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Reference Table: How to Format Bibliographic and - Trent University

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Department of Ancient History & Classics
Source Formatting for All Assignments
1
ReferenceTable:HowtoFormatBibliographicand
FootnoteEntriesforVariousTypesofSources
Some General Comments
The basic formula for a bibliographic entry is: Author. Year. Title [note the italics] (City: Publisher). However, as you will see from this
table, there are quite a few variations on that formula, depending on the nature of the source and its publication history.
A. Primary (Ancient) Sources
1. Always put the ancient author’s name at the head of the entry, even if that author’s name is included in the title of the work, because you will
be citing that ancient author for direct quotations and paraphrases and the reader needs to be able to find the corresponding entry for that
author and work in the bibliography easily.
2. In the in-text source citations (not the bibliographic entries), if you wish, you may use abbreviated versions of ancient author’s names and
titles, so long as you are consistent in doing so and follow the standard abbreviations that are provided in the front matter of the Oxford
Classical Dictionary.
Type of
Resource
Bibliography Entry - Samples
In-Text Parenthetical Citation
Format - Samples
Sallust. Sallust’s Bellum Catilinae, ed. J.T. Ramsey. American Philological Association
Textbook Series no. 9 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1984).
•
Ancient text in
the original
language (not
translated into
English)
Note: Titles are put into italics; however, if there is a title within a title, as occurs
above (Bellum Catilinae), that internal title reverts to regular font.
(Sallust, Bellum Catilinae 31.1)
Tacitus. Annals, Book IV, eds. R.H. Martin and A.J. Woodman (Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 1989, repr. 2004).
(Tacitus, Annals 4.43.2)
Note: �repr.’ In the above example stands for �reprint’; that is, the original
publication date was in 1989, but the version that you are using was not
published until 2004. Reprints can have different page numbers and other
changes, so it is important to note which version you are using.
Department of Ancient History & Classics
Ancient text,
translated into
English
Source Formatting for All Assignments
Plautus. Amphitryon & Two Other Plays, ed. and transl. L. Casson (New York: W.W.
Norton & Company, 1971).
Xenophon. The Persian Expedition, transl. R. Warner (Toronto: Penguin Books, 1949,
repr. 1972).
2
(Plautus, Amphitryon 784-786)
• Note that the translation title
indicated “& Two Other
Plays”; if you are citing one
of the other plays in your
footnote, you need to name it
instead of Amphitryon.
(Xenophon, The Persian Expedition
2.2)
IRT: Reynolds, J.M. and J.B. Ward-Perkins. 1952. The Inscriptions of Roman
Tripolitania (Rome: British School at Rome).
•
Inscriptions
•
•
Collections of ancient inscriptions are often referred to by their abbreviated titles
(e.g., IG2, CIL, CIS), and individual inscriptions within those collections are
identified by the title abbreviation, volume number (if applicable) and the
inscription number. In your bibliography, alphabetize such entries by their
abbreviations rather than the collections’ authors or editors in order to correlate
with the in-text source citations. Note, for example, that the above example of a
bibliographic entry starts with �IRT:’, then has the normal bibliographic entry;
this particular example would go under the letter �I’ in the alphabetical order of
the bibliography.
Since the abbreviation is of a title, it should appear in italics.
For a list of abbreviations and their full titles, see
www.ajaonline.org/submissions/abbreviations or the front matter of the Oxford
Classical Dictionary.
(IRT 341)
• That is, inscription number
341 in Inscriptions of Roman
Tripolitania.
(CIL 8.10111)
• That is, inscription number
10111 in volume 8 of Corpus
Inscriptionum Latinarum.
B. Secondary (Modern) Sources
Books/Monographs
Type of
Bibliography Entry - Sample
Resource
Footnote Format - Sample
Department of Ancient History & Classics
Book (single
author)
Source Formatting for All Assignments
Elton, H. 1996. Frontiers of the Roman Empire (London: Batsford).
3
1
Elton 1996, 23.
Storey, I.C. and A.L. Allan. 2005. A Guide to Ancient Greek Drama (Oxford:
Blackwell).
Book (two
authors)
2
•
•
Only the first author’s name is presented as last-name-first.
The order of the authors is not alphabetized; the names need to appear in the
same order as they do in the publication.
Storey and Allan 2005, 13-15.
Beard, M., J. North, and S.R.F. Price. 1998. Religions of Rome. Vol. 1: A History
(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
Book (three
authors)
3
•
•
Only the first author’s name is presented as last-name-first.
The order of the authors is not alphabetized; the names need to appear in the
same order as they do in the publication.
Beard, North, and Price 1998, 1.
Pomeroy, S.B., S.M. Burstein, W. Donlan, J.T. Roberts. A Brief History of Ancient
Greece: Politics, Society, and Culture, 2nd ed. (Oxford: Oxford University Press).
Book (four or
more authors)
Book in a
series
• Only if there are four or more authors:
In the bibliographic entry, list all of the authors, not in alphabetical order but in the
order in which they appear on the publication.
In the footnote entry, list only the first author’s last name, then use �et al.’ to indicate
that there were other authors. �Et al.’ is an abbreviation for the Latin phrase et alii
(�and others’). Since �et al.’ is an abbreviation, it needs to be followed by a period, as
it is here.
Storey, I.C. 2008. Euripides: Suppliant Women. Duckworth Companions to Greek and
Roman Tragedy (London: Duckworth).
•
•
This book was published within the series �Duckworth Companions to Greek
and Roman Tragedy’.
This is a secondary scholar’s commentary on the play, not a translation of the
play; therefore it is not treated as a primary source.
3
Pomeroy et al. 2003, 101.
4
Storey 2008, 156.
Department of Ancient History & Classics
Book,
supplement to
a journal
Book,
translated
Source Formatting for All Assignments
4
Either:
Stone, D.L., D.J. Mattingly, and N. Ben Lazreg. 2011. Leptiminus (Lamta). Report No.
3: The Field Survey. Journal of Roman Archaeology Suppl. 87 (Portsmouth, RI: Journal
of Roman Archaeology).
Or:
Stone, D.L., D.J. Mattingly, and N. Ben Lazreg. 2011. Leptiminus (Lamta). Report No.
3: The Field Survey. JRA Suppl. 87 (Portsmouth, RI: Journal of Roman Archaeology).
5
•
In the case of a journal, you may either write out the full name of the
journal, as appears here, or use its standardized abbreviation, hence JRA
Suppl. 87. It is important to distinguish between a volume (i.e., regular
issue) and a supplement (i.e., monograph) of a journal (see �journal articles’
below for specifying a volume number).For a list of abbreviations and their
full titles, see www.ajaonline.org/submissions/abbreviations or the front
matter of the Oxford Classical Dictionary.
Lancel, S. 1998. Hannibal, transl. A. Nevill (Malden, MA: Blackwell).
Stone, Mattingly, and Ben Lazreg
2011, pl. I.
6
Lancel 1998, 61.
Schliemann, H. 1878, repr. 1967. Mycenae: A Narrative of Researches and Discoveries
at Mycenae and Tiryns (New York: B. Blom).
Book,
reprinted
Book, 2nd
edition or later
Book, multivolume
•
Explanation: It is important to recognize that Schliemann could not have
written the book in 1967, since he had died in 1890; therefore you need to
acknowledge that the contents were actually written in 1878. The reprint that
you are using, from 1967, may have different page numbering and other
elements, so you also need to indicate which version you are using.
Ramage, N.H. and A. Ramage. 2009. Art of the Romans: Romulus to Constantine, 5th ed.
(Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall).
1. Only if you are referring to the collection in general, not intending to quote or
paraphrase a specific part:
Evans, A.J. 1921-1935. The Palace of Minos: A Comparative Account of the Successive
Stages of Early Cretan Civilization as Illustrated by the Discoveries at Knossos, 4
volumes (London: MacMillan & Co., Ltd.).
7
Schliemann 1878 (repr. 1967), 313.
8
Ramage and Ramage 2009, fig. 23.
If referring to the entire set of
volumes, without paraphrasing or
quoting a specific passage within:
9
Evans 1921-1935.
Department of Ancient History & Classics
Source Formatting for All Assignments
2. If you are going to be citing individual volumes for quotations or paraphrases, you
need to list each separately, as follows. Notice, in the second and third entries, the
addition of a letter after the date in instances where more than one volume appeared
in the same year, a system that allows clear footnoting in cases where the author and
the date are otherwise indistinguishable:
•
Note: the abbreviation �Vol.’ and the volume number are not in italics.
Evans, A.J. 1921. The Palace of Minos: A Comparative Account of the Successive Stages
of Early Cretan Civilization as Illustrated by the Discoveries at Knossos. Vol. I: The
Neolithic and Early and Middle Minoan Ages (London: MacMillan & Co., Ltd.).
Book, multivolume
(continued)
Evans, A.J. 1928a. The Palace of Minos: A Comparative Account of the Successive
Stages of Early Cretan Civilization as Illustrated by the Discoveries at Knossos. Vol. II,
Part 1: Fresh Lights on Origins and External Relations; the Restoration in Town and
Palace after Seismic Catastrophe towards Close of MM III; and the Beginnings of the
New Era (London: MacMillan & Co., Ltd.).
Evans, A.J. 1928b. The Palace of Minos: A Comparative Account of the Successive
Stages of Early Cretan Civilization as Illustrated by the Discoveries at Knossos. Vol. II,
Part 2: Town-Houses in Knossos of the New Era and Restored West Palace Section with
Its State Approach (London: MacMillan & Co., Ltd.).
Evans, A.J. 1930. The Palace of Minos: A Comparative Account of the Successive Stages
of Early Cretan Civilization as Illustrated by the Discoveries at Knossos. Vol. III: The
Great Transitional Age in the Northern and Eastern Sections of the Palace; the Most
Brilliant Records of Minoan Art and the Evidences of Advanced Religion (London:
MacMillan & Co., Ltd.).
Evans, A. J. 1935. The Palace of Minos: A Comparative Account of the Successive
Stages of Early Cretan Civilization as Illustrated by the Discoveries at Knossos. Vol. IV,
Part 1: Emergence of Outer Western Enceinte, with New Illustrations, Artistic and
Religious, of the Middle Minoan Phase; Chryselephantine �Lady of Sports’, �Snake
Room’ and Full Story of the Cult; Late Minoan Ceramic Style and �Palace Style’
(London: MacMillan & Co., Ltd.).
5
Citing from within a specific volume,
if more than one volume with the
same publication year is cited in the
bibliography (otherwise, leave out the
letter after the year):
10
Evans 1928a, 345-346.
Department of Ancient History & Classics
Source Formatting for All Assignments
Book, written
but not yet
published
Elton, H. Forthcoming. The Late Roman Empire: A Political and Military History
(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
Thesis or
Dissertation
Fitzsimons, R.D. 2006. Monuments of Power and the Power of Monuments - The
Evolution of Elite Architectural Styles at Bronze Age Mycenae (Ph.D. diss., University of
Cincinnati).
Walberg, G., ed. 2007. Midea: The Megaron Complex and Shrine Area. Excavations on
the Lower Terraces 1994-1997. Prehistory Monographs 20 (Philadelphia: Institute for
Aegean Prehistory Academic Press).
Edited book
(single editor)
Edited book
(two or more
editors)
6
11
Elton forthcoming, 34.
12
Fitzsimons 2006, 312.
13
Walberg 2007.
[if you are citing (a) specific
page(s), this is not the correct
type of entry – see �Chapter
in an edited book’ instead.]
Cite it this way only if you do not intend to refer to a specific passage within; if
you do intend to paraphrase or quote something within, you need to list
individual authors/chapters in your bibliography (see �Chapter in an edited
book’, below) – that is, when you are quoting or paraphrasing, always cite the
person who wrote the chapter in an edited book, not the person who edited what
that author wrote.
Marshall, C.W. and G. Kovacs, eds. 2012. No Laughing Matter: Studies in Old and
Middle Comedy (London: Bristol Classic Press).
•
14
Marshall and Kovacs 2012.
ed. = one editor; eds. = 2 or more editors
Part of a Book, where the author of the part is not the same as the overall author or editor
1. Note that the first and last page number of the internal part must be specified.
2. If the book chapters are preceded by a number (e.g., “Chapter One: Background”), leave out that chapter number and use only the title itself
(“Background”).
Type of
Resource
Forward,
preface, or
introduction to
a book
Bibliography Entry - Sample
Knox, B. 1990. “Introduction,” in The Iliad, by Homer, transl. R. Fagles (Toronto:
Penguin), 3-64.
Footnote Format - Sample
1
Knox 1990, 9.
Department of Ancient History & Classics
Source Formatting for All Assignments
Chapter in an
edited book
Moore, J.P. 2007. “The �Mausoleum Culture’ of Africa Proconsularis,” in Mortuary
Landscapes of North Africa, eds. D.L. Stone and L.M. Stirling. Phoenix Supplement 43
(Toronto: University of Toronto Press), 75-109.
Dictionary or
Encyclopedia
Entry
Moore, J.P. 2010b. “Carthage,” in The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and
Rome, ed. M. Gagarin (Oxford: Oxford University Press), 53-55.
7
2
Moore 2007, 100.
3
Moore 2010, 54.
Journal Articles
1. Article titles appear in regular font and double quotations, whereas journal titles are in italics, with no quotation marks.
2. The first and last page number of each article must be specified in the bibliography, and must be written out in full (e.g., 105-107, not 105-7).
3. For journal titles, you may either write out the title in full (e.g., Journal of Hellenic Studies or American Journal of Archaeology) or use their
standard abbreviations (e.g., JHS or AJA). For journal abbreviations and their expansions, please see
www.ajaonline.org/submissions/abbreviations.
4. Most journals that you will access through JSTOR or a similar online collections are digitized versions of print journals – meaning that the
originals were intended to be read on paper. For such journals, do not cite the URL; instead, cite the specific page numbers. For journals that
are only available online, refer to �Internet Resources’, below.
Type of
Resource
Bibliography Entry - Sample
Footnote Format - Sample
McClure, J. 2011. “Thebaid 2.239, 2.729 and the Problem of Aracynthus,” Mnemosyne
64, 58–81.
Article (single
author)
Article (2-3
authors)
•
�64’ here refers to the volume number of the journal. If there are both a
volume and an issue number, put the volume, immediately followed by a
period, immediately followed by the issue number – for example, 64.3.
Greatrex, G., H. Elton, and R. Burgess. 2005. “Urbicius' Epitedeuma: An Edition,
Translation and Commentary,” Byzantinische Zeitschrift 98, 35-74.
1
McClure 2011, 76.
2
Greatrex, Elton, and Burgess 2005,
51.
Department of Ancient History & Classics
Source Formatting for All Assignments
8
Haggis, D.C., M.S. Mook, R.D. Fitzsimons, C.M. Scarry, L.M. Snyder, and W.C. West
III. 2011. “Excavations in the Archaic Civic Buildings at Azoria in 2005-2006,”
Hesperia 80.1, 1-70.
Article (four
or more
authors)
As for books with four or more authors:
In the bibliographic entry, list all of the authors in the same order as they
appear.
In the footnote entry, list only the first author’s last name, then the
abbreviation �et al.’. (=�and others’).
•
•
•
Book Review
Type of
Resource
Bibliography Entry - Sample
3
Haggis et al. 2011, fig. 15.
Footnote Format – Sample
Moore, J.P. 2009. Review of Styling Romanisation: Pottery and Society in Central Italy,
by R.E. Roth, Phoenix 63.3-4, 429-431.
Book Review
That is, Roth wrote the book called Styling Romanisation; Moore wrote a
review of his book; Moore’s review of that book was published in the
journal Phoenix.
Note: you do not need to cite the publisher or city of publication with the book
title in a book review.
•
1
Moore 2009, 431.
Unpublished Lectures, Papers, Personal Conversations
Type of
Bibliography Entry - Sample
Resource
Moore, J.P. 2012, March 8. “Art Collecting versus Archaeology: The Case of Cycladic
Figurines,” lecture for AHCL 1001H, Trent University, Peterborough, ON.
Course Lecture
•
Note: cite a course lecture only as a last resort. If the lecturer was citing
someone else, you need to give credit to the original author of the idea.
Only if you have exhausted all means of ascertaining the original author
should you cite the instructor (unless the idea originated with the
Footnote Format - Sample
1
Moore 2012.
Department of Ancient History & Classics
Source Formatting for All Assignments
9
instructor, in which case it is perfectly appropriate to do so).
Guest or
Invited Lecture
Fitzsimons, R.D. 2010, November 3. “Monumental Architecture and the Construction
of the Mycenaean State,” presented at the Canadian Institute in Greece, Athens.
Conference
Paper
Lockwood, S. 2012, January 6. “Lycian Tombs and Political Change in the Elmalı
Basin in the Fourth Century B.C.E.”, presented at Recent Research in the Elmalı Basin:
A Memorial Colloquium for Machteld J. Mellink, at the 113th Annual Meeting of the
Archaeological Institute of America, Philadelphia.
Use this format for citing someone from the context of a personal conversation, be it in
Personal
person, over the phone, via e-mail, etc. This kind of reference need appear only in your
Communication
footnotes, not in your bibliography.
2
Fitzsimons 2010.
3
Lockwood 2012.
4
J. McClure, pers. comm. April 1,
2012.
Internet Resources
1. For the author, try to find the name of the person(s) responsible; sometimes, however, you will only be able to find the name of a research
centre, museum, or the like. Someone who is identified as the �Webmaster’ may simply be the editor, not the author.
2. For year of publication, the publication or copyright date may or may not appear. It may be a single date (e.g., 2011), a range of dates (e.g.,
2004-2012), or a �last updated’ date. Because most sites are updated and therefore their content may change, be sure to specify the date on
which you viewed the site; for example: “Accessed September 3, 2012”.
3. Be specific about where within the website you found it: Some websites have an extensive array of sub-pages; if you referred only to the
main (home) page, the reader would have a hard time finding exactly where you found your information. Therefore if the information is from
a sub-page, specify it by treating it as a chapter title (in double quotation marks); see �Website, secondary page’, below.
4. Confirm the publication information and original author: Be aware that some websites post digitized versions of printed materials by
other people. For instance, the Perseus Project, which is edited by G. Crane, has postings of out-of-print books by a variety of authors. The
Perseus Project gives the full publication info of the source when it does so; in your bibliography and/or source citation, you must do the same
in order to give credit to the original author – that is, G. Crane did not write those works.
5. Punctuation: Note that, as in all bibliographic entries, there is a period at the end, after the URL.
Type of
Resource
Bibliography Entry - Sample
Footnote Format - Sample
Department of Ancient History & Classics
Website,
home page
Website,
secondary
page
Publication
posted in
web format
on a website
of someone
other than
the original
author(s)
Article in
an online
journal
Online PDF
Source Formatting for All Assignments
Trustees of the British Museum. The British Museum. Accessed September 3, 2012.
www.britishmuseum.org.
10
1
Trustees of the British Museum
2012.
Classical Art Research Centre. 1997-2012. “Komasts and Athletes”, in The Beazley Archive.
Accessed September 3, 2012. www.beazley.ox.ac.uk/gems/scarab/scarab30.htm.
2
•
In this instance, “Komasts and Athletes” is the name of the page that was
accessed, and The Beazley Archive is the name of the overall website (as
indicated on the main/home page).
Platner, S.B. and T. Ashby. 1929. “Campus Martius”, in A Topographical Dictionary of
Ancient Rome (London: Humphrey Milford), in The Perseus Project, ed. G.R. Crane.
Accessed July 30, 2012.
www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0054%3Aalphabetic+l
etter%3DC%3Aentry+group%3D1%3Aentry%3Dcampus-martius.
•
Classical Art Research Centre
2012.
3
Platner and Ashby 1929.
In this instance, the article “Campus Martius”, which originally appeared in
Platner and Ashby’s book, has been posted on the website of the Perseus Project.
To be used only for journals that are truly online journals, not for digitized copies of print
journals (see �journal articles’ above). Some online journal articles, for instance, may have
the article right on the webpage (not as a linked PDF) and not have page numbering.
Tartaron, T.F., R.M. Rothaus, and D.J. Pullen. 2003. “Searching for Prehistoric Aegean
Harbors with GIS, Geomorphology, and Archaeology,” Athena Review 3.4. Accessed August
25, 2012. www.athenapub.com/12aegean.htm.
Check whether this PDF is truly online only, or actually a digitized version of a printed
publication. If it is a digitized version, it needs to be cited as per the instructions for noninternet resources. If, instead, it was written to be online, start with the format that seems
closest to what this PDF is (e.g., a free-standing publication like a book, or a chapter in a
book, etc.) and then add the �Accessed’ and URL information.
Smith, N. 2011. Introductions to Heritage Assets: Pre-Industrial Lime Kilns (English
Heritage). Accessed September 2, 2012. www.english-heritage.org.uk/...lime-
4
Tartaron, Rothaus, and Pullen
2003.
• If the online article
has numbered pages,
cite the specific
page(s) ; otherwise
omit that part of the
entry.
4
Smith 2011, 2.
• If the online PDF has
numbered pages, cite
the specific page(s);
otherwise omit that
part of the entry.
Department of Ancient History & Classics
Source Formatting for All Assignments
11
kilns/preindustriallimekilns.pdf.
FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)
Q: One of the authors has two works from the same year. How do I distinguish them and in what order do I place them?
A: If they were published in the same year, place them in alphabetical order by the title of the work. Immediately after the year in the first
entry, put an �a’; after the year in the second entry, put a �b’. For example, for the two entries below, �Carthage’ comes alphabetically
before �Naked’, thus:
Moore, J.P. 2010a. “Carthage”, in The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome, ed. M. Gagarin
(Oxford: Oxford University Press), 53-55.
Moore, J.P. 2010b. “Naked Bull-Riding on Ceramic Products from Roman Africa”, in Africa Romana: I
luoghi e le forme dei mestieri e della produzione nelle province africane, Atti del XVIII convegno di studio,
Olbia, 11-14 dicembre 2008, eds. M. Milanese, P. Ruggeri, and C. Vismara (Rome: Carocci), 713-724.
Then, when you cite one or the other in a footnote, be sure to specify that letter so that the reader knows which work is cited:
14
Moore 2010a, 54.
Q: More than one city is listed as the place of publication. What do I do?
A: The default is to choose the city that is closest to you, on the basis that it is more likely that the book came from a source nearby than
one far away (e.g., on another continent).
Q: What if I find that several different sources support the same idea – how do I footnote that?
A: List them all in a single footnote, with each citation separated by a semi-colon (;). It is advisable to put them in chronological, rather
than alphabetical order, to reflect possible lines of influence. For example:
[sentence in essay:]
In the past decade, several scholars have adopted this line of reasoning.5
[associated footnote:]
5
Maplecreek 2001, 45; Spruce 2004, 210; Redwood 2010, 93.
Department of Ancient History & Classics
Source Formatting for All Assignments
12
Q: For my course in another program, for source citations we have to cite only the author and year, not any page numbers. Why do we
need to cite the page number for footnotes here?
A: You are correct that standards vary from one discipline to the next. In Classics, the standard is to be as specific as possible when citing a
source, so that the reader can go find the relevant passage without trouble, for her/his own research interests. Imagine if your author-date (no page)
reference was to a book that was 200 pages long – how would the reader find the correct section without potentially having to read the whole
book?
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