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r ^ How to R econstruct Our Minds 677 - tw o weeks ago I spoke to

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R e c o n s t r u c t O ur M in d s
677
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t w o weeks a g o I sp oke t o y o u o f t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f a r e c e n t h o o k b y P r o f * James H a r v e y
R o b i n s o n , e n t i t l e d "T h e M in d i n t h e M a k in g " and o u t l i n e d f o r y o u t h e c o n t e n t s <3%* t h e b o o k .
I s a i d t o y o u t h e n t h a t i n my ju d g m e n t t h i s b o o k d e s e r v e d t o s t a n d f i r s t among t h e many b o o k s
o f t h i s p e r i o d d e a l i n g w i t h t h e , p r o b le m s o f r e c o n s t r u c t i o n ; a nd t h i s n o t b e c a u s e t h e a u t h o r
d i s c l o s e s o r even s u g g e s t s a n y p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l p r o g r a m , b u t b e c a u s e he l e a d s u s b a c k t o t h a t
w h ic h m ust p recede any i n t e l l i g e n t a tte m p t t o f o r m u la t e p ro g ra m s , and t h a t i s a r e c o n s t r u c t i o n
o f o u r m in d s , b ase d upo n a c l e a r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e e le m e n t s t h a t g o t o make u p t h e human
m i n d , and o f t h e f o r c e s t h a t u n d e r l i e human r e l a t i o n s h i p s .
And a f t e r I h a d f i n i s h e d t h i s
a d d r e s $ I was t h r i l l e d w i t h t h e sense o f t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f m a n 's 1 i f e upo n t h i s p l a n e t i n
s p i t e o f t h e ch a o s and c o n f u s i o n i n w h i c h he now f i n d s h i m s e l f , p r o v i d e d o n l y c e r t a i n c o n d i В­
t io n s a re f u l f i l l e d ,
^ow w h a t a r e t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s t h a t a r e so e s s e n t i a l t o t h e s o l u t i o n o f
o u r g r e a t p ro b le m s ?
You w i l l r e c a l l t h e a u t h o r ' s an a l y s e s o f t h
d i f f e r e n t k in d s o f t h i n k i n g
o f w h ic h th e
human b e i n g i s c a p a b l e .
T h e r e i s f i r s t o f a l l t h e R e v e r i e w h ic h i s common ana s p o n ta n e o u s t o
a l l m i n d s , and i n w h ic h t h e m a j o r i t y o f us i n d u l g e m o st o f t h e t i m e .
I t i s th e k in d o f t h i n k В­
i n g i n w h ic h i d e a s a r e a l l o w e d t o t a k e t h e i r c o u r s e ; a n d t ! i e c o u r s e t h e y u s u a l l y t a k e i s
d e t e r m i n e d by o u r l o v e s and h a t e s , o u r h o p e s and f e a r s , o u r p r e j u d i c e s and r e s e n t m e n t s .
A ll
t h o u g h t t h a t i s nd*%7 l a b o r i o u s l y c o n t r o l l e d and d i r e c t e d w i l l i n e v i t a b l y c i r c l e a b o u t o u r s e l v e s ^
E v e r y p e r s o n and o b j e c t we t h i n k a b o u t , we t h i n k o f i n r e l a t i o n t o o u r s e l v e s i n t h i s r e v e r i e .
T h e r e a r e a k s o t h e p r a c t i c a l d e c i s i o n s w h i c h we a r e c a l l e i u p o n t o make e v e r y d a y , w h i c h
nd o f more d e f i n i t e t h i n k i n g , b u t w h ic h u s u s a l l y do n o t add a n y t h i n g t o o u r
in te llig e n c e *
Then t h e r e i s . Ra t i o n a 1 i z i n g ^ # h ic h r e s u l t s i n w h a t we c a l l j o u r " c o n v i c t i o n " ,
our " p r in c ip le s '* , our " b e lie f s " .
T h i s i s what m o s t o f us w o u ld r e g a r d a s t- e a l t h i n k i n g , b u t
o u r a u t h o r p o i n t s o u t t h a t m o s t o f o u r s o c a l l o d r e a s o n i n g c o n s i s t s i n f i n d i n g a r g u m e n ts f o r
c o n t i n n i n g t o b e l i e v e as we a l r e a d y d o .
F-mv o f us e v e r i n q u i r e as t o t h e o r i g i n o f o u r b e l & e f :
we a r e i n c r e d i b l y c a r e l e s s as t o t h e i r f o r m a t i o n , b u t we a t once become b e l i g e r e n t i f a n y one
a t t a c k s th e m .
The s i m p l e f a c t i s t h a t m o s t o f o u r i d e a s i n r e l i g i o n , i n m o r a l s , r e g a r d i n g
p r o p e r t y and b u s i n e s s and o u r c o u n t r y a re o t h e r p e o p l e s and n o t o u r s a t a l l ; we h a ve s i m p l y
a d o p t e d th e m fr o m o t h e r s *
U n c o n s c i o u s l y ve a b s o r b them fr o m o u r e n v i r o n m e n t .
They a r e p e r s i s *
t e n t l y w h i s p e r e d i n t o o u r e a r s b y t h e g r o u p i n w h ic h we h a p p e n t o l i v e .
Thus i t i s t h a t t h e
b u l k o f o u r r e a s o n i n g i s r e a l l y t h e a t t e m p t t o j u s t i f y c u r own p e t o p i n i o n s and s p e c i a l p r e j u В­
d i c e s and n o t t h e d i s i n t e r e s t e d e f f o r t t p f i n d t h e t r u t h *
These t h r e e k i n d s o f t h i n k i n g , end v e r y few p e o p le e x p e r i e n c e any o t h e r k i n d , r a r e l y
l ^ a d t o ne.v k n o w le d g e , sol.do'^ d i s c l o s e t o ' us t h e t r u t h , s.nd p l a y l i t t l e o r no p a r t i n human
p ro g re ss.
Put t h e r e is a f o u r t h k in d o f t h i n k i n g ,
P r o f . R o b in s o n c a l l s C r e a t i v e T h i n k i n g
sH
How t o T h i n k '2
_
j
t o w h ic h t h e w o r l d owes an i n e s t i m a b l e d e b t *
i t i s t l r n s k i n d o f t h i n k i n g t h a t h a a f r a is a d man
fr o m h i s savage i g n o r a n c e and s q u a l o r t o t ! ; e d e g r e e o f k n o w le d g e and c o m f o r t w h ic n he now pose*
a e s a a s * P u t t h e r e h a ve bean o n l y a few i n e^ch g e n e r a t i o n -who h a v e shown t h e m s e l v e s c a p a b l e
o f doins? t h i s k i n d o f t h i n k i n g # h i c h h a s l e d t o t h e a d v a n c e o f humsn k n o w l e d g e .
The g r e a t
mass o f men have a lw a y s been c o n t e n t t o f o l l o w t h e c ro w d and t o r e f l e c t i n t h e i r t h i n k i n g t h e
i d e a s , o r i n i o n s , and b e l i e f s o f t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r g r o u p *
'^n man,' s c a p a c t i t y t o c o n t i n u e and
g r e a t l y e x te n d t h i p k i n d o f t h i n k i n g d e p e n d s , a c c o r d ! n g t o o u r a u t h o r , h i s c h a n c e o f g r o p i n g
h i s way o u t o f t h - ' j b l i * h t on w hioh ^ v.^n t " ^ c t c i v i l i /,nd r ^ - ^ o p l . r -f t h e w o r l d now f i n d them ee
a e l v e a ; b e c a u s e " t h i s k i n d o f t}^ i n k i n g b e g e t s k n o w l e d g e , and ' n o ^ l e d g e i s r e a l l y c r e a t i v e
in a s m u ch aa i t makes t h i n g s l o o k d i f f e r e n t fro m w h a t t h e y seemed b e f o r e and may i n d e e d w o rk
fo r t h e ir re c o n s tru c tio n "*
, lt .waa t h i a c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g
t b r o u d i t a b o u t t h e S c i e n t i f i c ^ e v o l u t i o n and made
p c a a i b l e t h e :'^arv^j[ 1 ous d "n re lo p m e n t o f t h e n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s ( l u r i n g f h e p a s t KCK) y e a r s *
It
has a c t u a l l y r e v o l u t i o n i ^^d m an 's c o n c e rt, io n '**'f t ! .e u n i v * * r s e anr! r ; i v e n h im a new e a r t h .
It
ha a made p o s s i b l e a l l t h e p r e s e n t - d a y --'now l e d g e o f s t a r s and s to n e , o f p l a n t s and a n i m a l a ,
o f c h e m ic a l a n i p h y s ic a l p ro c e s s e s .
*.n ' th*-- ar.^ H c e t 1 on o;f t h i s n e w - fo u n d k n o w le d g e h a s l e d
t o i n v e n t i o n s and J i a c o v c r te a th -e t hav^ t, r a n " form--d m a n 's 1 i f e t h r u t h e ! n t r e d u c t i o n o f c o u n t l ^ a a c o n v e n ie n c e s and e f f o r t s and i ' ^ w t t r i e a , o f whist; o u r f e t t e r s n e v e r h e a r d .
'^nd h e re 1^ t h e c l u e
o tha. . s o c ia 1
i n Vf'-'d.
h.uman i t 7
n
; - r o f d n g -!ta way so p a i n fu lly *
f a n ws b r i n g t o b e a r on t};e s e c t a 1 s c i e n c e s - - p e l i*s te a , e c c n ^ s r s , m o r a l s , r e l i e i o n - t h # a w e k i n d o f human i n t e l l i g e n c e t h s t h a " r e v o l u t i o n i s e d ^.he p h y s i c a l s c i e n c e s and so
g r e ^ t t y im p r o v e d man^a c o n d i t i o n s i n th e p h y s i c a l -world?
Can we do f o r t h e r e l a t i o n s o f man
t h e same k i e d o f c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g t h a t w-' i. a v#s done f o r t h * r e l a t ior.- a o f t h i n g s ?
^ f course
we can n o t u s e p r e c i s e l y t h * same h i n d o f t h i n k i n g i n d e a l i n g w i t h t h e p r o b le m s o f m a n k in d
t h a t w# M3 * i n t h e p ro b le m # o f c h e m i c a l ^ e a c f i o n s and m e c h a o i o a l a d j u a t m e n t a ; b u t c e r t a i n l y
we s h o u l d h e a b l e t o b r i n g t - t h e s o c i a l s c i e n c e s ^nd t h e hunen p r o b le m s " s u c h a g e n e r a l fra m e
O f m in 4 and ^Meh.^^ c r i t i c a l
^.t*d,t^.rde
ha-^ h i t h e r t o h ^ * n b u t s e ld o m d e v e l o p e d
t h e s e '^hc a s p i r e t.o be m ^ n ' s g n i d e a , v* t,^ * -- r e l h * i o n s , p o l i t i * a i , e c o n o m ic ^ o r m o r a l " * i
_ fh 1 a t h a o c o r d i;^:.
t i,
-ri s f h ^ ^sK ^ntha'l, c o n d i t i o n o f s%an^a f u t u r e
p r o g rea a *..... * r'^we''" a r c e o u r a ge on s t y t o meet a n t f " au c c * a a f u i t y t o o verco m e t h e d a n g e r s w i t h w h i c h :
CMf c l v l l i % a t i o ) n i s t h r e a t e n e d ,
is c l^ a r t h " t
need s ^ r e n ^ n d t h a n e v e r b e f o r e #
^ut i t
be a m i n t h a t findf% c y p r e s s i o n ^.n o t b ^ r
th ^ n l i ^ . ^ r u s u a l r e v e r ie s o r p ra c tic e d
d # c i a l ^ a o r o rd in a ry r a td o n a li n a tio n s ,
i t m u st ^ n ^ c l v ^ # ' . k i n ^ i o f t h i n k i n g i n # d c h m o a t o f
Ma i n i u 1
v e r y a e Id e m ; and y e t o f st^^eh w,* ^ r e a l l c a p a b l e t o scsae ^ x t e n t a t l e a a t i f we b a t
h c n e a tly d e a tre
e x e f o i a e i t and a r e b i l l i n g t o avad.l o u r s e ^ v e a o f m e th o d s and reso% !rc#a
a t ha..nd*
E.t i s o f ^ r a ^ o ^ n t i m p o r t a n c e t h e r e f o r e ^.o know J u s t w M t w# mean b y Crea** ^
w h a t t h a c # n ^ i t i c n a a r e w h i c h ie a d t o I t .
t,
^
}
t
How t o T h i n k
I am n o t
i.r^ s p ^ n d m u o h ^ t i m A ^ i n a t t e m p t i n g t o d e f i n e j u s t w h a t C r e a t i v e T h i n k i n g
is .
Whe^" T " a m i n t e r e s t e d i n m o r e i s t h e c o n d i t i o n s n e c e s s a r y t o c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g , w h a t I
m ig h t c a l l p r e - r e q u is it e s t o c r e a tiv e t h i n k i n g ,
^-wo t h i n g s ^ s h a l l p r e s u p p o s e , ^ ^ s t j t ^ t
y o u a r e a c q u a i n t e d 9f i t h t h e fu n d a ^ s e n ta l e le m e n t s o f t h i n k i n g as t a u g h t i n g e o m e t r y and i n l o g i c
I presum e t h a t y o u a r e a c q u a i n t e d w i t h t h e a x io m s u p o n w h i c h a l l human tP m u g h t i s b a s e d s u c h
as " T h i n g s t h a t a r e e q u a l t o t h e same t h i n g a r e e q u a l t o each o t h e r " , "T h e w h o le i s g r e a t e r
t h a n a n y o f i t s p a r t s " , and so f o r t h .
I presum e a l s o t h a t you are! f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e fu n d a m e n В­
t a l p r i n c i p l e s o f 1 o g i c s u c h as ju d g m e n t and i n f e r e n c e , d e d u c t i v e and i n d u c t i v e t h i n k i n g , and
ao o n *
T hese t h i n g s o f c o u r s e a r e a b s o l u t e l y E s s e n t i a l t o a n y k i n d o f o r g a n i z e d t h o u g h t ; and
u n t i l i t h e y a r e made t h e h a s i s o f t k a i x o u r t h i n k i n g we a r e s u b j e c t t o t h e c r i t i c i s m i n t h e
w e l l - k n o w n e p ig r a m o f Jane T a y l o r , who s a y s : "T h o man a t h i n k i n g b e i n g i s d e f i n e d ,
Few u s e t h e g ra n d p r e r o g a t i v e o f m in d ;
how fe w t h i n k j u s t l y o f t h e t h i n k i n g f e w !
How many n e v e r t h i n k — who t h i n k t h e y d o ! "
T h e m o th e r t h i n ^ I. p re s u p p o s e i s t h a t y o u a r e a c q u a i n t e d w i t h t h e f a c t t h a t i n t h i n k i n g sis i n
^ e v e r y o t h e r a r t ^ p r a c t i s e make's p e r f e c t .
Y ou l e a r n t o t h i n k b y t h i n k i n g , j u s t as y o u l e a r n
t o w a l k b y w a l k i n g , a nd t o swim b y sw im m in g .
The m in d can become n i m b l e and s w i f t and s u r e i n
i t s a c t i o n , i n t h e same way t h a t t h e b o d y a a n , by s t e a d y p r a c t i s e .
The g r e a t e s t d ra w b a c k t o
t h e im p ro v e m e n t o f th e m in d , j u s t as t o t h ^ im p r o v e m e n t o f t h e b o d y , i s l a z i n e s s .
^h i n k i n g i s
h a r d e s t w ork in th e w o r ld .
N o t h i n g e l s e r e q u i r e s so much e f f o r t , so much e x e r c i s e o f w i l l
pow er.
So remember p l e a s e t h a t t h e r e i s o n l y one way t o become a t h i n k e r , and t h a t i s by
th in k in g *
And no# -** t u r n t o t h o s e c o n d i t i o n s w h ic h a r e n e c e s s a r y t o c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g *
And
F i r s t , t i l e r e m ust a lw a y s be some in c e n t i v e t o t h i s k i n d o f r e a l t h i n k i n g .
T h i n k i n g does
n o t t a k e p l a c e s p o n t a n e o u s l y , s o m e th in g s p e c i f i c o c c a s i o n s i t .
And t h e i n c e n t i v e t o r e a l
t h i n k i n g i s some p e r p l e x i t y , some c o n f u s i o n , some d o u b t .
T h a t i s why I I f e e l i t my d u t y as
y o u r m i n i s t e r t o send y o u fr o m h e r e e v e r y Sunday m o r n i n g , n o t h a p p y a n d c o n t e n t e d , b u t i n c o n В­
f u s i o n and d o u b t ; b e c a u s e u n t i l t h e s e e le m e n ts a r e i n t r o d u c e d i n t o t h e ( m i n d , t h e r e i s no t h i n k В­
in g .
f - O r ...i.R.sta.ai9 a- man t r a v e l s a l o n g a s i n g l e r o a d c o m p l a c e n t l y u n t i l e v e n t u a l l y he comes
to a fo r k in g o f th e ro a d s .
He i s b r o u g h t t o a s t a n d s t i l l o f h e s i t a t i o n and d o u b t .
'^ h i c h poad
s h a l l he ta k e ?
I f he w is h e s t c do more t h a n t ^ u s t t o lucH( and t a k e a c h a n c e , tie m u s t do some
th in k in g .
And so a l l t h i n k i n g b e g i n ^ i n w hat m i g h t b e c a l l e d a " f o r k e d - r o a d " s i t u a t i o n , t h a t
i s a s i t u a t i o n w h ic h o f f e r s a l t e r n a t i v e s and p r e s e n t s a d 1 lemma..
As l o n g as o u r 1 i v e s g l i d e
s m o o t h ly a l o n g u n d e r su nn y s k i e s , we i n d u l g e ^ o n l y i n r e v e r i e , t h e r e i s n o i m p u ls e t o c r e a t i v e
th in k in g .
I t i s p n l y .vhen we bump up a g a in s t's o m e o b s t r u c t i o n o r p r o b le m t h a t we pause t o t h i n k .
N<pa i f e v i r t h e wopId p o s s e s s e d a n i n c e n t i v e f o r t h i n k i n g , j t i s t o d a y .
W h ic h e v e r way we
How t o T h i n k " 4
we t u r n we a r e met b y t h e f o r k e d - r o a d s i t u a t i o n .
The w o r l d i s t o d a y i n a s t a t e o f p e r p l e x i t y ,
c o n f u s i o n , and d o u b t su ch a ^ n e v e r b e f o r e e x p e r i e n c e d ; and t h i s c o n d i t i o n fo rm s a tr e m e n d o u s
c h a l l e n g e f o r c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g t o e v e r y s t a t e s m a n and r u l e r , t o e v e r y pub i c t e a c h e r , i n f a c t
to e very c i t i z e n .
seems i n c r e d i b l e t h a t , t h i s i n c e n t i v e f u r n i s h e d b y t h e p r e s e n t ch ao s and
u n c e r t a i n t y , s h o u l e T l e a d a t l e n g t h t o t h e k i n d o f t h i n k i n g t h a t cam l i f t u s o u t o f t h e dilemma.*
S e co n d ! / . ,iJL i s n e c e s s a r y th a t, w
o u r m in d s f r e e fr o m p r e j u d i c e and p a s s i o n *
^e a rl.ng i n m in d , what o u r a u t h o r t o l d u s , t h a t ^m o s t o f o u r op i n i on*", h e l ie f s , and c o n v i c t i o . e s a r e
o n l y o u r r e a s o n s f o r c o n t i n u i n g t o t - i h k a ^we have a lw a y s t h o u g h t , t h * r e f l e c t i o n a o f o u r a g e *
o f t h e p a r t i c u l a r g r o u p t o w h ic h wn t e l ong,* h a ve we t h e c o u r a g e t o l a y A s id e e v e r y b i a s and
d i s i n t e r e s t e d l y f o l lo w th e t ru th ?
Our i t i t c r e s t s , r.nr p re d i, 1 c t i o n s , o u r te m p e ra m e n ts c l o u d
our m in d s and p r '^e nt us fro m f i n d i n g t.h - tm i t h .
f i n d o u r s e l v e s so s t r o n g l y w i s h i n g t o h o l d
t h i s o p i n i o n t h a t t h e c o n t r a r y o p i n i ' can s c a r c e l y
room i n o u r t h o u g h t .
O n ^ ) f th e
t n d i s p e n s i b l * c o n d i t i o n s o f c r e a t.iv e th, i n k i n g i s c a n d o r , w i l l i n g n e s s t o '*now t h e t r u t h *
The
p r e j u d i c e , the p a r t y s p i r i t , th**' s e c t a r i a n ta m p e r a re t h ^ g r e ^ t o b s t a c l e s t o sound and c l e a r
th in k in g *
The . m a j o r i t y c ^ p e o p le a r e I n t e r e s t e-i ! n a e-^rt^. i n p ro p a g a n d a r a t h e r t h e n t h e t r u t h ,
and t h e r e s u l t i s b i g o t r y *
J * h ^ ..r ^ p u b l i c a n o r d moor a. t , ^ a t h o i i c o r ^ ro t.e s t a n t , b e l i e v e r o r a g n o s t i c ,
o a p i t a l i a t o r tr e d e u n io n i n t ,
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o r s o c i a l i s t , whose pessdona s r e e n l i s t e e ! i n b e h a l f
o f h is s id e ,
#t ; 0 is d e t e r m i n e d n o t t o b e l i e v e anytd i n g w h ic h c o n t . r m d i o t s h i s p r e c o n c e i v e d
o p i n i o n s , has)pot i<*a rned t o t t i ?g , ene n- v^ r can l e s r n u n t i l t i p t e p e r i s c h a n g e d *
**e i s n o t
a r# a s o n a ,h le - e i . n g ; he
s i m p l y t h ^ shave o f p r e j u d i c e ,
^.ne y t ^ o p l e ^ o a re u n d e r t h i s
h^n.da,^e e r e n e v e r a w a re o f i t . .
The m ost
s e t s 1a v * s t o p r e j u d i c e ar^* *-e rso n s who e s te e m
t h w n $ # i t e s t o he o p e n - m in d e d .
T h * y ar^* l i k e t h e "l^w
le n d d e a c o n , who s a i d " I f I*m w ro n g ?*.!&
r e a d y t c he o n n v i sc<'d o f i t , a?o ? ' d H k e t o se? f he - # n t h a t c a n do i t " . T h a t r e l i f i o u s M 3 p i e a r e frequent-, l y b i g o t s if- s w^s* '^kee.s'n fa c t ; t.h'it. t r r e l i-^,i
s s-eople a r e j u s t a s l i k e l y t &
be b i g o t s i s n o t so w<*ii known*
- u * ? f i n d tJ ^ t one i s ^ u i t * as 1 i ^ e l y t o e n c o u n t e r a n ti* * th e # < "
b i a s as t h e o l o g i e a l . '" d a s .
I ^now r a t i o n a l i ^ t w h o a r ^ j u s t , as b i g o t e d a s ^ c a t h o l i c
^ h c c t^ rs # r e l i g i o n ^*very t i - i e t h e ^*ord i s m o t i o n e d *
Ar*- t h e y a ny h e t t ^ a t e a c h e r a o f
t a ^ t h t h a n th e o t.h e rs "
-'o, t t i s n o t fr o m t h e X h tn a
a c o r n t h e i n f i d e l s and
a b o u t thw%^
* i $ r $ p r e % e n t t h * m and n e v a r d o th e -a Jus t i c e - - n o r 1s i t f r -imtt he u n & e l d e v a r s who a r e f u 11
* p i t * an?d t l i * w i 11 t e w a r ^ t h * ch u r c he a , .vho lo o k u p o n t.h^r, a ^ i o a t i g s t i % ^ o f th#* ^ e v i l * t h 4
## a r # tO' g a i n c l e a r e p t n i o n s and sound v i ^ w s on r e l i g i o n .
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t ^ y a r # n o t h i . n k a r s , t h e y are p a f t i s a n a ; t h e i r ^ .in d # a r e d i s a h l e d f o r f i g h t th in k in ^ g e
can h #
e r# & ti^ e t h in k in g , ^ n t il.
how t o t h r o w a s i d e t h e s e p y e i ^ d . i c # a #
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b e g i n d e l i b e r a t e l y t o see f a m i l i a r t h i n g s d i f f e r e n t l y ,
i t was t h i s a b i l i t y t o see t h i a $ % : ; ".--q^
d i f f L e n t l P t h a t le d t o th e S c i e n t i f i c R e v o lu tio n .
As a n . i l l M t r a t i a a . we a r e t o l d t h a t a s a
v o u n # man S a l i & e o one day w a n d e re d i n t o t h e c a t h e d r a l a t P i s a ,
In th e m id s t o f h is r e v e r t # '
h e l o o k e d u p a t t h e lam ps h a n g i n g by l o n g c h a i n s fr o m t h € p e i l i n g *
he n o t i c e d t h a t t h e s e lam p s
w e re s w i n g i n g , and he f o u n d h i m s e l f g e n d e r i n g , i f p e r h a p s t h e i r os c i l l a t i ons d i d ^ n o t o c c u p y
t h e same t i m e , w h e t h e r l o n g o r s ^ o r t ,
Then he t e s t e d t h i s h y p o t h e s i s b y c o u n t i n g h i s
h a v i n g no o t h e r t i m e p i e c e .
T h i s was t h e b e g i n n i n g o ^ a t r a i n o f c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g t h a t r e a p e d
e v e n t u a l l y i n t h e e s t a b l is h m e n t o f t h e i d ea o f t h e r e i g n o f la w t h r u o u t t h e p h y s i c a l u n i v e r s e ,
G a l i l e o saw t h e f a m i l i a r lamps w h ic ^rte n s o f th o u s a n d s o f w o r s h i p e r s had seen b e f o r e many t i m e s ;
o n l y lie saw th e m d i f f e r e n t l y , and t h k s s e e i n g th e m d i f f e r e n t l y l e d \ t l e n g t h t o t h e r e v o l u t i o n
o f m e n 's t h o u g h t s a b o u t th e e n t i r e u n i v e r s e .
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t o us a s t h e h a n g i n g [amps o f t h e c a t h e d r a l
ye ye t o ^ n e t h c u s a n d s o f w o r s h i p p e r s , we a r e so a c c u s to m e d t o s e e i n g them as t h h a v e a lw a y s
seen th e m t h a t i t i s p r a c t i c a l l y i m p o s s i b l e f o r u s t o see a n y t h i n g d i f f e r e n t a b o u t t h e m .
The
c o n c e p tio n o f i n d i v i d u a l r i g h t s , o f p r o p e r ty r i g h t s , o f f s m i ly , o f s t a t e , o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l
r e l a t i o n s , o f m o r a l s , o f r e l i g i o n have b e co m e ^fa m ' l i a r t o us t h a t we a r e u n a b l e t o see th e m
o r even im a g in e th e m d i f f e r e n t l y ,
B ^ t u n t i l we a r e a b l e and w i l l i n g t o l o o k upo n t h e s e f a m i l i a ]
t h i r d s d i f f e r e n t l y we a r e i n c a p a b l e o f c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g a b o u t t h e m ; f o r o u r a u t h o r d e c l a r e s
t h a t c r e s i i v e t h in k i n ? , i s t h a t p e c u l i a r k i n d o f t h o u g h t w h ic h l e a d s us t o c h a n g e o u r m i n d s .
*nd t h e n ^h en we have f r e e d c u r ^ i.n * is o f a l l p r e j u d i c e and shown a w i l l i n g n e s s t o see
f ami 1 ! a r ^ ^ i n g s " ' * ? i f f e r ^ ^
*"we"must c u l t i v a t e t h e p ow e r o f a t t e n t i o n - - t h e p ow e r o f f i x i n g t h e
x t r d ^ e d e f i n i t e s u b j e c t and e x c l u d i n g e v e r y o t h e r .
The suprem an d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n r e v e r i e
and c r e a t i v e t h i n ^ . i n g , t h a t i s b e tw e e n t h e man o f l i t t l e m e n t a l pow er and t h e g r e a t t h i n k e r i s
* u s t t h i s pow er o ^ a t t e n t i o n o r m e n t a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n .
T h e r e a re t h o s e v,bo h a v e a l m o s t no pow er
a t a l l o v e r t h e i r c o u r s e o f t h o u g h t ; i d e a s , good bad and i n d i f f e r e n t go s c u r r y i n g t h r u t h e i r
minds i n h e a d lo n g p r o c e s s i o r i , and t h e y a r e E n a b le t o s t o p th e m o r t u r n th e m a s i d e .
^ f th e y
t r y t o t h i n k on a ny s u b j e c t , c ro w d s o f o t h e r t h o u g h t s come rush, i n g i n f r o m e v e r y q u a r t e r and
d r i v e fr o m t h e i r m in d s t h e t h e s e s t h e y a re t r y i n g t o t h i n k u p o n .
I 'no-.'- men who s i t down t o
+ ti!-t,
r e t a i n t M m ' a ^ d b ^ f o ^ t ^ e y A r e t h r u t h e v h a v e had f l e e t i n g t h o u g h t s a b o u t e v e r y
fro m heaver, t o b r ^ " * . k ^ a s t .
i b i s i s t h e v i c e t h a t r ut s i be c o n q u e r e d i f we w o u ld do c r e a t i v
th in k in g .
" . ^ a t e v e r e l s e you f a i l t o do ,?et c o i ^ a n d o f y o u r own m i n d .
How i s i t t o he done?
I t i s t o be done by j u s t re ^te rrm .n in g t o d o , '-'.nd p e r s i s t i n g i n t h a t d e t e r m i n a t i o n day a f t e r d a y .
T h e r e i s no p a t e n t p r o c e s s .
I t c a l l s f o r r e s o l u t i o n and p e r s e v e r a n c e , n o t h i n g m o r e ; y u c a n
t r a i n " o u r mind t o o b e y y o u r * i l l , u n l e s s y o u a r e an i m b e c i l e ; and
- .--m " " ^ i f y o u a r e w i 11 i n g
t o a d m i t t h a t y o u a re t h i s , t h e n o f c o u r s e y o u can n o t e x p e c t t o do a ny c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g .
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3(9 s u r e o f '.'our f a n t . . ,
- - - e one has sa id th e ro - a re more fa ls e , f a c t s i n t h e w o r l d
t ' en f a l s e t h e o r i e s . ^ e n o f t e r i " s t a r t o u t 1 n t h e i r r e a s o n i n g i'ro m u n s o u n d p r o m i s e s , and a l l
t h e i r c o n c l u s i o n s a re t h e r e f o r e w r o n g .
One o f t h e f i r s t l e s s o n s f o r e v r y t h i n k e r t o l e a r n
i s t h a t he must l a y s u r e f o u n d a t i o n s .
"bat everybody says ought t o be t r u e , b u t f r e q u e n t l y i t
is n o t .
U n t r u e s t a t e m e n t s a r e s t a r t e d by sone b l u n d e r i n g o r i m a g i n a t i v e p e r s o n s , and a r e
n ie ^ e d up and r e p e a t e d fr o m one t o an-mo'T u n t i l t h e y become t h e c r e e d o f th e p o p u l a c e .
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l u s t r a t J o n s o f t ^ i s c h a r a c t e r c o u l d he c i t ^ s t n l c . ^ i r i t e l y .
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ai t u a t i o 'n l n '^ Is s ia , '^ h e a t t f t Y p ! ^ f
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t h e s u p p o s e d f a c t s w i t h %h 1c l
p e o p l e t o v - ^ r d ' ' u s s i a t o .^ .y i s d ^ t e r m i n g a l m o s t ^ a i J L j ^ y
t h e y c o ^ e irs c o n t a c t .
any p e o ^ l^ .-^ p e rr? t"a lm o s t e n t i r e l y
t:pon t h e n e w s p a p e rs f o r t h e i r f a c t s .
'low th.e news: ^ p e r s s e r v ^ t .C ' e r t a i n i n t e r e s t s , and r e l a t e
on!.y euh f a c t s as c e n t re
t-^ t h e p u . ^ o a ^ nt* *e3*i t h e y h a v e Tn m h^d ;
nd t h e r e f o r e t h e p e o p le
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C s t o r t e s p r i n + e d a b o u t l a b o r U s put e a .
^ r ^ ' ^ ^ ^ h e r e ^ r ^ n g t}-,e s t ^ e l s t r i d e r e a d i n g I n t h e d a i l y
n e w s p a p e rs a b o u t t h e d is p e r s e ! , o f a mob o f r t r i e r s by t h e p o l i c e !n a P e n n s y l v a n i a t o w n .
I
g a in e d t h e im p r e s s i o n t h e t e f ^ r r i b l e r i ^ - t h.-roke o u t i n t h i s t.ewn as a r e s u l t o f t h e d i a o r d e r i i n e s s o f th e s t r i k e r s ,
nd t h i t t h e r o U c e
i t h / r ^ e t . d! f f i c u 1+'/ and h e r o i s m su eoeeded i n
r e s t o r i n g la w and o r d e r ,
b a t g r on.. ...read an a c c o u n t o f t h i s same d i s t u r t ^ a n e e i n a n o t h e r p a p e r ,
en^i ^
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^frl?e*r?s ^ i r e t p d e . r ! i - ' t upon by t h e p o l i c e , an*! t h a t t h e y * o r e d i s ; y se<
w ith , much c o n f u s i o n and b lo o d
* d ; h u t I fe e
t, o 1^ th e t th?* p o l i c e had p r e c i p i t a e d t h e
t r o u b l e , t h j ^ t thus s t r i k e r s y e re p^aoeedde and '' aw-ah ^ " ^ n ^ , and t h e t t h e r i o t wes a d e l i b e r a t e
a t t e m p t t o b r e a k t h e s t i ^ e ! - ^ u ^ a l n g ;u '.-l i e ^ ;,"er ^ ^ h y a g e l r- + ^ ^ - r . t r ! ^ e r s
an a p p e a l t o la w
and o r d e r #
^ a l l , yeti s^e thes#^ tw o d i f f e r e n t g r ^ p p s o f f a c t a ma^e a l l t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e
w e r ld as t o th e c o n c lu s io n e perso n w i l l in e v t ta b ly r ^ a c h .
fs c ^ ^
^ e t ae e ^ t capdtalmsm and s e e i a l tsm, about German# and
^ ^ $ i a . n s , and a b o u t e v e r y c o n t r o v e r s i a l q u e s t i o n , '-e r^ n d ^ p o n t h ^ ^ i d e f^ o m w h i c h "^e g e t them.#
a e o e p t t h # $ # f a o t a w i t h o u t . 'p e c ^ t i e n , d ^ s e o u r t h i n k i n g u p e n t h e m , and t h e n h o p e t o a r r i v e
- at th A ru th .
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c a r e f u l abou^ a e . o ^ p t ! n g as f e c t e # h a t a n y b o d y ^ a y s .
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t h e l e s s I b e l i e v e o f wha.t p e o p l e s a y .
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w a n t t e he a c r e a t i v e t h i n k e r , ee s u r ^ o f
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he b ad B e ^ m a and he a p p l i e d t h e remedy and i t c u r e d h i m .
' i h i s P&y ^ e t r u e ; b u t Eczema i s
m a r e M a n i n f l a m m a t i o n o f t h e s k i n and t h e r e a r e a g r e a t many d i f f e r e n t k i n d s w i t h no r e l a t i o n
t o each o t h e r a t a l l ; and t h e rem edy t h a t c u r e s one k i n d o f s k i n i n f l & m m a t i o n may b e u t t e r l y
u s e l e s s i n a nv o t h e r .
H e r e i s - ^ D g r s o n the t e l l s me t h a t he does n o t F S e r n a n s o r . n g l i s h m e n ,
C a t h o l i c s o r J e w s ; and ^ ^ h i T I K ^ n d h e t e l l s me o f a v e r y u n p l e a s a n t e x p e r i e n c e he h a s had
w i t h an E n g lis h m a n o r 3 e rm a n , w i t h a c a t h o l i c o r Jew .
Here i s a n o t h e r man who i s b i t t e r a g a in s t!
l a b o r u n i o n s , and *h e n I a s k h im why he t e l l s me o f some p r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e
w h i c h he h a s h a d
w i t h u n i o n men, soma s t r i k e w h ic h h a s i n t e r f e r e d w i t h h i s own p e r s o n a l c o m f o r t o r s u c c e s s .
And
so I f i n d p e o p le a 11 t h e s " h i l e b a s i ng t h e i r o p i n i o n s H)Eof w h o le p e o p le s and -d-.ole movements
upo n some p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e w h i c h t h e y h a v e h a d w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s — i n o t h e n w c r d s g e n e r a l i s i n g
i f n o t f r o m a s i n g l e f a c t a t l e a s t f r o m an i n s u f f i c i e n t number o f f a c t s ^ I t ^ o r d e r t h a t . o u r
c o n c l u s i o n s may h a v e v a l i d i t y t h e y must, r e s t upo n a w id e c o l l e c t i o n o f f a c t s .
^ i< !6 e b l e t o
t h i n k i s i n v e r y l a r g e p a r t b e i n g a b l e t o g a t h e r a nd c o m p a re , and g r o u p and a r r a r ^ f a c t s i n
such a way t h a t s a f e c o n e l u p i e n s may Tie draw n f r o m th e m .
i n d t h i s 1 ^ads me t o t h e a e x t
t . ^ a r d c r e a t iv e t h i n k i n g , a n r k h a t is th e p e r s is t e n t
af f c r t ^ ^ t o ^ ^ a
d in th e 'p r o b le m .
T h i s means o p e n -m in d e d n e s s t o w a r d eve^ry
s u % f e s t i o n no m a t t e r whence i t maw^^ccme.
I t i n v o l v es t h e w i l l i n g n e s s t o a t t e m p t a t l e a s t t o
u n d e r s t a n d t ^ e s u g g e s t i o n s o f f e r e d ^ o c i a l i s m and a n a r c h i s m , b y s y n d i c a l i s m and ^communism, b y
s ih ? . le t a x and n o n - p a r t i s an le a g u e ^ ' ^ ^ '-y ^ v e r y o th e r grovip t h a t p r e s e n t s s e r i o u s l y a new
s o c i a l p r o g r a m , b e f o r e we p^roceed t o denoi.^nce them#
I t does n o t mean a c c e p t i n g t h e ^ e t h i n g s
u n c r i t i e a l l y and i m a g i n i n g " t h a t h e r e i s t h e t r u e p a n a c e a -for t h e w o r l d s i l I s , anW more t h a t
i t means d e n o u n c in g th e m u n c r i t i c a l l y .
% t i t does mean t h e f a i r e x a m i n a t i o n a n d ^ t h e c r i t i c a l
c o n s i d e r a t i o n o ^ a l l t h a t i s p u t f o r t h by way o f poss i b l e s o l u t i o n s *
I t means t h e t e s t i n g andf
e x p e r i m e n t i n g < n th i d e a s and m e th o d s , e l i m i n a t i n g w hat d o e ^ o t w o r k and v e r i f y i n g -.vhat , v i l l
wo!*^*
r ^ f - ^ s i n ^ t o forr^i & f m & l ju d ^ r^ is n t uiT.tti.jL A l l t h o 8 . v & il9 - b l^ f & c t s mro m #
t h i s i n t u r n s u ^ K e ^ t he l a t e le m e n t # h i c h I w o u l d o f f e r as n e c e s s a r y t o c r e a t i v e
t h i n k i n g ' a n " *t
K
I
T
T
S
suspend Judgm ent u n t i l a l l t h e f a c t s a r e i n .
The e a s i e s t
vay i s t o a c c e p t a n v s u g g e s t i o n t h a t seems p l a u s i b l e and t h e r e b y b r i n g t o an end t h e c o n d i t i o n
o f c e n t a l u n c e r t a i n t y . "*Ie a r e a l l u n d e r a d r e a d f u l t e m p t a t i o n t o a c c e p t s u g g e s t i o n s a t t h e i r
fa c e v a l u e , r a t h e r t h a n e nd u re a c o n d i t i o n o f m e n t a l u n r e s t and u n c e r t a i ^ w h i c h t o m o s t p e o p le
is a c tu a lly p a in f u l.
I n s h o r t r e a l t ' i n k i n g means ju d g m e n t s u spe n de d d u r i n g f u r t h e r i n q u i r y ;
and s u s p e n c e i s a lw a y s p a i n f u l .
The comyaon t e n d e n c y i s e i t h e r t o a c c e p t a c o n c l u s i o n b e f o r e
i t i s j u s t i f i e d , o r e l s e t o grow d i s c o u r a g e d and g i v e up t h i n k i n g a l t o g e t h e r .
I t is p a tie n c e
and p e r s i s t e n c y i n m a i n t a i n i n g a s t a t e o f d o u b t and a t t h e same t i m e c a r r y i n g on# s y s t e m a t i c
i n q u i r y t h a t a re th e e s s e n t ia ls o f c r e a t in e t h i n k i n g .
\
S rf
-
How t o T h in k . "8
,
gl
_I t h i n k ^ ^ i s ^ - i o l e b u s i n e s s o f c r e & t j . ,va t h i n k i n g has 1.een w e l l - d e f i n e d by J o h n L o c k e ^
t h e famous E n g l i s h p h i l o s o p h e r , i n hi.s e q u a l l y famous Sssay on t h e !*uman U n d e r s t a n d i n g ! He
sa ys The b e s t way t o come t o t r u t h i s t o exam ine t h i n g s a s p h - y r e a l l y a r e , and n o t t o c o n c l u d e
t h a t t h e y a r e as we f a n c y o f o u r s e l v e s o r h a ve be on t a u g h t 4>y o th e r s t o i m a g i n e " .
T ha t i s
whenever we a s k t h e q u e s t i o n ^rhethe r or* not. a ce rt,a i n t. h i n g i s t r u e , we a r e u n d ^ r o b i i g a t i o n
t o b e l i e v e as t r u e n o t w h a t w^ w a n t t o b e l i e v e , b u t w h a t we m ust b e l i k e ,
fin d th e t r u t h
o n l y i n so f a r as we come t o th e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f i t wi t h m i nds t h a t a re e m p t ie d o f a l l p r e v ^o u s c o n c e p t i o n s , m in d s t h a t a r e r e a d y t o a cce p t, th e f a c t s w h a t s o e v e r t i i o s e f a c t s may b e ,
and m in d s re a d , t o f o l l o w t h o s e f a c t s .v h ith e rs o * v < * r t^.ey may l e a d .
On t h e o t h e r hand we m is s
t h e t r u t h w h e n e v e r we e n t ^ r upon i t s s e a r c h # i t h m inds f i l l e d v i t h p re c o n c e iv e -:! t r a d i t i o n s ^
w i t h m in d s t h a t r e j e c t new f a c t s a s p n t r u e j u s t b e ca u se t h e y a r e new , and r e f u e t o f o l l o w t h o s e
f a c t s j u s t b e c a u s e t h e y le a d i n a d i r e c t i o n we do n o t l i k e t o t . r a v e l ,
Je
a r sume t he ^same, a t t i t u d e , . t g w ^ ^ t r ^ t h t h a t ha.ml'-t ass&med to w a r d s t h e g h o s t o f
!
h is fa th e r.
The f?c^faT ?nay a p ^ a r 4
u n r e a l and t * r r i b l e , ^ v o n as thf* g h o s t a p p e a re d u n r e a l
and t e r r i b l e t o t h e D a n is h p r i n c e , t t , ^ f a c t s
ay s^^m t o ' ^ c k o n u s t o s u re d e s t r u c t i o n , e v e n
a s t h e g h o s t seemed t o wav<*
to
d^ad
sum-^ t o f t h e c l i f f " ; f r i e n d s ^my s e e k t o
d is s u a d e u s fr o m f o l l o w i n g t h * f a c t s , ev<-"n an ^ o r a t i o and ^ ' a r c e l l u s s t r o v e t o p r e v e n t. H a m le t
fr o m f o l l o w i n g ''h e g h o s t ; h n t a t i i i m u t t we obey t h ^ c a l l o ^ t)-,e f a c t s , <^ven as " a m i e t o b e ye d
t h e c a l l o f h i s s ^ e c t r e l f a t h e r , and c r y * i t h him "L e a d o n , I ' l l f o l l o w t h e e " .
^ 1## t me
ic . e r ^ i p l . o .
- o s ^ o ^ you ^ho h a v ^ r ^ nd t h e f a s c i n a t i n g
S h e r t o e ^ ^ o ^ ^ s ^ t o r T e s ^ 1 1 1 remember t,h^ -^^.hod
f o l l o w e d b y t h i s famous d e t e c t i v e i n
th e t i f t r s v g i l i n g o f h is m y s te r ie s .
1 "y- ^ ^ ^ r some d i s t r e s s e d
r e o n cam^ t o ^ a k e r S t r e e t t o
a s s i s t a n c e i n exp l a i r j ng a r o t r e r ^ o r d i s c o v e r i n g a m u r d e r , you * i l l r e m e # ) e r that.
o lm e # n e v e r a s k ^ d h i s v i s i t o r w h ^ t h ^ th r . u * h t arr-y.it t h ^ c a s e , o r 4 - a t
s u s p e c t e d wag t h e
s o l u t i o n o f t h e p r o b l e m ; i n f a c t h<* ^ e r y c a r e f u l l y sup{ r e s s e d t h e s ^ s u r m is e s and s u p p o s i t i o n
whi-oh t h e v i s i t o r w'aa a lw a y s r e a d y t o ^ f f ^ r , and i n t h e i r p l a o ^ hrs r e q u e s t e d t h a t he he t o l d
th e s t o r y o f * h a t a c t u a l l y h a p r ^ n ^ d .
^ w a - r a d t o k n ^ ^ t h ^ o?,aet n a t u r e o f t h e o c c u r e n c e , and
d e $ o # i p t t f ^ o f th^' p i e c e .
e l ^ a n o f e l l p r e c o n c e p t i o n s , he
w o u l d h i m a e l f ^ o t o t h ^ s e n * -af t h ^ c r t n * , "
i e v ^ r y d e t a i l t h a t ^es t h e r e t-o he o b s e r v e d
a n d t h e n upon t h e ! * s i *
t h e f s c t , ? o b s r v * d , c ^ n ^ t r u ^ t t ! ^ t h e o r y #h^eh was n e c e s s a r y t o
e x p la in th e ^e f s e t * .
A n # i f t h ^ f s * e t * ^e r e o b s e r v e d c o r r e c t l y , and w ^ r ^ a d e q u a t e i n n ^ h e r e n d
# i . $ n , i f i o a n t ! n c h a r a c t e r , h i s t h e o r y ?a?s a l w a y s ^ ^ n d t o
t r u * ; a n d t h i s b e c a u s e no o t h e r
'
was p o s s i b l e f r o m t h e f a c t s o b s e r v e d as t h e y r e a l l y a r e .
And t h i s i s w h a t we m#&&
^
o r# & tiv e th in k in g *
a # i# n o $ s
^ o t
t ^ J.e.
i
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c h ^ad** poss i b l e t h e m e r v ^ l ^ou# t r i u m p h # o f t h #
th e l a s t
y e a r s '.
It
o n l y #hen men l i t ? * C o p e r n t a v * a M
th a t i f
a e o M r a t * k n ^ w l^ d g e o f t h e u n i ^ s r s e was t o b e s ^ t t e i n # d t h ^ В§ n a & *
K % '
- ,
How t o T h i n k
"9
v e r s e w u s t h e o b s e r v e d and s t u d i e d n o t as men t h i n k i t may b e , b u t as t h e y see i t i e a l l y i s ;
and i t i s < *n ly a s w^ s i m i l a r l y r e c o g n i z e th e f a c t t h a t i f a ny a c c u r a t e k n o w le d g e o f o u r human
r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s t o b e a t t a i n e d t h e y m u s t be o b s e r v e d and s t u d i e d n o t a s men t h i n k t h e y may
b e , b u t a s we see t h e y r e a l l y a r e ; and u n t i l t h i s i s done t h e r e can be n o g e n u in e r e c o n s t r u c t i o i
o f c u r human r e l a t i o n s h i p s ,
Jgow art th** and I *^i s h t o c a l l y o u r ^
t В° & c o u p l e o f i l l u s t r a t i o n s t o show t h a t
t h i s k in c T "o f '
*
a p p l i e d t o t ^ e O u t s t a n d i n g p r o b le m s o f p r e s e n t - d a y l i f e .
The
m o s t im m e d ia te and p r e s s i n g p r o b l e m i s t h a t o f "fa r and P e a c e , t h e s o l u t i o n o f w h i c h s t i l l
i n th e b a la n c e *
T h e r e have b e e n a c o u p le o f a t t e m p t s t o m eet t h i s p r o b l e m .
F o r i n s t a n c e th e
V e r s a i l l e s C o n f e r e n c e t o l d vis t h a t i t w o u ld s e t t l e t h e l a s t w a r i n s u c h a way as t o p r e v e n t i t s
re cu rre n ce .
B e f o r e g o i n g t o P a r i s ! ^ r . ^ i i s o n a p p o i n t e d a Peace
o m m is s io n t h a t s h o u l d accom В­
pany h i m .
i h i s c o m m is s io n was made up o f e x p e r t s , c a r e f u l l y s e l e c t e d f o r s p e c i a l t a s k s
h is В­
t o r i c a l e x p e r t s , e c o n o m ic e x p e l s , p o l i t i c a l e x p e r t s , i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s e x p e r t s .
These
e x p e r t s l a b o r e d f o r m o n th s e v e r t h e i r p l a n s f o r a J u s t and l a s t i n g p e a c e .
^ e re t h e i r p l a n s
a d o p te d a% t h e c o n f e r e n c e d
T he y v/ere n o t e v e n c o n s i d e r e d , f o r a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r own t e s t i m o n y
" E i t h e r t h e ^ n o t ^ t h e T r ^ p l a n s were a d m i t t e d t o t h e c o n f e r e n c e .
i t was t h e s e men who h ad done
t h e c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g on t h e p r o b le m s and # o had t h e i r c a r e f u l l y w o rk e d o u t p l a n s , b u t t h e y
were p r a c t i c a ! l y i g n o r e d .
^ r . ^ U s o n fo u n d h i m s e l f i n an a tm o s p h e r e i n w h ic h t h e t h i n k i n g was
not c re a tiv e , b u t p o l i t i c a l .
The b i g F o u r w e re riot, a t a l l i n t e r e s t e d i n C reat i v e T h i n k i n g ;
w i t h t h e r e s u l t g f x t k a t h a t t h e t r e a t y was based on t h e o l d p r i n c i p l e t h a t t o t h e v i c t o r b e l o n g
t h e s p o i l s _a t r e a t y t h a t n e v ^ r has and n e v e r can b r i n g peace t o t h e w o r l d .
The t r a g e d y o f t h e
s i t u a t i o n 1 i e s i n t h e f & c t t h a t t h e C r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g had been done and was a v a i l a b l e t o t h e
c o n fe re n c e , b u t^ th e co n fe re n c e d id n o t w ant i t .
Or l o c k a t t h e ? a s h i n i t o n , C o n f e r e n d e .
T h i n k o f w h a t m i g h t h a v e been done i n W a s h in g t o n
i n t h ^ i n t c r e s t s ^ 3 ? ' p ^ ^ e n t " p e a c e , i f t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e n a t i o n s had come t o g e t h e r
r e s o l v e d t o do t h e k i n d o f t h i n k i n g I h a v e d e s c - i b e d .
1!. ^ r i a n d , i f h e had t h o u g h t a l o n g t h e
i n e s I have i n d i c a t e d , m i g h t have g i v e n u t t e r a n c e t o v e r y d i f f e r e n t s e n t i m e n t s j b u t h i s t h i n k i n ^ was d e t e r m i n e d h*' t h e m i l t a r i s t i c g o v e rn m e n t i n ^ r a n e e t o whom lie owed h i s p o l i t i c a l e x i s В­
te n c e .
The J a p a n e s e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s m i g h t have t a k e n a more c o n s t r u c t i v e a t t i t u d e , b u t t h e y
were a l s o c e n t r o l l e d by t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e i r gove r n n e n t t o ma i n t a i n i t s su pre m a cy i n t h e
fa r e a s t*
I t m i ? h t have been p o s s i b l e t o c c n s i d e r i n a c r e a t i v e way t h e w h o le p r o b ie m o f im В­
p e r i a l i s m , w r i c h ^ n < ^ r l i ^ s t h e p r o b le m o f w a r , i f E n g la n d had n o t b e e n s u c h a d o m i n a t i n g i n f l u В­
ence at, t h e C o n f e r e n c e .
Or p e r h a p s th e v h o le p r o b le m o f t a r i f f s and f o r e i g n m a r k e t s , w h ic h a r e
t h e v e r y r o o t s o f w a r , m i " h t I i a v e been f r a n k l y and f r e e l y d i s c u s s e d , i f t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f
t h e c o u n t r i e s i n c l u d i n g A m e id i a , ware n o t u n r k ir t h e d o m i n a t i o n o f t h e b u s i n e s s i n t e r e s t s o f
t h e i r re s p e c tiv e x c o u n tr ie s .
P * * ^ ...
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3* ,
+
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How t o T h i n k "1 0
I n p r e c i s e l y t h e same way c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g on S o c i a l p r o b le m s i n v o l v e s t h e t a k i n g o f a l l
f a c t s and c o n d i t i o n s i n t o a c c o u n t .
I t i s h e r e t h a t *?e see t h e s e r i o u s l i m i t a t i o n s o f more t h a n
one r e f o r m m ovem ent.
T h e h te n d e n c y i s t o t a k e some one a s p e c t o f w ro n g o r i n j u s t i c e , as t h e y
e x i s t i n o u r p r e s e n t s y s te m , and t h e n on t h i s on** a s p e o t o f t h e p r o b le m r e a r an e n t i r e s o c i a l
P h ilo "o o h v .
I t i s t h e h l d f a t a l m i s t a k e o f g en e ra 1 i ^ i n r fro m an i n s u f f i c i e n t number o f f a c t s .
S o o n e r o r l a t e r a a th e * f ^ i r t l er f a c t s a r e d i s c l o s e d , we f i n d ou r p h i l o s o p h y t o p p l i n g o v e r
b e c a u s e i t s b a s i s was t o o n a r r o w and r e s t r i c t e d .
..fa rl,
,^he..foit!^.!,e.r ..of. modcyn В§ o c ! a l i a m , based 1,i s p h i l o s o p h y among o t h e r t h i n g s , on
f a c t a b r a w a r d e d as a s a u r e d - - a s tim e w n t on p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y w o u ld s t e a d i l y t e n d t o become
c o n c e n t r a t e d i n t h e hands o f f e w e r and f e w e r - ^ c p le , t h e r i c h woul d become r i c h e r and l e s s
num erous and t h e p o o r would become p o o r e r a n ' i more n u m ^ r o u s , u n t i l e v e n t u a l l y t h e s o c i a l r e v o В­
l u t i o n w o u ld come o f t t a e l f .
*d;t t h e ' a r x i a n s o c i a l i s t t o d a y f l n d a h i m s e l f pe p l o x e d b e c a u s e
t h i n g s a r e n o t w o r k i n g o u t a l o n g t h e 1 in e s l a i d do-.^n by " a r x *
The r ^ c h a r e bee w e r i c h e r and
more n u m e ro u s , and t h o p o o r a r e h-^ com i n g h<*t,t^ r o f f so f a r
I ' l a t e r i a l c o n d i t i o n s a re c o n c e rn e d ,
^ e n c e t h ^ r e v i a i o n i a t a and r ^ f o r m i s t s and b t h ^ r s c h o o l s ^ f s o c i a l i s t i c td o u g h t t h a t a t t e m p t t o
c o r r e c t t h e i r a p e ^ f e c t gene re. 1 i x a t t ona c f
a rx ia n is r^ .
-om ^un i n a , as i t
he#n t r i e y n i t i n
R u s s ia and *^'^c h haa h a ^ a o y s y m p a t h e t i c ohtr o r v o r s ! n ""'*dh.^r c c ^ n t r ^ e a who r e g a r d i t as an i n t e r
e a t i n y and s ^ g n i f i c a n t ^ y p e r i m e n t ^ n soe it s 1 r e o r gan? .^a t ^ o n , i s a^tmi t t ' ^ d by i t s own l e a d e r s t o
h#ve&broM'en down a s a a v s t e m , and c h i e f l y h^oa us ^ ^ t gav
no p l a c e t.o t h e a ^ ' r l c ^ l t u r a l p e a s ^ n ^
-# ,'0 c o n a t ^ t u t e a f o u r - f i f t h a o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n - f
s s ia .
ba.bor d a r t v . o f R n g la n d haa wor&ed
o u t a b e a u t i f ^ . i l i d e a l f o r t h e c o m in g a t a t # , w h i c h t o many p ^ o n l e 5e^mf"d t h ^ l a at. w o rd i n s o c i a l
r e o r g a n i s a t i o n ; h u t now ^ a r e t o l d by on-^ o f I t a fo r^ m o a ^ o x n o n ^ n t s t h ^ t t h i s p r o g r a m w i l l
h a ve t o
a e r t o u a l y r^ v ^ .a e d , '.
^cove red
c o n c e p tio n o f th e s ta t e
d^akea n o p r o v i s i o n w h ^ t e v ^ r ^ o r i n t ^ * n a ^ . i c ^ l t r a d e , -ind i n a c o u n t r y
'" n g la n d thd s i a a
v a ry im p o rta n t m a tte r ,
-r!oo..,n. j^. c r ^ a t i /a. t h i n k t n f-ro M -r.s
,m
h e l p u s g a ! n thm w ! d e e t p c s a i b l e
su rve y
a l l t he fh e t a and * i ! ' n a k ^ i t more d^ f f i c u H t o i n ^ u l ^ a i n t.oo h a s t y g e n e r a l i s a t i o n s
a$ t o t he i r m e a n in g ,
^ut t } i s does n o t
we m u ^t c l o s e o u r m in d a to ^ t h e many
t i o n a t h a t e w # f r o ^ a l l t h t * . ^ v a r i ' ^ a s o c i a l ^ . h ^ o r ie ^ n o p r o g r a m s ,
On t h y c o n t r a r y , we m u s t
ba e p # a * M tR 3 * 6 t o them a l l , and w i l l i n g t ^ ^ ^ ^ p ^ n d o u r ju d g m e n t u n t i l
h a v e e x a m in e d and
and t r i a d o u t t h a ^ # ne*% ideay.' and ^ t h o d a ,
' *-^3#,
^ ..-L& f
.!,n,^ f o r w h ic h I ;
t h i s m o r n in g s w hich means n o t h i n g l a a a
t h * H * r # ! c o n s t r u c t i o n o f o u r m in d a "whYoh m u * t p . r - c e d ^ t h e r e c o n s t ^ c t i o n o f os4 f s a e i s l
f o r o n i y w e # y e c t t o aol*%
p r o b le m o f o u r ht.paan r e l a t i o n # , when w# h * v *
vag aM,e R o t o n l y t o
I n .-re v e rie o r t o make p r a c t i c a 1 d * * c t $ io n # o r t o r a t i c n a M % #
w y
b M t t o tie r e a l e r * * * t v * t h t n k t n g a b ^ t H * * a a ^ a l l t h a . t H f $
* g n o p tm e e .
New B o o k - - R o b iR 8 o n , who i s he? S t u d y o f e le m e n t s o f m i n d .
A ^ p ljL ^ A tio H o f I n t e l l i g e n c e n e c e a s a ry .
^pn m in d .
M ost im p o r ta n t b o o k .
Advance o f S c i e n c e , b u t n o t human. A r i s t o t l e , m e c h a n i c . T h r e e m e t h o d s - m o ra l e x h o r ta t io n , e d u c a tio n .
I n t e l l i g e n c e , m u s t be f r e e ,
t o d i s c a r d a l l c o n s e c r a t e d w is d o m o f t h e a g e s .
How*
M u s t know
e le m e n ta .
Four h is t o r ic la y e rs .
2.
4*
I*
2.
3.
4.
A n i m a l . L e a r n fr o m e x p e r i e n c e ; c u r i o s i t y ; C i v i l , b u i l t u p o f t h e s e .
C h ild — l i k e s & d i s l i k e s , P s y c h o -a n a ly s is . P e rso n a l p e c u l i a r i t i e s .
--Time; p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n ; s u p e r s t i t i o n s ; T a b o o s ; C o n s e r v a t i s m .
C i v i 1^ ^ ^ d - - O t h e r w n r l d l i n e s s : s e x - c o n t e m p t ; s c h o l a s t i c i s m .
*
How do we u s e them**
R e v e r ia - -P a d ire c te d th o u g h t; p e r s o n ^ l; re a l p e r s o n a lit ie s ; r i v a l s dher
P r a c t i c a l d e c i s i o n s - - m o r e d i f f i c u l t ; no new k n o w l e d g e .
R a t i on a 1 i z a t i o n - - D e f e nd o u r own; Good r e a s o n , r e a l ; A d o p t i d e a s o f
p r o p e r t y , r e l i g i o n , c o u n t r y , m o r a l i t y . T r u e o f p h i l o s o p h e r s ; ft 11
b r u s h e d a ; a y . Dewey, V e b l e n .
A l l t h i n k i n 's a m e w a y.
i ' h i n k we a r e
r e a s o n i n g when a t t e m p t t o d e fe n d p s t p r e j u d i c e s .
C r e a t i v e t h i n k i n ^ - -c h a n g e o u r m i n d s ; k n o w le d g e , l o o k d i f f e r e n t p r e c n s t r
S c ie n tific r e v o lu tio n --re s u lts --c o s t.
G iv e n us new w o r l d t o w h i c h we
c o n tin u e t o a p p ly o ld h h a b its o f th o u g h t*
Cave man.
^ i s t o f w h o le
b o o k , d a r i n g ta n who w i l l e m a n c ip a te t h o u g h t h e r e t o o .
What
is
(2 )
c re a tiv e
th in k in s ^ - ra th e r p re -re q u is ite s o f c re a tiv e tb in g in g .
( l ) f u n d a m e n t a l ..e le m e n ts o f l o g i c a n d geo^ne+ry
* r a c t i s e makes p e r f e c t ,
ih in k in g by t h in k in g . ^
I * In c e n t i v e - -n o t sp o n ta n e o u s , c o n t u s io n , d c u b t, p e r p l e x i t y - - f o r k e d re a d .
2 . ^ i n d s f r e e frc rn p r e j u d i c e <* p a s s i o n - - r a t i o n a l i s i n g ; w a n t t o b e l i e v e ;
b i g o t t y ; has n o t l e a r n e d t o t h i n k ; s l a v e o f p r e j u d i c e ; b u t n e v e r knows
3 . F a m i l i a r t h i n g s d i f f ^ e n t l v - - G a l l l e o : so we r i g h t s , p r o p e r t y , c o u n t r y ,
r e l i g i o n ; u n t i l d o n e , c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g i m p o s s i b l e , f o r ch a n g e m i n d .
4 . Power o f a t t e s t i o n - - d i f f e re nee b e tw e e n r e v e r i e and ^ r a t i v e i s j u s t
th is .
ew h a ve i t .
Must be a c q u ir e d .
8* S ure o f f a c t s - - n r e m is e s . f o u n d a t io n , e s p . s in c e w a r.
n i v e r s i t y , Spokan
C a p i t a l and - a b o r , R u s s i a ,
^ a c t s depend u p o n s o u r c e ; we a c c e p t and
t h e n hope t o a r r i v e a t t r u t h . ^ u n t down y o u r f a c t s .
N o t h i n g so ^ im p .
6 . S i n g l e f a c t n o t s u f f i c i e n t - - o n e s t o n e ; Ecaema; does n o t l i k e ^ennan s ,
e tc a . a is o la b o r u n io n s .
So p e o p le e v e r y w h e r e gene r a l i x e w i t h o u t f o u n В­
d a tio n .
A b l e t o t h i n k means g a t h e r i n g and a r r a n g i n g f a c t s .
7.
t A1 L t h a f a. c t s i n v c TLvo dj o p e n tn in ^ o d n e s s , v i l l i n g n e s s t o u n d e r s t a n d
s o c ia lis m e tc s .
l o t u n c r i t i c a l l y a c c e p t , n o r condemn; d i s c a r d & v e r i f y
8 . A b i l i t y so..suspend ju d g m e n t .
G a i n f u l , jum p a t c o n c l u s i o n s ; b u t c r e a В­
t i v e t h i n k i n g means s t a t e o f d o u b t w h i l e c o l l e c t i n g a l l th e f a c t s .
S h e rlo c k h o lm a 8 --d e e a rih e .
^ o hn Lo c k ,
- am _ e t , - - u n r e a l , d e s t r u c t i o n ,
f r ie n d a - ^ ' a r c e l l u s , ^ o r a t i o ; b u t m u s t obey and c r y w i t h h im "I^ead on e t
th o u g h t tre m e n d o u s ly t h r i l l i n g
ta k e
jrla.ee i n human r e l a t i o n s
re v o lu tio n .
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