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American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 2005; 69 (2) Article 20.
INNOVATIONS IN TEACHING
Teaching Residents How to Teach: A Scholarship of Teaching and Learning
Certificate Program (STLC) for Pharmacy Residents
Frank Romanelli, PharmD,a Kelly M. Smith, PharmD,a and Barbara F. Brandt, PhDb
aCollege
bCollege
of Pharmacy, University of Kentucky
of Pharmacy, University of Minnesota
Objectives. In 1999, the University of Kentucky (UK) College of Pharmacy first reported the development of a STLC Program for pharmacy residents. The primary goal of this program was to provide
a forum for participants to gain knowledge of contemporary health professions and pharmacy education issues, to develop experience in teaching/learning, and to document accomplishment in this area.
Methods. The STLC program was designed as an elective experience that would provide residents with
training in various teaching methodologies and offer a forum through which accomplishment in the
area could be documented. The program consists of 3 main requirements: attendance at formal seminars, completion of a requisite amount of small group and didactic evaluated teaching, and submission
of a teaching portfolio.
Results. Since its inception the program has grown beyond UK and now involves 1 other onsite program and two-way teleconferencing to 2 other residency programs. Since 1999, over 50 residents have
been awarded certificates.
Summary. Feedback from residency candidates, residents, and employers has been overwhelmingly
positive. Future plans involve increased multidisciplinary involvement and continued outreach to other
offsite programs.
Keywords: teaching, residency, certificate
edge and experience that pharmacists require to practice in
contemporary healthcare, while preparing the individual
for future 3modes of practice. Successful graduates of
advanced training programs, such as pharmacy residencies, should be prepared to enter one of many potential
positions within the realm of pharmacy practice. These
may include positions in specialized areas of practice,
research and development, industry, or academia.
In most facets of clinical pharmacy practice and certainly in academia, residency graduates will be expected to
participate in some degree of classroom or experiential
teaching. Teaching may occur on various levels including:
medication counseling of patients and family members,
presentation of formal and informal inservices to various
healthcare professionals, new product detailing, preceptorship of students or residents, and/or presentation of formal
academic lectures. The American Society of HealthSystem Pharmacists (ASHP) has set educational accreditation standards for both preceptors and graduates of residency programs.5 Pharmacy practice residency standards
include 3 broad educational goals pertaining specifically to
education and teaching skills. Specific objectives include a
focus on organizing content, addressing communication at
a level appropriate for the audience, and utilizing visual
aids effectively. ASHP goal S13, “deliver effective educa-
INTRODUCTION
A December 2002 survey of member institutions by
the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy
(AACP) found that 67 colleges had a total of 417 vacant
teaching positions.1,2 The majority of these vacancies were
for full-time positions (94.3%). Concurrently, nearly every
US college of pharmacy is in some stage of expansion in
response to the current shortage of practicing pharmacists.
These expansions are leading greater numbers of institutions to seek new faculty members, some of which may be
at the initial stages of their academic careers. In terms of
pharmacy practice faculty members, larger numbers of
pharmacy residents are finding themselves in junior-level
faculty positions early in their careers. In 2002, acknowledging the need for colleges of pharmacy to play a more
significant part in pharmacy residency training, an AACP
task force was also convened to provide recommendations
regarding the role of colleges and schools of pharmacy in
residency training.3
Pharmacy Practice residencies are organized, directed
postgraduate-training experiences in a defined area of
pharmacy practice.4,5 Their intent is to provide the knowlCorresponding Author: Frank Romanelli, PharmD.
Address: College of Pharmacy, University of Kentucky.
126
American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 2005; 69 (2) Article 20.
tion and training programs,” focuses specifically on resident skill attainment in the area of teaching. This specific
skill requires residents to utilize effective education techniques, write appropriately worded educational objectives,
design instruction with content reflective of the established
objectives, plan instruction that meets the learners’ individual needs, and design assessments that appropriately measure the stated objectives. Pharmacy residents are also
expected to be proficient communicators of information,
both verbally and nonverbally. Encompassing communication is the ability to determine an audience’s educational
needs, effectively capture audience attention, and transmit
select information through the use of various multimedia.
Residents are also expected to provide medication education to both patients and caregivers, as well as provide both
formal and informal inservice education to various health
practitioners.
Residency directors and preceptors are often challenged to develop programs that effectively address multiple established accreditation standards. In light of the
significant patient care responsibilities of most resident
trainees, the task of “teaching residents how to teach”
may be overlooked. Residency programs have traditionally provided experience in the art of teaching in a number of different ways. Residents often find themselves
functioning as preceptors of pharmacy students at least
in some capacity, affording the opportunities and challenges of one-on-one educational experiences for the
trainee. Residents involved in programs affiliated with a
college of pharmacy might have the opportunities to
design and deliver lectures on specific topics or to serve
as teaching assistants or small group facilitators for pharmacy students. As a component of providing direct
patient care, residents are also often involved in providing inservice lectures to various healthcare practitioners.
A small number of residency training programs with
close affiliations with a college of pharmacy have developed elective rotation experiences in academic teaching.
These rotation experiences may involve direct instruction in educational philosophy as well as provide for
multiple instructional opportunities.
Current methods employed by many residency programs to “teach residents how to teach” might have some
inherent deficiencies. Wright et al found that physicians
who had participated in any formal training in teaching
(eg, faculty development programs or teaching workshops) were more likely than those who had not done so
to be identified as excellent role models.6 Formal coursework in instructional design and educational philosophy
may be available to some residency programs, but unfortunately these courses can be costly and scheduling inter-
ference with other responsibilities often precludes
enrollment. At our own institution, we recognized a lack
of formalized efforts to instruct teaching and its associated scholarship. While the majority of our residents participated in teaching experiences, no formal processes
for evaluation and provision of feedback existed.
Residents developed and presented lectures with limited
input from preceptors with regards to content, handout
development, or delivery style. When given, feedback
was provided on a case-by-case basis. Additionally, residents who served as preceptors of students were not
always provided an orientation to this responsibility.
Formal evaluations often overlooked the preceptorship
and teaching aspect of a resident’s duties. With little
feedback from either the resident preceptor or the pharmacy student, the resident could not be expected to
demonstrate improvement in teaching skills.
Realization of a need for a more formalized approach
to the task of “teaching residents to teach” led to the development of an STLC Program at our institution.7 This
recognition was further emphasized during an ASHP residency program survey for reaccreditation. The surveyors
remarked, “All of the residency programs emphasize a
great deal of teaching development for the resident. But
specific objectives and goals related to classroom and
experiential teaching need to be more fully delineated and
incorporated into the resident’s longitudinal goals and
assessment.” The inception of the program recognizes the
shortage of well-trained pharmacy teachers. The primary
philosophy of the program is built upon the Carnegie
Foundation’s work on teaching as scholarship.8
METHODS
At our institution, recognition of the need for a more
formalized approach to the task of “teaching residents to
teach” led to the development of a STLC Program. The
STLC program was designed through the collaboration
of the College of Pharmacy’s Office for Curriculum and
Faculty Development, a faculty member with significant
teaching and precepting responsibilities, the chief pharmacy resident, and a specialty resident. These individuals outlined and negotiated the specific requirements for
successful completion of the program. The Residency
Executive Committee, a body composed of all residency
program directors, the chief pharmacy resident, the pharmacy department director, and the College’s pharmacy
practice division director, approved the program.
The STLC program was an elective experience whose
goal was to provide pharmacy practice (PGY1) and specialty (PGY2) residents a forum to gain knowledge of
contemporary health professions and pharmacy education
127
American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 2005; 69 (2) Article 20.
Pharmacy, presented individual seminars. Each seminar
was intended to be 50 minutes in length and all seminars
were held on the same weekday from noon to 1:00 PM
at the College of Pharmacy (which is located close to the
Medical Center Hospital). The specific day and meeting
time were selected after consultation with the pharmacy
resident staff.
Program participants also had to complete actual
teaching sessions in order to earn a certificate. Each participant had to serve as a small group facilitator (modified problem-based learning format) for an entire semester for either the course Contemporary Aspects of
Pharmacy Practice (CAPP) I or Contemporary Aspects
of Pharmacy Practice II, or function as a teaching assistant for a total of 8 hours in the CAPP Professional
Practice Laboratory. Additionally, the resident had to
conduct at least 2 formal 50-minute lectures within any
course in the College of Pharmacy or Medical Center.
Other experiences were considered on an individual
basis. In order for an experience to be acceptable, it had
to be a structured, supervised presentation with written
feedback from and evaluation by the preceptor. This was
to ensure that each experience was constructive and
allowed for future improvement and skill building. A
specific assessment tool was developed for use in the
evaluation of resident teaching. Additionally, an evaluation form specifically designed for use by advanced
pharmacy practice experience students was also developed. This form was developed because all specialty residents, as well as most pharmacy practice residents,
assume full precepting responsibility during at least 1
month of their residency experience. This instrument
was meant to provide improved feedback to residents
regarding one-on-one preceptor-level teaching skills.
Feedback from these instruments was incorporated into
longitudinal resident assessments. Both instruments are
available from the authors upon request.
A component of successful completion of the certificate program involved submission of a teaching portfolio for review by the Director of the Office for
Curriculum and Faculty Development. The teaching
portfolio should have contained the following items: a
statement of the resident’s personal teaching philosophy,
examples of teaching materials (eg, handouts, examination questions, case studies), all evaluations of teaching
experiences from both students and preceptors, and any
other teaching or personal materials the resident deemed
appropriate. The teaching portfolio was submitted just
prior to the completion of the residency year, and at that
time an appointment was scheduled with the Director of
the Office for Curriculum and Faculty Development. The
Table 1. STLC Program 2003-2004 Seminars
Seminar 1
Being a Small Group Facilitator *
Seminar 2
Gen X and Millennials - Teach Us, We Dare
You!*
Seminar 3
Technically Speaking in the Classroom
Seminar 4
The Wide World of Pharmacy Education*
Seminar 5
Academics: The Real Deal
Seminar 6
Assessing your Students*
Seminar 7
Surviving Evaluation - What's Being Said … *
Seminar 8
Controlling the Classroom - Civility and
Integrity
Seminar 9
Surveying Your Syllabus*
Seminar 10
Building Your Teaching Credentials: The
Portfolio*
Seminar 11
Passive/Aggressive - Active Learning
Seminar 12
Selling Yourself - Assembling Your CV*
* Required (core) seminar
issues (eg, outcome-based education, American Council
on Pharmaceutical Education accreditation guidelines,
active-learning methodology, academic careers, teaching
portfolios, etc) and to demonstrate experience and accomplishment in this area. The specific program outcomes for
the resident included the ability: to describe contemporary
issues facing academia and learning, especially as they
relate to pharmacy education; to develop well written syllabi which include concise, specific, and precise learning
and educational objectives; to compose and evaluate
effective small- and large-group learning experiences for
specific target audiences; and to evaluate their own development as educators through personal reflection and
assimilation of a teaching portfolio that contains documentation of accomplishments in this area. Specific seminar topics and discussions as well as the overall focus of
the program are intended to be broad in scope. The program was designed to emphasize global teaching philosophies and concepts that would encompass and be applicable to a wide range of teaching roles. Through elective
attendance at formal seminars, recording of formal teaching experiences (ie, lectures, group facilitation, clinical
teaching), and development of a teaching portfolio, program participants could document their activities and earn
a certificate of completion.
The program consisted of 12 formal seminars, 8 of
which were considered core seminars. Seminar topics
are slightly modified each residency year based upon
evaluation feedback and current trends. The seminars
included in the 2003-2004 STLC program are found in
Table 1. Program participants were expected to attend at
least 10 of the 12 seminars and all of the 8 core seminars.
Various University faculty members, many whose primary faculty appointment was outside of the College of
128
American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 2005; 69 (2) Article 20.
Table 2. Pilot STLC Evaluative Survey Reflective Statement Responses, N=10
Evaluative Statement
This program will make me a better teacher.
This program has contributed to my overall development as a resident.
This program should be offered annually to new residents at the University of Kentucky
This program contributed to my overall career goals.
Participation in this program will likely influence my success as a future educator.
Participation in this program will positively affect the learning experiences of students under my direction.
Response
Mean
Median
1.9
2
1.7
2
1.3
1
1.7
2
1.9
2
2.1
2
Scoring scale: 1 - strongly agree; 3 - no opinion; 5 - strongly disagree
Development of teaching skills continues to be an
attractive feature for residency candidates in our program. Of the 41 applicants to our pharmacy practice residency in 2004, an academic appointment with a college
of pharmacy was listed as the primary or secondary
career goal for 54%. The STLC program continues to be
a significant residency recruiting tool. In their letters of
intent, 59% of candidates listed the opportunity to gain
experience in precepting pharmacy students and to participate in didactic training as desirable features of our
residency program. Seven applicants indicated that the
STLC program was an important factor in their residency selection process. Once enrolled in the program, residents provide an important service to the College in
terms of teaching. In the 2003-2004 academic year, our
residents provided 94 hours of didactic instruction within the College of Pharmacy, 7 hours of didactic instruction on campus but outside of the College of Pharmacy,
and 234 hours of small group facilitation.
In 2004, we undertook a survey of recent (19952003) University of Kentucky pharmacy residency program graduates (n=76). The survey instrument was
pretested and administered online. Fifty-one completed
surveys were received for a response rate of 67%.
Twenty-three respondents (43%) had completed the
STLC program while residents at UK. The majority of
this subset (68.2%) indicated that their primary motivation for completing residency training was to expand
clinical knowledge and skills. Prior to completing residency training, 27.3% of this subset intended to seek
employment in academia. Fifty percent of the subset
indicated that their current professional position was
“clinical pharmacist-specialist,” while 31.8% listed their
position as “faculty.” On average, respondents indicated
that approximately 10% of their effort was devoted to
didactic teaching. Seven respondents were in clinicaltrack faculty positions, 4 in adjunct tracks, 2 in tenure
tracks, 2 were classified solely as preceptors, and 1 as a
clinical instructor. Five respondents had no faculty affiliation. The majority of respondents in the subset had
achieved the rank of assistant professor.
purpose of this meeting was to review the portfolio and
reflect upon the resident’s teaching experience.
The STLC program commenced in August of each
residency year. The purposes of initiating the program
within the first 2 months of the residency year were to
allow residents to become acclimated to the Medical
Center environment and to provide adequate time for
implementing the techniques learned. Residents wishing
to complete the certificate program had to do so prior to
the time they completed their residency training at the
UK (ie, from 1 to 2 years, depending upon the option of
pursuing a specialty residency). All residents who successfully completed the program were awarded certificates of completion at the Pharmacy Resident
Recognition Ceremony in June of each residency year.
Some University’s bestow certificates in a fashion similar to degrees upon the completion of formalized curricular work. The certificates awarded by the STLC program are not affiliated with continuing education (CE)
credits nor are they issued by the University of Kentucky
pursuant to completion of formal course work.
Program Outcomes
Ten of 14 residents at our institution successfully
completed the pilot program in the 1999-2000 residency
year. In 2002-2003, 13 of 14 residents and 1 junior faculty member completed the program. A pilot survey was
conducted in the evaluation of the STLC program in
2000. Ten residents, all of whom had completed the
STLC program, completed the pretested survey instrument for a 100% response rate. Residents were asked to
self-assess their effectiveness as teachers on a scale of 1
to 10, with 1 indicating “completely ineffective” and 10
indicating “outstanding effectiveness.” The mean score
before completion of the program was 5; following completion of the program, this mean rank increased to 7.
When residents were asked to self-rank their knowledge
of contemporary pharmacy education issues before and
after completing the STLC program, their score
increased from a mean of 4.2 to a mean of 7. Results for
other survey items can be found in Table 2.
129
American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 2005; 69 (2) Article 20.
Table 3. Reported Changes in Respondents' Confidence in Teaching Abilities
STLC Participants (n=24) STLC Not Offered (n=23)
Residency
Residency
Residency
Residency
Beginning
End
Beginning
End
2.75 (0.85)
4.79 (0.72)
2.52 (0.90)
4.35 (0.98)
2.13 (1.16)
4.08 (1.17)* 2.13 (0.76)
3.17 (1.07)
2.33 (1.09)
4.25 (0.94)
2.52 (1.01)
3.96 (1.21)
2.29 (1.00)
2.83 (0.98)
3.83 (0.82)†2.04 (0.69)
2.61 (1.08)
4.17 (1.07)* 2.41 (1.10)
3.50 (1.10)
2.00 (0.83)
3.54 (1.02)* 2.52 (0.90)
4.35 (0.98)
2.54 (0.93)
4.88 (0.80)
2.74 (1.00)
4.87 (0.73)
3.00 (1.21)
5.04 (0.81)* 2.52 (0.86)
4.26 (1.01)
3.08 (1.02)
5.13 (0.80)* 2.74 (0.84)
4.48 (0.96)
2.63 (1.06)
4.48 (0.85)* 2.57 (0.86)
3.82 (0.96)
†3.25 (0.94)
2.78
(0.78)
4.26 (0.91)
5.17 (0.76)
2.67 (1.01)
4.46 (0.78)
2.52 (0.96)
3.96 (0.97)
2.83 (1.13)
4.54 (0.88)* 2.43 (0.73)
3.70 (1.09)
3.00 (0.88)
4.71 (0.69)* 2.70 (0.85)
4.04 (1.09)
3.00 (1.17)
4.57 (0.73)* 2.50 (0.74)
3.83 (0.88)
2.58 (1.18)
4.83 (1.13)
3.00 (0.99)
4.48 (0.96)
Target Area
Teach in classroom or conference room
Develop a syllabus
Write instructional objectives
Assess classroom learning
Write test questions
Deal with plagiarism, cheating and classroom civility
Teach in clinical setting
Lead students in small group discussions
Prepare presentation focused for the audience
Delivery style keeps audience focused and attentive
Prepare slides that can be easily seen and understood
Give feedback to students
Give feedback to preceptors
Give feedback to peers
Accept feedback from students
Understand hierarchy of pharmaceutical education and career
opportunities
Recognize/understand current trends in pharmacy education
Assemble an effective curriculum vitae
Prepare a teaching portfolio
2.39 (0.99)
3.46 (1.28)
2.00 (0.98)
4.13 (0.76)
5.04 (0.62)*
4.58 (0.78)†2.57 (0.86)
3.17 (0.81)
1.87 (0.80)
3.78 (1.04)
4.48 (0.96)
2.52 (1.01)
Values represent mean (SD). Scale: 1 = Strongly Disagree, 6 = Strongly Agree. STLC group compared to those not offered STLC
*P<0.05
†P<0.001
program produces individuals more prepared or qualified for full-time clinical or tenure track positions
remains to be determined. The program is limited in that
its seminar series consists of only 12 topical areas, which
are selected by the program coordinators. The incorporation of more seminars would likely overburden participants who are already attempting to manage a wide variety of clinical and nonclinical responsibilities.
Additionally, participants are likely to have varied experiences depending upon the teaching experiences they
elect to complete (ie, specific topics and courses within
which lectures are provided). In any event, we believe
that even with its inherent limitations, this program is a
significant improvement over our prior paradigm, which
addressed few if any teaching efforts.
Survey participants were also asked to indicate their
level of agreement or disagreement with a number of
reflective statements using a 6-point Likert scale with 1
representing “strongly disagree” and 6 representing
“strongly agree.” Respondents were asked to reflect
upon their confidence in their teaching abilities at the
beginning of residency training and at completion. Table
3 illustrates mean Likert scores for various target areas
comparing those respondents who completed the STLC
program to those for whom the program was unavailable
(ie, developed after they completed residency training).
Group differences at baseline and upon residency completion were assessed with a two-sided Student t test. No
statistically significant differences were noted at baseline
(eg, beginning of residency) between the 2 groups.
Improvement in all targeted teaching areas upon completion of residency training was noted regardless of
STLC participation. However, greater increases were
noted in all 19 areas in the STLC group, 13 of which
were statistically significant.
STLC program graduates self-report that they are
more prepared to assume teaching roles and the responsibilities that these positions may entail. Whether the
Program Evolution and Dissemination
Following development of the STLC program at the
University of Kentucky, other sites implemented similar
programs.9 One challenge to implementation of an STLC
program for some residency sites is the lack of a nearby
academic institution to host and administer a program. In
2000, the University of Kentucky was contacted by near130
American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 2005; 69 (2) Article 20.
by University of Louisville. The University of Louisville
was interested in involving their 3 pharmacy residents in
the STLC program. The 65-mile distance between the
universities posed a challenge that would have required
the University of Louisville residents to make a 1-hour
weekly commute to Lexington. After experimenting with
a number of models, a videoconferencing link was established between each site that allowed for 2-way
video/audio exchange. This allowed all 3 of the
University of Louisville residents to successfully participate in the program. The STLC program is now broadcasted to the University of Louisville. The participation
of the University of Louisville residents had a positive
impact on both programs, allowing communication and
networking between residents. In 2002, Humana
Healthcare, also located in Louisville, contacted the
University of Kentucky with an interest in enrolling their
residents in the STLC program as well. This academic
year, a 3-way multimedia connection was established
between The University of Kentucky, University of
Louisville, and Humana Healthcare. The use of multimedia and videoconferencing has made further extension of this program possible. This collaboration demonstrates the ability of programs lacking a core academic
unit to enhance their programs by accessing/joining with
programs at remote locations. In addition to the telelinked sites, 2 additional on-site residency programs now
regularly participate (the University of Kentucky
Community Pharmacy Practice Residency and
Lexington Veteran’s Administration Hospital). Recently,
the University of Cincinnati Residency Program has
expressed an interest in joining the videoconferencing
link and plans are now underway to establish this additional connection.
A description of the STLC program and its requirements can be accessed on the University of Kentucky
Pharmacy Residency Programs website at: http://www.
mc.uky.edu/pharmacy/residency/teaching.html. Also
located at this site are assessment tools, including the resident teaching experience evaluation form, which can be
freely downloaded. We believe making these tools accessible to other colleges and schools has resulted in our program being widely disseminated and modeled by other
programs. Following an expression of interest, contact
with the American Association of Medical Colleges
(AAMC) resulted in the STLC program being featured on
the AAMC website at the following address: http://www.
residentteachers.com/others.htm. This link appears under
the topic “Resident Teaching Skills - What Others Are
Doing.” It is the only non-medicine program featured on
this site. We believe that this website link will allow dis-
ciplines outside the profession of pharmacy, particularly
medicine, to learn more about the program and potentially use it as a model or guide in designing similar experiences in other health professions programs. At Kentucky,
we have seen interest in our program from other medical
disciplines, particularly dentistry. In the 5 years the program has been in operation, we have had several dental
residents participate. This theme of collaboration is consistent with that of the Institute of Medicine’s 2001 report
entitled, “Crossing the Quality Chasm: A New Health
System for the 21st Century.”10 At the heart of this report
is the tenet that healthcare professionals should be educated to provide patient care as members of an interdisciplinary team. This principle can also be extended into the
training setting; in this situation, that in the training of
future educators.
Implementation of similar teaching certificate programs may be met with some obstacles and challenges.
The implementation of a certificate program might be
most feasible for residency programs with a larger number of trainees or in situations where trainees from multiple sites can be combined. This is important both in
terms of effective resource allocation and for providing a
sound interactive environment for participating residents. Program implementation also requires a certain
level of faculty expertise within the residency program
or at an affiliated college of pharmacy, providing one
exists. Programs located on university campuses might
also explore the availability of on-campus content
experts from colleges outside of pharmacy and from academic learning centers. Resident and faculty support is
also critical to the success of a teaching certificate program. Advocation from these groups helps to create a
positive learning and collaborative environment, as well
as functions to elicit increased course participation.
Faculty members should consider scheduling when constructing certificate programs. Residents often have multiple responsibilities beyond patient care that make
attending seminars and meetings difficult. Seminar times
as well as the period within the residency year in which
to offer the program should be selected after significant
consultation with the resident staff.
Student assessment of resident teaching is also no
longer an optional component of the residency program.
All residents teaching skills are evaluated regardless of
participation in the STLC program because of the value
this feedback provides in terms of skill development.
The form students use to evaluate resident teaching has
been formally integrated into the College’s Advanced
Pharmacy Practice Experience (APPE) website.
131
American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 2005; 69 (2) Article 20.
CONCLUSIONS
REFERENCES
The national pharmacy shortage has impacted the
profession in many ways. Public demand for pharmacists
has led to increased pharmacy school enrollment and the
formation of a number of new pharmacy schools. The
expansion of pharmacy training across the country will
demand more qualified and experienced educators.
Unfortunately, competitive recruitment coupled with a
depleted pool of candidates may require many academic
institutions to seek candidates for faculty positions who
are less experienced and qualified than those sought in
previous years. Residency programs have traditionally
served as the postgraduate training fields for future pharmacy educators. We believe that by implementing the
STLC program we are meeting a significant need to better train pharmacy residents for the academic challenges
that lie before them. A basic premise of our instruction
and program is that great experts do not always make
great teachers. Recognizing that effective instruction is
in many ways an art, we hope to cultivate the skills of the
residents we train. We also hope that this curriculum will
serve as a model for other programs to adapt and institutionalize at their respective sites.
Future considerations for our program include the formalization of teaching portfolio review, continued seminar topic development based upon input from residents
and faculty members, continued multidisciplinary expansion, and lastly, improvement in our evaluative process.
We also plan to perform a follow-up survey of “certificate
graduates” to determine the long-term impact of the program as residents begin and progress in their professional
careers. We hope our endeavors continue to provide a
forum for “teaching pharmacy residents how to teach.”
1. Press Release July 29, 2003. American Foundation for
Pharmaceutical Education. http://www.afpenet.org/
news_faculty_shortage.htm. Accessed: February 17, 2005.
2. Survey of vacant budgeted and lost faculty positions, 2002.
Alexandria, Va: American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy;
2002.
3. Lee M, Bennett M, Chase P, et al. Final report and recommendations of the 2002 AACP task force on the role of colleges and
schools in residency training. Am J Pharm Educ. 2004;1(S2):1-19.
4. American Society of Hospital Pharmacists. ASHP accreditation
for residency in pharmacy practice (with an emphasis on pharmaceutical care). Am J Hosp Pharm. 1992;49:146-53.
5. American Society of Health-System Pharmacists accreditation
standards for residency in pharmacy practice. Available at:
www.ashp.org/rtp/Word/Final%20Pharmacy%20Practice%20G&Os
%20-%20March%207,%202001.doc. Accessed February 24, 2005.
6. Wright SM, Kern DE, Kolodner K, et al. Attributes of excellent
attending-physician role models. N Engl J Med. 1998;339:1986-93.
7. Romanelli F, Smith KM, Brandt BF. Development and implementation of a scholarship of teaching and learning certificate program
for pharmacy residents. Am J Health-Syst Pharm. 2001;58:896-8.
8. Boyer EL. Scholarship Reconsidered: Priorities of the
Professoriate. The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of
Teaching: Princeton, NJ; 1990.
9. Castellani V, Haber SL, Ellis SC. Evaluation of a teaching certificate program for pharmacy residents. Am J Health-Syst Pharm.
2003;60:1037-41.
10. Institute of Medicine. Crossing the Quality Chasm: A New
Health System for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: National
Academies Press; 2001.
132
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