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A Microcredit “How To” Guide for Atlantic NGOs. - PEI Association

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   A Microcredit “How To” Guide for Atlantic NGO’s.  A step by step guide with forms  This guide accompanies the Final Report presented to Atlantic Connection‐ It is imperative that this Final Report be read prior to the implementation of the program contained herein.  Richelle Hume, PEIANC 2/4/10      EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
This study was undertaken to review existing best practices in microcredit lending to
internationally educated healthcare providers (IEHP’s) in Canada and make recommendations
based on these findings; evaluate the costs and benefits of introducing a program of this nature in
Atlantic Canada; explore existing settlement agency clients’ perceptions of a potential
microfinance venture; and analyze the larger socio-economic forces that make this an important
issue to address.
Research was carried out through multiple data collection methods:
A literature review and web search, conducted on the internet with Google Scholar, and a
search of the University of Victoria’s online library database.
Key informant interviews: were conducted via phone, internet, and in person from 20082009. Those interviewed were drawn from the provincial government, settlement
agencies, existing microcredit providers, now defunct microcredit providers, IEHP’s,
academics, financial institutions, and other related community organizations.
An environmental scan, was conducted using web based resources, word of mouth
recommendations, and through solicitation of responses from existing clientele. This data
was used to create a list of currently offered microcredit lending programs.
A mass email to existing ANC clients of the IEHP project workers. The letter was also
sent to various other community organizations which circulated it through their internal
email lists.
A few key questions guided this research:
1. Are there existing models in place in other jurisdictions that could be replicated? If so,
what key elements do they have that contribute to their success? What might a
successful program look like?
2. Are those same key elements in place in Atlantic Canada? If not, is it reasonable and
possible to put those elements into place?
3. What are the key financial needs of immigrants at Atlantic Canadian Settlement
4. How do our clients define their needs, and what do they see as being most important?
5. How does Microcredit fit into the larger socio-economic picture?
6. Considering broader program objectives, are there other models in place that would be
more efficient and effective?
7. How does the paradigm we adopt influence our recommendations? “Rights” perspective
vs. economic determinism.
8. What recommendations are being made by other researchers looking at the area of
community economic development, and financial assistance for immigrant
professionals? Do our recommendations mirror or counter these recommendations?
В If government wants to support the newcomers, the best way is to offer them job opportunities
 or small amount of grant, giving them money with high interest rate!!! Doesn’t solve much.
PEIANC client
The term IEHP is not a monolithic concept; the needs of individual IEHP’s vary greatly
depending upon their immigration status, their age, their career goals, their level of financial
security, and their culture of origin. When asked about the need for a Microcredit project their
answers varied tremendously. In general:
Despite the fact that the term �microcredit’ seems to suggest a particular form or
structure; there is in fact a wide variety of lending forms that may fall under this umbrella
Depending upon the individual’s country of origin, their prior experience with financial
institutions, their home country’s cultural attitudes towards borrowing in general, and
their psychological disposition, the responses could range from extremely positive to
decidedly negative.
Just as there is no one IEHP, there is also no one best strategy or program template that
can be adopted beyond the local level. Although IEHP’s may encounter similar struggles,
roadblocks or hurdles, the best response to those challenges is highly variable. Flexibility
in options is really the best course of action.
The sources of capital for microcredit lending and community investment funds are
diverse. According to the Final Report (2003) of the Social Investment Organization, and
the Riverdale Community Development Corp. they may include: “contributions and loans
from private donors, private investors, faith-based institutions, foundations, government
loan guarantees, financial institutions, pension funds, and other institutions” (p.3).
Likewise the level of risk for lenders and investors is similarly diverse; the spectrum
ranging from CDIC insured funds in credit unions to non-secured funds held by NGO’s.
Many of the programs operating in the western provinces also had access to limited loan
loss reserves through Western Diversification, a program similar to the Atlantic Canadian
Opportunities Agency.
Without addressing possible structural and systemic racial barriers, the provision of
financing will do little to help the plight of new immigrants. Microcredit financing should
be viewed as part of a comprehensive strategy.
When immigrants begin working at �survival’ jobs, it becomes far more difficult for them
to re-enter their skilled profession. The ability to move quickly through the licensure
process is critical.
Calmeadow’s “experiments showed that stand alone exclusively targeted microcredit
operations are not commercially viable in fully developed countries. The absence of a
critical mass of customers or offsetting income from other financial services offered
make it impossible to cover all costs within the bounds of a fair interest rate structure”
В В В п‚·
Some of the most successful microcredit programs, are operating in areas that have strong
historical community economic development links and partnerships (Libro Financialstarted by Dutch immigrants in the 1950’s), or operate in an area that has a culture of
private and corporate philanthropy (Momentum in Alberta).
The group liability structure that has traditionally characterized microcredit may not be
feasible in many modern Canadian communities.
Client needs go beyond mere �credit’ provision when it comes to potential microcredit
programs; any new program should allow for training and development and other related
assistance services to be factored into program budgets. Personal relationships are still a
primary factor in program success.
Success of a microcredit project needs to be examined in terms of both social and
economic outcomes. Even if a project cannot be said to be a success financially, it may
still be successful in light of the social benefits it provides.
1. Any program devised must be flexible; not only must a potential microcredit program adapt
to the needs of distinct clients, it also must be able to change with the changing patterns of
immigration, provincial settlement strategies, and federal government priorities.
2. Any organization that plans on implementing a microcredit program should remember that
microcredit is “only useful in certain situations and with certain types of clients” ( . However, this may mean that a �trade-off’ may need to be
made in terms of universality and accessibility for IEHP’s. Organizations will need to be
guided by their mission, values, organizational culture and operating budget when
determining which direction to proceed.
3. NGO’s interested in helping IEHP’s address their financial needs should advocate for an
expansion to the financial assistance services that are currently offered to their clients.
4. Organizations should see if funds are available from the Provincial government’s (LMA1)
funds so that a small grant could be administered.
5. Based upon the findings of (SP Consulting, 2008) this report recommends that optimally any
financial assistance offered to new immigrants to help them obtain �skills commensurate
employment’ should be “mainstreamed” and offered through existing institutional providers
like the Canada Student Loans program. If this is not possible then the cost for counselling
and case management services should be absorbed into the operating budget of the
organizational provider. The costs for the administration of the loan would need to be
covered by a potential financial services partner.
6. Any organization considering implementing a microcredit program should partner with a
financial services provider who would administer the loans and cover the administrative costs
7. Ideally, the financial services provider would eventually take over the loan program.
However, organizations should be prepared to have to shoulder the costs involved
considering the poor response to date from many credit unions.
8. Organizations will need to look for stable and diversified sources of funding.
В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В 1
В FormerВ FederalВ LMDAВ fundsВ transferredВ toВ ProvincesВ В В В 9. Finally, financial literacy classes might be necessary prior to launching a microcredit loan
program, as many clients may not be familiar with the Canadian financial system. The
Ottawa Community Loan Fund recently released a free Financial Toolkit for Newcomers
which can be linked to from their website. Organizations may want to either provide this link
to clients, or adapt the material for their own internal use.
Program Template
 For those organizations that decide to proceed with a lending initiative for IEHP’s the following
is a template for a program that could be adapted to suit particular local needs. It is based on best
practices identified at existing lenders, earlier research conducted by the PEIANC, and draws
heavily upon the programs at Maytree Alterna Savings in Ontario ,
WIL Employment Connections/ Libro Financial in London Ontario and the grant
program recently established at MISA
What are the loan criteria?
п‚· Loans are short term, one to three years, depending upon the purpose of the loan.
п‚· The loans go towards training, licensure fees, exam resources or exam costs that would lead
directly to employment.
п‚· Training is provided by a credible community based or institutional provider that has an
established track record and is recognized by the licensing body.
п‚· The loans should be targeted to individuals who are entering high demand professions.
п‚· The applicant must have sufficient command of English (or French if in NB) to be
considered “job ready”.
п‚· Security will not be required nor will a credit bureau check unless organization partners with
a credit union. In that case they will require a credit check to ensure that the individual does
not have a history of default.
Organizations must be willing to be flexible and be willing to keep up to date with recent labour
market trends. An employment category that is in demand one year may be on the wane the next.
The Canadian government site Job futures or the Provincial Sector Councils should be consulted
on an ongoing basis in order to ensure that up-to-date information is used. In addition, flexibility
is important in deciding who will be considered for the loans; care should be taken to not out
rightly exclude a particular profession because the job prospects are only rated as fair for that
profession. The case counsellor might encounter an exceptional individual he or she feels has a
better than average chance of obtaining employment once registered.
It will be extremely important to have an open line of communication established between the
regulatory bodies that govern these “in demand” professions and the organization. A letter
should be obtained from the Registrar that is in charge of licensure for the particular profession
of the applicant that provides confirmation that the training program the client is asking
financing for is one that will be accepted by the regulatory body. Failing this, confirmation by
way of a phone call to the registrar or the assistant should be obtained.
В В В Although some microlenders try to secure loans with real or personal property, this will not be
expected for an IEHP loan. This avoids having the cost of registering the chattel, and also having
to deal with the possible cost of collection. It also sends the wrong message to clients, and is not
in keeping with the “character” or “personal” lending style that is consistent with microcredit
values. However the requirement that all loan proceeds be issued to regulatory bodies,
bookstores, or training institutions is reasonable and offers the organization a guarantee that the
funds are going towards what they were requested for. It is also recommended that the case
worker receive regular updates from the borrower on their progress.
Finally, an organization will need to decide to whom or to what class of immigrant they will
offer this potential program. Currently Maytree does not fund those who are visitors, refugees, or
Canadian Citizens. If the potential borrower is not a registered client of the organization
registration must take place first, and all ID must be copied and kept on file.
What is the loan range?
п‚· The maximum loan will be $5,000, and the minimum loan amount will be $500.
п‚· If an applicant requires a second loan installment for another exam fee the maximum lifetime
loan limit will not exceed $5000.
п‚· If an applicants training is substantially greater than the loan, the applicant must show that
they have resources to cover the difference.
п‚· Loans will be administered at a floating rate of prime plus 3% or amount set by partner
credit union equivalent to the rate charged to borrowers who would fall in the median credit
score range. Alternately, the rate charged may depend on if the potential borrower is a credit
union member or not.
п‚· An administration fee is not recommended, as it is not in keeping with the principles of
fairness, and making financial products and programs available to all citizens regardless of
their status. For example, some lenders like the Ottawa Community Loan Fund charge
administration fees of up to $500 per loan. Although this may be financially prudent of them,
the author feels administration fees are not in keeping with the values or mandate of the
Atlantic Connection project.
In time, organizations might find that larger loans may be possible, but in the initial stages and to
lessen the risk, it is recommended that smaller loan amounts be granted. However, if an
organization feels that they have secured sufficient capital and they are able to administer larger
loan amounts there is no overriding reason why this could not be done. The loan amounts
granted may also depend on individual negotiations with potential credit union partners. If for
example the credit union is being asked to take on or to cover a larger percentage of potential
loan losses, before the program is well underway and sufficient data on default rates is available,
they may not be willing to accept the increased risk that accompanies larger loans. In the
Maytree Foundation/ Alterna Savings agreement the split is 75% Maytree and 25% Alterna
( The interest rate charged, if not set by the NGO but instead set by the
partnering credit union, may vary depending upon the IEHP’s choice of options. For example a
credit union may decide to charge a lower rate if the borrower opens an account with them or
В В В buys a share in the credit union. In order to maintain control over interest rates and offer a very
competitive rate of prime plus 1.5% IAF in Alberta “required a substantial pool of capital, as
well as the ability to guarantee the loan. Fundraising efforts secured corporate and private
donations of $500,000, which was deposited into a line of credit that borrowers would eventually
draw from. Ten Calgary business people independently agreed to act as guarantors, in the case of
loan defaults” (Maytree, 2008, p.7).
What are the loan repayment terms?
п‚· If the loan is to cover training costs the loans will become payable a maximum 90 days after
training has ceased, or earlier if employment begins immediately.
п‚· If the loan is to cover exam fees, the loan will become due and payable no later than 90 days
after exam results are received.
п‚· If the loan is to cover licensure fees, the loans will become due and payable 60days after
licensure in profession is obtained.
п‚· During the training period borrowers are only required to make monthly interest payments.
п‚· The loan is expected to have a maximum amortization period of three years.
Although 90 days is a shorter period of time than the typical 6 months granted to regular student
loan borrowers, the loan amounts under consideration are significantly smaller than those taken
out by University students and as such the monthly payments will be smaller and much easier to
manage. Monthly interest payments while the borrower is in school or awaiting exam results
should also be small and manageable for clients. If due diligence was done at the loan’s outset
and the right “type” of IEHP client was picked, neither of these conditions should be difficult for
borrowers to fulfill.
What is the application procedure?
п‚· Applicants must have confirmation from the accrediting body that the training the applicant
wishes to take will lead to licensure, or have a high probability of leading to licensure.
п‚· Detailed information about the training program or exam must be provided.
п‚· Applicants must complete an application form, fully disclose all assets and liabilities and
other relevant credit history.
п‚· Applicants must provide a current CV or Resume, or be prepared to create one with the case
worker, along with one to two references depending upon case workers familiarity with client
п‚· If employed, proof of employment by way of letter or paystub(s) should also be included.
Traditionally banks require proof of 3 months continuous employment in addition to the previous
year’s Notice of Assessment (NOA) from Revenue Canada. This requirement might be too
stringent if the person is currently unemployed or underemployed and looking at taking an
upgrading program. Organizations should therefore use their best judgment based on personal
knowledge of the client and the reference letter(s) to determine what requirements they are
comfortable with.
В В В As collateral is not being sought to secure the loan it is extremely important that the case worker
has had enough of an opportunity to establish a rapport with the client and therefore feels
confident recommending the client for a loan. Ideally, once the referral is made the remainder of
the loan application and disbursement will be handled by a partner financial institution. In this
situation the potential borrower would be recommended by their case worker to a financial
services officer who would then review their application file, conduct a background credit record
check, and upon their approval disburse the loan. The final decision to grant the loan thus rests
with the financial institution.
If however, an organization is unable to secure a partnership and still wishes to proceed it is
recommended that a loan review board made up of volunteers from the community be
established to further review the loan applications and make final funding decisions. This
removes the funding decision from the case worker and thus helps avoid allegations of favoritism,
which could potentially harm the client/caseworker relationship; this is especially important
considering that these individuals may be working together for some time and a certain degree of
trust and openness is essential if the relationship is going to be productive.
So as to not overburden volunteer board members loan reviews should be done on a set quarterly
schedule as opposed to an ongoing basis. This arrangement should help case workers incorporate
this activity into their current workload and keeps the organization from having to hire
specialized staff for the loan portfolio. A review board consisting of four members should be
sufficient. Alternately, the organization could recruit a larger pool of potential reviewers from
which they could draw if one or more members were unavailable or the members recruited were
reluctant to commit to the time requirement. To lessen the commitment that being a reviewer
would entail an agreement for a period of one year would be a suggested timeline for length of
service agreements.
In selecting members it is recommended that at least one individual have either an accounting or
banking background. Other members may include organization board members, community
partners, past loan recipients, interested citizens or individuals drawn from the health professions.
A special thank you to Jan Kutcher, Employment Services Manager at MISA in Halifax for
sharing the strategies they have found helpful in initiating a “grant giving” program that to date
has been run quite successfully.
Other considerations
Loan loss reserves- in addition to the capital required to administer these microloans a certain
amount also needs to be set aside to cover potential loan losses. Typically most traditional
banks set aside 5% to cover potential losses. Some existing microloan providers like the
Immigrant Access Fund in Alberta is covered for loan losses under the government’s
Western Diversification program. So unless a similar arrangement can be reached with the
Atlantic equivalent ACOA, potential lenders will need to set aside a loan reserve fund.
Currently the Saint John Community Loan Fund sets aside an equivalent to 30% of the loan
В В В value they have outstanding. Depending on the organization, and the agreement that they
have reached with a credit union if a partnership can be established, they may find that they
are comfortable with a lower loan reserve fund amount; 30% then should be seen as the
maximum amount required. It should be remembered that many of the conversations to date
between Atlantic Settlement agencies and local credit unions have not produced favourable
results (personal communication, Melanie Bailey, 2009; Jan Kutcher, 2009). Like traditional
banks many credit unions have over time moved away from their grassroots beginnings and
have come to approach a structure that is operationally quite similar to traditional financial
institutions. Without government backing to cover potential loan losses many are not
interested in pursuing this type of lending as not only does it yield little profits for them, as
small loans are not profitable in general; but because the credit requirements are more lax
than those required of “regular” loan applicants they open themselves up to greater risk.
What do I need for start up funds? To get a rough idea of what type of funding might be
required by an Atlantic organization we can look to the current number of loans being
disbursed in other areas of Canada. One of the largest micro-lenders in Canada is the
Immigrant Access Fund (IAF) which is administered by the Edmonton Mennonite Centre for
Newcomers (EMCN) and Momentum in Calgary; since inception in 2007, 305 loans have
been approved. However, the scale of this organization is beyond anything that would be
needed in the Atlantic Region. In comparison, the Saint John Community Loan Fund had in
2007, 8 years after its inception, administered 150 loans. Another smaller yet successful
lender would be that of Maytree/Alterna Savings. As of last year Maytree/ Alterna in Ontario
had only disbursed 151 loans out of 440 total applications since 2001. This amounts to about
22 loans a year. If the full $5000 limit was taken out by all 22 borrowers this would be
$110,000 in loan funds, plus the additional amount that would be required to be kept for
potential loan losses. This amount, as previously discussed can vary from 5-30% depending
upon what agreements the organization has made with any government guarantors like
ACOA. The Ottawa Community Loan Fund started out with 30 loans in 2003- 11-12 in 2008
(Brown, G. September, 2009).
If an organization decides to administer the loans themselves, and they feel that they will be
able to solicit sizeable donations from the community (largely corporate sponsors), a
partnership with a local Community Loan Fund would be prudent. With this arrangement, the
amount available for funding each year will be drawn from the interest proceeds of the
Investment fund. Depending upon market conditions the amount available for lending
purposes (or potentially grant purposes) could vary greatly year over year. For those
interested in learning more about these funds see for an example. One of the
advantages of pursuing these partnerships is that they handle all of the fund administration,
and investment decisions. No specialized staff with mutual fund or other securities licensing
are therefore required to be on the NGO’s staff.
 CHECK‐LIST  Read accompanying report to gain a better understanding of the risks and possible benefits of establishing a microcredit initiative.  First Option‐Ensure sufficient staff levels are in place to manage the extra workload.     
      Approach your local Credit Union to see if they are interested in the initiative. If they have reservations see if ACOA would be interested in establishing a loan loss agreement/ fund. If successful approach credit union again; review forms and application procedure with partner financial institution, and agree upon loan rates, and loan loss percentage splits. Adapt form templates by adding your logo and information.  Second Option‐ Establish a loan review board that will process loan applications on a quarterly basis. Solicit funds from the community to establish the loan capital. If your potential capital base is substantial, seek out a Community Loan fund that will handle the operation of your potential investment fund. With this option, the NGO will be responsible for collection of loan payments. How that organization plans to deal with loan default will also have to be considered.  Third Option‐ Apply to your Provincial government for LMA funds that could be used to establish a small grant‐ giving initiative for IEHP’s. This option is currently being used by MISA in Halifax, NS and to date has been successful. With this option the process is the same as the first option: you establish a review board, and process these loans on a quarterly basis. This does however; require you to submit applications for funding at regular intervals. Furthermore to maximize the amount of money received, the grants will be smaller than if loans were given out. In order to prevent overburdening staff with grant applications, this option is only mentioned to the client after they have met with a case worker, and the worker feels that the issue of finances is the only barrier keeping the individual from moving forward with employment or licensure. According to Jan Kutcher, employment manager at MISA, for the most part they have been able to assist most of the individuals that the case workers refer to the grant review board. It was only in the last quarter that the requests exceeded the funds available (First round of loans‐
$25,000; second ‐$15,000; third round‐$11,000). These grants are available to a maximum of $2000 per disbursement, with an aggregate limit of $3000 (Jan Kutcher, personal communication, September, 2009).        September 29, 2009
Dear Credit Union Loans Officer:
Please accept this referral letter on behalf of (Full legal Name) ______________.
(First Name)_______________________ has requested a meeting with you to discuss a loan
and signed a confidentiality/consent form has been forwarded to accompany this letter.
I have been working with this individual regarding career development and believe that financial
assistance in the form of a loan would help her/him meet training, education, assessment or
licensing requirements.
A review of education earned outside of Canada and employment history has been conducted
and a discussion of employment and education pathways suited to this individual has also been
explored. In addition, contact has been made with the provincial licensing body to verify that the
course of action identified is the one required by the licensing body.
The following documents are attached for your consideration:
Personal photo Identification
Diploma (certified copy)
English translation of diploma (certified copy)
Course information and Fee schedule
Licensing Fee requirements
Exam fees statement
Declaration of Applicant Form
Thank you.
*AdaptedВ fromВ theВ oneВ usedВ byВ LibroВ FinancialВ 11В В В В IEHP Loan Program
Declaration of Applicant
I hereby certify that all information provided to my Employment Counsellor with respect
to my referral to
IEHP Loan Program is true and correct.
I understand that I am expected to be prepared to discuss all aspects of my current
financial status with Loans staff, including statements of my assets and liabilities.
I the undersigned understand that the obtaining of a credit information check may be
required at any time during the loan application; I hereby give my consent for
BLANK NAME credit union to obtain a credit report from a third party credit agency in
order to determine my eligibility for an IEHP loan.
Name: _____________________________
Signature: __________________________
Date: ______________________________
Witness: ___________________________
В В В В В В *AdaptedВ fromВ theВ oneВ usedВ byВ LibroВ FinancialВ 12В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В IIEEH
M  PERSONAL INFORMATION                               Date of this Application: ______________________________________________________  Name: ____________________________________________________________________   First Name             Middle Name   Last Name Date of Birth: _______________ Address:        ______________________________________________________________________________________________________                      STREET                                                                                                      APT. NO.    ______________________________________________________________________________                                     CITY                                                      PROV.                                          POSTAL CODE Phone: (Home) _____________ (Work)__________________ (Other)___________________ When did you arrive in Canada? ____________ Landlord’s name if applicable: _______________________________ Tel: ________________   Single Parent  Number of Children: ____________   Single ‐ no children / no children living with you     Married/living with partner (with children)   Ages of Children: _______________       Married/living with partner  Ver: May
     ‐ no children / no children living with you INCOME & BUDGET
SIN#В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В ImmigrationВ Status:В В В В В ____________________________В В В В В В В В В В В Current Situation
ConfirmВ IDВ В В В В В Are you considered the primary wage earner?
HealthcareВ occupationВ inВ formerВ countryВ ofВ residence:В ________________________________В HealthcareВ occupationВ IВ wantВ toВ haveВ inВ Canada:В _____________________________________В CurrentВ EmploymentВ Status:В ______________________________________________________В В В В DETAILS OF LOAN REQUEST
Please describe the items you will pay for with the loan and cost for each item
$ ______________
Exam Fees _______________________________________________
$ ______________
$ ______________
$ ______________
$ ______________
Please indicate any other institution you have gone to for a loan and the result:
Please describe your current debt in the following table. (Attach a separate sheet if necessary)
Type of Debt
Private Loan
Bank Loan
Gov’t Loan
Credit Cards
Holding Debt
Amount of
Current Loan
Date of
Purpose of Loan
В В В Monthly Income
Rental Income
Spousal Income
Employment Insurance
Income Assistance
Child Support
Child Tax Credit
Other (Investments)
$ ============
Please list available resources you might have
access to:
Monthly Expenses
Child Care
Cell Phone
Tobacco Products
Car Payment
Loan Payments
Surplus or (Deficit) (Total Income minus (-) Total Expenses)
Have you ever applied for bankruptcy? If yes, please explain.
В В В Education
Graduated University
Specialized Diploma
Some University/College with Certificate
Graduated Masters/ PhD пЃІ
Employment Status and History
*Or Attach Resume
Beginning with the most recent or current
Your Position:
Start Date:
Reasons for Leaving
__________________ Finish Date:
Employment History (continued)
Your Position:
Start Date:
_____________________Finish Date: _______________________
Reasons for Leaving
В В В Other Relevant Experience: (training, internships or courses)
Please list employers, supervisors, instructors or landlords. DO NOT list friends or relatives as this may
delay the application.
1. Name:
2. Name:
Signature of Applicant
SIN _______________________________________
Signature of Co-applicant
SIN _______________________________________
False claims or misrepresentations discovered during credit check will result in automatic refusal of
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