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Crypto Secrets – How to Communicate Secretly - S pirit S elf

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“Big Brother” is Listening…
Crypto Secrets – How to Communicate
Secretly
by Jim Saboe
Echelon is perhaps the most powerful intelligence
gathering organization in the world. Reports
suggest that this network is being used to spy on
private citizens everywhere, including on the
Internet.
– American Civil Liberties Union 1999
“Is it paranoia if they really ARE listening?”
- Jim Petersen
В© Copyright 2004, Ariza Research, All rights reserved - ABP
The Problem
As we enter the new millennium we have good
reason to be paranoid. According to those in the
know, there are snoops everywhere. Today
business competitors, hackers, personal enemies,
law enforcement, the federal government and just
plain crazy people are all out there listening.
Everytime you use any form of modern electronic
communications, you should assume that someone
is trying to listen in.
Virtually every form of electronic communication is
in jeopardy including:
Telephones
Internet email
Cellular Phones
Citizen’s Band or other portable radios
Wireless Phones
Corporate email
Internet Surfing
And it’s sad to think that the biggest single snoop is
the federal government. The super-secret National
Security Agency (NSA) is clearly the nosiest
organization on the planet. They listen to virtually
everything. Their official agency charter is classified
and has never been published.
But how can they listen to so much traffic? Easy –
they use computers. By using modern screening
software, they can scan billions of messages or
phone calls searching for “key” words and phrases
they consider to be of interest.
If any of the targeted words are found in a
message, that message gets priority attention. The
recording of the message is forwarded to special
computer for more intense scrutiny.
If no targeted words are found, the message will be
retained in case priorities change but barring future
interest, it will probably end up being discarded. To
be entirely safe, you simply must assume that
every time you pick up your phone or send a
message via any electronic means, your good old
Uncle Sam is listening in.
The good news is that people are onto big brother’s
nefarious activities. As a result, the volume of
enciphered traffic has increased dramatically over
the last decade. This makes NSA’s job much more
difficult.
During a recent appearance in front of a senate
investigating committee, the Director of the FBI
whined “we can’t listen in to criminals anymore –
they’re all using encipherment software!” Of course
he wanted all public cryptography banned but how
do you put the toothpaste back in the tube?
The government shouldn’t be feared as they have
to get a search warrant before they can place a tap
on your phone – right? Not now. Under provisions
of the so-called “Patriot Act” the feds are free to tap
our phones with impunity. As a result the total
number of tapped phones has recently exploded.
Even if big brother illegally taps a phone, they can
accomplish their goal. While it’s still true that
nothing heard on an illegal tap can be used in
court, the information they gather from
conversations can lead to an arrest.
Let’s say the criminal arranges a drug deal while
the cops are listening. He says something like “I’ve
got the kilo of cocaine and I’ll meet you down at
Ralph’s Café at third and Elm in ten minutes”. The
police can then “just happen” to have an officer
stumble onto the deal at “random” and nab the
perpetrators as they step out of the establishment.
The criminal will wonder – but the police will just put
the arrest down to “good luck”. For this reason,
illegal wire taps are not all that unusual.
So how are you to go about communicating
securely in such an open book environment? I have
some good news for you. Technology is a twoedged sword that cuts both ways. While it helps the
snoops monitor and screen trillions of messages, it
also places new tools into the hands of freedomloving individuals with which they can communicate
in ways that will confound big brother.
And since the computing power of the average
personal computer has increased much more
rapidly that the power of the super-computers used
by the government, for the very first time we
individuals now have everything we need to
communicate privately.
The Unbreakable Crypto System
Despite some inflated advertising claims, no
cryptographic software is entirely unbreakable. Any
message that can be enciphered can be
deciphered - given enough computer power and
enough time. The “unbreakable” crypto system is,
like the unicorn, a myth.
That’s the bad news – now for some good news.
While you can’t make your messages entirely
unbreakable, you can take measures that will make
your messages so secure that it will take a snoop a
long, long time to “crack” and read them.
Today using readily available encryption tools you
can easily scramble an email message or computer
file in such a way that it would take all the
computers on the planet over 100 years to break it!
Anyone attempting to decipher such a message will
run out of patience and resources long before they
see any results.
Stick to the Rules
By using a set of easy to remember rules, you can
increase your security even more. Snoops will have
a very hard time reading your traffic. And that
includes our dear friends down at NSA - the
greatest snoop of all.
Uncle Sam has tons of Cray super-computers and
armies of mathematicians but even with all those
resources NSA won’t be able to read your mail - if
you stick carefully to the rules listed below.
Let me explain our situation in this way. Say you
had a valuable personal possession like a rare
antique vase. It’s worth a small fortune so naturally
you’re concerned that someone might want to steal
it. Is there anyway that you could ensure that this
valuable item would be entirely safe from theft?
There are a number of things you could do to
protect your possession. You could have a safe
installed somewhere in your home and store the
vase there. That would help. You could install a
technically sophisticated alarm system. You could
construct a big fence around your property
complete with security lighting.
You could also buy a trained guard dog or you
could even hire a licensed guard service to protect
your home on a 24-hour basis.
While no one of these security measures can
guarantee you absolute safety by itself, each
protective measure adds a level of difficulty which
makes it that much more difficult for a thief to steal
your vase. By employing all these various security
measures together - the net result is that your vase
is very, very secure. Not totally, but for all practical
purposes your vase is safe and sound.
The same sort of principle applies with
cryptography. While no single program can offer
you bullet-proof perfect security (despite their
inflated claims), by using them properly your
messages will be very highly secure even from
government intrusion.
Today there are a number of very “strong”
cryptographic programs readily available (some are
available for free on the Internet). By using several
of these newer, more effective programs together,
we can ensure that our private communications
stay just that - private.
Secure Communication Rules
So here are some rules that if used carefully, can
dramatically increase the security of your
communications.
Rule #1
Always use the best and “strongest” cryptographic
software. I’ll show you which programs to use and
which to avoid. And I’ll show you how to evaluate
their hype. The good news is that many of the best
programs are very affordable, easily obtainable and
easy-to-use.
Rule #2
For the very highest level protection - use double
encipherment. A single program just isn’t enough.
The snoops have constructed specialized computer
systems specifically engineered to break messages
enciphered using each of the most popular
encipherment programs.
By enciphering a message in one program and
then enciphering the scrambled result again using a
different second program, you drastically increase
your communications security.
Exactly how much does double encipherment
increase your security? Think of it in this way. If
your odds of winning the grand prize in the lottery
are one in fifteen million – what are the odds of you
winning the jackpot two days in a row?
Would you guess the odds would be say, one in
thirty million? You’d be wrong – the real odds of a
double win would be 15 million TIMES 15 million!
You don’t add the odds, instead you multiply them!
The same principle applied to cryptography. Double
enciphered messages are as close to unbreakable
as you can get.
While one program provides good protection, by
adding a second you can make it all but impossible
for a snoop to read your mail.
The soviet military used double encipherment all
through the cold war and according to top
historians it was never broken. Double
encipherment has withstood the most important
test, the test of time and that’s why it’s the gold
standard in the world of crypto.
Rule #3
When writing your messages, never use proper
language syntax, no matter what language you’re
using. If you keep your spelling and syntax exactly
correct, the strict format will make it a lot easier for
the snoops to break your messages.
This is because every language has a formal set of
syntax rules which can be exploited by snoops.
Always use unusual language structure and
punctuation in your messages.
For example, if your message is:
“I met with Henry today. He didn’t have the
package. He said to please have Sam
contact him to arrange delivery. See you
Tuesday night.”
Instead, scramble the spelling and sentence
structure while being sure that the original meaning
of the message is still clearly evident:
“met wiff henri this afterrnoooon----; He didnt hav
the stufff wiff him --- he sed to havv sammy
kontakkt him two arange deeliveree CU
twozdayXXXXXXX”
This second version clearly doesn’t adhere to any
established rules of language syntax and yet is still
understandable by anyone who can read English.
Anyone attempting to use language structure to
crack such a message would soon become very
frustrated.
Also notice that each phrase/sentence didn’t end
with the usual period. This is yet another departure
from established language structure. Get into the
habit of using unusual punctuation. Dashes,
slashes, or strings of letters such as X can also be
used effectively.
If both parties in a link speak a second language, it
would be wise to mix the two languages freely.
Obviously each language has its own structural
rules. Spanish has quite a different structure than
English. Mixing the two would further enhance
communication security.
Rule #4
Always “salt” your messages. In this context salt
refers to strings of extra characters that have no
meaning but further enhance communication
security by breaking syntax rules even further. The
usual practice here is to add strings of unusual
characters at random intervals.
For example, If the message is”
“Talked with Peter today. He’s mad that he’s not
involved in the Smith deal. Can you talk to him?”
A modified and salted version would look
something like:
“talked two Petey twoday. XXXXXX hez madd
cause hes not in on the smitty deall. YYYYY Kan U
talkk to himm - questionmark
ZZZZZZZZZZOOOZZZZ44343”
Rule #5
Send “dummy” messages. From time to time send
a dummy message that contains only random
scrambled letters. Just tap away at the keyboard as
randomly as possible. Or use your favorite poem.
Snoops use a technique known as “Communication
Flow Analysis”. In this way they can learn more
than you might suspect about your operations
without actually having to break your cipher and
read your messages.
By sending dummy messages, you make it all but
impossible to learn anything from your traffic flow.
When things are slow you might want to consider
sending some dummy messages. This might give a
snoop the idea that you’re busy when you’re really
not. And at the same time mask periods of
increased activity.
Rule #6
Change things from time to time. Always change
your encryption password regularly. Be sure to
change it before sending a particularly sensitive
message.
Make sure your password is as secure as possible.
You’ll find directions for creating truly powerful
passwords elsewhere in this report.
You may want to also change the encryption
software you use every two months or so just to
keep the snoops off balance.
Rule #7
Use private untraceable web-based mailboxes.
There are a number of firms on the Internet that will
allow you to set up relatively anonymous email
accounts with them. Hotmail, ZipLip and Yahoo are
several of the larger outfits that offer this valuable
service.
With them you can set up numerous mail accounts,
send and receive email through them and later
replace them with new ones. You can create as
many different email addresses as you like and use
them in manner you choose.
You can open a mailbox, use it to send and/or
receive a few messages and then abandon it all
with no financial cost. Some others services are
located overseas which further enhances your
security. (Do a Google search on “foreign email
systems”)
When you sign up, provide the service with little or
no personal information. In particular, do not give
them your main email address when asked. If you
must provide an email address, use an anonymous
one from another free web-based system.
Hushmail
Check out Hushmail at www.hushmail.com. This is
a popular system and appears to be a very secure
system that employs sophisticated link encryption
that is transparent and extremely easy to use. The
security concern here is – exactly who runs this
system and what are they up to?
These boxes are very useful but I should warn you
that they will not shield you if you’re involved in
illegal activities. These outfits cooperate fully with
law enforcement officials.
You should also know that some of these services
have problems when it comes to handling larger
messages. So it’s always best to break your
message into numerous smaller messages.
If you use one of these services and are tempted to
add additional services such as increased storage
capacity, you should know that once you provide
them with your credit card number – your privacy is
gone.
Rule #8
Use secret codes whenever possible. This is an old
“mob” favorite. If you want to know if an associate
has completed a given task, have him use a code
that sounds routine and uninteresting to a snoop
but effectively communicates an important
message.
For example, if the task was completed on
schedule have your associate mention his “Aunt
Susan”. And if the task did not go off as planned,
have him mention his “Uncle Ralph”.
The snoop will never realize that meaningful data is
being exchanged right under his nose.
While it’s difficult to convey a lot of information in
this manner, it is very secure.
Rule #9
Use anonymous re-mailers whenever you want to
forward a message anonymously. These firms,
many of which are overseas, accept your email
message, strip it of all it’s identifying data and then
forward it on to it’s destination without any
identifying information attached. (Finland seems to
be a favorite location as the government there has
not yielded to US government pressure to close
down their anonymous re-mailers)
Uncle Sam has been applying heat to these guys
lately so you may have to look around a bit. Also
there is the issue of trust. Do you trust them?
Should you trust them? Sorry, can’t help you here.
Rule #10
Never, ever, under any circumstances re-use
passwords or keys. When you re-use a password
or key, you make the snoop’s job a whole lot
easier.
In both the first and second world wars, critical
battles were won and many brave soldiers died
needlessly because a crypto clerk got careless (or
simply ran out of new key) and re-used some old
material.
One Nazi clerk reused a German Enigma key one
morning and it allowed the allies to read several
tons of Hitler’s personal orders which shortened the
European war by months.
Also, you’re going to have to come up with a way to
share your password list with whomever you intend
to communicate with. Do not send a list of
passwords to your associate electronically. It’s just
not secure. Some send a CD full of random key
through the mail.
The best system is to meet in person and agree on
a list of passwords without ever mentioning them
on a phone or in an email message. If you’re
unable to do that, you should consider the “book
code” discussed below.
The Book Code
Here is a rather secure method of communicating
over any distance. You arrange to buy two copies
of the exact same edition of the same book.
Send one to your friend by the most secure system
possible (I prefer high-priority overnight shipment that doesn’t leave much time for government
scrutiny). Or have him buy his own copy locally just
be sure that it’s exactly the same book.
You can use this system to communicate the text of
a message or to effectively and secretly
communicate passwords for use with encipherment
software.
To communicate the proper password to your
associate, simply send him a fraction. The fraction
7/34 refers to the 34th word on the seventh page.
Anyone seeing your fraction will have no idea what
it means. They would have to know that you’re
using a book code and then know which of the
millions of books out there was used.
Your associate simply turns to page seven and
counts down to the 34th word - which is “courtyard”.
To increase the security of this system, don’t use
any of the top current best sellers or that old
favorite of spies – “Alice in Wonderland”. For best
results, always use a rather obscure book. Some
have found tables of old novels that didn’t sell in the
bargain department of a bookstore useful. The
books are both obscure and also very cheap.
Physical Security
When the government of one country cannot
penetrate the cryptographic system of another, they
attempt to gain access to one of their embassies in
an attempt to get a peek at the place.
They hope to catch a glimpse of a crypto clerk at
work, his equipment or even steal some of his
materials in order to increase their understanding of
the system they’re using.
And if they can’t see anything helpful, they may be
forced into casing the place for a later break-in.
If you can, do as little work as possible on any
system that is connected to the internet. Everything
on that system’s hard drive can be read through the
Internet under the right conditions.
The best approach here is to have two systems.
One system is connected to the Internet while the
second system is entirely disconnected from any
form of data transmission.
You keep all your most sensitive files on the standalone system. You encipher your messages on that
system and then when the file is ready for
transmission, place it on a diskette and hand carry
it to your Internet system for transmission.
When you receive a message over the Internet, do
the reverse. Pretend that any files on your Internet
connected system are open to inspection by
anyone who cares to look.
You can also store sensitive files on an external
IOMega backup cartridge drive. The cartridges can
be stored under lock and key and/or enciphered
using a strong crypto program like PGP.
Always keep as much of your communication
materials as possible under lock and key. Put as
little as possible on your hard drive and instead
store as much as you can on diskettes. If diskettes
don’t provide enough storage space you might
consider purchasing an external drive which
provides much more storage space on removable
cartridges that can be locked up under lock and
key.
Get a good safe installed, or hide your materials in
some out of the way place. I know one guy that
stores his stuff in his grandmother’s basement.
Other friends have chosen to keep their materials
at their side at all times.
In the end, your overall communication security is
only as good as your physical security.
One Time Pad
This is an old system that’s been around since the
days of world war I. It’s proven itself over and over
and is still of use today if you observe a few rules.
Unfortunately it’s rather cumbersome and time
consuming but believe me, it’s secure.
First you prepare your message text (clear text).
Then you reorganize it into five letter groups.
Then place your random key characters one under
each message character. Like this:
Message Text:
Random Key
HELLO THERE
QSJKK PEAXA
------------- -------------
Now you generate the encrypted characters that
you’ll send to your recipient. You do this by using
“triads”. For each two character combination there
is a single resultant character. (See the triad tables
at the end of this report)
For example, if the two letters are an H and a Q the
only resultant character (from the triad table) is the
letter C.
Message Text:
Random Key
Enciphered Text:
HELLO
QSJKK
------------CDFEB
THERE
PEAXA
-------------ROVLV
You send the enciphered text to your recipient. He
then reverses the process and the result is your
plain English message text.
Enciphered Text:
Random Key
Message Text:
CDFEB
QSJKK
------------HELLO
ROVLV
PEAXA
-------------THERE
The key to this system is simple yet elusive. The
letters on the pad (key text) must be as random as
possible. If you choose letters from the pages of a
newspaper, they will have the same distribution as
any letters in the English language. They’re not
anywhere near random and useless for our
purposes.
So how can you come up with some highly random
text against which you can encipher your
messages? There is a simple, inexpensive but
unfortunately it’s both cumbersome and time
consuming.
Buy a “spinner” from some board game. You know
the metal arrow spinner mounted on a piece of
cardboard. You spin the thing and it ends up
pointing in one direction. Draw a line down the
center of the board. Divide each half into 13
separate equal sized slots. Then write a single
letter in each division. Now you can spin away and
get a long list of very random letters.
Warning: An email message that’s made up of a
number of five letter groups will attract big brother’s
attention.
For the ultimate in protection, create your
enciphered message in a word processing file and
encipher the entire file using a strong crypto
program such as PGP.
The file can be loaded on a diskette and sent
anywhere in the world. The level of security is the
highest possible (assuming your random key is
truly random)
How to Evaluate Cryptographic Software
The Longer the Key the Better
The length of the key used by a particular software
package is of the utmost importance. Assuming the
key is highly random, the longer the key the better.
Even the addition of a single bit to the key could
make a substantial difference in how long it will
take a snoop to read your mail.
Many of the most popular email encryption
programs use keys shorter than 100 bits. While a
128 bit long key is considered to be “strong crypto”.
Programs that use a 56 key are much, much more
vulnerable. 256 bit key length would be ideal.
The other factor to take into consideration is the
basic formula or algorithm the program uses.
Actually the modern computer is not a very good
random number generator. Computers are very
precise and logical devices. They do math well but
when it comes to generating random numbers, they
leave a lot to be desired.
Though they’re supposed to be able to create
random numbers, the random numbers they
produce are actually very long sequences that
eventually repeat themselves. And since these
sequences are well known, their value as crypto
keys are very near worthless.
So just how would you go about coming up with
several thousand highly random numbers?
Remember these numbers must be both very
highly random and completely unpredictable. (If
they can be predicted with any degree of accuracy,
a snoop can create them just as you did and
quickly read your mail.
Let’s say that I have a one square yard piece of
plywood which I place outside just as it’s about to
start raining. The first drop hits the board slightly to
the left of the center of the board. Now, can you tell
me where on the board the next drop will land?
I didn’t think so. What if I gave you a million dollars
to spend – would that help you make the
prediction? No, it wouldn’t because there isn’t any
possible way you could go about calculating where
a drop that falls thousands of feet out of the sky will
hit. There are just too many variables involved
which makes any kind of calculation utterly
possible.
This little experiment illustrates an important point.
To come up with a really random number you’ll
have to use a natural process (like rain). Any
attempt to use a logical device like a computer
would, from the outset be doomed to failure. The
second and third drops fall in entirely random
places.
Another technique that takes advantage of a
natural process is the noise system. You take a
high-quality portable tape recorder with a built-in
microphone for a walk down a busy (and
presumably noisy) city street. What you end up with
is a long recording of random street noises.
No one on earth can exactly duplicate your tape
unless they were carrying the same brand of tape
recorder and walking within a few feet of you. And
since you could see that no one was walking along
with you, your tape is unique. The tape is then
played through a converter that converts the
random sounds into a stream of digital bits which
will provide a highly random key.
So how do the most successful PC crypto
programs come up with random numbers? They
use some very tricky tactics. PGP asks the user to
enter some info through the keyboard. Each
keystroke is used to generate a highly random
number.
Imagine a counter that counts from zero up to
65,535 and then starts over again automatically. It’s
constantly counting. When you hit a keyboard key
the counter is suddenly stopped at a particular
number.
Is there anyway to anticipate the number that
results? Each number is entirely random. Add
together a dozen such numbers and you get a
highly random number that is almost impossible to
predict.
And since each person has an almost unique typing
style, it’s almost impossible to accurately predict
how many milliseconds will elapse between each
keystroke. This is the main reason why PGP is
such a widely respected crypto program.
Crypto Programs and Their Reputations
Winzip password protection useful – quick and
easy to use but crypto protection is low-level, fine
for keeping amateurs out of your files.
Blowfish
No known effective attacks – appears to be very
strong
Widely tested
Cast
Strong – very effective
DES
Avoid – widely suspected that government has a
secret “back door” that allows fast and easy
penetration
GOST
Russian made algorithm. Not as widely tested as
some but appears to be quite secure.
IDEA
Good but expensive due to licensing being required
MARS
Appears strong
MISTY
Created by Mitsubishi Corp. – appears strong but
experts suspect it might have some weaknesses
RC6
Appears strong
RIJNDAEL
Public domain algorithm that appears to be very
strong
RSA
Developed at MIT – Very strong
SKIPJACK
Medium level protection due to limited key length
(80-bits)
TEA
Very fast algorithm – 128-bit key – public domain –
appears strong
TWOFISH
Has been extensively examined and has stood the
test of time. Very strong
One Time Pad “Triad” Tables
A
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V WX Y Z
A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A
Z Y X WV U T S R Q P O N M L K J I H G F E D C B A
B
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V WX Y Z
B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B
Y X WV U T S R Q P O N M L K J I H G F E D C B A Z
C
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V WX Y Z
C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C
X WV U T S R Q P O N M L K J I H G F E D C B A Z Y
D
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V WX Y Z
D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D
WV U T S R Q P O N M L K J I H G F E D C B A Z Y X
E
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V WX Y Z
E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E
V U T S R QP ON ML K J I H GF E D C B A Z Y X W
F
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V WX Y Z
F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F
U T S R Q P O N M L K J I H G F E D C B A Z Y X WV
G
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V WX Y Z
GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG
T S R Q P O N M L K J I H G F E D C B A Z Y X WV U
H
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V WX Y Z
H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H
S R Q P O N M L K J I H G F E D C B A Z Y X WV U T
I
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V WX Y Z
I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I
R Q P O N M L K J I H G F E D C B A Z Y X WV U T S
J
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V WX Y Z
J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J
Q P O N M L K J I H G F E D C B A Z Y X WV U T S R
K
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V WX Y Z
K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K
P O N M L K J I H G F E D C B A Z Y X WV U T S R Q
L
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V WX Y Z
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