How to Buy an Energy Audit - kW Engineeringкод для вставки
How to Buy an Energy Audit Peter Pollard, P.E. www.kw-engineering.com В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc. What weвЂ™ll cover п‚§ Define a вЂњGood auditвЂќ п‚§ Auditing: Why and what? п‚§ Standards & Levels п‚§ Find and select an auditor п‚§ Other keys to audit п‚§ п‚§ success Typical costs Case studies В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc. Intro to kW п‚§ kW Engineering п‚§ п‚§ Energy engineering вЂ“ efficiency & renewables Oakland, Long Beach, Chicago, Salt Lake City п‚§ We walk the talk: our HQ building is LEEDВ® Gold certified with Energy Star = 100 п‚§ Peter Pollard, P.E., BEAP - Principal п‚§ п‚§ п‚§ Mechanical engineer, 26 years 18 yrs capital projects + 8 yrs devoted to energy Energy audits, strategic plans, PM, commissioning п‚§ Current clients and sites include: п‚§ Apple, AT&T, CB Richard Ellis, California Energy Commission (Bright Schools), Cisco, Citrus College, County of Santa Clara, Cushman and Wakefield, CSU-EB, Google, Kaiser, Kilroy Realty, Lawrence Livermore Natl Labs, Marvell, Pacificorp, PG&E, PepsiCo, Pixar, SCEdison, SFPUC, SFSU, SFUSD, Stanford University, St Jude ChildrenвЂ™s Hospital, UC Berkeley, UC Santa Cruz, VISA, Yahoo, Zynga В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc. Polls (show of hands) 1. How many of you have bought energy audits before? 2. How many of you were satisfied with the results? В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc. В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc. Good and Bad Audits п‚§ Good energy audit: п‚§ Leads to actions which costeffectively save energy and $$ п‚§ Bad energy audit: п‚§ A report sitting on a desk. п‚§ Audits are just the beginning п‚§ Audits provide a guide to action п‚§ вЂњEnergy Action PlansвЂќ Good and Bad Audits п‚§ Too many energy audits end up as failed reports which collect dust on a shelf. п‚§ No matter why youвЂ™re going to buy an energy audit, why not buy one which inspires and enables action, with a custom plan for saving energy and money. В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc. Energy auditing: why? В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc. В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc. Why audit? п‚§ Audits provide a guide to energy efficiency п‚§ Energy efficiency saves $$ вЂњWell thereвЂ™s your problemвЂќ Why audit? п‚§ Energy-efficient, properly-running systems can mean: п‚§ Cost savings п‚§ Satisfied tenants п‚§ Higher occupancy п‚§ Higher NOI п‚§ Higher property value п‚§ Avoided capital upgrades п‚§ More reliable mechanical systems п‚§ Recognition / differentiation п‚§ LEEDВ® EBOM п‚§ Energy Star п‚§ ASHRAE EQ п‚§ Tenant goodwill В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc. Why audit? п‚§ Goals: п‚§ Meet legal requirement п‚§ (Austin, San Francisco, NYC, вЂ¦) п‚§ Meet LEEDВ® requirements п‚§ Meet corporate mandates п‚§ In all cases, use audits to: п‚§ Understand your buildingвЂ™s energy use п‚§ Find opportunities for energy cost п‚§ savings Develop short and long-term plans for energy reduction: вЂњEnergy Action PlanвЂќ В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc. В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc. Why audit? п‚§ EE is complex п‚§ Good energy projects п‚§ depend on particulars п‚§ Your building(s) п‚§ Systems п‚§ Operations п‚§ Occupants п‚§ Climate п‚§ Other projects ItвЂ™s all in the details В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc. LEED EBOM Credits IEQ WE EA п‚§ Energy efficiency can get you ~half way to LEED certification п‚§ Energy credits are the only ones with a payback! В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc. LEED EBOM Credits п‚§ Energy Star performance: Minimum 69 п‚§ Up to 18 points for a 95+ Energy Star score Energy auditing: what? В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc. Energy auditing: what? п‚§ What auditors do: п‚§ Analyze your facility and your energy use and users п‚§ Match best practices to your building particulars п‚§ Develop savings/costs numbers to guide decisions and justify action п‚§ Result: Energy Action Plan В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc. Audit Standards п‚§ Commercial в‰ Home в‰ Industrial п‚§ Very different audit arenas п‚§ No true standards п‚§ ASHRAE Procedures for Commercial Building Energy Audits п‚§ Commonly used to define levels of audit effort п‚§ Eg. USGBC (LEED) п‚§ Procedures, not a standard www.ashrae.org/bookstore www.kw-engineering.com/audits В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc. Audit Standards п‚§ Complements: п‚§ ASTM E2797-11 Standard Practice for Building Energy Performance Assessment п‚§ www.astm.org/Standards/E2797.htm п‚§ Using the New ASTM BEPA Standard in Energy Auditing and ECM Performance Evaluation п‚§ http://pacenow.org/wpcontent/uploads/2012/08/Whitepaper_BEPA_Us e_in_Energy_Auditing_09-04-111.pdf В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc. В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc. Also coming ASHRAE Standard 100 п‚§ Energy Efficiency for Existing Buildings п‚§ For most buildings uses energy targets п‚§ For buildings w/o targets, requires ASHRAE Level 2 Energy Audits (within 10% annual spend cost cap) Audit Levels п‚§ How deep do you need to go? п‚§ ASHRAE Audit Levels п‚§ Level 1 вЂ“ Walk-through / Scoping п‚§ Level 2 вЂ“ Standard Audit w/ Analysis п‚§ Level 3 вЂ“ Detailed Analysis (Capital) п‚§ Each level builds on the level before п‚§ Alternates: п‚§ Targeted audits п‚§ Retro-commissioning www.ashrae.org/bookstore www.kw-engineering.com/audits В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc. Preliminary Energy Use Analysis вЂў Analyze current use вЂў Benchmark Level 1: Walk-through / Scoping вЂў Identify Potential Projects вЂў Only Rough Cost & Savings Estimates Level 2: Energy Survey & Analysis вЂў End-use Breakdown вЂў Detailed Analysis вЂў Cost & Savings for Recommended Measures Level 3: Detailed Survey & Analysis вЂў Refined Analysis вЂў Additional Measurements вЂў Building Model Simulations В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc. Process Conduct Preliminary Energy Analysis (PEA) Conduct walk-through survey Identify low-cost/no-cost recommendations Identify capital improvements Review M&E design, condition and O&M practices Measure key parameters Analyze capital measures (savings & costs including interaction) Meet with owner/operators to review recommendations Conduct additional testing/monitoring Perform detailed system modeling Provide performance specs for recommendations Report Estimate savings from utility rate change Compare EUI to that of similar sites (Benchmarking) Summarize utility use data Estimate savings if EUI met target Estimate low-cost / no-cost savings Perform detailed end-use breakdown Estimate capital project costs and savings Complete building description and equipment inventory General description of considered measures Recommended M&V method Financial analysis of recommended EEMs Detailed description of recommended measures Detailed EEM cost estimates В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc. 1 в—Џ в—Џ в—Џ в—Џ 1 в—Џ в—Џ в—Џ в—Џ Level 2 в—Џ в—Џ в—Џ в—Џ в—Џ в—Џ в—Џ в—Џ Level 2 в—Џ в—Џ в—Џ в—Џ в—Џ в—Џ в—Џ в—Џ в—Џ в—Џ в—Џ 3 в—Џ в—Џ в—Џ в—Џ в—Џ в—Џ в—Џ в—Џ в—Џ в—Џ в—Џ 3 в—Џ в—Џ в—Џ в—Џ в—Џ в—Џ в—Џ в—Џ в—Џ в—Џ в—Џ в—Џ в—Џ Level Summary How to Buy Energy Audits В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc. В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc. Energy Audits are like photography п‚§ п‚§ п‚§ п‚§ Everybody thinks they can do it Tools are cheap and available Producing a product is easy But results may varyвЂ¦ In fact, a lot of skills and experience are needed to ensure that recommendations are truly feasible, cost effective, and result in significant energy savings вЂ¦ and the numbers are right Select a good auditor п‚§ Buying an audit means buying an auditorвЂ™s professional services п‚§ Step 1: Find qualified auditors and auditing firms: п‚§ Ask for referrals from colleagues п‚§ Ask your utility п‚§ Prepare and issue an RFQ В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc. Select a good auditor п‚§ Ask: п‚§ How many audits have you done of buildings like mine? п‚§ What percentage of your audits resulted in implemented EE measures and energy savings? В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc. Select a good auditor п‚§ Look for certifications п‚§ [ But none are be-all end-all ] п‚§ P.E. (Professional Engineer) п‚§ BEAP (ASHRAE Building Energy Assessment Professional) п‚§ CEM (AEE Certified Energy Manager) п‚§ EBCP, CBCP (AEE Existing/Certified Building Commissioning Professionals) п‚§ [ Not BPI or HERS ] п‚§ homes / residential only п‚§ not applicable В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc. Select a good auditor п‚§ Look for full capabilities п‚§ Auditing is a focus п‚§ Not a side-bar, or job-generator п‚§ Multi-disciplinary knowledge п‚§ Lighting, HVAC, controls, refrigeration, behavior, envelope, data centers, kitchensвЂ¦ п‚§ Integrated approach п‚§ Familiar with the latest best practices п‚§ Including newer technologies п‚§ But not trying to push them В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc. Select a good auditor п‚§ Look for full capabilities п‚§ Experience with turning audits into savings п‚§ Project implementation п‚§ Commissioning п‚§ Not trying to sell you something п‚§ Vendor-neutral п‚§ Solution-neutral п‚§ Only working for you В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc. Select a good auditor п‚§ Do your homework 1. Call 3 references 2. Get sample reports 3. Check resumes В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc. 1. Call References п‚§ What to ask references (p.1): 1. Results: Did the audit report lead to 2. 3. implementation of projects saving energy? Expertise: Did the auditor know building systems in and out? Current technologies? Partnering: Did the auditor: п‚§ Collaborate well with you and your team? п‚§ Understand and respond to your needs? 4. Action-oriented: Did the audit report guide you on what to do and when? В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc. 1. Call References п‚§ What to ask references (p.2): 5. Accuracy and Transparency: Did you have 6. 7. 8. confidence in the report numbers? (project savings, costs, returns) Independence: Was the auditor unbiased and objective? Use of Data: Did the auditor take measurements and obtain data for your building? Guidance: Did the audit provide guidance to more resources and next steps? В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc. 2. Evaluate Sample Audits п‚§ Detailed Measure Recommendations п‚§ Observations п‚§ Recommendations п‚§ Implementation Notes п‚§ Specific equipment changes п‚§ Specific control setpoints or algorithms п‚§ Basis of Savings п‚§ Costs and Incentives п‚§ Methodology and Assumptions п‚§ Photos В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc. 2. Evaluate Sample Audits п‚§ Explicit, Actionable Recommendations п‚§ Bad e.g.: вЂњReplace air filters with high capacity filters.вЂќ п‚§ Good e.g. вЂњWe recommend installing higher-capacity filters such as the Purolator Defiant Mark 80-D. These high capacity filters have 84% greater dust holding capacity (media area) while being only approximately 40% more expensive. They have a slightly better initial pressure drop (0.26вЂќ vs. 0.30вЂќw.c.), but more importantly, with their much higher dust holding capacity, their pressure drop will increase much more slowly through their service life. This saves fan energy. Please see the complete filter data sheets in Appendix B.вЂќ В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc. В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc. вЂ¦the setpoint should be adjusted to match space type. IESNA recommends minimum light levels of approximately 5-10 foot-candles for hallways. For daylighting control of fixtures without dimmable ballasts, the sensors should be programmed with a large enough deadband (at least 40%) to ensure that there will not be excessive switching of the lights on days with varying ambient light. If dimmable ballasts are installed, the daylight controller can appropriately dim the fixtures based on natural light levels in order to maintain constant light levelsвЂ¦. 3. Check resumes п‚§ Are these the resumes of people п‚§ п‚§ п‚§ who will actually work on or oversee your audit? Is energy auditing a core experience or just a new side-bar? Do they have the analytical skills and tools to prepare trustworthy numbers? Do they also have experience with implementation of energy projects too? Commissioning? В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc. Other keys to audit success В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc. Get the most from an audit п‚§ Energy engineers know a lot about buildings and ways to save energy п‚§ They are energy geeks who really want to help you cut your bill п‚§ Make the most of them: п‚§ Direct them to any particular ideas or building problems or areas of interest to you п‚§ Ask questions and learn! В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc. В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc. Feedback loops with auditor п‚§ Eg. Initial Measures List п‚§ Review with the site team shortly after visit п‚§ Prioritize each recommendation Good auditing must consider human factors п‚§ Team building is key to audit & implementation success п‚§ Seek involvement with key players at site п‚§ Let folks do what theyвЂ™re good at п‚§ Leave site staff with the knowledge to follow through п‚§ DonвЂ™t believe everything you hear п‚§ Site inspections with staff can be misleading п‚§ Auditor questions may be threatening В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc. Build a Balanced Team п‚§ Committed management п‚§ Engaged financial staff who п‚§ п‚§ п‚§ п‚§ п‚§ understand risks and rewards Trained building engineers Trusted contractors and vendors Utility account representatives Engaged and informed building occupants Trained and experienced energy auditor В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc. Typical costs В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc. вЂњTypicalвЂќ Costs п‚§ Audit Costs depend on: п‚§ Level of audit required: п‚§ Are accurate savings & costs numbers needed? п‚§ Number, variety and complexity of energy-using п‚§ systems to investigate Ease of information collection п‚§ Is documentation available and organized? п‚§ Drawings (mechanical, lighting ceiling plans) п‚§ Any past audits or RCx studies; TAB reports п‚§ Are building engineers available & knowledgeable? п‚§ Is the auditor вЂ�eatingвЂ™ some or all audit cost based on getting future work? В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc. В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc. вЂњTypicalвЂќ Costs п‚§ Commercial office building audits п‚§ ASHRAE Level 1 Scoping Audit п‚§ Typ $2,500 to $5,000 п‚§ ASHRAE Level 2 Standard Audit п‚§ Typ $7,000 to $20,000 В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc. вЂњTypicalвЂќ Costs п‚§ Costs per sq.ft. decrease as facility п‚§ size increases Experienced auditors can cost less: п‚§ Have the tools and experience to work quickly п‚§ Analytical tools, templates, computer models п‚§ Can assess technical and economic feasibility quickly п‚§ Have data from previous audits п‚§ But may charge more per hour Costs vs. Accuracy п‚§ Energy auditors must strike a п‚§ п‚§ balance between time spent and the value returned Too little effort may result in poor estimates or less identified potential Too much effortвЂ¦ gilded lilies and science projects В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc. Case Studies В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc. Case Study #1: Corporate HQ п‚§ 4 buildings, 1,000,000 sf п‚§ Goal: LEED Silver п‚§ Our Process п‚§ Started with Level 2 Audit п‚§ Continued to retro-commissioning п‚§ Also IEQ analysis п‚§ Implementation assistance п‚§ Utility incentives near $250,000 п‚§ Lighting retrofits п‚§ HVAC and BAS improvements п‚§ Obtained LEED Gold certification В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc. Corporate HQ вЂў Target analysis: В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc. Case Study #2: Class A Office Building вЂў Quality auditing can provide instant savings п‚§ п‚§ Power (kW) п‚§ п‚§ Energy Star starting score was 88 Still found 680,000 kWh/yr savings by working closely with the building engineers Also did chiller replacement analysis Building is now LEED Gold certified Time (the next morning) В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc. Class A Office Building вЂў Just В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc. Case Study #3: High-Tech Campus вЂў Where to start? п‚§ Over 45 buildings п‚§ Broad energy goals п‚§ Wide range of systems, buildings, uses вЂў Find what each site needs вЂ“ then apply technology [not the other way around] Core Campus Energy Reductions В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc. Resources п‚§ How to Hire an Energy Auditor п‚§ (California Energy Commission, 2000) п‚§ www.energy.ca.gov/reports/efficiency_handbooks/4 00-00-001C.PDF п‚§ A Guide to Energy Audits п‚§ (DOE/Pacific Northwest National Lab, 2011) п‚§ www.pnnl.gov/main/publications/external/technical_ reports/pnnl-20956.pdf п‚§ U.S. Department of Energy: Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy п‚§ (extensive information on energy efficiency in п‚§ buildings) www.eere.energy.gov/topics/buildings.html В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc. Thank you for your time! Peter Pollard, P.E. BEAP MBA firstname.lastname@example.org 510.229.5614 В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc. В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc. В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc. What to expect п‚§ General Procedure п‚§ Level 1 Scoping п‚§ To initiate the audit we make an information request (utility bills, mechanical plans, etc.) via email. п‚§ Once preliminary information is obtained, we make one site visit for up to a full day. п‚§ Approximately 3 weeks later, we will issue our audit report. В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc. What to expect п‚§ General Procedure п‚§ Level 2 Audit: What is added п‚§ Within one week of the site visit, we send an initial list of measures. п‚§ Feedback on this measures list is encouraged to help tailor the energy audit report to any client objectives. п‚§ More time for analysis. В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc. What to expect п‚§ Site Visit Details п‚§ We prefer to start the visit with a kick-off meeting to: п‚§ Discuss goals, priorities, and economic criteria for selecting energy efficiency projects; п‚§ Discuss overall building operations, schedules, equipment and controls; п‚§ Discuss any existing plans and identified energy opportunities. В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc. What to expect п‚§ Site Visit Details п‚§ The rest of the visit is focused on п‚§ collecting detailed information about energy-using systems at the site. We will need to: п‚§ View (and copy or photograph) mechanical drawings and equipment schedules; п‚§ View HVAC control screens and documentation; п‚§ See at least samples of all areas of the facility; п‚§ Inspect all mechanical equipment; п‚§ Inspect facility lighting including observing lamps and ballasts. What to expect п‚§ Typical Timeline вЂ“ Level 1 Scoping п‚§ Week 1 вЂ“ Receive contract and schedule site visit. п‚§ Week 2 вЂ“ Receive billing information and call building operator to discuss site visit. п‚§ Week 3 вЂ“ Site Visit; start with kick-off meeting and then walk the building for remainder of day. п‚§ Week 4-5 вЂ“ Report write-up. п‚§ Week 6 вЂ“ Delivery of audit report. В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc. What to expect п‚§ Typical Timeline вЂ“ Level 2 Audit п‚§ Week 1 вЂ“ Receive contract and schedule п‚§ п‚§ п‚§ п‚§ п‚§ п‚§ site visit. Week 2 вЂ“ Receive billing information and call building operator to discuss site visit. Week 3 вЂ“ Site Visit; start with kick-off meeting and then walk the building for remainder of day. Week 4 вЂ“ Deliver preliminary measures list to site contacts. Week 5 вЂ“ Receive feedback on measures from site contacts. Week 6-8 вЂ“ Measure analysis and report write-up. Week 9 вЂ“ Delivery and presentation of audit report. В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc. What to expect п‚§ Audit Report Contents вЂ“ Level 1 Scoping п‚§ Executive Summary, including summary table п‚§ п‚§ п‚§ п‚§ п‚§ п‚§ п‚§ п‚§ of recommended measures Building and Systems Descriptions Energy Consumption Graphs and Analysis Energy Use Benchmarking Analysis Methodology No-Cost Measures Recommendations, including approximate savings Low-Cost Measures Recommendations, including approximate savings and costs Capital-Intensive Measures Recommendations Additional Measures Identified В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc. What to expect п‚§ Audit Report Contents вЂ“ Level 2 Audit п‚§ Executive Summary, including summary table п‚§ п‚§ п‚§ п‚§ п‚§ п‚§ of recommended measures Building and Systems Descriptions Energy Consumption Graphs and Analysis Energy Use Benchmarking Energy Balance, specific for this building Analysis Methodology No-/Low-Cost and Capital Measure Recommendations, п‚§ including detailed savings, costs and assumptions п‚§ Additional Measures Identified п‚§ Calculations and Analysis supporting recommended measures. В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc. EEM Summary Table NRG Geeks Inc. В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc. Level 3 вЂ“ Additional Scope & Value Level 2 and then someвЂ¦ for capital measures Report Detailed description of recommended measures (specs, cut sheets) п‚¤ Detailed EEM cost estimates п‚¤ LCCA п‚¤ Modeling or extensive measurement recommended В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc.