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How to Prepare for the Examinations for Environmental Engineering

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How to Prepare
for the
Examinations
for
Environmental
Engineering and
Environmental Science*
Specialty Certifications,
2nd edition
William C. Anderson, P.E., DEE
The information and materials in this publication are intended to acquaint the
reader with the specialty certification requirements and procedures of the American
Academy of Environmental Engineers as of the date of publication. Sample examination problems are provided to illustrate the nature of the Academy’s examinations, but
such samples are not used in current examinations. The Academy makes no express
or implied warranty as to the accuracy or completeness of information contained
herein, future examination procedures, or examination content.
Copyright 2003 by the American Academy of Environmental Engineers
All Rights Reserved
Manufactured in the United States of America
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Anderson, William C., 1943 How to prepare for the examinations for environmental engineering specialty
certification, 2nd Edition / William C. Anderson.
72p. 21.6 x 27.8 cm.
Includes bibliographical references.
ISBN 1-883767-36-9
1. Environmental engineering -- Examinations, questions, etc.
2. American Academy of Environmental Engineers -- Examinations -- Study
guides. I. Title
TD157.A65 2003
628’.076--dc20
2003056069
CIP
2
Table of Contents
PREFACE........................................................................................................................5
1. Introduction................................................................................................................7
Licensing vs. Certification ................................................................................................... 7
Specialties Certified.............................................................................................................. 7
Program Accreditation......................................................................................................... 8
2. Preparing to be Examined...........................................................................................9
Hints For A Successful Examination...................................................................................... 9
3. Certification.............................................................................................................11
Requirements..................................................................................................................... 11
Procedures......................................................................................................................... 11
4. Examination Procedures...........................................................................................15
Admitting The Candidates.................................................................................................. 15
Administering The Written Examination............................................................................. 16
Administering The Oral Examination.................................................................................. 16
5. Examination Development.......................................................................................19
Written Examination.......................................................................................................... 19
Oral Examination............................................................................................................... 19
Examination Development ................................................................................................ 19
STEP 1 — Review Examination Scope and Test Items in Existing Examination............... 19
STEP 2 — Develop Replacement Examination Items..................................................... 19
STEP 3 — Field-Test Potential Test Items....................................................................... 19
STEP 4 — Select Replacement Test Items...................................................................... 21
STEP 5 — Compile Examination................................................................................... 21
6. Examination Scoring.................................................................................................23
Oral Examination............................................................................................................... 23
Disposition of Scoring Data................................................................................................ 28
7. Air Pollution Control Engineering.............................................................................29
Sample Test Items............................................................................................................... 29
References......................................................................................................................... 30
8. General Environmental Engineering..........................................................................31
Sample Test Items............................................................................................................... 31
References......................................................................................................................... 32
3
9. Hazardous Waste Management Engineering.............................................................33
Sample Test Items............................................................................................................... 33
References......................................................................................................................... 34
10. Industrial Hygiene Engineering...............................................................................37
Sample Test Items............................................................................................................... 38
References......................................................................................................................... 39
Examination Results........................................................................................................... 40
Examination Fees............................................................................................................... 40
11. Radiation Protection Engineering............................................................................41
Fundamental Characteristics of Commonly-Encountered Radionuclides............................. 44
Sample Test Items............................................................................................................... 44
References......................................................................................................................... 47
Examination Results........................................................................................................... 50
Examination Fees............................................................................................................... 50
12. Solid Waste Management Engineering....................................................................51
Sample Test Items............................................................................................................... 51
References......................................................................................................................... 52
13. Water Supply/Wastewater Engineering...................................................................53
Sample Test Items............................................................................................................... 53
References......................................................................................................................... 54
14. Oral Examination..................................................................................................55
Sample Test Item................................................................................................................ 55
Appendix A..................................................................................................................57
Appendix B..................................................................................................................63
Appendix C..................................................................................................................71
Addendum A: New Environmental Engineering Specialty:
Environmental Sustainability................................................................ Addendum A-1
Addendum B: Environmental Scientist Certification Study Guide.............. Addendum B-1
4
PREFACE
E
xamination candidates and prospective applicants often experience anxiety because they do not know what to expect regarding the certification process and
the examinations used. This book has been prepared to assist candidates and
prospective candidates for Academy specialty certification. In addition to a general
explanation of the Academy’s certification program, it provides detailed guidance on
the written and oral examinations the Academy uses to measure a candidate’s special
capability. Complete understanding of this information will enable the candidate to
make adequate preparations for the examinations.
This manual is the result of the collective and accumulated efforts and contributions from the members of the Academy's committees on Admissions and Development and Upgrading of Examinations, as well as those on the specialty sub-committees
in Air Pollution Control, Hazardous Waste Management, General Environmental Engineering, Industrial Hygiene, Radiation Protection, Solid Waste Management, Water
Supply and Wastewater, and the Oral Examination sub-committee. Thanks is due to
all of those Diplomates who participated in building and improving the Academy's
specialty certification program over the past years.
William C. Anderson, P.E., DEE
Past Executive Director
American Academy of Environmental Engineers
5
6
1. INTRODUCTION
I
n an increasingly-complex technological world, it can be difficult for the lay person
to identify those possessing the special expertise required to successfully address
today’s many different environmental problems. This challenge is simplified by the
Academy’s specialty certification program, which establishes the specific environmental
engineering capability of licensed professional engineers.
Specialty certification provides the engineer with independent, peer-based confirmation of his or her special environmental engineering expertise, which inspires confidence in those who must retain and rely on that expertise.
In 1955, the American Academy of Environmental EngineersВ® began the first engineering specialty certification program in the United States. Modeled on the decadesold, successful practice in the medical profession, the program provides independent
testimony of a licensed engineer’s special capabilities in the profession of environmental engineering. The certification does not confer any legal right or privilege. Rather,
it supplements the legal right to practice, which is conferred by a State Board of Engineering Examiners.
Upon satisfactory completion of the Academy’s certification process, an environmental engineer is granted certification in a specialty recognized by the Academy and
is awarded the title “Diplomate Environmental Engineer,” which may be denoted in all
documents as DEE. Proper use of the appellation is Joe D. Jones, P.E., DEE. Once
certified, an individual automatically becomes a member of the American Academy of
Environmental EngineersВ®.
Licensing vs. Certification
Specialties Certified
In 1993, the National Council of Examiners for Engineering and Surveying (NCEES) made available to
state licensing boards a discipline-specific examination for environmental engineering. That examination
is used in several states, but not all. It tests broadbased environmental engineering knowledge at the
minimum level of competency to practice engineering
and includes eight test items covering the following
topics:
• Water supply
• Wastewater collection and treatment
• Solid waste management
• Hazardous waste management
• Air pollution control
• Health, safety and environmental protection
Generally, professional engineering licenses are issued without limitation on the fields of engineering in
which a person may practice, regardless of the examination completed. Therefore, the specialist in environmental engineering needs the Academy’s certification
to distinguish his or her capability in one or more of the
environmental engineering specialties.
The Academy’s definition of environmental engineering, as stated by its Bylaws, is:
“the application of engineering principles to improve and maintain the environment for the protection of human health, for the protection of
nature’s beneficial ecosystems, and for the environment-related enhancement of the quality of
human life.”
Within this broad definition, the Academy has identified the following areas of specialization in which certificates are currently issued:
• Air Pollution Control
• General Environmental Engineering*
• Hazardous Waste Management
• Industrial Hygiene
• Radiation Protection
• Solid Waste Management
• Water Supply and Wastewater Engineering
* NOTE: General Environmental Engineers possess basic knowledge
in all specialties with an emphasis on public health impacts.
7
All engineers who have been certified by their professional peers as having special capabilities in one or
more of the seven areas of environmental engineering
specialization and who have consistently maintained the
requirements for continuing that certification are listed
in Who’s Who in Environmental Engineering®. The annual publication is an important tool for persons seeking
qualified environmental engineering practitioners.
Program Accreditation
The Council of Engineering and Scientific Specialty
Boards (CESB) has accredited the Academy’s specialty
certification program, thereby providing recognition that
the program conforms to CESB criteria for Professional
Engineering Specialty Certification Programs. Accreditation was first granted in January 1993 and has been
continuously maintained since that date. The current
accreditation is valid until December 31, 2005, at which
time it will be subject to renewal for a subsequent fiveyear period.
CESB is an independent, voluntary body composed
of organizations providing specialty certification in engineering, science, and technology, along with other
organizations whose interests encompass the entire
engineering profession. Founded in 1990, CESB provides basic criteria and guidelines for the establishment and operation of engineering, science, and
technology specialty certification programs and recognizes those certification boards that comply with its
standards. It also acts to coordinate specialty certification programs, to resolve problems encountered by
member boards, and to provide the public with information about engineering, science, and technology
specialty certification.
8
2. PREPARING TO BE EXAMINED
H
istorically, 90 percent of candidates who take the Academy’s examinations
pass. Failure can generally be attributed to lack of preparation for the examination process or insufficient “real-world” experience in the specialty. Many guidebooks have been written on how to take examinations, regardless of type, and the
essence of such guidance is repeated here. In sum, candidates should understand
the examination process, which is fully described in this book. They should be rested
and familiar with the subject of the examination. Experienced persons in a specialty
will have little trouble passing the Academy’s examinations.
The Academy’s examinations are not difficult for those whose daily work is concentrated in the specialty for which they seek certification. Two exceptions to this are: 1) the
candidate whose work experience is concentrated solely in one facet of the specialty,
and 2) the generalist whose work is concentrated substantially (i.e., 50 to 60 percent) in
one specialty, but who also works in several other specialties. In these instances, some
pre-examination study is warranted to refresh the candidate’s knowledge of other aspects of the specialty or to provide greater depth in the primary specialty.
Hints For A Successful Examination
Oral Examination — The oral examination has no
“right” answers. It is an opportunity to demonstrate the
engineering judgment you regularly apply in your practice of environmental engineering.
The oral examination is conducted by a team of three
Diplomates in accordance with prescribed guidelines.
The hour-long oral examination (one part professional
practice issues and two parts technical specialty problems) is used to determine a candidate’s ethical concepts, maturity, presence of mind, engineering
judgment, and ability to apply engineering principles
and concepts that cannot be easily measured by written examination. The oral examination is ordinarily
given on the same day as the written examination.
At the time of examination, candidates are provided
a copy of the test items to be presented by the panel.
This allows candidates to concentrate on understanding a question before formulating an answer, without
having to rely upon memory to recall the information
sought.
Candidates are encouraged to carefully consider a
question before answering and to present the answer
clearly. Effective engineering requires clear, understandable communication, which is a key examination
success.
• Understand the examination and the examination
process; do not make it more complicated than it
actually is.
• Identify areas needing study.
• Establish a study schedule as soon as the date
of examination is known.
• Study regularly, every day or every other day, in
sessions no longer than one hour.
• Use the references provided in this book for each
specific examination as the basis for study.
Written Examination — The written examination
uses the multiple-choice format. Accordingly, you
should:
• First, carefully read each test item to ensure that
the problem is correctly understood; many errors
occur because the test item is misinterpreted.
• Second, proceed through the examination item
by item, completing those for which you are sure
of the answer. If a test item is problematic, go on
to the next one. After completing all items you
are sure of, return to address those that are more
difficult.
• Keep in mind that all questions have one BEST
answer, which often can be discerned by careful
analysis of the problem statement and multiplechoice answers provided.
• Look for clues in the answers like “none” or “any,”
which often serve to indicate that the answer is
possibly correct or incorrect.
• Remember that there is no penalty for guessing.
9
10
3.
CERTIFICATION
C
ertification by the Academy incorporates peer review of a candidate’s education and professional experience and other attributes. This review is conducted
by the Academy’s Admissions Committee, which is composed of persons with
different specialties and practice experience, e.g., consultants, government officials,
etc. Technical and professional capability are measured using written and oral examinations. Following successful completion of the peer review and examinations, each
candidate is granted a certificate in the appropriate specialty by a majority vote of the
Academy’s Board of Trustees, hence the term “Board-certified.” Figure 3-1 on page 12
illustrates this process.
Requirements
gineering license, whichever occurs first. Four (4) of
those years shall have included being in responsible
charge of work at a level acceptable to the Board of
Trustees in one or more of the designated environmental engineering specialties.
Candidates applying for certification by oral examination only must have at least sixteen (16) years of
progressively responsible, qualified environmental engineering experience following receipt of a baccalaureate degree or license, whichever occurs first. Twelve
(12) of those years shall have included being in responsible charge of work at a level acceptable to the
Board of Trustees in one or more of the designated
environmental engineering specialties.
Qualifying experience, that is, experience acceptable to the Academy, includes active and responsible
participation in design, management, research, administration, or teaching, primarily in one or more areas of
environmental engineering. Experience in other areas
of engineering or science is not accepted. One year of
experience is credited for a Masters degree and three
years for a Doctorate degree.
Responsible charge is defined as work that includes
active participation in responsible design, management,
research, administration, or teaching (in an education
institution of recognized standing) in one or more fields
of environmental engineering. Responsible charge includes direct control and supervision of engineering work
requiring the exercise of engineering judgment. Typically,
this experience is acquired after the candidate is granted
a professional engineer’s license or registration.
The American Academy of Environmental EngineersВ® certifies qualified Registered/Licensed Professional Engineers in their field of specialty through
certification procedures prescribed by the Academy’s
Bylaws. Pertinent sections of those Bylaws are presented in Appendix A.
Minimum Requirements — Each candidate for certification is required to possess certain minimum qualifications. All candidates shall:
• Be persons of good moral character and high ethical integrity and professional standing, as determined by the Board.
• Possess a baccalaureate degree in engineering
or a related field, acceptable to the Board, from
an academic institution of recognized standing.
(Whether or not the college or university granting
the degree is of “recognized standing” is a matter
for final determination by the Academy’s Board
of Trustees and is decided by the Admissions
Committee in normal practice. Universities accredited by the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET), or by foreign
authorities recognized by ABET, will always be
deemed to be of recognized standing.)
• Hold a valid license or certificate of registration
to practice professional engineering, issued by
the lawfully constituted registration board of any
State, territory, possession or district of the United
States. (A valid certificate of registration from a
foreign country may be accepted, provided it
meets standards established by the Academy.)
• Be professionally engaged in environmental engineering activities on a full-time basis.
Experience Requirements — Candidates applying for certification by written and oral examinations
must have at least eight (8) years of progressively responsible, qualified engineering experience following
receipt of a baccalaureate degree or professional en-
Procedures
Initial Certification — The qualifications of all candidates for certification are first reviewed by the
Academy’s Admissions Committee to determine if the
Academy’s minimum requirements are satisfied and
to identify the specialty in which the candidate is qualified to be examined. After approval by the Admissions
11
Figure 3-1
12
Committee, the candidate is examined using written
and/or oral examinations, as appropriate. Examination
results are returned to the Admissions Committee for
evaluation. Candidates who meet all prescribed requirements are recommended by the Admissions Committee to the Board of Trustees, which votes on the
granting of certification.
The written and oral examinations are specialty-specific. They are developed and updated every two years
by committees composed of Diplomates certified in the
specialty covered by the examinations. Security of the
examinations and scoring of the written examinations
are the responsibility of the Academy’s Test Administration Department.
The oral examination is conducted by a team of three
Diplomates in accordance with prescribed guidelines.
The hour-long oral examination (one part professional
practice issues and two parts technical specialty problems) is used to determine a candidate’s ethical concepts, maturity, presence of mind, engineering
judgment, and ability to apply engineering principles
and concepts that cannot be easily measured by written examinations.
Should a candidate fail one or both of the test components (written and/or oral), the failed component(s)
may be retaken pursuant to Academy procedures. Additionally, the Academy’s Bylaws prescribe due process
procedures by which a candidate who is denied certification may appeal the Academy’s decision.
Upon satisfactory completion of the entire Admissions process and payment of the prescribed fees, the
candidate is granted certification in a specialty recognized by the Academy and awarded the title “Diplomate Environmental Engineer,” which may be denoted
in all documents as DEE. Proper use of the appellation is Joe D. Jones, P.E., DEE. A certificate embossed
with the Diplomate’s name and specialty is provided
as confirmation. Once certified, an individual automatically becomes a member of the American Academy of
Environmental EngineersВ®.
Recertification — To ensure continuing competence and quality, each Diplomate must annually apply for and be granted recertification. This is
accomplished by The Diplomate updating his or her
professional data on a form provided by the Academy,
certifying that his or her license or certificate of registration to practice professional engineering remains
valid and certifying that he or she complies with the
Academy’s Continuing Professional Development
(CPD) requirements. A renewal fee must also be paid.
Each Diplomate is required to obtain 40 hours of
acceptable Professional Development Hours (PDHs)
during a two-year period. A sample of the current CPD
Reporting Forms are included in Appendix B. They identify the types of acceptable activities that accrue recognized PDHs. Additionally, the Academy provides that
any Diplomate may satisfy the CPD requirements by
successfully completing the oral examination for the
Diplomate’s specialty every two years in lieu of compiling and reporting PDHs.
This program is compatible with the policy of the
National Council of Examiners for Engineering and
Surveying (NCEES). Accordingly, CPD activities required by the Academy may also be used to satisfy
CPD requirements for engineering licensure in states
that have such obligations.
Each person who completes the certification renewal
process receives an annual certificate from the Academy
attesting that the person’s certification is valid in the specialty or specialties indicated thereon until year’s end.
Diplomates who do not comply with the CPD requirements are issued INACTIVE certificates. Those with
an inactive certification may not ethically represent that
they are board-certified in the practice of engineering.
Inactive certificates can be restored to active status by
completing procedures prescribed by the Academy.
Revocation — Specialty certification is automatically revoked for Diplomates who fail to maintain a valid
license or certificate of registration to practice professional engineering or who fail to complete the annual
certification renewal process.
Also, the Academy has established due process procedures by which it may revoke the specialty certification of any Diplomate upon receipt of sufficient evidence
of improper conduct by the Diplomate. The basis for
revocation shall include committing fraud or comparable dishonest acts, misrepresenting or concealing
facts in the application for certification, being convicted
of a crime involving moral turpitude, or committing such
other acts considered by the Board to be good and
sufficient cause for revocation.
13
14
4. EXAMINATION PROCEDURES
A
cademy examinations are given in each state and, in some larger states, in
two or more geographic regions of the state once each year. These examinations occur between late June and the end of August. Assisting in this process
are Diplomates who serve as the Academy’s State Representatives, operating under
procedures prescribed by the Academy.
When the Academy’s Admissions Committee has compiled the list of candidates
qualified for examination in an annual cycle, it contacts the appropriate State Representatives to arrange an examination date. The State Representative will serve as
Chief Examiner or appoint another Diplomate in the area to serve in this capacity.
The Chief Examiner arranges a convenient site, date and time for the examination
and notifies the Admissions Department. The Admissions Department notifies each
candidate of the date, location and time of the exam, the candidate’s identification
number, and the name and phone number of the Chief Examiner. Each candidate is
assigned a seven-digit identification number when he or she applies for certification
and is notified of acceptance as a candidate.
The designated Chief Examiner arranges for persons to serve on the oral examination
panel. The preferred number of Oral Examiners per panel is three, one of whom may be
the Chief Examiner. Under special circumstances, a panel may consist of only two persons. Persons serving as Oral Examiners must satisfy the following qualifications:
• Each must be a Diplomate of the Academy.
• None may be currently employed by the same employer as the candidate(s) to
be examined.
• To the extent possible, at least one panel member must be certified in the specialty in which the candidate(s) seeks specialty certification.
Upon being notified of the date, place, and time of examination, the Test Department prepares the materials for examination and distributes them to the Chief Examiner, including:
• Copies of all candidate application materials.
• Printed copies of the written examination in the specialty.
• Two oral technical test items, which are selected by lottery, for each candidate
(according to specialty). A copy of both oral test items (without answers) for the
candidate’s use, clearly marked with the candidate’s name. Each candidate at a
test site is examined using different oral test items.
Admitting The Candidates
Admissions Department, but the individual does not
have an Admission Authorization letter, two forms of
positive identification must be checked before admitting the candidate. If a candidate does not meet the
identification requirements, the candidate is not admitted unless special approval is obtained from the Admissions Department. Under no circumstances is a
candidate admitted to the examination if the candidate’s
name does not appear on the list provided by the Admissions Department.
Any candidate who arrives after the Chief Examiner
has started to read the instructions for the written examination may be given additional time, up to the full
three hours, to complete the examination, if circumstances permit. If the candidate does not have the full
The Chief Examiner makes certain that each candidate has an Admissions Authorization letter and positive proof of identification before admitting candidates
to the examination room.
The name and identification number that appears
on each candidate’s Admission Authorization must
match the copy received by the Chief Examiner. The
Chief Examiner makes certain that each candidate who
appears for the examination is the person named on
the candidate’s application and his or her additional
forms of identification.
If a candidate’s name is included in the copies of
letters of notification sent to the Chief Examiner by the
15
4. The booklets and answer sheets are to be returned to me when you have completed the examination. Be sure to write on the answer sheet
the name of the examination as it appears on the
cover of the examination booklet. Record your
identification number in the space provided. Place
your identification number in front of you so that
it can be easily seen at all times. No notes of any
kind may be taken from the examination room.”
After the candidates have started to work on the examination, the Chief Examiner will check to ensure that
all candidates are marking the answer sheets correctly
and have correctly entered their identification numbers.
If a candidate asks a question pertaining to examination procedures, he or she will be answered fully and
clearly. However, if a candidate asks a question pertaining to the content of a specific question, such as
“What does this part mean?” “I don’t understand this
question,” or “Do they mean incidence or mortality rate
in this figure?” the examiner will tactfully avoid the question with a statement such as “I’m sorry, but I can’t help
you with that. Read it over carefully again and perhaps
you will see what is meant.”
In the unlikely event that a candidate appears to have
found an error in a test item such as, for example, a
choice omitted, the examiner will make a general announcement to the candidates taking the examination
and tell them to answer the question to the best of their
ability. The examiner will make a note of the item(s)
questioned and report the irregularity to the Test Department.
At the end of each written examination, the answer
sheets, question booklets, and any scratch paper must
be handed in to the examiner. The Chief Examiner will
ensure that all examinations are returned and that no
examination booklets, answer sheets, or scratch paper are removed from the test site.
3 hours to write the examination, details about this occurrence are recorded in a Security-Irregularity Report
and provided to the Admissions Department.
Administering The Written Examination
Candidates are allowed three hours to answer 100
multiple-choice test items. The Academy provides all
necessary examination materials including examination books, answer sheets and pencils. Non-programmable calculators may be used, and candidates are
encouraged to bring spare batteries as the Academy
cannot ensure the availability of electrical outlets at examination sites. No reference materials or calculation
paper may be brought into the examination room; this
includes books, manuals, and notes.
Physical arrangements for the written examination
site are important. Every possible attempt is made to
provide a comfortable setting conducive to good performance. It is intended that there be:
• A place to put coats, hats and briefcases.
• Good lighting and ventilation and freedom from
outside noise.
• Sufficient room for space between candidates.
• Adequate writing surface and enough space for
candidates to open their booklets (which measure 17" x 11" open) and to lay their answer sheets
(8 1/2" x 11") flat.
• Comfortable chairs.
• A supply of blank paper for candidates to use as
calculations.
• A clock.
• Access to a water fountain and/or soft drink supply.
• Nearby and readily-accessible restroom and
lunch facilities.
When ready to begin the examination, the Chief
Examiner will inform the candidates of the procedures
governing the examination. Highlights of these instructions are printed below:
“The examination consists of objective questions
of the multiple-choice type with four or five responses, one and only one of which is acceptable. The Examiner will answer any questions of
procedure, but cannot answer questions of fact.
It is to your advantage to answer every question,
since the final score will be the number of questions marked correctly.
There are several regulations governing this examination.
1. Three hours are allowed to complete the examination.
2. Only one person may be excused from the room
at a time.
3. The place where you are now seated will be your
permanent place throughout the examination.
Administering The Oral Examination
The Chief Examiner organizes an oral examination
panel consisting of three Diplomates. The Chief Examiner may be one of the panel members. If there are many
candidates to be interviewed in one day, the Chief Examiner may set up more than one oral examination panel.
Physical arrangements are provided to create an environment consistent with the purpose of the oral examination (e.g., no stress-inducing interview devices
such as a wobbly chair, over-heated room, etc.). The
examination site will provide:
• A place for candidates to wait for their turn if more
than one person is taking the oral examination.
• A physically comfortable and private examination
room.
• Sufficient table space for panelists to write notes
comfortably during the examination.
• A clock.
16
• Seating arrangements that place the panel opposite the candidate.
The oral examination is to take approximately one hour
to complete, with 20 minutes devoted to the professional
component and 40 minutes devoted to the technical component. Candidates are not ranked or compared with each
other, but are evaluated individually.
Panel members will meet sufficiently in advance of
the time candidates are to report to review each
candidate’s application materials. Panel members will
not discuss a candidate’s educational and technical
qualifications during the examination, as these will have
already been established. However, it is permissible
for the panel to question the depth of a candidate’s
technical experience if it has reason to believe that the
experience does not meet the Academy’s requirements.
17
18
5. EXAMINATION DEVELOPMENT
I
t is the intent of the American Academy of Environmental EngineersВ® that its written and oral examinations fairly test the competence of the applicant commensurate with the standards of competency established by the Board of Trustees. In
sum, these standards require that the individual possess, and demonstrate the possession of, knowledge beyond the average and minimally competent environmental
engineer in at least one of the specialties recognized by the Academy.
Responsibility for executing the Academy’s intent is vested in the Development and
Upgrading of Examinations Committee, which has subcommittees for each specialty
certified by the Academy. These subcommittees are composed of board-certified experts in each specialty.
Written Examination
abilities. The oral examination assesses those aspects
of an individual’s qualification for specialty certification
that cannot be objectively measured by written examination or review of work history.
The principal goal of the written examination is to
test the candidate’s knowledge and experience by posing test items that require both the application of basic
knowledge and the exercise of judgment. For such test
items, the correct answer is the one most universally
accepted within the profession.
Test items are designed to test the applicant’s knowledge of engineering principles and not the applicant’s
memory of data typically found in handbooks. Test items
that require the candidate to perform calculations will
contain all of the data necessary for the solution. Only
knowledge of the proper procedure is required. (Any
detailed formulas needed will be supplied.) Some test
items are stated in the negative (e.g., “Which of the
following statements is not correct?”). All questions
should be read carefully to avoid confusion and unnecessary errors.
Written examinations consist of 100 multiple-choice
type test items with four or five possible answers. The
scope of each examination is consistent with the meaning of the certificate offered in each specialty, as described later in this publication. Further, each specialty
examination includes eight to ten questions regarding
toxic and hazardous substances as those substances
are encountered in the specialty. Each written examination is reviewed and revised as appropriate every
two years.
Examination Development
The development and revision process for the written examination has five steps. Each is briefly described
in this section to provide a comprehensive overview. A
process flow chart is provided in Figure 5-1 on page 20.
STEP 1
Review Examination Scope and Test
Items in Existing Examination
Step 1 has two components. The first is defining a
scope appropriate for the certification or determining
that the existing scope of the examination remains appropriate for the certificate granted. Once the scope is
agreed upon, the examination reviewers focus on each
test item to determine if it is relevant to the scope and
to current practice.
STEP 2
Develop Replacement Examination Items
The review of the examination (Step 1) will determine the number and subjects of new test items required. Three times the number of new test items
required are solicited from practitioners in the specialty.
Oral Examination
STEP 3
Field-Test Potential Test Items
The purpose of the oral examination is two-fold. First,
it is to determine a candidate’s ethical concepts, maturity, presence of mind, sense of values, and similar professional attributes. A complete evaluation of each
candidate is extremely important. Second, the technical component of the oral examination is to determine
the candidate’s interpretive skills and problem-solving
Each new test item is field-tested by having persons
certified in the specialty review the items for relevance,
clarity, and format, as well as concurrence on the correct test item answer.
19
Figure 5-1
AMERICAN ACADEMY
OF ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERS
SPECIALTY EXAMINATION UPGRADE PROCESS
STEP 1 — REVIEW EXISTING EXAM SCOPE AND TEST ITEMS
REVIEW EXAM
SCOPE AND TEST
ITEMS
IS SCOPE
OF EXAM
APPROPRIATE?
NO
YES
ARE TEST ITEMS
RELEVANT TO
TODAY'S PRACTICE?
YES
NO
CONTINUE TO USE
THE EXAM "AS IS"
STEP 2 — DEVELOP REPLACEMENT QUESTIONS
DETERMINE # OF
NEW SUBJECTS &
ITEMS REQUIRED
SOLICIT ITEMS
FROM SPECIALTY
PRACTITIONERS
NEW EXAM ITEMS
FROM SPECIALTY
PRACTITIONERS
STEP 3 — FIELD-TEST PROPOSED NEW EXAM ITEMS
REJECT ITEMS NOT
RELEVANT TO THE
SPECIALTY
NO
ARE NEW ITEMS
RELEVANT TO THE
SPECIALTY?
NEW EXAM ITEMS
REVIEWED BY
PRACTITIONERS
YES
STEP 4 — SELECT REPLACEMENT ITEMS
SELECT TEST
ITEMS
DON'T
USE
DELETED TEST
ITEMS
USE
STEP 5 — COMPILE NEW EXAM
ITEMS SELECTED
FOR UPDATED
EXAM
EDIT NEW EXAM
INSERT NEW
DELETE OLD ITEM
PROOFREAD
REVISED EXAM
REVISED EXAM
COMPLETE
DEVELOP NEW
EXAM GUIDANCE
DOCUMENT
DEVELOP NEW
ANSWER KEY
20
STEP 4
Select Replacement Test Items
Based on the field-test data and subcommittee judgment, the best replacement test items are selected.
STEP 5
Compile Examination
Test items to be eliminated from the examination
are deleted and the chosen replacement items inserted.
All changes are proofread, a new answer key for grading is created, and the examination guidance document
for applicants is revised.
The technical component of the oral examination
contains test items based on “real-world” situations
pertinent to practice in the specialty. Place names and
the like are replaced in the examination scenario. Also,
complicated situations may be simplified. The examination development subcommittee prepares a series
of five questions related to the scenario to elicit the
candidate’s approach to solving the challenges presented. The subcommittee also offers guidance to the
examiners by providing standardized answer information that the candidate is expected to provide consistent with the expectations for a minimally-competent
specialist.
21
22
6. EXAMINATION SCORING
W
ritten examinations are scored by a member of the Academy staff having
the appropriate security clearance. The staff member uses the examination
answer key provided by the examination development subcommittees. The
scoring of each examination is then checked by another member of the Academy staff
having the appropriate security clearance.
A score of 65 correct out of 100 possible points is the passing score. The Academy
may elect to certify those obtaining a score of 50 to 64 correct if a comprehensive
assessment of the candidate’s professional history and oral examination results justify certification.
Oral Examination
The Technical Component — The technical component of the oral examination consists of two problem-solving situations developed by the Academy’s
examination development subcommittees. Each test
item consists of a problem statement followed by five
areas on which the candidate will be examined. The
problem statement may be interspersed with examination questions, depending on the specifics of the case
history from which the test item was developed.
The technical component portion of the Oral Examination Report form requires each examiner to identify
the specific test item and rate each examination area
response on a scale from 1 to 8, with 1 through 4
deemed unacceptable and 5 through 8 deemed acceptable. For each test item, the average of all five
examination area scores is calculated. Panel members
are provided with information that the examination’s
developers deemed critical to awarding acceptable
scores for each examination area within each test item.
This information is used by examiners to assist in scoring the candidate’s performance.
In addition to rating the candidate’s responses to
the examination areas for each test item, the examiners provide an overall assessment of the candidate’s
ability “to organize his or her thinking and express his
or her ideas,” based on the technical component of the
oral examination.
Oral Examination Overall Assessment — The last
step in completing a candidate’s oral examination is
finalizing the report form and providing an overall recommendation that the candidate is either qualified or
unqualified for certification. Each examiner is asked to
provide a brief statement in the space provided on the
report form to justify the recommendation.
It is intended that the Oral Examination Report be
completed by each panel member before proceeding
to interview the next candidate so that panel members’
assessments are based on the freshest information
possible. The Chief Examiner is to allow the neces-
In the case of candidates who are not required to
take the written examination, the input of each oral examination panel member is the only first-hand assessment of the candidates’ capabilities, except for the
references chosen by the candidates themselves. The
Board’s decision to certify an individual places a high
degree of importance on the oral examination panel’s
assessment of a candidate. A sample Oral Examination Report form is provided in Figure 6-1 on page 2427. Its use is discussed below.
The Professional Component — To report on the
professional component of the oral examination, panel
members must thoroughly review the four Questions
for the Candidate and the four related Questions for
the Examiner on the Oral Examination Report form.
Examiners must understand these questions to adequately evaluate a candidate. During the examination, examiners are encouraged to ask additional
questions to draw out the candidate’s responses to the
subjects addressed by the four Questions for the Candidate on the Oral Examination Report form.
The correct answers to the four Questions for the
Candidate are generally obvious to any candidate familiar with engineering ethics. It is the panel’s challenge to determine, using additional followup questions,
whether the candidate’s answers accurately reflect his
or her true beliefs and professional attitudes. These
additional questions will be necessary for evaluation
and completion of the four Questions for the Examiner
on the report form.
In completing the four Questions for the Examiner
on the report form, the candidate is rated as poor, fair,
good, or excellent. Good and excellent ratings are considered acceptable for certification, while poor and fair
ratings are deemed unacceptable. The report form provides space for examiners to briefly explain or qualify
their rating.
23
Figure 6-1
ORAL EXAMINATION REPORT
Name of Candidate ________________________ Identification No. _________________________
Specialty _________________________________
Name of Examiner ________________________ Date of Examination ______________________
Instructions to Examiners - Summary
For details refer to the most recent edition of the Academy’s Manual on Conducting
Examinations.
The oral examination serves two distinct purposes: (1) the Professional Component
determines the candidate’s ethical concepts, maturity, presence of mind, sense of
values and similar professional attributes and (2) the Technical Component —
determines the candidate’s interpretive skills and problem solving abilities, which
cannot be measured by evaluation of work history or written examinations.
The oral examination is an important part of the certification process. To ensure
uniformity in rating each candidate, it is essential that the standardized oral
examination questions provided by the Academy be used by the examiners.
Examiners shall take care not to directly or indirectly discriminate as to race, gender,
ethnicity, disability in the conduct of the examination. These examinations are to
measure professional and technical attributes only. The Academy insists that each
candidate be treated with dignity, respect and courtesy.
Examiners are asked to rate each test area of the Professional and Technical
Components individually and provide their overall assessment.
24
Figure 6-1 cont.
PROFESSIONAL COMPONENT
Note to Examiners
The candidate is to be questioned on four areas listed below — Questions for the Candidate. The
candidate’s responses, coupled with a review of his/her application, are to be used by each examiner to rate
the candidate in four areas listed under Questions for the Examiner.
Questions for the Candidate
1. What is your position in the firm or agency for which you work and to what extent do you have the right
to make binding, technical or administrative decisions involving the exercise of independent engineering
judgement? Give examples.
2. What is the obligation of a professional engineer,(a) To his/her employer? (b) To the general public? (c)
To his/her client?
3. What do you consider constitutes ethical versus unethical practices in the competition for (a) engineering
contracts? (b) engineering employees?
4. Why did you apply for specialty certification? How will it affect your professional activities and
responsibilities?
Questions for the Examiner
Please circle the word which best describes your assessment of the applicant. Examiners may comment
briefly on the evaluation made. NOTE: “Poor” and “Fair” ratings will be considered unacceptable for
certification and “Good” and “Excellent” ratings will be considered acceptable for certification.
1. The professional attributes of this candidate are considered to be:
Poor - Fair - Good - Excellent
Comment: _____________________________________________________________________________________
2. The candidate’s appreciation of the significance of engineering ethics in the profession is
considered to be:
Poor - Fair - Good - Excellent
Comment: _____________________________________________________________________________________
3. The candidate’s understanding of the role and function of the environmental engineering
profession in society is considered to be:
Poor - Fair - Good - Excellent
Comment: _____________________________________________________________________________________
4. The candidate’s attitude with respect to the candidate’s desire to improve, develop, contribute
to and be a part of the environmental engineering profession, is considered to be:
Poor - Fair - Good - Excellent
Comment: _____________________________________________________________________________________
25
Figure 6-1 cont.
TECHNICAL COMPONENT
1. Test Item (Identify) __________________________________________________________________________
The Candidate’s answers to the examination areas were:
unacceptable
acceptable
Exam Area 1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Exam Area 2
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Exam Area 3
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Exam Area 4
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Exam Area 5
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Average Score _______
2. Test Item (Identify) __________________________________________________________________________
The Candidate’s answers to the examination areas were:
unacceptable
acceptable
Exam Area 1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Exam Area 2
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Exam Area 3
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Exam Area 4
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Exam Area 5
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Average Score _______
The candidate’s ability to organize his/her thinking and express his/her ideas and grasp the point in
question is considered to be:
unacceptable - acceptable
Comment: ____________________________________________________________________________________
26
Figure 6-1 cont.
SUMMARY
I believe the candidate is (qualified) (unqualified) for certification. Please summarize your
reasoning.
Reasons:
Signature of Oral Examiner
27
sary time for this assessment when scheduling examination times for multiple candidates.
Disposition of Scoring Data
After scoring of the written examination is completed,
the examination booklet is destroyed. The written examination answer sheet is retained in the candidate’s
permanent file, and the examination scoring data is
recorded in the examination scores database. The
candidate’s Oral Examination Report form is also retained in the candidate’s permanent file.
The written examination score is reported to the
Admissions Committee along with the candidate’s Oral
Examination Report. This information, together with the
rest of the candidate’s file, provides the basis for the
Admission Committee’s recommendation to the Board
of Trustees as to whether the candidate should be certified.
28
7. AIR POLLUTION CONTROL ENGINEERING
T
he Air Pollution Control written examination contains 100 multiple-choice test
items. These test items attempt to cover all important areas of air pollution control
engineering. The approximate distribution of subjects covered is as follows:
25%
Basic Science — atmospheric and combustion chemistry, aerosol physics,
meteorology, and pollutant effects.
15%
Sampling and Analysis of Pollutants — ambient and source.
15%
Air Quality Management — principles, regulations, and dispersion modeling.
45%
Control Technology — including gas and particulate control equipment, air
handling, hazardous wastes, and automotive emission controls.
Sample Test Items
3. The size of the particle removed with 50% efficiency
by a cyclone is the:
The test items range from a few that are somewhat
historical in nature to those that are based on the latest federal regulations. Following are some examples
of test items typical of those that appear on the exam:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
1. The principal cause of visible smoke and visible
fumes from the exhaust of motor vehicles is that:
A.
B.
C.
D.
the compression ratio is too high
the engine is not properly maintained
unleaded fuel is being used
the ratio of engine cylinder bore to stroke is
too high
E. the catalyst unit has been removed
4. Under which authority stipulated by the Clean Air
Act are fluoride emissions currently regulated by
the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency:
A. National emission standards for hazardous air
pollutants
B. Primary ambient air quality standards
C. New source performance standards
D. Non-criteria air toxics standards
E. Secondary ambient air quality standards
This question looks for a basic understanding of the
source of air pollutants in a specific process.
2. An exhaust gas stream containing H2S is to be
scrubbed counter-currently with water. The H2S
concentration is 1.5% by volume and is to be reduced to 0.05%. If the Henry’s Law constant for
this situation is 483 atm/mole fraction, the minimum Liquid-Gas Ratio as a mole fraction is:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
mean
critical size
mode
cut size
Stokes limit
5. The approximate particle size above which Brownian movement is no longer significant is:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
467
45.03
32195
30
not possible to calculate from the data given
This question tests understanding of basic mass
transfer relations.
29
0.05 micrometers
0.5 micrometers
5.0 micrometers
50.0 micrometers
500.0 micrometers
6. Which one of the following would provide the highest collection efficiency for 0.2 micrometer diameter particles?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Finally, an example of a test item that would not
appear on the exam follows:
The terminal settling velocity at the standard temperature and pressure of a 10 micrometer spherical particle of unit density is approximately:
Greenburg-Smith impinger
Glass fiber filter
Aerotec 2 cyclone
The human respiratory tract
Integrating nephelometer
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
7. An orsat analyzer can be used to analyze flue
gases for:
0.01 cm/s
0.03 cm/s
0.1 cm/s
0.3 cm/s
1.0 cm/s
In order to answer this question, one would have to
remember a formula in detail and know the approximate dynamic viscosity of air. It is judged that a candidate would have texts available if it became necessary
to make such a calculation. Instead, the candidate might
be asked a question that expects the candidate to know
that the aerodynamic behavior of a particle often
changes as the square of the particle diameter.
A. Carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen dioxide
B. Oxygen, carbon monoxide, and sulfuric acid
C. Carbon dioxide, oxygen, and carbon monoxide
D. Oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and sulfur
dioxide
E. Carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen
References1
In preparing for the exam, candidates should consider reviewing basic texts in air pollution control, such
as:
Stern, A.C., R.W. Boubel, D.B. Turner, and D.L. Fox.
1981. Fundamentals of Air Pollution. 2nd ed. Academic Press.
Wark, K., and C.F. Warner. 1981. Air Pollution. 2nd
ed. Harper & Row.
Additional texts that may be consulted to provide
detailed information on some of the control equipment
engineering aspects include:
Cooper, C.D., and F.C. Alley. 1986. Air Pollution Control: A Design Approach. PWS Engineering.
Crawford, M. 1976. Air Pollution Control Theory.
McGraw-Hill.
Danielson, J.S., Ed. 1973. Air Pollution Engineering
Manual. 2nd ed. Washington, D.C.: US Government Printing Office. (See especially chapters 2
through 5 and chapter 9).
8. Ozone may result from a combination or interaction
of the following except for one category which is?
A. VOCs
B. NOx
C. CO
D. Sunlight
E. SO2
9. The Pitot tube as used to measure velocity if actually constructed of two tubes. Which one of the following statements correctly describes these tubes?
A. One measures total pressure, the other static
pressure
B. Both measure total or impact pressure
C. Both measure velocity pressure simultaneously
D. One measures velocity pressure and the other
total pressure
E. One measures velocity pressure and the other
static pressure
10. Weight Efficiency is defined as:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
E = (1 - Wi)Wo
E = (Wi - Wo)/Wi
E = Wo/Wi
E = 1 - e-2
E = 1 - (Wi/Wo)
1. Any detailed formulas needed during the examination will be provided, but candidates will be expected to understand the implications of these analyses. Some answers require information that
is only acquired by experience and the candidate will be best
served by making an engineering estimate.
30
8. GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING
C
andidates for certification in the field of General Environmental Engineering
should have a broad background of professional knowledge in many fields of
environmental engineering, such as would be obtained by a professional engineer working for a local, state, or federal public health or environmental protection
agency or for private industry in a role responsible for public health and/or environmental protection. This examination is not designed for the person seeking to prove
that he or she is an expert in more than one specialty of environmental engineering.
The written examination contains 100 multiple-choice test items that cover a broad
range of environmental subjects important to those practicing general environmental
engineering. The test items in this examination are distributed as follows:
15 to 20%
Drinking Water Supply and Treatment
15 to 20%
Wastewater Treatment and Disposal
10 to 15%
General Sanitation
5 to 10%
Hazardous Wastes
5 to 10%
Solid Waste Management
5 to 10%
Occupational Health
5 to 10%
Radiological Health
5 to 10%
Food Sanitation
5 to 10%
Insect and Rodent Control
5 to 10%
Air Quality Control
5 to 10%
Water Pollution Control
Sample Test Items
3. A correct statement concerning photochemical oxidants is that they:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
1. What capacity pump should be used for a 50,000
gallon swimming pool to meet a 6 hour turnover rate?
A. 70 gpm
B. 140 gpm
C. 35 gpm
D. 210 gpm
E. 335 gpm
result from combustion processes
result from atmospheric chemical reactions
result from the process of photosynthesis
result from climatic changes
none of the above
4. Asbestos fibers are best identified and quantified
using:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
2. Elutriation of sludge is no longer considered a desirable sludge conditioning unit operation because:
A. the fine solids washed out of the sludge may
not be adequately removed in the main wastewater treatment facilities or they may build up
in the plant
B. the cost of washing the sludge is greater than
the resulting savings in dewatering costs
C. the process washes soluble organic and inorganic compounds out of the sludge
D. too much fresh water is consumed
E. the process is too difficult to control
31
Polaring optical microscopy with oil dispersion
Electron microscopy
X-ray spectroscopy
Differentiating quantitative chemical analysis
Optical microscope using 400 x lens
stereoptically following appropriate sample
preparation
5. Whole body external exposure to 450 rads of radiation will have biological effects in man resulting
in:
A. some illness, but no serious
B. general severe illness with possible death to
about half of those exposed
C. no detectable clinical effects, but possible delayed effects
D. severe illness with possible early death of up
to 100% of exposed individuals
E. nausea and vomiting, but recovery likely in
about 3 months
References
The best overall reference for this examination is
the book Environmental Engineering and Sanitation,
4th edition by Joseph A. Salvato.
If candidates want to augment their study in particular specialties they are referred to the references listed
in the other specialties covered in this book.
32
9. HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT ENGINEERING
T
he written examination for the Hazardous Waste Management Engineering specialty consists of 100 multiple-choice test items that cover the range of topics
about which a specialist in hazardous waste management should be knowledgeable. The general categories of these topics and the distribution of test items per
category follows.
40%
Science and Assessment - Test items cover basic hydrogeology and chemistry principles, monitoring well design and operation, sample collection
and analysis for the range of sites and conditions existing in hazardous
waste management and site remediation.
32%
Treatment and Disposal - Test items cover the techniques used for treatment and/or disposal of hazardous wastes and to remediate contaminated
sites.
17%
Regulations - Test items cover the requirements of federal regulations governing hazardous waste management.
7%
Health, Safety, and Pollution Prevention - Test items address both worker
and general public safety issues, such as training and risk assessment,
and the means to minimize or eliminate hazardous wastes at the source.
4%
Economic Considerations - Test items cover such economic issues as cost
effectiveness, alternatives analysis, and return on investment.
Sample Test Items
handling capacities are adequate for handling the
new waste.
The following sample test items are typical of those
included on the examination:
A. A waste resulting in 400 ppm phenol and 100
ppm toluene in the bio-reactor
B. A waste resulting in 8,500 ppm carbon tetrachloride in the bio-reactor
C. A waste resulting in 50 ppm PCB in the bioreactor
D. A waste from a batch process operated once
a week resulting in 300 ppm phenol in the bioreactor
E. A waste from a batch process operated once
a month resulting in 800 ppm phenol in the bioreactor
1. Chlorination is a treatment process which can be
applied to:
A. Disinfect the effluent from a treatment plant receiving domestic waste and hazardous industrial waste
B. Cyanide-bearing liquid waste under alkaline
conditions to convert cyanide compounds to
less toxic cyanates or nitrogen gas
C. Degrade the halogen molecules from chlorinated polynuclear aromatic compounds to render them less hazardous
D. A. and B. above
E. B. and C. above
3. During response operations to hazardous substances incidents, the lowest safe working concentration of oxygen in ambient air without the use of
supplied breathing air is:
2. Biological treatment is effective and widely used
on a variety of industrial wastewaters. Which one
of the following wastes would you consider to be
the best candidate for incorporation into an existing bio-treatment system? Assume the constituents
of the new waste are not part of the present waste
profile and that the present hydraulic and solids-
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
33
18.0%
18.5%
19.0%
19.5%
20.0%
4. Soil gas analysis can be used to determine:
7. Fixed ammonia in concentrations of 5,000 mg/L in
liquid hazardous waste may be removed, most
cheaply and quantitatively, by:
A. Morphology of the underlying strata
B. Probable extent of underground contamination
by volatile organic compounds
C. Load-bearing capacity of a particular area
D. The approximate concentration of buried putrescible materials
E. The rate of cleanup by microorganisms of an
oil spill on land
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Biological nitrification
Steam stripping at pH = 7
Steam stripping at pH = 11
Nitrogen stripping at pH = 3
Adsorption onto activated carbon
References
5. A hazardous waste landfill leachate contains 10 mg/
L of lead, 15 mg/L of zinc, 100 mg/L of mixed BTX
(benzene, toluene, and xylenes), 1000 mg/L of
chemical oxygen demand (COD), and 29 mg/L of
total suspended solids. Which one of the following
is the most appropriate treatment sequence before
discharge of the treated leachate to a stream:
In preparation for the written examination, the candidate is reminded that one’s total years of professional
engineering experience and academic knowledge concerning hazardous waste management topics are both
important for successful completion of the examination.
Review of the following references may be useful to the
candidate prior to taking the written examination:
Martin, E.J., and J.H. Johnson, Eds. 1986. Hazardous Waste Management Engineering . Silver
Spring, MD: Hazardous Materials Control Resources Institute, Publications Dept., November.
Code of Federal Regulations. Title 40, parts 260-280.
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1980,
Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments Act of
1984. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing
Office.
Code of Federal Regulations. Title 40, part 300. Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. Washington, DC: U.S.
Government Printing Office.
Code of Federal Regulations. Title 40, parts 300-373.
Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act.
Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Code of Federal Regulations. Title 40, parts 700-799.
Toxic Substances Control Act. Washington, DC:
U.S. Government Printing Office.
Code of Federal Regulations. Title 40, parts 100-149.
Clean Water Act and subsequent Amendments.
Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Code of Federal Regulations. Title 40, parts 0-271.
Clean Air Act and subsequent Amendments. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Code of Federal Regulations. Title 29, part 1910.120.
Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency
Response. Washington, DC: U.S. Government
Printing Office.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1982. “Hazardous Waste Management System: Permitting
Requirements for Land Disposal Facilities.” Federal Register, July 26, 1982, pp. 32324-32331.
Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1986. Permit
Writer’s Guide to Test Burn Data, Hazardous Waste
A. Addition of lime and polyelectrolyte, settling,
mixed-media filtration, activated carbon adsorption, and biological treatment
B. Addition of polyelectrolyte, settling, mixed-media filtration, air stripping with activated carbon treatment of air effluent, and biological
treatment
C. Addition of lime, settling, biological treatment
and air stripping
D. Addition of lime and polyelectrolyte, settling,
mixed-media filtration, biological treatment, and
activated carbon adsorption
E. Addition of lime and polyelectrolyte, settling,
mixed-media filtration, air stripping, biological
treatment, and ion exchange
6. A contaminated groundwater is to be treated using
one aerated packed column prior to discharge to a
sanitary sewer. Analyses of several monitoring
wells indicate average levels of several organic
chemicals to be:
trichloroethylene
6 mg/L
tetrachloroethylene
10 mg/L
cis-1, 2-dichlorethylene
15 mg/L
chloroform
20 mg/L
What is the maximum removal efficiency of total
organics that could be achieved treating 100 gallons per minute without exceeding a total organic
air emission rate of 40 pounds per day:
A. 95%
B. 65%
C. 50%
D. 35%
E. Not possible to calculate from the data given
34
Incineration. EPA-625/6-86/012. Washington, DC:
EPA, September.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1985. Remedial Action at Waste Disposal Sites. Revised. EPA625/6-85/006. Washington, DC: EPA, October.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1985.
Leachate Plume Management. EPA-540/2-85/004.
Washington, DC: EPA, November.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Standard
Operating Safety Guides. Washington, DC: Environmental Response Branch, Office of Emergency
and Remedial Response.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health,
Occupational Safety and Health Administration,
U.S. Coast Guard, and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1985. Occupational Safety and
Health Guidance Manual for Hazardous Waste Site
Activities. NIOSH publication no. 85-115. Cincinnati, OH: NIOSH, October.
Fuller, W.H. 1984. Site Selection Criteria for Hazardous Waste Land Treatment Facilities. Final Report
CR-810670. Ada, OK: Environmental Protection
Agency, Office of Research and Development,
Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Laboratory.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1986. Handbook for Stabilization/Solidification of Hazardous
Wastes. EPA-540/2-86. Washington, DC: EPA,
June.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1987. Groundwater Handbook. EPA-625/6-87/016. Washington,
DC: EPA, March.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1987. Underground Storage Tank Corrective Action Technologies.
EPA-625/2-87/015. Washington, DC: EPA, January.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1990. National
Oil & Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency
Plan . Washington, DC: Emergency Response
Branch, Office of Emergency and Remedial Response.
Bonner, T., C. Cornett, B. Desai, J. Fullenkamp, T.
Hughes, M. Johnson, E. Kennedy, R. McCormick, J.
Peters, D. Zanders, Monsanto Research Corp. 1981.
Hazardous Waste Incineration Engineering. Park
Ridge, NJ: Noyes Publications, Noyes Data Corp.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.
1987. Guide to Industrial Respiratory Protection.
NIOSH publication no. 87-116. Cincinnati, OH:
NIOSH.
Lyman, Reehl, et al. 1982. Handbook of Chemical
Property Estimation Methods. New York: McGrawHill.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1988. Guidance for Conducting Remedial Investigations and
Feasibility Studies Under CERCLA. EPA-540/G-89/
994. Washington, DC: EPA, October.
Brunner, C.R. 1989. Handbook of Hazardous Waste
Incineration. Blue Ridge Summit, PA: TAB Books.
Dragun, James. 1988. The Soil Chemistry of Hazardous Materials. Silver Spring, MD: Hazardous Materials Control Resources Institute.
Freeman, H.M., Ed. 1989. Standard Handbook of
Hazardous Waste Treatment and Disposal. New
York: McGraw-Hill.
Freeman, Harry, Ed. 1990. Hazardous Waste Minimization. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Verschueren, Karel. 1983. Handbook of Environmental Data on Organic Chemicals. 2nd ed. New York:
Van Nostrand-Reinhold.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1988. Guidance on Remedial Action for Contaminated Ground
Water at Superfund Sites. EPA/540/G-88/003.
Washington, DC: EPA, December.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1988. Guidance for Conducting Remedial Investigations and
Feasibility Studies Under CERCLA. EPA/540/G-89/
004. Washington, DC: EPA, October.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1980. Technologies for Control/Removal of Pollutants. Treatability Manual, vol. 3. EPA/600/8-80/042c.
Washington, DC: EPA, July.
35
36
10. INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE ENGINEERING
T
he American Academy of Environmental EngineersВ® uses the American Board
of Industrial Hygiene1 (ABIH) Core Examination for certification in the Industrial
Hygiene Engineering specialty. The Core Examination in industrial hygiene is a
comprehensive examination covering the basic principles and tasks every industrial
hygienist should know.
Use of the ABIH Core examination is merely a convenience to the Academy. Qualification by a candidate to take the examination does not imply qualification for ABIH
examination or certification, and the results of the examination do not imply qualification for certification by the ABIH. An individual who wishes to pursue certification by
the ABIH should make separate application to that organization.
After the Academy certification application has been received and the candidate
found eligible for certification, the Academy will contact the ABIH and make all arrangements for the candidate to take the examination. The candidate will then be
asked to select one of the available examination sites.
The examination is in multiple-choice format and covers the fundamentals and basic concepts of industrial hygiene. The examination is administered by the ABIH once
a year at several locations around the country. Examination procedures employed by
ABIH are similar to those used by the Academy and described earlier in this book. The
examination is conducted in one day in two sessions of three and one-half hours,
beginning at 8:00 a.m. with an hour allowed for lunch.
The approximate distribution of subjects covered in the examination is as follows:
30%
Recognizing Health Stressors
5%
foreseeing health stressors in plants and operations.
10%
identifying potential workplace health stressors.
10%
recognizing existing exposures to health stressors.
5%
setting priorities by recording, organizing and analyzing data.
42%
Evaluating Health Stressors
7%
developing a data collection plan.
19%
obtaining samples and making observations of environmental factors.
6%
analyzing biological and environmental specimens.
10%
analyzing and interpreting results of observations.
27%
Controlling Health Stressors
6%
educating people about health and environmental stressors.
5%
prescribing appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE).
4%
designing and/or prescribing engineering controls.
4%
designing and/or prescribing administrative measures.
4%
communicating recommendations to the appropriate persons.
4%
verifying efficiency of control measures.
1%
Ethics — standards of ethical and professional conduct.
1. ABIH Examination Information. American Board of Industrial Hygiene. 4600 W. Saginaw Street, Suite 101, Lansing,
Mich. 48917-2737.
37
Sample Test Items2
5. 1,000 cfm is to be drawn into a round, freely suspended duct of 6" diameter. What is the expected
centerline velocity at 4" outside the duct opening?
The following are provided as examples of the nature and type of questions that may be found in the
ABIH’s examinations. The subject matter and level of
difficulty do not necessarily reflect that to be found in
the examination.
A.
B.
C.
D.
1. A mixture contains:
50 ml benzene (m.w.=78), v.p. = 75 mm Hg
sp. gr. = 0.879.
25 ml carbon tetrachloride
(m.w. = 154), v.p. = 91 mm Hg
sp. gr. = 1.595.
25 ml trichlorethylene
(m.w. = 131.5), v.p. = 58 mm Hg
sp. gr. = 1.455.
Assuming Raolt’s Law is obeyed, air at 760mm Hg
saturated with vapor of the above mixture will contain the following concentration of benzene:
A. 3.5%
B. 4.5%
C. 5.1%
D. 9.9%
6. Two separate noise sources of 98 dBA and 96 dBA,
respectively, are installed and operated together.
What is the combined noise level?
A.
B.
C.
D.
A. a high energy scrubber downstream from the
exhauster
B. a wet electrostatic precipitator upstream of the
exhauster
C. a high energy scrubber upstream of the exhauster
D. a fabric filter downstream from the exhauster
bladder tumors
cholinesterase depression
abdominal colic
leukemogenic cancer
8. A maintenance worker must enter an empty reactor
vessel for cleaning, inspection, and lining repair. In
the absence of continuous ventilation and testing of
the air in the vessel, you would recommend:
3. The ACGIH Threshold Limit Value for fluoride is
primarily intended to guard against:
A.
B.
C.
D.
delayed lung edema
respiratory tract irritation
tubular kidney injury
mottling of tooth enamel
A. an organic vapor respirator for the worker and
a helper with a life line within earshot
B. performance of the work at night with prior notice to the city’s Emergency Response Unit
C. flushing the tank with a suitable organic solvent before the worker enters
D. a SCBA and fixed life line for the worker and a
helper directly outside the tank
4. Under usual operating conditions, the static pressure at the discharge side of a fan with 10' length
of discharge duct will be:
A.
B.
C.
D.
99 dBA
100 dBA
101 dBA
194 dBA
7. Cupola melting furnaces emit various particulates
and gases, including carbon monoxide. Which one
of the following devices, when used as the only air
cleaner, could be expected to present an imminent
danger to a maintenance worker during normal
operation?
2. Which one of the following health effects may be
manifested by chronic overexposure to benzene?
A.
B.
C.
D.
325 fpm
575 fpm
765 fpm
915 fpm
equal to the velocity pressure
less than the atmospheric pressure
equal to the total pressure
greater than the atmospheric pressure
9. Workers in a brass foundry complain of a fever and
general malaise on Mondays following a weekend
respite from work. You will plan to arrive at the plant
equipped to obtain:
A. blood samples to detect carbon monoxide exposures
2. ABIH Examination Information. American Board of Industrial Hygiene. 4600 W. Saginaw Street, Suite 101, Lansing, Mich. 489172737
38
Vol. 2, The Effects of Air Pollution, 1977.
Vol. 3, Measuring, Monitoring, Surveillance of Air
Pollution, 1976.
Vol. 4, Engineering Control of Air Pollution, 1977.
Vol. 5, Air Quality Management, 1977.
Vol. 6, Supplement, Part A, Air Pollutants, Their Transformation, Transport, and Effects, 1986.
Vol. 7, Supplement, Part B, Measuring, Monitoring,
Surveillance, and Engineering Control of Air Pollution, 1986.
Vol. 8, Supplement, Part C, Management of Air Quality, 1986.
Klaassen, C.D., M.O. Amdur, and J. Doull, Eds. 1990.
Casarette and Doull’s Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons. 4th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Alden, J.L., and J.M. Kane. 1982. Design of Industrial Ventilation Systems. 5th ed. New York: Industrial Press.
Wadden, R.A., and P.A. Scheff. 1987. Engineering
Control of Workplace Hazards. New York: McGrawHill.
Eisenbud, M. 1987. Environmental Radioactivity:
From Natural, Industrial, and Military Sources. 3rd
ed. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Eastman Kodak Company Staff. Ergonomic Design
for People at Work. Vol. 1, 1983. Vol. 2, 1986, subtitled The Design of Jobs. New York: Van NostrandReinhold.
American Industrial Hygiene Association. 1987. Fundamentals of Analytical Procedures in Industrial
Hygiene. Akron, OH: AIHA.
Plog, B.A., and T. Hogan, Eds. 1988. Fundamentals
of Industrial Hygiene. 3rd ed. Chicago: National
Safety Council.
Finkel, A.J., Ed. 1991. Hamilton and Hardy’s Industrial Toxicology. 4th revised ed. Littleton, MA: PSG
Publishing.
McDermott, H.J. 1985. Handbook of Ventilation for
Contaminant Control . 2nd ed. Stoneham, MA:
Butterworth.
Walsh, P.J., C.S. Dudney, and E.L. Copenhaver. 1983.
Indoor Air Quality. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.
1973. The Industrial Environment: Its Evaluation
and Control. Washington, DC: U.S. Government
Printing Office.
Cralley, L.V., and L.J. Cralley, Eds. 1989. In-Plant
Practices for Job-Related Health Hazards Control.
New York: John Wiley & Sons. Vol. 1, Production
Processes. Vol. 2, Engineering Aspects.
Garrett, J.T., L.J. Cralley, and L.V. Cralley, Eds. 1988.
Industrial Hygiene Management. New York: John
Wiley & Sons.
Cember, H. 1983. Introduction to Health Physics. 2nd
ed. Elmsford, NY: Pergamon Press.
B. air samples to measure exposures to zinc
fumes
C. potable water samples to detect PCB concentration
D. urine samples to measure exposures to lead
10. The radioisotopes 238U, 40K,
the following in common:
A.
B.
C.
D.
226
Ra, and
235
U have
each is an alpha emitter
each is a gamma emitter
each occurs in nature
each is a beta emitter
11. Stack sampling for particulate aerosols is done in
an isokinetic manner to:
A. avoid size discrimination of collected particles
B. minimize particle deposition in the sampling
tube
C. collect the respirable size particles only
D. collect samples suitable for direct analysis
12. Theoretically, the minimum number of sound pressure level measurements needed to determine the
sound power output from a non-directional noise
source in a free field is:
A.
B.
C.
D.
one
two
four
eight
References3
ABIH examination questions are taken from a variety of sources in the literature to reflect the underlying
purposes and principles of industrial hygiene and the
current knowledge that is expected of the industrial
hygienist.
The following abbreviated list includes references
considered valuable in preparing for the examination.
The list is not a complete bibliography of the industrial
hygiene literature, nor does it include the sources of all
questions in the examinations.
Stern, A.C., Ed. Air Pollution. 3rd ed. San Diego, CA:
Academic Press.
Vol. 1, Air Pollutants, Their Transformation and Transport, 1976.
3. ABIH Examination Information. American Board of Industrial Hygiene. 4600 W. Saginaw Street, Suite 101, Lansing, Mich. 489172737
39
Chaffin, D.B., and G.B. Anderson. 1991. Occupational
Biomechanics. 2nd ed. New York: John Wiley &
Sons.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health,
Occupational Safety and Health Administration,
U.S. Coast Guard, and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1985. Occupational Safety and
Health Guidance Manual for Hazardous Waste Site
Activities. NIOSH publication no. 85-115. Cincinnati, OH: NIOSH.
Patty’s Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. New York:
John Wiley and Sons.
Vol. 1A, General Principles. 4th revised ed. Clayton,
G.D., and F.E. Clayton, Eds. 1991.
Vol. 1B, General Principles. 4th revised ed. Clayton,
G.D., and F.E. Clayton, Eds. 1991.
Vol. 2A, Toxicology. 3rd revised ed. Clayton, G.D.,
and F.E. Clayton, Eds. 1981.
Vol. 2B, Toxicology. 3rd revised ed. Clayton, G.D.,
and F.E. Clayton, Eds. 1981.
Vol. 2C, Toxicology. 3rd revised ed. Clayton, G.D.,
and F.E. Clayton, Eds. 1982.
Vol. 3A, Theory and Rationale of Industrial Hygiene:
The Work Environment. 2nd ed. Cralley L.J., and
L.V. Cralley, Eds. 1985.
Vol. 3B, Theory and Rationale of Industrial Hygiene:
The Work Environment. 2nd ed. Cralley, L.J., and
L.V. Cralley, Eds. 1985.
Hemeon, W.C. Plant and Process Ventilation. 2nd ed.
Ann Arbor, MI: Books on Demand, University Microfilms International.
Levine, S.P., and W.F. Martin, Eds. 1984. Protecting
Personnel at Hazardous Waste Sites. Stoneham,
MA: Butterworth.
Shapiro, J. 1990. Radiation Protection: A Guide for
Scientists and Physicians. 3rd ed. Cambridge, MA:
Harvard University Press.
Burgess, W.A. 1981. Recognition of Health Hazards
in Industry: A Review of Materials and Processes.
New York: Wiley-Interscience.
Konz, Stephan. 1990. Work Design: Industrial Ergonomics. 3rd ed. Scottsdale, AZ: Publishing Horizons.
the examination and determine whether the written
examination requirement has been satisfied.
Examination Fees
The fees that Academy candidates pay for the examination administered by the ABIH are the same as
those charged for any of the Academy’s certification
specialties. Any additional fees due to the ABIH are
paid by the Academy.
Examination Results
A passing point for the examination is established
by the ABIH. If the candidate’s score equals or exceeds
that passing point, the candidate will be deemed to have
satisfactorily completed the Academy’s written examination requirement. If the candidate’s score is less than
the ABIH-established passing point, the ABIH will provide the Academy with a breakdown of the candidate’s
scores in each subject area of the examination. The
Academy will review the candidate’s performance on
40
11. RADIATION PROTECTION ENGINEERING
T
he American Academy of Environmental EngineersВ® uses the American Board
of Health Physics1 (ABHP) Part I examination for certification in the Radiation
Protection specialty. The examination includes 150 multiple-choice test items and
covers the fundamentals and basic concepts of radiation protection (health physics).
Use of the ABHP Part I examination is only a convenience to the Academy. Qualification by a candidate to take the examination does not imply qualification of the
candidate for ABHP examination or certification, and the results of the examination do
not imply qualification for certification by the ABHP. An individual who wishes to pursue certification by the ABHP should make separate application to that organization.
The examination is administered by the ABHP once a year at several locations
around the country. After the Academy certification application has been reviewed
and the candidate found eligible for certification, the Academy will contact the ABHP
and make all arrangements for the candidate to take the examination. The candidate
will be asked to select one of the available examination sites.
The major categories covered by the exam are distributed as follows:
30%
Measurements (45 questions) — utilization of proper measuring instruments, interpretation of the values obtained from the instruments, and calibration of the instruments. Sample collection devices are included in this
area.
16%
Regulations and Standards (24 questions) — regulations, standards and
guidelines of organizations such as ICRP, NCRP, ANSI, NRC, DOE, EPA,
OSHA, FEMA, ANI, the U.S. Postal Service, state agencies, etc.
24%
Facilities and Equipment (36 questions) — engineering and design efforts
and the technical aspects related to them.
18%
Operations and Procedures (27 questions) — radiological aspects that are
largely administrative in nature; this includes reviews and audits of proposed and actual operational and maintenance programs and their associated procedures. The application or incorporation of a health physics
consideration into an operating program is also covered.
12%
Education and Training (18 questions) — topics associated with the training a Health Physicist receives and with training a Health Physicist prepares, reviews, and/or presents.
The sub-areas covered under each of these major
categories are shown below:
1. Measurements
1.1 Specification of Methods
• Standards for calibration
• Effects of geometry, self absorption, energy, and count rate
• Testing of exhaust hoods, air flow paths,
and exhaust filters
• Proper use of instruments to evaluate
hazards
1.2 Assessment of Surface Contamination
• Measuring removable and fixed contamination
• Analyzing swipe samples
• Resuspension and transfer of contamination
• Frisking and scanning techniques
• Application of counting statistics
1.3 Presentation of Data and Reports
• Application of statistical methods to data
analysis
• Reporting and evaluation of measurement data
1.4 Assessment of Internal Deposition and Calculations of Dose
• Update and internal dose measurements
and calculations
1. American Board of Health Physics Examination Preparation Guide, 1991. ABHP McLean, VA.
41
• Evaluation of new standards and regulations
• Knowledge of current regulations and
standards
• Recordkeeping requirements
• Regulations and guidelines on contamination
• Regulations on reporting methods
• Regulations and guidelines associated
with uptakes and internal doses
• Regulations and guidelines associated
with air sampling and evaluation of air
sample results
• Regulations and guidelines associated
with environmental monitoring and analysis of samples
• Regulations and guidelines pertaining to
measuring external radiation
• Regulations and guidelines associated
with personnel external exposure
• Regulations and guidelines associated
with process and effluent sampling
• Regulations and guidelines associated
with the preparation and transportation
of radioactive material
2.2 Maintenance of License
• Reporting requirements
• Maintaining radionuclide inventory requirements
• Maintaining public image of facility
• Responding to regulatory sanctions
• Testifying at hearings
2.3 Assurance of Proper Emergency Response
• Preparation of emergency plans (onsite
and offsite)
• Preparation of emergency plan implementing procedures
• Training of emergency response personnel
• Preparation of drills and exercises
• Field-monitoring methods
• Dispersion modeling and calculations
• Interpretation of effluent measurements
and field-monitoring data to determine
doses and proposed protective actions
• Exposure pathways
• Handling contaminated injuries
3. Facilities and Equipment
3.1 Determination of Shielding Requirements
• Optimization of shielding for a given facility based upon the characteristics of the
radiation associated with the facility (x-ray,
diagnostic, therapeutic, radiography, fission products, activation products, neutrons, accelerator produced radiation, etc.)
•
•
•
•
Use of ICRP and MIRD models
Bioassay and Whole-Body Counting
MPC-hour calculations
Application of statistics to internal dose
calculations
1.5 Measurement of Airborne Radioactivity Levels
• Use of various collection media
• Use of various air sampling devices
• Analysis of different types of air samples
(particulates, radiohalogens, HTO, noble
gases, etc.)
• Application of statistics to air sample results
1.6 Collection and Analysis of Environmental
Media
• Exposure pathways
• Selection of proper media to be sampled,
proper preparation of samples and proper
analytical methods
• Instrumentation used for analysis
• Quality control associated with sampling
and analysis
• Application of statistics to environmental
monitoring measurements
1.7 Quantitation of Radiation Fields in Workplaces
• Ionizing and nonionizing radiation
• Response and limitations of instruments
• Interpretation of instrument indications
• Calibration of instruments
1.8 Measurement of External Radiation Dose
• Dosimeter response to different types and
energies of radiation
• Proper location of dosimetry
• Dosimetry processing methods
• Application of ALARA to personnel exposures
• Evaluation of whole body and organ dose
from dosimetry results
• Evaluation of dosimetry interferences
1.9 Collection and Analysis of Process and Effluent Samples (liquids, solids, and gases)
• Collection equipment and sample media
• Sample handling and analysis
• Instrumentation (online and laboratory).
• Evaluation of sample results
• Application of statistics to sample results
2. Regulations and Standards
2.1 Assurance That Operations Are ALARA
• Maintaining occupational and public exposures to radiation and radioactive materials ALARA
42
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
• Determining type, thickness, and placement of shielding
• Evaluation of doses resulting from different shielding options including consideration of occupancy factors, utilization
factors, etc
• Interactions of different radiation with different types of shielding materials
• Methods to evaluate shielding integrity
and effectiveness
Determination of Potential Environmental
Impacts
• Preparation of environmental impact assessments related to radiation and radioactive material
• Modeling and calculating air dispersion
• Evaluating dispersion in rivers, lakes and
oceans
• Evaluating doses (both external and internal, and including proper environmental pathways) and comparing them to the
biological effects expected
Determination of Containment and Ventilation Requirements
• Calculate effects on environment of releases from containment devices or structures
• Evaluate effectiveness of filters or treatment systems on the dose to personnel
in the environment
Review of Current and Proposed Operations
and Recommend Appropriate Engineering
Controls
• Perform cost-benefit evaluations
• Recommend appropriate mechanical
protective devices such as shielding, interlocks, ventilation controls, remotely-operated equipment, and devices to
minimize time of exposure
Performance of Hazards Analysis and Risk
Assessment
• Evaluate proposed or actual facility or
system operation with respect to potential hazards from radiation and radioactive material
• Analyze potential for failure of protective
systems and radiological consequences
of failure
• Estimate radiation dose (external and internal) to individuals and population groups
• Evaluate systems with potential for criticality and recommend methods for control
Specification of Warning and Access Control Systems
• Combine proper physical controls (interlocks, shielding, locked doors, labyrinths,
alarms, etc.) with proper posting to achieve
desired (or required) access control
• Evaluate different access control techniques as related to the specific radiological conditions of a given process or
situation
• Use appropriate detectors and alarm systems to protect personnel from radiation,
contamination, and airborne activity
3.7 Specification of Instrumentation for Measuring Radiation and Radioactivity
• Select proper instrumentation to monitor
both the worker and the public conditions
of normal operation and emergencies
• Use effluent monitors to control the release of radioactivity and to measure the
amount released
• Design adequate sampling systems to
assure that a representative sample
reaches the monitor
• Use process monitors to warn facility
operators of an off-normal situation and
to protect facility personnel
3.8 Specification of Equipment for Remote Handling
• Recommend practical remote handling
equipment by evaluating possible increased time that remote operation will
require
• Evaluate decreased doses because of repairs to complicated equipment
• Evaluate choice of remote handling device against characteristics of the radiation associated with the facility
3.9 Specification of Protective Equipment and
Clothing
• Types, effectiveness, and selection of
protective clothing
• Types, effectiveness, and selection of
respiratory protection
• Design of respirator fit-test booth
• Use of eye protection to protect the eyes
from radiation
4. Operations and Procedures
4.1 Review Current and Proposed Operations
and Maintenance and Associated Procedures and Recommend Appropriate Health
Physics Controls
• Exposure control (ALARA) program and
procedures
• Contamination control program and procedures
• Decontamination methods (facility, equipment, and people)
• Respiratory protection program and procedures
43
Sample Test Items3
• Bioassay program and procedures
• Waste management program and procedures
• Environmental monitoring program and
procedures
• Technical reviews of all or portions of the
radiation protection program, with recommendations for improvements
5. Education and Training
5.1 Training and Development of Personnel
• Training of the Health Physicist. (Many
fundamental questions that are part of the
basic training of a Health Physicist are
included in this sub-area. Where applicable, fundamental questions may also
be included in other sub-areas when the
subject matter is closely related)
• Preparation/review/presentation of General Employee-type health physics training
• Preparation/review/presentation of health
physics technician training
• Preparation/review/presentation of special health physics training such as operational ALARA, design ALARA, dose
projection, use of a special instrument,
etc
5.2 Education and Public Information
• Preparation/review/presentation of technical seminars or technical papers for
peer groups
• Preparation/review/presentation of information sessions for the general public
• Communications with the press
• Communications with outside agencies
and organizations
1. The roentgen is equal to:
A. 1.0 coulomb/kg
B. 1.00 x 10-3 coulomb/kg
C. 5.28 x 10-3 coulomb/kg
D. 2.58 x 10-4 coulomb/kg
E. 5.28 x 10-4 coulomb/kg
2. The term solubility or transportability, when applied
to the metabolism of radionuclides, refers to the:
A. metabolic breakdown of a radionuclide-containing compound which allows its incorporation into body tissues
B. solubilization of a radionuclide-containing compound by means of hydration, ion exchange,
or esterification reactions
C. translocation dissimilation of a radionuclidecontaining compound by means of biologicalchemical action such as enzymatic attachment
and catabolism
D. property of a radionuclide-containing compound that results in its transfer across body
membranes
E. translation of a radionuclide-containing compound from one point to another under conditions of physiological dysfunction
3. 9.25 x 1011 Bq (25 Ci) of a gas, with a half-life = 2.3
h, is uniformly distributed in the air in a 2.5 m x 10
m x 15 m room. The effective room ventilation rate
is 150m3/h. After 1 hour, the activity concentration
in the room is:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Fundamental Characteristics of
Commonly-Encountered Radionuclides2
The candidate should be familiar with fundamental
characteristics of radionuclides commonly encountered
in the radiation protection field, including:
H-3
SR-90
C-14
Tc-99m
P-32
I-131
S-35
Cs-137
Co-60
Ra-226
Fundamental characteristics include the mode of
decay, principal type(s) of radiation emitted, energies
of radiation emitted, and half-life.
7.32 x 108 Bq/m3
1.10 x 109 Bq/m3
1.23 x 109 Bq/m3
1.73 x 109 Bq/m3
2.47 x 109 Bq/m3
2. American Board of Health Physics Examination Preparation
Guide, 1991. ABHP McLean, VA.
3. American Board of Health Physics Examination Preparation
Guide, 1991. ABHP McLean, VA.
44
8. Which one of the following solid-state materials has
the most constant response per roentgen over the
energy range of 0.01 to 1 MeV when used as a
dosimeter without special shields to correct for
energy dependence?
4. All of the following are common causes of significant radiation exposure in the use of x-ray diffraction equipment except:
A. alteration or removal of shielding in order to
perform a specialized analysis
B. visual alignment of the beam without using a
leaded glass shield
C. placement of fingers in the primary beam while
changing samples
D. failure to incorporate shielding in the walls of
the room in which the unit is housed
E. failure to realize that x-ray beams are emitted
from exit ports other than the one of immediate concern
A. Calcium Sulfate (CaSO4:Mn)
B.
C.
D.
E.
9. The response time of an ionization chamber-type
survey meter used to measure an x-ray beam is
not influenced by the:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
5. The eyes are most susceptible to exposure to microwave radiation of frequencies around:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
150 MHz
300 MHz
1,500 MHz
3,000 MHz
5,000 MHz
A. inversely proportional to the density of the gas
in the chamber
B. inversely proportional to the gamma ray energy absorbed per cubic centimeter of wall
material
C. directly proportional to the stopping power of
the walls for electrons
D. independent of the density of the gas in the
chamber
E. independent of the volume of the chamber
280 days
290 days
340 days
360 days
430 days
11. Bi-205 (half-life = 15.3 days) decays to Pb-205
(half-life = 3 x 107 years). If a pure sample of Bi205 has an initial activity of 5 x 1010 Bq, how much
total sample activity will be present after a decay
period of 90 days?
7 . The International Commission on Radiation Units
and Measurements has considered it necessary
in radiation protection to provide a factor that denotes the modification of the effectiveness of a
given absorbed dose by linear energy transfer. This
factor is the:
A.
B.
C.
D.
inertia of the meter
range selector resistance
circuit capacitance
RC time constant
incident x-ray photon energy
10. In a satisfactory “air-walled” ionization chamber,
the ionization per cubic centimeter would be:
6. An investigator has received some zirconium-95
(half-life = 65 days) for use in a long-term study.
He finds the zirconium to be contaminated with
cobalt-60 (half-life = 5.24 years) such that the ratio
of (uCi Co-60)/(uCi Zr-95) is 0.012. After the initial
assay, the activities of the two emitters will become
equal in:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Calcium Flouride (CaF2:Mn)
Lithium drifted Germanium
Low-Z glass rods
Lithium Flouride (LiF)
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
dose equivalent
relative distribution functions
quality factor
relative biological effectiveness
1.4 x 108 Bq
8.5 x 108 Bq
1.7 x 109 Bq
4.2 x 1010 Bq
5.0 x 1010 Bq
12. The half-value thickness for 1 MeV photons in lead
approximates 1 cm. A 100-millicurie essential
mass-less source of zinc-65 (gamma-ray energy
= 1.12 MeV) produces a dose rate of 30 milliroent-
E. distribution factor
45
C. the oxygen enhancement ratio is less for the
high LET fast neutron radiation than for low
LET gamma radiation
D. fast neutrons are more destructive of poorlyoxygenated cells than of normal cells
E. the oxygen enhancement ratio is greater for
the high LET fast neutron radiation than for the
low LET gamma radiation.
gens/hour at 1 meter without shielding. What would
the dose rate be at about 10 cm from this source
with the addition of a 5 cm thick lead shield if the
build up factor is 2.1?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
0.02 milliroentgens/hour
0.9 milliroentgens/hour
2 milliroentgens/hour
20 milliroentgens/hour
200 milliroentgens/hour
16. A worker is exposed to 2340 Bq m-3 (6.3 x 10-8 uCi/
cm3) iodine-131 for 4 hours. The MPC (air) for iodine-131 is 333 Bq m-3 (9.0 x 10-9 uCi/cm3). The
worker was wearing cotton overalls, rubber boots,
rubber gloves, and an air-purifying respirator with
particulate combination cartridges. Which one of
the following gives the closest number of MPC-h
that you would credit the worker with?
13. In routine environmental surveillance, certain
samples are collected and analyzed for specific
reasons. In this regard, which one of the following
statements is incorrect?
A. Foodstuffs are analyzed because they are generally the main route of radionuclide intake by
the general population.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
B. Air and water are analyzed because they are
always the most sensitive indicators of environmental releases.
C. Mud and silt are analyzed because they are
often good indicators of the history of radionuclide wastes in an aquatic environment.
D. Aquatic organisms are analyzed because they
concentrate certain radionuclides and aid in the
assessment of radionuclide contamination.
E. Milk and milk products are analyzed because
they are generally the major avenue of intake
of Strontium-90, particularly among younger
population groups.
17. When air is sampled by being pulled through a filter paper, the radioactivity at equilibrium on the filter paper due to naturally occurring radon
daughters is:
A. proportional to the flow rate of the sampler
B. dependent only on the total volume of air
sampled
C. dependent on the period of time required for
radioactive equilibrium on the filter paper to be
established
D. dependent on the volume of air sampled after
radioactive equilibrium on the filter paper has
been established
E. independent on the flow rate of the sampler
14. The method most commonly used today for removing noble gases from effluent waste streams from
nuclear reactors and chemical processing plants is:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
0.5 MPC-h.
1 MPC-h.
4 MPC-h.
7 MPC-h.
28 MPC-h.
cryogenic distillation
chelation with EDTA
adsorption on activated charcoal
countercurrent ion exchange
adsorption in Freon
18. Based upon diffusion equations, if gaseous radioactivity is being discharged from a stack and the
flow of air through the stack is significantly increased without an increase in the rate of discharge
of radioactivity, what will be the observed change
in air concentrations downwind of the stack? (Assume no change in effective stack height.)
15. Californium-252 fissions spontaneously. When
placed in needles, it may be better than radium226 for radiotherapy of malignant tumors with
poorly oxygenated cells because:
A.
B.
C.
D.
A. gamma radiation has about the same effect
on poorly-oxygenated cells as on normal cells
B. the relative biological effect for fast neutrons
is less for poorly-oxygenated cells than for
normal cells
a significant increase
a slight increase
none
a slight decrease
E. a significant decrease
46
NCRP Report No. 51. Radiation Protection Design
Guidelines for 0.1 - 100 MeV Particle Accelerator
Facilities. 1977.
NCRP Report No. 53. Review of NCRP Radiation
Dose Limit for Embryo and Fetus in Occupationally Exposed Women. 1977.
NCRP Report No. 57. Instrumentation and Monitoring Methods for Radiation Protection. 1978.
NCRP Report No. 58. 2nd ed. A Handbook of Radioactivity Measurements Procedures. 1985.
NCRP Report No. 59. Operational Radiation Safety
Programs. 1978.
NCRP Report No. 61. Radiation Safety Training Criteria for Industrial Radiography. 1978.
NCRP Report No. 64. Influence of Dose and Its Distribution in Time on Dose Response Relationships
for Low-LET Radiation. 1980.
NCRP Report No. 65. Management of Persons Accidentally Contaminated with Radionuclides. 1980.
NCRP Report No. 84. General Concepts for the Dosimetry of Internally Deposited Radionuclides .
1985.
NCRP Report No. 87. Use of Bioassay Procedures
for Assessment of Internal Radionuclide Deposition. 1987.
NCRP Report No. 91. Recommendations on Limits
for Exposure to Ionizing Radiation. 1987.
NCRP Report No. 92. Public Radiation Exposure from
Nuclear Power Generation in the United States.
1987.
NCRP Report No. 93. Ionizing Radiation Exposure of
the Population of the United States. 1987.
NCRP Report No. 94. Exposure of the Population in
the United States and Canada from Natural Background Radiation. 1987.
NCRP Report No. 95. Radiation Exposure of the U.S.
Population from Consumer Products and Miscellaneous Sources. 1987.
NCRP Report No. 102. Medical X-Ray, Electron Beam
and Gamma-Ray Protection for Energies Up to 50
MeV (Equipment Design, Performance and Use).
1989.
NCRP Report No. 103. Control of Radon in Houses.
1989.
NCRP Report No. 105. Radiation Protection for Allied Health Personnel. 1989.
NCRP Report No. 106. Limit for Exposure to “Hot
Particles” on the Skin. 1989.
International Commission on Radiological Protection
publications. A list and copies of publications are
available from: Pergamon Press, Maxwell House,
Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523.
19. The maximum dose rate permitted at any point on
the external surface of a package of radioactive
material offered for transport in other than a soleuse transport vehicle is:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
2 mrem/hr
5 mrem/hr
25 mrem/hr
50 mrem/hr
200 mrem/hr
References4
The following bibliography is intended to provide the
candidate with reference material related to the general topics covered in the exam. It is not implied that
the study of these references only will ensure successful performance on the examination. Nor is it implied
that the study of all of these references is necessary to
successfully complete the examination. This listing is
by no means complete, and the candidate may need
to consult additional reports, journals, and textbooks.
The list is provided as a guide to the type of material
that should be studied.
National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements reports and proceedings. A list and copies of publications are available from: NCRP
Publications, 7910 Woodmont Avenue, Bethesda,
MD 20814.
The following reports may be of particular benefit:
NCRP Report No. 8 (NBS Handbook 48). Control and
Removal of Radioactive Contamination in Laboratories. 1951.
NCRP Report No. 22 (NBS Handbook 69). Maximum
Permissible Body Burdens and Maximum Permissible Concentrations of Radionuclides in Air and
Water for Occupational Exposure. 1959. Addendum 1. 1963.
NCRP Report No. 23 (NBS Handbook 72). Measurement of Neutron Flux and Spectra for Physical and
Biological Applications. 1960.
NCRP Report No. 25 (NBS Handbook 75). Measurement of Absorbed Dose of Neutrons and of Mixtures of Neutrons and Gamma Rays. 1961.
NCRP Report No. 32. Radiation Protection in Education Institutions. 1966.
NCRP Report No. 35. Dental X-Ray Protection. 1970.
NCRP Report No. 38. Protection Against Neutron
Radiation. 1971.
NCRP Report No. 49. Structural Shielding Design and
Evaluation for Medical Use of X-rays and Gamma
Rays of Energies Up to 10 MeV. 1976.
NCRP Report No. 50. Environmental Radiation Measurements. 1976.
4. American Board of Health Physics Examination Preparation
Guide, 1991. ABHP McLean, VA.
47
ICRP Report No. 52. Protection of the Patient in
Nuclear Medicine.
ICRP Report No. 54. Individual Monitoring for Intakes
of Radionuclides by Workers: Design and Interpretation.
ICRP Report No. 55. Optimization and Decision-Making in Radiation Protection.
ICRP Report No. 59. The Biological Basis for Dose
Limitation in the Skin.
ICRP Report No. 60. 1990 Recommendations of the
International Commission on Radiological Protection.
International Commission on Radiation Units and
Measurements reports. A list and copies of reports
are available from: ICRU Publications, 7910
Woodmont Avenue, Bethesda, MD 20814.
The following reports may be of particular benefit:
ICRU Report 14. Radiation Dosimetry; X-Rays and
Gamma Rays with Maximum Photon Energies
Between 0.6 and 50 MeV. 1969.
ICRU Report 17. Radiation Dosimetry; X-Rays Generated at Potentials of 5 to 150 Kv. 1970.
ICRU Report 20. Radiation Protection Instrumentation and its Application. 1971.
ICRU Report 21. Radiation Dosimetry; Electrons with
Initial Energies Between 1 and 50 MeV. 1972.
ICRU Report 22. Measurement of Low Level Radioactivity. 1972.
ICRU Report 25. Conceptual Basis for the Determination of Dose Equivalent. 1976.
ICRU Report 28. Basic Aspects of High Energy Particles Interactions and Radiation Dosimetry. 1978.
ICRU Report 31. Average Energy Required to Produce an Ion Pair. 1979.
ICRU Report 33. Radiation Quantities and Units.
1980.
ICRU Report 34. The Dosimetry of Pulsed Radiation.
1982.
American National Standards Institute standards. A
list and copies of standards are available from:
American National Standards Institute, 11 West
42nd Street, New York, NY 10036.
Other publications:
Alpen, E.L. 1990. Radiation Biophysics. Englewood
Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Attix, F.H. 1986. Introduction to Radiological Physics and
Radiation Dosimetry. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Brodsky, A. 1978a. CRC Handbook of Management
of Radiation Protection Programs. Boca Raton, FL:
CRC Press.
. 1978b. CRC Handbook of Radiation Measurement and Protection. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Cember, H. 1983. Introduction to Health Physics. 2nd
ed. New York: Pergamon Press.
The following publications may be of particular benefit:
ICRP Publication No. 10a. The Assessment of Internal Contamination Resulting from Recurrent or Prolonged Uptakes.
ICRP Publication No. 23. Reference Man: Anatomical, Physiological and Metabolic Characteristics.
ICRP Report No. 25. The Handling, Storage, Use and
Disposal of Unsealed Radionuclides in Hospitals
and Medical Research Establishments.
ICRP Report No. 26. Recommendations of the International Commission Radiological Protection.
ICRP Report No. 28. The Principles and General Procedures for Handling Emergency and Accidental
Exposures of Workers.
ICRP Report No. 29. Radionuclide Release into the
Environment: Assessment of Doses to Man.
ICRP Report No. 30. Limits for Intakes of Radionuclides by Workers.
ICRP Report No. 31. Biological Effects of Inhaled
Radionuclides.
ICRP Report No. 32. Limits of Inhalation of Radon
Daughters by Workers.
ICRP Report No. 33. Protection Against Ionizing Radiation from External Sources Used in Medicine.
ICRP Report No. 34. Protection of the Patient in Diagnostic Radiology.
ICRP Report No. 35. General Principles of Monitoring for Radiation Protection of Workers.
ICRP Report No. 36. Protection Against Ionizing Radiation in the Teaching of Science.
ICRP Report No. 37. Cost-Benefit Analysis in the
Optimization of Radiation Protection.
ICRP Report No. 38. Radionuclide Transformations:
Energy and Intensity of Emissions.
ICRP Report No. 39. Principles for Limiting Exposure
of the Public to Natural Sources of Radiation.
ICRP Report No. 40. Protection of the Public in the
Event of Major Radiation Accidents: Principles for
Planning.
ICRP Report No. 41. Nonstochastic Effects of Ionizing Radiation.
ICRP Report No. 42. A Compilation of the Major Concepts and Quantities in Use by the ICRP.
ICRP Report No. 43. Principles of Monitoring for the
Radiation Protection of the Population.
ICRP Report No. 44. Protection of the Patient in Radiation Therapy.
ICRP Report No. 46. Radiation Protection Principles
for the Disposal of Solid Radioactive Waste.
ICRP Report No. 47. Radiation Protection of Workers in Mines.
ICRP Report No. 49. Development Effects of Irradiation on the Brain of the Embryo and Fetus.
48
Chilton, A.B., J.K. Shultis, and R.E. Faw. 1984. Principles of Radiation Shielding. Englewood Cliffs, NJ:
Prentice-Hall.
Code of Federal Regulations. Title 10, parts 19, 20,
30, 31, 34, 40, 50, 61, 70, 72. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission.
. Title 21, parts 1000-1050. Center for Devices and
Radiological Health.
. Title 29, part 1910.96. Occupational Safety and
Health Administration.
. Title 40, part 190. Environmental Protection
Agency.
. Title 49, parts 171-179. U.S. Department of Transportation.
Eckerman, K.F., A.B. Wolbarst, and A.C.B.
Richardson. 1988. Limiting Values of Radionuclide
Intake and Air Concentration and Dose Conversion Factors for Inhalation, Submersion, and Ingestion. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Federal Guidance Report no. 11. Springfield, VA:
National Technology Information Service.
Eichholz, G.G., and J.W. Poston. 1982. Principles of
Nuclear Radiation Detection. Ann Arbor, MI: Ann
Arbor Science.
Eisenbud, M. 1987. Environmental Radioactivity. 3rd
ed. New York: Academic Press.
Freidlander, G., J.W. Kennedy, E.S. Maclas, and J.M.
Miller. 1981. Nuclear and Radiochemistry. 3rd ed.
New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Health Physics (journal). New York: Pergamon Press.
Hendee, W.R. 1979. Medical Radiation Physics. 2nd
ed. Chicago: Year Book Medical Publishers.
. 1981. Radiation Therapy Physics. Chicago: Year
Book Medical Publishers.
Hubner, K.F., and S.A. Fry. 1980. The Medical Basis
for Radiation Accident Preparedness. New York:
Elsevier/North Holland.
International Atomic Energy Agency. IAEA Safety
Series. Catalogue and documents are available
from UNIPUB, Inc., 4611-F Assembly Drive,
Lanham, MD 20706-4391.
Johns, H.E., and J.R. Cunningham. 1983. The Physics of Radiology. 4th ed. Springfield, IL: Charles C.
Thomas.
Kase, K.R., B.E. Bjarngard, and F.H. Attix, Eds. The
Dosimetry of Ionizing Radiation. Vol. 1, 1985. Vol.
2, 1987. Vol. 3, 1990. New York: Academic Press.
Knief, R.A. 1992. Nuclear Engineering - Theory and
Technology of Commercial Nuclear Power. New
York: Hemisphere Publishing.
Knoll, G.F. 1989. Radiation Detection and Measurement. 2nd ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Kocher, D.C. 1981. Radioactive Decay Data Tables.
Springfield, VA: National Technical Information Service.
Medical Internal Radiation Dose Committee. MIRD
Supplements. A list and copies of reports are available from the Society of Nuclear Medicine, 475
Park Avenue South, New York, NY 10016.
Mettler, Jr., F.A., and R.D. Moseley, Jr. 1985. Medical
Effects of Ionizing Radiation. Orlando, FL: Gune &
Stratton.
Moghissi, A.A., H.W. Godbee, and S.A. Hobart, Eds.
1986. Radioactive Waste Technology. New York:
American Society of Mechanical Engineers and
American Nuclear Society.
National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. 1985. Radioactive Waste. Bethesda,
MD: NCRP Publications.
National Research Council, Committee on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation. 1990. Health
Effects of Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation. BEIR V Report. Washington, DC: National
Academy Press.
. 1988. Health Risks of Radon and Other Internally Deposited Alpha-Emitters. BIER IV Report.
Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Randerson, D., Ed. 1984. Atmosphere Science and
Power Production. U.S. Department of Energy
Technical Information Center, DOE/TIC-27601
(DE84005177). Springfield, VA: National Technical Information Center.
Shapiro, J. 1990. Radiation Protection - A Guide for
Scientists and Physicians. 3rd ed. Cambridge, MA:
Harvard University Press.
Slade, D.H., Ed. 1968. Meteorology and Atomic Energy. U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. Springfield,
VA: National Technical Information Center.
Turner, J.E. 1986. Atoms, Radiation, and Radiation
Protection. New York: Pergamon Press.
United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of
Atomic Radiation. 1988. Sources, Effects, and
Risks of Ionizing Radiation. UNSCEAR 1988 Report to the General Assembly, with Annexes. New
York: United Nations.
U.S. Department of Health, Education, Welfare. 1970.
Radiological Health Handbook. Springfield, VA:
National Technical Information Service.
U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Regulatory
Guides. A list and copies of guides are available
from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission,
GPO Sales Program, Washington, DC 20555.
Volchik, H.L., and G. De Planque. 1983. EML Procedures Manual. 26th ed. New York: Environmental Measurements Laboratory, U.S. Department
of Energy.
Wadsworth, H.M., Ed. 1990. Handbook of Statistical
Methods for Engineers and Scientists. New York:
McGraw-Hill.
Willis, C.A. 1989. Health Physics Annotated Bibliography. Silver Spring, MD: Baltimore-Washington
Chapter of the Health Physics Society. This vol-
49
ume is available for $15.00 from the BaltimoreWashington Chapter, PO Box 7532, Silver Spring,
MD 20907
Examination Results
A passing point for the examination is established
by the ABHP. If the candidate’s score equals or exceeds that passing point, the candidate will be deemed
to have satisfactorily completed the Academy’s written
examination requirement. If the candidate’s score is
less than the ABHP-established passing point, the
ABHP will provide the Academy with a breakdown of
the candidate’s scores in each subject area of the examination. The Academy will review the candidate’s
performance on the examination and make a determination as to whether the written examination requirement has been satisfied.
Examination Fees
The fees that Academy candidates pay for the examination administered by the ABHP are the same as
those charged for any of the Academy’s certification
specialties. Any additional fees due to the ABHP are
paid by the Academy.
50
12. SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT ENGINEERING
T
he written examination for the Solid Waste Management Engineering specialty
consists of 100 multiple-choice test items that cover the range of topics about
which a specialist in solid waste management should be knowledgeable. The
general categories of these topics and the distribution of test items per category follows.
12%
Collection of waste materials
5%
Drop off centers
7%
Transfer stations
11%
Waste processing and Materials Recovery Facilities (MRFs)
18%
Recycling and recovery of resources
5%
Waste-to-Energy facilities
3%
Composting facilities
22%
Landfills
7%
Management of Green Wastes
10%
Management of Special Wastes
Sample Test Items
D. Densified RDF - fluff RDF - shredded refuse unprocessed refuse
E. Unprocessed refuse - shredded refuse - densified RDF - fluff RDF
The test items are general in nature but do not include any that are too basic or simple. They are designed to test the candidate’s overall knowledge of the
field and not his or her memory of handbook or reference data, specific current costs or values, or items
that may be regional in scope or not nationally accepted. Samples of typical test items follow:
3. The accepted safety standard for methane gas is
X at the property line and Y in on-site buildings
(other than gas control facilities).
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
1. Incineration of municipal solid waste always results
in which of the following?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
elimination of the need for transfer stations
reduction in volume for ultimate disposal
energy recovery
elimination of the need for landfills
all of the above
0%, 0%
5%, 21/2%
5%, L.E.L.
L.E.L., 25% L.E.L.
25% L.E.L., 5%
4. The effects of contaminants produced by a sanitary landfill on the physical environment are largely
determined by which of the following prevailing conditions.
2. Which series are ranked from highest to lowest in
HHV? (two answers)
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
A. Unprocessed refuse - shredded refuse - fluff
RDF - densified RDF
B. Fluff RDF - densified RDF - shredded refuse unprocessed refuse
C. Shredded refuse - fluff RDF - densified RDF unprocessed refuse
51
climate
geology
Hydrology
all of these.
none of these
Hickman, Jr., H. Lanier. 2000. Complete Handbook
of Solid Waste Collection and Transfer. American
Academy of Environmental Engineers.
Koerner, Robert M. 1986. Designing With
Geosynthetics. Prentice Hall.
Noble, George. 1976. Sanitary Landfill Design Handbook. Technomic Publishing Co.
Pavani, Heer, and Hagerty. 1975. Handbook of Solid
Waste Disposal. Van Nostrand-Reinhold.
Proceedings of the American Society of Mechanical
Engineers (ASME) national waste processing conferences.
Proceedings of the Governmental Refuse Collection
and Disposal Association (GRCDA) annual international seminar, equipment services and systems
shows.
Proceedings of the Industrial Fabrics Association international geosynthetics conferences.
Proceedings of annual municipal and industrial waste
conferences, held by the University of Wisconsin.
Proceedings of annual symposia on geo-aspects of
waste management, held by Colorado State University.
The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of
1976 (RCRA) and all subsequent amendments.
Tchobanoglous, Thiesen, and Eliassen. 1972. Solid
Wastes. McGraw-Hill.
Weiss, Samuel. 1974. Sanitary Landfill Technology.
Noyes Data Corp.
Wilson, David Gordon. 1977. Handbook of Solid
Waste Management. Van Nostrand-Reinhold.
5. The generally-accepted industry standard for boiler
performance testing of resource recovery facilities
is:
A. ASME Power Test Code 4.1 - Steam Generating Units input/output method
B. ASME Power Test Code 4.1 - Steam Generating Units heat loss method
C. ASME Power Test code 6 - Steam Turbines
D. Boiler as a Calorimeter procedure
E. None of the above
6. “Separation at the source” has its greatest significance in the removal and separate collection of
two of the following components of household
wastes: (two correct answers)
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
newspapers
food waste
glass
plastic packaging
cans
An example of a type of question not included in the
examination is:
7. Which of the following best represents the approximate average price per ton for the higher grades
of scrap steel, aluminum, and copper?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
$20 - $200 - $200
$30 - $20 - $200
$30 - $20 - $700
$30 - $400 - $700
$30 - $200 - $2,000
References
Answers to all of the test items on the exam may
not be located in textbooks or even in the references
listed below. Some answers may represent the kind of
information that an expert tends to acquire through realworld experience, such as keeping abreast of the solid
waste field by reading periodicals, attending seminars,
or communicating with fellow practitioners.
The candidate may find the following publications
helpful in preparing for the examination:
American Society of Civil Engineers. 1976. Sanitary
Landfill. ASCE Manual no. 39.
Grayson, Martin. Recycling and Resource Recovery.
John Wiley & Sons.
Hickman, Jr., H. Lanier. 1999. Principles of Integrated
Solid Waste Management. American Academy of
Environmental Engineers.
52
13.
WATER SUPPLY/WASTEWATER ENGINEERING
T
he Water Supply/Wastewater examination consists of 100 multiple-choice test
items, which principally cover municipal water supply and treatment and waste
water collection and treatment. In the water supply area, questions relate to
water supply development, water quality, water treatment, and water distribution. In
the wastewater area, questions relate to wastewater collection and transport, characteristics, treatment, sludge handling, effluent discharge, and stream dynamics.
The approximate distribution of subjects covered by test items follows:
43%
Water Supply
12%
Water quality
19%
Water treatment
12%
Water distribution
29%
Wastewater
8%
Industrial Wastewater
21%
Treatment
28%
General
13%
Hydraulics and hydrology
15%
Chemistry and microbiology
Sample Test Items
3. A high COD to BOD5 ratio (i.e., over 5 to 1) may
be most likely an indication of:
Sample test items of the type to be expected on the
examination are as follows:
A.
B.
C.
D.
a high percentage of soluble BOD
a high percentage of insoluble BOD
possible toxic constituents in the wastewater
a high level of inorganics (salts) in the wastewater
E. a high level of biodegradable constituents in
the wastewater
1. The hindered settling phenomena:
A. is caused by high flows through the settling
tank
B. removes most soluble contaminants from the
water
C. occurs at high solids concentration
D. follows Stokes law for the full settling depth
E. results in floating solids
4. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) most probably
will be found around a water treatment plant in:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
2. Cavitation results when:
A. the pump is operating at or near shutoff head
B. the total dynamic head in the pump exceeds
200 psi
C. the pump speed exceeds 1800 rpm
D. the net positive suction head drops below that
required by the pump design
E. the pump operates at maximum discharge
chlorine cylinders as impurities
lubricating oils and greases
laboratory chemical reagents
pesticides
electric transformers.
5. Biological activity may occur in a carbon column
treating wastewater. Which one of the following is
not apt to occur?
A. unit will require more frequent washing
B. methane will be evolved
C. organic carbon concentration will be reduced
53
D. carbon dioxide will be evolved
E. columns may plug due to growth of biota
In this expression, ka • D is:
A. the rate of oxygen absorption by reaeration in
the presence BOD at a value of 200 mg/L
B. a factor that accounts for the oxygen demand
by benthal deposits
C. the rate of oxygen utilization by the BOD load
D. the rate of oxygen absorption by reaeration in
the absence of BOD
E. the critical deficit
6. When beginning alum or iron addition for removal
of phosphorus during wastewater treatment, initial
dosage should be based on wastewater:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
acidity
phosphorus concentration
pH
alkalinity
non-carbonate hardness
References
The following information sources may be useful in
preparing for the examination:
Freeman, Harry M., Ed. 1988. Standard Handbook
of Hazardous Waste Treatment and Disposal.
McGraw-Hill.
Hudson, Herbert E., Jr. 1981. Water Clarification Processes, Practical Design and Evaluation. Van
Nostrand-Reinhold.
McGee, Terence J. 1991. Water Supply and Sewerage. 6th ed. McGraw-Hill.
Metcalf & Eddy, Inc. 2002. Wastewater Engineering:
Treatment, Disposal, Reuse . 4th ed.
Tchobanoglous, George, Ed. McGraw-Hill.
James M. Montgomery Consulting Engineers, Inc.
1985. Water Treatment, Principles & Design. WileyInterscience.
Reynolds, T.D. 1982. Unit Operations and Processes
in Environmental Engineering. Brooks Cole Publishers.
Sawyer, Clair N., and Perry L. McCarty. 1978. Chemistry for Environmental Engineering . 3rd ed.
McGraw-Hill.
Snoeyink, Vernon L., and David Jenkins. 1980. Water Chemistry. John Wiley & Sons.
Tchobanoglous, George, and Edward D. Schroeder.
1985. Water Quality: Characteristics, Modeling,
Modification. Addison-Wesley.
7. Assuming that a first order differential equation
dC
= !KC
dt
can be used to describe the mass balance and
BOD in a batch reactor, what period of time should
be required to reduce a BOD concentration of 300
mg/L to a value of 150 mg/L if the reaction rate
constant (base e) has a value of 0.1 per day?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
4.2 days
5.7 days
6.9 days
14.0 days
21.0 days
8. A siphon drains a reservoir whose water surface is
at elevation 100 ft. The siphon discharges to atmosphere at elevation 84 ft. If the maximum elevation of the siphon pipe is 104 ft, the pressure at
that point of maximum elevation, assuming frictionless flow, is: (Hint: As the water surface in the reservoir drops, at what elevation would the siphon
cease to operate and what would happen to the
water in the siphon when the siphon “breaks?)
A.
B.
C.
D.
-4 ft
-16 ft
-20 ft
4 ft
9. The basic differential equation for the combined
action of deoxygenation and reaeration is:
dD
= kd ( L ! y ) ! ka • D
dt
54
14. ORAL EXAMINATION
T
he construction of oral examination test items for each specialty is consistent
with the scope of the specialty described in the technical component preceding
chapters. Additionally, the test items integrate many aspects of the specialty
scope in a single item. The purpose of the oral test item is to provide an opportunity for
the candidate to demonstrate not only specific knowledge, but capabilities in integrating and applying that information and engineering judgment. These test items also
identify a candidate’s ability to organize information and present it in a manner understandable to an audience, a key attribute for successful engineering.
The following sample test item relates to the Hazardous Waste Management specialty. It illustrates the possible form of technical component test items, including both
the problem statement and examination areas. The examination areas may be five
sequentially-ordered questions in which the answer to the first question controls the
answer to the second, third, etc. However, the test item may incorporate “breaks” in
logic by introducing additional scenario information in the five-question sequence, as
illustrated by the following example.
Sample Test Item
3. Confronted with this situation, after you
stopped the flow of fuel oil, describe what you
would do next and your reasons for this action.
As an environmental engineer, you have been an
employee of the XYZ company for three years. The
company manufacturers bowling alley equipment, employs 70 people, and is located on the banks of the
Ohio River in Kentucky on the upstream outskirts of a
small town (population 25,000), 10 miles upstream from
a major metropolis of 500,000 residents. You receive a
call from the plant maintenance supervisor asking you
to come right away to the plant’s boiler room. It is 4:00
p.m. on Friday, October 13. When you get to his office,
he is obviously upset and tells you that a 10,000-gallon capacity fuel oil storage tank is leaking through a
broken 4-inch diameter pipe. He also reminds you that
the repairs to the containment berm you directed him
to make have not been completed.
1. What information do you need to know immediately?
Even though your fast action minimized the problem and the cleanup was completed in 24 hours, the
media have created a major pollution incident. Your
company has retained public relations and legal experts to assist in addressing this problem. They look to
you for technical guidance.
4. Describe your plans to mitigate any residual
problems.
5. Describe your plans to collect the technical data
needed by the company’s public relations and
legal counsel to assure the public that it is not
threatened and to defend any legal actions that
may result.
2. Describe your plan of emergency action to mitigate the disaster.
Assume your emergency plans resulted in only 1,500
gallons having escaped from the partially-filled tank;
800 gallons were contained on the plant site, and 700
gallons got into the river.
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56
APPENDIX A
Portions of the American Academy of Environmental Engineers
Bylaws Pertinent to Specialty Certification
the United States or citizen of a Foreign Country, as
provided in this Article and found to be entitled to receive the same, a Certificate of Special Knowledge, in
any of the specialty fields of environmental engineering designated by the BOT.
ARTICLE I: CORPORATION
Section 1.2 — Definition of Environmental
Engineering.
The professional discipline of environmental engineering is defined as the application of engineering principles to improve and maintain the environment for the
protection of human health, for the protection of nature’s
beneficial ecosystems, and for environment-related enhancement of the quality of human life.
Section 8.3 — Procedure for Obtaining a
Certificate of Special Knowledge.
Section 8.3.1 — Applications.
Application for certification shall be made on the forms
provided by the Executive Director, and must be wholly
completed and fully documented by the applicant under Sec. 8.4.2, Sec. 8.4.3, and Sec. 8.4.5. Applications for certification pursuant to Sec. 8.4.4 shall be
prepared and documented as prescribed by the BOT.
Section 8.3.2 — Application and Examination
Fees.
The application, examination, and re-examination fees
shall be as established by the BOT and must accompany the application.
Section 8.3.3 — Additional Examinations.
An applicant who, if for good cause, fails to appear at
the initial examination shall, upon request, be given
an examination at a later date without paying an additional fee, but an applicant who fails to pass the
initial examination shall pay a fee, as established by
the BOT for each additional examination.
Section 1.4 — Objectives of the Academy.
The objectives of the Academy shall be to improve the
practice, elevate the standards, and advance the cause
of environmental engineering by:
a. Identifying and certifying persons with special
capabilities in environmental engineering for the
public benefit;
b. Establishing curricula criteria for the education
of environmental engineers;
c. Providing qualified environmental engineers certified in specialties that meet the needs of the Academy Sponsoring and Affiliated Organizations;
d. Developing reports and position papers on environmental issues important to the public health
and welfare; and
e. Serving the public through the application of engineering principles to improve and maintain the
environment for the protection of human health
and nature’s ecosystem, and for the enhancement of the quality of life.
Section 8.4 — Requirements for Certification.
The BOT, upon the affirmative vote of two-thirds of its
members present and voting at a regular or special
meeting or upon affirmative vote of two-thirds of those
voting by letter ballot, may certify an applicant provided
such applicant meets the qualifications as contained
in Sections 8.4.1 and whichever of Sections 8.4.2, or
8.4.3 or 8.4.4 or 8.4.5 is applicable to the method of
certification being requested. Provided further, that all
admissions approved by letter ballot shall be reviewed
by the BOT at its’ next meeting.
Section 8.4.1 — General Requirements.
a. The applicant shall be of good moral character and of high ethical and professional standing, as determined by the BOT;
ARTICLE VIII: CERTIFICATION
Section 8.1 — Definition of Environmental
Engineering.
For the purpose of evaluating the qualifications of candidates for certification as Diplomates of the Academy,
the professional discipline of environmental engineering shall be as defined in Article II.
Section 8.2 — Specialty Fields of Environmental
Engineering.
The BOT, in the name of and in behalf of the Academy,
may, in its discretion, grant and issue to any citizen of
57
Board in one or more of the specialty fields of
environmental engineering, which work must
include active participation in responsible design, management, research, administration,
or teaching. In the case of teaching experience, responsibility shall be primarily in one
or more fields of environmental engineering
in an educational institution of recognized
standing;
b. Written and oral examinations shall be held in
such places as are indicated by the number
and location of applicants and as determined
by the Executive Director. Geographical locations will be selected so as to minimize
travel on the part of the applicants and the
examining boards. The examination will consist of two phases:
(1) A written examination designed to test the
knowledge and ability of the applicant in the
field in which special proficiency is claimed;
and
(2) An oral examination to develop fully and
satisfactorily the qualifications of the applicant. The oral examination will ordinarily
be held at the time of the written examination;
Where possible, re-examinations will be scheduled to
coincide with normally planned examinations, and procedures will be similar in all cases;
c. The candidate must be qualified as defined
by the criteria established by the Board.
Section 8.4.3 — Certification Without Written
Examination - By Oral Examination and
Accomplishments in a Specialty.
a. Applicants being considered for certification under this Section shall not be required to take
the written examination required under Section
8.4.2 , but must undergo an oral examination;
b. In addition to meeting the general requirements under 8.4.1 the applicant shall have had
at least sixteen (16) years of environmental
engineering experience acceptable to the
Board in one or more of the specialty fields of
environmental engineering. Twelve (12) of the
sixteen (16) years of experience shall be in
responsible charge of work acceptable to the
Board in one or more of the specialty fields of
environmental engineering, which work must
include active participation in responsible design, management, research administration,
or teaching. The teaching experience must
demonstrate responsibility primarily in one or
more fields of environmental engineering in
an educational institution of recognized standing; and
c. The candidate must be qualified as defined
by the criteria established by the BOT.
b. The applicant shall possess a baccalaureate
or higher degree in engineering, or a related
field acceptable to the BOT, from a college or
university of recognized standing;
c. The applicant must hold a valid license or a
valid certificate of registration to practice engineering issued by the lawfully constituted
registration board of any State, territory, possession or district of the United States, or from
a foreign country, provided that said valid licenses or valid certificates of registration from
foreign countries shall be evaluated by the
BOT on a case-by-case basis to determine if
they meet the minimum standards set by the
BOT;
d. Experience credit shall begin following the
date of whichever event occurs first:
(1) date of receipt of baccalaureate degree; or
(2) date of receipt of valid license or valid certification of registration granted by written
examination, and as required by items “b.”
and “c.” of this section;
e. For educational environment-related studies
and research, experience credit of up to one
year shall be given for a Master’s degree and
a total of up to three years for a Doctoral degree. No additional credit shall be given for
work experience gained during the one- and
three-year periods. Where more than one and
three years, respectively, are taken to obtain
an advanced degree and the periods include
some full or part-time work experience, the
Board shall consider acceptability of such
additional time on a case-by-case basis;
f. The applicant shall submit a complete application on forms provided by the Academy and
such other supporting documentation as may
be required; and
g. A person certified under any of the Sections
herein, except as an Honorary Member, does
not become a member of the Academy until he/
she has paid the examination fees; the fee for
purchase of a certificate upon notification of
Board approval of the applicant or nominee; and
the annual certification renewal fee upon receipt
of a statement from the office of the Executive
Director, all as prescribed by the Board.
Section 8.4.2 — Certification by Written and Oral
Examinations.
a. In addition to meeting the general requirements under Section 8.4.1, the applicant must
have had at least eight (8) years of environmental engineering experience acceptable to
the Board in one or more of the specialty fields
of environmental engineering. Four (4) of the
eight (8) years of experience shall be in responsible charge of work acceptable to the
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c. Following review and consideration of the
applicant’s appeal, including any additional information, the Admissions Committee shall
submit a recommendation to the BOT, who will
make the final determination on the appeal.
At its discretion, the Admissions committee
and/or the BOT may request further information from the applicant before reaching a final
decision on the appeal.
d. The Executive Director shall inform the applicant of the Board’s final action on the appeal.
Where the ruling is unfavorable, the applicant
shall be given specific reasons for such ruling.
e. The Board’s ruling on the appeal shall be final.
Section 8.4.4 — Certification by Eminence.
a. Under this section, the BOT may certify eminent environmental engineers each annual
application cycle.
b. In addition to meeting the general requirements under Section 8.4.1, subsections a.
through c., the eminent engineer shall have
had at least twenty (20) years of environmental engineering experience acceptable to the
Board in one or more of the specialty fields of
environmental engineering and be recommended by the Admissions Committee in accordance with procedures and criteria
established by the BOT to test for eminence.
c. An eminent engineer being considered for certification under this section shall not be required to take formal examinations, written or
oral as required in Sections 8.4.2 and 8.4.3;
but must meet the test of eminence documented under criteria and procedures established by the BOT.
Section 8.4.5 — Certification in Additional
Specialty Fields.
a. This procedure shall apply only to applicants
who have already been certified as
b. Diplomates of the Academy in one or more of
the Specialties recognized by the Board; For
certification in an additional specialty, the applicant shall (1) have a minimum of five (5)
years of acceptable responsible experience
in the specialty for which certification is requested; (2) submit documentation and fees
as prescribed by the BOT; and (3) undergo an
oral examination in the technical aspects of
the additional specialty. At its discretion, the
BOT may require a written examination in individual cases. Upon application for certification in an additional specialty, a Diplomate
shall indicate to the BOT his/her intent to continue or discontinue certification in previously
certified specialties. The certificate for a specialty which is to be discontinued shall be surrendered to the Academy.
Section 8.4.6 — Denial of Initial Certification
a. When certification is not recommended by the
Admissions Committee because the applicant
does not meet one or more of the requirements
set forth in these Bylaws he/she shall be so
informed by the Executive Director and shall
be provided with specific details as to why
certification was not recommended to the BOT.
b. The applicant may request that the Admissions
Committee review and further consider the requirements not satisfied. The applicant’s request
shall include specific reasons for reconsideration, along with any new supporting information
which the applicant considers pertinent.
Section 8.5 — Issuance of Certificates.
Upon satisfactory completion of the applicable examinations, and approval of supporting documentation filed
by the applicant that he/she meets the prescribed standards, the BOT shall issue a suitable certificate. This
certificate, which shall be signed by an appropriate
officer(s) of the Academy and shall have the seal of
the Academy affixed, remains the property of the Academy, but the person to whom it is issued is entitled to
its possession unless and until it is revoked. The effective date of the certificate shall be the date when
the applicant was certified and such date shall be noted
on the certificate when issued. As a condition precedent to the issuance of a certificate, applicants shall
pay to the Academy a pro rata share of the prevailing
annual certification renewal fee.
Section 8.6 — Certification Renewal.
Section 8.6.1 — Certification Renewal
Requirements
a. In order to maintain certification after December 31, 1998, all Diplomates (except those in
the Emeritus, Retired, Inactive, and Honorary
categories) shall, in addition to other requirements set forth in these Bylaws, have:
1. Completed forty (40) Professional Development Hours (PDH) of work during the preceding two-year period. This may be
through technical work experience, education, or other professional activities as defined by the Recertification Committee and
approved by the Board; or
2. Taken and passed the then current technical portion of the oral examination in the
Diplomate’s specialty; or
3. Received a waiver from this requirement
due to hardship or other causes acceptable
to the Board. Such waivers shall be granted
on a case-by-case basis.
b. While the professional development requirement must be completed every two (2) years
59
the Diplomate shall report annually on the
credits earned during the preceding October
1 to September 30 twelve-month period. Credits shall be reported when submitting annual
fee payments on forms to be provided by the
Academy.
c. If more than forty (40) PD Hours are earned
in any two-year reporting period, up to twenty
(20) of the excess hours may be carried over
into the next succeeding two-year period.
d. The first period for which the requirements
contained in Section 8.6.1.a are to be fulfilled
shall begin on January 1, 1997, so that all recertifications granted on and after January 1,
1999, shall conform to these provisions.
Section 8.6.2 — Certification Renewal Fees.
a. The annual certification renewal fee for the
membership classes of DIPLOMATE (ACTIVE) shall be fixed by the BOT.
b. The annual certification fee for the membership class of DIPLOMATE (INACTIVE) shall
be fixed by the BOT.
c. There shall be no annual certification renewal
fee required for the membership classes of
DIPLOMATE (LIFE), DIPLOMATE (LIFE-INACTIVE), and MEMBER (HONORARY), respectively.
d. There shall be an additional annual certification
renewal fee fixed by the BOT for each additional
specialty in which a DIPLOMATE (ACTIVE) or
a DIPLOMATE (INACTIVE) is certified.
e. A former Diplomate whose certificate has been
revoked for nonpayment of the renewal fee
may, subject to the recommendation of the
Admissions Committee, be reinstated by the
Executive Director, by supplying proof (on
forms to be furnished by the Academy) that
he/she has completed the requirements given
in Section 8.6.1and, in addition, by paying the
renewal fees for the current year and the preceding one (1) year. On a case-by-case basis, the Executive Committee may waive or
modify the penalty under extenuating circumstances such as extended illness or unemployment, or for other acceptable reasons. Where
the former Diplomate is in arrears for three
(3) or more years in the payment of renewal
fees, then the individual shall submit a new
application and be considered for certification
in accordance with the applicable requirements set forth in Article IV of the Bylaws.
f. Failure of a Diplomate to pay the annual renewal fee by January 31 of the year for which
the fee is due shall result in the automatic revocation of such Diplomate’s certification and
membership in the Academy.
g. To be listed in the Environmental Engineering
Selection Guide, a Diplomate must be available to the public for consulting and related
technical assignments; must pay the full annual renewal fee and the annual fee fixed by
the BOT for such listing.
Section 8.7 — Revocation of Certificates.
Section 8.7.1 — Lapse of Engineering
Registration.
A Diplomate, other than an Honorary Member, who
fails to maintain a valid license or certificate of registration to practice engineering shall not be entitled to
retain the privileges of a Diplomate.
Section 8.7.2 — Revocation by Board Action.
A certificate may be revoked by a two-thirds vote of
the members of the BOT present and voting at a regular or special meeting of the BOT. The basis for such
action shall be the receipt of sufficient evidence of
fraud or dishonesty; misrepresentation or concealment of facts in the application; revocation of an engineering registration issued; conviction of a crime
involving moral turpitude; or for any other reason considered good and sufficient by the BOT. Procedures
for revocation of a certificate by BOT action are given
in Section 8.7.3.
Section 8.7.3 — Revocation Procedures
The following procedures shall be followed in Board
actions for the revocation of a certificate:
Step 1
a. A written complaint is received by the BOT;
b. The BOT sends an acknowledgment letter to
the complainant;
c. The complaint is reviewed by the Executive
Director, who contacts the complainant if more
information is required; and
d. The Executive Director, with the prior knowledge of the Chair of the Certificate Revocation Committee, makes a decision to:
(1) Dismiss the complaint and advise the complainant of his/her right to send the complaint to the State Licensing Board; or
(2) Refer the Complaint to the State Licensing
Board for initial disposition. Further action
is deferred pending State Licensing Board
resolution; or
(3) Refer the complaint to the Certification Revocation Committee.
Step 2
The subject of the complaint is contacted and requested to supply the Certification Revocation Committee with a response to the complaint. If no
response is received within thirty (30) days, a second
notice is sent and, if no response is received after
60
five (5) days, a final notice is sent by certified mail.
Following the certified mailing the matter is referred
to the Certification Revocation Committee for consideration.
Step 3
a. The Certification Revocation Committee reviews the complaint after responses are received and complete from both parties or after
the subject of the complaint fails to respond
to the final notice.
b. The Certification Revocation Committee takes
appropriate action, which could consist of (but
need not necessarily be limited to) dismissing
the complaint, requesting more information,
suspending and revoking certification, referring
the matter to the State Licensing Board and
deferring action pending that agency’s resolution of the matter, or conducting a hearing.
Step 4
The Chair of the Certification Revocation Committee
informs all parties of the Committee’s decision and of
the right of all parties to appeal the decision to the
Academy’s BOT.
Step 5
The BOT will consider any appeals of the Certification Revocation Committee’s decision and take appropriate action. The Board’s rulings on such appeals
shall be final.
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62
APPENDIX B
CONTINUING PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT GUIDANCE
This guidance provides examples of Continuing Professional Development (CPD) activities for each of the
categories of CPD included in the American Academy of Environmental Engineers’ specialty certification
program — Work Experience, Teaching, Education, and Other Professional Development. These examples
are intended to be illustrative rather than constraining.
SPECIAL NOTE: For purposes of the CPD program, each Diplomate may claim any CPD activity for credit
that he/she believes to provide valid CPD, i.e., the activity improves his/her ability to practice environmental
engineering. Credit for CPD activities is measured in Professional Development Hours (PDHs). Alternatively, an Academy Diplomate may request a Committee decision regarding the acceptability of a CPD
activity. Such requests are to be submitted to the Manager of Admissions and Membership at Academy
headquarters and are to be accompanied with a description of the activity. The Academy’s Recertification
Committee is the final authority on the acceptability of any activity.
ANNUAL REPORTING OF CPD ACTIVITIES IS NOT REQUIRED. However, each Diplomate is subject to audit to verify compliance with the Academy’s CPD requirements to maintain a currently valid specialty certificate (see page 4).
Diplomates may compile CPD credits based on hours expended (Form A system) or based on
events completed (Form B system) at their option. However, the two systems may not be
comingled. The credits per CPD activity are listed on Form A and Form B; copies of the forms
are available from Academy headquarters or they may be downloaded from the Academy’s
web site — www.aaee.net
WORK EXPERIENCE
The Academy’s CPD program embraces the philosophy that the active practice of environmental engineering provides Professional Work Experience which continues the professional development of a Diplomate.
Full credit is based on 1860 hours per year; for less time/year, pro-rate PDHs. Those activities include:
Consulting
All work by a Diplomate as a consulting engineer or in the employ of a consulting engineering firm regardless of job title. An exception is work which consists solely of business or personnel management that does
not involve the practice of environmental engineering or the application of environmental management
principles by the Diplomate.
Teaching
Assistant, Associate, or Full Professorships, Department Chair, Director of Research Entities. Activities
which may qualify for only partial or no credit include: Dean of Engineering, University Provost, or University President.
63
Industry
Director of Environmental Compliance, Facility Engineering, or Safety engineering or similar titles and
persons employed in such departments.
Governmental
Employment by a federal, state, or local government agency involving the operation of such subdivisions as
an environmental utility (e.g., municipal water works) or facilities (municipal) engineering department, if
the department is responsible for engineering and/or management of the environmental facility, or an environmental regulatory agency, or a governmental service agency (e.g., USPHS, CDC).
Other
Other employment categories which could employ persons who practice environmental engineering in the
course of their duties, e.g. employee of an insurance underwriter, financial services, management consulting, or legal firm, or an association employee.
TEACHING
This category embraces teaching of courses by NON-FULL TIME faculty on topics pertinent to environmental practice, including environmental science and/or engineering, public health, or related components
at a recognized college or university in either day or evening divisions in an accredited program. This
category of CPD is available to those persons who are not regularly employed full time by an education
institution, e.g., adjunct faculty of such institutions.
This category is also applicable to persons who prepare and present relevant courses or seminars to community groups or organizations. The credit assigned for preparing and first offering a course should be prorated
in comparison to the credit granted for a three credit-hour course or subsequent offerings of the same course
based on the credits indicated on the Reporting Form (see Item 2).
Mentoring of environmental engineering or environmental science students or post-graduate candidates for
a higher degree in the environmental management field is another way Diplomates can earn PDHs.
EDUCATION
It is envisioned that most education will be on environmental engineering or related topics. However, courses
on communication and other topics essential to environmental engineering practice such as project management also qualify. ABET criteria define the following topics as essential to engineering practice in addition
to those bearing engineering or related scientific names: communication, team work and management, professional and ethical responsibility, techniques related to modern engineering practice, e.g., computer use,
and understanding engineering impacts in global and societal contexts. Courses which provide basic skills,
such as word processing, spreadsheet preparation, or business accounting are NOT considered acceptable in
this context.
2
64
College or University Courses (Item 3)
CPD credit is granted for the successful completion of any regular course given by an accredited college or
university program in environmental engineering or a related field, e.g., environmental science, public health,
etc., as defined in the preceding paragraph.
Correspondence or Short Courses
The successful completion of a short course in environmental engineering or a related field which grants
officially-recognized Continuing Education Units (CEUs) or attendance at a seminar or symposia on an
environmental engineering or related topic which does not grant CEUs are activities which qualify for credit
as indicated on the Reporting Form..
Technical Conference
These typically include annual technical conferences or specialty conferences of Academy sponsor organizations, e.g., AWWA, ASCE, etc., their state or local affiliates, or similar technical organizations. Those
conference sessions devoted to environmental engineering practice or related topics qualify.
ABET Accreditation Visits
The work involved in serving as a program evaluator (visitor) or observer on an Accreditation Board for
Engineering and Technology (ABET) qualifies as CPD.
OTHER PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT
Equipment Exhibitions
The attendance at only the equipment exhibition of an environmental engineering or related conference
qualifies the Diplomate for credit for active exhibition attendance. If a Diplomate attends some technical
sessions and the equipment exhibition at an event offering both, then PDH credit is earned for that portion of
attendance at the exhibition and PDH credit is also earned for technical session attendance as described in
the preceding section on Education.
Sabbatical or Leave of Absence Study or Research
PDH credit is granted for sabbatical or leave of absence study or research efforts that are relevant to the
practice of environmental engineering. Prorate the PDH credit if only part of the sabbatical or leave effort
duration is relevant.
Publications
PDH credit is granted for the preparation and presentation of an environmental engineering technical/professional paper at a regularly-organized conference or for preparation and publication in an article in a
recognized peer-reviewed publication. For non-peer reviewed publications, 20% of the credits of the peerreviewed publications are granted. Credit is earned in the reporting period when publication occurs. Additionally, peer review of manuscripts intended for publication qualify for PDH credit in the reporting period
when the peer review was performed.
3
65
Professional Society or Advisory Committee Service
Serving on professional or technical society committees whose function is related to environmental engineering practice qualify for PDH credit. Similarly, serving on governmental, educational, or industrial
advisory committees whose function is related to environmental engineering also qualify. PDH credit is
granted for service as a member of a Board of Directors or as an officer of a qualifying environmental
professional society or technical association. Serving as a member of an examination panel for accredited
certification or specialty certification programs such as the ones operated by the Academy, IPEP, etc. also
qualify.
Book Publication
Authoring a book related to the practice of environmental engineering qualifies for CPD credit in the year in
which the book is published. There is no specific definition of a book, but, generally, it includes any document that is longer than a typical technical paper and is printed and bound in quantities exceeding more than
50 copies.
Self Study
Self study includes the reading of technical/professional journals, articles, or books, apart from such reading
conducted as a part of a Diplomate’s routine work responsibilities (on the job) with relevance to the practice
of environmental engineering.
DOCUMENTATION
Each year, approximately 2% of all CPD report forms are randomly selected for audit by the Recertification
Committee. Accordingly, all Diplomates should retain appropriate documentation. Such documentation
could include: certificate of course attendance, registration receipt; travel expense report; title page showing
proof of publication; meeting notice showing Diplomate participation; or a letter concerning committee
activities. Additionally, Diplomates are encouraged to maintain a log of CPD activities arranged chronologically showing committee, conference, or course name, location, etc.
CopyrightВ© AAEE 2000
ACADEMY
AMERICAN
OF ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERSВ®
130 Holiday Court, Suite 100
Annapolis, MD 21401
Phone: 410-266-3311, FAX: 410-266-7653
www.aaee.net
4
66
ANNUAL PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT CREDIT REPORTING FORM
For period of 01/01/___ through 12/31/___
A
Each Diplomate is required to obtain a combined total of 40 Professional Development Hours (PDHs) every two years. The categories of
continuing professional development activities are: Professional Work Experience, Teaching, Education, and Other Professional Development.
Diplomates have the option of successfully completing the Oral Examination in their certified specialty every two years in lieu of accumulating
PDHs to maintain certification. If more than 40 PDHs are earned in any two-year certification period, up to 20 PDHs may be carried over into
the succeeding two-year certification period.
NAME:____________________________________________________________________________________
(PLEASE PRINT)
Specialty(ies) In Which You Are Certified (circle appropriate choice[s]: AP GE HW IH RP SW WW SE
Complete only NAME, Specialty(ies), Signature, & Date on printed final copy of this page (Sheet 1); enter PDH credits earned from Sheet
2 (AMPLIFICATION FORM on reverse side). On the AMPLIFICATION FORM, enter credit item no., names of courses, sponsors,
locations, dates, CEUs (if granted), and PDH Item no. (corresponding to Item no. on this page).
PROFESSIONAL WORK EXPERIENCE IN ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING
PDHs
Item 1. Professional Work Experience (including teaching for full-time faculty) — 12 PDH/year (12 mos)
of full-time relevant employment ..................................................................................................................... _______
Pro-rate according to actual employment duration if less than one year of work performed, e.g. semi-retired
person doing 3 months equivalent work per year would earn 3.0 PDH OR consulting work performed for 3
summer months by full-time environmental engineering faculty member would earn 3.0 PDH in addition to
credit for teaching experience
Total PDHs — Professional Work Experience ........................................................................................................................... _______
TEACHING EXPERIENCE IN ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING
Item 2. Courses taught by NON FULL-TIME faculty, first time offered — 15 PDH per 3 credit-hour course; repeat
of updated course — 3 PDH/course repeated ................................................................................................. _______
Item 3. Mentoring experience — 2 PDH per student per semester/term ..................................................................... _______
Total PDHs — Teaching ............................................................................................................................................................... _______
EDUCATION*
Item 4.
Item 5.
Item 6.
Item 7.
Item 8.
College or University Courses Completed — 5 PDH per 3 credit-hour course ............................................... _______
Correspondence or Short Courses Completed — 1.0 PDH/CEU .................................................................... _______
Seminars or Symposia Attended — 1.0 PDH for each one-day session attendance ........................................ _______
Relevant Conference Attended — 1.0 PDH for each one-day session attendance .......................................... _______
ABET Curricula Accreditation Visits — 5 PDH/Visitor or 4 PDH/Observer per visit .................................... _______
*Related to environmental engineering practice.
Total PDHs — Formal Courses Attended .................................................................................................................................. _______
OTHER PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT
Item 9. Equipment exhibitions — 1 PDH per one-day active attendance per event .................................................... _______
Item 10. Sabbatical or leave of absence for environmental engineering study or research
1.25 PDH per month of relevant effort ............................................................................................................. _______
Item 11. Preparation and presentation/publication of environmental engineering-related paper; 25 PDH
as sole author, 15 PDH as co-author, or 5 PDH when 3 or more co-authors, if peer reviewed;
for non-peer reviewed paper, use 20% of peer reviewed paper PDHs; 1 PDH per 8 hours peer
review efforts .................................................................................................................................................... _______
Item 12. Professional Society of Advisory Committee Work in relevant environmental professional organization —
15 PDH as Committee Chair/year; 1 PDH per 8 hours effort as Committee Member per year, OR 1 PDH
per 8 hours service on Board of Directors or as an officer of a qualifying environmental professional
organization, OR 1 PDH per 8 hours service as member of an examination panel for an accredited
certification or specialty certification program ................................................................................................ _______
Item 13. Service on examination panel for an accredited certification or specialty certification program — 1 PDH
per 8 hours service ........................................................................................................................................... _______
Item 14. Author of published environmental book — 40 PDH for sole author; pro-rate if co-author/contributor
based on number of contributors; minimum of 5 PDH for book chapter; editor of book or conference
proceedings — 10 PDH/book pro-rated if more than 1 editor ......................................................................... _______
Item 15. Self study, e.g. reading technical papers, books, etc., outside normal function — 1 PDH/30 hours of self
study with credit limited to maximum of 180 self study hours/year (verif. docum. req’d. for > 1 PDH) ....... _______
Total PDHs — Other Professional Development ....................................................................................................................... _______
TOTAL CONTINUING PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT HOURS ................................................................................ _______
If you are unsure of how to report a professional development activity or if a particular activity qualifies, please contact the Academy’s
Executive Director for clarification.
I certify, to the best of my information and belief, the information on this form is true and correct.
____________________________________________________________________________________
Signature
Date
NOTE: An audit of randomly-selected sample of Professional Development Credit Reports will be performed annually by the Recertification
Committee. Those audited will be requested to supply documentation supporting PDHs claimed on Report Form.
Sheet 1
67
Sheet 2
68
Activity
No.
Name of Position/Course/Research
Topic/Paper Conference Committee
Employer/Sponsor/
Publisher
Location
[COPY IF ADDITIONAL SHEETS ARE NEEDED TO LIST ALL PDH ACTIVITIES]
Dates
ANNUAL PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT CREDIT REPORTING AMPLIFICATION FORM
TOTAL
PDH
Item No.
PDH's
Earned
ANNUAL PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT CREDIT REPORTING FORM
B
For the period of 01/01/___ through 12/31/___
Each Diplomate will be required to obtain a combined total of 40 Professional Development Hours (PDHs) every two years.
The categories of continuing professional development activities are: Technical Work Experience, Teaching, Education, and
Other Professional Development. Diplomates have the option of successfully completing the Oral Examination in their certified
specialty every two years in lieu of accumulating PDHs to maintain certification. If more than 40 PDHs are earned in any twoyear certification period, up to 20 PDHs may be carried over into the succeeding two-year certification period.
NAME: ___________________________________________________________________________________
Specialty(ies) In Which You Are Certified (circle appropriate choice[s]): AP GE HW IH RP SW WW SE
Please complete this form in its entirety by listing category item number, names of courses, sponsors, locations, dates and
CEUs, if granted, on the reverse side of this form.
TECHNICAL WORK EXPERIENCE IN ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING
PDHs
Item 1. Technical Work Experience - 5 PDH/1860 hours of full-time technical employment
Pro-rate according to actual technical work performed, e.g. semi-retired person
doing 465 hours of technical work would earn 1.25 PDH; OR a full-time employee
whose work is 1/2 technical and 1/2 non-technical managerial (e.g. human resources)
would earn 2.5 PDHs — round to nearest .1 PDH ............................................................................. _______
Total PDHs — Technical Work Experience...................................................................................................................... _______
TEACHING
Item 2. Courses taught by NON FULL TIME faculty, first time offered, 45 PDH/course;
repeat of same course, 1.25 PDH/hour ............................................................................................... _______
Total PDHs — Teaching ..................................................................................................................................................... _______
EDUCATION*
Item 3. College or University Courses Completed — 45 PDH/semester hour ............................................... _______
Item 4. Correspondence or Short Courses Completed — 10 PDH/CEU ........................................................ _______
Item 5. Seminars or Symposia Attended — 1 PDH/hour of session attendance ............................................ _______
Item 6. Technical Conference Attended — 1 PDH/hour of session attendance .............................................. _______
Item 7. ABET Curricula Accreditation Visits — 10 PDH/Visitor, 5 PDH/Observer ...................................... _______
*Related to environmental engineering practice.
Total PDHs — Formal Courses Attended ........................................................................................................................ _______
OTHER PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT
Item 8. Equipment exhibitions — 1 PDH/event ............................................................................................. _______
Item 9. Sabbatical or leave of absence for environmental engineering study or research — 10 PDH/year ... _______
Item 10. Preparation and presentation/publication of an environmental engineering technical/professional
paper as an author or co-author — 2 PDH/paper, if peer reviewed 3 PDH/paper; for peer review
of same — 1 PDH/paper ..................................................................................................................... _______
Item 11. Professional Society or Advisory Committee Work in environmental engineering — 2 PDH as
Chair/Committee/year; 1 PDH as Member/Committee/year; 2 PDH serving as a member of a
Board of Directors of 4 PDH serving as an officer of a qualifying environmental professional
society or technical association; 1 PDH serving as a member of an examination panel for an
accredited certification or specialty certification program ................................................................. _______
Item 12. Author a published environmental book — 40 PDH for sole author; if co-author/contributor
please pro-rate, minimum of 5 PDH; editor of book or conference proceedings — 10 PDH/book,
pro-rated if more than 1 author ........................................................................................................... _______
Item 13. Self-Study, e.g., Reading technical papers, books, etc. — 1 PDH/60 hours of self study ................. _______
Total PDHs — Other Professional Development ............................................................................................................. _______
TOTAL CONTINUING PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT HOURS ...................................................................... _______
If you are unsure of how to report a professional development activity or if a particular activity qualifies, please contact the
Academy’s Executive Director for clarification.
I certify, to the best of my information and belief, the information on this form is true and correct.
____________________________________________________________________________________
Signature
Date
NOTE: An audit of randomly-selected sample of Professional Development Credit Reports will be performed annually by the
Recertification Committee. Those audited will be requested to supply documentation supporting PDHs claimed on Report
Form.
Please Complete Reverse Side
69
70
Item
No.
Name of Position/Course/Research
Topic/Paper/Exhibition/Committee
Employer/
Sponsor
Location
Dates
ANNUAL PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT CREDIT REPORTING FORM AMPLIFICATION
CEUs Earned
(if applicable)
APPENDIX C
Answers to Sample Problems
Air Pollution Examination
1—B
2—A
3—D
4—C
5—B
6—A
7—C
8—E
9—A
10 — B
General Environmental
Engineering Examination
1—B
2—A
3—B
4—B
5—B
Hazardous Waste Management
Examination
1—D
2—A
3—D
4—B
5—D
6—B
7—C
Radiation Protection Engineering
Examination
1—D
2—D
3—C
4—D
5—D
6—E
7—C
8—E
9—E
10 — E
11 — B
12 — E
13 — B
14 — C
15 — C
16 — E
17 — A
18 — C
19 — E
Solid Waste Management
Engineering Examination
1—B
2 — B&D
3—D
4—D
5—D
6 — A&D
7—E
Industrial Hygiene Engineering
Examination
(Answers not supplied)
71
Water Supply and Wastewater
Engineering
1—C
2—D
3—C
4—E
5—B
6—B
7—C
8—C
9—D
Notes
72
Notes
73
Notes
74
Addendum: How to Prepare for the
Examinations for Environmental Engineering and
Environmental Science* Specialty Certifications
Since the introduction of the original How to Prepare for the Examinations for
Environmental Engineering Specialty Certification, the American Academy of Environmental Engineers and Scientists announced a new certification: Environmental
Sustainability. This new certification emphasizes the application of sustainability
principles to the everyday practice of environmental engineering. It covers general
principles, and applications to water/wastewater, solid and hazardous waste, air,
energy, and development. This addendum contains the sample questions for the
Environmental Sustainability examination.
*In 2012, The American Academy of Environmental Engineers and Scientists began accepting applications from highly qualified Environmental Scientists. Also included in this addendum is the Environmental Scientist Certification Study Guide.
OF ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERS & SCIENTISTS
Table of Contents
Addendum A
Environmental Engineering Specialty: Environmental Sustainability............................................................. A1
Examination Scope........................................................................................................................................ A1
Sample Test Items........................................................................................................................................... A2
References..................................................................................................................................................... A4
Addendum B - Environmental Scientist Certification Study Guide................................................................ B1
Purpose and Scope of Exam Process.............................................................................................................. B2
Categories for Potential Examination Questions............................................................................................. B2
Example Questions........................................................................................................................................ B3
References..................................................................................................................................................... B4
Environmental Scientist Specialty: Air Resources........................................................................................... B5
Exam Scope................................................................................................................................................... B5
Details on Topical Areas................................................................................................................................. B5
Sample Questions.......................................................................................................................................... B6
References..................................................................................................................................................... B7
Environmental Scientist Specialty: Environmental Biology............................................................................ B9
Exam Scope: Capsule Description.................................................................................................................. B9
General Competences.................................................................................................................................... B9
Sample Questions........................................................................................................................................ B10
References................................................................................................................................................... B10
Environmental Scientist Specialty: Environmental Chemistry...................................................................... B13
Exam Scope................................................................................................................................................. B13
Details on Topical Areas............................................................................................................................... B13
Sample Questions ....................................................................................................................................... B14
References .................................................................................................................................................. B15
Environmental Scientist Specialty: Environmental Microbiology................................................................. B17
Exam Scope................................................................................................................................................. B17
Details on Topical Areas............................................................................................................................... B17
Sample Questions........................................................................................................................................ B17
References................................................................................................................................................... B18
Environmental Scientist Specialty: Environmental Toxicology..................................................................... B19
Exam Scope ................................................................................................................................................ B19
Details on Topical Areas............................................................................................................................... B19
Sample Questions ....................................................................................................................................... B19
References................................................................................................................................................... B20
Environmental Scientist Specialty: Groundwater and the Subsurface Environment..................................... B21
Exam Scope................................................................................................................................................. B21
Details on Topical Areas............................................................................................................................... B21
Sample Questions ....................................................................................................................................... B21
Environmental Scientist Specialty: Surface Water Resources......................................................................... B25
Exam Scope................................................................................................................................................. B25
Details on Topical Areas............................................................................................................................... B25
Sample Questions........................................................................................................................................ B25
References................................................................................................................................................... B26
Environmental Scientist Specialty: Sustainability Science............................................................................. B27
Exam Scope................................................................................................................................................. B27
Details on Topical Areas............................................................................................................................... B27
Sample Questions........................................................................................................................................ B28
References................................................................................................................................................... B29
Addendum A
Environmental Engineering Specialty:
Environmental Sustainability
The written examination for the Environmental Sustainability specialty consists of 100 multiplechoice test items that cover the range of topics about which a specialist in environmental sustainability would be knowledgeable.
Half of the exam covers general sustainability issues. The other half of the exam consists of two
equally sized exam modules, chosen by the examinee, from the following five areas:
Air
Energy
Development
Water/Wastewater
Solid/Hazardous Wastes
Candidates are allowed 3 hours to answer 100 multiple choice test items. No reference materials are allowed in the examination room.
Examination Scope
Core Competencies that were identified for the
creation of the exam include the following:
General Competencies
• Social Responsibility/Awareness (Interface
with EE)
• Corporate Social Responsibility
• Triple Bottom Line
• Energy Balances
• Material Balances
• Carbon Footprint Calculations
• Energy efficiency
• Energy economics
• CO2 production
• Life cycle analysis
• Cap and Trade
• Carbon Offsets and validation
• Global climate change
• Carbon neutrality
• Biogenic and anthropomorphic GHG emissions
• Clean production
• Climate change mitigation and adaptation
plans
• Sustainability reporting, verification and assurance
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Economic planning
Toxicity and persistence of pollutants
Integrated resource planning
Natural attenuation (assimilation)
Detoxification of wastes
Clean production
Compliance management systems
Management systems
Sustainable business planning/operations
Human and ecological health standards
Global resource shortages
Public health/environmental hazard nexus
Carbon and nitrogen global cycles
Mass transport basics (understanding of
cross media impacts)
Water Resources and Wastewater
•
•
•
•
•
•
Stormwater retention and reuse
Green practices - SW management
Water footprints
Water use efficiency
Water reuse (recycling) and conservation
Water resource/supply planning (Total water management)
• Adaptation and mitigation in wastewater
treatment
• Greenhouse gas sources and control methods
Addendum-A1Environmental Engineering Specialty
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Water reuse
Energy efficiency/conservation
Energy production from digester gas
Chemical usage and conservation
Decentralized WW treatment
Source control and IWW limits to POTWs
Disinfection options
Water-borne illnesses
Nutrient removal
Watershed management
Watershed/groundwater vulnerabilities
Air
• Carbon capture and storage
• Carbon sequestration
• GHG production and control methodologies
• Cap and Trade
• Carbon offsets and validation
• Relative impacts of various GHGs
• Atmospheric reactions of GHGs and longterm persistence
• Emissions of other pollutants
• Regulations affecting GHGs
• Indoor air quality (VOCs and mold)
• Criteria/toxic pollutants
• Odor potential/mitigation
Energy
• Energy economics
• Energy sources (alternative and conventional)
• Energy storage
• Microturbines
• Demand management
• Energy audits
• Renewable energy resources
• Alternative transportation systems
• Energy efficiency
Development
Solid and Hazardous Waste Management
• Waste management - reduction, reuse, recycling
• Recycling
• Material recovery facilities
• Sustainable landfill operation
• Methane Recovery
• Biogas to energy
• Conversion to Energy
• Composting
• Waste minimization
• Pollution prevention
• Brownfield development
• Toxicity and persistence of pollutants
• Solids stabilization (vs reduction, pathogen
kill)
• Non-toxic or less toxic chemical alternatives
• Ultimate disposal and neutralization
• Risk assessment basics
Sample Test Items
The test items are general in nature but do not
include any that are too basic or simple. They are
designed to test the candidate’s overall knowledge
of the field and not his or her memory of handbook or reference data, specific current costs or
values, or items that may be regional in scope or
not nationally accepted. Samples of typical test
items follow:
1.
Which of the following is not a Greenhouse
Gas? (Air)
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Nitrous Oxide
Sulfur Hexafluoride
Ozone
Water
All are Greenhouse Gases
•
•
•
•
•
Green Building rating systems
Low impact development
Land use management
Siting and layout of projects
Social and environmental impact assessment
• Demand management
Environmental Engineering Specialty
Addendum-A2
2.
Which impact is not considered a possible
occurrence due to climate change according
to most projections? (General)
A. Increased intensity of hurricanes and
storms
B. Increased frequency of earthquakes
and tsunamis
C. Increased frequency and intensity of
local ambient urban ozone levels
D. Alternating periods of increased
flooding and drought conditions in the
same area
E. Increased exposure to infectious
diseases
3.
A. Dissolution as carbonate
B. Formation of bubbles, causing sludge
to float in the clarifier
C. Some evolution to atmosphere plus
dissolution as carbonates
D. Reuse by bacteria as a carbon source
E. Winds up in the atmosphere as a
Greenhouse Gas
6.
Assume that the earth has a forty year supply
of crude oil at the current extraction rate of
85 million barrels per day. It is estimated that
it takes natural processes 100 million years
to make crude oil. What is the sustainable
extraction rate of crude oil? (Energy)
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
4.
5. The aerobic bacteria in activated sludge
convert organic contaminants into more
bacterial cells, CO2, water and energy. What
is the likely fate of CO2 produced? (Water/
Wastewater)
A. Odor
B. Potential health impacts from trace
pollutants such as EDCs, metals etc.
C. New water distribution and storage
costs
D. Limited public ROW to facilitate
construction and operation
E. Additional operational and
maintenance costs
Unknown. We’ll always find more
34 barrels per day
About 12,000 barrels per day
310 barrels per day
2,500,000 barrels per day
Which of the following most closely
represents a typical green roof cross section
from bottom to top? (Development)
A. Roof structure, waterproof membrane,
drainage layer, root barrier, filter fabric,
growing medium, plants
B. Roof structure, root barrier, waterproof
membrane, filter fabric, drainage layer,
growing medium, plants
C. Roof structure, root barrier, waterproof
membrane, drainage layer, filter fabric,
growing medium, plants
D. Roof structure, waterproof membrane,
root barrier, drainage layer, filter fabric,
growing medium, plants
E. Roof structure, waterproof membrane,
filter fabric, drainage layer, root barrier,
growing medium, plants
What is the largest deterrent to re-utilizing
tertiary treated municipal wastewater for
residential landscape irrigation? (Water/
Wastewater)
7.
Which type of emerging recycling,
processing, and collection system generally
leads to increased residential participation
and yields per household? (Solid and
hazardous waste)
A. Dual stream recycling
B. Blue bag collections
C. Co-collection (MSW and recyclables
together)
D. Single-stream recycling
Addendum-A3Environmental Engineering Specialty
8.
The Rubber Manufacturers Association
reports that about 300 million tires were
discarded in 2007. Scrap tire management
is a huge recurring problem. From an
environmental sustainability standpoint,
how will you properly manage this recurring
disposal problem?
A. In road building
B. As a subsurface in playgrounds
C. Usage to facilitate drainage of leachate
in landfills, septic tanks etc.
D. Process and use them as a light weight
fill to prevent erosion and landslides
E. All of the above
References
Answers to all of the test items on the exam
may not be located in textbooks or even in the
references listed below. Some answers may represent the kind of information that an expert tends
to acquire through real-world experience, such as
keeping abreast of environmental sustainability by
reading periodicals, attending seminars, or communication with fellow practitioners.
The candidate may find the following publications helpful in preparing for the examination:
1. Mid-Course Correction: Toward a Sustainable
Enterprise, Anderson, Ray C., Chelsea Green
Publishing, 1998.
2. The ISIS Agreement: How Sustainability Can
Improve Organizational Performance and
Transform the World, Atkisson, Alan, Earthscan, 2008.
3. The Sustainability Handbook, Blackburn, William R., Eli Press, 2008
4. The Natural Step: Towards a Sustainable Society, Cook, David, Green Books, 2008.
5. The Power of Sustainable Thinking, Doppelt,
Bob, Earthscan, 2008.
6. Sustainability by Design, Ehrenfeld, John R.,
Yale University Press, 2008.
7. Making Sustainability Work, Epstein, Marc J.,
Berrett Koehler, 2008.
8. The Sustainability Revolution, Edwards, Andrew R., New Society Publishers, 2005.
9. Green to Gold, Esty, Daniel C. and Winston,
Andrew S., John Wiley & Sons, 2006.
Environmental Engineering Specialty
10.The Ecology of Commerce, Hawkens, Paul,
Collins Business, 2005.
11.Natural Capitalism, Hawkens, Paul L., Lovins,
Amory and Lovins, L. Hunter, Little, Brown
and Company, 1999.
12.The Business Guide to Sustainability, 2nd
Edition, Hitchcock, Darcy & Willard, Marsha,
Earthscan, 2009.
13.The Step by Step Guide to Sustainability Planning, Hitchcock, Darcy & Willard, Marsha,
Earthscan, 2008.
14.Walking the Talk: The Business Case for Sustainable Development, Holliday, Jr., Carles
O., Schmidheiny, Stephan, Watts, Phillip,
Greenleaf Publishing, 2002.
15.The Natural Step for Communities, James,
Sarah & Lahti, Torbjorn, New Society Publishers, 2004.
16.Sustainable Value: How the World’s Leading
Companies are Doing Well by Doing Good,
Laszlo, Chris, Stanford Business Books,
Greenleaf Publishing, 2008.
17.Vision and Leadership in Sustainable Development, Maser, Chris, Lewis Publishers,
1999.
18.Cradle to Cradle: Remaking the Way We
Make Things, McDonough, William &
Braumgart, Michael, North Point Press, 2002.
19.The Natural Step, Robert, Karl-Henrik, New
catalyst Books, 2002.
20.The Triple Bottom Line, Savitz, Andrew W.,
Jossey-Bass Publishing, 2006.
21.Strategy for Sustainability, Werbach, Adam,
Harvard Business Press, 2009.
22.The Sustainability Advantage: Seven Business
Case Benefits of a Triple Bottom Line, Willard,
Bob, New Society Publishers, 2002.
23.The NEXT Sustainability Wave, Willard, Bob,
New Society Publishers, 2005.
24.The Sustainability Champion’s Guidebook,
Willard, Bob, New Society Publishers, 2009.
25.Return on Sustainability: How Business Can
Increase Profitability & Address Climate
Change in an Uncertain Economy, Wilhelm,
Kevin, Dog Ear Publishing, 2009.
26.The Sustainable Enterprise Fieldbook, Wirtenberg, Jeana, Editor, Greenleaf Publishing,
2009.
Addendum-A4
27.Integrated Solid Waste Management Engineering Principles and Management Issues,
Theisen, H. and Vigil, S.A., McGraw Hill
1993.
28.Handbook of Pollution Prevention Practices,
Cheremisinoff, Nicholas P., Marcel Dekker
Inc. 2001.
29.Aluminum Recycling and Processing for Energy Conservation and Sustainability, Green,
John, ASM International 2007.
30.Sustainability: The Materials Role, Schwartz,
Lyle H., Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B., Volume 30, Issue 2, pages 157-170,
April 1999.
31.An Introduction to Sustainable Development,
Rogers, Peter et.al. 2007.
32.Becoming Part of the Solution: The Engineers
Guide to Sustainable Development, Wallace,
Bill, Earthscan Publications Limited 2007.
http://www.epa.gov/osw/conserve/materials/tires/
basic.htm
http://www.epa.gov/nps/lid/ (Low impact development)
www.usgbc.org/leed/ (Green Building)
http://www.aaee.net/website/EEBoK.htm (Environmental Engineering Body of Knowledge,
2009, AAEE
www.smartgrowth.org
http://www.epa.gov/OwOW/tmdl (Impaired Waters and TMDLs)
A good resource with many good references
and weblinks in its Appendix E is:
Benchmarking Sustainable Engineering Education: Final Report, Allen, David et.al., University of Texas, Carnegie Mellon University,
Arizona State University, EPA Grant Number
X2, 83235101-0. Can be found at
www.csengin.org/BSEE_Final_Report_31Dec08.
No.Appen_D.pdf
Internet references of interest are:
http://swana.org/tabid/36/default.aspx
http://www.environmentalistseveryday.org/aboutnswma-solid-waste-management/index.php
http://www.usqbc.org/
http://www.wasterecyclingnews.com/headlines.
html
http://www.epa.gov/
http://www.thinkgreen.com/
http://www.researchandmarkets.com/search.
asp?q=sustainability&cat id=0&x=42&y=8
Waste Age Wire [wasteage@pbinews.com]
http://www.wte.org/
http://www.jpress.com/biocycle.htm
http://www.rma.org/newsroom/release.
cfm?id=270
http://www.publications/collections/collections.
cfm?collect=9
Addendum-A5Environmental Engineering Specialty
Environmental Engineering Specialty
Addendum-A6
Addendum B
Environmental Scientist
Certification Study Guide
Addendum-B1Environmental Scientist Certification Study Guide
Environmental Scientist
Certification Study Guide
Purpose and Scope of Exam Process
The examination process for board certification
in environmental science consists of a two-part,
closed-book, written exam plus a one-hour oral
exam that tests applicants’ ability to integrate information. Both parts of the written exam consist
of 50 multiple choice questions, and applicants
have a total of three hours to complete the written exams. The first part, called the general exam,
tests the applicant’s knowledge of facts, terminology, and concepts across the broad array of disciplines and topics defining the field of environmental science. The second part, which tests the
applicant’s breadth and depth of knowledge in
a specialty area that applicants select from eight
possible areas, is described in the study guides for
the eight specialty areas. Passing scores of 70%
are required on both parts of the written exam.
The field of environmental science is very
broad, and the general exam covers basic concepts and facts in eight major topical categories in
which environmental scientists, regardless of their
areas of specialization, should be knowledgeable:
(1) environmental policy, laws, and regulations;
(2) basic conditions of environmental systems
(air, water, and landscapes);
(3) the nature and sources of pollution;
(4) transport, environmental transformations,
and effects of pollutants;
(5) methods to measure pollutants and environmental conditions;
(6) methods to evaluate, assess, and display environmental data;
(7) pollution control and remediation of degraded environmental systems; and
(8) scientific principles of sustainability.
Environmental Scientist Certification Study Guide
Categories for Potential Examination
Questions
The detailed descriptions of the eight topical
categories presented below are intended to include major subareas from which questions may
be derived, but they are not exhaustive lists. Because the general exam has only 50 questions, not
all the subareas are covered in a given exam.
Policy, Legislation, & Regulations
National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA): EIAs
and EISs
Clean Water Act (CWA): NPDES, TMDLs, 303(d)
list, 305 report, POTWs, water quality criteria
and standards, beneficial uses of water, water
reuse, nonpoint source and storm-water issues
Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA): drinking water
standards and regulations, unregulated contaminant monitoring rule (UCMR), contaminant candidate list (CCL)
Clean Air Act (CAA): cap and trade, criteria air
pollutants
Biosolids (CFR 40, Part 503)
CERCLA: purpose and applicability of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (Superfund)
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)
Environmental ethics, including professional ethics of environmental scientists.
Fundamentals of Environmental Conditions
The atmosphere: basic physics, composition,
chemistry.
The water environment: physical-chemical
properties of water; basic physics of natural
waters (thermal properties and light penetration); the hydrologic cycle and water budgets:
sources, sinks, reservoirs; basic water chemistry, including chemical composition of natural
water; aquatic biology: including microbes,
plankton, food webs, and primary production.
Addendum-B2
Ecosystems and landscapes: basic concepts,
including communities, habitats, diversity, stability, resilience, autotrophy, and heterotrophy.
Stressors/Pollutants
Sources of major pollutants
Indicators (biological, chemical) of pollution,
including indicator species and indices
Nutrients (N and P) and eutrophication
Air pollutants: CO, NOx, SOx, aerosols (particulate matter), photochemical oxidants, including ground-level ozone, CFCs, acid rain/
deposition
Endocrine disrupters (EDCs) and contaminants of
emerging concern (CECs)
Pathogens (microorganisms)
Priority pollutants: toxic organic pollutants,
including pesticides, PAHs, PCBs; metals,
including lead and mercury; greenhouse gases
(GHGs).
Basic elements of data management/storage and
display.
Mitigation, Remediation, and Restoration
(emphasis on scientific principles)
Source control, end-of-pipe, green solutions
Fundamentals of wastewater and drinking water
treatment;
Urban stormwater management
Remediation of soil, groundwater and surface
water bodies;
Basic air pollution control processes for stationary
and mobile sources.
Sustainability
Concepts and definitions; the three pillars: environmental, economic, and social
Life cycle assessments (LCA);
Environmental justice;
Carbon footprints; carbon capture and storage.
Transport, Transformations, and Effects of
Pollutants
Transport processes in and across air, water, soil
and landscapes; concept of mass balances
Transformation processes: biological/microbial (including bioaccumulation), chemical
(including hydrolysis, redox, precipitation),
physical (including gravitational settling,
sedimentation, filtration), physical-chemical
(including coagulation/flocculation), photochemical/photolysis
Effects on human health and welfare; ecological
effects, including population and ecosystemlevel.
Example Questions
1.
A. Hardness
B.Alkalinity
C.Salinity
D.Electroneutrality
E. Mineral acidity
2. Design with sustainable elements includes
all except:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Field and Laboratory Methods
Basic sampling and monitoring equipment for
water, air, and soil;
Basic chemical analytical equipment
Sampling and testing methods for water, air, soil,
bacteria, and toxicity
Concepts of QA/QC.
Assessment and Evaluation
Statistical design of environmental sampling
programs
Basic statistical tests (t-test, ANOVA, parametric/
nonparametric testing, correlation and regression analysis)
The chemical characteristic of natural waters
that provides buffering of pH is usually
referred to as:
3.
Water conservation fixtures
Drip irrigation installations
Isothermal heating applications
Solar energy
Rainwater harvesting
National Ambient Air Quality Standards have
been established for the following criteria
pollutants, except:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Carbon monoxide
Carbon dioxide
Lead
Particulate matter
Sulfur dioxide
Addendum-B3Environmental Scientist Certification Study Guide
4.
Hypoxia, a major problem in near-shore
waters of the Gulf of Mexico off the mouth
of the Mississippi River (as well as in several
other estuarine/marine waters globally)
generally is considered to be caused by
Science: Toward a Sustainable Future, 11th
ed. Pearson: Benjamin Cummings, 704 p.
A. BOD of incompletely treated
wastewater
B. Global climate change
C. Nutrients, primarily from agricultural
lands
D. Oxygen demand of bottom sediments
E. The oxygen demand of dissolved
natural organic matter (NOM) in the
river
5. The layer of water in lakes, reservoirs, and
the oceans in which the rate of change
in temperature with respect to depth is
maximum is called the:
A.Thermocline
B. Mixolimnion
C.Epilimnion
D. Hypolimnion
E. Euphotic zone
References
Many broad-based introductory environmental
science textbooks are available and are suitable
resources to review for the general part of the written exam. Several introductory textbooks in environmental engineering also are suitable resources;
these texts do not require sophisticated mathematical training and prior coursework in engineering.
Some examples of such texts are listed below.
Botkin, D. B. and E. A. Teller. 2011. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet, 8th ed. J.
Wiley, New York, 752 p.
Davis, M. and D. Cornwell. 2006. Introduction
to Environmental Engineering. McGraw-Hill,
New York, 1024 p.
Davis, M. L. and S. J. Masten. 2009. Principles of
Environmental Engineering and Science, 2nd
Ed. McGraw-Hill, New York, 784 p.
Masters, G. M and W. P. Ela. 2007. Introduction
to Environmental Engineering and Science,
3rd Ed., Prentice-Hall, 720 p.
Wright, R. T. and D. Boorse. 2010. Environmental
Environmental Scientist Certification Study Guide
Addendum-B4
Environmental Scientist Specialty:
Air Resources
Exam Scope
Atmospheric Transport Processes and Modeling
This exam focuses on air pollution in both the
ambient atmosphere and indoors. In addition to
environmental and health effects of air pollutants,
the exam covers their sources, transport, and behavior/transformations, as well as basic physical
and chemical characteristics of the atmosphere,
federal legislation on air pollution, air quality analytical methods, and control technologies.
Buoyancy and plume rise processes
Gaussian plume model; LaGrangian and Eulerian
models
Air-water mass transfer, dry deposition processes,
volatilization
Details on Topical Areas
The exam includes questions in eight major
topical areas related to air resources, as described
below. Within each of the areas, potential subtopics for questions are included in the outline
below, but not every sub-topic is covered in any
given BCES exam on air resources.
The Atmospheric Environment
Basic physics; e.g., major layers, density, temperature profiles
Basic chemistry and chemical composition
Ozone layer and upper atmosphere chemistry
Air Pollution Legislation and Regulations
Clean Air Act and amendments
Standards: national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS), new source performance
standards (NSPS), technology based standards: NESHAPS and MACT
Permitting: Title V, new source review (NSR) permitting, including prevention of significant
deterioration (PSD) and nonattainment (NSR)
permitting, state minor NSR permitting
State implementation plans, nonattainment
designation and emissions control requirements (RACT, BACT, and LAER), visibility
Motor vehicle & fuels standards, inter- and intra-state regulations
Other relevant federal/state legislation and policies: GHG regulations/interpretations, NEPA
assessments; CARB standards/rules
Atmospheric Chemistry
Photochemical smog reactions, ground-level
ozone chemistry, peroxyacyl nitrates (PAN)
Transformation of NOx and SOx to form acidic
aerosols and acid rain
Pollutants/Stressors, including Sources and
Characteristics
Criteria air pollutants: CO, NOx, SOx, lead, particulate matter, including PM10 and PM2.5
Photochemical oxidants, including ground-level
ozone,
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs)
Hazardous air pollutants, including soot, mercury
and other metals
CFCs and greenhouse gases (GHGs)
Effects of Air Pollutants
Human health and environmental justice issues
Welfare: damage to property, crops, ecological
impacts including habitat damage, quality of
life, economic impacts
Scales of impacts: local, regional, and global
impacts
Cross media effects: e.g., air/water, air/soil
Recycling, reuse, & conservation impacts
Indoor air quality
Sustainability issues
Measurement and Assessment
Ambient and source compliance monitoring
Monitoring methods for major pollutants: samplers/sampling methods, instrumental methods, wet chemistry methods
Addendum-B5Environmental Scientist Certification Study Guide
Design of sampling programs and location of
samplers
Statistical analysis of data
2.
Control Methods
A. By source type
Stationary: petroleum refining, chemical manufacturing, industrial manufacturing, oil &
gas production, energy/power sectors, materials handling
Area and small commercial sources (e.g., gas
stations, dry cleaners); consumer products
Mobile sources: on-road vehicles (control systems/fuel efficiency), fuels, off-road/nonroad equipment, transportation planning
Indoor air
B. By type of pollutant
Greenhouse gases (GHGs), carbon capture and
storage, bio-sequestration, energy efficiency
Fuels, including biofuels, energy efficiency,
biogas capture and use
Particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), gases (e.g., NOx,
CO, and SO2)
Sample Questions
(correct answers in boldface)
1.
Lead (in the form of tetraethyl lead) was
removed from automotive fuels primarily for
which of the following reasons:
A. It is acutely toxic to humans at the
ambient concentrations produced from
auto exhaust
B. It interferes with catalytic converters
used to control CO and NOx
emissions
C. Its chronic toxicity causes brain
damage (retardation) in children
D. It prevented automobile manufacturers
from meeting higher mileage standards
imposed by federal regulations
E. Lead-containing aerosols produced
from auto exhaust were a major cause
of smog and visibility problems in
urban areas
Environmental Scientist Certification Study Guide
The mass of air required to completely burn
1 kg of corn crop residue (stalks and leaves),
called �corn stover’ and consisting mostly of
cellulosic material, to carbon dioxide and
water is approximately:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
1 kg
5 kg
10 kg
50 kg
Cannot be determined without
additional information
3. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990
introduced the “cap and trade” method as a
means of controlling which of the following
pollutants?
A. NOx
B. Greenhouse gases, especially CO2
C. CFCs
D.SO2
E. Mercury
4.
The “sick building syndrome” (where people
become ill because of indoor air pollutants)
is most often caused by indoor emissions of
which of the following pollutants found in
various building materials?
A.Trichloroethylene
B.Formaldehyde
C. Methane
D. Methylmercury
E. Vinyl chloride
5. Air pollution control regulations related to
PM2.5 generally are focused on controlling
atmospheric aerosols that have a mean
particle diameter:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
> 2.5 nm
> 2.5 Ојm
< 2.5 Ојm
< 2.5 mm
< 2.5 nm
Addendum-B6
6. The average ozone concentration in the
Earth’s stratosphere is about 0.6 ppm. How
does this compare to the average week-day
afternoon pollution ozone concentration
found at ground level in a large city like Los
Angeles?
www.epa.gov/air/index.html (U.S. EPA’s air and
radiation web site)
www.ecfr.gov (Website for Electronic Code of
Federal Regulations)
A. About the same amount
B. The stratospheric ozone level is about
10 times that of the city ground level
C. The stratospheric ozone level is about
1/10 of that of the city ground level
D. The stratospheric ozone level is about
1/1000 that of the city ground level
E. The stratospheric ozone level is about
1000 times that of the city ground level
7. The lowest layer of the atmosphere, which
includes ground-level conditions, is called
the:
A.Tropopause
B.Biosphere
C.Stratosphere
D.Anthroposphere
E.Troposphere
References
The following references are representative of
the technical literature with which candidates for
the air resources specialty exam should be familiar.
Cooper, C. D. and F. C. Alley. 2002. Air Pollution
Control, 3rd Ed., Waveland Press, 760 p.
Davis, W. T. (Ed.), Undated. Air Pollution Engineering Manual, 2nd Ed., Air and Waste Management Association, 850 p.
Griffin, R. D. 2007. Principles of Air Quality
Management, 2nd Ed. CRC Press, 334 p.
Turner, D. B. and R. H. Schulze. Undated. Practical Guide to Atmospheric Dispersion
Modeling, Air and Waste Management Association.
U.S. EPA. AP-42, Compilation of Air Pollutant
Emission Factors, 5th Ed.
Vallero, D. 2007. Fundamentals of Air Pollution,
4th Ed., Academic Press, 968 p.
Wark, K., C. F. Warner, and W. T. Davis. 1997. Air Pollution: Its Origin and Control, 3rd
Ed., Prentice-Hall, 560 p.
Addendum-B7Environmental Scientist Certification Study Guide
Environmental Scientist Specialty:
Environmental Biology
Exam Scope: Capsule Description
This exam focuses on important principles of
the biology and ecology of ecosystems and their
stressors, including toxic substances; ecosystem
remediation and restoration; population dynamics; organismal biology, including endangered
species; and natural resources. Emphasis is on
aquatic systems, but not to the exclusion of terrestrial issues. The exam also covers basic biological issues related to important federal regulations,
sustainability, and “green” principles in restoration, urban habitats and remediation.
General Competences
The exam includes questions in five major topical areas related to environmental biology, as described below. Within each area, potential subtopics for questions are included in the outline
below, but not every sub-topic is covered in any
given BCES exam on environmental biology.
Fundamentals of Environmental Biology and
Ecology
Organismal level: taxonomy & systematics,
including benthic indices, indicator species,
plankton – harmful algal blooms (HABs), endangered species
Population level: carrying capacity, reproduction strategies (k vs. r), growth & regulation,
species interactions (e.g., keystone, pioneer,
succession, predator-prey, competition), sampling/assessment
Ecosystem level: services; ecological niches; terrestrial and aquatic biomes; biogeochemical
cycling of water and major elements; trophic
food webs/energy flow, including photosynthesis & respiration; habitat/community
structure; species diversity and edge effects,
including biodiversity, natural selection,
evolution; ecological succession; assessment/
sampling issues
Ecosystem Stressors
Climate Change: shifting seasons, sea level rise,
ocean acidification, shifting habitats
Habitat Alterations: deforestation, desertification,
urbanization
Invasive Species
Overharvesting: poor land management—overgrazing, overfishing
Pollution: metals; toxic organic compounds,
including pesticides (types, costs and benefits
of use, integrated pest management, relevant
laws) and other toxic organic compounds;
stormwater: erosion, water quality, i.e., bacterial contamination, water chemistry; sediments; trash/plastics; contaminants of emerging concern; nutrients
Toxicity
Basic principles: acute and chronic toxicity; LC50
Applied toxicity testing: WET and OPPTS testing;
other tests for sediments
Remediation/Restoration
Key laws: CWA, CAA, Endangered Species Act,
Shore Protection Act, Marine Protection Research and Sanctuaries Act, TSCA, Pollution
Prevention Act, NEPA, RCRA, CERCLA
Regulations: water quality standards, TMDLs
Conservation options: habitat preservation,
including management, MPAs, ecological
reserves and areas of special biological significance, national parks & reserves, wilderness
areas, and wildlife refuges; habitat restoration,
including key design steps (historical/baseline
data, habitats to restore) and techniques; habitat mitigation; and habitat remediation
Sustainability
Natural Resources
Fisheries and aquaculture: science, management,
sustainability
Agriculture: feeding a growing population (human nutritional requirements), types of
Addendum-B9Environmental Scientist Certification Study Guide
agriculture, Green Revolution, genetic engineering and crop production, deforestation,
irrigation, sustainable agriculture
Forestry: tree plantations, old growth forests, forest fires, forest management
Urban & built environments
Sample Questions
Test questions are general in nature but are intended to require substantive background in biology and ecology as applied to environmental
issues. They are designed to test the candidate’s
overall knowledge of the field and not his or her
memory of specific text materials, models or data,
regional details, or subparts of environmental
regulations. Examples of typical test questions follow; correct answers are in boldface.
1. In the application of mixing zones for toxic
substance control, the criterion “continuous
concentration” refers to the application of
which toxic endpoint?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
2.
LC50
Acute endpoint
Chronic endpoint
NOEC
LOEL
Examples of Low Impact Development (LID)
practices include:
A. Roof gutters to storm drain
connections.
B. Low-flow diversion systems.
C. Catch basin inserts and screen covers.
D. Silt/sediment fences around
construction sites.
E. Porous concrete to infiltrate runoff.
3.
Which of the following statements is false
regarding wetlands?
A. Hydric soils characterize wetlands.
B. Wetlands include bogs, fens, swamps
and marshes.
C. Hydrophytes dominate wetland flora
D. Frequent flooding of wetland habitats
tends to limit biodiversity.
E. Groundwater replenishment is an
important ecosystem service of
wetlands.
4. Species that may serve as warnings of
environmental pollution are known as:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Indigenous species
Specialist species
Invasive species
Endemic species
Indicator species
5. The identification and listing of endangered
and threatened species is the responsibility
of what federal agency?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
National Park Service
Department of Plants and Animals
Fish and Wildlife Service
Department of Endangered Species
United States Environmental Protection
Agency
References
Answers to some test items may not be located
in textbooks or even in the references listed below
but may represent the kind of information that experts tend to acquire through real-world experience, such as keeping abreast of environmental
issues by reading periodicals, attending seminars
and conferences and communicating with fellow
practitioners. Candidates may find the following
resources helpful in preparing for the examination. The exam covers a broad expanse of environmental science and the candidate is encouraged to examine multiple sources of information
in preparing for the written examination.
Daily, G. C. (Ed.). 1997. Nature’s Services: Societal Dependence on Natural Ecosystems.
Island Press, 412 p.
Environmental Scientist Certification Study Guide
Addendum-B10
Falk, D. A., M.A. Palmer, and J. B. Zedler (Eds.).
2006. Foundations of Restoration Ecology,
Island Press, 384 p.
Molles, M. 2012. Ecology: Concepts and Applications, 6th Ed., McGraw-Hill, 640 p. (or
similar college text in ecology).
Sadava, D., H. C. Heller, G. H. Orians, and W.
K. Purves. 2009. Life: The Science of Biology,
9th Ed., W.H. Freeman, 1267 p. (particularly
the chapters that deal with organismal biology, diversity of plant and animal life and
ecology, or similar college text in biology).
Smith, T.M. and R. L. Smith. 2012. Elements of
Ecology, 8th Ed., Pearson, 704 p. (or similar
college text in ecology).
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
2013. http://www.epa.gov/lawsregs. This site
provides access to environmental regulations
and policy for topics such as cross-cutting
issues (climate change), hazardous waste
and Superfund, clean water, pesticides, toxic
substances, and other topics.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
2013. http://www2.epa.gov/science-andtechnology. This site provides information on
applied environmental science for air, climate
change, ecosystems, land waste and cleanup,
pesticides, substances and toxics, water, and
other topics.
Addendum-B11Environmental Scientist Certification Study Guide
Environmental Scientist Specialty:
Environmental Chemistry
Exam Scope
Environmental chemistry is a broad subject
with many subareas. This exam focuses on the
chemical behavior of major environmental reservoirs, including soils, the atmosphere, and surface
water and groundwater, with particular emphasis
on the behavior of pollutant substances in these
systems. The principles of physical, inorganic, and
organic chemistry needed to understand chemical
processes and analytical methods used to measure chemicals and chemical processes in these
systems also are covered, along with relevant aspects of environmental legislation.
Details on Topical Areas
The exam includes questions in eight categories related to environmental chemistry, as listed
below. Within each category, potential topics for
questions are described. Because of the breadth
of the field of environmental chemistry, not every
topic is covered in any given BCES exam on environmental chemistry, and the eight categories
are not all equal in terms of breadth and relative
importance.
General and Analytical
Concentration units: common and chemical
units; special units in environmental chemistry
Basic chemical concepts: stoichiometry, balancing equations, chemical formulas, formula
weights, valence, oxidation states, basic classifications in the Periodic Table
Analytical instrumentation: measurement principles, response specificity, detection limits
Lab and field investigations: sampling design,
sample collection methods, sample preservation
Common measurements: pH, dissolved oxygen,
specific conductance, turbidity, alkalinity,
particulate matter in air and suspended solids
in water, extractable soil P, NOx, O3
Media-specific methods (for air, water, and soils):
procedures, limitations, interferences
QA/QC: precision/accuracy, detection limits, calibrations, blanks, replicates, regulatory issues
Physical Chemical Principles and Applications
Thermodynamics: variables (E, H, G, S and corresponding difference variables, e.g., ∆H);
laws; relationship between thermodynamics
and chemical equilibria (i.e., between ∆G°
and Keq)
Equilibria: effects of temperature and pressure
on equilibria, van’t Hoff equation, types of
equilibria in aqueous solutions: acid/base,
complexation, solubility, redox; equilibrium
constants: pKa, Ks0, Kd, Kow, Koc; models to calculate equilibria: e.g., MINEQL, VMINTEQ,
PHREEQC
Kinetics: reaction order; rate equations: zero, first
and second order expressions; elementary vs.
multi-step mechanisms, consecutive reactions; effects of temperature: Arrhenius equation and activation energy; kinetic theories;
applications to environmental processes
Surface chemistry/sorption: adsorption, absorption, and ion exchange; surface complexation
models; sorption isotherms and models (e.g.,
Freundlich and Langmuir)
Environmental Organic Chemistry
Fundamentals: basic organic structure and nomenclature; major functional groups; important classes of organic chemicals; major types
of organic pollutants
Degradation pathways/products: for important
pollutants, e.g., PERC and TCE
Removal/reaction processes: photolysis (direct
and indirect), bioaccumulation, biodegradation, chemical reactions, partitioning to solids,
air-water partitioning
Addendum-B13Environmental Scientist Certification Study Guide
Property and behavior prediction methods: quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs)
and property-activity relationships (PARs)
Multi-media fate and transport models
Atmospheric Chemistry
Air quality: composition of atmosphere, groundlevel pollutants: primary and secondary pollutants, acidifying emissions (NOx and SOx);
NH4+ aerosols as soil acidifying agents; particulate matter (PM, PM10 and PM2.5), ozone,
metals
Atmospheric reactions: photochemical processes,
photo-intermediates (в€™OH), products (O3,
PAN)
Removal processes (for atmospheric contaminants): Henry’s law, air-water mass transfer
Water Chemistry (including wastewater)
Water quality: ionic composition (major/minor
ions); salinity/ionic strength: relationships with
TDS and conductivity; dissolved O2 chemistry, solubility, and air-water transfer; carbonate
system, pH and alkalinity; nutrient forms and
behavior; natural organic matter (NOM); point
and non-point sources of contaminants
Drinking water treatment chemistry: softening,
chlorination and other disinfection techniques, disinfection by-products; effects of
NOM on treatment processes; regulated
contaminants
Distribution system chemistry: corrosion, dissipation of chlorine residuals
Wastewater treatment chemistry: chemical nutrient removal; coagulation; chlorination/disinfection
adverse human or ecosystem health): plasticizers, nonylphenols, personal care product
ingredients, nanoparticles, pharmaceuticals,
and endocrine disruptors
Transport modeling (from a chemical perspective
in subsurface environments): saturated flow,
unsaturated flow, dispersion, retardation, biodegradation, MODFLOW
Hazardous Wastes/Solid Wastes
Types of hazardous waste: industrial process residues, organic wastes, inorganic wastes, contaminated soils, and combustion byproducts.
Characterization and treatment of hazardous
waste: Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), hazardous waste landfills, high
temperature combustion, and bioremediation
Environmental Regulations (related to chemical
pollutants)
Major federal laws regulating both point and
non-point sources of chemical pollution of air,
water, and land resources. (e g., Clean Water
Act, Clean Air Act, RCRA, CERCLA).
Regulatory concepts and important terminology
(e.g., MCL, TMDL)
Sample Questions
(correct answers in bold)
1.
A. Aircraft manufacturing
B. Electronics manufacturing
C. Dry cleaning
D.Electroplating
E. Missile production
Soil and Groundwater
Soil and groundwater contamination: acidic
deposition, Hg, agricultural chemicals, land
spreading of wastes, unregulated dumping,
leaking tanks and pipelines, BTEX, chlorinated
solvents, and heavy metals
Remediation methods (specifically those that
involve chemistry): e.g. advanced oxidation
processes, phase-transfer processes, land use
controls, landfill, soil vapor extraction, pump
and treat, air sparging, and monitored natural
attenuation
Emerging chemicals of concern (chemicals for
which there is potential concern regarding
Environmental Scientist Certification Study Guide
Which of the following industries is not
likely to have been a direct source of TCE
contamination in groundwater?
2.
Which of the following is correct for the
tendency of non-ionic organic chemicals
to partition from water to solid particles as
the organic carbon fraction of the particle
increases?
A.Increases
B.Decreases
C. Remains the same
D. Is unpredictable
Addendum-B14
3.
Where would lipophilic organic chemicals
tend accumulate to the greatest extent in a
lake?
A. Bottom sediments
B. Suspended solids
C.Fish
D.Phytoplankton
E.Thermocline
4.
A tanker truck contains sodium salts of PO43, NO3- and SO42- turns over and spills its
contents in a ditch. In which order would
they leach though the soil?
A. PO43-, NO3- and then SO42B. SO42-, PO43-, and then SO42C. SO42-, NO3-, and then PO43D.NO3-, SO42-, and then PO43E. NO3-, PO43-, and then SO42-
5.
Thermodynamics is an important fundamental
topic in environmental chemistry because it:
A. Defines reaction stoichiometry
B. Addresses the rate at which reactions
reach equilibrium
C. Is useful in the design of open systems
D. Provides the basis for understanding
natural water bodies as equilibrium
systems
E. In fact, it is not used very much in
environmental chemistry
6.
In the two-film model for gas transfer across
air-water interfaces, movement of gases
through the liquid and gas films at the
interface is assumed to occur:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
By turbulent diffusion
As a zero-order rate process
By molecular diffusion
By a random walk process
By a process of surface renewal,
whereby the films are mixed into the
bulk phases
7.
The major ingredients for photochemical
smog formation are:
A. Carbon monoxide (CO), NOx, and
hydrocarbons
B. Peroxyacyl-nitrate (PAN), ozone, and
sunlight
C. Hydrocarbons, ozone, and sulfur
oxides
D.NOx, hydrocarbons, and sunlight
E. NOx, hydrocarbons, and ozone
References
Candidates for the BCES specialty exam in environmental chemistry may find the following list
of books useful resources in studying for the exam.
Anastas, P. T. and J. C. Warner. 2000. Green
Chemistry: Theory and Practice. Oxford University Press, New York, 177 p.
Brezonik, P. L. and W.A. Arnold. 2011. Water
Chemistry. An Introduction to the Chemistry
of Natural and Engineered Aquatic Systems.
Oxford University Press, New Work, 782 p.
Girard, J. E. 2004. Principles of Environmental
Chemistry. Jones & Bartlett Publ., 677 p.
Hobbs, P. V. 2000. Introduction to Atmospheric
Chemistry. Cambridge University Press, 276 p.
Jacobs, D. J. 1999. Introduction to Atmospheric
Chemistry. Princeton University Press, 264 p.
Manahan, S. E. 2009. Environmental Chemistry,
9th Ed. CRC Press, 783 p.
Sawyer, C. N., P. L. McCarty and G. F. Parkin.
2003. Chemistry for Environmental Engineering and Science, 5th ed.; McGraw-Hill: New
York.
Sparks, D. L. 2002. Environmental Soil Chemistry,
2nd Ed. Academic Press, New York, 352 p.
Sposito, G. 2008. The Chemistry of Soils, 2nd Ed.
Oxford University Press, New York, 344 p.
Stumm, W. and J. J. Morgan. 1996. Aquatic
Chemistry 3rd Ed. Wiley-Interscience, New
York, 1022 p.
Addendum-B15Environmental Scientist Certification Study Guide
Environmental Scientist Specialty:
Environmental Microbiology
Exam Scope
This exam focuses on the fundamental principles of microbial growth and metabolism and
their applications to environmental processes in
natural and human-impacted environments, including natural waters, wastewater, and soils. The
exam includes such topics as microbially-caused
diseases, measurements (detection methods), epidemiology, microbial community structure and
federal regulations (e.g., water quality standards)
regarding microorganisms in the environment.
Details on Topical Areas
The exam includes questions in seven major
topical areas related to environmental microbiology, as described below. Within each of the areas,
potential sub-topics for questions are included in
the outline below, but not every sub-topic is covered in any given BCES exam on environmental
microbiology.
Applications
Drinking water: Pathogens and Indicators; measurement (MPN, CFU, direct count. molecular methods); disinfection (Chick’s law and
related); bio-filtration and other biological
drinking water treatment processes
Wastewater: Relationship between process design/operation and microbiology (sludge retention time, aeration); biodegradation rates,
growth rates; nitrification/denitrification;
phosphorus accumulating organisms; digester
microbiology; biodegradation and biosorption of trace organic compounds
Surface Water: eutrophication; bioaccumulation
Groundwater: subsurface microbiology; in situ
bioremediation
Biogeochemical Cycling
Carbon cycle; nitrogen cycle (nitrogen fixation
etc.); Sulfur cycle; other element cycles (P, Fe,
heavy metals)
Basics
Microbial Environments
Prokaryotes (Bacteria, Archaea); Eukaryotes
(pathogenic protozoans, fungi); algae; viruses; cell components and roles; metabolism
basics heterotrophy, autotrophy, chemolithotrophy, respiration, electron donor/acceptor,
DNA/RNA/protein, membranes)
Airborne microbes, bio-aerosols, spores; food/agriculture; bioleaching; microbial aspects of ecosystem assessments; GHG production; survival
Microbial Community Structure
Biofilms and attached growth; suspended populations
Health and Risk
Antibiotic resistance; epidemiology; exposure
routes; infectivity
Regulations related to microorganisms
Agencies (USDA, EPA, CDC); laws and statutes
Sample Questions (correct answers in
boldface)
1.
Which of the following is true about
biological nitrogen fixation?
A. All bacteria are capable of nitrogen
fixation.
B. Only bacteria are capable of nitrogen
fixation.
C. Ecosystem productivity is rarely limited
by fixed forms of nitrogen.
D. Nitrogen fixation is the enzymatic
reduction of N2 to NH3.
E. The key enzyme for most nitrogen
fixation is a hydrogenase.
Addendum-B17Environmental Scientist Certification Study Guide
2.
Disinfection by chlorination:
A. Is the same as sterilization
B. Is independent of contact time with the
microorganisms
C. Is tolerated by bacteria more than fungi
D. Is independent of temperature
E. Can produce toxic chlorination byproducts
3.
Which of the following does not contribute
to the rise in antibiotic resistance of
microorganisms?
A. The use of antibiotics in animal feed
B. Overuse of antibiotics in clinical
settings
C. Genetic mutations
D. Use of antiseptics
E. Plasmid transfer
4.
Viruses:
A. Can persist in cells for long periods of
time.
B. Can cause recurrent disease.
C. Depend on a compatible host cell to
replicate.
D. Consist of an RNA or DNA core
surrounded by a protein coat.
E. All of the above.
5.
The susceptibility of chlorinated hydrocarbons
to biodegradation is independent of the:
A.
B.
Toxicity of the hydrocarbon molecule.
Enzymatic capabilities of the
microorganisms.
C. Degree of lipophilicity of the
molecules.
D. Oxygen content of the surroundings.
E. Nutrient composition of the
surroundings.
Environmental Scientist Certification Study Guide
References
The following references are representative of
the technical literature with which candidates for
the environmental microbiology specialty exam
should be familiar.
Atlas, R.M. 1997. Principles of Microbiology,
Wm. C. Brown, Dubuque IA.
Atlas, R. M. and R. Bartha. 1992. Hydrocarbon
biodegradation and oil spill bioremediation,
Advances in Microbial Ecology 12(6): 287338.
Costerson, J. W., Z. Lewendowski, D. E.
Caldwell, D. R. Korber, and H. M. LappinScott.1995. Microbial biofilms. Ann. Rev.
Microbiology 49:711-746.
Eaton, A. D., L. S. Clesceri, E. W Rice, and A. E.
Greenberg (Eds). 2005. Standard Methods for
the Examination of Water and Wastewater,
American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, Water Environment Federation (21st edition), Washington,
D.C.
Ehrlich, H. L. 1995. Geomicrobiology. Marcel
Dekker, New York, NY.
Gentry, T., R. M. Maier, I. L. Pepper, and C. P.
Gerba. 2009. Environmental Microbiology,
2nd Ed., Academic Press, Burlington.
Glick, B. R., J. J. Pasternak, and C. L. Patten.
2009. Molecular Biotechnology: Principles
and Applications of Recombinant DNA, 4th
Ed., ASM Press, 1000 p.
Madigan, M. T., J. M. Martinko, D. Stahl, and. P.
Clark. 2010. Brock Biology of Microorganisms, 13th Ed., Benjamin, Cummings, 1152 p.
Rose, J. B., C. P. Gerba, and W. Jakubowski.
1991. Survey of potable water supplies for
Cryptosporidium and Giardia. Environ. Sci.
Technol. 25: 1393.
Woese, C. R. and R. S Wolfe (Eds.). 1985. The
Archaebacteria, Academic Press, Orlando FL.
Addendum-B18
Environmental Scientist Specialty:
Environmental Toxicology
Exam Scope
Sample Questions
This exam focuses on the principles and methods of the integrated science of environmental
toxicology. It covers the two major areas of hazard
evaluation–harmful effects of chemical, biological and physical agents on humans, wildlife, and
other fauna and flora, and exposure assessment,
including sources, transport, behavior and fate
of toxic substances in the environment. Relevant
laws and regulations related to the control and
management of toxic materials also are covered
as are risk assessment principles.
The test items are general in nature and are designed to test the candidate’s overall knowledge of
the field rather than his or her memory of handbook or reference data, current costs or values, or
items that may be regional in scope or not nationally accepted. Samples of typical test questions
follow; correct answers are bolded.
1.
A. Urinary
B. Urinary and fecal
C.Exhalation
D. Perspiration and lacrimation
E. Exhalation, perspiration and
lacrimation
Details on Topical Areas
The exam includes questions in the 15 topical
areas described below. Within some areas, potential sub-topics for questions are included, but
not every sub-topic is covered in any given BCES
exam on environmental toxicology.
1. History
2. Toxicity: definitions and fundamentals
3. Toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics
4.Bioconcentration, bioaccumulation, biomagnification
5.Dose-response relationships, including
graphics and statistical considerations
6. Exposure analysis: routes, factors affecting,
analytical methods, modeling
7. Hazards: acute, chronic, endocrine disruption, developmental, toxicity testing
8. Risk assessment and risk management
9.Environmental contaminants, e.g., pesticides, metals, organic compounds, radiation
10.Ecotoxicology, including biomarkers
11.Human health: lethal and sub-lethal doses,
developmental issues, global issues
12.Mechanisms and modes of action
13.Target organ toxicity
14.Fate, transport and biotransformation
15.Regulations and policies
The majority of xenobiotic compounds are
excreted through which route(s)?
2.
A dose of 4 mg of an insecticide causes 20%
toxicity whereas the same dose of another
insecticide produces 30% toxicity. If 8 mg
of a formulation containing both insecticides
in equal concentrations causes 50% toxicity,
the interaction is known as?
A.Additivity
B.Antagonism
C.Synergism
D.Potentiation
E.Resistance
Addendum-B19Environmental Scientist Certification Study Guide
3.
4.
The NOEC is a curious concept in
ecotoxicology. Its “misuse” for scientific
and regulatory applications is illustrated by
which of the following?
municating with fellow practitioners. Candidates
may find the following publications helpful in preparing for the exam:
A. Poorly conducted tests with high
variability lead to ultra-protective
NOECs
B. The higher the sample size, the higher
the NOEC
C. The value of the NOEC depends
on the choice of exposure
concentrations
D. The value of the NOEC does not
depend on the statistical significance
level
E. The actual level of effect at the NOEC
is normally predictable between
individual tests
Klaassen, C. and J. B. Watkins, IIII. 2010. Casarett
and Doull’s Essentials of Toxicology, 2nd Ed.
McGraw-Hill Publ., NY, 472 p. (paperback).
Klaassen, C. 2007. Casarett & Doull’s Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons, 7th Ed.,
McGraw-Hill Publ., NY, 1280 p. (8th edition
available in 2013).
Kubasek, N. K. and G. S. Silverman. 2010. Environmental Law, 7th Ed. Prentice Hall, 480 p.
(paperback) (8th edition available in 2013).
Wright, D. A. and P. Welbourn. 2002. Environmental Toxicology. Cambridge Environ.
Chem. Series No. 11, Cambridge University
Press, UK, 658 p. (paperback).
Hughes, W. W. 1996. Essentials of Environmental Toxicology: Environmentally Hazardous
Substances & Human Health. CRC Press,
Boca Raton, FL. Available as free e-book from
http://www.scribd.com/doc/72516333/Essentials-of-Environmental-Toxicology.
Newman, M. C. 2009. Fundamentals of Ecotoxicology, 3rd Ed. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL,
571 p.
Newman, M. C. 2012. Quantitative Ecotoxicology, 2nd Ed. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 592
p.
DDT acutely affects which target organ(s)?
A.Kidney
B. Heart
C. Liver
D. Lungs
E.CNS/PNS
5.
If compound X is a weak acid with a pKa of
10 and is discharged into an acidified pond
(i.e. pH 2), which of the following are true?
A. Compound X will likely be rapidly
degraded
B. Compound X will likely be absorbed
by biota
C. Compound X will not be absorbed by
biota
D. Compound X will likely volatilize from
the pond
E. Compound X will likely float on the
surface of the pond
References
Answers to all of the test items on the exam
may not be located in textbooks or even in the
references listed below. Some answers may represent the kind of information that an expert tends
to acquire through real-world experience, such as
keeping abreast of environmental sustainability by
reading periodicals, attending seminars, or comEnvironmental Scientist Certification Study Guide
Addendum-B20
Environmental Scientist Specialty:
Groundwater and the Subsurface Environment
Exam Scope
This exam is focused on the understanding of
groundwater under both natural and contaminated conditions. Fundamental principles, such
as groundwater occurrence, hydraulics, and geochemistry, are coupled with issues related to contamination, such as sampling, non-aqueous phase
liquids, solute transport, and principles of bioremediation.
Details on Topical Areas
The exam includes questions in four major
topical areas related to groundwater, as described
below. Within each of the topics, potential subtopics for questions are included in the outline
below, but not every sub-topic is covered in any
given BCES exam on groundwater.
Physical Hydrogeology
Geologic controls to groundwater occurrence and
movement
Flow paths in karst aquifers
Groundwater/surface water relationships
Groundwater Hydraulics (head/pressure, flow
direction/ velocity)
Contaminant Hydrogeology
Contaminant types and Characteristics
Organic contaminant and inorganic contaminant
fate and transport
Solute transport
Non-aqueous phase liquids including both light
non-aqueous phase liquids (LNAPL) and
dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPL)
Geo/Biochemistry
Basic aqueous chemistry: equilibria, acid-base,
redox, kinetics, complexation
Microbiology and Biogeochemistry
Groundwater geochemistry
Isotope tracing of groundwater processes
Remediation
Groundwater remediation including monitored
natural attenuation
Geologic/geochemical controls on remedy choice
and effectiveness
Well spacing considerations and capture zones
Groundwater sampling and analysis
Sample Questions (correct answers in
bold)
1.
One can delineate between conduit and
diffuse flow pathways in karst aquifers by
A. The responsiveness of water levels in
wells to storm events
B. The responsiveness of spring flow to
storm events
C. The extent to which groundwater
conductivity changes in response to
storm events
D. All of the above
E. None of the above
2. Compared to plume that has a chemical
retardation factor of 2, the chemical
retardation factor of a plume that has an
organic carbon partitioning coefficient twice
as high will have a chemical retardation
factor of:
A.1.5
B.2.0
C.2.5
D.3.0
E. Cannot be determined with
information provided
Addendum-B21Environmental Scientist Certification Study Guide
3. A solute migrates into low-permeability
clay that has a hydraulic conductivity, K,
dispersion coefficient, D, and under a
hydraulic gradient, i. The migration rate
of the solute into the clay will be mainly a
function of which of the following:
7.
A.K
B. D
C.I
D.K1/2
E. D1/2
4.
5.
5 mg/L
1 Ојg/L
1 mg/L
2 Ојg/L
5 Ојg/L
8.
Within the core of a given NAPL body, the
saturation is measured using Dean Stark
method of approximately 40%. Assuming
the NAPL is in a medium sand with a porosity
of 30%, with 15% as fines, what percent of a
unit volume of sand is NAPL?
A.40%
B.12%
C.15%
D.30%
E. None of the above
6.
A.9.26
B.7.63
C.2.59
D.9.10
E.7.00
Benzene has an USEPA maximum
contaminant level (MCL) in drinking water of
the following:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Which of the following expressions is
not typically related to controlling the
relationships of carbon dioxide, alkalinity,
and pH in natural waters?
A. CO2 + H2O ↔ H2CO3 ↔ HCO3 + H
B. Ca(HCO3)2 ↔ Ca2+ + 2HCO3C.CaCl2 → Ca2+ + 2ClD. HCO3- ↔ H+ + CO32E. CO32- + H2O ↔ HCO3- + OH-
Environmental Scientist Certification Study Guide
+
Acetic acid (CH3COOH), a fairly typical
organic acid produced in anaerobic
fermentation processes, is a common
constituent in reducing groundwater
environments along with its conjugate
base acetate (CH3COO-). The acidity (i.e.,
ionization) constant pKa for acetic acid
is 4.74 at 25В°C. What is the associated
basicity constant, pKb for acetate at the same
temperature?
Meteoric waters vary in their H and O
isotopic composition as a function of
A. Latitude
B.Evaporation
C.Altitude
D. Atmospheric temperature
E. All of the above
9. Inferences about the age of a groundwater
sample
based
on
carbon-14
(14C)
measurements:
A. Are accurate over the past 2 million
years
B. Are based on analysis of dissolved CH4
in a water sample
C. Are impacted by dissolution of
carbonate minerals in an aquifer
D. All of the above
E. None of the above
10. The name of the only genus of bacteria
isolated known to be capable of complete
reductive dechlorination is:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Pseudomonas
Dehalococcoides
Arthrobacter
Dechloromonas
Dehalobacter
Addendum-B22
References
Alvarez P. J. J. and W. Illman. 2006. Bioremediation and Natural Attenuation of Groundwater
Contaminants: Process Fundamentals and
Mathematical Models. J. Wiley & Sons. ISBN
No. 0-471-65043-9. 608 p.
Appelo, C. A. J. and D. Postma. 1993. Geochemistry, Groundwater and Pollution. A. A.
Balkema Publishers, Rotterdam. 536 p.
Brezonik, P. L. and W. A. Arnold. 2011. Water
Chemistry. An Introduction to the Chemistry
of Natural and Engineered Aquatic Systems.
Oxford University Press, New Work, 782 p.
Domenico, P. A. and F. W. Schwartz. 1998.
Physical and Chemical Hydrogeology. WileyInterscience, New York, 506 p.
Fetter, C. W. Applied Hydrogeology. 2001. Prentice Hall, New Jersey, 598 p.
Fetter, C. W. 2008. Contaminant Hydrogeology.
Waveland Press Inc., Longrove, Illinois, 500 p.
Freeze, R. A. and J. A. Cherry. 1979. Groundwater. Prentice Hall, New Jersey, 604 p.
Interstate Technology & Regulatory Council
LNAPLs Team. 2009. Evaluating LNAPL
Remedial Technologies for Achieving Project
Goals. ITRC, Washington. D.C.
Interstate Technology & Regulatory Council
Bioremediation of DNAPLs Team. 2008. In
Situ Bioremediation of Chlorinated Ethene:
DNAPL Source Zones. ITRC, Washington,
D.C.
National Research Council. Committee on
Source Removal of Contaminants in the
Subsurface. 2004. Contaminants in the
Subsurface: Source Zone Assessment and
Remediation. NRC Press, Washington, D.C.
Pankow, J. F. and J. A. Cherry. 1996. Dense
Chlorinated Solvents. Waterloo Press. 522 p.
Schwarzenbach R. P., P. M. Gschwend, and D.
M. Imboden. 2005. Environmental Organic
Chemistry. John Wiley & Sons, New York.
1328 p.
Snoeyink, V. L. and D. Jenkins. 1980. Water
Chemistry. Wiley-Interscience, New York,
463 p.
Addendum-B23Environmental Scientist Certification Study Guide
Environmental Science Specialty:
Surface Water Resources
Exam Scope
This exam covers drinking water and wastewater treatment; source and receiving water quality;
sources and effects of pollution from stormwater;
and the legal/regulatory framework for water resources and watershed management. In addition
to treatment technologies for water and wastewater, the exam includes sustainable design concepts
and relevant aspects of the chemistry, biology, microbiology, fate and transport, and sampling and
measurement methods of pollutants in water and
wastewater.
Details on Topical Areas
The exam includes questions in five major topical areas related to surface water resources, as described below. Within each of the areas, potential
sub-topics for questions are included in the outline below, but not every sub-topic is covered in
any given BCES exam on surface water resources.
Potable water
Treatment technologies and management (traditional as well as membrane processes)
Distribution systems
Residuals management (solid, liquid, and gas)
Codes, standards, regulations and guidelines
Sustainable design
Stormwater
Sources of pollution
Treatment technologies and management
Collection systems
Codes, standards, regulations and guidelines
Water Resources
Sources of pollution
Codes, standards, regulations and guidelines
Watershed management and planning
Source supply and protection
Well issues (sustained yield, contamination, recharge, etc.)
Sample Questions
Basic Principles
Chemistry
Biology/microbiology (coliforms, E. coli, Cryptosporidium, Giardia, etc.)
Fate and transport
Sampling and measurement methods
Hydrology/hydrogeology
Corrosion and deposition
1. The commonly used test for detection of
biological contamination in water involves
estimating the number of microorganisms of
which group?
A. Aerobacter
B. Helminths
C. Cryptosporidium
D.Coliforms
E. Giardia
Wastewater
Sources of pollution and minimization/prevention
Treatment technologies and management (traditional treatment and advanced treatment)
Collection systems
Residuals management (solid, liquid, and gas)
Codes, standards, regulations and guidelines
Reclaimed water
Sustainable design
2.
Which of the following is not commonly
associated with wastewater pre-treatment?
A. Bar racks
B. Grit chambers
C. Flow equalization
D. Macerators
E.Nitrification/denitrification
Addendum-B25Environmental Scientist Certification Study Guide
3.
Which of the following is not a correct
statement regarding alkalinity?
A. Below pH ~4.5, essentially all of
the carbonate species are present as
H2CO3*, and the alkalinity is negative.
B. At a pH 8.3, most of the carbonate
species is present as HCO3-, and the
alkalinity equals HCO3-.
C. At a pH greater than 8.3, most of
the carbonate species are present
as HCO3-, and the alkalinity equals
HCO3-.
D. Above a pH of 12.3, essentially all of
the carbonate species are present as
CO3-2, and the alkalinity equals 2
[CO3-2] + [OH-].
E. Alkalinity is defined as the sum of
all titratable bases and found by
experimentally determining how much
acid it takes to lower the pH of water
to ~4.5.
4.
Trihalomethanes (THMs) are formed when
water containing an organic precursor is
chlorinated. Which of the following is not a
THM?
A.Bromodichloromethane
B.Chloroform
C.Dibromochloromethane
D.Bromoform
E. Vinyl chloride
5. The time of concentration as related to
stormwater is defined as:
A. The time of arrival of the peak
discharge as determined in the unit
hydrograph method
B. The time required for direct runoff from
the hydraulically closest part of the
drainage area to the watershed outlet
C. The time required for direct runoff
from the hydraulically most remote
part of the drainage area to the
watershed outlet
D. A direct unit hydrograph resulting from
a unit of precipitation excess over a
watershed for a unit period of time
E. None of the above
Environmental Scientist Certification Study Guide
6. Several processes can be used for sludge
treatment in wastewater. Which one of the
following processes is not used for sludge
treatment?
A.
Greenfield anoxic sludge
biodegradation process
B.Thickening
C.Stabilization
D.Conditioning
E.Dewatering
7.
Lakes undergo thermal stratification in
the northern part of the US. Which is not
commonly used to refer to a layer of a
thermally stratified lake?
A.Epilimnion
B. Hypolimnion
C.Mesolimnion
D.Thermocline
E. All of the above
References
Botkin, D. B. and E. A. Teller. 2011. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet, 8th Ed. J.
Wiley, New York, 752 p. Brezonik, P. L. and W. A. Arnold. 2011. Water
Chemistry. An Introduction to the Chemistry
of Natural and Engineered Aquatic Systems.
Oxford University Press, New York, 782 p.
Davis, M. L. and D. A. Cornwell. 2008. Introduction to Environmental Engineering, 4th Ed.,
McGraw-Hill, 1008 p.
Davis, M. L. 2011. Water and Wastewater Engineering: Design Principles and Practice,
McGraw-Hill.
Masters, G. M. and W. P. Ela. 2007. Introduction
to Environmental Engineering and Science,
3rd Ed., Prentice Hall, 720 p.
Hammer, M. J. and M. J. Hammer, Jr. 2008.
Water and Wastewater Technology, 6th Ed.
Prentice Hall, 553 p.
Metcalf & Eddy, Inc. 2003. Wastewater Engineering: Treatment and Reuse, 4th Ed., McGrawHill, 1819 p.
Novotny, V. 2002. Water Quality: Diffuse Pollution and Watershed Management. Wiley, 888
p.
Addendum-B26
Environmntal Scientist Specialty:
Sustainability Science
Exam Scope
This exam tests the applicant’s understanding of
the science underlying basic concepts of environmental sustainability. The exam also includes some
economic and social aspects of sustainability.
Details on Topical Areas
The exam includes questions in six major topical areas related to environmental sustainability
science, as described below. Within each of the
major areas, potential sub-topics for questions are
included in the outline below, but not every subtopic is covered in any given BCES exam on sustainability science.
General Competencies
Triple bottom line
Life cycle analysis
Energy: efficiency, economics, and energy balances; clean production
Global climate change: biogenic and anthropomorphic GHG emissions, mitigation/adaptation plans, cap and trade
Carbon: global cycle, carbon footprint calculations, CO2 production, carbon neutrality,
carbon offsets and validation
Pollutants: toxicity and persistence, detoxification
of wastes, natural attenuation (assimilation),
mass transport basics (understanding of cross
media impacts)
Resource issues: global cycles of major elements,
global resources shortages, integrated resource planning
Public health/environmental hazard nexus and
human and ecological health standards
Social issues: responsibility/awareness, corporate
social responsibility
Economic planning, sustainable business planning/operations, management systems, and
compliance management systems
Sustainability reporting, verification and assurance
Water Resources and Wastewater
Water resource/supply planning (total water management)
Water footprints, use efficiency, conservation, and
reuse (recycling)
Watershed/groundwater vulnerabilities and management
Stormwater management, green practices, retention and reuse
Wastewater treatment: adaptation and mitigation
in wastewater treatment, decentralized treatment, nutrient removal, energy production
from digester gas
Drinking water treatment: source control and
IWW limits to POTWs, chemical usage and
conservation, disinfection options, waterborne illnesses
Air
Greenhouse gas sources, regulations, and control
methods
Energy efficiency/conservation
Carbon capture and storage/sequestration, cap
and trade, carbon offsets and validation
GHGs: relative impacts, atmospheric reactions,
long-term persistence
Emissions of other pollutants, including criteria
and toxic pollutants
Indoor air quality (VOCs and mold); odor potential/mitigation
Energy
Energy sources (conventional, alternative, renewable), economics
Energy storage
Energy audits and demand management
Energy efficiency and alternative transportation
systems
Addendum-B27Environmental Scientist Certification Study Guide
Development
3.
Green Building rating systems
Land use management, low-impact development,
siting and layout of projects
Social and environmental impact assessment
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Solid and Hazardous Waste Management
Waste management—reduction, reuse, recycling;
waste minimization, ultimate disposal and
neutralization
Materials recovery
Sustainable landfill operation
Conversion to energy, biogas to energy, methane
recovery
Solids stabilization and composting
Pollution prevention
Brownfield development
Toxicity and persistence of pollutants, non-toxic
or less toxic chemical alternatives
Risk assessment basics
Sample Questions (correct answers in
boldface)
1.
Which of the following is not a greenhouse
gas?
A. Nitrous oxide
B. Sulfur hexafluoride
C.Ozone
D. Water
E. All are greenhouse gases
2.
According to most projections, which impact
is not considered a possible occurrence due
to climate change?
A. Increased intensity of hurricanes and
storms
B. Increased frequency of earthquakes
and tsunamis
C. Increased frequency and intensity of
local ambient urban ozone levels
D. Alternating periods of increased
flooding and drought conditions in the
same area
E. Increased exposure to infectious
diseases
Environmental Scientist Certification Study Guide
Assume that the Earth has a forty year supply
of crude oil at the current extraction rate of
85 million barrels per day. It is estimated that
it takes natural processes 100 million years
to make crude oil. What is the sustainable
extraction rate of crude oil?
4.
Unknown; we’ll always find more.
34 barrels per day
About 12,000 barrels per day
310 barrels per day
2,500,000 barrels per day
Which of the following most closely
represents a typical green roof cross section
from bottom to top?
A.
Roof structure, waterproof
membrane, drainage layer, root
barrier, filter fabric, growing medium,
plants.
B. Roof structure, root barrier, waterproof
membrane, filter fabric, drainage layer,
growing medium, plants.
C. Roof structure, root barrier, waterproof
membrane, drainage layer, filter fabric,
growing medium, plants.
D. Roof structure, waterproof membrane,
root barrier, drainage layer, filter fabric,
growing medium, plants.
E. Roof structure, waterproof membrane,
filter fabric, drainage layer, root barrier,
growing medium, plants
5. The aerobic bacteria in activated sludge
convert organic contaminants into more
bacterial cells, CO2, water and energy. What
is the likely fate of CO2 produced?
A. Dissolution as carbonate.
B. Formation of bubbles, causing sludge
to float in the clarifier.
C. Some evolution to atmosphere plus
dissolution as carbonates.
D. Reuse by bacteria as a carbon source.
E. Winds up in the atmosphere as a
greenhouse gas.
Addendum-B28
6.
7.
What is the largest deterrent to reusing
tertiary treated municipal wastewater for
residential landscape irrigation?
may find the following publications helpful in preparing for the examination.
A. Odor
B. Potential health impacts from trace
pollutants such as EDCs, metals etc.
C. New water distribution and storage
costs
D. Limited public ROW to facilitate
construction and operation
E. Additional operational and
maintenance costs
Abraham, M. A. A. 2006. Sustainability Science
and Engineering: Defining Principles, Vol. 1.
Elsevier.
Allen, D. T. and D. R. Shonnard. 2011.
Sustainability Engineering: Concepts, Design
and Case Studies. Pearson College Div., 223 p.
Blackburn, W. R. 2008. The Sustainability Handbook, Eli Press.
Cheremisinoff, N. P.2001. Handbook of Pollution
Prevention Practices, Marcel Dekker, Inc.
Ehrenfeld, J. R. 2008. Sustainability by Design,
Yale University Press.
Epstein, M. J. 2008. Making Sustainability Work,
Berrett Koehler.
Esty, D. C. and A. S. Winston. 2006. Green to
Gold, John Wiley & Sons.
Graedel, T. E. H. and B. R. Allenby. 2002. Industrial Ecology, 2nd Ed. Prentice-Hall, 363 p.
Graedel, T. E. H. and B. R. Allenby. 2009. Industrial Ecology and Sustainable Engineering,
Prentice-Hall.
Hitchcock, D. and M. Willard. 2008. The Step by
Step Guide to Sustainability Planning, Earthscan.
James, S. and T. Lahti. 2004. The Natural Step for
Communities, New Society Publishers.
Laszlo, C. 2008. Sustainable Value: How the
World’s Leading Companies are Doing Well
by Doing Good, Stanford Business Books,
Greenleaf Publishing.
Maser, C. 1999. Vision and Leadership in Sustainable Development, Lewis Publishers.
McDonough, W. and M. Braumgart. 2002. Cradle to Cradle: Remaking the Way We Make
Things, North Point Press.
Robert, K.-H. 2002. The Natural Step, New catalyst Books.
Savitz, A. W. 2006. The Triple Bottom Line,
Jossey-Bass Publishing.
Theisen, H. and S. A. Vigil. 1993. Integrated Solid
Waste Management Engineering Principles
and Management Issues, McGraw Hill.
Wallace, B. 2005. Becoming Part of the Solution: The Engineers Guide to Sustainable De-
Which type of emerging recycling,
processing, and collection system generally
leads to increased residential participation
and yields per household?
A. Dual stream recycling
B. Blue bag collections
C. Co-collection (MSW and recyclables
together)
D. Single-stream recycling
8.
The Rubber Manufacturers Association
reports that about 300 million tires were
discarded in the U.S. in 2007. Scrap tire
management is a huge recurring problem.
From an environmental sustainability
standpoint, how would you properly manage
this recurring disposal problem?
A. In road building
B. As a subsurface in playgrounds
C. Use to facilitate drainage of leachate in
landfills and septic tanks
D. Process and use them as a light weight
fill to prevent erosion and landslides
E. All of the above
References
Answers to all of the questions on the exam
may not be located in textbooks or even in the
references listed below. Some answers may represent the kind of information that experts tend
to acquire through real-world experience, such as
keeping abreast of environmental sustainability by
reading periodicals, attending seminars, or communicating with fellow practitioners. Candidates
Addendum-B29Environmental Scientist Certification Study Guide
velopment. American Council of Engineering
Companies, Washington, DC, 209 p.
Willard, B. 2009. The Sustainability Champion’s
Guidebook, New Society Publishers.
Wirtenberg, J. (Ed.). 2009. The Sustainable Enterprise Fieldbook, Greenleaf Publishing.
Environmental Scientist Certification Study Guide
Addendum-B30
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