THE PARAGRAPH I. THE TOPIC SENTENCE (The Topic. The Controlling Idea.) II. THE BODY The Major supporting statement The Minor Supporting Statement ? The Major supporting statement The Minor Supporting Statement ? III. THE CONCLUDING SENTENCE Pollution demands action. Pollution is destructive. Pollution exists throughout the world. Pollution requires that everyone do something about it. The Treaty of Versailles had three outstanding effects. because: First, a League of Nations was formed. because: Second, a reduction of German armaments relieved the whole world from threatened German aggression. because: Third, Germany?s colonies were awarded to various nations. He was a monster of conceit. Never for one minute did he look at the world or at people, except in relation to himself. He was not only the most important person in the world, to himself; in his own eyes he was the only person who existed. He believed himself to be one of the greatest dramatists in the world, one of the greatest thinkers, and one of the greatest composers. To hear him talk, he was Shakespeare, and Beethoven, and Plato, rolled into one. Conceit ? самомнение, тщеславие Gold, a precious metal, is prized for two important characteristics. because: First of all, gold has a lustrous beauty that is resistant to corrosion. because: Another important characteristic of gold is its usefulness to industry and science. The topic sentence: Gold, a precious metal, is prized for two important characteristics. Major support: First of all, gold has a lustrous beauty that is resistant to corrosion. Minor supports: Therefore, it is suitable for jewelry, coins, and ornamental purposes. Gold never needs to be polished and will remain beautiful forever. For example, a Macedonian coin remains as untarnished today as the day it was minted twenty-three centuries ago. Major support: Another important characteristic of gold is its usefulness to industry and science. Minor supports: For many years, it has been used in hundreds of industrial applications. The most recent use of gold is in astronauts' suits. Astronauts wear gold-plated heat shields for protection outside spaceships. The concluding sentence: In conclusion, gold is treasured not only for its beauty but also for its utility. Gold, a precious metal, is prized for two important characteristics. First of all, gold has a lustrous beauty that is resistant to corrosion. Therefore, it is suitable for jewelry, coins, and ornamental purposes. Gold never needs to be polished and will remain beautiful forever. For example, a Macedonian coin remains as untarnished today as the day it was minted twentythree centuries ago. Another important characteristic of gold is its usefulness to industry and science. For many years, it has been used in hundreds of industrial applications. The most recent use of gold is in astronauts' suits. Astronauts wear gold-plated heat shields for protection outside spaceships. In conclusion, gold is treasured not only for its beauty but also for its utility. On the battlefield of Waterloo Wellington?s infantry faced two major horrors ? cavalry and artillery. American scientists have developed methods of firing missiles from land bases and from submarines at sea. Topic sentence: Automobile racing is an expensive sport. 1. Engines for racing cars often costs many thousands of dollars. 2. Experienced drivers command large sums of money. 3. Le Mans and the Indianapolis Speedway are famous for their races. 4. Public interest is stimulated through radio and television. 5. Race courses are expensive undertakings for sponsors of the races. 6. Many people, both drivers and spectators, lose their lives annually. Detail Few people know the basic facts about diamonds. They consist of pure crystallized carbon and are usually found in the form of crystals. They come in many shapes: some have eight faces; others have forty-eight. Diamonds are the hardest substance known, and for this reason acids do not affect them. They are however, brittle, and can be split. To polish diamonds one must use oil and diamond powder. Detail Cactus propagation is easy. Some varieties of cactus produce miniature offshoots at the base of a parent plant. Remove the little plant, let it dry, then pot it in a sandy medium. If the plant is a branching type, remove a joint; otherwise, cut off a portion of a leaf or stem. Allow the joint or cutting to dry in a shady place for a few days to a week or more until a callus forms. Then place the cut side down in moist sand. Cover it with a plastic bag and keep it at about 75degrees F. The root should stay moist ? too much water causes rot. When roots have formed, pot the cutting in a sandy soil mixture. Reason People who own diamonds often think of them as one measure of prestige. A number of large blue-white stones suggest a certain affluence. A really valuable necklace gives its owner not only a material evidence of wealth but also a sense of superiority. And though many people buy diamonds as an investment, they can display the investment with more effect than stock certificates or real-estate deeds. Illustration or example Diamonds have lured many people into trouble. The famous Nikolas Verden stole the Khybar stone from a shop in Amsterdam, Holland, fled to Naples, and died trying to escape from the police. Thomas Bright, a jewelry salesman, swallowed the Van Noos diamond in order to smuggle it out of South Africa and was arrested after it was found during an operation for appendicitis. Five members of the Burton family died trying to hide the Courtney stone from the authorities. Definition Home is a place where a person lives with his family. When it refers to a building, it is usually a place in which an individual or a family can live and store personal property. But for many people home relates to a mental or emotional state of refuge or comfort. It is the place where you can discuss your problems, find support and understanding. A popular saying explains this word very clearly: "Home is where the heart is" Definition Friendship is a relationship between two people who hold mutual affection for each other. Friendship is a distinctively personal relationship that is grounded in a concern on the part of each friend for the welfare of the other, for the other's sake, and that involves some degree of intimacy. As such, friendship is undoubtedly central to our lives, in part because the special concern we have for our friends must have a place within a broader set of concerns, including moral concerns, and in part because our friends can help shape who we are as persons. Comparison Henry and George have similar characteristics. New York and San Francisco are flourishing ports. Byron and Hemingway, strangely enough, are somewhat alike in personality and experience. Both awake to find themselves famous at twenty-five. Both cut themselves off at an early age from their native lands. Byron adopts Greece and Italy; Hemingway celebrates Spain. In Greece Byron finds the fatal theatre in which to stage his worship of liberty. In Spain Hemingway discovers the shrine for his cult of violence. Both are attracted by the glory of militant life, and meet with disillusion. Both are examples of maleness and both exploit an athleticism which wins for them popularity among literary young ladies. Topic sentence: Byron and Hemingway, strangely enough, are somewhat alike in personality and experience. Major: Both awake to find themselves famous at twenty-five. Major: Both cut themselves off at an early age from their native lands. Minor supports: Byron adopts Greece and Italy; Hemingway celebrates Spain. Minor supports: In Greece Byron finds the fatal theatre in which to stage his worship of liberty. In Spain Hemingway discovers the shrine (место поклонения) for his cult of violence. Major: Both are attracted by the glory of militant (активный) life, and meet with disillusion. Major: Both are examples of maleness and both exploit an athleticism which wins for them popularity among literary young ladies. The shopping procedures of two economy minded housewives. Their procedures would be the basis of the comparison and their thrift would be the central focus of your total discussion. One woman in preparing for her weekend shopping might read the advertisements in the papers, decide upon what she wants to buy, compare prices to find the lowest on the items she needs, and then go to the stores that will save her money. The other woman may go from one store to another, comparing prices for certain items as she goes, and then start over and make her purchases where she will save the most money. Topic sentence: Traditional Chinese education was, in some respects, similar to that of Athens in its best days. Because: Athenian boys learned Homer?s Iliad and Odyssey by heart; Chinese boys learned the Confucian classics just as thoroughly. Because: Athenians learned a due respect for their gods which was expressed in outward observance. The Chinese were taught to perform certain rites with respect to ancestor worship. Because: Both the Athenians and the Chinese were eager to enjoy life, and their conception of pleasure was refined by a deep sense of the beautiful. Traditional Chinese education was, in some respects, similar to that of Athens in its best days. Athenian boys learned Homer?s Iliad and Odyssey by heart; Chinese boys learned the Confucian classics just as thoroughly. Athenians learned a due respect for their gods which was expressed in outward observance. The Chinese were taught to perform certain rites with respect to ancestor worship. Both the Athenians and the Chinese were eager to enjoy life, and their conception of pleasure was refined by a deep sense of the beautiful. European Football vs. American Football Although European football is the parent of American football, the two games show several major differences. European football, sometimes called association football or soccer, is played in more than 80 countries, making it the most widely played sport in the world. American football, on the other hand, is popular only in the United States and Canada. Soccer is played by 11 players with a round ball. Football, also played by 11 players in somewhat different positions on the field, uses an elongated round ball. Soccer has little body contact between players, and therefore requires no special protective equipment. Football, in which players make maximum use of body contact to block a running ball carrier and his teammates, requires special headgear and padding. In soccer, the ball is advanced toward the goal by kicking it or by butting it with the head. In football, on the other hand, the ball is passed from hand to hand across the opponent's goal. These are just a few of the features that distinguish association and American football. If you are planning to buy a personal computer, you should know some of the basic similarities and differences between PCs and Macs. First of all, both PCs and Macs are composed of the same elements: a CPU, the electronic circuitry to run the computer; memory (hard and/or floppy disk drives) for storing information; 5 input devices such as a keyboard or mouse for putting information into the computer, and output devices such as a monitor, printer, and audio speakers for conveying information. They also have the same uses: PCs are used to communicate on computer networks, to write (with the help of word processing and desktop publishing software), to track finances, and to play games. Macs are likewise used to communicate, write, calculate, and entertain. There are some differences however. Whereas you will find more PCs in business offices, you will find more Macs in classrooms. Although Macs are the computers of choice of people who do a lot of art and graphic design in their work, PCs seem to be the choice of people who do a lot of "number crunching." Finally, there is a difference in the availability of software, vendors, and service for the two computers. In general, there is a lot of PC-compatible 2 software, but relatively little Mac software. Furthermore, for a Mac, you must purchase your machine and get service from a Macintosh-authorized dealer, whereas many different computer stores sell and service PCs. City A has parks, attractive residential areas, a university, and good public spirit. City B has parks, attractive residential areas, a university. City B may have unpleasant town-gown relationships and the people in City B may also be uncooperative in all matters relating to progress. Town-gown ? горожане и студенты Analogy The atmosphere of the Earth acts like any window in serving two very important functions: to let light in and to permit us to look out and to guard the Earth from dangerous or uncomfortable things. A normal glazed window lets us keep our house warm by keeping out cold air. In such a way, the Earth?s atmospheric window helps to keep our planet to a comfortable temperature by holding back radiated heat and protecting us from dangerous levels of ultraviolet light. Just like a window which prevents rain, dirt, and unwelcome insects and animals from coming in, scientists have discovered that space is full of a great many very dangerous things against which our atmosphere guards us. Analogy Parts of the body are often used in reference to many things which are themselves concrete and familiar. We speak of the ?lips? and the ?ears? of a cup, the ?teeth? of a saw or a comb, the ?legs? of tables and other immobile articles of furniture, the ?elbows? of pipes and macaroni, the ?hands? of a clock, the ?tongue? of a balance or a bell, the ?eye? of a needle, and the ?head? of a hammer. When we travel we encounter the ?foot? of a mountain, ?the mouth? of a river, the ?shoulders? of a road, the ?brow? of a hill, the ?neck? of the woods. In politics we hear of a ?rump? session of Parliament and a ?head? of state. Time Order Steps in baking a cake or developing pictures. Events leading up to World War II or the war in Viet Nam. Directions for treating a cold or sunburn. Procedures followed in catching a thief or transplanting flowers. Time Order The Evolution of Computers In the relatively short span of sixty years, there has been an incredible evolution narration in the size and capabilities of computers. Today, computer chips smaller than the tip of your fingernail have the same capabilities as the room-sized machines of years ago. The first computers were developed around 1945.They were so large that they required special air-conditioned rooms. About twenty years later, in the 1960s, desk sized computers were developed. This represented a gigantic advance. Before the end of that same decade, however, a third generation of computers, which used simple integrated circuits and which were even smaller and faster had appeared. In 1971, the first microprocessor, less than one square centimeter in size, was developed. Today, modern microprocessors contain as many as 10 million transistors, and the number of transistors and the computational speed of microprocessors doubles every eighteen months. Space Order The Beautiful of Balmoral Castle Balmoral castle is the most beautiful castle in London. On the outside of the castle, there is a garden that full of beautiful flowers, the big gate, a beautiful veranda, statues and small pool. The yard is very large. Inside of the castle are unique goods such armors, swords, paintings, statues, the expensive furniture such as beautiful lamps, kitchen set and also a big bar. Balmoral castle is so beautiful place to visit. The Balmoral castle is one of the main tourism destinations for all the visitors. General-to-Specific Order Water is the real elixir. We cannot think of life without water. Life is said to have originated in water millions and millions year ago. We need water to drink, to wash our bodies and clothes, to cook our food and to grow crops, vegetables and fruits. Water is also essential for animals, birds, reptiles, insects etc. We need huge resources of water to generate electricity on large and commercial scale. In our body there is more than 70 per cent of water. It corresponds with the proportion of water found on the earth; no living being can exist for long without water, the most precious liquid. We use oceans, seas, bays, rivers and lakes as waterways to carry goods, passengers etc. Lack of rains and scarcity of water cause droughts and untold suffering. Thus, water is very precious arid every drop of it should be conserved. Specific-to-General Order Young people do not spend all their time in school. Their elders commonly spend none of it there. Yet their elders are, we hope, constantly growing in practical wisdom. They are, at least having experience. If we can teach them while they are being educated how to reason, they may be able to comprehend and assimilate their experience. It is a good principle of educational administration because a college or university has a vast and complicated job if it does what only it can do. In general education, therefore, we may wisely leave experience to life and set about our job of intellectual training. Order of Climax As he looked around the campus, which had hardly changed, he unconsciously relieved those moments he had spent with Nancy. He recalled how the two of them would seat by the pond, chatting endlessly as they fed the fish and also how they would take walks together, lost in their own world. Yes, Nancy was one of the few friends that he had ever had. He was suddenly filled with nostalgia as he recalled that afternoon he had bid farewell to Nancy. He sniffed loudly as his eyes filled with tears. Strategies for coherence 1. Make sure you arrange your ideas in a logical order. 2. Repeat key words, use appropriate pronouns, and use synonyms. 3. Use transition expressions and words. Single words first second, secondly third next last finally similarly accordingly namely incidentally meanwhile conversely thus also then besides therefore moreover Groups of words at first at last to repeat in effect that is in summary in conclusion another reason in other words on the contrary for example now let us turn to Without transitional expressions There are reasons why I like to fish. I enjoy the pull of a four-pound bass at the other end of the line. My enjoyment increases if the fish is in the deep waters of the lake. I don?t like him close to shore among the weeds. The hope of catching a big one lures me to the less-known pools and the cool waters beneath some underwater rocky ledge. I like to have a well-oiled and smoothrunning motor to drive my boat from spot to spot on the open lake. I like the quiet under the open sky away from the weekend campers and two-week vacationers. I prefer the last reason. With transitional expressions There are reasons why I like to fish. First, I enjoy the pull of a four-pound bass at the other end of the line. Moreover, my enjoyment increases if the fish is in the deep waters of the lake, rather than close to shore among the weeds. Second, the hope of catching a big one lures me to the less-known pools and the cool waters beneath some underwater rocky ledge. Still, I like to have a well-oiled and smooth-running motor to drive my boat from spot to spot on the open lake. Finally, I like the quiet under the open sky away from the weekend campers and two-week vacationers. Of the three reasons, I prefer the last reason. THE ESSAY THE PARAGRAPH THE ESSAY 1 The topic sentence (Controlling idea) 1 The introductory Paragraph (Thesis Statement) 2 The Body (Major and minor supports) 2 The Body (Body paragraphs) 3 The Concluding sentence 3 The Concluding paragraph A paragraph has An essay has A topic sentence A controlling idea Every sentence supports the topic sentence and the controlling idea Basic materials of a paragraph development are details, reasons, and illustrations Sentences are composed and arranged in a plan of major and minor supports Sentences are linked together with appropriate means of coherence An essay sentence A (essay) thesis statement Every paragraph supports the essay sentence and the essay statement Basic materials of an essay development are paragraphs of details, reasons, and illustrations Paragraphs are composed and arranged in a plan of major and minor supports Paragraphs are arranged and linked together with appropriate means of coherence Direct Thesis Statement: The financial problems that small residential arts colleges face are the direct result of a decrease in the number of college-age students nationwide, an increase in the proportion of those students who prefer technical and professional training over the traditional arts and the rapid and far-reaching effects of the distance educational movement. Indirect Thesis Statement: There are a number of causes for the financial problems that small residential arts colleges face. Techniques for Writing Essay Introduction 1.Posing an interesting or controversial question or questions. 2.Employing the funnel (воронка) method. 3.Using a relevant quotation. 4.Making a startling (сенсационный) or dramatic observation or describing a scene in a dramatic, humorous, or otherwise interesting way. 5.Turning an argument ?on its head? The purposes of all conclusions are - to signal the end of the essay; - to add coherence by summarizing or resulting the essay subtopics; - to add coherence by restating the essay thesis; - to leave the reader with the writer?s final opinion; - to make a prediction or suggestion about the topic of the essay. A Classification Essay Items to be classified: cars Possible principles of organization: size, price, power, comfort, speed, safety. Transition expressions: one/another/ a third? + classifying word one + classifying word Function: begins the classification process; gives the first category Examples: There are several types of cars, depending on their size. One type is the compact car. Flowers are often categorized according to their colour. One popular colour is red. another + classifying word Function: to signal the introduction of a category that comes after another category Examples: Another type of car is the mid-sized car. Another very popular colour for flowers is blue. 1. Follow this recipe and you?ll end up with a heavenly angel food cake. 2. The digestive process involves several related steps. 3. All it takes to build a beautiful deck is the right tools and these easy-to-use guidelines. 4. To test the chlorine in your swimming pool water, use this test kit and follow the instructions carefully. 5. By 7.00 in the morning, a sheep rancher has already completed a series of very demanding chores to get his sheep ready for the day. The structure of a process essay contains the following components: 1. A general introduction that tells the reader what the process is and what it is used for. 2. A step-by-step description of the process. 3. A conclusion that summarizes the description and tells how the steps work together. Planting a tree ? Find a place for the tree. ? Dig a hole the width and depth of the root ball. ? Remove any covering from the root ball of the tree. ? ? Fill the hole back up again, and tamp the soil down around the tree. Basic steps that scientists follow in using the Scientific Method of inquiry. ? They formulate a hypothesis and base a prediction on this hypothesis. ? They test hypothesis using one of a number of techniques. ? They usually enjoy their work. ? They analyze the results of the tests. ? They draw conclusions about the hypothesis ? They end the experiment or revise the hypothesis and begin again. Transition Expressions (1) First (second, third, etc.) next, now, then, and finally Example: You should put the egg in the water first. Next, heat the water until it boils. Finally, remove the pot from the heat and wait fifteen minutes. (2) before, after, once, as soon as, and while; Example: After you put the egg in the water, heat it until it boils. While the water is heating, peel the vegetables. Eat the egg and the vegetables as soon as they are cooked. (3) during, over, between+ noun phrase Example: Over/During the first few weeks, many changes occur. Between week 1 and week 3, the plants will grow rapidly. A Comparison/Contrast Essay Three Organizational Methods. 1. Comparison only. If there are many more similarities than differences, you might decide to do a comparison essay and mainly point out the similarities of the two subjects. 2. Contrast only. If there are many more differences than similarities, you might decide to do a contrast essay and primarily focus on the differences between the two subjects. 3. Comparison/contrast essay. If the number of similarities and differences is about the same, you might find that an essay discussing both similarities and differences is appropriate. Transition expressions. both (noun) and (noun), Example: Both mathematics and biology are required subjects for graduation. not only?but also.. Example: Not only the electricians but also the carpenters are working overtime. Example: He not only wanted but also needed her affection. (two verbs) nevertheless Example: The instructor told the students to write exactly five paragraphs in the last essay. Nevertheless some students wrote essays with only four paragraphs. on one hand?on the other hand Example: I?m trying to decide whether to buy a new car. On one hand, I really need a new car. On the other hand, I could save a lot of money by taking the bus or riding my bike for the rest of the summer. in contrast, whereas Example: Traditional banks have very high overhead expenses. In contrast, internet banks do not have the usual kinds of overhead expenses to worry about. The weather in the summer months is hot and humid, whereas the weather in fall is cool and dry. unlike+noun Example: Unlike his father, Elias did not pursue a job in banking. like+noun Example: Like his father, Elias chose to pursue a job in banking. conversely (наоборот) Example: The trim on this house is white against grey. Conversely, the trim on the next house is grey against white. although, even though, though Example: Although (even though, though) women were important in the development of many kinds of early medicine, they were rarely given credit. Cause/Effect Essay Methods of Organization You can focus on 1) only causes of something leading to one effect, 2) only the effects resulting from one cause, 3) more than one cause leading to more than one effect, 4) a chain reaction of cause leading to effect leading to cause leading to effect. Method 1: Causes leading to only one effect Example thesis: The main causes of unemployment in the United States are downturns in the economy, lack of vocational or professional skills, and personal choice to be unemployed. Cause 1 downturns in the economy Cause 2 lack of vocational or professional skills Effect Unemployment Cause 3 personal choice to be unemployed Method 2: Effects resulting from only one cause Example thesis: Unemployment can have terrible effects on individuals, including financial, psychological, and social difficulties. Cause Unemployment Effect 1 financial difficulties Effect 2 psychological difficulties Effect 3 social difficulties Method 3: Many causes having many effects Example thesis: The numerous factors that lead to unemployment can have disastrous effects on individuals Cause 1 Cause 2 Cause 3 UNEMPLOYMENT Effect 1 Effect 2 Effect 3 Method 4: A chain of causes leading to effect leading to cause leading to effect Example thesis: The loss of a job can sometimes lead to extreme actions such as suicide. Cause loss of job Effect ?. Cause Effect? Cause Effect suicide Transition expressions because/as/since + subject + verb Examples: Because Rita was tired, she came home early from work. OR Rita came home early from work because she was tired. therefore; consequently; thus Examples: Rita was tired. Therefore, she came home early from work. as a result + s + v/as a result of Examples: Rita was extremely tired. As a result, she went home from work early. As a result of her fatigue, Rita went home from work early. Reaction Essay Background information varies based on the type of stimulus you are reacting to. 1. Description: if you are reacting to a visual prompt, the background information is usually a physical description of the item. 2. Summary: if you are reacting to a written prompt, you can give a summary of it in the introduction. Present the most important elements and follow the order of the original. 3. Facts: if you are reacting to a historical event or a theory, give factual information about it: specific dates, times, actions, and circumstances. Coherence in Reaction Essays 1 Repeating Key Terms or Phrases. Example: The use of symbolism in Lisa?s story was fascinating. The symbolism was found throughout the story. 2 Using a pronoun to refer to a previous noun or noun phrase. Example: Rhonda shocked everyone in her family. She decided to become a balloonist. 3 Using synonyms. Example: The Olympic Games are played every four years in different countries. This international competition involves thousands of athletes from around the world. Argumentative Essay The basic argumentative strategies are: - making claims; - offering supporting reasons and evidence; - handling counterarguments. Anticipating readers? counterarguments, writers rely on three basic strategies: acknowledging, accommodating, and refuting counterarguments. The first paragraph needs to include the following: - a brief explanation of the issue (This can include background information to help the reader understand what the topic is all about); - a clear statement of both sides of the issue; - an argumentative thesis statement, which is distinctive in that it takes a stand on the issue. Method 1 Method 2 Method 3 1. Introduction a. Explanation of the issue (Use an introductory technique, such as turning an argument on its head.) b. Statement of both sides of the issue. c. Argumentative thesis statement. 2. Argument 1 for your stance a. Detail 1 b. Detail 2 c. Etc. 3. Argument 2 for your stance a. Detail 1 b. Detail 2 c. Etc. 4. Argument 3 for your stance a. Detail 1 b. Detail 2 c. Etc. 5. Counter-argument a. Statement of the opposing view b. Refutation of opposing view 1 c. Refutation of opposing view 2 d. Etc. 6. Conclusion a. Detail 1 b. Detail 2 c. Etc. 1. Introduction a. Explanation of the issue (Use an introductory technique, such as turning an argument on its head.) b. Statement of both sides of the issue. c. Argumentative thesis statement. 2. Refute the opposing stance with Argument 1 a. Statement of the opposing stance b. Detail 1 c. Detail 2 d. Etc. 3. Refute the opposing stance with Argument 2 a. Detail 1 b. Detail 2 c. Etc. 4. Refute the opposing stance with Argument 3 a. Detail 1 b. Detail 2 c. Etc. 5. Conclusion a. Detail 1 b. Detail 2 c. Etc. 1. Introduction a. Explanation of the issue (Use an introductory technique, such as turning an argument on its head.) b. Statement of both sides of the issue. c. Argumentative thesis statement. 2. Counter-argument a. Statement of the opposing view b. Refutation of opposing view 1 c. Refutation of opposing view 2 d. Etc. 3. Argument 1 for your stance (weakest) a. Detail 1 b. Detail 2 c. Etc. 4. Argument 2 for your stance (stronger) a. Detail 1 b. Detail 2 c. Etc. 5. Argument 3 for your stance (strongest) a. Detail 1 b. Detail 2 c. Etc. 6. Conclusion a. Detail 1 b. Detail 2 c. Etc. Transition Expressions although it may be true that/despite the fact that Examples: Although it may be true that there appear to be dry riverbeds on the planet Mars, this does not prove that water or life once existed there. Despite the fact that the shortest distance between two points is a straight life, you cannot often drive or walk in a straight line to your destination. certainly Examples: Certainly one would not wish to risk the lives of innocent people by driving recklessly. surely Examples: Surely if the banks run into trouble, the Federal Reserve should lower interest rates again. Type of Writing Argumentative Comparison Use of Prepositional Examples Phrases To concede (admit) a point Despite, in spite of made by the opposition +Noun Phrase To compare one thing or like + Noun Phrase idea to another as + Noun Phrase Process/Description To explain the chronological order of events To explain the spacial order of things in, on, at, during, by, until in, around, through, out of from, Paraphrasing Souse A The same ideas but different words; the same amount of text Summarizing Source A The main text in much less text Synthesizing Source A Source B Original writing that combines ideas from Source A and Source B and uses paraphrasing and summarizing Good luck in writing paragraphs and essays!