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How to Buy an Energy Audit - kW Engineering

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How to Buy an Energy Audit
Peter Pollard, P.E.
www.kw-engineering.com
В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc.
What we’ll cover
 Define a “Good audit”
 Auditing: Why and what?
 Standards & Levels
 Find and select an auditor
 Other keys to audit


success
Typical costs
Case studies
В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc.
Intro to kW
 kW Engineering


Energy engineering – efficiency & renewables
Oakland, Long Beach, Chicago, Salt Lake City
 We walk the talk: our HQ building is LEED®
Gold certified with Energy Star = 100
 Peter Pollard, P.E., BEAP - Principal



Mechanical engineer, 26 years
18 yrs capital projects + 8 yrs devoted to energy
Energy audits, strategic plans, PM, commissioning
 Current clients and sites include:

Apple, AT&T, CB Richard Ellis, California Energy
Commission (Bright Schools), Cisco, Citrus College,
County of Santa Clara, Cushman and Wakefield,
CSU-EB, Google, Kaiser, Kilroy Realty, Lawrence
Livermore Natl Labs, Marvell, Pacificorp, PG&E,
PepsiCo, Pixar, SCEdison, SFPUC, SFSU, SFUSD,
Stanford University, St Jude Children’s Hospital, UC
Berkeley, UC Santa Cruz, VISA, Yahoo, Zynga
В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc.
Polls (show of hands)
1. How many of you have bought
energy audits before?
2. How many of you were satisfied
with the results?
В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc.
В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc.
Good and Bad Audits
 Good energy audit:
 Leads to actions which costeffectively save energy and $$
 Bad energy audit:
 A report sitting on a desk.
 Audits are just the beginning
 Audits provide a guide to action
 “Energy Action Plans”
Good and Bad Audits
 Too many energy audits end up as
failed reports which collect dust on
a shelf.
 No matter why you’re going to buy
an energy audit, why not buy one
which inspires and enables action,
with a custom plan for saving
energy and money.
В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc.
Energy auditing: why?
В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc.
В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc.
Why audit?
 Audits provide a guide to energy efficiency
 Energy efficiency saves $$
“Well there’s your problem”
Why audit?
 Energy-efficient, properly-running
systems can mean:
 Cost savings
 Satisfied tenants
 Higher occupancy
 Higher NOI
 Higher property value
 Avoided capital upgrades
 More reliable mechanical systems
 Recognition / differentiation
 LEED® EBOM
 Energy Star
 ASHRAE EQ
 Tenant goodwill
В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc.
Why audit?
 Goals:
 Meet legal requirement
 (Austin, San Francisco, NYC, …)
 Meet LEED® requirements
 Meet corporate mandates
 In all cases, use audits to:
 Understand your building’s energy use
 Find opportunities for energy cost

savings
Develop short and long-term plans for
energy reduction: “Energy Action Plan” © 2013 kW Engineering, Inc.
В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc.
Why audit?
 EE is complex
 Good energy projects

depend on particulars
 Your building(s)
 Systems
 Operations
 Occupants
 Climate
 Other projects
It’s all in the details
В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc.
LEED EBOM Credits
IEQ
WE
EA
 Energy efficiency can get you
~half way to LEED certification
 Energy credits are the only ones
with a payback!
В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc.
LEED EBOM Credits
 Energy Star performance: Minimum 69
 Up to 18 points for a 95+ Energy Star score
Energy auditing: what?
В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc.
Energy auditing: what?
 What auditors do:
 Analyze your facility and
your energy use and users
 Match best practices to your
building particulars
 Develop savings/costs
numbers to guide decisions
and justify action
 Result: Energy Action Plan
В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc.
Audit Standards
 Commercial ≠Home ≠Industrial
 Very different audit arenas
 No true standards
 ASHRAE Procedures for
Commercial Building Energy Audits
 Commonly used to define levels of
audit effort
 Eg. USGBC (LEED)
 Procedures, not a standard
www.ashrae.org/bookstore
www.kw-engineering.com/audits
В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc.
Audit Standards
 Complements:
 ASTM E2797-11 Standard Practice
for Building Energy Performance
Assessment

www.astm.org/Standards/E2797.htm
 Using the New ASTM BEPA
Standard in Energy Auditing and
ECM Performance Evaluation

http://pacenow.org/wpcontent/uploads/2012/08/Whitepaper_BEPA_Us
e_in_Energy_Auditing_09-04-111.pdf
В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc.
В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc.
Also coming
ASHRAE Standard 100
 Energy Efficiency for
Existing Buildings
 For most buildings uses
energy targets
 For buildings w/o targets,
requires ASHRAE
Level 2 Energy Audits
(within 10% annual
spend cost cap)
Audit Levels
 How deep do you need to go?
 ASHRAE Audit Levels
 Level 1 – Walk-through / Scoping
 Level 2 – Standard Audit w/ Analysis
 Level 3 – Detailed Analysis (Capital)
 Each level builds on the level before
 Alternates:
 Targeted audits
 Retro-commissioning
www.ashrae.org/bookstore
www.kw-engineering.com/audits
В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc.
Preliminary Energy
Use Analysis
• Analyze current use
• Benchmark
Level 1: Walk-through / Scoping
• Identify Potential Projects
• Only Rough Cost & Savings Estimates
Level 2: Energy Survey & Analysis
• End-use Breakdown
• Detailed Analysis
• Cost & Savings for Recommended Measures
Level 3: Detailed Survey & Analysis
• Refined Analysis
• Additional Measurements
• Building Model Simulations
В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc.
Process
Conduct Preliminary Energy Analysis (PEA)
Conduct walk-through survey
Identify low-cost/no-cost recommendations
Identify capital improvements
Review M&E design, condition and O&M practices
Measure key parameters
Analyze capital measures (savings & costs including interaction)
Meet with owner/operators to review recommendations
Conduct additional testing/monitoring
Perform detailed system modeling
Provide performance specs for recommendations
Report
Estimate savings from utility rate change
Compare EUI to that of similar sites (Benchmarking)
Summarize utility use data
Estimate savings if EUI met target
Estimate low-cost / no-cost savings
Perform detailed end-use breakdown
Estimate capital project costs and savings
Complete building description and equipment inventory
General description of considered measures
Recommended M&V method
Financial analysis of recommended EEMs
Detailed description of recommended measures
Detailed EEM cost estimates
В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc.
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Level Summary
How to Buy Energy Audits
В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc.
В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc.
Energy Audits are like photography




Everybody thinks they can do it
Tools are cheap and available
Producing a product is easy
But results may vary…
In fact, a lot of skills and
experience are needed to
ensure that recommendations
are truly feasible, cost
effective, and result in
significant energy savings …
and the numbers are right
Select a good auditor
 Buying an audit means buying an
auditor’s professional services
 Step 1: Find qualified auditors
and auditing firms:
 Ask for referrals from colleagues
 Ask your utility
 Prepare and issue an RFQ
В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc.
Select a good auditor
 Ask:
 How many audits have you done of
buildings like mine?
 What percentage of your audits
resulted in implemented EE
measures and energy savings?
В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc.
Select a good auditor
 Look for certifications
 [ But none are be-all end-all ]
 P.E. (Professional Engineer)
 BEAP (ASHRAE Building Energy
Assessment Professional)
 CEM (AEE Certified Energy Manager)
 EBCP, CBCP (AEE Existing/Certified
Building Commissioning Professionals)
 [ Not BPI or HERS ]
 homes / residential only
 not applicable
В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc.
Select a good auditor
 Look for full capabilities
 Auditing is a focus
 Not a side-bar, or job-generator
 Multi-disciplinary knowledge
 Lighting, HVAC, controls, refrigeration, behavior,
envelope, data centers, kitchens…
 Integrated approach
 Familiar with the latest best practices
 Including newer technologies
 But not trying to push them
В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc.
Select a good auditor
 Look for full capabilities
 Experience with turning audits into
savings
 Project implementation
 Commissioning
 Not trying to sell you something
 Vendor-neutral
 Solution-neutral
 Only working for you
В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc.
Select a good auditor
 Do your homework
1. Call 3 references
2. Get sample reports
3. Check resumes
В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc.
1. Call References
 What to ask references (p.1):
1. Results: Did the audit report lead to
2.
3.
implementation of projects saving energy?
Expertise: Did the auditor know building
systems in and out? Current technologies?
Partnering: Did the auditor:
 Collaborate well with you and your team?
 Understand and respond to your needs?
4. Action-oriented: Did the audit report guide you
on what to do and when?
В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc.
1. Call References
 What to ask references (p.2):
5. Accuracy and Transparency: Did you have
6.
7.
8.
confidence in the report numbers? (project
savings, costs, returns)
Independence: Was the auditor unbiased and
objective?
Use of Data: Did the auditor take
measurements and obtain data for your
building?
Guidance: Did the audit provide guidance to
more resources and next steps?
В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc.
2. Evaluate Sample Audits
 Detailed Measure
Recommendations
 Observations
 Recommendations
 Implementation Notes
 Specific equipment changes
 Specific control setpoints or algorithms
 Basis of Savings
 Costs and Incentives
 Methodology and Assumptions
 Photos
В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc.
2. Evaluate Sample Audits
 Explicit, Actionable Recommendations
 Bad e.g.: “Replace air filters with high capacity filters.”
 Good e.g.
“We recommend installing higher-capacity filters such as
the Purolator Defiant Mark 80-D. These high capacity
filters have 84% greater dust holding capacity (media
area) while being only approximately 40% more
expensive. They have a slightly better initial pressure
drop (0.26” vs. 0.30”w.c.), but more importantly, with their
much higher dust holding capacity, their pressure drop
will increase much more slowly through their service life.
This saves fan energy. Please see the complete filter
data sheets in Appendix B.”
В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc.
В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc.
…the setpoint should be adjusted
to match space type. IESNA
recommends minimum light levels
of approximately 5-10 foot-candles
for hallways. For daylighting control
of fixtures without dimmable
ballasts, the sensors should be
programmed with a large enough
deadband (at least 40%) to ensure
that there will not be excessive
switching of the lights on days with
varying ambient light. If dimmable
ballasts are installed, the daylight
controller can appropriately dim the
fixtures based on natural light
levels in order to maintain constant
light levels….
3. Check resumes
 Are these the resumes of people



who will actually work on or
oversee your audit?
Is energy auditing a core
experience or just a new side-bar?
Do they have the analytical skills
and tools to prepare trustworthy
numbers?
Do they also have experience with
implementation of energy projects
too? Commissioning?
В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc.
Other keys to audit success
В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc.
Get the most from an audit
 Energy engineers know a
lot about buildings and
ways to save energy
 They are energy geeks who
really want to help you cut
your bill
 Make the most of them:
 Direct them to any particular
ideas or building problems
or areas of interest to you
 Ask questions and learn!
В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc.
В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc.
Feedback loops with auditor
 Eg. Initial Measures List
 Review with the site team shortly after visit
 Prioritize each recommendation
Good auditing must
consider human factors
 Team building is key to audit &
implementation success
 Seek involvement with key players at site
 Let folks do what they’re good at
 Leave site staff with the knowledge to follow through
 Don’t believe everything you hear
 Site inspections with staff can be misleading
 Auditor questions may be threatening
В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc.
Build a Balanced Team
 Committed management
 Engaged financial staff who





understand risks and rewards
Trained building engineers
Trusted contractors and vendors
Utility account representatives
Engaged and informed building occupants
Trained and experienced energy auditor
В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc.
Typical costs
В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc.
“Typical” Costs
 Audit Costs depend on:
 Level of audit required:
 Are accurate savings & costs numbers needed?
 Number, variety and complexity of energy-using

systems to investigate
Ease of information collection
 Is documentation available and organized?
 Drawings (mechanical, lighting ceiling plans)
 Any past audits or RCx studies; TAB reports
 Are building engineers available & knowledgeable?
 Is the auditor �eating’ some or all audit cost
based on getting future work?
В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc.
В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc.
“Typical” Costs
 Commercial office building audits
 ASHRAE Level 1 Scoping Audit
 Typ $2,500 to $5,000
 ASHRAE Level 2 Standard Audit
 Typ $7,000 to $20,000
В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc.
“Typical” Costs
 Costs per sq.ft. decrease as facility

size increases
Experienced auditors can cost less:
 Have the tools and experience to
work quickly
 Analytical tools, templates, computer
models
 Can assess technical and economic
feasibility quickly
 Have data from previous audits
 But may charge more per hour
Costs vs. Accuracy
 Energy auditors must strike a


balance between time spent and
the value returned
Too little effort may result in poor
estimates or less identified
potential
Too much effort… gilded lilies and
science projects
В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc.
Case Studies
В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc.
Case Study #1: Corporate HQ
 4 buildings, 1,000,000 sf
 Goal: LEED Silver
 Our Process
 Started with Level 2 Audit
 Continued to retro-commissioning
 Also IEQ analysis
 Implementation assistance
 Utility incentives near $250,000
 Lighting retrofits
 HVAC and BAS improvements
 Obtained LEED Gold certification
В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc.
Corporate HQ
• Target analysis:
В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc.
Case Study #2: Class A Office Building
• Quality auditing can provide instant savings


Power (kW)


Energy Star starting score was 88
Still found 680,000 kWh/yr savings by working
closely with the building engineers
Also did chiller replacement analysis
Building is now LEED Gold certified
Time (the next morning)
В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc.
Class A Office Building
• Just
В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc.
Case Study #3: High-Tech Campus
• Where to start?
 Over 45 buildings
 Broad energy goals
 Wide range of systems, buildings, uses
• Find what each site needs – then apply
technology [not the other way around]
Core Campus Energy Reductions
В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc.
Resources
 How to Hire an Energy Auditor
 (California Energy Commission, 2000)
 www.energy.ca.gov/reports/efficiency_handbooks/4
00-00-001C.PDF
 A Guide to Energy Audits
 (DOE/Pacific Northwest National Lab, 2011)
 www.pnnl.gov/main/publications/external/technical_
reports/pnnl-20956.pdf
 U.S. Department of Energy: Energy Efficiency &
Renewable Energy
 (extensive information on energy efficiency in

buildings)
www.eere.energy.gov/topics/buildings.html
В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc.
Thank you for your time!
Peter Pollard, P.E. BEAP MBA
pollard@kw-engineering.com
510.229.5614
В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc.
В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc.
В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc.
What to expect
 General Procedure
 Level 1 Scoping
 To initiate the audit we make an
information request (utility bills,
mechanical plans, etc.) via email.
 Once preliminary information is
obtained, we make one site visit
for up to a full day.
 Approximately 3 weeks later, we
will issue our audit report.
В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc.
What to expect
 General Procedure
 Level 2 Audit: What is added
 Within one week of the site visit, we
send an initial list of measures.
 Feedback on this measures list is
encouraged to help tailor the energy
audit report to any client objectives.
 More time for analysis.
В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc.
What to expect
 Site Visit Details
 We prefer to start the visit with a
kick-off meeting to:
 Discuss goals, priorities, and
economic criteria for selecting energy
efficiency projects;
 Discuss overall building operations,
schedules, equipment and controls;
 Discuss any existing plans and
identified energy opportunities.
В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc.
What to expect
 Site Visit Details
 The rest of the visit is focused on

collecting detailed information about
energy-using systems at the site.
We will need to:
 View (and copy or photograph)
mechanical drawings and equipment
schedules;
 View HVAC control screens and
documentation;
 See at least samples of all areas of the
facility;
 Inspect all mechanical equipment;
 Inspect facility lighting including
observing lamps and ballasts.
What to expect
 Typical Timeline – Level 1 Scoping
 Week 1 – Receive contract and schedule
site visit.
 Week 2 – Receive billing information and
call building operator to discuss site visit.
 Week 3 – Site Visit; start with kick-off
meeting and then walk the building for
remainder of day.
 Week 4-5 – Report write-up.
 Week 6 – Delivery of audit report.
В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc.
What to expect
 Typical Timeline – Level 2 Audit
 Week 1 – Receive contract and schedule






site visit.
Week 2 – Receive billing information and call
building operator to discuss site visit.
Week 3 – Site Visit; start with kick-off
meeting and then walk the building for
remainder of day.
Week 4 – Deliver preliminary measures list
to site contacts.
Week 5 – Receive feedback on measures
from site contacts.
Week 6-8 – Measure analysis and report
write-up.
Week 9 – Delivery and presentation of audit
report.
В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc.
What to expect
 Audit Report Contents – Level 1 Scoping
 Executive Summary, including summary table








of recommended measures
Building and Systems Descriptions
Energy Consumption Graphs and Analysis
Energy Use Benchmarking
Analysis Methodology
No-Cost Measures Recommendations,
including approximate savings
Low-Cost Measures Recommendations,
including approximate savings and costs
Capital-Intensive Measures
Recommendations
Additional Measures Identified
В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc.
What to expect
 Audit Report Contents – Level 2 Audit
 Executive Summary, including summary table






of recommended measures
Building and Systems Descriptions
Energy Consumption Graphs and Analysis
Energy Use Benchmarking
Energy Balance, specific for this building
Analysis Methodology
No-/Low-Cost and Capital Measure
Recommendations,
 including detailed savings, costs and
assumptions
 Additional Measures Identified
 Calculations and Analysis supporting
recommended measures.
В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc.
EEM Summary Table
NRG Geeks Inc.
В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc.
Level 3 – Additional Scope & Value
Level 2 and then some… for capital measures
Report
Detailed description
of recommended
measures (specs, cut
sheets)
 Detailed EEM cost
estimates
 LCCA

Modeling or extensive
measurement recommended
В© 2013 kW Engineering, Inc.
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