Reference Table: How to Format Bibliographic and - Trent Universityкод для вставки
Department of Ancient History & Classics Source Formatting for All Assignments 1 ReferenceTable:HowtoFormatBibliographicand FootnoteEntriesforVariousTypesofSources Some General Comments The basic formula for a bibliographic entry is: Author. Year. Title [note the italics] (City: Publisher). However, as you will see from this table, there are quite a few variations on that formula, depending on the nature of the source and its publication history. A. Primary (Ancient) Sources 1. Always put the ancient authorвЂ™s name at the head of the entry, even if that authorвЂ™s name is included in the title of the work, because you will be citing that ancient author for direct quotations and paraphrases and the reader needs to be able to find the corresponding entry for that author and work in the bibliography easily. 2. In the in-text source citations (not the bibliographic entries), if you wish, you may use abbreviated versions of ancient authorвЂ™s names and titles, so long as you are consistent in doing so and follow the standard abbreviations that are provided in the front matter of the Oxford Classical Dictionary. Type of Resource Bibliography Entry - Samples In-Text Parenthetical Citation Format - Samples Sallust. SallustвЂ™s Bellum Catilinae, ed. J.T. Ramsey. American Philological Association Textbook Series no. 9 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1984). вЂў Ancient text in the original language (not translated into English) Note: Titles are put into italics; however, if there is a title within a title, as occurs above (Bellum Catilinae), that internal title reverts to regular font. (Sallust, Bellum Catilinae 31.1) Tacitus. Annals, Book IV, eds. R.H. Martin and A.J. Woodman (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989, repr. 2004). (Tacitus, Annals 4.43.2) Note: вЂ�repr.вЂ™ In the above example stands for вЂ�reprintвЂ™; that is, the original publication date was in 1989, but the version that you are using was not published until 2004. Reprints can have different page numbers and other changes, so it is important to note which version you are using. Department of Ancient History & Classics Ancient text, translated into English Source Formatting for All Assignments Plautus. Amphitryon & Two Other Plays, ed. and transl. L. Casson (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1971). Xenophon. The Persian Expedition, transl. R. Warner (Toronto: Penguin Books, 1949, repr. 1972). 2 (Plautus, Amphitryon 784-786) вЂў Note that the translation title indicated вЂњ& Two Other PlaysвЂќ; if you are citing one of the other plays in your footnote, you need to name it instead of Amphitryon. (Xenophon, The Persian Expedition 2.2) IRT: Reynolds, J.M. and J.B. Ward-Perkins. 1952. The Inscriptions of Roman Tripolitania (Rome: British School at Rome). вЂў Inscriptions вЂў вЂў Collections of ancient inscriptions are often referred to by their abbreviated titles (e.g., IG2, CIL, CIS), and individual inscriptions within those collections are identified by the title abbreviation, volume number (if applicable) and the inscription number. In your bibliography, alphabetize such entries by their abbreviations rather than the collectionsвЂ™ authors or editors in order to correlate with the in-text source citations. Note, for example, that the above example of a bibliographic entry starts with вЂ�IRT:вЂ™, then has the normal bibliographic entry; this particular example would go under the letter вЂ�IвЂ™ in the alphabetical order of the bibliography. Since the abbreviation is of a title, it should appear in italics. For a list of abbreviations and their full titles, see www.ajaonline.org/submissions/abbreviations or the front matter of the Oxford Classical Dictionary. (IRT 341) вЂў That is, inscription number 341 in Inscriptions of Roman Tripolitania. (CIL 8.10111) вЂў That is, inscription number 10111 in volume 8 of Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum. B. Secondary (Modern) Sources Books/Monographs Type of Bibliography Entry - Sample Resource Footnote Format - Sample Department of Ancient History & Classics Book (single author) Source Formatting for All Assignments Elton, H. 1996. Frontiers of the Roman Empire (London: Batsford). 3 1 Elton 1996, 23. Storey, I.C. and A.L. Allan. 2005. A Guide to Ancient Greek Drama (Oxford: Blackwell). Book (two authors) 2 вЂў вЂў Only the first authorвЂ™s name is presented as last-name-first. The order of the authors is not alphabetized; the names need to appear in the same order as they do in the publication. Storey and Allan 2005, 13-15. Beard, M., J. North, and S.R.F. Price. 1998. Religions of Rome. Vol. 1: A History (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). Book (three authors) 3 вЂў вЂў Only the first authorвЂ™s name is presented as last-name-first. The order of the authors is not alphabetized; the names need to appear in the same order as they do in the publication. Beard, North, and Price 1998, 1. Pomeroy, S.B., S.M. Burstein, W. Donlan, J.T. Roberts. A Brief History of Ancient Greece: Politics, Society, and Culture, 2nd ed. (Oxford: Oxford University Press). Book (four or more authors) Book in a series вЂў Only if there are four or more authors: In the bibliographic entry, list all of the authors, not in alphabetical order but in the order in which they appear on the publication. In the footnote entry, list only the first authorвЂ™s last name, then use вЂ�et al.вЂ™ to indicate that there were other authors. вЂ�Et al.вЂ™ is an abbreviation for the Latin phrase et alii (вЂ�and othersвЂ™). Since вЂ�et al.вЂ™ is an abbreviation, it needs to be followed by a period, as it is here. Storey, I.C. 2008. Euripides: Suppliant Women. Duckworth Companions to Greek and Roman Tragedy (London: Duckworth). вЂў вЂў This book was published within the series вЂ�Duckworth Companions to Greek and Roman TragedyвЂ™. This is a secondary scholarвЂ™s commentary on the play, not a translation of the play; therefore it is not treated as a primary source. 3 Pomeroy et al. 2003, 101. 4 Storey 2008, 156. Department of Ancient History & Classics Book, supplement to a journal Book, translated Source Formatting for All Assignments 4 Either: Stone, D.L., D.J. Mattingly, and N. Ben Lazreg. 2011. Leptiminus (Lamta). Report No. 3: The Field Survey. Journal of Roman Archaeology Suppl. 87 (Portsmouth, RI: Journal of Roman Archaeology). Or: Stone, D.L., D.J. Mattingly, and N. Ben Lazreg. 2011. Leptiminus (Lamta). Report No. 3: The Field Survey. JRA Suppl. 87 (Portsmouth, RI: Journal of Roman Archaeology). 5 вЂў In the case of a journal, you may either write out the full name of the journal, as appears here, or use its standardized abbreviation, hence JRA Suppl. 87. It is important to distinguish between a volume (i.e., regular issue) and a supplement (i.e., monograph) of a journal (see вЂ�journal articlesвЂ™ below for specifying a volume number).For a list of abbreviations and their full titles, see www.ajaonline.org/submissions/abbreviations or the front matter of the Oxford Classical Dictionary. Lancel, S. 1998. Hannibal, transl. A. Nevill (Malden, MA: Blackwell). Stone, Mattingly, and Ben Lazreg 2011, pl. I. 6 Lancel 1998, 61. Schliemann, H. 1878, repr. 1967. Mycenae: A Narrative of Researches and Discoveries at Mycenae and Tiryns (New York: B. Blom). Book, reprinted Book, 2nd edition or later Book, multivolume вЂў Explanation: It is important to recognize that Schliemann could not have written the book in 1967, since he had died in 1890; therefore you need to acknowledge that the contents were actually written in 1878. The reprint that you are using, from 1967, may have different page numbering and other elements, so you also need to indicate which version you are using. Ramage, N.H. and A. Ramage. 2009. Art of the Romans: Romulus to Constantine, 5th ed. (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall). 1. Only if you are referring to the collection in general, not intending to quote or paraphrase a specific part: Evans, A.J. 1921-1935. The Palace of Minos: A Comparative Account of the Successive Stages of Early Cretan Civilization as Illustrated by the Discoveries at Knossos, 4 volumes (London: MacMillan & Co., Ltd.). 7 Schliemann 1878 (repr. 1967), 313. 8 Ramage and Ramage 2009, fig. 23. If referring to the entire set of volumes, without paraphrasing or quoting a specific passage within: 9 Evans 1921-1935. Department of Ancient History & Classics Source Formatting for All Assignments 2. If you are going to be citing individual volumes for quotations or paraphrases, you need to list each separately, as follows. Notice, in the second and third entries, the addition of a letter after the date in instances where more than one volume appeared in the same year, a system that allows clear footnoting in cases where the author and the date are otherwise indistinguishable: вЂў Note: the abbreviation вЂ�Vol.вЂ™ and the volume number are not in italics. Evans, A.J. 1921. The Palace of Minos: A Comparative Account of the Successive Stages of Early Cretan Civilization as Illustrated by the Discoveries at Knossos. Vol. I: The Neolithic and Early and Middle Minoan Ages (London: MacMillan & Co., Ltd.). Book, multivolume (continued) Evans, A.J. 1928a. The Palace of Minos: A Comparative Account of the Successive Stages of Early Cretan Civilization as Illustrated by the Discoveries at Knossos. Vol. II, Part 1: Fresh Lights on Origins and External Relations; the Restoration in Town and Palace after Seismic Catastrophe towards Close of MM III; and the Beginnings of the New Era (London: MacMillan & Co., Ltd.). Evans, A.J. 1928b. The Palace of Minos: A Comparative Account of the Successive Stages of Early Cretan Civilization as Illustrated by the Discoveries at Knossos. Vol. II, Part 2: Town-Houses in Knossos of the New Era and Restored West Palace Section with Its State Approach (London: MacMillan & Co., Ltd.). Evans, A.J. 1930. The Palace of Minos: A Comparative Account of the Successive Stages of Early Cretan Civilization as Illustrated by the Discoveries at Knossos. Vol. III: The Great Transitional Age in the Northern and Eastern Sections of the Palace; the Most Brilliant Records of Minoan Art and the Evidences of Advanced Religion (London: MacMillan & Co., Ltd.). Evans, A. J. 1935. The Palace of Minos: A Comparative Account of the Successive Stages of Early Cretan Civilization as Illustrated by the Discoveries at Knossos. Vol. IV, Part 1: Emergence of Outer Western Enceinte, with New Illustrations, Artistic and Religious, of the Middle Minoan Phase; Chryselephantine вЂ�Lady of SportsвЂ™, вЂ�Snake RoomвЂ™ and Full Story of the Cult; Late Minoan Ceramic Style and вЂ�Palace StyleвЂ™ (London: MacMillan & Co., Ltd.). 5 Citing from within a specific volume, if more than one volume with the same publication year is cited in the bibliography (otherwise, leave out the letter after the year): 10 Evans 1928a, 345-346. Department of Ancient History & Classics Source Formatting for All Assignments Book, written but not yet published Elton, H. Forthcoming. The Late Roman Empire: A Political and Military History (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). Thesis or Dissertation Fitzsimons, R.D. 2006. Monuments of Power and the Power of Monuments - The Evolution of Elite Architectural Styles at Bronze Age Mycenae (Ph.D. diss., University of Cincinnati). Walberg, G., ed. 2007. Midea: The Megaron Complex and Shrine Area. Excavations on the Lower Terraces 1994-1997. Prehistory Monographs 20 (Philadelphia: Institute for Aegean Prehistory Academic Press). Edited book (single editor) Edited book (two or more editors) 6 11 Elton forthcoming, 34. 12 Fitzsimons 2006, 312. 13 Walberg 2007. [if you are citing (a) specific page(s), this is not the correct type of entry вЂ“ see вЂ�Chapter in an edited bookвЂ™ instead.] Cite it this way only if you do not intend to refer to a specific passage within; if you do intend to paraphrase or quote something within, you need to list individual authors/chapters in your bibliography (see вЂ�Chapter in an edited bookвЂ™, below) вЂ“ that is, when you are quoting or paraphrasing, always cite the person who wrote the chapter in an edited book, not the person who edited what that author wrote. Marshall, C.W. and G. Kovacs, eds. 2012. No Laughing Matter: Studies in Old and Middle Comedy (London: Bristol Classic Press). вЂў 14 Marshall and Kovacs 2012. ed. = one editor; eds. = 2 or more editors Part of a Book, where the author of the part is not the same as the overall author or editor 1. Note that the first and last page number of the internal part must be specified. 2. If the book chapters are preceded by a number (e.g., вЂњChapter One: BackgroundвЂќ), leave out that chapter number and use only the title itself (вЂњBackgroundвЂќ). Type of Resource Forward, preface, or introduction to a book Bibliography Entry - Sample Knox, B. 1990. вЂњIntroduction,вЂќ in The Iliad, by Homer, transl. R. Fagles (Toronto: Penguin), 3-64. Footnote Format - Sample 1 Knox 1990, 9. Department of Ancient History & Classics Source Formatting for All Assignments Chapter in an edited book Moore, J.P. 2007. вЂњThe вЂ�Mausoleum CultureвЂ™ of Africa Proconsularis,вЂќ in Mortuary Landscapes of North Africa, eds. D.L. Stone and L.M. Stirling. Phoenix Supplement 43 (Toronto: University of Toronto Press), 75-109. Dictionary or Encyclopedia Entry Moore, J.P. 2010b. вЂњCarthage,вЂќ in The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome, ed. M. Gagarin (Oxford: Oxford University Press), 53-55. 7 2 Moore 2007, 100. 3 Moore 2010, 54. Journal Articles 1. Article titles appear in regular font and double quotations, whereas journal titles are in italics, with no quotation marks. 2. The first and last page number of each article must be specified in the bibliography, and must be written out in full (e.g., 105-107, not 105-7). 3. For journal titles, you may either write out the title in full (e.g., Journal of Hellenic Studies or American Journal of Archaeology) or use their standard abbreviations (e.g., JHS or AJA). For journal abbreviations and their expansions, please see www.ajaonline.org/submissions/abbreviations. 4. Most journals that you will access through JSTOR or a similar online collections are digitized versions of print journals вЂ“ meaning that the originals were intended to be read on paper. For such journals, do not cite the URL; instead, cite the specific page numbers. For journals that are only available online, refer to вЂ�Internet ResourcesвЂ™, below. Type of Resource Bibliography Entry - Sample Footnote Format - Sample McClure, J. 2011. вЂњThebaid 2.239, 2.729 and the Problem of Aracynthus,вЂќ Mnemosyne 64, 58вЂ“81. Article (single author) Article (2-3 authors) вЂў вЂ�64вЂ™ here refers to the volume number of the journal. If there are both a volume and an issue number, put the volume, immediately followed by a period, immediately followed by the issue number вЂ“ for example, 64.3. Greatrex, G., H. Elton, and R. Burgess. 2005. вЂњUrbicius' Epitedeuma: An Edition, Translation and Commentary,вЂќ Byzantinische Zeitschrift 98, 35-74. 1 McClure 2011, 76. 2 Greatrex, Elton, and Burgess 2005, 51. Department of Ancient History & Classics Source Formatting for All Assignments 8 Haggis, D.C., M.S. Mook, R.D. Fitzsimons, C.M. Scarry, L.M. Snyder, and W.C. West III. 2011. вЂњExcavations in the Archaic Civic Buildings at Azoria in 2005-2006,вЂќ Hesperia 80.1, 1-70. Article (four or more authors) As for books with four or more authors: In the bibliographic entry, list all of the authors in the same order as they appear. In the footnote entry, list only the first authorвЂ™s last name, then the abbreviation вЂ�et al.вЂ™. (=вЂ�and othersвЂ™). вЂў вЂў вЂў Book Review Type of Resource Bibliography Entry - Sample 3 Haggis et al. 2011, fig. 15. Footnote Format вЂ“ Sample Moore, J.P. 2009. Review of Styling Romanisation: Pottery and Society in Central Italy, by R.E. Roth, Phoenix 63.3-4, 429-431. Book Review That is, Roth wrote the book called Styling Romanisation; Moore wrote a review of his book; MooreвЂ™s review of that book was published in the journal Phoenix. Note: you do not need to cite the publisher or city of publication with the book title in a book review. вЂў 1 Moore 2009, 431. Unpublished Lectures, Papers, Personal Conversations Type of Bibliography Entry - Sample Resource Moore, J.P. 2012, March 8. вЂњArt Collecting versus Archaeology: The Case of Cycladic Figurines,вЂќ lecture for AHCL 1001H, Trent University, Peterborough, ON. Course Lecture вЂў Note: cite a course lecture only as a last resort. If the lecturer was citing someone else, you need to give credit to the original author of the idea. Only if you have exhausted all means of ascertaining the original author should you cite the instructor (unless the idea originated with the Footnote Format - Sample 1 Moore 2012. Department of Ancient History & Classics Source Formatting for All Assignments 9 instructor, in which case it is perfectly appropriate to do so). Guest or Invited Lecture Fitzsimons, R.D. 2010, November 3. вЂњMonumental Architecture and the Construction of the Mycenaean State,вЂќ presented at the Canadian Institute in Greece, Athens. Conference Paper Lockwood, S. 2012, January 6. вЂњLycian Tombs and Political Change in the ElmalД± Basin in the Fourth Century B.C.E.вЂќ, presented at Recent Research in the ElmalД± Basin: A Memorial Colloquium for Machteld J. Mellink, at the 113th Annual Meeting of the Archaeological Institute of America, Philadelphia. Use this format for citing someone from the context of a personal conversation, be it in Personal person, over the phone, via e-mail, etc. This kind of reference need appear only in your Communication footnotes, not in your bibliography. 2 Fitzsimons 2010. 3 Lockwood 2012. 4 J. McClure, pers. comm. April 1, 2012. Internet Resources 1. For the author, try to find the name of the person(s) responsible; sometimes, however, you will only be able to find the name of a research centre, museum, or the like. Someone who is identified as the вЂ�WebmasterвЂ™ may simply be the editor, not the author. 2. For year of publication, the publication or copyright date may or may not appear. It may be a single date (e.g., 2011), a range of dates (e.g., 2004-2012), or a вЂ�last updatedвЂ™ date. Because most sites are updated and therefore their content may change, be sure to specify the date on which you viewed the site; for example: вЂњAccessed September 3, 2012вЂќ. 3. Be specific about where within the website you found it: Some websites have an extensive array of sub-pages; if you referred only to the main (home) page, the reader would have a hard time finding exactly where you found your information. Therefore if the information is from a sub-page, specify it by treating it as a chapter title (in double quotation marks); see вЂ�Website, secondary pageвЂ™, below. 4. Confirm the publication information and original author: Be aware that some websites post digitized versions of printed materials by other people. For instance, the Perseus Project, which is edited by G. Crane, has postings of out-of-print books by a variety of authors. The Perseus Project gives the full publication info of the source when it does so; in your bibliography and/or source citation, you must do the same in order to give credit to the original author вЂ“ that is, G. Crane did not write those works. 5. Punctuation: Note that, as in all bibliographic entries, there is a period at the end, after the URL. Type of Resource Bibliography Entry - Sample Footnote Format - Sample Department of Ancient History & Classics Website, home page Website, secondary page Publication posted in web format on a website of someone other than the original author(s) Article in an online journal Online PDF Source Formatting for All Assignments Trustees of the British Museum. The British Museum. Accessed September 3, 2012. www.britishmuseum.org. 10 1 Trustees of the British Museum 2012. Classical Art Research Centre. 1997-2012. вЂњKomasts and AthletesвЂќ, in The Beazley Archive. Accessed September 3, 2012. www.beazley.ox.ac.uk/gems/scarab/scarab30.htm. 2 вЂў In this instance, вЂњKomasts and AthletesвЂќ is the name of the page that was accessed, and The Beazley Archive is the name of the overall website (as indicated on the main/home page). Platner, S.B. and T. Ashby. 1929. вЂњCampus MartiusвЂќ, in A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome (London: Humphrey Milford), in The Perseus Project, ed. G.R. Crane. Accessed July 30, 2012. www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0054%3Aalphabetic+l etter%3DC%3Aentry+group%3D1%3Aentry%3Dcampus-martius. вЂў Classical Art Research Centre 2012. 3 Platner and Ashby 1929. In this instance, the article вЂњCampus MartiusвЂќ, which originally appeared in Platner and AshbyвЂ™s book, has been posted on the website of the Perseus Project. To be used only for journals that are truly online journals, not for digitized copies of print journals (see вЂ�journal articlesвЂ™ above). Some online journal articles, for instance, may have the article right on the webpage (not as a linked PDF) and not have page numbering. Tartaron, T.F., R.M. Rothaus, and D.J. Pullen. 2003. вЂњSearching for Prehistoric Aegean Harbors with GIS, Geomorphology, and Archaeology,вЂќ Athena Review 3.4. Accessed August 25, 2012. www.athenapub.com/12aegean.htm. Check whether this PDF is truly online only, or actually a digitized version of a printed publication. If it is a digitized version, it needs to be cited as per the instructions for noninternet resources. If, instead, it was written to be online, start with the format that seems closest to what this PDF is (e.g., a free-standing publication like a book, or a chapter in a book, etc.) and then add the вЂ�AccessedвЂ™ and URL information. Smith, N. 2011. Introductions to Heritage Assets: Pre-Industrial Lime Kilns (English Heritage). Accessed September 2, 2012. www.english-heritage.org.uk/...lime- 4 Tartaron, Rothaus, and Pullen 2003. вЂў If the online article has numbered pages, cite the specific page(s) ; otherwise omit that part of the entry. 4 Smith 2011, 2. вЂў If the online PDF has numbered pages, cite the specific page(s); otherwise omit that part of the entry. Department of Ancient History & Classics Source Formatting for All Assignments 11 kilns/preindustriallimekilns.pdf. FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions) Q: One of the authors has two works from the same year. How do I distinguish them and in what order do I place them? A: If they were published in the same year, place them in alphabetical order by the title of the work. Immediately after the year in the first entry, put an вЂ�aвЂ™; after the year in the second entry, put a вЂ�bвЂ™. For example, for the two entries below, вЂ�CarthageвЂ™ comes alphabetically before вЂ�NakedвЂ™, thus: Moore, J.P. 2010a. вЂњCarthageвЂќ, in The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome, ed. M. Gagarin (Oxford: Oxford University Press), 53-55. Moore, J.P. 2010b. вЂњNaked Bull-Riding on Ceramic Products from Roman AfricaвЂќ, in Africa Romana: I luoghi e le forme dei mestieri e della produzione nelle province africane, Atti del XVIII convegno di studio, Olbia, 11-14 dicembre 2008, eds. M. Milanese, P. Ruggeri, and C. Vismara (Rome: Carocci), 713-724. Then, when you cite one or the other in a footnote, be sure to specify that letter so that the reader knows which work is cited: 14 Moore 2010a, 54. Q: More than one city is listed as the place of publication. What do I do? A: The default is to choose the city that is closest to you, on the basis that it is more likely that the book came from a source nearby than one far away (e.g., on another continent). Q: What if I find that several different sources support the same idea вЂ“ how do I footnote that? A: List them all in a single footnote, with each citation separated by a semi-colon (;). It is advisable to put them in chronological, rather than alphabetical order, to reflect possible lines of influence. For example: [sentence in essay:] In the past decade, several scholars have adopted this line of reasoning.5 [associated footnote:] 5 Maplecreek 2001, 45; Spruce 2004, 210; Redwood 2010, 93. Department of Ancient History & Classics Source Formatting for All Assignments 12 Q: For my course in another program, for source citations we have to cite only the author and year, not any page numbers. Why do we need to cite the page number for footnotes here? A: You are correct that standards vary from one discipline to the next. In Classics, the standard is to be as specific as possible when citing a source, so that the reader can go find the relevant passage without trouble, for her/his own research interests. Imagine if your author-date (no page) reference was to a book that was 200 pages long вЂ“ how would the reader find the correct section without potentially having to read the whole book?