close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

Public Expenditure Tracking in Tanzania How to make it work

код для вставки
Public Expenditure Tracking in Tanzania
How to make it work effectively
A Guide for CSOs, FBOs and NGOs
FOREWORD
Public expenditure tracking started in Tanzania over a decade ago with the aim of improving
transparency and accountability in the flow of public funds to the village level. After
public expenditure tracking surveys done in neighbouring countries were found effective
at uncovering the misuse of public funds and in the process attracting media and public
attention, audit institutions and research bodies saw them as an opportunity also for Tanzania
to improve accountability. Subsequently, various stakeholders developed initiatives to build
capacities for these systems at the local level in order to generate a permanent demand for
accountability with the communities themselves continuously tracking the use of public
resources on their own. However, success was limited and rarely sustainable.
The implementation of the Public Expenditure Tracking Systems (PETS), as they are
formally referred to, was primarily donor-driven, with most of the initiatives short-term and
haphazard. Instead of integrating PETS into existing governance processes at the local level,
often parallel structures were created instead. Tracking �committees’ created in the villages
thus did not survive beyond the relatively limited financial support they received from
national CSOs or development partners.
For effective public expenditure tracking, access to information is crucial, yet many of
those involved in the initiatives found themselves constrained due to poor management and
documentation or due to the reluctance among officials to provide information. Furthermore,
preliminary PETS approaches also did not sufficiently consider factors like skills levels and
capacities in rural areas, which would eventually impede their efforts.
The Civic Education Teachers’ Association (CETA) in partnership with GIZ, under the Support
to Local Governance (SULGO) Programme, undertook a careful review of the various
initiatives in a bid to develop a more robust PETS approach that takes into account the
lessons learnt along the way.
Implementation of the new approach started in five villages of Handeni district in Tanga
region in 2012. With one year down, the results have been encouraging enough that CETA
and GIZ have felt the need to make the success factors accessible for replication in other
regions and areas. This guide, which includes tools and templates in the annex, is meant to
help improve the effectiveness of the PETS as well as other social accountability programmes
that NGOs, CSOs and FBOs are supporting in Tanzania.
Salim R. OlotuHans-JГјrgen Cassens
CETA Executive Director SULGO Programme Manager
Quick Guide PETS
1
ACRONYMS
CETA
Civic Education Teachers’ Association
CSO
Civil Society Organisation
FBO
Faith Based Organisation
GIZ
Deutsche Gesellschaft fГјr Internationale Zusammenarbeit GmbH
LGA
Local Government Authorities (District level)
LGRP
Local Government Reform Programme
LLGA
Lower Local Government Authorities (Ward and Village level)
MKUKUTA
Mkakati wa Kukuza Uchumi na Kupunguza Umaskini Tanzania
NGO
Non-Governmental Organisation
O&OD
Opportunities & Obstacles to Development
PETS
Public
Expenditure Tracking System
(sometimes also: Public Expenditure Tracking Survey)
PIMA card
“pima” meaning “measure”/”assess” in Kiswahili. A specially adapted
instrument for data collection, similar to a questionnaire
PMO-RALG
Prime Minister’s Office – Regional Administration and Local Government
PNB
Public Notice Board
SULGO
Support to Local Governance
(Implemented by GIZ and PMO–RALG)
TAMISEMI
Tawala za Mikoa na Serikali za Mitaa
TM
Template
VAM
Village Assembly Meeting
VEO
Village Executive Officer
VPT
Village PETS team
WEO
Ward Executive Officer
2
Quick Guide PETS
CONTENTS
Foreword1
Acronyms2
1. What is PETS 6
2. How to achieve sustainable results
7
3. How does it work
11
3.1. How to institutionalize PETS
11
3.2. How to engage stakeholders
16
3.3. What should trainings include
22
3.4. What should be tracked
27
3.5. What to do with tracking results
28
Brief Profiles
29
Appendices31
Quick Guide PETS
3
1
WHAT IS PETS
Public Expenditure Tracking Systems (PETS) were developed
to address the poor delivery of local development projects as
a result of misuse of funds, inefficiency and overall lack of
accountability. Local authorities often do not inform citizens
appropriately on matters concerning their development, while
citizens are unaware of their right to receive information.
“PETS empower ordinary people
to follow the spending of public
resources allocated to their
area. This naturally improves
the delivery of services at the
local level.”
Salim Olotu, Executive Director
of CETA
In 2007, the Civic Education Teachers’ Association in
partnership with GIZ, recruited members in Korogwe and
trained them to become PETS facilitators. When CETA
completed its support to the project that involved 15 villages,
most of the PETS committees collapsed. With this hindsight,
CETA and GIZ felt compelled to review the approach. Today,
so called PETS teams are elected from among the villagers
during regular Village Assembly Meetings. These then take
part in the participatory budget and planning process,
including the Opportunities & Obstacles to Development
(O&OD) exercise, to make sure that priorities defined by the
communities within this mandatory process are considered
for tracking. Furthermore, PETS teams coordinate closely
with local authorities to ensure mutual understanding, trust
and cooperation.
Between 2012 and 2013, CETA worked with partner
communities in five villages in Ndolwa ward, Handeni
district, including taking them through a four-module
training as well as continuous mentoring of the elected PETS
teams. In this way CETA strengthened participation at the
grassroots while increasing communities’ awareness and
understanding of their rights and development priorities.
Consequently, transparency and accountability as well as
social service delivery have started to improve.
в– P
ETS teams probe local
authorities for information
4
Quick Guide PETS
2
HOW TO ACHIEVE
SUSTAINABLE RESULTS
This section summarises important success factors for local
accountability systems based on lessons learnt from earlier
initiatives. These experiences have been leveraged upon in
the on-going PETS programme implemented by CETA and
supported by GIZ/SULGO in Handeni District and are already
yielding positive results.
BE FAMILIAR WITH THE LOCAL SITUATION
The organisation working with the villagers is not only
expected to have the capacity and to be trustworthy, but it
should also have good knowledge and a well-functioning
network within the respective area of intervention.
For success, an understanding of formal and informal
power structures within the respective villages is of great
importance. The organisation has to identify influential
stakeholders and to integrate them strategically. This includes
political parties, traditional leaders, religious authorities,
retired public servants and schoolteachers. This way they can
be rallied as positive influencers of the process when they
would have promoted conflicts that adversely affect PETS if
they were to be excluded. Building-up a close and trustful
relationship between these stakeholders is therefore crucial.
в– L ocal theatre groups can help to
mobilize village communities
Market days, public ceremonies and other events can serve
as a forum to reach out additionally to relevant groups
including the youth, the elderly as well as other marginalized
groups. It is the responsibility of the organisation working
with the villagers to identify available opportunities that can
be tapped into as they promote the programme.
INVOLVE THE AUTHORITIES AND
HELP THEM DO THEIR JOB
It is important to involve the authorities
from the beginning. The implementing
organisation should invite them to
participate in a constructive dialogue and
in activities related to PETS. Planning
and attending trainings together with
their representatives is useful as you get
to utilise their local knowledge while
increasing it at the same time. It also helps
to establish mutual understanding, trust
Quick Guide PETS
5
and cooperation. While in the past, local authorities have had
a tendency to perceive organisations and groups engaged
in PETS as unwelcome auditors and watchdogs, engaging
them in a constructive dialogue from the very beginning
helps local authorities to better understand the PETS process
and their community’s needs and concerns. At the same
time, thanks to constructive collaboration communities
benefit by attaining easier access to information about
their development plans and budgets, as well as the actual
incomes and expenditures thus also making the tracking
easier.
An official framework for downward accountability was
developed during the first phase of the Local Government
Reform Programme (LGRP I). Subsequently, in December,
2007 The Prime Minister’s Office Regional Administration
and Local Government (PMO-RALG) published a Guidance
document on PETS for Local Government Authorities, PMORALG and Regional Secretariats. It promotes PETS as a tool
to increase accountability and performance.
FOSTER LEGITIMACY FROM THE GRASSROOTS
In order for PETS to be successful and sustainable, the
demand for tracking has to be generated from the legitimate
body at the grassroots level, i.e. the Village Assembly. It is
this body that grants the mandate to the PETS team and
would therefore hold it accountable. Existing structures and
procedures must be reinforced rather than creating parallel
ones. Not only does this help people to use their time and
resources more efficiently, it also creates synergies between
various stakeholders and activities. PETS should be integrated
into the mandatory O&OD process at village level in order
to link it to the annual general budget and planning cycle.
This can be achieved by synchronising PETS trainings and
activities with the mandatory quarterly Village Assembly
Meetings, which discuss opportunities and challenges while
planning for relevant development projects. Consequently,
PETS activities track priorities defined by the communities
themselves as being relevant to them.
6
Quick Guide PETS
The Opportunities & Obstacles to Development (O&OD)
process facilitates planning and implementation of
development projects by the communities themselves in
a bottom-up rather than top-down style. It empowers
citizens by providing experienced facilitators, tools and a
platform where they can express their demands and plan
their development. At the same time, O&OD is meant to
promote transparency and accountability and to improve
communication between communities and local authorities.
Local Government procedures require all district and
municipal councils in Tanzania to carry out O&OD as a
mandatory part of the planning and budgeting process.
TRAIN VILLAGE COMMUNITIES IN CIVIC
EDUCATION AND INFORMATION TRACKING
People in the villages are often hesitant to raise their voice,
as they are aware neither of their own rights nor of the
responsibilities of the local authorities. Therefore, they
don’t know that the flow and utilisation of public resources
is meant to be transparent and that village authorities are
accountable to the community. Public information related to
the income and expenditure of villages, development projects
and minutes of village meetings often is neither available nor
accessible and the villagers don’t know that they have the
right to obtain this information whenever they need it.
This underscores why PETS trainings should start off by
raising community awareness of their civic rights and the
responsibilities of the authorities. Given the educational level
of the majority of villagers and PETS team members and
the absence of suitable tools, it is also important to provide
the PETS teams with adequate training in documentation,
reporting and presentation methods, and to equip them with
relevant instruments (see section 3.3. �What should trainings
include’).
в– PETS teams reporting directly to the
Village Assembly and to village committees
responsible for finances, security and
social services also enhance the capacities
of existing village governance structures.
Including PETS related costs such as travel
or stationary expenses in the village budget
determined during the O&OD process,
builds the community’s ownership, and
contributes towards the sustainability of
PETS activities beyond external funding
Quick Guide PETS
7
в– Simple and structured
presentation of tracking
results is important
MAKE IT SIMPLE AND RELEVANT
An organisation working with the villagers needs to take
into account that most community members may not have
attended school. Thus, activities and trainings need to
use simple language and easily understandable methods
imparting knowledge. In order to motivate people to give
their time and to participate, all activities should be relevant
and attractive. This can be achieved by inviting a local
theatre group that would stage a performance related to a
relevant topic, such as good local governance. People may
also be motivated and attracted to support PETS teams and
activities if the topics and priorities defined by themselves
are followed up and yield tangible results.
“We were surprised when the
construction of our primary
school was halted. When
we checked the income and
expenditures sheets we found
they were okay. We interviewed
the VEO and found that the
money was in fact in the
village account but it had not
been disbursed on time. On
our request, the VEO went to
see the Village Council and the
money was finally released. The
construction has now resumed.”
PETS team member,
Chanika Kofi
8
Quick Guide PETS
3
HOW DOES IT WORK
3.1 “Monitoring is often weak
within O&OD. That is why in
Ndolwa ward, Handeni district,
the council cooperates with
CETA to link a Public ExpendiВ­
ture Tracking System to the
O&OD process”.
Safari F. Minja, Executive
Secretary, CETA
HOW TO INSTITUTIONALIZE PETS
O&OD and the local budget and planning process
In order to make PETS work and produce tangible results
that motivate villagers to utilise them beyond the period of
external support, the tracking has to become a legitimate
part of local governance system. When district councils
plan their yearly expenses, they are obliged to consider
the development priorities at the grassroots through the
participatory planning process known as �Opportunities
and Obstacles to Development’ (O&OD). With the help of
district O&OD facilitators, the participatory consultation
process in village communities starts in October/November
so the communities can decide what their priorities are for
the following budget year, for example constructing a new
dispensary, buying new chairs for the school, a new roof
for the market, or renovating the village office. During
the O&OD process, the PETS implementing organisation
sensitizes the Village Assembly on the meaning and benefits
of Public Expenditure Tracking as a means of monitoring
the implementation of the projects defined during the O&OD
process.
A PETS team is then recruited from among the villagers (see
section 3.2 for details on the election process). It participates
in all O&OD exercises and receives training by the
implementing organisation on the tracking of the priorities
set by the Village Assembly. (see section 3.3. �What should
trainings include’).
At the Village Assembly Meeting in February where the
Village Plan and Budget are finalised through the O&OD
process, the PETS team presents its first tracking results and
receives feedback on further tracking needs from the Village
Assembly. At the same time, the PETS team gets additional
training based on needs identified at the end of the first
module. Tracking continues and results are again presented
at the next Village Assembly Meeting, while more training
is provided at the same time. The PETS training comprises a
total of four modules which, ideally, are completed in June/
July.
Quick Guide PETS
9
In July, Local Authorities are required to inform wards and
villages through a printed notification about the approved
budgets and projects. Authorities at ward and village level
are then expected to inform their communities (e.g. via
Public Notice Boards, see page 13). In practise, however, this
feedback is not often given either because authorities do
not have the capacity or they do not know it is their duty
to inform citizens. In addition, citizens are not aware of
their right to be informed or would rather not dare to probe
authorities for information. As a result, villagers never know
what happened to their formulated priorities. PETS teams
help track the missing information.
When funds are released, typically starting from August,
work begins on the approved development projects. The
PETS teams’ tracking will also focus on the use of resources
concerning these new projects. The presentation and
identification of the results of tracking continues during
Village Assembly Meetings, while a new cycle of the O&OD
process starts again from October/November. The following
в– PETS training comprises
four modules synchronised with the annual
O&OD and Budget and
Planning cycle
10
Quick Guide PETS
Chart provides more details:
How to link PETS to the O&OD and the annual Budget & Planning
Month
Local Budget & Planning process, including O&OD
Oct
O&OD process:
1. Consultation
2. Situation analysis
3. Needs identification
4. Setting of village priorities
5. Discussion of Village Plans by Village Government
6. Submitting of Village Plan to Ward Development
Committee
7. Village Plan & Budget is presented at Village Assembly
Meeting
Nov
Dec
Jan
Feb
PETS
}}
Training 1 (incl. Village Assembly Meetings)
}}
Election of PETS teams
}}
Start of tracking
}}
PETS team reports tracking results to Village
Committee which report to Village Council
}}
VEO puts tracking results on agenda for subse-
quent Village Assembly Meetings
}}
Training 2 (along with Village Assembly
Meetings)
}}
Report on tracking results at Village Assembly
Meetings, decision on further tracking activities
}}
Tracking continues based on outcome of Village
Assembly Meetings
March
April
May
8. V
illage Assembly approves Village Plan
9. Village Plan & Budget consolidated by Ward Development
Committee
10.Ward Plan & Budget consolidated by Council Budget
Committee in consultation with Regional Secretariat and
Council Finance Committee
}}
Tracking
11. Preliminary Council Plan & Budget reviewed by
Regional Management Team and subsequently Regional
Consultative Committee.
12.Preliminary Council Plan & Budget consolidated by the
Council Planning Team, in consultation with Regional
Secretariat and Council Finance Committee
13.Preliminary Council Plan & Budget presented to Council
Finance Committee and submitted to Full District Council,
to be included along with Sector Plans & Budgets in the
three-year strategic plan & national Midterm Expenditure
Framework
}}
Training 3 (along with Village Assembly
14.3-year strategic plan & national Midterm Expenditure
Framework sent to PMO-RALG for consolidation
15.PMO-RALG Plan & Budget sent to Ministry of Finance to
be included in the central Government Budget
}}
Tracking
16.Ministry of Finance releases funds for Local Governments
17.Local authorities provide information about approved
budget and projects to wards and villages
18.Villages (Chairperson and VEO) and wards (Ward
Councillor and WEO) inform communities about approved
budgets and projects
}}
Training 4 – last training - (along with Village
19.Local authorities release funds and implementation begins
}}
Tracking and reporting as above
}}
PETS team reports tracking results to Village
Committees which report to Village Council
}}
VEO puts tracking results on agenda for
subsequent Village Assembly Meetings
Meetings)
}}
Report on tracking results at Village Assembly
Meetings, decision on further tracking activities
}}
Tracking continues based on outcome of Village
Assembly Meetings
}}
VEO puts tracking results on agenda for
subsequent Village Assembly Meetings
}}
PETS team reports tracking results to Village
Committees who report to Village Council
}}
VEO puts tracking results on agenda for
subsequent Village Assembly Meetings
June/
July
Aug
Assembly Meetings)
}}
Report on tracking results at Village Assembly
Meetings, decision on further tracking activities
}}
Tracking continues based on outcome of Village
Assembly Meetings and based on approved
village budgets and projects
Sept
}}
Tracking and reporting as above
Oct
}}
Start of new cycle, start of new O&OD process,
tracking, tracking reports during Village
Assembly Meetings
Quick Guide PETS
11
Ideally, the PETS training cycle follows the local Budget
& Planning cycle. However, coordination with the O&OD
schedule is not an easy task. Contents of O&OD and PETS
have to be synchronized. At the same time, linking up with
the facilitators from the District can be a challenge due to
difficult travel and weather conditions. Additionally, leaving
sufficient time between PETS trainings is important in order
to follow up on tracking activities that were defined during
the training. As a result, the next PETS training may be
delayed and would be held separately from events related to
O&OD and the Budget and Planning cycle. For a successful
implementation it is important that the sequencing of
trainings is adapted to the conditions on the ground which
might differ significantly from one area to another.
VILLAGE ASSEMBLY MEETINGS
Village Assembly Meetings include the entire village
community. It is mandatory that meetings are held at least
every quarter. In practice, however, they do not take place
on a regular basis. Although it is the Village Assembly
that approves PETS and tracking activities, the results of
these activities also contribute towards making the Village
Assembly Meetings more meaningful and stimulating,
thus increasing the motivation for holding meetings more
regularly.
PETS teams continuously report their tracking results and
questions to the Village Committees concerned with finance,
security and social services. Village Committees discuss
the findings and bring them to the attention of the Village
Council which includes them as an item on the agenda
of the Village Assembly Meetings. During the meeting,
villagers discuss the tracking results and raise any questions
they may have with the Village Government. The Village
Government has the opportunity to answer these questions
and to demonstrate successes, while emphasising the need
for support from the villagers. Against this background, new
tracking priorities are set for the next period until the next
Village Assembly Meeting takes place.
PETS
Team
12
REPORTS
ON PETS
ACTIVITIES
Quick Guide PETS
STANDING
VILLAGE
COMMITTEES:
- financial
- social services
- security
REPORTS
ON PETS
ACTIVITIES
Village Council
(puts PETS on
agenda of Village
Council Meetings)
OUTCOMES:
Behaviours
changed
PUTS
PETS ON
AGENDA
VILLAGE ASSEMBLY
MEETING
(PETS is a regular agenda
item, PETS Team reports
on activities and results,
raises questions and helps
to identify further tracking
requirements)
LETTER OF COMMITMENT
In order to demonstrate commitment, formalise collaboration
and clarify mutual roles and responsibilities, a letter of
commitment is signed by the representatives of the Village
Government, Ward and District (see example in the Annex).
This letter of commitment is published on the Public Notice
Board for everyone in the village to see. In this way, public
interest and support for tracking is stimulated.
PUBLIC NOTICE BOARDS
It is important to make all information related to PETS
available to the public by placing it in easily accessible
places. Public Notice Boards are one of the best channels for
publicizing relevant information. Where available, the Village
Executive Officer is usually responsible for maintaining
them. In the absence of a Public Notice Board information
can be published in other feasible places, such as the village
shop, the market, schools or on the walls of the Village
office. Particularly important is the updated information
andpublication of the approved village budget and approved
projects, income and expenditure details and results of
elections and appoinments of ward and village authorities.
PETS, tracking reports should be published as well as results
of PETS teams elections and other useful information such
as the letter ofcommitment betweenthe Village assembly and
authorities.
в– Public notice boards are strong
communication tools for the
community. They publicize:
} Approved village budgets
} Planned development projects
} Reports on on-going projects in
the village
} Income and expenditure reports
} Contributions from the villagers
Quick Guide PETS
13
3.2 HOW TO ENGAGE STAKEHOLDERS
It is important that all relevant stakeholders, such as the
entire village community, village leaders, Ward and District
Councillors and O&OD staff, are integrated from the very
beginning of the process. In the first year, the organisation
(FBO, CSO, NGO) working with the villagers ensures that
information flows easily between these stakeholders about
PETS activities and results.
This builds trust and strengthens acceptance thus setting the
right conditions for success. After the PETS training cycle is
completed and a new O&OD and local Budget and Planning
process starts, PETS becomes part of the regular structures
and procedures and can continue to function without
external support.
The most important roles and responsibilities of the
implementing organisation can be summarized as follows.
IMPLEMENTING ORGANISATION (NGO, CSO, FBO)
}}Inform
the local authorities from district to village level on
the PETS approach as well as benefits and integrate them
in all activities.
}}Sensitize
people in the villages on their rights and the
benefits of transparency and accountability.
}}Advise
village authorities during the whole process and
clarify the roles and responsibilities of the PETS team and
all concerned stakeholders.
}}Initiate
the election of PETS teams by supporting the
village authorities in preparing for the election process (e.g.
explain tasks, responsibilities, and the necessary minimum
qualifications and requirements (see chapter 3.2 for details
on “How to elect PETS team members”).
}}Train
the PETS teams in how to conduct the tracking.
}}Develop
and adapt PETS training contents and coordinate
with the O&OD facilitators from the ward and district levels
in order to synchronize PETS with O&OD events.
}}Support
the PETS teams during tracking (especially with
accessing information), and help them integrate tracking
activities and results into the local Planning and Budget
process.
14
Quick Guide PETS
}}Moderate
the dialogue between communities and
authorities.
}}Moderate
dialogue with influential stakeholders who
may affect PETS implementation, such as the religious
authorities, traditional leaders, schoolteachers and political
leaders.
}}Identify
additional opportunities for communication, such
as market days and public events.
In the following section, �terms of reference’ for the various
stakeholders in regards to PETS are summarized.
в– PETS team members learn about
civic rights and responsibilities
LOCAL GOVERNMENT AUTHORITIES (DISTRICT LEVEL)
}}Facilitate
the participation of communities in the annual
O&OD and budget and planning process. The Community
Development Officer and District Facilitator provide
information on the O&OD schedule in order to align
the schedule for PETS activities. They also assist with
synchronising contents of O&OD and PETS activities while
demonstrating their commitment to the PETS towards the
village community.
}}The
District Council is a key provider of information for
the communities. It provides all relevant information
on a timely and regular basis and in simple format.
This includes planned projects in the national Midterm
Expenditure Framework, the approved budget and the
arrival of funds.
“My responsibility as a facilita­
tor is to ensure that villagers
participate as key actors in the
implemenВ­tation of the PETS
programme and I help them by
providing the knowledge and
skills to collect relevant inforВ­
mation.“
Rosemary Buge,
District Facilitator
Quick Guide PETS
15
Restricted access to information is one of the main obstacles
to PETS. This, on the one hand, is usually due to the
unwillingness of the authorities to provide the information
in line with their obligations or their lack of understanding
of these obligations, while on the other hand the villagers
often don’t know they have the right to get information from
authorities, and so they are afraid to approach them. Close
integration of authorities into the whole PETS approach,
including participation in PETS trainings, increases their
level of knowledge, awareness and willingness to support
PETS implementation. This is reinforced by the fact that PETS
activities provide valuable information from the grassroots to
the District level thus facilitating and easing the work for the
concerned authorities at the same time.
LOWER LOCAL GOVERNMENT AUTHORITIES
(WARD/VILLAGE)
The Lower Local Government Authorities are invited to
actively support tracking activities and to provide all relevant
information and documents to the PETS team. They receive
feedback on the results and participate in the discussion of
the results.
}}The Village Executive Officer is invited to take up PETS
initiatives and provide feedback on it.
}}The
Village Committees are invited to take up the input
from the PETS team, integrate it into their day-to-day
work, discuss it in the Village Council Meetings and bring
it to the agenda of the Village Assembly Meetings.
“Sometimes PETS is not
well understood by village
institutions and some village
leaders regard PETS teams as
auditors. It is important that
village leaders are fully involved
in PETS.”
Rosemary Buge,
District Facilitator
}}The
Ward Executive Officer is especially invited to support
PETS initiatives and teams and to help put them in contact
with PETS teams from other villages in the ward.
в– Villages are required to hold
at least four Village Assembly
Meetings a year
16
Quick Guide PETS
}}The
Ward Councillor has a key role with regards to PETS, as
he/she acts as the link between the village and the district,
receiving and forwarding information from one end to the
other and participating in relevant meetings at both levels.
}}Representatives
of Ward and Village Councils, the Village
Executive Officer or Treasurer, the Village Chairman as well
as members of the Village Committees can also participate
in PETS trainings, thereby building capacities within
these governmental institutions, sharing information and
knowledge, and creating or reinforcing a relationship of
mutual trust and cooperation.
VILLAGE ASSEMBLY
}}Is
the owner of the PETS process.
}}Elects
the PETS team.
}}Decides
the area of tracking.
}}Decides
on further processing of the tracking results.
PETS TEAM
“A mining company exploits
our land without paying tax.
We kept inquiring and I am
very pleased that after so many
discussions the company finally
agreed to pay for the conВ­strucВ­
tion of a dispensary in our
village in order to compensate
for the debts.”
PETS team member in Seza Kofi
}}Is
the PETS’ driving force and conducts the whole tracking
process.
}}Reports
to Village Committees and the Village Assembly.
}}Follows
up on the priorities set during the O&OD and the
budget and planning process.
}}Presents
tracking results during Village Assembly Meetings.
в– Village Assembly Meetings
comprise the entire community
Quick Guide PETS
17
}}Leads
the dialogue with concerned authorities with regards
to the tracking results. If feasible, integrates the authorities’
feedback into the presentation of the results.
}}Makes
proposals for further tracking activities to the
Village Assembly.
How To Elect PETS Team Members
Members of a PETS team are elected during the Village
Assembly Meeting which is constituted by the entire
village community. It is possible that a list of candidates is
prepared in advance on the basis of proposals made during
an earlier Village Assembly Meeting. The list of candidates
can be published on the Public Notice Board prior to the
elections. During the election, relevant village authorities are
requested to introduce a representative of the implementing
organisation, who gives a short overview of the PETS,
including the criteria for being elected a PETS team member.
Each PETS team consists of eight to 10 members per village.
Gender equity should be taken into consideration. Ideally, at
least 40 per cent of the elected PETS team members should
be women. As a minimum qualification, candidates should
have completed primary school. This guarantees that PETS
team members are able to read and write, to follow the
trainings and to understand basic documents such as budgets
and minutes.
в– The office term for PETS
teams should be at least two
years. Only half of the team
should be newly elected in
each cycle in order to preserve
knowledge and experience
that the newcomers would
tap into
18
Quick Guide PETS
The Village Authorities are responsible for ensuring that
the election takes place according to democratic rules (i.e.
fair, secret and equal procedures). The village authorities
provide a polling booth, a table, and a ballot box. (Election
by acclamation is not recommended). Subsequently, the votes
are counted by a volunteer committee of villagers elected by
the Village Assembly, while the implementing organisation
monitors the process. The final result of the election is
published on the Public Notice Board. As a minimum
requirement, the PETS team should elect a chairperson
(who is responsible for the documentation of activities and
results, and acts as a contact person for the implementing
organisation) a secretary and a treasurer (responsible for the
finances of the PETS team). The treasurer reports the PETS
team’s income and expenditure annually and in writing to
the Village Assembly.
WOMEN, MINORITIES
Because women, people with disabilities and ethnic
minorities are usually marginalized, the implementing
organisation makes extra efforts to have them included in
the PETS activities and to sensitize the communities in this
regard. Women and representatives of minorities should be
part of the PETS team (see above, on the election process),
and the PETS teams are encouraged to emphasize gender and
minority issues especially during the O&OD process.
MEDIA
Newspapers and radio often highlight the misuse of public
resources and necessary corrective actions. The implementing
organisation that works with the communities can invite the
media to attend events related to PETS and to report on the
PETS programme, thereby helping to promote its positive
effects.
CENTRAL GOVERNMENT
}}Sets
the framework for PETS through the Local
Government Reform Process (LGRP I and II).
}}Provides
guidance to all concerned authorities for
incorporating PETS at the local level.
}}Holds
concerned authorities accountable for their
performance as uncovered by PETS.
Quick Guide PETS
19
3.3 WHAT TO INCLUDE IN PETS TRAININGS
As mentioned in previous chapters, PETS trainings should
follow the O&OD and regular budgetary and planning cycle
and should be synchronised with the mandatory Village
Assembly Meetings for legitimacy and sustainability. Ideally,
a training cycle covers a whole fiscal year, from the planning
of the village priorities during the O&OD process, to their
realisation.
PETS Training sessions are meant to equip PETS teams with
the necessary understanding and instruments to conduct
tracking activities. However, in order to utilise synergies
and to build trust and collaboration, representatives of the
Village Government, such as the Village Executive Officer or
Treasurer, the Village Chairman and members of the Village
Committees should be encouraged to participate in PETS
trainings.
Successful trainings…
}}are
synchronized with the O&OD, and Budget & Planning
process (see chart “How to link PETS to the O&OD and the
annual Budget & Planning process” in chapter 3.1. “How to
institutionalize PETS”).
}}utilize
opportunities and existing institutions (i.e. Village
Assembly Meetings, market days, social events, etc.).
}}focus
on issues that are relevant to participants, based on
priorities set by themselves (e.g. via O&OD).
}}take
into consideration the relatively low levels of
education and thus use simple, easily understandable
language and methods of communication.
}}are
participatory and incorporate practical exercises.
}}include
basic civic education to sensitize participants on
their rights and obligations and motivate them to strive for
more transparency and accountability.
}}provide
PETS teams with technical support, such as
reporting templates and checklists, so that they can
continue tracking activities on their own after the end of
the training period.
}}include
conflict management and reconciliation techniques,
as conflict resolution is often part of the PETS team’s work.
20
Quick Guide PETS
в– CSO Knowledge sharing
A full PETS training consists of several components.
Good results can be achieved with four training modules
throughout a whole budget year. This, on the one hand,
gives PETS teams enough time for independent tracking
activities in between the trainings, while on the other hand
trainings at this frequency offer sufficient opportunities for
useful exchange and cooperation. For the initial module,
a minimum of six full days is recommended, including a
Village Assembly Meeting, considering that an initial O&OD
exercise is time consuming. For each of the subsequent
training modules (i.e. modules 2 to 4), three days should be
allocated, including Village Assembly Meetings. Winding
up each training module with a Village Assembly Meeting
is crucial in order to present tracking results to the villagers
and to strengthen the dialogue within the community. At the
same time, new information from the district or ward level
that is relevant for further PETS activities can be obtained
and discussed, such as news on development projects or local
elections.
в– Information sharing in a
group discussion
Quick Guide PETS
21
Table: PETS Training contents
#
1
Topic
Most relevant questions
Introduction and explanation of the
planning and budgeting cycle
}}
What is the link between PETS and O&OD?
}}
Meaning of PETS and O&OD
}}
Income and expenditure, types and explanations
}}
Monitoring Budgets and Social Service Delivery
2
The local government system and
democracy at the local level
}}
What are the duties and responsibilities of a Village Government?
}}
How is the local government system organised?
}}
How can I participate in decision making?
}}
How is a Village Government elected or re-elected?
3
Statutes, ethics and mandate of a PETS
team in the village
}}
What is the best way to organise a PETS team in order for it to work ef-
4
Information collection instruments
}}
How do I use a PIMA card?
5
Access to information
ficiently?
}}
What are the relevant interview techniques and how do I use them?
}}
What are the most important documents?
}}
Where do I get them?
}}
How can I understand them?
}}
What does a village budget look like?
6
Rights and duties of a citizen
}}
What are the rights and duties of every citizen?
7
Report writing
}}
How do I write a concise and well structured report?
8
Presentation techniques
}}
How do I present my findings to the authorities and the villagers?
9
Advocacy techniques
}}
How do I highlight an issue to the relevant decision makers?
Corruption on the local level
}}
What is corruption?
10
}}
How can I address questions of corruption?
Land right
}}
What are the procedures for the allocation of land in the communities?
}}
What are the responsibilities of the Village Government?
}}
How can Villagers participate?
11
Cross-cutting issues which are closely
related to local development
}}
HIV/Aids
}}
Gender
}}
Environment and climate change
12
Conflict management
}}
What are possible conflicts in our village?
}}
What are the relevant techniques of conflict management?
Topics no. 1 to 8 are key elements for the basic
understanding of PETS, while no. 9 to 12 (as well as
additional topics) can be included according to demand.
While the O&OD process is led by facilitators from the
district, PETS related training is provided by facilitators from
the implementing organisation.
Module 1 of the training cycle explains why O&OD and PETS
are both part of the local planning and budgeting process,
how they relate and how they function. Subsequently, a full
O&OD exercise takes place. On the basis of the identified
priorities, PETS activities are defined and respective tools are
introduced, such as the PIMA card for data collection (see
Annex for PIMA card templates).
22
Quick Guide PETS
■�Pima’ means �measure’/’assess’
in Kiswahili. The PIMA card is
a specially adapted instrument
for data collection similar to a
questionnaire
On the last day of Module 1, a Village Assembly Meeting
takes place to validate the results of the O&OD exercise as
well as the PETS training outcome.
An O&OD exercise including PETS consists of the following
elements:
1.Analysis of past development projects, what was achieved,
what wasn’t and why.
2.Analysis of the village’s future opportunities and obstacles
for development.
3.Decision on future priorities – development of a village
plan with income and expenditure.
4.Preparation of a monitoring plan and definition of the role
of the PETS team.
“It is important to
collaborate with the
village authorities in a
respectful way. Sometimes
it is difficult, like in the case
when we found out that
they had sold 400 hectares
of village land illegally.
Initially they shouted at us,
but after many discussions
they agreed to pay the
money back to the investor
and the land was returned
to the community.”
PETS team member in
Chanika Kofi
In each of the three subsequent training modules (2 to 4)
the detailed process of O&OD as well as PETS tracking
results are discussed. Previous training lessons are revisited
and additional contents provided as required, such as
access to information, citizens’ rights and duties, additional
documentation and presentation methods, or conflict
management tools. During the Village Assembly Meeting
which closes each module, training as well as tracking results
are presented, and the community decides on further areas
and tracking activities.
Each Module is followed by a brief workshop of the trainers’
team (O&OD facilitator and PETS trainers) to discuss the
results, to review the methods and to plan the next module
according to identified needs and requests from participants.
Quick Guide PETS
23
In between trainings and in case of need, the implementing
organisation serves as a resource for the PETS team and other
training participants and provides support when queries or
conflicts arise. At the same time the O&OD facilitators from
the district take up problems discussed during the trainings
and the Village Assembly Meetings.
At the end of the training a recap ensures that the
participants not only understand the core idea of PETS, but
are also capable and motivated to continue tracking activities
independently once the training cycle is completed.
A detailed sample training schedule is available in the
Annex.
Expected training outcome
}}PETS
teams are able to conduct tracking activities, to
present findings, to negotiate with authorities, to compose
reports, and to publish results on the Public Notice Board.
}}Communities
are aware of the added value of their PETS
team and support it.
}}Awareness
of rights and duties of both, citizens and village
authorities, is strengthened.
}}Village
administration functions better as a trustful
cooperation is established and authorities are more
accountable towards the citizens.
24
Quick Guide PETS
3.4 WHAT SHOULD BE TRACKED
The community decides during Village Assembly
Meetings what information the PETS team shall track. The
development priorities defined by the community during
the O&OD process provide the basis for tracking activities.
Village accounts are assessed against the approved budget.
Additionally, the community may choose to analyse other
sectors even when they have not been included in the
budget for future projects, for example agriculture, mining
and natural resources or water. In some cases, tracking at a
higher level, such as the ward or district, may be necessary
when an aspect extends across neighbouring villages. In
this case, PETS teams from different villages may choose to
collaborate, and the trainers should encourage and facilitate
this process.
Sometimes villagers require tracking activities to focus
on issues that go beyond the ones defined in the O&OD
and budget and planning process, such as land conflicts,
access to water or schoolgirl pregnancies. In such cases
tracking results can contribute to finding solutions without
additional financial resources and to the strengthening of the
collaboration between authorities and communities while at
the same time relieving the authorities from additional work.
In Komdudu village the families
of Ramadani P. and Hassan L.
were engaged in a longstandВ­
ing conflict over the borders
of their plots. The conflict
escalated into violence when
the harvest approached. The
local PETS team approached
the district council for inforВ­
mation on the land issue and
discovered that a village map in
the district office indicated the
exact borders of each family’s
land. The PETS team brought a
copy of the map to the village
and finally resolved the conflict
between the two families.
■The �Conflict Tree’
helps in analysing
conflicts in order
to find solutions
Quick Guide PETS
25
3.5 WHAT TO DO WITH TRACKING RESULTS
Tracking results are analysed by the PETS team. The
implementing organisation assists in this initially during the
training period. Authorities are informed about the results
and requested to reflect on them. The PETS team then reports
the results to the relevant Village Committees, which bring
them to the Village Council for inclusion in the agenda for
the next Village Assembly Meeting. The PETS team presents
the tracking results during the meeting and the Village
Executive Officer publishes them on the village Notice
board. During the Village Assembly Meeting, the concerned
authorities are invited to present their views before the
Village Assembly decides on the follow-up actions.
Tracking results can also serve as input in defining the
village priorities during the subsequent O&OD exercise.
Empowers local
communities to
follow up on
public resources
earmarked for
them
Increases quality
of public service
delivery
Reinforces and
complements
existing structures
and processes (e.g.
Village Assembly,
O&OD)
PETS
Helps authorities
to do a better job
by providing
information from
the grassroots
Increases
transparency
and
accountability
Improves collaboration between
authorities and
communities due
to mutual trust
and respect
26
Quick Guide PETS
“There are a lot of synergies
between O&OD and PETS. Not
only do the two processes
work well together but O&OD
is strengthened as a result of
PETS. It is good to have a team
of volunteers working with
the village to solve community
problems. The ability of villagers
to solve their own problems has
increased. For example, with
the help of the PETS team, the
villagers of Chanika Kofi and
Komdudu have improved access
to water. In Amani and Sua
village the PETS team helped
to address the poor school
attendance and through their
intervention the situation has
significantly improved.”
Julius M. Mhando, District
Community Development
Officer Handeni District Council
Brief Profiles
Civic Education Teachers’ Association (CETA)
www.facebook.com/pages/Civic-Education-Teachers-Associat
ion/295498427220552?ref=ts&fref=ts
CETA is a non-profit-organisation established in 2003
promoting democratic principles, knowledge of political
institutions, human rights, citizen rights and duties and
accountability of government authorities. Its vision is
an informed, democratic, responsible, accountable and
developed society, in which teachers provide high quality
education to students and citizens. To reach this goal,
CETA’s members – approximately 500 teachers operating
in 10 regions - conduct seminars, trainings and workshops,
publish special text books and organise activities such as
school debates. CETA also implements PETS in five villages
in Handeni District, supported by GIZ’s Support to Local
Governance (SULGO).
Support to Local Governance Programme (SULGO)
www.sulgo.or.tz
Germany is one of several development partners supporting
Tanzania’s policy on decentralisation. The bilateral
cooperation consists of:
1.Contributions to the two joint funding mechanisms for
the Local Government Reform Programme, i.e. the Local
Government Development Grant (LGDG) Basket and the
Local Government Reform Programme (LGRP II, technical
assistance) Basket.
2.Technical cooperation through the bilateral Programme
Support to Local Governance (SULGO). It is implemented
by Prime Minister’s Office Regional Administration and
Local Government and by GIZ on behalf of Federal
Ministry for Economic Corporation and Development.
SULGO focuses on improving public financial management
at the sub-national level, as well as on harmonisation of the
legal framework and on strengthening the rule of law.
Quick Guide PETS
27
More specifically, SULGO aims at:
}}Increasing
and utilising local revenues for better public
services.
}}Improving
accountability and civic participation at the
local level.
}}Strengthening
the legal framework for decentralisation and
improving the rule of law and greater legal certainty for
the population at the local level.
GIZ/SULGO extends financial and advisory support to
the Civic Education Teachers’ Association (CETA) in
implementing PETS in Handeni district that is based on
lessons learnt from previous experiences.
Approach
A main principle of German development cooperation is to
focus on outcomes and impacts, rather than on activities and
outputs in order to ensure the sustainability of results. All
operations of SULGO are closely aligned with and complementary to the Tanzanian Government’s Local Government
Reform Programme. Strategies, policies and instruments
developed in the Programme are introduced first in the pilot
councils and regions. Under the precondition of being scalable, experiences are systematically processed with the aim
of rolling-out good practices and high-impact approaches
across the whole country.
Coverage
For piloting new initiatives, SULGO teams up with local
government authorities and regional administrative secretaries, mainly in Tanga and Mtwara regions. Other collaborating
partners include the Association of Local Authorities Tanzania, the Tanzania Cities Network, Tanzanian Revenue Authority, Institute for Tax Administration, and the Controller and
Auditor General’s office.
Budget
The German government committed technical assistance
funds for the period 2007 to 2014 for SULGO’s implementation to the amount of approximately EUR 19 million (including contributions to the LGRP Basket).
28
Quick Guide PETS
Index of Appendices
No
Title
Short description
Usage
1.1
Integration of
PETS into existing
structures and
procedures
Gives an overview on how
PETS and O&OD interact
in the local planning and
budgeting cycle and how it
is embedded into the existing
village institutions.
Helps the implementing organisations to understand PETS
and to explain it to stakeholders and training participants.
Parts of it could also be used during the trainings.
1.2
PETS and O&OD in
the local governance system
Shows the most relevant
institutions and actors on the
District, Ward and Village level. It shows their interaction
(election processes, responsibilities, democratic checks and
balances) and which role both
PETS and O&OD play in this
complex process.
Helps the implementing organisations to understand PETS
and to explain it to stakeholders and training participants.
It also helps the implementing organisation as a framework
for the analysis of the power relations in the respective area
of implementation and through this eases the preparation of
trainings. It also helps to identify key stakeholders. Parts of it
could also be used during the trainings.
2
Sample of a Letter
of Commitment for
Stakeholders
Describes the roles and
responsibilities of the key
stakeholders in the PETS
implementation process.
Helps to establish a code of conduct, good relationships,
mutual trust and commitment of the key stakeholders towards
PETS. Through the signature of the document they demonstrate their support for PETS, the implementing organisation
and the PETS teams.
It supports the ownership of PETS by officials. The letter of
commitment should be signed at the initial stakeholder meeting, read out during the initial Village Assembly Meeting and
displayed at the Public Notice Boards or elsewhere in public
of the participating villages.
3.1
Sample Agenda
PETS Training Cycle
Gives an overview of the
structure and topics for
the four proposed training
modules. It also gives an orientation when it comes to the
duration of the trainings.
It helps the implementing organisation to schedule the trainings, to plan resources and to identify relevant topics. The
detailed agenda, especially with regards to O&OD should be
planned together with the District, ward and village authorities a joint planning exercise. The topics can be adapted
according to the needs of the participants. It is recommended
to maintain at least the foreseen feedback loops with the participants taking place during the first day of the training and
the preparatory part for the presentation of the findings to the
Village Assembly Meeting.
3.2
How to elect a
Village Government
Describes the legal basis and
formal process of democratic
election processes on the local
level.
This two page overview is a piece of basic civic education. To
be used as training material. It could also be posted on the
Public Notice Board and handed over to the village government.
3.3
Quick Guidance
Access to
Information
Describes the legal basis,
rights, and importance of
access to information. It
describes the most relevant
sources, techniques and
instruments of information
collection. It also talks about
problems and conflicts and
gives proposals for solutions.
This four page overview is a piece of basic civic education.
To be used as training material. It could also be posted on the
Public Notice Board and handed over to the village government.
3.4
The Legal Basis of
PETS
This paper describes the legal
basis of PETS such as the
Human Rights, Tanzanian
basic rights concerning the
access to financial information and the general legal
framework of PETS.
This overview is a piece of basic civic education. To be
used as training material. Parts of it could also be posted
on the Public Notice Board and handed over to the village
government.
Quick Guide PETS
29
No
Title
Short description
Usage
3.5
PIMA Card
Education Sector
Sample PIMA card for the
education sector and tracking
regarding school and school
expenditure.
To be used for tracking in the education sector on the local
level. It helps during the training to exemplify how a PIMA
card works. And it can also be adopted for other sectors and
to the needs of specific cases, if needed.
3.6
Examples of
Land Conflicts,
Root Causes and
Solutions
Describes different problems
which could appear with
regard to land distribution processes and in the
cultivation sector. It describes
responsibilities and gives
examples for solutions.
To be used as training material. It could also be posted on the
Public Notice Board and handed over to the village government as a tool.
3.7
Tasks and responsibilities of the
Village Government
Institutions in
Tanzania
Gives an overview of the most
relevant village government
institutions and their roles
and responsibilities.
To be used as training material. It could also be posted on the
Public Notice Board and handed over to the village government in order to improve its performance.
3.8
Guideline for a
PETS Report
Shows relevant key questions
that should be answered by a
good report on PETS tracking
results.
To be used as training material. Serves as an orientation for a
report on tracking results.
3.9
Template
Presentation PETS
Tracking Report
Gives a structure for the
presentation of the PETS
tracking report and helps
answering the most relevant
aspects. (What happened so
far, successes, challenges, next
steps...)
The PETS team can use this simple framework for the presentation of the tracking results for example to the Village
Assembly or the Village Committees or Media.
3.10
Minutes Template of
Village council and
Village Assembly
Meeting
Example for a well structured
template for minutes. This
template is used obligatory
by the Village Councils in
Handeni District and should
be available in all villages.
To be used as a good example for documentation in the trainings. Helps participants to understand the structure of minutes
and what they should contain. It could also be handed over
to the village government as a tool, if they do not have it in
their files.
3.11
Sample Bill of
Quantities (BOQ)
Example for a bill of quantities for a construction project
in a village. Shows construction items, quantity and price.
To be used as a good example in the trainings for a document
that should be available in cases of tracking a construction.
Helps participants to understand the structure of BOQ and
what it should contain. It could also be handed over to the
village government as a template.
4.1
Questionnaire
PETS Training
Participants:
Socio-demographic
data and feedback
on training quality
and content
Questionnaire to be used after
trainings to evaluate basic
socio-demographic data and
to collect some feedback on
the training.
To be used at the end of one training module. Helps the
implementing organisation to monitor quality, participation
and gender aspects.
4.2
Questionnaire PETS
teams Problem
oriented Feedback
on PETS Activities
and Analytical
Framework
Helps to gather information
on the dynamics around the
PETS team in the village and
insights concerning approach,
challenges, tracked topics and
sectors, successes, relation
to the village government,
participation, priority topics
in the villages, support of
PETS team in the village, and
support needed.
To be used at the end of one training module. Template can
be adopted according to the implementing organisation’s
needs and preferences. Helps to prepare next module and to
consider training needs of PETS team. Helps to take into consideration the socio-political dynamics in the villages. Helps
to identify potential conflicts and the need for moderation.
Supports mentoring and serves as a monitoring and reporting
tool. Helps to communicate challenges and successes to the
District level and partner organisations.
30
Quick Guide PETS
No
Title
Short description
Usage
4.3
Questionnaire
Awareness Level of
PETS, O&OD and
use of Public Notice
Board in the Village
Gathers information on the
awareness of PETS related
issues in a village.
To be used towards the end of a training module. Template
can be adopted according to the implementing organisation’s
needs and preferences. Measures awareness level of PETS
and O&OD and usage of Public Notice Boards in the villages.
Helps to take into consideration the socio-political dynamics in the villages. Serves as a monitoring and reporting tool.
Helps to communicate challenges and successes to the District
level and partner organisations.
5
Crops Calendar
Gives a detailed overview of
rainy seasons and regional
agricultural activities in the
rural areas of Tanzania.
To be used for the preparation of training activities in rural
areas. Rain, planting and harvest activities can strongly
influence the success of trainings in rural areas: villages are
difficult to access during the rainy season, and people are not
available for any activities related to PETS as they are working in the field.
6
Sketch on Good
Governance: How a
PETS team can help
in Cases of Land
Grabbing
Example for a sketch on the
topic Good Governance.
Describes a PETS case
study on land grabbing and
corruption in a village.
To be performed during a Village Assembly Meeting.
Demonstrates the audience the activities, role, functioning and
effectiveness of a PETS team. Helps to raise the awareness for
PETS in the community. Helps to raise the attention of the
community for the Village Assembly Meeting and strengthens participation. Can easily be adapted to other contexts.
Suitable to be performed by a local theatre group. The content
and context of the play should be well explained by the
organisation working with the villagers in order to avoid
misunderstandings and wrong information.
Quick Guide PETS
31
Annex 1.1 Integration of PETS into existing structures and procedures
reports on budget
implementation
Village
Assembly
Meeting
reports on
PETS
activities as
standing
agenda point
in Village
Assemblies
Implementing
Organisation
Village
Council
decides on
tracking
priorities
PETS Team
District
Council
exchange
on
accountability
in village
feeds in
village
priorities
National budget
framework
training &
mentoring
reports
on PETS
activities
implements
Legend
Village Government
Government
Assembly
32
sets village
development
priorities through
O&OD
Quick Guide PETS
Village
Committees
Village
Budget
Development
Priorities
reports
on PETS
activities
follows up &
compares
with priorities
Local budget
framework
National Government
nt
s
Legend
ap
p
oi
Village Government
Government
District
Council
Meeting
is secretariat for
Elected Representative
m
is
e on
l fo
r
in
& c form
on s
su
lts
Village
Assembly
Meeting
(VAM)
tes
da
tue
c
ele
s
an
m
ts &
sti
implements
reports
sets agenda
& reports
Village Council Meeting
co
n
advises
disburses funds
f
er o
emb
is m
ts
c
e
l
e
PETS Team
s-up
follow
Development
Priorities
rms
elects
aria
is member of
Village Committees
ity
cret
participates
Info
tabil
oun
Acc
is se
Village Chairperson
Ward Councilor
ang
Ward Level
of
Exch
supervises
its
ru
c
re
supervises
Ward Executive
Officer (WEO)
Village Executive
Officer (WEO)
Village Level
r
be
tion
rma
supervises
Village
Budget
Assembly
em
Info
District Council
Management
elects during general elections
reports
District Executive
Director (DED)
Streets
District Level
National Level
Annex 1.2 PETS and O&OD in the local governance system
O&OD
Village
Community
Quick Guide PETS
33
Annex 2 Barua ya Makubaliano
Kwa wahusika wote
Date
Yah: Makubaliano ya kutekeleza mradi wa kuwawezesha wanachi jinsi ya kufuatilia rasimali
za UMMA (PETS) kata ya Ndolwa
Ndugu,
Kichwa cha habari chahusika.
Shirika la walimu wa elimu ya uraia nchini (CETA) kwa kushirikiana na shirika la Ujerumani
(SULGO), katika kuwawezesha wanakijiji wa kata ya Ndolwa, Halmashauri ya Handeni, kuwa
na elimu pana na endelevu ya jinsi ya kusimamia na kufuatilia raslimali zao wenyewe ili
ziweze kuwasaidia katika kujiletea maendeleo; pamoja na kutekeleza makusudio ya utawala
bora katika ngazi ya Vijiji, Kata na Halmashauri kwa pamoja.
Ili kufanikisha zoezi hili, wahusika wote katika ngazi mbalimbali wanaombwa kutoa
ushirikiano pale panapohitajika: Ushirikiano huo unaweza kutoka katika Serekali ya Kijiji,
Kata, Halmashauri nk.
Tunatanguliza shukrani zetu kwa ushirikano wenu.
Kuridhia kwa Halmashauri ya Handeni
Kuridhia kwa watendaji na wenyeviti
Kuridhia kwa Mtendaji KataKuridhia kwa viongozi wa kamati za PETS
34
Quick Guide PETS
Annex 3.1 Sample Agenda PETS Training Cycle
M1: Introduction to O&OD and PETS
1st day
1st part of O&OD exercise
}}Analyzing
community priorities and order them in the Village Assembly Meeting
to PETS and O&OD
}}Integration of PETS and O&OD (Why PETS and O&OD belong together)
}}Household ranking
}}Accessing income per capital
}}Analyzing economic activities according to the environment
}}The importance of having PETS at the local level
}}General questions
}}Evaluation sheet of the last O&OD
}}Introduction
2nd day
}}Accessing
priorities selected during Village Assembly Meeting
the sources of income
}}Preparing village income and expenditure
}}Ranking and planning (logical framework)
}}Entitlements and rights
}}Analyzing
3rd day
}}Preparing
the village action plan for three years
}}Preparing the monitoring plan of the priorities selected
}}Sources of financial information for PETS
4th day
}}Complementary
approaches to PETS implementation
}}Introduction to PIMA card
}}Toolbox: conflict management I
}}What are conflicts?
}}Types and structure of conflicts (the conflict tree)
}}Root causes of conflicts
}}What does conflict management mean?
}}Methods of conflict management
Quick Guide PETS
35
5th day
}}Toolbox:
conflict management II
}}Method of conflict resolution
}}Mediation methods
}}Positive and negative aspects of conflicts
}}Introduction to PIMA card and how to use it
6th day
2nd part of O&OD exercise
}}Presentation
of the village strategic plan, monitoring plan, as well as income and
expenditure to the villagers during Village Assembly Meeting
}}General questions and answers between the village/ward authority and the villagers on
various development issues
M2: Access to Information, Conflict Management, How to replace a Village
Government
1st day
O&OD exercise
}}With
the village authorities and participants of O&OD: check if the report is ready, if
minutes have been kept and if there was a meeting since the end of M1
}}Follow-up and update of village priorities
}}Review of problems, questions and answers with the facilitator giving advise
}}PETS teams report what they have done and where problems occurred
}}Discussion of activities and challenges of the PETS team
}}Analysis of conflicts and discussion of conflict solving approaches
}}Provision of instruments for conflict management and discussion with facilitators on how
to address challenges in the village
}}Repetition of some topics of the last workshop according to demand
}}Discussion of success stories
}}Preparation of presentation of activities and tracking results in an easily understandable
way
2nd day
}}Focal
topic: access to information
}}Link conflict management with access to information (why is it likely that conflicts occur
while trying to access information?)
}}Exercises on methods to access information (where to get information?, what is relevant
information?, how to address authorities?, what to do when problems occur?, etc.) (linked to
conflict management)
}}Citizens rights
}}Presentation and discussion of sample documents (budgets, project reports, books of
accounts, and BOQ lists of items, etc.)
36
Quick Guide PETS
}}Explanation
of how information can be drawn from them
}}Information on election process of village authorities
3rd day
Village Assembly Meeting
}}Cross-cutting
issue HIV/AIDS: sketches performed by a local theatre group
}}Information on health issues by nurse from Ward dispensary
}}Election process of village authorities (How to remove a leader from power and elect a new
one?)
M3 Corruption on Local Level, Report Writing and Presentation Techniques
1st day
}}With
the village authorities and participants of O&OD: check if the report is ready, if
minutes have been kept and if there was a meeting since the end of M2
}}Follow-up and update of village priorities
}}Review of problems, questions and answers with the facilitator giving advise
}}PETS teams report what they have done and where problems occurred
}}Discussion of activities and challenges of the PETS team
}}Analysis of conflicts and discussion of conflict solving approaches
}}Provision of instruments for conflict management and discussion with facilitators on how
to address challenges in the village
}}Repetition of some topics of the last workshop according to demand
}}Discussion of success stories
}}Preparation of presentation of activities and tracking results in an easily understandable
way
2nd day
}}How
to write a good report
to hold a good presentation
}}Corruption on local level (forms, case studies, How to address corruption? What has
corruption to do with transparency and access to information?)
}}How
3rd day
Village Assembly Meeting
}}Cross-cutting
issue Good Governance sketch performed by a local theatre group
Quick Guide PETS
37
M4: Rights and Duties of a Citizen
1st day
}}With
the village authorities and participants of O&OD: check if the report is ready, if
minutes have been kept and if there was a meeting since the end of M3
}}Follow-up and update of village priorities
}}Review of problems, questions and answers with the facilitator giving advise
}}PETS teams report what they have done and where problems occurred
}}Discussion of activities and challenges of the PETS team
}}Analysis of conflicts and discussion of conflict solving approaches
}}Provision of instruments for conflict management and discussion with facilitators on how
to address challenges in the village
}}Repetition of some topics of the last workshop according to demand
}}Discussion of success stories
}}Preparation of presentation of activities and tracking results in an easily understandable
way
}}Provision of instruments for conflict management and discussion with facilitators on how
to address challenges in the village (key skills)
}}Repetition of some topics of the last workshop according to demand
}}Discussion of success stories
2nd day
}}Tool
box: tbd according to needs identified in Module 3, for example land disputes and land
use:
}}What are the rules and regulations in the village of land use and land redistribution?
}}Which procedures have to be followed if somebody from outside the village would like to
buy village land in order to cultivate or do mining?
}}Who is responsible for the redistribution of land?
}}What is the role and responsibility of the Village Government and the District Council?
}}How do villagers participate in the process of redistributing village land?
}}How does the village community profit from income generated by the selling of land?
}}Where do I find village maps?
3rd day
Village Assembly Meeting
}}Cross-cutting
issue tbd according to needs identified in Module 3, sketch performed by a
local theatre group: show case of a land conflict and the role and responsibility of Village
Government and the PETS team
38
Quick Guide PETS
Annex 3.2 How to Elect a Village Government
1. General information on elections
An election is a formal act of collective political decision-making.
1. Stages of the election process:
}}Selection
of candidates for elections
}}Organisation
}}Voter
and management of election campaigns
identification and targeting
}}Announcement
of a polling day
}}Election
}}Counting
of votes
}}Announcement
of the voting results and the winning candidate
2. The importance of elections
Elections are important because they:
}}offer
citizens an opportunity to participate in the political process
}}give
the opportunity to choose representatives
}}to
fill a vacant position
}}make
elected leaders serve the community
}}guarantee
}}make
Elections are the
basis of a democratic
government!
continuous representation of elected leaders
the elected leaders accountable and responsive to the needs of the voters
}}ensure
}}replace
good governance due to the accountability of elected leaders
politicians who have lost the trust of the people
}}legitimize
the elected government
3. Principles of democratic elections
}}All
qualified citizens are allowed to vote regardless of their sex, race, language,
income, profession, education, religion, or political opinion
}}Each
voter carries one vote
}}Each
vote has the same value
}}Anyone
qualifying for voting is allowed to do so without any external influence or
interference
}}Every
candidate is granted the equal chance to compete
}}Candidates
}}The
are obliged to listen to the political views of their opponents
electoral laws, rules and procedures are fair and equal for all contestants
}}People
are allowed to speak out, campaign, assemble and share ideas with supporters
and opponents of any given political background
}}Voting
takes place secretly
Quick Guide PETS
39
Beware:
As a voter, inform yourself about the views and aims of the candidates. Only then you will
have a reasonable basis for the election of candidates and political parties.
The Village Assembly is the supreme authority on all matters of general policy-making
in relation to the affairs of the village as such.
It consists of all members of the village who are resident in the village and 18 years or
older.
2. The Election of the Village Council
1. The Election Process
}}The
Village Council and the Chairperson are elected by the Village Assembly
}}The
Village Council convenes a meeting of the Village Assembly for the purpose of
elections
}}At
this meeting usually the Chairman of the Council presides
}}The
Village Assembly is allowed to enlarge or reduce the number of members of the
future Village Council
}}The
elected persons are members of the Village Council until the next elections unless
they resign or die
}}The
elections take place every three years
}}The
Village Assembly also can remove members of the Village Council
2. Preconditions for the election as a member of the Village Council
}}Minimum
}}Has
age: 21
a household within the village
}}Residence
in the village
3. Disqualification
}}If
a member is missing three consecutive ordinary meetings of the Village Council he/
she is disqualified and ceases to be a member of the Village Council
}}If
a member is missing three consecutive ordinary meetings of a Council committee
he/she is part of, he/she is disqualified and ceases to be a member of that committee
}}If
an elected member was unqualified for election or becomes disqualified he/she
ceases to be a member
}}In
order to fill any vacancy in the Village Council the Council may appoint a new
member from amongst the residents of the village or convene a Village Assembly
Meeting for an election
40
Quick Guide PETS
Annex 3.3 Quick Guidance Access to Information
1. The Right on Access to Information
Access to information means the individual’s rights to obtain and use information collected
or generated by others. The right on access to information is a Human Right.
Please remind:
Local governments are legally obliged to make information public!
Human Rights:
}}every
human being has them
}}they
are inalienable
}}they
can be demanded whenever they are denied or violated by any other person or state
Tanzania signed the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and thereby recognized the right
on access to information.
The Constitution of the United Republic of Tanzania states that every citizen has the right to
information:
Section 18 of the Constitution of the United Republic of Tanzania:
1.Without prejudice to the laws of the land, every person has the right
to freedom of opinion and expression, and to seek, receive and impart
or disseminate information and ideas through any media regardless of
national frontiers and also has the right to freedom from interference
with this communication.
2.Every citizen has the right to be informed at all times of the various
events in the country and in the world at large which are of importance
to lives and activities of the people and also of issues of importance to
society.
2. Why is access to information important?
Acces to information is important to:
}}raise
the awareness of the people on topics that are relevant for them
}}make
reasonable decisions
}}create
}}raise
accountable leadership
motivation for participation of people
}}determine
whether services have been delivered efficiently or not
}}understand
}}assess
decisions and actions of the government
government decision making
Quick Guide PETS
41
3. Sources of Information
}}Public
Notice board
}}Official
reports
}}Village
Chairperson
}}Village
Executive Officer
}}Ward
Executive Officer
}}Councilor
}}District
Executive Officer
}}Media:
radio, newspapers, television, internet
4. Gathering information
General guideline:
If possible, information should be collected from the original source!
Collect data from original records!
(e. g. patient numbers can be obtained from daily patient records kept by staff for medical
use)
! but
For some information (for instance on corruption) it is almost impossible to be collected
directly, especially from those benefiting from it. Therefore different sources of information
have to be combined.
Instruments for gathering information:
1. PIMA cards
}}Instrument
for comparing and assessing revenues/services and expenditures of public
money
}}It
is filled in by members of the local communities, leaders and technical staff of the
LGA at village, ward and district level
}}On
the basis of the results LGAs and communities can make informed decisions to
address gaps and to improve services
2. Observation methods
}}Collection
of information by using the five senses: looking, hearing, touching, smelling,
tasting
42
}}Very
useful if people refuse to provide information
}}Keep
the eyes open and observe yourself what is going on!
Quick Guide PETS
3. Interview techniques
}}Collection
of information by asking questions
4. Focus group discussion
}}discussion
}}it
of a specific topic with a few people from different groups
gives an insight into the range of opinions and ideas of a group
Don’t forget:
Collected data needs to be justified by receipts, financial files, audit reports etc.
Authority’s verbal response could be wrong!
5. Problems and Solutions
When you try to gather information you may encounter different problems. In this table
solutions for possible problems are presented.
Quick Guide PETS
43
Problem
Information is not available or easily
accessible at the village level.
Available documents are in English.
Village authorities are not cooperative
and do not provide information.
Village authorities do not keep proper
records.
Village authorities say that they do not
have the money to keep records.
Information is considered to be
confidential.
Solution
}}
Make the Councilor, the Council, the village authorities and the Ward authority
responsible! They have to make information accessible for all villagers.
}}
Ask the Village Executive Officer to bring information to the village from the
Ward Development Committee!
}}
Ask the Council authority to translate the documents. At least he should give a
summary of the content in Kiswahili!
}}
Be aware that you have the right to access information and remind the authorities
about this!
}}
Ask somebody for mediation, e. g. a religious leaders or higher authorities!
}}
Remind the authorities to keep the records. It is their duty!
}}
Remind the authorities that there is a budget available at the village level for
record keeping! They should use it.
}}
Most of the documents are available to the public. Remind the authorities that you
have the right on access to information!
}}
Ask the authorities to prove that the information is confidential!
Village authorities try to intimidate
you.
}}
Be aware that village authorities are public servants. Remind them that they
should serve the citizens and that they are not allowed to intimidate citizens!
}}
Ask somebody for mediation, e. g. a religious leader or higher authorities!
It is difficult to follow the money,
because funds come from different
resources.
}}
Use PIMA cards to organize information!
Important information is not published
on the public Notice board.
}}
Ask the authorities to publish information on the public Notice board, because
}}
Ask the authorities to be as transparent as possible! Remind them that information
should be easily understandable!
information should be available for the public!
}}
Ask for concrete documents or at least for an abstract of these documents to be
published on the public Notice board!
Information is too complicated/not
}}
Ask the authorities to explain the information! Remind them that information
should be easily understandable for the everybody!
understandable, e. g. documents are full
of numbers and percentages.
To gather information takes a lot of
}}
Distribute tasks among all PETS team members equally so that not only a few
persons do all the work!
time.
}}
Engage other villagers in PETS activities!
}}
Remind the authorities to be transparent and to publish information on the public
Notice board, then you do not have to ask them and collection of information is
easier!
Collection of information creates
}}
Ask somebody to mediate, e. g. a religious leader or a higher authority!
problems between the PETS team
}}
Remind the authorities that you have the right of access to information!
and the village authorities.
If possible, compare different sources.
It is uncertain if the provided informa- }}
tion is reliable.
}}
Ask a higher authority for verification!
44
Quick Guide PETS
Annex 3.4 The Legal Basis of PETS (Short Introduction in Kiswahili)
USTAHILI NA HAKI
Msingi wa kisheria na kifedha wa PETS
FUATILIA PESA-KISHERIA
Haki ninini?
Haki ni ustahili wa kupata kitu, hivyo mtu ana haki kama mtu huyo anastahili kutenda
katika uelekeo fulani aua anastahili kutendewa na watu wengine:
Mfano unaposema una haki ya kwenda nyumbani na mtu mwingine hawezi kukuzuia
kwenda nyumbani
}}Haki
ni ustahili wa kupata kitu, hivyo mtu ana haki kama mtu huyo anastahili kutenda
katika uelekeo fulani aua anastahili kutendewa na watu wengine:
}}Mfano
unaposema una haki ya kwenda nyumbani unastahili kwenda nyumbani na mtu
mwingine hawezi kukuzuia kwenda nyumbani.
}}Haki
inaweza kuwa ni ya mtu mmoja au makundi; mfano mfanyakazi au wafanyakazi
katika chama cha wafanyakazi, wana haki ya kuwa huru na bila kuachishwa kazi kwa
nguvu au ghafla na hii inatambulika kisheria, vivyo hivyo jamii ina haki za jumla
kama haki ya ardhi.
Misingi ya haki za binadamu
}}Hazihamishwi
wala kutenganishwa (universality and inallenalbility): watu wote kila
pembe ya dunia wana haki sawa. Haki hizi hazinyanganyiki. Huweza kunyang’anywa
haki yako. Haki hii inafafanuliwa na kuonyeshwa katika kifungu cha 1 katika tamko la
Haki za Binadamu “All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and right”.
}}Hakuna
kubwa wala ndogo(indivisibilty): yaweza kuwa inahusiana na siasa, uchumi,
utamaduni au kijamii, mwanadamu. Hakuna haki kubwa au yenye umuhimu kuzidi
nyingine.
}}Usawa
na hazibagui(equalilty and non discrimination): Binadamu wote ni sawa. Mtu
yeyote hapaswi kubaguliwa kwa ajili ya jinsia yake, rangi, kabila, utaifa, umri, dini,
ulemavu n.k kama ilivyoainishwa katika tamko la haki za binadamu.
}}Uwajibikaji
na utawala wa kisheria
(Accountabilty and rule of law): Nchi na viongozi wengine wanawajibika kuangalia kila
binadamu anatendewa haki. Wanapaswa kufuata misingi na sheria mbalimbali za kitaifa
na kimataifa. Raia/wananchi, vyombo vya habari, AZISE, na mashirika ya kimataifa
wanawajibu na nafasi kubwa ya kuziwajibisha serikali katika kuhakikisha kuwa haki hizi
zinatimizwa.
MAJADILIANO KUHUSU HAKI
}}Ainisha
misingi mikuu minne ya mkataba wa kimataifa wa Haki za Binadamu.
}}Ainisha
haki (5)ambazo watu huzidai au desturi za jamii?
}}Eleza
kama unafurahishwa au laah na haki ulizoziainisha
Quick Guide PETS
45
HAKI YA KUPATA TAARIFA
}}Kupata
}}Tuna
taarifa sia suala la fadhila.
haki za sheria, katiba na maadili kupata taarifa
}}Wizara,
mamlaka za wilaya na wakala wana miongozo na taratibu zinazosisitiza haki hizi.
}}Asasi
zisizo za kiserikali na maafisa wa serikali za mitaa wanatambua haki na taratibu hizi.
Mfumo wa ufuatiliaji wa matumizi ya fedha utakuwa rahisi ikiwa kuna haki ya kupata taa
Haki, uwazi na upatikanaji wa Taarifa
}}Uwazi.
}}Ni
kupata taarifa kwa upana ambazo ni muhimu kwa wakati na zinazoaminika katika
kipindi cha utendaji kwa nafasi ya fedha na uongozi wa Taasisi.
}}Uwazi
katika fedha unaleta mahusiano kati ya wananchi na serikali.
}}Kidemokrasia;
}}Wananchi
}}Serikali,
}}Wakuu
wananchi wanachagua viongozi watakaounda serikali.
ni wakuu.
wizara na Idara zake ni wakala wa wananchi.
wanayo haki ya kufahamu kuhusu utendaji unaofanyika.
Haki za Taarifa za kifedha
Hii si dhana mpya katika serikali za mitaa, imeainishwa katika:
}}Katiba
ya jamhuri ya muungano wa Tanzania.
}}Sheria
ya fedha ya serikali za mitaa ya mwaka (1982).
}}Kanuni
za mipango na bajeti.
}}Makala
ya tathmini ya serikali za mitaa.
}}MKUKUTA.
Katiba ya jamhuri ya muungano wa Tanzania kifungu: 18
}}Haki
ya uhuru wa mawazo.
}}18
(1) “kila mtu yuko huru kuwa na maoni yoyote na kutoa nje mawazo yake na kutafuta,
kupokea na kutoa habari na dhana zozote kupitia chombo bila ya kujali mipakaya nchi, na
pia ana uhuru wa mawasiliano”
}}Katiba
ya jamhuri ya muungano wa Tanzania kifungo:18
}}2.
“kila raia anayo haki ya kupewa taarifa wakati wowote kuhusu matukio mabalimbali
nchini na duniani kote ambayo ni muhimu kwa maisha na shughuli za wananchi na pia juu
ya masuala muhimu ya jamii”.
Sheria ya fedha ya serikali za mitaa ya mwaka (1982)
}}Sheria
ya serikali za mitaa (mijini na wilayani) Na.1 ya mwaka 1982.
}}Sheria
ya fedha ya serikali za mitaa Na 9 ya mwaka 1982.
}}Imeelezwa
katika maandiko ya mamlaka za fedha za serikali za mitaa (1997).
}}Majukumu
ya maafisa wa serikali za mitaa.
46
Quick Guide PETS
}}Ni
jnsi gani taarifa za fedha zitaweza kupatikana.
}}Sheria
ya fedha za umma ya mwaka 2001.
}}Kanuni
za fedha katika serikali za mitaa ya mwaka 1997 (local authority financial
memorandum).
}}Kanuni
za mipango na Bajeti za serikali za mtaa.
}}Inahamasisha
serikali za mitaa kuwa wazi katika mchakato wa mipango na bajeti.
}}Kubadiishana
mipango na bajeti na wadau mbalimbali wakiwemo Asasi zisizo za kiserikali.
}}Makala
ya tathmini ya serikali za mitaa utafanyiwa tathmini na:
}}Utendaji
}}Kama
umekwenda vipi baada ya kupata fedha kutoka serikali kuu.
taarifa zinawekwa wazi katika ubao wa matangazo.
MKUKUTA
}}Nguzo
3: lengo: 2
}}Ugawaji
sawa wa rasiliamali za umma na kushughulikia tatizo la rushwa ipasavyo.
2: KANUNI NA VIWANGO VYA MAADILI
}}Baadhi
ya viwango vya maadili na utu wa mwanadamu vinakuwa na nguvu na umuhimu
zaidi kuliko sheria, hata kama havijaorodheshwa katika katiba ya nchi au sheria.
}}Kanuni
zote zinazoanisha kuwa binadamu wote wamepewa uwezo sawa katika kutenda
jambo, hii inafahamika kama kanuni au haki za binadamu; nyingi kama hizi zimewekwa
kimaandishi na kufahamika kimataifa na kupitishwa na serikali za nchi.
Kanuni za haki za Binadamu
}}Tamko
la kimataifa la Haki za Binadamu (1948).
}}Mkataba
wa kuondoa aina zote za ubaguzi dhidi ya wanawake.
}}Mkataba
wa kimataifa wa haki za watoto.
}}Mkataba
wa Afrika wa haki za ustawi wa mtoto.
}}Mfumo
wa ufuatiliaji wa matumizi ya fedha za Umma.
Public Expenditure Tracking System (PETS)
PETS NI NINI?
}}PETS
ni mfumo au utaratibu wa wananchi kufuatilia fedha za umma tangu zinapotolewa
(na serikali kuu), kupitia halmashauri za wilaya hadi ngazi ya matumizi ya mwisho.
}}PETS
ni zana inayompatia taarifa raia juu ya namna fedha za serikali zinavyotumika.
}}Huimarisha
uwazi na kuchochea uwajibikaji.
}}Huwawezesha
}}Pia
wadau mbalimbali kuelewa vyanzo na matumizi ya fedha.
huwapa fursa ya kulinganisha fedha zinazotolewa na jinsi zinavyotumika.
}}Huwawezesha
wananchi kuielewa bajeti na kusaidia kuhakikisha fedha zinatumika kama
zilivyokusudiwa.
}}Msingi
wa PETS ni kupatikana kwa taarifa (za fedha).
Quick Guide PETS
47
UMUHIMU WA TAARIFA
}}Taasisi
za umma
}}Taratibu
za uwazi
}}Matokeo
kuboreka kwa
}}kiwango
cha uwazi na
}}uwajibikaji,
kuboreka kwa
}}kuimarika
kwa utoaji huduma na
}}kuimarika
kwa haki kwa haki za wananchi
}}Wadau:
}}Wananchi
wenye ufahamu
SIFA BAINIFU
}}Uhirikishaji:
pamoja na PETS kuanzishwa na CSOs inatarajiwa kuwa utaendelezwa kwa
ushirikiano baina ya CSO, TAMISEMI na mamlaka zote za serikali za mitaa
}}Kuanza
polepole na kwa uangalifu:
Kwa kuanza PETS italenga kushuhulikia mtiririko wa rasiliamali na kujaribu
kuonyesha jinsi fedha zinavyotumika. Hii itahusisha kushughulikia kwa ujumla kila
chanzo cha mapato, na matumizi katika halimashauri
}}Kurahisisha
utoaji taarifa kufuatia kuwapo juhudi za kutumia mfumo sanifu wa computa
wa planrep itakuwa rahisi kwa halmashauri kutoa taarifa
}}Kusaidia
na si kukagua: kazi ya PETS si kuwa aina nyingine ya ukaguzi wa mahesabu, bali
inakusudia kuufahamisha umma juu ya rasiliamali fedha zinazoletwa kwenye halmashauri,
na kuwasaidia kuelewa jinsi mchakato wa bajeti na matumizi vinavyosiamamiwa
MJADALA
}}Ni
zipi sababu zinzokufanya wewe kama mwanajamii, au kiongozi wa Halmashauri/serikali
za mitaa, AZISE, shirika la kidini uhitaji taarifa za kifedha?
FAIDA ZA PETS
}}Husaidia
watu kupata na kutumia taarifa za fedha
}}Husaidia
kuelewa uhusiano baina ya huduma zinazotolewa, fedha zinazotegwa na matumizi
halisi
MATUMIZI YA TAARIFA ZA PETS.
Wadau mbalimbali wanaweza kutumia taarifa zitokanazo na PETS:
}}Kutaka
kujua iwapo pakacha linavuja mahali fulani katika mtiririko (wapi na kwa kiasi
gani)
}}Kufahamu
}}Kujua
sababu za halmashauri kushidwa kutekeleza ahadi au mipango yake
}}Kuhakiki
48
chanzo cha matatizo
thamani halisi ya fedha
Quick Guide PETS
}}Kutaka
kuweka malengo madhubuti ya pekee ya kutazama matokeo sambamba na vitendo
vya watoa huduma. Hii huweza kuzalisha taarifa ambazo watunga sera na wadau wendine
wasingezipata vingenevyo (mrejesho)
WADAU WAKUU KATIKA PETS
}}Madiwani:
Ni wawakilishi wa wananchi katika wilaya
}}Maafisa
wa wilaya:wanahitaji kuelewa kwa uhakika jinsi rasiliamali zinavyotumika katika
utoaji wa huduma
}}Jamii
zipokeazo huduma
}}Zinataka
kuboresha viwango vya huduma za wanazopokea
}}Mashirika
ya kijamii (AZISE)
}}Kuboresha
}}Yaweza
maisha ya wanajamii yanakofanya kazi
kutenga muda ili kuzitafuta taarifa za masuala ya fedha na kuzichanganua
}}Kueneza
matokeo ya taarifa hizi kwa wadau
}}Maelekezo
na miongozo mbalimbali ya serikali inaonyesh akwamba AZISE zinanafasi
kubwa zaidi katika kufanya PETS kutekelezeka
UGUMU/CHANGAMOTO ZA PETS
}}Upatikanaji
wa taarifa sahihi za fedha. Mathalan, mara nyingi taarifa za fedha za wilaya ni
za kijumla (aggregated) hivyo kuwa vigumu kuona mtiririko wa fedha hadi ngazi ya kata
au kijiji
}}Fedha
hutoka katika vyanzo mbalimbali hivyo kuzidisha ugumu wa zoezi zima
}}Kulindana,
(baadhi ya watu/taasisi kutopenda watu fulani fulani kuwajibishwa, ama
maofisa kutopenda jamii iwezeshwe na kuhoji)
}}Baadhi
ya watu huweza kuficha taarifa ili watu wa kawaida washidwe kuuliza maswali ya
msingi/yenye maana/Hoja nzito (Pasipo utafiti, hakuna haki ya kunena)
PIMA KADI NI NINI?
}}Pima
kadi ni zana halisi ya kukusanyia taarifa ambazo zinaipa nguvu jamii kwa kuiwezesha
uwa na �haki ya kusema’
}}Huipa
jamii mfumo wa kukusanya taarifa nyingi na bora kuhusu uwekezaji, matokeo, na
matunda ya uwekezaji wa huduma za serikali
}}Jamii
muhimu, ni jamii yenyewe inayo amua sekta za kufuatilia
}}Taarifa
zipatikanazo huweza kutumika katika mijadala ya jamii na halmashauri ili kukuza
uwajibikaji
KUTUMIA PIMA KADI
}}Kadi
hizi ni zanan rahisi za mawasiliano, kwa hiyo wananchi wakishakuwa na uwezo wa
kukusanya taarifa kwa kutimia PIMA kadi, wananweza kuzitumia kufuatilia maendeleo ya
viashiria mbalimbali
}}Kadi
hizi zinaweza kutumika kwa kazi mbalimbali kufuatana na mahitaji na matakwa ya
jamii kwa mfano:
Quick Guide PETS
49
}}Kupima
maendeleo katika vipaumbile vya jumuila kwa ajili ya MKUKUTA (au maendeleo
mengine)
}}Kufuatilia
bajeti ya serikali (kinachowekezwa) kwa ajili ya huduma
}}Kutathmini
kazi iliyo kwisha fanyika katika jumuiya (matokeo) kwa kutumia
kilichowekezwa kwenye bajeti
}}Kutathmini
maendeleo katika harakati za kuboresha maisha, mf Kwa kutumia viashiria
vya MKUKUTA
}}Jinsi
raslimali inayowekezwa (input) inavyogeuzwa kuwa matunda (output)
}}Kiwango
cha kuridhika kwa jamii kutokana na matunda yaliyopatikana
}}Mwitikio
wa serikali za mitaa kwa vipaumbele vya wananchi
}}Gharama
zilizofichika au kuvuja kwa pakacha
}}Kuboreka
kwa maisha
Kufanikiwa kwa pima kadi kunategemea
}}Uelewa
}}Mazingira
}}Sera
ya eneo au hali ambamo tukio/jambo hutendeka, ufuatiliaji wa umaskini
zenye kumkomboa maskini kama MKUKUTA
}}Visababishi
}}Shabah
na viashiria vya umaskini, na
a za kupunguza umaskini
Kwa kuwa ufahamu wa mambo haya, wananchi wanaweza kutathmini mafanikio ya juhudi
za kupunguza umaskini kwa kufuatilia bajeti za wilaya na vijiji, uwekezaji wake, matokeo na
matunda.
}}Wawezeshaji
wawe na ujuzi wa kutosha kuwawezesha wananchi ili waweze kukusanya
taarifa sahihi na hivyokufanya maamuzi sahihi juu ya hatua ya pamoja
}}Uendelevu
wa PIMA KADI (haupaswi kuwa zoezi la kupita)
}}Hofu
ya wananchi juu ya mwitikio hasi wa viongozi wa halmashauri iondoshwe kwa
upatanishi wa CSOs, Wadau wote watanufaishwa na ufanisi na uthibiti wa huduma za
serikali (ufuatiliaji unapaswa kuwa zoezi shirikishi)
PIMA KADI HATUA KWA HATUA
HATUA 1:
1.Mkutano wa utambulisho:....................................................................................... watendaji
wa halmashauri wilaya/kata/kijiji, madiwani, CSOs na wawakilishi wa jamii watakoshiriki
kwenye ufuatiliaji
2.Elezea madhumuni ya PETS na umuhimu wa ufahamu wa masuala ya bajeti, matumizi ya
taarifa za PETS, N.K.
3.Fanya makubaliano na halmashauri juu ya upatikanaji wa taarifa za mipango na bajeti
50
Quick Guide PETS
HATUA 2:
1.Mkutano wa hadhara katika kila jamii ambamo ufuatiliaji utafanyika kujadili:
2.Mkutano jamii iwezeshwe kuamua
3.Sekta za kipaumbele kwa kupunguza umaskini
4.Sekta ambazo wananchi wanataka kufuatilia
5.Wajumbe watakaounda kamati za kutumia PIMA KADI
6.Ni muhimu kamati hii iwe na uwakilishi mpanawa makundi yote ya jamii (wanaume,
wanawake, vijana, wenye ulemavu, wazee na n.k)
HATUA 3:
Bainisha uwekezaji (inputs) bajeti ya halmashauri
1.Pata bajeti ya halmashauri kwa sekta ambazo wananchi wanataka kufuatilia
2.Chambua bajeti kulinganisha na kazi za MKUKUTA, sera na mikakati mbalimbali
kulinganisha na sekta husika
3.Andaa majedwali kwa kila kazi ya MKUKUTA ILIYO KWENYE BAJETI (FOMU YA PETS)
HATUA 4:
Ijumuishe maswali juu ya:
1.Shughuli za mkukuta ziilizo pangiwa bajeti mfn. ni madarsa mangapi yamejegwa katika
miezi 12 iliyopita?
2.Shughuli za kipaumbele mfn. ni hatua gani inachukua kulinda vyanzo vya maji?
3.Mambo mengine muhimu kwa jamii
4.Andaa PIMA kadi kwa kila sekta kwa ajili ya kujazwa na Afisa wa halmashauri. Kadi hii
iulizie shughuli na matumizi katika ngazi ya wilaya kwa sekta husika
HATUA 5:
Kukusanya Taarifa Kwa Kutumia Pima Kadi
1.Toa mafunzo kwa kamati moja ya jamii juu ya namna ya kutumia PIMA kadi, waandae
maswali kulingana na sekta husika
2.Jaribu PIMA kadi kwenye jamii hiyo
3.Ifanyie marekebisho inapobidi
4.Kamati kukusnaya taarifa – weka siku mwisho kukamilisha kazi (inapobidi toa msaada kwa
kamati)
5.Wakague taarifa hizo, na ikibidi kutafuta habari sahihi/za nyongeza
6.Itisha mkutano wa jamii nzima kutangaza matokeo (ni muhimu viongozi wengine
wakaalikwa kama madiwani, mkuu wa wilaya, CSOs)
Quick Guide PETS
51
HATUA 6:
KUANDIKA RIPOTI NA MREJESHO
1.Ripoti ikihusisha taarifa za halmashauri na uzoefu uliopatikana kwenye jamii
2.Watu wengine wasomeripoti hiyo (isambazwe)
3.Mrejesho (jamii husika)
4.Mrejesho (halmashauri)
5.Andaa mkutano wa jamii na halmashauri:
}}Kujadili
taarifa
}}Kujadili
cha kufanya juu ya vipaumbele vya jamii
}}Namna
ya kuendelea kupashana habari na mrejesho
Majukumu ya wananchi
}}Kuhakikisha
kuwa kiongozi wake aliyemchagua anatimiza wajibu wake ipasavyo ana
jukumu kumuondoa kiongozi madarakani kwa kufuata sheria kwa kupiga kura ya hapana
}}Kudai
haki zake za msingi kutoka kwa kiongozi wake
}}Kuelewa
sheria zote zilizopo katika serikali za mitaa na kuishi kufuatana na sheria hizo
}}Kutambua
nafasi yake katika jamii ili aweze kushiriki katika shughuli mbalimbali za
maendeleo mfano, ujenzi wa barabara, ujenzi wa shule n.k.
Mwananchi ana nafasi gani katika kumdhibiti kiongozi?
}}Kutoa
taarifa za vitendo vya rushwa kwenye ofisi husika au afisa mtendaji kata, diwani
}}Kuhakikisha
kwamba madiwani na watendaji wa serikali za mitaa wanatoa huduma
inayostahili, wanaweza kuhoji kama huduma haistahili
}}Wanapotoa
malalamiko yao wanatakiwa kuyafuatilia ili kujua yamefika wapi? kama
kiongozi anaonekana kutojali, wanaweza kumwondoa madarakani kwa kufuata taratibu
}}Kufanya
tathmini ya mipango ya maendeleo ili kuwafanya madiwani kutekeleza kazi zao
kwa mpango uliowekwa
Mijadala katika vikundi
1.Wananchi wanashiriki vipi katika serikali za mitaa/kijiji?
2.Kiongozi ana wajibu gani katika kuwashirikisha wananchi?
3.Ni jinsi gani wananchi wanaweza kushiriki katika maendeleo?
4.Wananchi wanawezaje kudhibiti matumizi ya raslimali katika serikali za mitaa/kijiji
5.Wananchi wanashiriki vipi katika serikali za mitaa/kijiji?
6.Kiongozi ana wajibu gani katika kuwashirikisha wananchi?
52
Quick Guide PETS
Annex 3.5 PIMA Card Education Sector
QUESTIONS FOR HEADTEACHER
1.
ANSWERS
Selection of secondary students selected to join form one in during the year ……
a) How many girls and boys students were selected to join in your school [year] ……?
b) How many students were reporting?
12
Female Male
a)
b)
Selection of secondary student selected to join form one in [year] ……
a) How many girls and boys student were selected?
b) And how many students were reporting in school?
3
a)
b)
Academic Performance of students
a)How many girls and boys students passed in form two to national examination in [year] ……?
b) How many were students selected to join form three in [year] ……?
2
3
a)
b)
Teachers salaries
Yes/No
a) Did all teachers receive their salaries through out the time in period [year] ……?
b) Did all teachers received their full salaries in particular time of period of [year] ……?
Any comments
a)
b)
Training
a) Did there any teachers in your school receive or attend training in period of [year] ……?
b) if yes, how many teachers received training?
4
5
6
7
8
9
Subsidy
a) How much money did your school received in the period of [year] ……?
b) Where did that money come from?
Please explain the perception of community!
c) Are they satisfied? If yes, in how far? And if no, explain why!
d) Please explain how you get information of work plans and budget in education sector!
a)
b)
School resources
Yes/No
a) Did your school receive any teaching materials like books from government in the period of
[year] ……?
b) If yes, how did they receive it?
a)
b)
New classes
Yes/No
a) Were there any new classes built in the period of [year] ……?
b) if yes, how many classes were built? Any explanations
a)
b)
Modification of classes
Yes/No
a) Was there any modification of classes in financial year of previous 12 months in the financial
year ……?
b) If yes how many classes were modified? Any explanations
a)
b)
New houses for teachers
Yes/No
a) Were there any new houses for teachers built in the last financial year?
b) If yes, how many houses? Any explanations
a)
b)
c)
d)
Modification of teachers houses
a) How many teachers houses were modified at least during the period of the previous 12
months?
10
Yes/No
a)
b)
Yes/No
a)
How did HIV /AIDS affect primary education in communities surrounding us?
Quick Guide PETS
53
Annex 3.6 TM Land use Mapendekezo PETS (Kiswahili)
Examples of Land Conflicts, its Root Causes and Possible Solutions
Mada: …. Matumizi ya Ardhi Vijijini
Na
Mada/hoja
Maelezo
Usuluhishi unaopendekezwa
(ngazi ya kijiji)
Maelezo
1
Uuzaji holela
wa ardhi na
uongozi wa kijiji
Uelewa mdogo
Kusudi
�Biashara’ (Rushwa)
Umaskini
Mafunzo juu ya masuala ya ardhi
kwa wajumbe WOTE wa Serikali
ya Kijiji
Uwazi: mabango; bao la matangazo
2
Uvamizi wa
maeneo
Mifugo kuharibu mazao
Wachimbaji kuchimba bila taratibu
Ufunguzi wa mashamba mapya
Watu kujenga shambani mwa mtu
mwengine
Uanzishwaji wa kazi holela
Dodoso wakati wa Mkutano Mkuu
wa Kjiji
Hoja izungumzwe tu wakati wa
kikao cha:
Serikali ya Kijiji
Mkutano Mkuu wa Kijiji
Uwazi: mabango, n.k.
3
Matumizi holela
ya ardhi
Wananchi kujenga makazi shambani
Kilmo cha kuhamahama
Ufugaji holela wa Mang’ati
Uanzishaji wa �Village Natural
Resources Managament Committee’
katika kila kijiji
Baada ya majadiliano na ikiamuliwa hivyo,
hoja ipelekwe
kwa:
Kamati ya Ardhi
ya Kijiji
Serikali ya Kijiji
Mkutano Mkuu
wa Kijiji
Baraza la Kata
Baraza la Ardhi
iliyoko Karibu
……
4
Wawekezaji
kukiuka kanuni
na sheria za
ardhi
Kuwaarubuni viongozi wa kijiji, hasa
mwenyekiti
Kutumia ardhi kwa nia mbaya (k.m. kuvuna miti tu, halafu asilime na kuacha
jangwa)
Anzisha/tumia Rejesta ya Ardhi
kijijini
54
Quick Guide PETS
Annex 3.7
Tasks And Responsibilities Of The Village Government Institutions In
Tanzania
Village Executive Officer (VEO)
1.Executive of the Village Council and its committees
2.Secretary of the Village Government and
3.Responsible for the management of village income and expenditure
4.Maintenance of security and peace and management of good governance in the village
5.Implementation of policies in the village
6.Management of the village development meeting assuring citizens’ involvement and
invitation of experts
7.Development of strategies to reduce famine and poverty and to increase crop production
Village Chairperson
1.Head of the Village Government
2.Responsible to call for Council meetings and Village Assembly Meetings and to chair
them. If there is no village chairperson, committee members select a temporary village
chairperson
3.Represent the village at the Ward
4.Serve all villagers regardless of their political positions, gender or religion
5.Giving a good example for good and responsible leadership
Village Council
1.Ensure security, peace, and good governance
2.Ensure economic development and the well-being of the village community
3.Responsible to provide and discuss Council Committee reports
4.Responsible to provide and discuss income and expenditure reports in the village
5.Responsible to provide and discuss reports from different hamlets
6.Bring forward all relevant issues to the Ward Development Council and District Council
Quick Guide PETS
55
Village Council Committees
The responsibilities of the Financial, Economic, and Planning Committee are to
1.Create village development projects
2.Ensure effective use of the village land for different activities like agriculture, building,
livestock breeding, mining, stadium etc.
3.Collect all plans from other village committees or from the district and national level which
was supposed to be realised in the village
4.Plan village income and expenditure and development projects and all related activities
5.Assure the village expenditure is used in a correct way and that the balance is put to the
village account
6.Manage the collection of taxes
7.Increase the village income through the use of the law of street government No. 9/1982
8.Assure that all procedures of a good system of agriculture are followed, like:
}}Early
}}Use
preparation of farms
of quality seeds and fertilizers in the farms
}}Planting
according to the environment and the good period for planting
}}Preserve
seeds
}}Cleaning
of farms after removing all plantations
Specific responsibilities of the Social Services Committee
1.Assure the adequacy of the children register for standard one and track school attendance
up to standard seven
2.Ensure that illiterate adults engage in adult education
3.Make sure that classrooms are in a good condition
4.Building of dispensaries
5.Disease and epidemics management
6.Make sure that the village is kept clean and safe
7.Engage people in community activities in order to solve problems
8.Make sure that villagers engage in national ceremonies and other meetings which are
announced by the government for their villages
56
Quick Guide PETS
Specific responsibilities of the Health Committee
1.Monitor diseases in the village and take over responsibility for dispensary constructions
2.Ensure prevention of HIV/AIDS and support people with HIV/AIDS
3.Assure the cleanliness in the village
4.Improve education
5.Improve education on birth control
6.Ensure improvement of health for adults and children
Ward Executive Officer (WEO)
1.Represent and help the Village Executive Officer to manage all development activities in
the ward
2.Prepare and follow up a work plan for the ward
3.Receive the Council Director
4.Make sure that the Village Executive Officer acts responsible
5.Act as a Development Committee Secretary
6.Manage legislation on Ward level
}}Manage
}}Secure
the peace in the Ward
}}Arrange
}}Ensure
the collection of taxes
all community activities in the Ward
and establish cooperation, association and entrepreneurship
Village Assembly Meeting
1.Discuss and release the village income and expenditure report
2.Assure the availability of the village income and expenditure report during Village
Assembly Meeting
3.Discuss the report of land redistribution and decide upon requests
4.Assure democratic decision making
5.Discuss and declare village development plan and budget
6.Discuss development activities in the village
Quick Guide PETS
57
Annex 3.8 Guidelines for a PETS Report (kiswahili)
Namna ya kuandika taarifa ya ufautiliaji
1
Nani:
Nani ni kiini cha taarifa? Wanapaswa kufahamika na kuchambuliwa kwa mapana. Nani anaweza kuwa
mtu, kikundi, ama tukio.
2
Nini:
Nini kimetokea ambapo vyombo vya habari vinapaswa kufahamu? Lengo ni kupata umakini wa
wasomaji ili kuwezesha taarifa yako kuripotiwa na kusomwa.
3
Wapi:
Endapo kama ni hali au tukio limefahamika au kugundulika je ni wapi? Kuwa moja kwa moja juu ya
eneo husika na maelezo yote ya kutosha kuweza kutoa fursa mtu akitaka kufika amudu.
4
Lini:
Lini imetokea? Imetokea nini/Zinapaswa kuwekwa taarifa kamili na si kusikia.
5
Kwanini:
Kwanini taarifa hiyo ni ya umuhimu? Sababu ya taarifa kwa umma inapaswa kuwa na maana. Kuwa
moja kwa moja katika hoja kumbuka kichwa cha habari kinapaswa kutoa taswira taarifa ya ndani.
6
Namna
gani:
Je taarifa kwa umma inafanywaje? Itatoa mchango gani?
58
Quick Guide PETS
Annex 3.9 Template Presentation PETS Tracking Report (Kiswahili)
Taarifa ya ufuatiliaji wa rasilimali za umma
Kijiji cha:
Kata ya:
Wilaya ya:
Jina la Mradi
Kipindi cha ufuatilijaji
Mambo yaliyo i buliwa
Hatua zilizochumhukuliwa
Changamoto zilizopo
Mchakato uliofuatwa wakati wa
ufuatiliaji
Mipango ya Baadaye
Mafanikio Yaliyopatikana
Quick Guide PETS
59
Annex 3.10 Template Meeting Minutes (Kiswahili)
Jina la Kijiji: ……………………….
Kikao cha: ………………….
MUHTASARI
Muhtasari huu umeandaliwa na:
Tarehe: ………………………
………………………………
Wajumbe waliohudhuria:
Na
Jina
Saini
Na
1
17
2
18
3
19
4
20
5
21
6
22
7
23
8
24
9
25
Jina
Saini
Wajume wasiohudhuria:
10
11
1
12
2
13
3
14
4
15
5
16
6
Wageni waalikwa:
1
5
2
6
3
7
4
8
Kikao kiliitishwa saa ………………………… asubuhi na kufunguliwa na Mwenyekiti saa ………………………………
Tunathibitisha kwamba agenda katika kurasa zifuatazo zimejadiliwa na kufikiwa maazimio kama ilivyoandikwa:
……………………………………………………
Mwenyekiti wa Kijiji
……………………………………………………
Katibu wa Kikao (VEO)
Tarehe: ……………………………………………………
Mhuri wa Serikali ya Kijiji:
Kikao kilifungwa na Mwenyekiti, saa ……………………………………………………
60
Quick Guide PETS
Maelezo
Azimio na Agizo
Na:
Agenda:
Azimio kwa muafaka:
Maendeleo ya mpango shirikishi
jamii (O&OD)
Rejea:
Mjadala
mfupi:
Hatua ya kufanya:
Mafanikio
mpaka sasa
Mwajibikaji nani:
Changamoto
Kabla ya tarehe:
Ushauri:
Taarifa itolewe lini na kwa nani
Maelezo
Azimio na Agizo
Na:
Agenda:
Azimio kwa muafaka:
Utoro wa wanafunzi wa kike
Rejea:
Mjadala
mfupi:
Hatua ya kufanya:
Mafanikio
mpaka sasa
Mwajibikaji nani:
Changamoto
Kabla ya tarehe:
Ushauri:
Taarifa itolewe lini na kwa nani
Mkutano Mkuu Wa Kijiji
Wakati:
___________________
Idaidi ya wahudhuriaji wa
mkutano mkuu wa kijiji:
________________
Mambo yaliyojadiliwa:
Mambo yaliyotoka kwa wananchi na kujadiliwa:
Quick Guide PETS
61
Annex 3.11 Sample BoQ (Kiswahili)
ORODHA YA MAHITAJI YA VIAFAA VYA UJENZI – BILL OF QUANTITIES
NA
MAELEZO/VIFAA
UNIT
Kiasi
Kiwango
Gharama
A
MSINGI
В В В В 1
Kupima jengo (Setting out)
L/S
1
50,000
50,000
2
Kumwaga zege la msingi(1:3:6) la 4”
В В В В Saruji
bag
23
15,500
356,500
В Mchanga
trip
2
40,000
В В Mawe kwa ajili ya kokoto
trip
1
50,000
В 3
Kujenga ukuta wa msingi
В В В В Saruji
bag
23
15,500
356,500
В Mchanga
trip
2
40,000
В В Mawe
trip
10
50,000
В 4
Kumwaga jamvi
В В В В В Saruji
bag
59
15,500
914,500
В Mchanga
trip
6
40,000
В В Mawe kwa ajili ya kokoto
trip
3
50,000
В В Jumla ndogo
В В В 1,677,500
B
KUTA
В В В В 1
Kujenga ukuta kwamatofali ya kuchoma
В В В В Saruji
bag
15
15,500
232,500
В Mchanga
trip
2
40,000
В В Matofali
pc
8,500
100
В В Kufunga ring beam (1:2:4)
В В В В Saruji
bag
17
15,500
263,500
В Mchanga
trip
1
40,000
В В Mawe kwa ajili ya kokoto
trip
1
50,000
В В Nondo 12mm
pc
26
20,000
520,000
В Nondo 6mm
pc
8
10,000
80,000
В Binding wire
kg
6
4,000
24,000
В В В В В Jumla ndogo
C
PAA
1,120,000
1
Andaa mbao za kupaulia na mabati
    Wall plate 2”x4”
ft
360
600
216,000
В Trusses
ft
1080
600
648,000
В Wire nails
kg
30
4000
120,000
В Misumari ya bati
kg
40
4000
160,000
В Mabati G28 3m
pc
48
22,000
1,056,000
В Mabati G28 2m
pc
27
19,000
513,000
В Kofia
pc
32
10,000
320,000
В Jumla ndogo
В В В 3,033,000
62
Quick Guide PETS
NA
MAELEZO/VIFAA
UNIT
Kiasi
Kiwango
Gharama
D
MADIRISHA NA MILANGO
В В В -
1
Andaa madirisha ya ukubwa (1200x1500)
В 8
120,000
960,000
2
Andaa milango (full) 900x2500
pc
5
120,000
600,000
В Andaa milango (full) 1200x2500
pc
2
150,000
300,000
В Jumla ndogo
В В В 1,860,000
E
KUMALIZIA
В В В В 1
Andaa sakafu yenye unene 25mm
В В В В В Saruji
bag
5
15,500
77,500
В Mchanga
trip
1
40,000
В 2
Andaa lipu kwa mchanganyiko 1:6
В В В В Saruji
bag
30
15,500
465,000
В Mchanga
trip
2
40,000
В 3
Kupaka rangi ya mafuta
tin
18
15,000
270,000
В Kupaka rangi ya maji
tin
20
7,500
150,000
В Thinner
ltr
15
5,500
82,500
4
Kupiga puchi
В В В -
В Saruji
bag
8
15,500
124,000
В Mchanga
trip
1
40,000
В В Jumla ndogo
В В В 1,169,000
В Jumla ya gharama ya vifaa
В В В 8,859,500
F
Gharama za usafirishaji wa vifaa
В В В 1,640,500
G
Gharama za ufundi
В В В 2,500,000
H
Gharama za uhamasishaji na usimamizi
В В В 1,700,000
В Jumla Kuu
В В В 14,700,000
Quick Guide PETS
63
Annex 4.1 Evaluation Form Training Quality
Questionnaire Training participants
Socio-democraphic data and feedback on training quality and content
Village: __________________________________
Date: ________
1.Tafadhali andika umri wako na jinsi yako (Me/Ke)!
#
Umri
Jinsi (Me/Ke)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
2.Ni mada zipi kati ya hizi hapa chini unoaona kuwa zinakufaa katika maisha yako ya kila
siku:
3.Tafadhali chagua mada moja tu!
Utatuzi wa migogoro
Haki ya kupata taarifa
Matumizi ya Pima Kadi
64
Quick Guide PETS
Annex 4.2 Evaluation Form Questionnaire VPT
Questionnaire PETS teams
Problem oriented feedback on PETS activities and analytical framework
Village: __________________________________
Date: ________
As you already have conducted several trackings we would like to get some of your ideas and
experiences in order to improve the quality of the upcoming trainings. Therefore we kindly
request your support. Please fill in the following form within your village PETS team. It is
very important that you answer the given questions full and frank due to the fact that the
development of the training is based on your answers. Notice that there are no right or wrong
answers and that every assiduously completed questionnaire is valuable for the improvement
of the training. Be assured, none of your answers will be given to somebody outside the
CETA Office. Thank you very much for taking the time to fill in the questionnaire. Time for
answering the questionnaire: 30 Min; group discussion, one questionnaire to be filled in by
each VPT.
Question 1
What are the current challenges or problems in your village?
Question 2
How often did your PETS team meet since November 2012 and what sector(s) or topic(s) did you track? Why did you choose
this/these topic(s)? What did you find out during tracking?
Question 3
Did you track some of the village priorities or not? If yes, which?
Quick Guide PETS
65
Question 4
How many members of your VPT were actually engaged in tracking?
What were reasons for non attendance?
lack of motivationO
lack of timeO
fear/intimidationO
no recognition of the importance of the meetings
O
conflicts between villagers and authorities
O
other, namelyO
________________________________
Question 5
How did you use these findings?
Question 6
Did you cooperate with PETS team members from other villages or not? If yes, on what occasion?
Question 7
Were authorities engaged in your activities or not? In what way? How was the cooperation? Did they give you feedback?
Question 8
Did you report your activities to the standing village committees or not? If yes, what did you report and do you know if the
standing village committees reported your activities to the village council or not?
66
Quick Guide PETS
Question 9
What are the most important documents for tracking according to your experience?
audited reportsO
income and expenditure reportsO
project acomplishment reportsO
tendering documentsO
receiptsO
budget from the councilsO
other, namelyO
_____________________________________________
Question 10
Where did you find them or who provided them for you?
Village ChairpersonO
Village Executive OfficerO
Ward Executive OfficerO
CouncilorO
District Executive DirectorO
other officials, namelyO
________________________________________________
Question 11
Sometimes the available information is not feasable. Was this the case or not? If not, in what way?
Question 12
It might happen that, while tracking public expenditures, organisational or logistic challenges occur. Did you face such challenges or not? ? If yes, which?
transportO
cooperation within VPC O
lack of timeO
cowardnessO
no challengesO
other, namelyO
___________________________________________________
Question 13
Some people find that there are negative personal consequences caused by an engagement in the VPC. Did you experience this
or not? If yes, which?
Quick Guide PETS
67
Question 14
Since you have started PETS activities, do you see any changes that occured in your community due to PETS or not? If yes,
which?
Question 15
Do you think that the work of the PETS team can be improved or not? If yes, how?
Question 16
Did you receive any feedback on PETS from the village members or not? If yes, what kind?
Question 17
Did you receive financial support for your activities from the village or not?
Question 18
It is possible that the information on PETS or other topics you have already received is not sufficient. Do you need further
information on PETS or other topics or not? If yes, which?
Question 19
It is possible that there are some topics on which you need more support for your training. If so, on which?
68
Quick Guide PETS
Annex 4.3 Evaluation Form Villagers
Interviewer note: Please randomly ask as much villagers as possible. Try to ask villagers
from different groups (old-young, women-men, etc.). In order to reach a good level of
representation, do not spend too much time with only one person.
Question 1: Knowledge of PETS
Question 2: Use of PNB
Have you heard of PETS and/or of the PETS team or not?
If yes can you shortly explain?
Do you know the
Public Notice
Board or not?
Do you read the information on
the PNB?
Y
Y
#
Y
Right
explanation?
N
Y
N
Gender
(m/f)
N
N
Gender
(m/f)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Question 3: Impact of PETS
Question 4: Knowledge of O&OD
Did you recognize any changes in your village since there is PETS in the
village or not? If yes, which?
Do you know O&OD or not?
If yes can you shortly explain?
#
Y
N
Which?
Gender
(m/f)
Y
N
Right
explanation?
Y
N
Gender
(m/f)
Quick Guide PETS
69
Annex 5 Crop Calender Map (By Courtesy of YARA TANZANIA LTD)
D .R .
CON G O
UG ANDA
K a rag we
Ta r ime
K a rag we
N ans io
B unda
S engerem a
M wanz a
K AG ER A
S engerem a
B i ha ra mu lo
Ge ita
S erenget i
B a riad i
B a r iad i
N gudu
Mondu li
Ma s wa
N gorongor o
Ma s wa
M bu lu
Mku u
Mosh i
Mo s hi
A rush a
M wanhuz i
S hinyang a
K aham a
S a ny a
J uu
Ar us h a
S h i n y ang a
K aham a
M wang a
S am e
B abat i
Ki bondo
Igung a
N z eg a
N z eg a
K i ombo i
Igunga
S am e
B abat i
Iramb a
K asu lu
K ILIM AN J A R O
M wang a
A R USH A
M bu lu
K asu lu
K ates h
Lushot o
H anan g
K IGOM A
K igo m a
U ramb o
Ki goma
T abo r a
Lushot o
K i t e to
S i n gi d a
K ondo a
Si ngida
U ramb o
Muhez a
K orog we
Handen i
S IN GI DA
D O D OM A
B agam oy o
D odoma
K ibah a
R UK W A
Mo r ogo r o
Ul a y a
Ki ba ha
Kil os a
K i s a ra we
Lake
Morogor o
I ringa
Makunduch i
Ki nondon i
Dar e s
S alaa m
I la la
Teme k e
DAR ES
SALAAM
C O AS T
Ki sa ra we
MO R OGO R O
N ama ny e r i
NOR TH;
S OUT H & CEN TR A L ;
T O WN & WES T
I ND IA N
Tanganyika
N kans i
UNG U J A
K oan i
R egez a
Zanziba r
B agam oyo
Mp wap wa
D .R .
CONG O
NOR TH; S OUTH
Mahond a
D O D OM A
Ma nyoni
PE MB A
P angan i
P angan i
M k o k otoni
Mp wap wa
Mpand a
C hak e C h ak e
M k oan i
H anden i
Ma ny on i
Tabo ra
M ich e wen i
Tang a
TANG A
Ki ba y a
W et e
T ang a
K orog we Muhez a
K ondoa
TABO R A
Mpand a
200 km
H a i R ombo
Aru
Me ru
Mondu li
Meat u
SH IN YAN G A
Ki bondo
100
N gorongoro
Kwi mba
B U RUND I
B U J U M B UR A
Scale 1:5,000,000
0
Mag u
MW AN Z A
G e i ta
B unda
Mugu mu
Mag u
Mwanz a
Bi ha ra mulo
NA I R O B I
Musom a
MAR A
Mu leb a
K IG A L I
With two Agricultural Seasons
Short & Long Rains
Muso m a
U ker e we
Mu leb a
N ga ra
K E N YA
Ta rime
B u k ob a
R WA N D A
N ga ra
TANZANIA
Lake Victoria
B ukoba
C hunya
I r ing a
R ufiji
S u m b a wang a
Kil omber o
Mk wa jun i
OC EA N
MBE YA
S umba wang a
Ma fia
K i l i ndon i
U t e te
I faka a
Maf inga
IR ING A
Mbeya
Mufindi
Ul ang a
Mboz i
Mb e y a
U y o le
Mboz i
Ki l wa Maso k o
R ungwe
I wa wa
Tukuy u
I le je
I le je
Ma kete
Nj ombe
Ul ang a
Nj ombe
Kil wa
L iwa le
LI ND I
K ye la
K y e la
ZAMBI A
L iwa le
Lud e wa
Unimodal rainfall
Lind i
L indi
Lud e wa
Mtwa r a
N ash ingwe a
S onge a
Bimodal rainfall
N ach ingwe a
S on g e a
Masas i
Lake
International trunk road
National trunk road
Railway
Nyasa
Mb inga
R UVU MA
Mbinga
Mtwa ra
MT W AR A
N e wa la
Tunduru
Tundu r u
Masas i
M A L AW I
MOZAMBI QU E
Unimodal & Bimodal
Unimodal:
Bimodal:
From December till April in
the Southern & Western
part of the country.
Short rains:
October-December
Planting: November
Harvesting: Jan/Feb
Long rains:
March–May
Planting: Feb/March
Havesting: July/August
70
Quick Guide PETS
N e wa la
Annex 5 Crop Calender Table (By Courtesy of YARA TANZANIA LTD)
Cereals & Grains North Bimodal:
Corn (Long Rains)
Corn (Short Rains)
Wheat
Sorghum
Millet
Rice
South Unimodal:
Corn
Sorghum
Wheat
Fibers:
Cotton (west 90%)
Cotton (East)
Oil Seeds:
Soybeans (South)
Peanuts
Castor beans
Sunflower seed
Fruits:
Bananas
Plantains
Vegetables:
Beans & Peas
Cassava
Irish Potatos
Tobacco (Northern Highlands)
JAN
FEB
MAR APR
MAY
JUN
JUL
AUG
SEP
OCT
NOV
DEC
Crops Calender
Sowing
Mid-season
Harvest
Quick Guide PETS
71
Annex 6 How a PETS team can help in Cases of Land Grabbing
Background information:
}}There
is a conflict in the village: an investor uses village land for mining and the villagers
need the land for cultivation.
}}The issue was never discussed in the Village Assembly Meeting and nobody has detailed
information why the investor is using the village land. There are a lot of questions:
}}Does he/she have the right to use the village land?
}}Who is responsible for the allocation of village land?
}}Did he/she ask the village government?
}}Does he/she pay the village for using the land?
}}If yes, who receives the money?
}}Does the money go to the village account?
}}Villagers want to have answers to all these questions, but do not know how to go about.
Scene 1:
}}VAM
ask the Village PETS team to track the land issue.
Scene 2:
}}The
PETS team prepares a PIMA Card.
Scene 3:
}}The
PETS team goes to the investor who is cultivating. He says he has the right to cultivate
because he paid the he says that he paid money to the Village Chairperson. Therefore he has
the right to cultivate on the village land.
}}The PETS team goes with the PIMA Card and the prepared questions to the Village
Chairperson. They ask him questions about the investor:
}}Did the Village Chairperson follow the legal procedures?
}}How much did the investor pay?
}}Did the money go to the village account?
}}Can the Village Chairperson proove that the money is in the village account?
}}Why was the request of the investor not discussed in the Village Assembly Meeting?
}}Could he present the village income and expenditure and receipts during the next Village
Assembly Meeting?
}}The Village Chairperson refuses to talk with the PETS team and tries to intimidate the PETS
team members. He says the information is confidential.
Scene 4:
}}Some
PETS team members feel intimidated; they don’t want to question the village
authority. They propose to stop the tracking.
}}The others convince them that they have the right to ask these questions as the land and
the money belongs to all the villagers. The village government has to be transparent with
the information. It has to tell the villagers about the income and expenditure. It has to
follow the legal procedures all the time and has to report to the village assembly when it
comes to land issues.
72
Quick Guide PETS
Scene 5:
}}The
PETS team goes again to the Village Chairperson. One of the PETS team members tells
him that that they have the right to get the information that they are asking for.
}}He refers to the Constitution of Tanzania and the Human Rights.
}}Local governments are legally obliged to make information public and the Village
Chairperson is not allowed to intimidate the PETS team.
}}Eventually the PETS team members demand their right.
}}At the end they get the necessary documents and get to know the necessary procedures for
achieving land.
Scene 6:
}}The
PETS team analyses the village income and expenditure report. The money the investor
paid is not included.
Scene 7:
}}The
PETS team bring their tracking report to the Financial Committee and ask it to present
their findings in the next Village Council Meeting.
}}They find out that the Village Chairperson took the money for himself and that the
necessary procedures have not been followed.
Scene 8:
}}In
the Village Council Meeting, the Financial Committee present the findings of the PETS
team.
}}The Village Chairperson admits that he took the money from the investor for himself.
}}The VEO tells him that this is not good governance and that he has to fulfil his mandate
according to the rules and regulations. Otherwise the village will suffer as they do not
participate in development.
}}The Village Council decides that the Village Chairperson has to pay back the money; the
investor has to give back the land. The redistribution of land has to be done according to
the rules and regulations.
Scene 9:
}}In
the Village Assembly Meeting, the Village Government is reporting to the Village
Community about this case.
}}The PETS team is allowed to present its findings and the necessary procedures to get land.
}}The investor tells that he did not know about this issue and that he is willing to pay the
village according to the regulations.
}}The Village Assembly decides that the investor can have the land if he pays the amount of
money according to the rules and regulations.
}}The
minutes and an information sheet about the necessary procedures is put onto the PNB.
Scene 10:
}}From
the money the village received from the investor for the land a new dispensary is
constructed.
Quick Guide PETS
73
Published by
Deutsche Gesellschaft fГјr
Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH
In collaboration with
Civic Education Teachers’ Association (CETA)
Support to Local Governance (SULGO) Programme
325, Isimani Road, Upanga
P.O. Box 1519, Dar es Salaam,
Tanzania
T +255 22 215 0761 / 215 2028
F +255 22 215 3249
E sulgo-dsm@giz.de
I www.sulgo.or.tz
Authors:
Karin Mader
Christian BГјrger
Safari F. Minja
Designed by DJPA Partnership (Africa) Ltd and
andreas korn visual comunication, Dar es Salaam
Permission to reproduce any part of this publication is required
Responsible:
Philipp Schattenmann
Dar es Salaam, July 2013
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
259
Размер файла
1 448 Кб
Теги
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа