iceland. During the intervening period only a few pioneers
have practiced recognised organic growing but since 1992 the tide has been turning
(10). A total of 40 organic farmers and processors have been certified since 1994 of
whom 2 are biodynamic. From 1994-1996 the Soil Association in the United
Kingdom undertook organic inspection and certification in Iceland on a temporary
basis but since 1996 Icelandic inspection and certification services have been
provided by two verifying agencies registered according to a new law and regulations.
Due attention has been given to both IFOAM Basic Standards and EU Regulations as
well as to organic standards from several countries in Europe and North -America.
The text of the regulations is available in both Icelandic and English (11). Amongst
other important steps taken to strengthen the development of organic farming in
recent years are the foundation of the National Association of Organic Farmers VOR
in 1993, the establishment of the Ministry of Agriculture Advisory Committee on
Organic Agriculture in 1996 and the Council for Science and Technology in Organic
Agriculture in 1997. Although detailed official records are lacking on the quantity
and market value of Icelandic organics, it can be safely stated that it still accounts for
less than 1% of the total agricultural produce but the demand is gradually growing.
Imports have been increasing in recent years, mainly of fruit and vegetable products,
but as yet only organic lamb and seaweed products have been exported.
Positive aspects
In 1995 an ad hoc working group looking into the scientific and technical prospects of
organic farming under Icelandic conditions presented a report to the Minister of
Agriculture. Both advantages and restrictions were addressed in an objective way
43
(12). Subsequently, the Council for Science and Technology in Organic Agriculture
studied the research needs in more detail and in 1998 proposed the following research
priorities (13):
•
•
•
•
•
Supply and utilisation of organic fertilisers for crop production, including
glasshouse cultivation
Breeding and growing legumes suitable for Icelandic climatic conditions
Control of pests and diseases in crops and livestock
Development and adaptation of suitable machinery and buildings for organic
farms
Economic aspects of organic farming, including marketing.
Recent student projects at university and college levels have also helped to analyse
the present situation and to identify the main areas of research and development
needed to realise the potential of organic agriculture under Icelandic conditions
(14,15,16,17,18,19,20). Overseas visitors from several countries, including highly
fruitful contacts with the IFOAM, have also helped us to evaluate our place in the
organic world. Although the cool climate puts Iceland at a certain disadvantage as far
as crop production is concerned it benefits organic husbandry from the point of view
that there are fewer animal and plant diseases and those present are generally less
severe than in most others countries. Isolation, sparse population and low levels of
polluting industrial activity have indeed contributed beneficially to this situation.
Thus the use of drugs and agrochemicals is at low levels in conventional agriculture
and pollution of soil, air, water and agricultural products, of both plant and animal
origin, is minimal. Thus levels of contaminants, for example of cadmium, are
negligible (21). Amongst other positive aspects which facilitate organic conversion
are the use of geothermally heated glasshouses, plenty of good water, long daily
photoperiod in summer, ample supply of pollution-free hydroelectric power, mixed enterprise family farming with high dependence on local resources still dominant, the
standard of animal welfare is generally high, individual identification and recording of
livestock is common, livestock markets don’t exist and thus slaughter animals are
transported direct from the farm where they are reared from birth to the abattoirs,
there is a high standard of hygiene and supervision in abattoirs including systematic
meat inspection and classification and in the dairies too, great emphasis is placed on
quality control in processing and distribution. It should also be emphasised that
livestock production is to a large extent based on free-range grassland utilisation and
is characterised by locally adapted native breeds in which a high degree of genetic
diversity is maintained. Last, but not least, looking at the positive side, it is important
to keep in mind that the level of education amongst farmers is generally high and,
moreover, agricultural research, teaching and advisory services are based on a strong
tradition.
Restrictions
It is abundantly clear that during the latter half of the 20th century agricultural
production in Iceland has depended heavily on the use of artificial fertilisers for
cultivated land, mainly on grass for hay and silage making and for some arable crops,
as indicated above. Little attention has been paid to organic fertilisers during this
period. The dependence on artificial fertilisers and lack of sufficient quantities of
organic fertilisers are by far the most difficult obstacles to a large-scale conversion to
organic farming in Iceland (12,13). More precisely, the main bottleneck is the supply
44
of N. This situation is aggravated by difficulties in growing nitrogen fixing legumes,
such as white clover in hay fields, mainly due to the cool climate. Shortage of P is
likely to be a limiting factor on certain soils, for example, on peat bogs in WestIceland, while the K content is probably sufficient in most cases. Consequently, a
greater input of organic fertilisers is required, for example, in order to produce enough
certified organic hay and silage for winter feeding of livestock undergoing organic
conversion. Provision of shelter, particularly for arable crops, would improve
growing conditions considerably, especially on the exposed lowlands in SouthIceland. Thus the growing of shelter-belts should be included in organic conversion
plans and on farms where soil erosion problems exist special revegetation efforts
would be needed to fulfil requirements of sustainability (22).
Crop production
While the rangeland pastures, which are mainly utilised for sheep and horses, should
be looked upon as sustainable resources without any external input of fertilisers, the
relatively small area of cultivated land requires fertilisation if acceptable yields are to
be obtained as pointed out above. Grass for conservation as hay and increasingly as
roller - bale silage, is the main crop, and these fields which are seldom ploughed up
are also to a certain extent utilised for grazing, especially for cattle. The hay-fields
are supplemented by arable crops such as spring sown Italian ryegrass, rape, oats,
barley and fodder turnips. The most important vegetables grown outdoors are
potatoes, carrots, turnips, cabbages and cauliflower as well as herbs and rhubarb while
the most prominent glasshouse crops are cucumbers, tomatoes, peppers and a wide
range of flowers. Most of these crops are already grown organically on a small scale
and the products have been well received by the market. A review of the scientific
literature in Iceland shows clearly that throughout this century much research has
been devoted to the use of farmyard manure, fish meal, seaweed meal and the
growing of various legumes (23,24,25,26,27,28,29,30). Much of the early work
carried out before the use of artificial fertilisers became widespread is certainly
relevant today since the results may be applied in organic growing. At present much
emphasis is placed on legume research ranging from indigenous white clover to
imported red clover and lupines. This work was highlighted at a symposium held at
the Agricultural Research Institute in April 1996. Amongst recent projects on sources
of organic fertilisers are the use of fish offal (31), composting of urban waste (32,33)
and the use of mushroom compost in glasshouse production (34). Attention has also
been paid to possibilities of processing slaughterhouse waste into organic fertilisers
(12). Ideally the supply of organic fertilisers should be increased substantially so as
to replace artificial fertilisers on a large scale and it would be a major breakthrough if
persistent and high yielding nitrogen fixing legumes could be grown in hay-fields and
introduced into rotations with grasses, root-crops and cereals. Linked with the
growing of trees in shelterbelts, mainly birch and willow species, the conditions for
organic farming would improve substantially. It should be noted that there are ample
sources of calcium from sea-shells and seaweed is plentiful in Iceland whereas no
phosphate rock is found in the country. The application of biological control of pests
in glasshouses, now widely practiced in Iceland, clearly fits well into organic
horticulture (35).
Animal production
The development of certified organic livestock production is lagging somewhat
behind that of crop production as in other countries but there are signs of progress,
45
particularly as far as sheep are concerned (36,37,38). So far the only certified
livestock products are lamb, beef, milk and eggs, all on a small scale. Other products
may be certified in the near future such as arctic char, eider-down and horse meat. As
a consequence of the shortage of plant nutrients in an organic form the main problem
facing conversion of livestock enterprises is lack of sufficient certified organic hay
and silage for winterfeeding of cattle, sheep and horses (12). Furthermore, poultry
and pig production in particular face severe restrictions due to the small amount of
certified organic grain available in the country. Compounding of livestock rations
will on the other hand not be limited by protein availability as fishmeal, mainly
processed from filleting offal and fish not fit for human consumption, is an excellent
source of certified organic protein supplement (39). Fields in conversion and certified
organic fields tend to give lower yields of hay and silage and in some cases with
lower nutritive value than conventional fields, especially during the first few years
after conversion starts (15). However, long-term experiments indicate promising
results in organically grown hay-fields where sheep-dung is applied (40) but it is clear
that a conversion period of at least 5-10 years is needed in the cool Icelandic climate
(40,41). On some farms the supplies of hay and silage certified to organic standards
may be increased by the utilisation of natural meadows where sedges dominate
(Carex species). As a matter of fact, most of the hay fed to Icelandic sheep and
horses until 40-50 years ago was harvested from such meadows without the use of any
fertilisers. Meadows were commonly warped with water containing sediment from
rivers and streams (42,43,44). Although yields and nutritive value of meadow hay are
generally lower than of hay from cultivated fields (42,45) palatability and intakes are
normally satisfactory. Since most of the meadows are on wetlands some specialised
machinery may be needed to make their utilisation practical again and I believe this
should be looked into. Grazing on natural rangelands as practiced in Iceland is in
most cases in good harmony with organic husbandry. Excellent growth rates of lambs
and foals are achieved and parasite infection is not a problem under such extensive
conditions (46,47). Grazing on intensively grazed cultivated land would, however,
require careful planning in an organic farming system (48). Seaweed (wrack) foraging
of sheep and horses can supplement organic fodder in winter on several coastal farms
(39). It is clear that organic conversion will require some modifications in health
control, veterinary treatment and in housing facilities, especially in cattle, pig and
poultry units.
Rural development
The decline of the rural population is viewed with great concern in Iceland and this
development is directly linked with a substantial reduction in sheep numbers and
production since the late 1970s (38). It is vitally important to seek ways and means of
providing stable employment based on local resources and I am one of those who
share the view that conversion to organic farming is a step in that direction. This
would be in harmony with the official policy of quality control in all branches of
agriculture and may place farm produce in a stronger marketing position (49). The
public image of organics is certainly favourable and the market is expanding. The
environmental benefits of organic agriculture are obvious and the conversion process
can, for example, be linked with green tourism, farm holiday services, eco-village
development, permaculture, forestry and soil conservation (22, 50). Ideally the
processing of organic farm produce should take place locally. Thus in my opinion the
official policy of reducing substantially the number of slaughterhouses and dairies
should be reviewed with this in mind. As organic agriculture is in its infancy in
46
Iceland with few and scattered producers better organisation of processing and
marketing is urgently needed.
Conclusions
Sustainable development is on the agenda of the Government of Iceland. Moreover,
organic farming is normally looked upon as sustainable agriculture in practice
(51,52,53). Thus I consider it logical to support the view that an organic grant scheme
should be established comparable to such schemes in the other Nordic countries.
Some support is already available but a greater effort is needed to stimulate the
conversion process. Furthermore, greater attention should be paid to the potential of
organic agriculture under Icelandic conditions. I consider conversion to organic
farming practices in all parts of Iceland a great challenge to the scientific community
as viable biological and technical solutions need to be sought to solve certain
problems discussed above. These may lead to some modifications in existing farming
systems, for example, in sheep production (54). We know that conversion of
cultivated land to organic standards takes a long time due to the cool climate, some
soil types may not be suitable for organic growing and it is abundantly clear that the
supply of organic plant nutrients must be increased substantially. At least some of the
experimental results already available, for example, on the utilisation of farmyard
manure and the growing of legumes, may be applied at farm level and also used in the
planning of new research projects on organic farming. Research, teaching and
advisory work must focus much more on organic agriculture than hitherto and I am
pleased to be able to report here that certain positive developments are taking place in
that area in co-operation with organic farmers. Being the first and still the only
official adviser on organic farming in Iceland I look forward with optimism because I
have come to the conclusion that organic agriculture is the way to go into the future.
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Hermannsson, J. (1986). RannsГіknir ГЎ belgjurtum hГ©rlendis. ГЌ: NГЅting
belgjurta á Íslandi. Fjölrit RALA nr. 121, 5-14.
Гћorvaldsson, G. (1993). Belgjurtir ГЎ ГЌslandi. RГЎГ°unautafundur 1993, 20-26.
48
(29) Sveinbjörnsson, J. (1997). Ræktun og nýting rauðsmára við íslenskar aðstæður.
(Summary in English: Cultivation and utilization of red clover in Iceland).
BГєvГ­sindi 11, 49-74.
(30) Guðmundsson, Þ. (1999). Næringarefni í jarðvegi - IV. Nýting næringarefna og
áburðar í lífrænum landbúnaði. Freyr 95 (11), 25-31.
(31) Árnason, H. (1993). Lífrænn áburður úr fiskslógi. Rannsóknastofnun
fiskiГ°naГ°arins, skГЅrsla nr. 26, 12 bls.
(32) Jónsson, B.G. (1996). Lífrænn úrgangur: Vannýtt auðlind sveitarfélaga.
SveitarstjГіrnarmГЎl 56 (1), 14-19.
(33) DГЅrmundsson, Г“.R. (1999). The current situation concerning the use of
municipal organic waste in Iceland. Proceedings of NJF-seminar No. 292: Use
of Municipal Organic Waste, Agricultural Research Centre, Jokioinen, Finland,
November 23-25, 1998. Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences Report, No.
13 Plant Production, June 1999, 2nd volume, 19-22.
(34) Gunnlaugsson, B. (1995). Sveppamassi sem áburðargjafi í lífrænni ylræktun Forathugun 1995. Garðyrkjuskóli ríkisins á Reykjum í Ölfusi. Garðyrkjufréttir
nr. 195, 5 bls.
(35) Árnason, G. (1993). Lífrænar varnir í garðyrkju. Ráðunautafundur 1993, 3649.
(36) DГЅrmundsson, Г“.R. (1996). The potential of organic sheep farming in Iceland.
Proceedings of INTERNORDEN XXIV, Sheep in Organic Farming,
Koldkærgaard Landboskole, Denmark, 27-29 June 1996, 131-137.
(37) Óladóttir, A. (1998). Möguleikar á lífrænni sauðfjárrækt í Strandasýslu. Skýrsla
unnin fyrir HГ©raГ°snefnd StrandasГЅslu og AtvinnurГЎГ°gjafa VestfjarГ°a 19971998, 63 bls.
(38) DГЅrmundsson, Г“.R. (2000). Sheep and goat farming in Iceland - a summary of
the situation in 2000. INTERNORDEN XXVI, Planteforsk TjГёtta fagsenter,
Norway, 21-26 June 2000. Mimeograph 13 pp.
(39) DГЅrmundsson, Г“.R. (1996). Using the sea as a resource for animal agriculture
in Iceland. Journal of the University of Wales Agricultural Society 75, 63-76.
(40) BrynjГіlfsson, R. (1999a)
LangtГ­maГЎhrif bГєfjГЎrГЎburГ°ar. TilraunaskГЅrsla
Bændaskólans á Hvanneyri 1998. Fjölrit Búvísindadeildar nr. 24, 16-17.
(41) Brynjólfsson, R. (1999b). Niðurstöður rannsókna á Hvanneyri á síðasta ári.
Bændablaðið, 1. tbl., 5. árg. þriðjudagur 19. janúar 1999, 7.
(42) Óskarsson, M. & Dýrmundsson, Ó.R. (1997). Sauðfé og engjarækt. Freyr 93
(6), 252-254.
(43) Hauksson, M. (1997). Saga ГЃveitufГ©lags ГћingbГєa. Fyrri hluti. HГєnavaka 37,
119-139.
(44) Hauksson, M. (1998). Saga ГЃveitufГ©lags ГћingbГєa. Seinni hluti. HГєnavaka 38,
112-128.
(45) Г“lafsson, G. (1976). Uppskera og fГіГ°urgildi gulstarar. Freyr 72 (11-12), 224227 & 238.
(46) GuГ°mundsson, Г“. & DГЅrmundsson, Г“.R. (1989). Grazing and lamb growth. In:
Reproduction, Growth and Nutrition in Sheep. Dr. HalldГіr PГЎlsson Memorial
Symposium, 147-168. Ed.: Г“.R. DГЅrmundsson & S. Гћorgeirsson. The
Agricultural Society of Iceland & the Agricultural Research Institute,
ReykjavГ­k.
(47) GuГ°mundsson, Г“. & DГЅrmundsson, Г“.R. (1994). Horse grazing under cold and
wet conditions: a review. Livestock Production Science 40, 57-63, Special
49
Issue, Horse breeding and production in cold climatic regions. EAAP
Publication No. 3/94, Elsevier.
(48) DГЅrmundsson, Г“.R., Richter, S.H. & JГіnmundsson, J.V. (1997).
TГєnbeitartilraunir meГ° sauГ°fГ© og kГЎlfa ГЎ Hvanneyri sumurin 1975-1979.
(Summary in English: Grazing experiments with sheep and calves on cultivated
grassland at Hvanneyri during the summers of 1975-1979). BГєvГ­sindi 10, 219240.
(49) DГЅrmundsson, Г“.R. (1997). Environmentally - linked quality control of
Icelandic agricultural production. Proceedings of NJF-seminar No. 279:
Kvalitets - och miljöstyring inom lantbruket sett ur rådgivningsperspektiv,
Arctia Hotel Ateljee, Г…bo, Finland, November 5-7, 1997. NJFutredning/rapport, No. 122, 28-30.
(50) DГЅrmundsson, Г“.R. (1995).
Tengjum græna ferðamennsku lífrænum
landbГєnaГ°i. Freyr 91 (7), 288 & 287.
(51) Lampkin; N.H. (1994). Organic farming: sustainable agriculture in practice,
chapter 1, p. 3-9. In: The Economics of Organic Farming - an International
Perspective. Ed.: N.H. Lampkin & S. Padel. CAP International, Wallingford,
U.K.
(52) DГЅrmundsson, Г“.R. (1995). Is organic agriculture compatible with economic
efficiency? The Nordic Association of Agricultural Scientists (NJF) 20th
Congress, ReykjavГ­k, Iceland 26-29 June 1995, 6 pp. Summary: Nordisk
jordbruksforskning 77 (2), 201.
(53) DГЅrmundsson, Г“.R. (1997). Is organic agriculture compatible with economic
efficiency? Ecology and Farming 15. May-August 1997, 26-27.
(54) Sveinbjörnsson, J. & Einarsson, G. (1998). Comparison of a high-input versus
low-input system for Icelandic sheep production. Icelandic Agricultural
Sciences 12, 3-13.
For further information on organic farming in Iceland see the Farmers Association
webpage: www.bondi.is
50
IRELAND
Research Programme in Organic Agriculture in Ireland
1.
Current/Planned Research
Teagasc – the Agriculture and Food Development Authority – is the main body
carrying out research in organic agriculture and food production in Ireland.
Teagasc is currently undertaking the following publicly funded research projects in
the area:
•
Assessing the agronomic and economic performance of an organic liquid
milk system
Abstract:
The objectives of this project are to develop blueprints for organic milk production
and to assess the profitability of organic compared with conventional dairy production
systems. A farm systems approach is adopted to examine the effect of stocking rate
and feed supply in an organic dairy production system. Within this, research is
evaluating grass quality, nutrient cycling, milk quality and protocols for disease
control in cows (especially mastitis).
•
Improving the yield and quality of arable crops in organic production
systems
Abstract:
The ability of Ireland to supply organic arable products to meet future market
requirements depends on the provision of more scientific quantitative information on
the production and performance over time for these crops. The primary objective is
to increase the yield and quality of cereal/protein crops grown organically. Two
aspects of grain production will be evaluated, namely a comparison of cereal species
and an evaluation of varieties within each species. Once completed, sowing date and
seed rate aspects of the system will be evaluated. An eighteen-hectare site will be set
aside for conversion to organic production in Oak Park. A single stockless 7-year
rotation: winter wheat, potatoes, oats, legume, spring barley, followed by two years’
grass/clover with three replicates ley will be established. A baseline study on the soil
fertility, structure, etc., as well as key fauna constituents, will be carried out and
changes over time will be monitored. Within each crop, key agronomic factors, such
as variety, seed-rate, date of sowing, weed control and disease effects will be
evaluated.
•
Overcoming barriers to organic food production in the European Union
through market for conversion products
Abstract:
Current research suggests that the decision by agricultural producers to convert to
organic production is highly dependent on financial incentives and perceptions of the
market for organic products as being profitable. This project will provide an overview
of the current situation for organic production in five EU member states. It will also
51
examine the main economic and motivational decisions undertaken by farmers
considering converting to organic production. Farmers, retailers and consumers will
be interviewed with a view to identifying relevant marketing channels and the nature
and magnitude of consumer demand for organic and in-conversion organic products.
The main barriers to organic conversion will become evident and ultimately this
project will generate recommendations to policy-makers regarding the facilitation of
conversion to organic methods of production.
•
Use of functional ingredients to improve organic bakery products
Abstract:
There is an increase in consumer demand for organic products, which has been fuelled
by concerns over health and food safety and the desire to avoid GM foodstuffs. In the
production of organic bakery products there is a shortage of suitable organic
ingredients. Product development and production is thus hindered resulting in the fact
that demand for organic bakery products far outstrips supply. Know how is
fragmented on the functionality of novel organic ingredients (used as replacements for
conventional ingredients), difficult to come by and, for commercial reasons, is not
always shared. This problem will be overcome by identifying functional ingredients
that would be suitable and acceptable in an organic regime for bakery products and by
improving the quality of organic flour where necessary. The suitability of these
ingredients will be assessed by the production of a range of acceptable and quality
breads (yeast, sourdough and soda) and confectionery. The extension of the shelf-life
of such products will be achieved through the use of packaging and/or preservatives.
A technical manual will also be prepared for the production of organic bakery
products to include novel ingredients, which will be of practical use to the baking and
milling industries as well as ingredient suppliers.
•
The economic performance and viability of the main alternative livestock
enterprises
Abstract:
Conventional agriculture will not achieve the national policy aim of maintaining the
rural population. Increased attention to alternative enterprise development, including
organic production, is vital for rural viability. Potential entrepreneurs need reliable
marketing, financial and technical data on the establishment of these new enterprises.
The main alternative enterprises will be investigated to establish the rate of uptake
and factors affecting uptake, establishment costs, output, production costs and profit
margins. In addition, problems encountered in developing new enterprises will be
identified, as well as the main sources of information and market outlets for new
products arising from these enterprises. Data will be collected on an ongoing basis
from a random sample of producers who have diversified.
The overall budget for these projects is €2,500,000 over three years.
52
University College Cork is undertaking the following research project:
•
Eating quality and consumer perception of organic and conventionally
reared meats
Abstract:
Beef and poultry will be reared by conventional and organic methods to determine the
degree and nature of the differences between the meats. Factors affecting the eating
quality and consumer perception will also be assessed. Samples will be evaluated
under a variety of storage and packaging conditions and indices of quality such as
colour stability, drip loss, water-holding capacity, lipid oxidation and sensory
characteristics will be measured.
The overall budget for this project is €300,000 over three years.
2.
Research Centres/Scientists
Teagasc-The Agriculture and Food Development Authority – is the main body
carrying out research on organic agriculture in Ireland.
The principal Teagasc scientists involved and their locations are as follows:
Dr Noel Culleton, Teagasc, Johnstown Castle, Wexford.
nculleton@johnstown.teagasc.ie
Mr Jim Crowley, Teagasc, Oak Park, Carlow.
Jcrowley@oakpark.teagasc.ie
Mr Cathal Cowan, Teagasc, The National Food Centre, Dunsinea, Castleknock,
Dublin 15.
c.cowan@nfc.teagasc.ie
Dr Eimear Gallagher, Teagasc, The National Food Centre, Dunsinea, Castleknock,
Dublin 15.
e.gallagher@nfc.teagasc.ie
Mr Liam Connolly, Teagasc, Athenry, Co Galway.
Lconnolly@athenry.teagasc.ie
Teagasc operates two small organic units for research purposes within larger farms,
one at Johnstown Castle (50 Ha.) devoted to organic milk and one at Oak Park (18
Ha) devoted to organic crop production. The organisation has also converted the farm
at its agricultural college in Athenry, Co. Galway and this is being used for training in
organic production.
53
3.
Other Drivers of Research
Research is being driven, to a certain extent, by the demands of existing organic
producers and also by those producers who are considering organic production in
response to changes in the CAP and incentives available under the Rural
Environmental Protection Scheme (REPS). The Report of the Organic Development
Committee (April 2002), established by the Minister of State at the Department of
Agriculture, Food and Rural Development, will form an important driver for research
in the sector in the future. Amongst other issues, the Report recommended that
Teagasc should carry out a commercial appraisal on the key products within the main
organic food sectors. It also recommended that sufficient funding be made available
to enable research to target a list of priority topics. The Report identified traceability
in organic systems and the clear identification of veterinary and chemical products as
matters of high importance across all areas of organic farming.
4.
Co-ordination at a European Level
We suggest that co-ordination of activities could be considered in the following
specific areas:
•
•
•
•
5.
Management of soil fertility in organic systems
Animal health management
Ecological and biodiversity elements of organic farming systems
Economic and marketing of organic production and food products.
Research Effects on Policy and Production Levels
Given the small scale of the research undertaken to date in Ireland, it is not possible to
detect any direct effect of research on the national policy agenda on organic farming.
However, Teagasc does contribute to the ongoing policy debate and was represented
on the Organic Development Committee referred to above.
Overall there is an information deficit in the Irish organic sector and this seriously
inhibits the development of the sector. The Report of the Organic Development
Committee stated that “the primary producer needs up to date technical information
based on sound research findings to ensure optimum production. Market information
needs to be managed to provide appropriate information to producers, processors,
distributors, buyers and retailers in the organic sector. Information on the supply base
and market demand at retail level needs to be analysed and communicated to all the
links in the supply chain. The information needs of the consumer must also be
addressed. Such information would facilitate greater co-ordination in the organic
sector and could provide the catalyst for the necessary development of the production,
processing and distribution sectors.”
54
ISRAEL
Research in Organic Agriculture in Israel
Organic farming is one of the fastest growing sectors of the Israeli agriculture.
Awareness of customers in Israel and in the traditional markets for produce in Europe
and the United States to food safety greatly enhanced to trend to encourage the
transition to organic farming. However, the geographical position of Israel (between
three differing continents, Asia, Europe and Africa) and the variable climate
conditions (ranging from Mediterranean to arid and semi-tropical) expose the organic
growers to more severe epidemics of pests and disease agents than for European
growers.
Therefore, the Chief Scientist of the Ministry of Agriculture declares a Call for
Research Proposals in the field of Organic Farming every year. The call for proposal
deals with three key issues:
1. Pre- and post harvest protection of organic crops against pests and disease
agents.
2. Development of appropriate organic plant nutrition adapted to various sites in
the country, various soils and under the extreme water shortage conditions of
the Israeli agriculture.
3. Development of the organic farming technology in protected crops and in
open fields
The main research centers are:
1. The Agricultural Research organisation, in the Volcani Center, in Newe yaar
and in Gilat www.agri.gov.il). This center carries out most of the research in
organic agriculture in Israel.
2. The Faculty of Agriculture of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem
www.agri.huji.ac.il. This is the principal school for advanced studies in
agriculture in Israel including courses on Organic Farming and Crop
Protection.
3.
Regional research farms found in the periphery of the countries where most of
the organic field experiments are carried out.
4. Additional research is carried out by individual researchers in the Tel Aviv
University and the Ben-Gurion University and the Northern MIGAL Research
Center.
The Chief Scientist of the Ministry of Agriculture appointed a Steering Committee for
Organic Agriculture (SCOA) in 1998. The SCOA received more than 80 research preproposals since 1998 and approved 15. The funded proposals were on the following
subjects:
1. Integrated control of pests and diseases and nutrition of vegetables grown in
protective ambient (2,000,000 US$).
2. Control of soil-borne disease agents in protected organic crops using cover crops
and rotation (200,000 US$).
55
3. Sustainable farming for an organic fruit plantation 200,000 US$.
4. Integrated approaches to prevent decay and improved post harvest storage of
organic produce 100,000 US$
5. Effects of compost on the populations of bacteria involved in nitrification and
nitrogen fixation. This means funding in average of 150,000 US$ every year or a total
of 700,000 US$ in the last 4 years. To this figure, one should add the man/month
costs of the tenure track personnel, which are also nearly 150,000 a year. Thus the
total investment in organic R & D is approximately 300,000 every year.
In addition to the research that is directly aimed at organic agriculture, the Chief
Scientist of the Ministry of Agriculture is funding R & D such as: Reduction of
Pesticides use, Alternatives to Methyl Bromide, Crop Protected management,
Perennial Crops, Post harvest Technology etc. Organic growers benefit from these
studies as well. In those studies, taken together, the investment indirectly contributing
to organic agriculture amounts to 200,000 US$ every year.
Prof. Dan Levanon
Chief Scientist
Ministry of Agriculture
Bet Dagan
Israel
danl@moag.gov.il
Prof. B. Raccah
Chairman, Steering Committee
Organic Agriculture R & D
Bet Dagan
Israel
braccah@volcani.agri.gov.il
56
ITALY
Organic Farming: some Italian statistics
Italy ranks first in Europe in terms of agricultural surface of Organic Farming (OF)
followed by Germany, UK, Spain, France and Austria. The first organic products are
cereals, in North Europe animal breeding and milk production is increasing, whereas
South Europe offers more fresh (fruits and vegetables) or transformed organic
products (wine, oil, pasta, cheese).
Italian OF is increasing in both surface and farms number (Tables 1, 2 and 3). The
total number of operators was 49.188 in 1999 and 51.552 at the end of 2000.
The total OF surface (already OF plus in conversion), is about 1.000.000 hectares
corresponding to 7,2% of the total national Cultivated Surface.
The main crops are forages (402.086 ha), cereals (194.616 ha), pastures (156.826 ha),
followed by olive, vineyard, fruits (19%), other industrial crops (6%).
Tab. 1 – Organic Farming in Europe
Country
Surface (ha)
1998
1999
2000
345.375
345.375
287.900
Belgium
6.418
11.350
15.640
Denmark
64.329
160.369
146.685
Finland
125.550
133.000
147.423
France
120.241
234.800
316.000
Germany
351.062
416.318
452.279
Greece
6.000
14.628
20.362
Ireland
23.591
28.704
31.856
788.070
953.057
958.687
625
742
850
Holland
17.500
22.120
25.300
Portugal
11.584
29.533
47.974
United Kingdom
54.270
291.538
380.000
Span
152.105
269.465
352.164
Sweden
118.175
127.000
155.000
2.031.760
2.970.155
3.338.120
Austria
Italy
Luxembourg
TOTALE
data Söl-Erhebung, February 2001
57
Table 2 – Organic Farms in Italy (1993-2000)
Numero aziende
60,000
49,188 51,552
43,698
50,000
40,000
31,118
30,000
10,000
Aziende biologiche
17,393
20,000
9,042
10,851
4,189
0
1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000
Table 3 – Organic farming surface in Italy (1993-2000)
Italy
North
Centre
South
Islands
total Surface (ha)
Organic + Conversion
183.806
148.976
266.865
469.692
17.2
13,9
25,0
43,9
1.069.339
100
Totale
%
Bio-Bank, December 2000
Italian Research Centres
Universities (Department)
Milano
Padova
Ancona
Perugia
Pisa
Camerino
Palermo
DIPROVE
DIAAPV
DIBAGA
DSEE
DIAGAE
DISV
DESAF
(Prof. Stefano Bocchi ,Prof. Mario Pirani)
(Prof. Maurizio Borin )
(Prof. Raffaele Zanoli)
(Prof. Fabio Santucci)
(Proff.ri Concetta Vazzana, Marco Mazzoncinu)
(Prof. Francesco Ansaloni)
(Prof. Antonio Asciuto)
1.200.000
1.069.339
953.057
1.000.000
788.070
800.000
400.000
200.000
Area under
conversion
564.913
600.000
305.641
154.028202.208
70.674
0
1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000
58
National Research Institutes
Istituto per la nutrizione delle piante (prof. Sequi)
Istituto per la cerealicoltura, S.Angelo Lodigiano (dr. A. Boggini, dr M. Perenzin)
Istituto Sperimentale Agronomico di Bari (dr. Dario Petruzzella)
Centro Sperimentale di Laindburg Bolzano (dr. Marcus Kelderer)
Regional and Provincial Organisations
CRPV - Emilia Romagna
ISFOL - Roma
Gruppo di Ricerca in Agricoltura Biologica (GRAB-it), c/o University of Ancona
CEDAS - c/o University of Bologna – Facoltà di Agraria
There aren’t in Italy public organisations (i.e. companies or laboratories) completely
dedicated to the Biological Agriculture Research.
59
LATVIA
Organic Farming in Latvia
Dzidra Kreishmane, kreisman@cs.llu.lv
Inara Turka, iturka@cs.llu.lv
Latvia University of Agriculture, Faculty of Agriculture
In Latvia along with structural changes organic farming have developed during last 10
years. Today about 200 farmers has accepted organic farming practices.
According to EEC Regulations 2092/91 the method of agricultural production,
labelling, processing, inspection and marketing has defined for crops and livestock.
Not all of these steps are in the equal development stage, but all of them are under
process. In order to follow these regulations full agro-food production system is under
control: soil – plant – crop rotation - feed – livestock –food – processing - marketing.
Conditionally three types of organic farming can be found in Latvia:
! producers of organic products for market
! tourist farms providing “organic food” only for guests
! organic farm as style of living
Association of Latvian Organisations for organic farming was founded in April 1995.
The main aims of this organisation are to promote the ideas of organic farming in
Latvia and to support the common interests of farmers. This association provides cooperation possibilities among organic farmers and state institutions – Ministry of
Agriculture and Ministry of Environment and Regional Development, take part in
activities by organisations, train farmers to approaches of organic farming, rise public
awareness of this environmentally friendly farming, forge a co-operation with food
processing industries.
Several other institutions are closely linked with development of organic farmers`
organisation, for example, Latvia University of Agriculture, Faculty of Agriculture;
Latvian Agricultural Advisory and Education Centre etc.
Farmer’s organisation established certification system and label “ Latvia Ecoproduct” approved by the Latvian Board of Patents.
Several private companies producing and providing farmers with biological plant
protection products such as cultures of natural enemies of pests, insecticides and
fungicides of biological origin. All these products are registered for using in Latvia.
Organic fertilisers, well-prepared compost and growing of nitrogen fixative plants are
every day practice in organic farms. Animals are kept according to their natural needs
for pastures, exercises, fresh air and light. Organic farms have management plan and
accounting according to the law.
Today the weak links of the mentioned agro-food chain are processing and marketing,
but from organisation point of view – co-operation between farmers.
Established relation between research institutions - Latvia University of Agriculture,
Breeding and experimental stations are good basis for research work for needs of
organic farming, for example, organic seed production. Organic seed production is a
key for starting organic farming.
60
Current research activities
There is some research activities in animal science with poultry and wildlife in
Research centre ”Sigra” of Latvia University of Agriculture and with seed growing in
Stende’s Breeding Station. For these purposes a small budget is available from
Ministry of Agriculture and from Latvian Board of Sciences.
Planned research activities for the next year are foreseen as applications to the EU 6th
Framework Programme. Notably, the project “The sustainability and economic
development of conservation and Eco-Organic Agriculture in the Baltic States”, work
package 6, “The implementation of Eco-Organic Agriculture for the Baltic States”.
Main research centres
Latvia University of Agriculture ( LLU ),
Research Centres “Sigra” and “Skriveri” of the Latvia University of Agriculture,
State Breeding Station of Stende
Leading scientists
Professor Inara Turka ( LLU )
Professor Valdis Klasens (LLU )
Docent Dzidra Kreismane ( LLU )
Dr.agr. Janis Vigovskis ( Research Centre “Skriveri” of LLU )
Dr.agr. Mara Vaivare( Research Centre “Skriveri” of LLU )
Professor Aleksandrs Jemeljanovs ( Research Centre “Sigra” of LLU )
Dr.agr. Sanita Zute ( State Breeding Station of Stende ).
State support is necessary for developing of research on organic agriculture. Private
research support is very problematic, because organic farmers and producers are not
financially strong and capable for such activities.
Most important national research programmes in organic agriculture
! Organic seed growing
! Animal nutrition
! Soil fertility and using of composts
! Organic grassland systems
! Economy of organic agriculture
61
LITHUANIA
Research in organic agriculture in Lithuania
•
The public sector does not fund or plan to fund scientific research. The research
on organic agriculture and food production is indirectly and partially funded from
the state budget resources: Ministry of Education and Science, Science and
Studies state foundation, Ministry of Agriculture All possibilities to create general
research program on the basic of organic research in Lithuania was unsuccessful.
Therefore it is difficult to demonstrate budget of research in this field.
•
The main research centres and the leading scientists carrying out research on
organic agriculture are the following ones:
Institute of Environment of
Lithuanian University of Agriculture
StudentЕі str. 11, LT-4324 Akademija, Kaunas
Doc. dr. Vida RutkovienД—
Lithuanian University of Agriculture
Department of Crop Science
StudentЕі str. 11, LT-4324 Akademija, Kaunas
Prof. Petras Lazauskas
Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture
Instituto alД—ja 1, LT-5051 Akademija, KД—dainiai distr.
Dr. ЕЅydrД— KadЕѕiulienД—
Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture
Babtai, LT-4335 Kaunas distr.
Habil. dr. Gediminas Staugaitis
Lithuanian Institute of Agrarian Economics
V.Kudirkos str. 18, LT-2600 Vilnius
Dr. Romas Zemeckis
Lithuanian Institute of Animal Science
R.ЕЅebenkos str. 12, LT-5125 Baisogala, RadviliЕЎkis
distr.
Dr. Gediminas VaiДЌionis
Lithuanian Veterinary Institute
Instituto 2, 4230 Kaisiadorys, Lithuania
Saulius Petkevicius, DVM, PhD
Deputy Director of the Lithuanian
Veterinary Institute
Prof Vysniauskas
Lithuanian Food Institute
Taikos pr. 92, LT-3031 Kaunas
Prof. Donatas KaДЌarauskis
Lithuanian Veterinary Academy
Tilzes 18, LT- 3022 Kaunas
Dr. Julijonas Petraitis and Dr.
Bronius Bakutis
National Veterinary Laboratory J. Kairiukscio 10, LT2021 Vilnius
Irena Michalskiene
62
There are no farms specifically utilised and designed to perform organic farming
research. In Lithuania organic farms were started in 1993. Currently, the number of
them is growing and there are approximately 400 organic farms in Lithuania at
present. “Ekoagros” having the international IFOAM accreditation is the enterprise of
organic agriculture certification in Lithuania. “Ekoagros” inspects and certificates
organic farms, processing and market enterprises and organic products produced by
them. It also provides information for the consumers of organic products.
Co-ordination of research at European level could be beneficial in the following
fields:
•
Mechanisms responsible for nutritional effects and nutritional control of
gastrointestinal parasites
•
Study on a new chamber for determination of Trichinella spp. larvae in pig meat
samples
•
Epidemiological situation and prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in
gastrointestinal nematodes in Lithuania
•
Tests of genetically modified products
•
Tests of mycotoxins in contaminants of natural origin (mould and its growth
products)
•
The measurement of microelements and toxic elements (lead and cadmium) which
emerge due to the geological setting
63
NETHERLANDS
Organic Agriculture Research in The Netherlands
The research into organic agriculture in the Netherlands described below is divided
into 12 parts, each with its own theme. With the exception of the theme on knowledge
chains, all the themes have been identified as research priorities, either by
practitioners in the field or by interest groups.
The Wageningen University & Research Centre and the Louis Bolk Institute are
carrying out the research commissioned by the Ministry of Agriculture, Nature
Management and Fisheries. The following research outlines for each theme are based
on the 2002 Programme.
1
Soil and Fertilisation (10 projects)
The development and growth of plants and associated crop production potential is
closely dependent on the input of nutrients. The soil is a medium and fertilisation a
means of raising the input of nutrients in the soil to a higher level. Only natural
fertilisers can be used under organic agriculture, usually organic manure from organic
livestock producers. As a country, the Netherlands does not produce enough organic
manure to meet the nutritional needs of all its organic growers. Other natural sources
of nutrients are crop residues, kitchen and garden waste and legumes used as green
manure to fix nitrogen from the atmosphere. Bacteria in the soil convert the nutrients
to compounds that can be absorbed by the plant. In the absence of corrective
measures, for instance chemical fertilisers, it is essential to ensure a high content of
organic material in the soil and a healthy soil life. These are important success factors
for optimal organic crop production.
The questions posed in the research are closely related to this issue. Some of the
projects concentrate on the soil nutrient dynamics for organic agriculture. They look
at both quantity and quality of the nutrients. Another important question being
researched is the influence of soil life on these dynamics. The central question on
organic matter is how to maintain a sustainable cycle of organic matter. Aspects to be
studied include choice of crop, crop rotation and the application of organic manure in
time (season) and space (farm). Specific research for dairy production included the
search for an optimal fertilisation management strategy for grass-clover pasture.
2
Living propagation stock (26 projects)
Within the foreseeable future organic agriculture will have to make the change to
natural and organically produced propagation stock. This will of course mean the use
of natural species selection and plant breeding techniques which do not include gene
technology. Organic production also means propagation under organic growing
conditions. The research looks at both these issues. As non-natural, i.e. chemical, crop
protection products may not be used in organic agriculture, it is essential to find,
select and cultivate species with a high disease resistance and/or disease tolerance.
The emphasis is currently on Phytophthora and Rhizoctonia control in potatoes and
Alternaria in carrots. New crossing and propagation methods need to be found in
64
order to propagate without affecting the integrity of the propagation stock. For
propagation, the research is based primarily on the search for ways of increasing
production and improving the quality and vitality of the end product (propagation
stock and seed). This includes an examination of growing practice to improve growth
and rooting properties.
3
Crop protection (22 projects)
Insufficient crop protection is a serious obstacle to high quality organic crop
production. This has a negative effect on the development of the organic sector in the
Netherlands, both directly and indirectly. No unnatural aids to combat disease, pests
and weeds may be used in organic agriculture. Alternative products of natural original
are not always available or acceptable. Most weeding is currently carried out
mechanically or by hand. This work is extremely labour-intensive and puts a great
physical strain on the labourer.
The research into weed control concentrates on the dynamics of weed propagation and
what measures could be taken to reduce weed density. It is also looking at what levels
of weed invasion are considered acceptable and when growers should intervene with
crop protection measures. This involves the search for innovative crop protection
methods, including natural aids such as clover residues and mechanical techniques. It
also considers how to reduce the amount of manual labour and improve labour
conditions.
Research into disease is restricted to three main crops, namely potatoes, carrots and
cabbage. The research concentrates on the search for preventative measures and
organic crop protection. For potatoes the research concentrates on Phytophthora, for
cabbage Mycosphaerella and Rhizoctonia and for carrots the prevention of black
spots.
4
Animal health (3 projects)
Because the use of preventative medicines is banned under organic livestock
production, it is important to increase the animal’s natural resistance to disease.
Several factors play a role here. Firstly, there is the animal itself, its breed, age,
vulnerability, natural behaviour. Secondly, there is its living environment, housing,
outdoor runs, pasture and finally there is the way it is cared for, its feed, conditions of
hygiene and treatment. The conditions necessary for organic agriculture, in
combination with the relatively high density of animals required for economic
efficiency have a negative effect on the rate of infection, particularly in organic pig
husbandry and poultry. The strict feeding rules in organic pig production may also
result in health problems during the rearing of piglets. Animal health is also closely
aligned to animal welfare and indirectly with food safety in general.
The research covers the whole field of animal health. Farms currently or recently
transferring to organic production are not yet experienced enough to deal with the
prevention and cure of animal diseases under organic conditions. The expertise does
exist, but is rather fragmented. The research will look at practical experience with
homeopathic and other remedies, such as traditional cures. In order to identify and
analyse problems at an early stage, this research will monitor animal health on both
practising organic farms and model farms. Much of this research is also included
65
under the projects in the operating systems studies. Specific research for dairy
farming examines the role of spore elements and vitamins and the importance of herbs
and grassland in preventing diseases and deformities. Pig production research is
looking at the health consequences for piglets if antibiotics and other preparations are
not used during rearing.
5
Farm management (7 projects)
Farm management covers a whole range of issues. In the context of this research it
involves strategic, tactical and operational management as well as aspects of
entrepreneurship. Organic agriculture takes a more holistic approach than
conventional agriculture. The stewardship of natural processes on the farm is seen as
more important than taking control of these processes. The organic entrepreneur must
therefore have a sound knowledge of the natural production processes on a farm.
Patience and foresight are essential qualities required by organic farmers, especially
for organic crop growers, where management decisions are usually irreversible
because later corrective measures are often difficult or even impossible to take.
The projects under this theme concentrate on business management and
entrepreneurship. The management research includes matters such as cost price
calculation in organic animal husbandry and the factors that influence it. For dairy
farming research is concentrated on the quest for an optimum balanced nutritional
input of energy and protein. Entrepreneurship in organic crop production is also
being studied. To increase acceptance, adoption and sustainability of the innovations,
it is important to obtain insight into the critical factors for success required by an
innovative entrepreneur, in terms of knowledge, skills and character.
6
Farming systems (36 projects)
Organic agriculture is based to a large extent on circular flows. Cycles in which
animal and plant processes complement each other and in which they are mutually
dependent for their existence. However, agriculture in the Netherlands has a highly
specialised structure. In most conventional and organic farms the cycle plant-animalmanure-soil-plant no longer exists. In addition, for a large group of entrepreneurs
organic agriculture is a fairly new farming system. Over the past few decades the
development of knowledge and experience has concentrated on conventional
agriculture. Much of this knowledge and experience is only partially applicable to
organic agriculture, if at all.
The essential question for all sectors is: how do I create an economically viable
organic farm? The research has been divided into three groups of projects: system
innovation, perspective studies and inter-sector co-operation.
The largest group, examining system innovation, comprises a large number of
projects which, together with practitioners, seeks to find solutions to a whole range of
problems. Many of these problems relate to the specific conditions required under
organic agriculture, such as grazing, outdoor runs, non-chemical crop protection;
fertilisation without the use of chemical fertilisers, etc. A lot of attention is paid to
monitoring commercial organic farms, partly to collect information about the various
sectors and partly to obtain insight into economic motives in order to improve the
transition from conventional to organic agriculture. Operational differences within the
66
group of organic farms, such as weeding strategies, for instance, can give us insight
into cost-effective crop protection methods and contribute to ease the transition to
organic agriculture. The farm is always regarded as a completely integrated system.
The research of system innovation is characterised by strong interaction between
researchers and practitioners. In addition to developing and testing solutions, the
researchers also have an important task in disclosing, testing and translating the
knowledge and experience of farmer so that it is of practical value.
Foresight studies are aimed at the future of organic agriculture in the Netherlands.
This involves both the farming systems and sector development. Part of this research
involves carrying out hypothetical scenario calculations. The last group comprises
research projects aimed at inter-sector co-operation. One important question here is
how specialised farms can return to the natural cycle of plant-animal-plant by working
together. The possible differences of scale here are local, regional, national and
international.
7
Rural areas (1 project)
Because organic agriculture is based on natural processes, the further development of
the sector could play an important role in the development and management of rural
areas. This applies to the diversity of both wildlife and landscape. The research here
concentrates specifically on organic greenhouse horticulture. The spatial planning of
organic businesses is a topical one in the Netherlands as ten new sites for the
greenhouse sector are currently under development. Organic horticulture has stringent
conditions for soil quality and management strategy, in particular for disease and pest
control, to avoid cross-contamination. The research is examining how system
innovations which affect spatial quality can be applied in areas devoted to greenhouse
horticulture.
Most issues relating to rural areas which involve the development and strengthening
of nature and natural landscape elements are included in practical projects under the
farming systems theme.
8
Agro chains (11 projects)
In recent years, so-called chain-based thinking has made great strides in the
Netherlands. A strong, well-organised agro chain could have a significant influence
on the growth of the organic sector. Questions relating to the agro chain for organic
agriculture and food concentrate on the development of chain concepts. How is price
structure formed? How can you convert chain participants into chain partners? This
also allows the organic sector to be monitored in relation to the conventional
agriculture sector and in relation to the organic chain. The whole chain is included,
from production, processing and distribution to retail.
9
Market and Consumers (2 projects)
This theme is closely related to the Agro chain theme. While the chain mostly
concerns entrepreneurs, the market concerns consumers. The main question is why
consumers buy organic products. And what is a fair price for organic products? For
the Netherlands, as a trading and exporting nation, this does not only involve the
Dutch consumer, but it also has to look at existing and potential consumers in the EU
67
and beyond. This research supplies important information about consumer trends,
international competition and market opportunities.
10
Food safety (No projects)
Ideally, food safety should not have to be a research theme in isolation. All food,
whether produced organically or conventionally, should be safe for the consumer. The
fact that it has nevertheless been placed on the agenda has to do with the different
type of risks involved in organic production. Unlike products from conventional
agriculture, where we are often faced with chemical residues, the danger for
organically produced food is more likely to come from contamination from
pathogens. This is particularly true in products of animal origin. Structural research
into the food safety of organic products is however not currently being carried out.
11
Man and Society (3 projects)
Public acceptance of organic agriculture as a method of production with a bright
future is not only dependent on the product, but also on the production methods. The
term sustainable goes further here than the requirements for organic production.
Labour issues are important for both indoor and outdoor crop productions, specifically
those concerned with crop protection. The research is therefore based on how to
improve working conditions and solve labour issues. The research concentrated on
finding objective methods to quantify the labour factor in innovative organic farming
systems. Working location, working environment, health risks, safety and pressure of
work are explicitly included in this measuring methodology.
12
Knowledge chains (11 projects)
Research into organic agriculture also involves a number of projects not directly
linked to the specific research questions. This generally involves increasing
efficiency and effectiveness.
Research efficiency is increased by trying to achieve integrated knowledge
development and knowledge synthesis between the projects and in the various themes.
Important principles here are the farm as an integrated system and the restoration of
natural cycles. This means that the projects have to be properly synchronised and the
researchers have to possess the knowledge and skills required to work across
disciplines, both with fellow researchers and entrepreneurs in the organic sector.
The increased effectiveness of the research is mainly achieved by proper
dissemination of the knowledge and information obtained and by disclosing this
research to the practitioners.
68
projects
project title
10 Soil and fertilisation
Attunement improvement of organic fertilisation on deviation
in space and time
Improved estimation of the nitrogen delivery capacity of fields
Strategies for a more balanced inter-sectorial nutrient flows
Fertilisation of organic vegetables in greenhouses
Bottlenecks fertilisation and land use organic agriculture
Analysis of soil and nitrogen dynamics for farm innovations in
organic agriculture
Organic matter management on organic farms (protected
cultivation)
Soil parameters
Fertilisation grass-clover swords on linked farms
Fertilisation grass-clover swords
26 Living propagation stock
Compilation of the descriptive lists of varieties of agricultural
crops
Perception in the impact of cultivation methods during seed
production of carrot varieties
Biological methods tot promote the vitality of starting material
(carrot varieties)
Alternaria control in carrots
Resistance to Rhizoctonia solani
Reduce damage by diseases transmitted with starting material
Organic animal breeding a long road to go
Optimising the rooting of starting material for the organic
agriculture
International agreements organic plant breeding
Organic starting material (trees)
Organic starting material (roses)
Inventory and analysis of availability and bottlenecks with
respect to production organic starting material
Breeding on plant health of potato varieties for organic
cultivation (Phytophthora control)
Breeding biological onions
Breeding Alternaria resistance in carrot
Harvest stability and adaptation capacity
Apples of standing (part 1)
Suitable varieties (part 1)
Methods that stimulate the emergence of organic starting
material (carrots)
Optimising the production of organic starting material
Development of sorting techniques for starting material
Treatments that stimulate the plant health of the starting
material
Methods that stimulate the emergence of starting material
Develop markers for quality of starting material and stress
69
leading
start end institute
1999 2002
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36
tolerance
Healthy starting material for biological bulb cultivation
Genetic variety research grass/clover
Crop protection
Quantitative weed ecology to support biological and
integrated weed control
Biological control of Mycosphaerella in cabbage crops
Control of Rhizoctonia in cauliflower
Enrichment planting stock by endophytes
Pest reduction by rotational crops
Pest reduction by use and stimulation of natural enemies
The role of pests sources on cultivation-, farm-, and landscape
level
Contribution phase seedbed/delayed sowing date
Contribution adapted plant division
Action thresholds (weed control)
Analysis crop-cultivation specific seed bank dynamics
Weed suppressing crop rotations
Biological weed control: exploration of effects of clover
residues
Biological control of chickweed
Integral research on P. infestans
Identification of preventive measures to prevent black spots in
organic carrot cultivation
Improving mechanical weed control
Perspectives study innovative techniques weed control
Weed prevention in cropping plan connection: processes
Root weeds control in biological cultivation
Making uniform measuring protocols for weeds
Solving the Phytophthora problem
Animan health
Nutritional measures to reduce weaning-related diseases in
weaned piglets
Animal health: alternative treatments dairy cattle
(homeopathy)
Animal health: pigs
Farm management
Product improvements apples and pears
Entrepreneurship on organic farms
Professionalization of the organic entrepreneur
Risk perception of the organic entrepreneur
Nutrition dairy cattle
Cost price dairy husbandry
Cost price poultry
Farming systems
Identification of options for biological farming systems with
IMDP and proto characterisation
Explorations and practice developments (protected
cultivation)
Inter-sectoral co-operation (sustainable cycles)
70
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Precision cultivation organic arable farming
Innovation processes in practice (open cultivations)
Perspectives organic farming systems (open cultivations)
Futuristic view open cultivations
Indicators system innovations (open cultivations)
Organic arable farming systems Vredepeel
Organic arable farming/outdoor cropping system OBS
Organic outdoor crops system Meterik
Organic bulb cultivation systems 'De Noord'
Organic nursery stock production on sand, Meterik
Organic nursery stock production on peat, Boskoop
BIOM-OT (arable farming, outdoor crops, bulbs, trees)
Exploration inter-sectorial systems
Exploration of autonomous developments and trends in
integrated and in organic farming systems (covered
cultivations)
Scenario analysis biological and integrated protected
cultivations
Debate on design protected cultivations in The Netherlands
Scenario analysis labour topics protected cultivations
BIOKAS (greenhouses)
Cultivation system implementation for year-round cultivation
of chrysanthemum
BIOM mushrooms
BIOBULB-HEATING
Monitoring commercial organic layer farms
BIOVAR (pig husbandry)
Linked farms for co-operation and for exchange and selling of
products
Monitoring Aver Heino (research farm organic dairy
husbandry)
Crop rotation with (silage) maize, triticale and grass-clover
Use of grass-clover
Free range possibilities for pigs
The farrowing pen in organic pig husbandry
Economic perspectives dairy husbandry
Economic perspectives pig husbandry
Regional co-operation and exchange and selling of products
BIOVEEM 2 (dairy husbandry)
Rural areas
Planning incorporation of organic farms in horticultural areas
Agro chains
Horizontal co-operation in organic agriculture
Organic pig husbandry: analysis of production costs
Eco-monitor organic chain
Platform quality control and organic plant production chains
Chain analysis biological bulbs and outdoor crops
Development of chain concepts (protected cultivation)
Beef production: improving sales of surplus cattle (cows and
bull calves) on the organic beef market
71
2002
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An integrated farm dairy concept
Sustainable organic food chain
Menu directed organic catering
Improving quality and sales of organic fruit
Market and Consumers
International market perspectives of organic products
Development of cost price and margins of organic products
Food safety
Man and Society
Platform labour organic cultivations
Labour conditions on organic farms
Labour quality improvement and solving labour bottlenecks
(protected cultivation)
Knowledge chains
Notebook for support of intra- and inter-sectorial
ecologization
Knowledge dissemination weed control organic agriculture
Development and disclosure of project database on organic
agriculture and food
ISTA activities
Integral knowledge development: tuning the research on
organic agriculture and food
Knowledge synthesis (Government funded) organic research
programmes
Workshops research approach (the 'new' researcher)
Design, develop and disclose knowledge database organic
agriculture and food
Develop knowledge counter for organic agriculture and food
Exploit knowledge database organic agriculture and food
Knowledge dissemination organic animal husbandry
Workshops onderzoeksbenadering (de 'nieuwe onderzoeker')
Ontwerpen, bouwen, vullen en ontsluiten kennisdatabank
biologische landbouw en voeding
Opzet kennisloket biologische landbouw en voeding
Exploiteren kennisdatabank biologische landbouw en voeding
72
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NORWAY
Research on organic agriculture in Norway (2002)
Introduction
Organic agriculture is one of the 7 priority areas in the action plan “Priorities in food
and agricultural research in Norway” (Prioritering innen mat- og
landbruksforskning) made by the Ministry of Agriculture and the Research Council of
Norway in 2001.
The Research Council of Norway and Jordbruksavtalen
In 2002 the Research Council of Norway has a budget of about 28,0 mill. NOK (4,5
million €) allocated to research in organic agriculture. Most of the 34 projects /
programmes (24 projects, 16,0 million NOK / 2,0 million €) are co-ordinated by the
main programme for agricultural research, “Soil, plants and domestic animals” (Jord,
planter og husdyr), including 9 projects (8,0 million NOK / 1,0 million €) financed by
Jordbruksavtalen, the financial agreement between the Ministry of Agriculture and
the farmers unions. Three of the 24 projects are in addition co-ordinated at Nordic
level by Nordic Joint Committee of Agricultural Research (NKJ).
In 2002 the Research Council also finances 6 strategic institutional research
programmes for building of scientific competence within organic agriculture,
equivalent to 10,4 million NOK / 1,3 million €.
Four (4) projects (1,6 million NOK / 0,2 million €) are financed by the Research
Council under the programmes “Market and society” (Marked og samfunn) and
“Sustainable production and consumption” (Bærekraftig produksjon og forbruk).
Other public funding of research and development in organic agriculture
In 2002 Norwegian Agricultural Authority (Statens landbruksforvaltning) took over
the administration of funds for developmental projects financed by Jordbruksavtalen.
The budget for organic agriculture in 2002 is 41,8 million NOK / 5,1 million €,
divided on 3 project types:
•
Extension and information (9,3 million NOK / 1,2 million €)
•
Market strategies (20,0 million NOK / 2,5 million €)
•
National pilot projects (12,5 million NOK / 1,5 million €)
These funds are mainly used for regional developmental projects and product
development. Research institutions use them as supplemental funding of
research/development or funding of regional research projects. The actual “research
share” of this funds is difficult to assess.
In each county the Department of Agriculture under the County Governor
(Fylkesmannens landbruksavdeling) has funds for agricultural and rural development
(BU-midler). These are also used in development of organic agriculture.
The Norwegian Industrial and Regional Development Fund (SND) supports some
research and development projects in organic agriculture.
73
Ministry of Agriculture and Ministry of Environment run the Orio-programme, a
research, development and information programme on sustainable reuse of organic
waste. Some of the projects are dealing with compost, including one that is
particularly aimed at compost for organic agriculture.
Private funding of research and development in organic agriculture
The main agricultural co-operative companies, like Tine Norske Meierier BA, Norsk
KjГёtt BA, Gilde-NNS and FelleskjГёpet Г�st Vest are investing some money in
research and development projects concerning organic agriculture, either within their
own company, through co-financing with the Research Council or the Agricultural
Authority (brukerstyrte prosjekter) or directly at research institutes. Norsk Hydro a.s.
supports the main cropping system project in Norway, that also includes organic
cropping systems.
Funding from EU Fifth Framework Programme (1998-2002) - Quality of Life and
Management of Living Resources
According to information available from the Research Council, 4 projects of interest
for organic agriculture with 5 Norwegian participants are funded by the Quality of
Life and Management of Living Resources. The EU contribution is 1,4 million €.
Norwegian participants are:
•
Norwegian Centre for Ecological Agriculture (QLK5-CT-2000-01065)
•
National Veterinary Institute (QLK1-CT-1999-01380, QLK1-CT-2000-01248)
•
Centre for Rural Research (QLK5-CT-1999-01479)
•
Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NTNU, The Plant
Biocentre, Department of Botany (QLK5-CT-1999-01479)
The Norwegian Centre for Ecological Agriculture (NORS�K) also participates in the
concerted action Network for Animal Health and Welfare in Organic Agriculture.
Summary of current research on organic agriculture and food
production in Norway
NORS�K has made an updated review (in Norwegian) of research, development,
extension and information projects on organic agriculture in Norway.
Organic farming
So fare the main research focus in Norway has been on methods and systems for
organic farming under Nordic conditions, including:
Cropping and farming systems
•
Apelsvoll cropping system research project (Norwegian Crop Research
Institute (Planteforsk), Apelsvoll research centre; Ragnar Eltun)
•
Resource utilisation in organic and conventional milk production systems
(Agricultural University of Norway (NLH), Dept. of animal science; Ulrik
Tutein BrenГёe, Erling Thuen, HГҐvard Steinshamn)
74
Crop protection
•
•
•
•
Seed born diseases in cereals (Planteforsk, Apelsvoll research centre; Ragnar
Eltun & Planteforsk, Plant protection centre; Birgitte Henriksen)
Diseases and pests in fruits and berries (Planteforsk, Apelsvoll research centre
& Plant protection centre; Gunnhild Jaastad. NORS�K; Atle Wibe)
Intercropping – weeds: (Planteforsk, Plant protection centre; Lars Olav
Brandsæter)
Management of late blight in potatoes (NORS�K; Theo Ruissen. Planteforsk,
Plant protection centre; Arne Hermansen)
Nutrient management in organic agriculture
•
Legumes and N-fixation in leys and pastures – 6 projects: (Planteforsk,
Apelsvoll research centre; Tor Lunnan & Planteforsk, Kvithamar research
centre: Lars Nesheim & NORS�K; Sissel Hansen & University of Tromsø,
Department of biology; Mette M. Svenning)
•
Nutrient management – mineralization in arable organic systems - 6 projects:
(Planteforsk, Apelsvoll research centre; Trond Henriksen and Trygve Aamlid
& NLH, Dept. of horticulture and crop sciences; Tor Arvid Breland & NLH,
Dept. of soil and water sciences; Steinar Tveitnes & NorsГёk; Anne-Kristin
LГёes)
•
Compost: (Jordforsk; Henrik Lystad & NORS�K; Sissel Hansen)
Animal health and welfare in organic agriculture
•
Prophylactics and alternative medical treatments in organic animal husbandry,
including homeopathic treatments: (NORS�K; Theo Ruissen, Britt I. Foseide
Henriksen, Turid StrГёm & Norwegian school of veterinary science (NVH);
Torleif LГёken)
•
Mineral content in plants and mineral supply for ruminants in organic
agriculture: (NORS�K; Sissel Hansen)
•
Ecological control of infections and unspecified immunity: (NVH, Hans
JГёrgen Larsen)
Farm management
•
Risk and risk management in organic agriculture: (Norwegian Institute of
Agricultural Economics (NILF); Gudbrand Lien)
•
Farmers attitudes to conversion to organic agriculture: (NTNU, Dept. of social
anthropology; Martin Thomassen)
Product development – product quality
Documentation of product quality
•
Mycotoxins and microbiological quality in organic vegetables and cereals:
(National Veterinary Institute; Liv Marit RГёrvik, Aksel Bernhoft)
75
Meat production
•
Organic production and trade of lamb / mutton: (NLH, Dept. of animal
science; Lars Olav Eik & Planteforsk, TjГёtta fagsenter; Ronald BjГёru & GildeNNS)
•
Organic beef production: (NLH, Dept. of animal science; Jan Berg)
Development of organic products
•
Market-oriented development of organic products: (Norwegian Food Research
Institute (MATFORSK); Г…shild Longva). This is the main programme for
organic product development, in co-operation between MATFORSK and the
Norwegian Agricultural Authority.
Markets, trade and consumption
•
Market strategies for the meat industry and the dairies: (Western Norway
Research Institute (Vestlandsforskning); Eivind Brendehaug & Tine Norske
Meierier BA & Norsk KjГёtt BA & Gilde-NNS & MATFORSK)
•
Food systems: (NLH, Dept. of horticulture and crop sciences; Geir Lieblein &
Norwegian Institute of Consumer Research (SIFO); Eivind StГё)
•
Consumer attitudes to organic products: (Centre for Rural Research; Reidar
AlmГҐs, Arild Blekesaune)
Organic farms owned specifically for research purposes
NORS�K owns Tingvoll farm (Tinvoll gard) in Tingvoll, Møre og Romsdal.
Planteforsk has several research farms with opportunities for field trials in organic
productions. The main centre is located at Apelsvoll research centere in Kapp,
Oppland.
A part of the university farm at NLH (Г…s, Akershus) is organic and used for farming
system and milk production research. Several private farms have been used for on
farm research etc., like Fokhol and Alm (biodynamic farms) in Stange, Hedmark.
The Norwegian Agricultural Research and Extension Groups (Landbrukets
forsГёksringer) co-ordinate fields / farms for field trials all over the country.
Areas with scope for co-ordinating national programmes at a European
level
•
Development of organic agriculture in Northern Europe (Norway, Sweden
north of GГёteborg, Finland and North-Western Russia)
•
Animal health and welfare in organic agriculture.
•
Intercropping
•
Plant protection, like weed control and biological control of diseases and pests
•
Consumer attitudes – food safety – control reliability
76
Influence of research on Norwegian policy to organic farming and how it
affects the overall level of organic production
Research has to some extent been part of the agricultural policy stimulating expansion
of organic agriculture in Norway, especially by means of funding from
Jordbruksavtalen. In the present strategy product quality, product development and
market strategies are emphasised. Hence there has been a clear influence of policy on
the priorities in organic research.
One research project contributed to change in the market strategies for organic milk
products in Norway. Current research on cereal production on farms with few or no
animals (little recycling of plant nutrients) is important for the choice of future
strategy towards the national goal: 10 % of the agricultural area in organic production
in 2010. Overall, research will be important for development of reliable and
sustainable organic arable productions. Current research on animal welfare is very
important for development of organic production systems in animal husbandry,
acceptable for the organic consumers.
Main Norwegian research centres in organic agriculture
•
Norges forskningsrГҐd (The Research Council of Norway), Postboks 2700
St.Hanshaugen, N-0131 Oslo (http://www.forskningsradet.no)
•
Norges landbrukshГёgskole (Agricultural University of Norway), NLH, N1432 Г…s (http://www.nlh.no)
•
Norges veterinærhøgskole (Norwegian School of Veterinary Science), NVH,
Postboks 8146 Dep, N-0033 Oslo (http://www.veths.no/)
•
HГёgskolen i Hedmark (Hedmark College) avd. for landbruks- og naturfag,
Blæstad, N-2322 Ridabu (http://www.hihm.no/lnb/)
•
Norsk institutt for planteforsking (Norwegian Crop Research Institute),
Planteforsk, Postboks 100, N-1430 Г…s (http://www.planteforsk.no)
•
Planteforsk, Apelsvoll forskingssenter (Apelsvoll research centre), Rute 509,
N-2858 Kapp
•
Norsk senter for Гёkologisk landbruk (Norwegian Centre for Ecological
Agriculture), NORS�K, N-6630 Tingvoll (http://www.norsok.no).
•
Norsk institutt for næringsmiddelforskning (Norwegian Food Research
Institute), MATFORSK, Osloveien 1, N-1430 Г…s (http://www.matforsk.no).
•
Jordforsk, Fredrik A. Dahlsvei 20, N-1432 Г…s (http://www.jordforsk.no)
•
Norsk institutt for landbruksГёkonomisk forskning (Norwegian Institute of
Agricultural Economics), NILF, Postboks 8024 Dep., N-0030 Oslo
(http://www.nilf.no).
•
Norsk senter for bygdeforskning (Centre for Rural Research),
Universitetssenteret, N-7491 Trondheim
(http://www.bygdeforskning.ntnu.no)
•
Veterinærinstituttet (National Veterinary Institute), Postboks 8156 Dep, N0033 Oslo (http://www.vetinst.no).
77
•
University of TromsГё, Department of biology, MNF, N-9037 TromsГё,
(http://www.uit.no).
•
Landbrukets forsГёksringer (The Norwegian Agricultural Research and
Extension Groups), Sagabygget, N-1432 Г…s (http://lfr.no).
•
Statens landbruksforvaltning (Agricultural Authority), Postboks 8140 Dep, N0033 Oslo (http://www.slf.dep.no)
•
Nordisk kontaktorgan for jordbruksforskning (Nordic Joint Committee for
Agricultural research), NKJ, Norges forskningsrГҐd, P.O. Box 2700 St.
Hanshaugen, N-0131 OSLO (http://www.forskningsradet.no/fag/bf/nkj/)
•
Jordbruksavtalen, the financial agreement between the Ministry of Agriculture
and the farmers unions. (http://odin.dep.no/aad/norsk/publ/stprp/002001030028/index-ind001-b-n-a.html)
78
POLAND
Organic Farming Research in Poland
Ewa Rembialkowska, rembialk@alpha.sggw.waw.pl
Ass. prof. at the Warsaw Agricultural University,
Main research centres and the leading scientists carrying out research
on organic agriculture and organic farms owned specifically for
research purpose
1.
Warsaw Agricultural University (SGGW) in Warszawa: Faculty of
Agriculture, Faculty of Horticulture, Faculty of Agricultural Economy, Faculty
of Human Nutrition and Consumption Sciences
University owns experimental plots in Skierniewice, a/o. manured only with farmyard
manure, where some research is conducted. Moreover there is a close co-operation
with several organic farms located in the Mazovian province.
Researchers: prof. Henryk Runowski, prof. Andrzej Radecki, dr Wojciech StД™pieЕ„,
prof. StanisЕ‚aw GawroЕ„ski, prof. MieczysЕ‚aw GГіrny, ass. prof. Ewa RembiaЕ‚kowska,
dr Wanda Karwowska, dr Sylwia Е»akowska- Biemans
Research topics:
• organisation and efficiency of production in the organic farms
• valorisation of the rural areas in Poland for the purpose of organic agriculture
• yield optimisation at the fields fertilised with the farmyard manure
• methods of weed growth limitation in organic farming
• pest and diseases occurrence in the organic and conventional farms
• nutritive, sensory and storage quality of vegetables and potatoes from the organic
and conventional farms
• comparison of health condition of the cows from the organic and conventional
farms
• comparison of microbiological value of cow milk from the organic and
conventional farms
• factors influencing demand for the organic food in Poland
2. University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn: Faculty of Environment
Management and Agrciculture, Department of Agricultural Systems
University owns experimental plots, where research is conducted.
Researchers: Dr JГіzef Tyburski and dr Tadeusz Sadowski
Research topics:
• impact of several types of organic fertilisation on sugar beets yield
• comparison of yield and weeds population (including species content) in potatoes
and spring wheat cultivated in organic and conventional way
• selection of potatoes and spring wheat varieties for the organic farming
79
•
impact of compost fertilisation on the seedlings microflora of sugar beet and yield
efficiency of roots and sugar
3. Agricultural University in Lublin: Faculty of Agriculture (Department of
Agricultural Ecology, Department of Grasslands), Faculty of Horticulture
University owns experimental plots in Bezek near CheЕ‚m and Felin, where research is
conducted. Moreover Department of Agricultural Ecology rents fields at the organic
farms located in this region.
Researchers: ass. prof. Jerzy Szymona, ass.prof. BogusЕ‚aw Sawicki, prof. Andrzej
Borowy
Research topics:
• comparison of the fertilisation in organic, integrated and conventional farming
• impact of fertilisation and rotation on yield of the fodder crops
• comparison of weeds at organic and conventional fields
• evaluation of the soils in the transition process and after transition (conventional
в‡’ organic): contamination with heavy metals, content of humus, micro- and
macro-elements
4. Institute of Soil Cultivation and Fertilization (IUNG) in PuЕ‚awy
Institute owns experimental plots in Osiny, where research is conducted. Moreover
the Branch in BiaЕ‚ystok rents fields at the organic farms located in this region.
Researchers: prof. Jan KuЕ›, dr JarosЕ‚aw Stalenga, dr Irena Duer, prof. StanisЕ‚aw
Krasowicz (branch in BiaЕ‚ystok)
Research topics:
• comparison of the production and economic results of the organic and
conventional farms in north – eastern Poland
• comparison of potatoes yield in the organic and conventional cultivation
• impact of the organic method on crops yield (cereals and potatoes), soil properties
and environment
5. Marine University in Gdynia: Department of Commodity and Cargo Science
Researchers: prof. Piotr PrzybyЕ‚owski, dr Maria Ељmiechowska
Research topics:
•
studies on commodity value and nutritive quality of potatoes and vegetables (a/o.
early varieties) from organic and conventional farms
Remarks:
1. Regarding a budget allocated to the research mentioned above, it could be
estimated very roughly that every research centre spends on average about 32.000
PLZ (zloty) a year = 8.000 € a year, what gives together 40.000 € a year for the whole
Poland.
Moreover some research described above has been conducted during last several
years and is not continued any more.
Of course a conclusion is that it is not enough and much bigger funds should be
allocated in the organic farming research.
80
2. Regarding the research areas, the best solution would be that the University or
Institute should have its own organic farm specifically for research and/ or didactic
purpose. But in Poland till now we don’t have such case. One of the possible projects
within 6th Framework should be written in order to receive funds for such farm
connected with University.
Other important issues in driving research on organic agriculture
Private research support is very small in Poland till now – only a company Simbio
which is dealing in eastern Poland with an export of organic foods to UE countries
sometimes pay for the small research projects.
Areas where there is scope for co-ordinating national programmes at a
European level
There are several areas of such programmes, which comprise the common problems
of Poland and other Central and Eastern European Countries (CEEC). Below some
mostly important of them are listed:
• estimation of importance of organic farming for CEEC rural policy: to estimate
how several scenarios of conversion into organic farming (5%, 20% , 50 % of all
farms) would influence on socio-economic situation, mostly in which way could
they decrease unemployment in rural areas
• elaboration and implementation of the methods to 1) increase national ecological
awareness and interest to buy organic products 2) increase the export of organic
foodstuffs to European Union countries
• optimisation of production methods in organic farming (fertilisation, soil tillage,
selection of varieties etc.)
• elaboration of methods to fight insect pests, typical for CEEC (e. g. Colorado
beetle = Leptinotarsa decemlineata) in organic farming
• elaboration of methods to fight weeds, typical for CEEC s (e. g. quack grass =
Agropyrum repens) in organic farming
• estimation of the biodiversity and landscape values resulting from the organic
methods in agriculture, and consequently the economic profits for the rural
population
• elaboration of HACCP system for organic primary plant and animal production in
order to avoid problems with food quality
• elaboration of food processing methods suitable for organic production (e.g. for
meat products without nitrates and nitrites usage)
• health prophylactics and veterinary treatment in animal breeding
• methods to protect organic farming from GMO technology
Remark: the last 5 issues are important for the whole Europe, not only CEEC.
Impact of research on country’s policy on organic farming and how it
affects overall level of organic production
The main research project conducted in Poland "Elaboration of development and
functioning pattern for the organic farming" was ordered by the Ministry of
Agriculture and had a significant impact on development of organic farming in
Poland. The results created a basis to elaborate the regulations regarding organic
farming, mostly National Law about Organic Farming from 16 March 2001 and
Regulation about the subsidies for Organic Farmers from 19th April 2000.
81
The research results are also a foundation to prepare training courses for advisors and
farmers interested in organic farming.
However the impact of organic farming research is still absolutely not sufficient. We
need much more research in order to prove the advantages of organic farming and
dealing with the practical problems during the production process in organic farms.
It's very important to convince our politicians and society that organic farming can be
a modern proposal for wider group of the farmers and not only an elite old-fashioned
system for rich societies.
82
ROMANIA
National research programs on organic agriculture developed
in Romania in the frame of the Academy of Agricultural and
Forestry Sciences network
Prof. Christian HERA, Ph.D.; D.Sc
President of A.A.F.S, Member of the Romanian Academy
1. By Decision No. 51/28.04.1994 issued by the director of the Research Institute for
Cereals and Technical Plants (ICCPT), Fundulea-Romania, it was founded "The
Collective of Ecologic Agriculture", managed by Mr. Ion Toncea, Ph.D.
toncea@ricic.ro.
Since its foundation, this collective has coordinated two research projects in the frame
of the national research-development programme "ORIZONT 2000", respectively:
- A292 theme "Theoretic and applied research regarding ecologic agriculture", during
1996-2001
- A45 theme "The management of soil fertility on organic matter accumulation by
nonpolluting methods economically efficient", from 2000 up to now.
The Collective also collaborated to a research-development project in the frame of the
national program "RELANSIN-LIFE QUALITY", entitled "Technologies and norms
for biologic agriculture to produce vegetables, cereals and technical plants".
In order to carry out this research, the following funds were allocated: ~85.000 US$
for A292, ~47.960 US$ for A45 and ~5.200 US$ for RELANSIN project.
2. The research for organic agriculture was carried out both in ICCPT Fundulea and in
other 10 Research-Development Stations, located in different pedo-climatically
conditions, coordinated by the Institute.
3. For the best development of the organic agriculture research, we consider that it is
necessary to ensure substantial funds, including external financing for supporting this
activity.
4. The coordination of the programs for agro-ecological research-development at
European level is necessary in prospect of European Union extension. The Center of
coordination for these programs for South and South-East area can be organized in
Romania due to the diversity of its pedo-climatic conditions, as well as the experience
acquired in the development of the projects in this issue.
We also mention that the research of organic agriculture carried out in ICCPT
Fundulea, grounded the Decision of Romanian Government No. 34/2000 on ecologic
agrofood products and the norms to implement it, as well as in the elaboration of the
strategy for development of the organic agriculture in Romania.
83
SLOVENIA
Ecological farming in Slovenia
Following trends in Europe ecological farming in Slovenia is gaining more and more
importance from year to year. In order to promote principles of organic farming and
to prevent interests of consumers and producers also The Organization for Control of
Ecological Farming was established.
The history of the organization goes back to 1997 as in the frame of an PHARE
project at the Agricultural Institute in Maribor the basis for The Organization for
Control of Ecological Farming was established. In 1998 the contract with the largest
Austrian accredited organization Austria Bio Garantie (ABG) was signed and
controllors for ecological farming were trained at Agricultural Institute in Maribor. At
present they are collaborating with the majority of Organizations of ecological
farmers in Slovenia. The Organization for Control of Ecological Farming is also a
member of the international organization for ecological farming (IFOAM). According
to international guidelines ecological farmers in Slovenia focus on:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
production of food with high nutritional value
work with natural ecosystems without human prevalence
biological cycles with integration of microorganisms, flora and fauna
assessing and improvement of soil fertility
usage of local resources
cycling of organic matter in the ecosystem
animal welfare
prevention of pollution
preservation of biodiversity
sustainable agricultural practices
The Organization for Control of Ecological Farming is the only control organization
in the field of ecological farming in Slovenia and is striving to get accreditation in
accordance with the standard SIST EN 45011. The organization has following main
goals:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
distinction between conventional and ecological products and consumer protection
preservation of environment and cultural landscape, preservation of natural
resources and biodiversity
assuring healthy and safe food for consumers
protection of producers
updating guidelines for ecological farming
clearly defined control criteria
promoting marketing of ecologically produced food through control and
certification.
In 1998 started control of ecological production on 13 farms, in 1999 has been
extended to 320 and was growing to over 840 farms in 2001. The transition from
conventional to ecological production takes, depending on orientation, 2-3 years. The
prerequisite is that farms agree on the control scheme and (not obligatory) to
participate at the training course on ecological farming. The certificate is an official
84
document, which certifies the ecological status of the farm and origin and status of
certain groups of products (conventional, transitional, ecological).
After the first transition period was the certificate granted to the first farms in
Slovenia in 2000 and in 2001 about 300 farms got the certificate. Certified products
for certified farms are labeled and assure the consumer that the product has been
produced in accordance with national certificate requirements and international
guidelines (EU 2092/91, EU1804/99, IFOAM standards). National guidelines cover as
well plant production as animal production and food technology.
The special trademark BIODARГ” is used for labeling of ecological products from
certified farms. For ecological products farmenr's markets in several cities are
organized (Ljubljana, Naklo, Novo mesto, Maribor, Celje, Slovenj Gradec).
85
SWEDEN
Current research activities on organic agriculture and animal
production in Sweden
Publicly funded research
For the year 2002 the Government allocated totally SEK 55 million to organic
production. The funds have been distributed according to the following:
-The Swedish Research Council for Environment,
Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning (Formas)
SEK
- The Swedish Board of Agriculture (SJV)
“
- The Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU)
“
- The National Veterinary Institute (SVA)
“
- The National Food Administration (SLV)
“
23 million
13
“
12
“
5
“
2
“
The grant from Formas is part of a three-year program 2001-2004 of totally SEK 69
million. The program consists of the following parts:
-
Economy – market – consumption
The ecology of crop production
Production systems within animal husbandry
Technical-biological systems
Multifunctional farming systems
Circulation of plant nutrients
Food – quality – health
Private research support
The Ekhaga foundation and the Swedish FarmersВґ Foundation for Agricultural
Research (LRF) do support organic agriculture, but there are no official reports
showing how much. A fair estimate could be somewhere around SEK 5-10 million a
year.
Main research centres
Most of the research is performed by SLU, but there is also work going on at many of
the other universities in Sweden. There is a special body, CUL, established by SLU in
1997 to co-ordinate and inform about the work for a sustainable agriculture in
Sweden. CUL is also responsible for the co-ordination of FormasВґ three-year program
mentioned above.
The Ekhaga foundation has started a farm especially for research purposes. At the
universities the research is performed within the ordinary facilities.
Leading scientists
Pointing out leading scientists is a somewhat delicate task, but we have professor Sten
Ebbersten who was appointed in organic agriculture and gardening at SLU 1990. Let
me also mention AgrD Lennart Salomonsson who is leader of the Swedish research
school in organic farming and food systems (SwOFF) which is started at SLU within
the framework of FormasВґ grant.
86
How research affects SwedenВґs policy to organic farming
In 1994 the Swedish Parliament set up the goal that 10% of the cultivated land should
be organic in year 2000. The Government then allocated about SEK 60 million to the
research council for research during the period 1997-2000. In the end of year 2000,
13% of the cultivated area was organic.
In 1999 the Parliament set the new goal that in 2005 the area that is cultivated
according to organic standards should be 20% of the total cultivated area. At the same
time , the Parliament laid down that 10% of the production of dairy, cattle and lamb
should be organic in 2005. The Government then allocated SEK 105 million to a
research program for the period 2001 – 2004.
Of course there is an interaction between research and SwedenВґs policy to organic
farming, but for the last few years the research has obviously been used more as a
support to already taken political goals than the other way around.
Scope for co-ordinating national programmes at a European level
The Nordic Joint Committee for Agricultural Research (NKJ), which promotes and
supports co-operation on agricultural research between the national research councils
in the five Nordic countries, has appointed organic agricultural production as one of
the eight areas of priority in its strategy plan for 2001-2004
(www.forskningsradet.no/nkj). The subareas of priority are:
-
Methods for the development and analysis of how organic agricultural systems
fulfil the criteria of sustainability.
Methods to increase the resistance of plants and animals against diseases.
Genetic resources – breeding strategies of plants and animals for organic
agriculture
The relationship between organic farming and nutrient content and food
quality
The subareas of priority were suggested by NKJВґs working group on organic
agriculture 1999, consisting of one representative from each of the Nordic countries,
that produced a report containing a survey of ongoing projects in Norden and
proposals for future Nordic research activities. The survey can be found on a database
at CUL (www.cul.slu.se) that is also responsible to see to that the database is
continuously updated.
87
SWITZERLAND
Status quo of Organic Farming research in Switzerland
Urs Niggli17, Padruot M. Fried18
Introduction
Switzerland has been leading in organic farming research for more than 70 years. The
first research work started in 1930 by the privately financed biological laboratory at
the Goetheanum in Dornach (CH), first by Ehrenfried Pfeiffer and then by Lilly
Kolisko. The activities of the Goetheanum have been focussed exclusively on
biodynamic aspects of organic farming from then on up to today. In 1973,
scientifically focussed research work started at the Research Institute of Organic
Agriculture (FiBL). Several small institutes, permanent working groups and breeders
started activities in different fields of research in the 1980’s and promoted biodynamic
research (e.g. holistic quality assessment, biodynamic plant breeding). The Swiss
Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) Zurich and the Federal Research Station for
Agricultural Economics and Engineering (FAT) became leading in the 80’s in all
aspects of animal welfare and ethology. In 2001, the Swiss Federal Research Station
for Agroecology and Agriculture (FAL) came in with organic farming research in
arable crops, grassland management, crop breeding and landscaping. FiBL and FAL
have conducted a long-term experiment (DOK trial) since 1978
Current and planned research activities in organic farming
Switzerland wants to promote research in all fields of organic farming:
• Crop production (arable crops, grassland, and horticultural crops) in breeding,
variety testing, production technique, plant protection and quality
improvement.
• Animal husbandry (small and big ruminants, poultry, pigs and bees) in
breeding, free-range systems, feeding and housing.
• Animal health (ruminants, poultry and pigs) focussing on herd management,
prevention, biocontrol and complementary medicine.
• Socio-economics focussing on farm management and economics, markets and
consumers, policy assessment and sociological studies.
• Biodiversity and landscape improvements.
• Processing methods and technical procedures esp. milk and other produce.
The major state funding for organic farming research is granted by:
• Federal Office for Agriculture: 4 to 5 million € per annum, increasing from
2004 on (start of the new research programme of the 6 federal research
stations and of FiBL).
• Federal Veterinary Office: 350,000 € per annum.
• Federal Office for Education and Science (funding Swiss partners
participating at EU-activities): 500,000 €.
17
18
Research Institute of Organic Agriculture (FiBL), CH-5070 Frick
Swiss Federal Research Station for Agroecology and Agriculture, CH-8046 Zurich
88
• Different other federal and regional authorities: 500,000 € per annum.
It can be estimated that approximately 5 to 6 million € - per annum - are presently
allocated very specifically to organic farming research from public budgets. In
addition, much research work at the agricultural research stations is done both in
Integrated Production and Organic Farming systems.
Main research centres in organic farming
Research Institute of Organic Farming (FiBL) since 1973. Overall budget in
research and knowledge transfer for organic farming: 7.5 Million €: 85 scientific and
technical staff. Director: Dr. Urs Niggli. Branch offices in Germany (FiBL Berlin and
FiBL Frankfurt). Leading scientists see http://www.fibl.ch/buehne/fibl/team-a-z.html.
Swiss Federal Research Station for Agroecology and Agriculture, CH-8046
Zurich. Research focus in organic arable crops and grassland in evolution. Contact
person: Dr. Padruot M. Fried, Head Department for Production Systems.
For more information on the activities of FAL und of the 5 other Swiss Federal
Research Stations see http://www.sar.admin.ch .
Specialised bio-dynamic research activities:
• Agricultural Department of the Goetheanum: http://www.goetheanum.ch
• Research Institute for Vital Quality, Dr Ursula R. Graf http://www.fiv.ch
• Cereal Breeding Group of Peter Kunz, http://www.peter-kunz.ch
Co-ordinaton of national programmes at a European level
General remarks
The level of organic farming research is extremely different among European
countries. Joint activities at European scale will give important and immediate
impacts to those countries started only recently with organic farming research.
During the last 2 decades, organic farming has succeeded in reaching an optimum of
productivity, professionalism and quality (of environment and food) as it is inherent
to the original concept and as it has been improved by on-farm-research. Nonetheless,
several severe problems in production have remained unsolved for years and new
problems have arisen with the expansion of organic farming and the diversity of
production fields. This new situation cannot be tackled with surveys and on-farm
R&D. It must be complemented with in-depth experimental research and with new
approaches and methods. This cannot be done successfully without synergies on a
European level and without a common understanding of how organic farming should
be developed further.
Fields of research where joint efforts at European level are especially important:
• Crop breeding programmes (with global methods/techniques/concepts and
•
•
•
•
local adaptation)
Animal breeding programmes (ditto)
Animal health research focussing on herd management, prevention and
complementary therapy)
Disease control strategies
Pest control strategies especially in the Southern part of Europe
89
• Novel techniques of weed control (“weed roboters” with sensors and GPS or
biocontrol techniques)
• Securing strategies for the crop, feed stuff and animal food supply chain.
• Health studies on product quality and diet.
Furthermore, communication, exchange of researchers, data supply and availability of
research results have to be improved by appropriate services and schemes.
Leading scientists carrying out research on organic farming
Alföldi, Thomas
FiBL, CH-5070 Frick
Tel. 0041-62-8657272, Fax 0041-62-8657273
E-Mail thomas.alfoeldi@fibl.ch, Homepage http://www.fibl.ch
Arncken-Karutz, Christine
FiBL, CH-5070 Frick
Tel. 0041-62-8657272, Fax 0041-62-8657273
E-Mail christine.arncken@fibl.ch, Homepage http://www.fibl.ch
Basler, Dr. Pierre
Eidgenössische Forschungsanstalt für, Obst-, Wein- und Gartenbau
Postfach 185, CH-8820 Wädenswil
Tel. 0041-1-7836257, Fax 0041-1-7836440
E-Mail Pierre.basler@faw.admin.ch, Homepage
Bapst, Beat
FiBL, CH-5070 Frick
Tel. 0041-62-8657272, Fax 0041-62-8657273
E-Mail beat.babst@fibl.ch, Homepage http://www.fibl.ch/
Berner, Fredy
FiBL, CH-5070 Frick
Tel. 0041-62-8657272, Fax 0041-62-8657273
E-Mail fredy.berner@fibl.ch, Homepage http://www.fibl.ch/
Bill, Dr. Roland
Eidgenössische Forschungsabstalt für Obst-, Wein- und Gartenbau, CH-8820 Wädenswil
Daniel, Claudia
FiBL, CH-5070 Frick
Tel. 0041-62-8657272, Fax 0041-62-8657273
E-Mail claudia.daniel@fibl.ch, Homepage http://www.fibl.ch/
Dubois, Dr. David
Eidgenössische Forschungsanstalt für Agrarökologie und Landbau (FAL), Research Station for Agroecology and
Agriculture
Reckenholzstrasse 191, CH-8046 ZГјrich
Tel. +41 1 377 71 11, Fax +41 1 377 72 01
E-Mail David.Dubois@fal.admin.ch, Homepage http://www.admin.ch/sar/fal/falhomee.html
FlieГџbach, Dr. Andreas
FiBL, CH-5070 Frick
Tel. 0041-62-8657272, Fax 0041-62-8657273
E-Mail andreas.fliessbach@fibl.ch, Homepage http://www.fibl.ch/
Forrer, Dr. Hans-Rudolf
Eidgenössische Forschungsanstalt für Agrarökologie und Landbau (FAL), Research Station for Agroecology and
Agriculture
Reckenholzstrasse 191, CH-8046 ZГјrich
Tel. +41 1 377 71 11, Fax +41 1 377 72 01
E-Mail hansrudolf.forrer@fal.admin.ch, Homepage http://www.admin.ch/sar/fal/falhomee.html
Fried, Dr. Padruot
Eidgenössische Forschungsanstalt für Agrarökologie und Landbau (FAL), Research Station for Agroecology and
Agriculture
Reckenholzstrasse 191, CH-8046 ZГјrich
Tel. +41 1 377 71 11, Fax +41 1 377 72 01
E-Mail Padruot.Fried@fal.admin.ch, Homepage http://www.admin.ch/sar/fal/falhomee.html
90
Fuchs, Dr. Jacques
FiBL, CH-5070 Frick
Tel. 0041-62-8657272, Fax 0041-62-8657273
E-Mail jacques.fuchs@fibl.ch, Homepage http://www.fibl.ch/
Fuchs, Nikolai
Goetheanum, Abteilung Landwirtschaft, Landwirtschaftliche Abteilung
HГјgelweg 59, CH-4143 Dornach
Tel. 0041-61-7064212, Fax 0041-61-7064215
E-Mail landw.abteilung@goetheanum.ch, Homepage http://www.goetheanum.ch/sektion/nws/home.html
Geier, Dr. Uwe
Forschungsinstitut am Goetheanum,
Postfach 4134, CH-4143 Dornach
Tel. +41-61-706 43 63, Fax
E-Mail uwe.geier@goetheanum.ch, Homepage
Graf, Dr. Ursula R.
Forschungsinstitut für Vitalqualität (fiv), Bildschaffende Methoden
Tösstalstr. 38, CH-8620 Wetzikon 3
Tel. ++41 (0)1 930 35 31, Fax ++41 (0)1 930 35 68
E-Mail admin@fiv.ch, Homepage http://www.fiv.ch
Hertzberg, PD Dr. Hubertus
FiBL, CH-5070 Frick
Tel. 0041-62-8657281, Fax 0041-62-8657273
E-Mail hubertus.hertzberg@fiblch, Homepage www.fibl.ch
Hirt, Helen
FiBL, CH-5070 Frick
Tel. 0041-62-8657272, Fax 0041-62-8657273
E-Mail helen.hirt@fibl.ch, Homepage http://www.fibl.ch
Hurter, Markus
Goethenum, Abteilung Landwirtschaft,
HГјgelweg 59, CH-4143 Dornach
Tel. Fax 0041-61-70642-15
E-Mail landw.abteilung@goetheanum.ch, Homepage
Klocke, Dr. Peter
FiBL, CH-5070 Frick
Tel. 0041-62-8657272, Fax 0041-62-8657273
E-Mail peter.klocke@fibl.ch, Homepage http://www.fibl.ch
Koller, Martin
FiBL, CH-5070 Frick
Tel. 0041-62-8657272, Fax 0041-62-8657273
E-Mail Martin.koller@fibl.ch, Homepage http://www.fibl.ch/
Kunz, Peter
GetreidezГјchtung Peter Kunz, Verein fГјr Kulturpflanzenentwicklung
Hof Breitlen 5, CH-8634 Hombrechtikon
Tel. +41-55- 264 17 87, Fax +41-55- 264 17 87
E-Mail getreidezuechtung@peter-kunz.ch, Homepage http://www.peter-kunz.ch/
Landau, Bettina
FiBL, CH-5070 Frick
Tel. 0041-62-8657272, Fax 0041-62-8657273
E-Mail bettina.landau@fibl.ch, Homepage http://www.fibl.ch/
LГ©vite, Dominique
FiBL, CH-5070 Frick
Tel. 0041-62-8657272, Fax 0041-62-8657273
E-Mail dominique.levite@fibl.ch, Homepage http://www.fibl.ch/
Luka, Henryk
FiBL, CH-5070 Frick
Tel. 0041-62-8657272, Fax 0041-62-8657273
E-Mail henryk.luka@fibl.ch, Homepage http://www.fibl.ch/
91
Mäder, Dr. Paul
FiBL, CH-5070 Frick
Tel. 0041-62-8657272, Fax 0041-62-8657273
E-Mail paul.maeder@fibl.ch, Homepage http://www.fibl.ch/
Maurer, Dr. Veronika
FiBL, CH-5070 Frick
Tel. 0041-62-8657272, Fax 0041-62-8657273
E-Mail veronika.maurer@fibl.ch, Homepage http://www.fibl.ch
Mayer, Dr. Jochen
Eidgenössische Forschungsanstalt für Agrarökologie und Landbau (FAL), Research Station for Agroecology and
Agriculture
Reckenholzstrasse 191, CH-8046 ZГјrich
Tel. +41 1 377 71 11, Fax +41 1 377 72 01 - E-Mail jochen.mayer@fal.admin.ch,
Homepage http://www.admin.ch/sar/fal/falhomee.html
Menzi, Dr. Mathias
Eidgenössische Forschungsanstalt für Agrarökologie und Landbau (FAL), Research Station for Agroecology and
Agriculture
Reckenholzstrasse 191, CH-8046 ZГјrich
Tel. +41 1 377 71 11, Fax +41 1 377 72 01
E-Mail mathias.menzi@fal.admin.ch, Homepage http://www.admin.ch/sar/fal/falhomee.html
Nentwig, Prof. Dr. Wolfgang
Zoologisches Institut, Universität Bern
Baltzerstr. 3, CH-3012 Bern
Tel. 031 631 45 20, Fax
Nowack, Karin
FiBL, CH-5070 Frick
Tel. 0041-62-8657272, Fax 0041-62-8657273
E-Mail karin.nowack@fibl.ch, Homepage http://www.fibl.ch/
Niggli, Dr. Urs
FiBL, CH-5070 Frick
Tel. +41-62-865-72-72, Fax +41-62-8657273
E-Mail urs.niggli@fibl.ch, Homepage http://www.fibl.ch
Notz, Christophe
FiBL, CH-5070 Frick
Tel. 0041-62-8657272, Fax 0041-62-8657273
E-Mail christophe.notz@fibl.ch, Homepage http://www.fibl.ch/
Oberholzer, Dr. Hans-Rudolf
Eidgenössische Forschungsanstalt für Agrarökologie und Landbau (FAL), Research Station for Agroecology and
Agriculture
Reckenholzstrasse 191, CH-8046 ZГјrich
Tel. +41 1 377 71 11, Fax +41 1 377 72 01
E-Mail hansrudolf.oberholzer@fal.admin.ch, Homepage http://www.admin.ch/sar/fal/falhomee.html
Oberson, Dr. Astrid
Swiss Federal Institute of Technology,
Postfach 185, CH-8315 Lindau
Tel. +41-52-354 91 32, Fax +41-52-354 91 19
E-Mail astrid.oberson@ipw.agrl.ethz.ch, Homepage
Pfiffner, Lukas
FiBL, CH-5070 Frick
Tel. 0041-62-8657272, Fax 0041-62-8657273
E-Mail lukas.pfiffner@fibl.ch, Homepage http://www.fibl.ch/
Richter, Dr. Toralf
FiBL, CH-5070 Frick
Tel. 0041-62-8657272, Fax 0041-62-8657273
E-Mail toralf.richter@fibl.ch, Homepage http://www.fibl.ch
Rist, Dr. Michael
Johannes KreyenbГјhl Akademie, zur Synergie von Natur- und Geisteswissenschaft
Im Boge 10, CH-8332 Russikon
Tel. 0041-1-9540513, Fax 0041-1-9540513
92
Schachermayer, Dr. Gabriele
Eidgenössische Forschungsanstalt für Agrarökologie und Landbau (FAL), Research Station for Agroecology and
Agriculture
Reckenholzstrasse 191, CH-8046 ZГјrich
Tel. +41 1 377 71 11, Fax +41 1 377 72 01
E-Mail gabriele.schachermayer@fal.admin.ch, Homepage http://www.admin.ch/sar/fal/falhomee.html
Schmid, Andi
FiBL, CH-5070 Frick
Tel. 0041-62-8657272, Fax 0041-62-8657273
E-Mail andi.schmid@fibl.ch, Homepage http://www.fibl.ch/
Schmid, Otto
FiBL, CH-5070 Frick
Tel. 0041-62-8657272, Fax 0041-62-8657273
E-Mail otto.schmid@fibl.ch, Homepage http://www.fibl.ch
Speiser, Dr. Bernhard
FiBL, CH-5070 Frick
Tel. 0041-62-8657272, Fax 0041-62-8657273
E-Mail bernhard.speiser@fibl.ch, Homepage http://www.fibl.ch/
Spengler-Neff, Anet
FiBL, CH-5070 Frick
Tel. 0041-62-8657272, Fax 0041-62-8657273
E-Mail anet.spengler@fibl.ch, Homepage http://www.fibl.ch
Spranger, Dr. Jörg
FiBL, CH-5070 Frick
Tel. 0041-62-8657272, Fax 0041-62-8657273
E-Mail joerg.spranger@fibl.ch, Homepage http://www.fibl.ch
Stolze, Dr. Mathias
FiBL, CH-5070 Frick
Tel. 0041-62-8657272, Fax 0041-62-8657273
E-Mail matthias.stolze@fibl.ch, Homepage
Streit, Bernhard
Eidgenössische Forschungsanstalt für Agrarökologie und Landbau (FAL), Research Station for Agroecology and
Agriculture
Reckenholzstrasse 191, CH-8046 ZГјrich
Tel. +41 1 377 71 11, Fax +41 1 377 72 01
E-Mail bernhard.streit@fal.admin.ch, Homepage http://www.admin.ch/sar/fal/falhomee.html
Tamm, Dr. Lucius
FiBL, CH-5070 Frick
Tel. 0041-62-8657272, Fax 0041-62-8657273
E-Mail lucius.tamm@fibl.ch, Homepage http://www.fibl.ch/
Uehlinger, Gabi
FiBL, CH-5070 Frick
Tel. 0041-62-8657272, Fax 0041-62-8657273
E-Mail gabi.uehlinger@fibl.ch, Homepage http://www.fibl.ch/
Walkenhorst, Michael
FiBL, CH-5070 Frick
Tel. 0041-62-8657272, Fax 0041-62-8657273
E-Mail michael.walkenhorst@fibl.ch, Homepage http://www.fibl.ch/
Weibel, Dr. Franco
FiBL, CH-5070 Frick
Tel. 0041-62-8657272, Fax 0041-62-8657273
E-Mail franco.weibel@fibl.ch, Homepage http://www.fibl.ch/
Willer, Dr. Helga
FiBL, CH-5070 Frick
Tel. 0041-62-8657272, Fax 0041-62-8657273
E-Mail helga.willer@fibl.ch, Homepage http://www.fibl.ch
Widmer, Dr. Franco
Eidgenössische Forschungsanstalt für Agrarökologie und Landbau (FAL), Research Station for Agroecology and
Agriculture
Reckenholzstrasse 191, CH-8046 ZГјrich
Tel. +41 1 377 71 11, Fax +41 1 377 72 01
E-Mail franco.widmer@fal.admin.ch, Homepage http://www.admin.ch/sar/fal/falhomee.html
93
Wyss, Dr. Eric
FiBL, CH-5070 Frick
Tel. 062-865-72-40, Fax 0041-62-8657273
E-Mail eric.wyss@fibl.ch, Homepage http://www.fibl.ch/buehne/forschung/pflanzenschutz
Wyss, Dr. Gabriela
FiBL, CH-5070 Frick
Tel. 0041-62-8657272, Fax 0041-62-8657273
E-Mail gabriela.wyss@fibl.ch, Homepage http://www.fibl.ch/
Zeltner, Esther
FiBL, CH-5070 Frick
Tel. 0041-62-8657272, Fax 0041-62-8657273
E-Mail esther.zeltner@fibl.ch, Homepage http://www.fibl.ch/
94
UNITED KINGDOM
UK ORGANIC AGRICULTURE RESEARCH PROGRAMME
INTRODUCTION
The UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) has funded
research on organic production since 1991, as one of a number of measures to
promote organic production.
The Research Programme started in 1991 with an annual budget of about ВЈ440k. Over
the last decade the level of spends has increased 5-fold, and currently stands at around
ВЈ2.1 million per annum. The programme has four scientific objectives;
-
To assess the economic implications of converting to organic production;
To compare the environmental effects of organic farming compared to
other types of agriculture;
To relieve constraints to organic production, so to make organic farming
more attractive, and commercially viable;
To ensure that technology transfer is maximised.
CURRENT UK ORGANIC AGRICULTURE R&D PROGRAMME
Detailed lists of projects in the R&D programme can be found in Appendix 1.
A list of the main UK research centres and leading scientists carrying out research on
organic agriculture can be found in Appendix 2.
Animal Production
The objective of the research in this area is to relieve constraints on organic livestock
production by studying organic farming systems. Included are projects on milk
production, and on optimising systems for pig, beef, sheep and poultry production.
Animal Health and Welfare
The objective of the research in this area is to identify the health and welfare status of
organic livestock, and to provide information to assist farmers and advisers in
maintaining high standards of animal health and welfare. Specific health issues
researched include mastitis in dairy herds and the control of internal parasites in
livestock without the use of non-organic pharmaceuticals. A significant output of the
programme has been a compendium of health and welfare issues for organic
producers and their advisers.
Nutrients and Soil Fertility
The objective of the research in this area is to help resolve issues relating to nutrient
cycling on organic farms, and ultimately to provide information on the sustainability
of organic farming. The restrictions on the use of inorganic fertilisers in organic
systems mean that alternative methods for maintaining soil nutrients and fertility are
required. There have been projects on the status of phosphorus and potassium within
organic systems, and on the measurement and maintenance of nitrogen levels.
95
Environmental
The objective of research in this area is to provide information on the environmental
impacts of organic farming, compared to conventional agriculture. The research has
demonstrated benefits from organic production in terms of biodiversity and energy
use. Research has also shown that organic farming is not necessarily much better than
medium intensity conventional agriculture in terms of nitrate loss.
Economics of Organic Farming
The objective of research in this area is to assess the financial performance of organic
farms differentiated by farm type, in order to inform DEFRA policy-making, and to
provide a basis for assessments by farmers, advisers and other interested parties of the
farm-level implications of conversion to and continued organic agriculture. Projects
have investigated economic modelling and farm profitability.
Crops
The objective of the research in this area is to aid the development of organic arable
and horticultural systems. The early years of this work focussed on the conversion to
organic production. Recently several projects have studied or reviewed aspects of
organic vegetable and fruit and seed production, and the potential effects on organic
agriculture, of the use of genetically modified organisms within conventional
agriculture.
Plant Pests and Diseases
The objective of the research in this area is to enable the control of plant pests and
diseases in organic crops without pesticide use, which is restricted under the UK
Register of Organic Food Standards (UKROFS) regulations. UKROFS standards
comply with statutory EC standards for organic production (Council Regulation
2092/91).
A review of current European research on Organic Farming
1. DEFRA produced of review of organic agriculture R&D throughout Europe
(ended year 2000). The review set out clearly the content and key results of
current European research programmes. Two directories were compiled listing
research organisations and individual research projects. Further insight was gained
into research approaches and analytical tools, as well as differing approaches to
dissemination between Member States. The research directories can be found on
the web at http://www.adas.co.uk/organic.
2. In Quality of Life, Key Action 5 (sustainable agriculture), 5 organic agriculture
projects have recently been agreed from a call designed to support research and
co-ordination on solutions for conversion to organic farming systems.
EU CO-ORDINATION OF ORGANIC AGRICULTURE R&D
Organic farmers face the same problems as conventional farmers. However, organic
farming takes a more integrative or holistic approach to resolving them. Because of
the low level of purchased inputs, there is considerably less private-sector research
96
support, such as that provided by pesticide and seed companies, than is the case with
conventional agriculture. Although most Member States already have significant
programmes of government-funded research on organic farming, the relatively recent
emergence of organic farming as a recognised separate system of production means
that there is little accumulated scientific study. This, coupled with the lack of privatesector research support, and limited funds, have prevented organic farming from
seriously working on the long-term issues of organic farming.
HOW R&D AFFECTS UK POLICY ON ORGANIC AGRICULTURE, AND
THE OVERALL LEVEL OF ORGANIC PRODUCTION
Economic research has highlighted the need for payments to promote organic
farming, and hence has informed the setting of payment rates for the UK’s Organic
Farming Scheme.
Research showed difficulties in organic top fruit production, which is one of the
reasons why this is not supported under conversion in the UK.
Environmental research has contributed to the evidence that justifies the promotion of
organic research on environmental grounds. However, research has also showed that
organic agriculture would not solve nitrate-leaching problems.
Specific research projects have contributed information to the UK negotiators in
relation to negotiations on the EU Organic Farming Directive.
The quality and safety of organic products form part of the Food Standards Agency’s
research programme on food authenticity, which is directly linked into policy
formation on organic produce authenticity.
Although much of the research has been focused on relieving constraints to organic
production, no formal assessment has been made of the impact of this research on the
production performance of organic producers. However, there are good technology
transfer links, and it seems likely that the research has contributed to organic
production performance. Varietal testing, particularly of vegetables, has been of direct
advantage to farmers in deciding the best legumes to use during conversion phase.
Information on fertility building and retention of fertility by cover crops, the potential
of organic sheep production in upland agriculture, and the value of allowable PK
fertilisers in UK organic systems has also been of direct advantage to organic farmers.
97
UK Contribution - Appendix 1
The tables below outline projects in the UK organic agriculture R&D
programme (reviewed 2001).
Animal Production
Project
no.
OF0146
OF0180
OF0170
OF0147
OF0187
OF153
OF0163
OF0192
OF0169
Description
Contractors
Organic milk production
Influence of level of self-sufficiency on the nutrient
budgets of an organic dairy farm.
Organic dairy cows: milk yield and lactation
characteristics and development of herd simulation
model for organic milk production
Organic beef and sheep production
Efficient use of animal manure within an upland organic
system
Effect of breed suitability, system design and
management on welfare and performance in traditional
and organic poultry meat.
Optimising the synergism between organic poultry
production and whole farm rotations, including
homegrown protein.
Workshop and desk study to appraise technical
difficulties associated with organic pullet rearing.
Optimising production systems for organic pig
production
IGER
IGER
Reading University
ADAS
ADAS
ADAS
ADAS
ADAS
University of Aberdeen
Animal Health and Welfare
Project
no.
OF0124T
OF0162
OF172
OF0185
Description
Contractors
An investigation of the incidence, treatment strategies and
financial implications of mastitis in organic and
conventionally managed UK dairy herds.
Organic animal health, welfare and husbandry: assess
existing knowledge and production of advisory resource
compendia.
Animal health and welfare in organic livestock systems:
Identification of constraints and priorities.
Control of internal parasites in organic livestock without the
use of pharmaceutical anthelminthics.
Reading
University
Reading
University
Reading
University
ADAS
Nutrients and Soil Fertility.
Project
no
OF0114
OF0118T
OF0161
OF164
Description
Contractors
Optimisation of phosphorus and potassium management
within organic farming systems.
EFRC
IACR
RAC
SAC
HDRA
HRI
ADAS
Optimisation of nitrogen mineralisation from winter cover
crops and utilisation by subsequent crops.
The environmental implications of manure use in organic
farming systems.
Understanding soil fertility in organically farmed systems
98
ADAS,
HDRA,
IGER
University
of
Wales
OF0197
OF0178
Modelling manure NPK flows in organic farming systems to
minimise nitrate leaching, NH3 volatisation and NO2
emissions.
Improving N use and performance of arable crops on
organic farms using an expert group approach.
ADAS
ADAS
Environmental
Project
no.
OF0165
OF0182
Description
Contractors
Factors influencing biodiversity within organic and conventional
systems of arable farming.
Energy use in organic farming systems.
BTO
ADAS
Economics of Organic Farming
Project
no.
OF0125
OF0155
OF0159
Description
Contractors
Economics of Organic Farming: Economic
Modelling
Factors affecting profitability of organic farms
Conversion to Organic Production software
University of Wales
University of Wales
University of Wales
Crops
Project no.
OF0126T
Description
Conversion to organic field vegetable production
OF0191
OF0142
Conversion to Organic Field Vegetable Production
Varieties of field vegetables and potatoes for organic
production and marketing
Shelf life of organic vegetables
Overwinter transplant production for extended season
organic cropping
Testing the sustainability of stockless arable organic
farming on a fertile soil
Companion cropping for organic field vegetables
Organic fruit production: Review of current practice and
knowledge
Economics of organic fruit production
Varieties and integrated pest and disease management for
organic apple production
Production of organic seed for the organic sector
Economic and agronomic feasibility of organic vegetable
seed production in the UK, and subsequent seed quality
Integrated grain storage-technology transfer for organic
farming
A study of the advantages and disadvantages of break
crops for organic rotations
OF0156
OF0144
OF0145
OF0181
OF0150
OF0151
HL0150LOF
OF0154
OF0166
OF0176
OF0143
OF0173
OF0157
OF0193
Clover: cereal bi-cropping for organic farms
Implications of cross-contamination with pollen from GMO
crops
A review of knowledge of the potential impacts of GMOs on
organic agriculture
99
Contractors
EFRC
HDRA
HRI
HDRA
NIAB
NIAB
EFRC
ADAS
ADAS
HDRA
HDRA
HDRA
HRI
EFRC
HRI
CSL
HDRA
SAC
Uni.
Aberdeen
IGER
JIC
JIC
of
Plant Pests and Diseases
Project no.
OF0137
OF0158
OF0167
OF0168
OF0177
OF0179
OF0188
OF0113
OF0115T
Description
Organic Farming: Biological control using Nematodes for
Slug Control
Integrated control of slug damage
A study to develop alternative strategies for the control of
potato blight in organically grown crops
Development of disease control strategies for organically
grown field vegetables
Growth and competition model for organic weed control
Desk study to apply knowledge developed for conventional
horticulture to control pests in organic vegetables
Studies on exploiting semiochemicals for pest management
in organic farming systems
Organic milk production: post conversion
Cultural methods for control of dock weed on semipermanent pasture
Contractors
IACR
IACR
Uni.
Newcastle
ADAS
HDRA
HRI
HDRA
HRI
IACR
of
IGER
IGER
UK Contribution - Appendix 2
The table below lists the main UK research centres and the leading scientists
carrying out research on organic agriculture.
ORGANISATION
ADAS Consulting Ltd.
RESEARCHER
Dr Ray Keatinge, Dr W. F.
Cormack, Dr Mark Shepherd,
Dr Peter Gladders
British Trust for Ornithology
Dr Rob Fuller
Central Science Laboratory
Dr Nigel Hardwick
Elm Farm Research Centre
Dr Bruce Pearce, Prof Martin Wolfe,
Lois Philipps
Henry Doubleday Research Association Dr Margi Lennartsson,
Dr Francis Rayns, Chris Firth
Horticulture Research International
Dr Robin Wood, Dr Jerry Cross
Institute of Grassland & Environmental Dr R. F. Weller, Dr Steve Cuttle
Research
Institute of Arable Crops Research
Dr Elizabeth Stockdale
John Innes Centre
Dr Phil Dale
National Institute of Agricultural Botany Dr Simon Kerr
Newcastle University
Dr Carlo Leifert
Scottish Agricultural College
Dr Christine Watson,
Dr Audrey Litterick
University of Reading
Dr Malla Hovi
University of Wales, Aberystwyth,
Dr Nic Lampkin, Susanne Padel
Institute of Rural Studies
Veterinary Epidemiology and Economic Dr Malla Hovi
Research Institute, University of Reading
100
REQUEST FOR INFORMATION
•
•
•
•
•
Publicly funded OF research
Main centres
Other issues - e.g. private funding
Scope for co-ordination of programmes
Effect on policy
RESEARCH
! Discussion document, not definitive. Summary of
countries’ responses
! Annex 1 summaries copied from countries’
submissions
! Annex 2 are countries submissions for information
! 21 replies (30 requests) (missing MS are
Luxembourg, Spain, Portugal and Greece)
! Wide range of research supported throughout the
production chain
FUNDING
! Table is a rough guide only, difficult to extract
data in some countries
! Some counties have specific support programmes
and substantial funding. In others, OF funding is
primarily part of agricultural research
! In general there is little private funding (some
exceptions, e.g. Germany)
! Budgets – range from several tens of thousands of
€ to several millions
! Pressure for research from consumers/producers
FACILITIES
! Government research institutes
! Special farms/sections of farms
! Virtual centres (eg centre without walls in
Denmark)
! University departments / farms
AREAS FOR SUPPORT
! Full range of production chain.
! Crop and animal production
! Novel pest/disease/weed control (plants and
animals)
! Animal health and welfare
! Product quality and marketing
! Need for uniform technical setting in order
to ensure comparability
RESEARCH AND POLICY
! Research impact on policy is limited (some
examples)
! Policy tends to push research
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