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THE PARAGRAPH
I.
THE TOPIC SENTENCE (The Topic. The Controlling Idea.)
II. THE BODY
The Major supporting statement
The Minor Supporting Statement
?
The Major supporting statement
The Minor Supporting Statement
?
III. THE CONCLUDING SENTENCE
Pollution demands action.
Pollution is destructive.
Pollution exists throughout the world.
Pollution requires that everyone do
something about it.
The Treaty of Versailles had three outstanding effects.
because: First, a League of Nations was formed.
because: Second, a reduction of German armaments relieved
the whole world from threatened German aggression.
because: Third, Germany?s colonies were awarded to various
nations.
He was a monster of conceit. Never for one minute did he
look at the world or at people, except in relation to himself. He
was not only the most important person in the world, to himself;
in his own eyes he was the only person who existed. He believed
himself to be one of the greatest dramatists in the world, one of
the greatest thinkers, and one of the greatest composers. To hear
him talk, he was Shakespeare, and Beethoven, and Plato, rolled
into one.
Conceit ? самомнение, тщеславие
Gold, a precious metal, is prized for two important characteristics.
because: First of all, gold has a lustrous beauty that is resistant to
corrosion.
because: Another important characteristic of gold is its usefulness
to industry and science.
The topic sentence: Gold, a precious metal, is prized for two important
characteristics.
Major support: First of all, gold has a lustrous beauty that is resistant to
corrosion.
Minor supports: Therefore, it is suitable for jewelry, coins, and
ornamental purposes. Gold never needs to be polished and will remain beautiful
forever. For example, a Macedonian coin remains as untarnished today as the
day it was minted twenty-three centuries ago.
Major support: Another important characteristic of gold is its usefulness to
industry and science.
Minor supports: For many years, it has been used in hundreds of
industrial applications. The most recent use of gold is in astronauts' suits.
Astronauts wear gold-plated heat shields for protection outside spaceships.
The concluding sentence: In conclusion, gold is treasured not only for its
beauty but also for its utility.
Gold, a precious metal, is prized for two important
characteristics. First of all, gold has a lustrous beauty that is
resistant to corrosion. Therefore, it is suitable for jewelry, coins,
and ornamental purposes. Gold never needs to be polished and
will remain beautiful forever. For example, a Macedonian coin
remains as untarnished today as the day it was minted twentythree centuries ago. Another important characteristic of gold is
its usefulness to industry and science. For many years, it has
been used in hundreds of industrial applications. The most recent
use of gold is in astronauts' suits. Astronauts wear gold-plated
heat shields for protection outside spaceships. In conclusion,
gold is treasured not only for its beauty but also for its utility.
On the battlefield of Waterloo Wellington?s infantry faced
two major horrors ? cavalry and artillery.
American scientists have developed methods of firing
missiles from land bases and from submarines at sea.
Topic sentence: Automobile racing is an expensive sport.
1. Engines for racing cars often costs many thousands of
dollars.
2. Experienced drivers command large sums of money.
3. Le Mans and the Indianapolis Speedway are famous for their
races.
4. Public interest is stimulated through radio and television.
5. Race courses are expensive undertakings for sponsors of the
races.
6. Many people, both drivers and spectators, lose their lives
annually.
Detail
Few people know the basic facts about
diamonds. They consist of pure crystallized carbon
and are usually found in the form of crystals. They
come in many shapes: some have eight faces;
others have forty-eight. Diamonds are the hardest
substance known, and for this reason acids do not
affect them. They are however, brittle, and can be
split. To polish diamonds one must use oil and
diamond powder.
Detail
Cactus propagation is easy. Some varieties of
cactus produce miniature offshoots at the base of a
parent plant. Remove the little plant, let it dry, then
pot it in a sandy medium. If the plant is a branching
type, remove a joint; otherwise, cut off a portion of a
leaf or stem. Allow the joint or cutting to dry in a
shady place for a few days to a week or more until a
callus forms. Then place the cut side down in moist
sand. Cover it with a plastic bag and keep it at about
75degrees F. The root should stay moist ? too much
water causes rot. When roots have formed, pot the
cutting in a sandy soil mixture.
Reason
People who own diamonds often think of
them as one measure of prestige. A number of
large blue-white stones suggest a certain
affluence. A really valuable necklace gives its
owner not only a material evidence of wealth
but also a sense of superiority. And though
many people buy diamonds as an investment,
they can display the investment with more effect
than stock certificates or real-estate deeds.
Illustration or example
Diamonds have lured many people into trouble.
The famous Nikolas Verden stole the Khybar stone
from a shop in Amsterdam, Holland, fled to Naples,
and died trying to escape from the police. Thomas
Bright, a jewelry salesman, swallowed the Van Noos
diamond in order to smuggle it out of South Africa
and was arrested after it was found during an
operation for appendicitis. Five members of the
Burton family died trying to hide the Courtney stone
from the authorities.
Definition
Home is a place where a person lives with his family.
When it refers to a building, it is usually a place in which an
individual or a family can live and store personal property. But
for many people home relates to a mental or emotional state of
refuge or comfort. It is the place where you can discuss your
problems, find support and understanding. A popular saying
explains this word very clearly: "Home is where the heart is"
Definition
Friendship is a relationship between two
people who hold mutual affection for each other.
Friendship is a distinctively personal relationship that
is grounded in a concern on the part of each friend for
the welfare of the other, for the other's sake, and that
involves some degree of intimacy. As such, friendship
is undoubtedly central to our lives, in part because the
special concern we have for our friends must have a
place within a broader set of concerns, including
moral concerns, and in part because our friends can
help shape who we are as persons.
Comparison
Henry and George have similar characteristics.
New York and San Francisco are flourishing ports.
Byron and Hemingway, strangely enough, are
somewhat alike in personality and experience. Both awake
to find themselves famous at twenty-five. Both cut
themselves off at an early age from their native lands.
Byron adopts Greece and Italy; Hemingway celebrates
Spain. In Greece Byron finds the fatal theatre in which to
stage his worship of liberty. In Spain Hemingway discovers
the shrine for his cult of violence. Both are attracted by the
glory of militant life, and meet with disillusion. Both are
examples of maleness and both exploit an athleticism which
wins for them popularity among literary young ladies.
Topic sentence: Byron and Hemingway, strangely enough, are
somewhat alike in personality and experience.
Major: Both awake to find themselves famous at twenty-five.
Major: Both cut themselves off at an early age from their native
lands.
Minor supports: Byron adopts Greece and Italy; Hemingway
celebrates Spain.
Minor supports: In Greece Byron finds the fatal theatre in
which to stage his worship of liberty. In Spain Hemingway
discovers the shrine (место поклонения) for his cult of violence.
Major: Both are attracted by the glory of militant (активный)
life, and meet with disillusion.
Major: Both are examples of maleness and both exploit an
athleticism which wins for them popularity among literary
young ladies.
The shopping procedures of two economy minded
housewives.
Their procedures would be the basis of the
comparison and their thrift would be the central focus of
your total discussion.
One woman in preparing for her weekend shopping
might read the advertisements in the papers, decide upon
what she wants to buy, compare prices to find the lowest
on the items she needs, and then go to the stores that will
save her money.
The other woman may go from one store to
another, comparing prices for certain items as she goes,
and then start over and make her purchases where she will
save the most money.
Topic sentence: Traditional Chinese education was, in
some respects, similar to that of Athens in its best days.
Because: Athenian boys learned Homer?s Iliad and
Odyssey by heart; Chinese boys learned the Confucian
classics just as thoroughly.
Because: Athenians learned a due respect for their
gods which was expressed in outward observance. The
Chinese were taught to perform certain rites with
respect to ancestor worship.
Because: Both the Athenians and the Chinese were
eager to enjoy life, and their conception of pleasure
was refined by a deep sense of the beautiful.
Traditional Chinese education was, in some
respects, similar to that of Athens in its best days.
Athenian boys learned Homer?s Iliad and Odyssey by
heart; Chinese boys learned the Confucian classics just
as thoroughly. Athenians learned a due respect for their
gods which was expressed in outward observance. The
Chinese were taught to perform certain rites with respect
to ancestor worship. Both the Athenians and the Chinese
were eager to enjoy life, and their conception of pleasure
was refined by a deep sense of the beautiful.
European Football vs. American Football
Although European football is the parent of American
football, the two games show several major differences. European
football, sometimes called association football or soccer, is played
in more than 80 countries, making it the most widely played sport in
the world. American football, on the other hand, is popular only in
the United States and Canada. Soccer is played by 11 players with a
round ball. Football, also played by 11 players in somewhat
different positions on the field, uses an elongated round ball. Soccer
has little body contact between players, and therefore requires no
special protective equipment. Football, in which players make
maximum use of body contact to block a running ball carrier and
his teammates, requires special headgear and padding. In soccer,
the ball is advanced toward the goal by kicking it or by butting it
with the head. In football, on the other hand, the ball is passed from
hand to hand across the opponent's goal. These are just a few of the
features that distinguish association and American football.
If you are planning to buy a personal computer, you should know some of
the basic similarities and differences between PCs and Macs. First of all, both
PCs and Macs are composed of the same elements: a CPU, the electronic
circuitry to run the computer; memory (hard and/or floppy disk drives) for
storing information; 5 input devices such as a keyboard or mouse for putting
information into the computer, and output devices such as a monitor, printer, and
audio speakers for conveying information. They also have the same uses: PCs
are used to communicate on computer networks, to write (with the help of word
processing and desktop publishing software), to track finances, and to play
games. Macs are likewise used to communicate, write, calculate, and entertain.
There are some differences however. Whereas you will find more PCs in
business offices, you will find more Macs in classrooms. Although Macs are the
computers of choice of people who do a lot of art and graphic design in their
work, PCs seem to be the choice of people who do a lot of "number crunching."
Finally, there is a difference in the availability of software, vendors, and service
for the two computers. In general, there is a lot of PC-compatible 2 software, but
relatively little Mac software. Furthermore, for a Mac, you must purchase your
machine and get service from a Macintosh-authorized dealer, whereas many
different computer stores sell and service PCs.
City A has parks, attractive residential areas, a university, and
good public spirit.
City B has parks, attractive residential areas, a university.
City B may have unpleasant town-gown relationships and the
people in City B may also be uncooperative in all matters
relating to progress.
Town-gown ? горожане и студенты
Analogy
The atmosphere of the Earth acts like any window in
serving two very important functions: to let light in and to
permit us to look out and to guard the Earth from dangerous
or uncomfortable things. A normal glazed window lets us keep
our house warm by keeping out cold air. In such a way, the
Earth?s atmospheric window helps to keep our planet to a
comfortable temperature by holding back radiated heat and
protecting us from dangerous levels of ultraviolet light. Just
like a window which prevents rain, dirt, and unwelcome
insects and animals from coming in, scientists have discovered
that space is full of a great many very dangerous things
against which our atmosphere guards us.
Analogy
Parts of the body are often used in reference to many
things which are themselves concrete and familiar. We speak
of the ?lips? and the ?ears? of a cup, the ?teeth? of a saw or
a comb, the ?legs? of tables and other immobile articles of
furniture, the ?elbows? of pipes and macaroni, the ?hands?
of a clock, the ?tongue? of a balance or a bell, the ?eye? of a
needle, and the ?head? of a hammer. When we travel we
encounter the ?foot? of a mountain, ?the mouth? of a river,
the ?shoulders? of a road, the ?brow? of a hill, the ?neck? of
the woods. In politics we hear of a ?rump? session of
Parliament and a ?head? of state.
Time Order
Steps in baking a cake or developing pictures.
Events leading up to World War II or the war in
Viet Nam.
Directions for treating a cold or sunburn.
Procedures followed in catching a thief or
transplanting flowers.
Time Order
The Evolution of Computers
In the relatively short span of sixty years, there has been an
incredible evolution narration in the size and capabilities of computers.
Today, computer chips smaller than the tip of your fingernail have the
same capabilities as the room-sized machines of years ago. The first
computers were developed around 1945.They were so large that they
required special air-conditioned rooms. About twenty years later, in the
1960s, desk sized computers were developed. This represented a gigantic
advance. Before the end of that same decade, however, a third generation
of computers, which used simple integrated circuits and which were even
smaller and faster had appeared. In 1971, the first microprocessor, less
than one square centimeter in size, was developed. Today, modern
microprocessors contain as many as 10 million transistors, and the
number of transistors and the computational speed of microprocessors
doubles every eighteen months.
Space Order
The Beautiful of Balmoral Castle
Balmoral castle is the most beautiful castle in London.
On the outside of the castle, there is a garden that full of
beautiful flowers, the big gate, a beautiful veranda, statues
and small pool. The yard is very large. Inside of the castle are
unique goods such armors, swords, paintings, statues, the
expensive furniture such as beautiful lamps, kitchen set and
also a big bar. Balmoral castle is so beautiful place to visit.
The Balmoral castle is one of the main tourism destinations
for all the visitors.
General-to-Specific Order
Water is the real elixir. We cannot think of life without water. Life
is said to have originated in water millions and millions year ago. We
need water to drink, to wash our bodies and clothes, to cook our food
and to grow crops, vegetables and fruits. Water is also essential for
animals, birds, reptiles, insects etc. We need huge resources of water
to generate electricity on large and commercial scale. In our body
there is more than 70 per cent of water. It corresponds with the
proportion of water found on the earth; no living being can exist for
long without water, the most precious liquid. We use oceans, seas,
bays, rivers and lakes as waterways to carry goods, passengers etc.
Lack of rains and scarcity of water cause droughts and untold
suffering. Thus, water is very precious arid every drop of it should be
conserved.
Specific-to-General Order
Young people do not spend all their time in school. Their
elders commonly spend none of it there. Yet their elders are, we
hope, constantly growing in practical wisdom. They are, at least
having experience. If we can teach them while they are being
educated how to reason, they may be able to comprehend and
assimilate their experience. It is a good principle of educational
administration because a college or university has a vast and
complicated job if it does what only it can do. In general
education, therefore, we may wisely leave experience to life and
set about our job of intellectual training.
Order of Climax
As he looked around the campus, which had hardly
changed, he unconsciously relieved those moments he had
spent with Nancy. He recalled how the two of them would seat
by the pond, chatting endlessly as they fed the fish and also
how they would take walks together, lost in their own world.
Yes, Nancy was one of the few friends that he had ever had.
He was suddenly filled with nostalgia as he recalled that
afternoon he had bid farewell to Nancy. He sniffed loudly as
his eyes filled with tears.
Strategies for coherence
1. Make sure you arrange your ideas in a logical
order.
2. Repeat key words, use appropriate pronouns, and
use synonyms.
3. Use transition expressions and words.
Single words
first
second,
secondly
third
next
last
finally
similarly
accordingly
namely
incidentally
meanwhile
conversely
thus
also
then
besides
therefore
moreover
Groups of words
at first
at last
to repeat
in effect
that is
in summary
in conclusion
another reason
in other words
on the contrary
for example
now let us turn to
Without transitional expressions
There are reasons why I like to fish.
I enjoy the pull of a four-pound bass
at the other end of the line.
My enjoyment increases if the fish is in
the deep waters of the lake. I don?t like
him close to shore among the weeds.
The hope of catching a big one lures
me to the less-known pools and the
cool waters beneath some underwater
rocky ledge.
I like to have a well-oiled and smoothrunning motor to drive my boat from
spot to spot on the open lake.
I like the quiet under the open sky
away from the weekend campers and
two-week vacationers.
I prefer the last reason.
With transitional expressions
There are reasons why I like to fish.
First, I enjoy the pull of a four-pound
bass at the other end of the line.
Moreover, my enjoyment increases if
the fish is in the deep waters of the
lake, rather than close to shore
among the weeds. Second, the hope of
catching a big one lures me to the
less-known pools and the cool waters
beneath some underwater rocky ledge.
Still, I like to have a well-oiled and
smooth-running motor to drive my
boat from spot to spot on the open
lake. Finally, I like the quiet under the
open sky away from the weekend
campers and two-week vacationers.
Of the three reasons, I prefer the last
reason.
THE ESSAY
THE PARAGRAPH
THE ESSAY
1 The topic sentence
(Controlling idea)
1 The introductory Paragraph
(Thesis Statement)
2 The Body
(Major and minor supports)
2 The Body
(Body paragraphs)
3 The Concluding sentence
3 The Concluding paragraph
A paragraph has
An essay has
A topic sentence
A controlling idea
Every sentence supports the
topic
sentence
and
the
controlling idea
Basic materials of a paragraph
development
are
details,
reasons, and illustrations
Sentences are composed and
arranged in a plan of major and
minor supports
Sentences are linked together
with appropriate means of
coherence
An essay sentence
A (essay) thesis statement
Every paragraph supports the essay
sentence and the essay statement
Basic materials of an essay
development are paragraphs of
details, reasons, and illustrations
Paragraphs are composed and
arranged in a plan of major and
minor supports
Paragraphs are arranged and
linked together with appropriate
means of coherence
Direct Thesis Statement: The financial problems
that small residential arts colleges face are the direct
result of a decrease in the number of college-age
students nationwide, an increase in the proportion of
those students who prefer technical and professional
training over the traditional arts and the rapid and
far-reaching effects of the distance educational
movement.
Indirect Thesis Statement: There are a number of
causes for the financial problems that small residential
arts colleges face.
Techniques for Writing Essay Introduction
1.Posing an interesting or controversial question
or questions.
2.Employing the funnel (воронка) method.
3.Using a relevant quotation.
4.Making a startling (сенсационный) or dramatic
observation or describing a scene in a dramatic,
humorous, or otherwise interesting way.
5.Turning an argument ?on its head?
The purposes of all conclusions are
- to signal the end of the essay;
- to add coherence by summarizing or resulting the
essay subtopics;
- to add coherence by restating the essay thesis;
- to leave the reader with the writer?s final opinion;
- to make a prediction or suggestion about the topic of
the essay.
A Classification Essay
Items to be classified: cars
Possible principles of organization: size,
price, power, comfort, speed, safety.
Transition expressions: one/another/ a third? + classifying word
one + classifying word
Function: begins the classification process; gives the first category
Examples: There are several types of cars, depending on their size. One
type is the compact car.
Flowers are often categorized according to their colour. One
popular colour is red.
another + classifying word
Function: to signal the introduction of a category that comes after
another category
Examples: Another type of car is the mid-sized car.
Another very popular colour for flowers is blue.
1. Follow this recipe and you?ll end up with a heavenly
angel food cake.
2. The digestive process involves several related steps.
3. All it takes to build a beautiful deck is the right tools
and these easy-to-use guidelines.
4. To test the chlorine in your swimming pool water, use
this test kit and follow the instructions carefully.
5. By 7.00 in the morning, a sheep rancher has already
completed a series of very demanding chores to get his
sheep ready for the day.
The structure of a process essay contains the
following components:
1. A general introduction that tells the reader what the
process is and what it is used for.
2. A step-by-step description of the process.
3. A conclusion that summarizes the description and
tells how the steps work together.
Planting a tree
? Find a place for the tree.
? Dig a hole the width and depth of the root ball.
? Remove any covering from the root ball of the
tree.
?
? Fill the hole back up again, and tamp the soil
down around the tree.
Basic steps that scientists follow in using the
Scientific Method of inquiry.
? They formulate a hypothesis and base a prediction on
this hypothesis.
? They test hypothesis using one of a number of techniques.
? They usually enjoy their work.
? They analyze the results of the tests.
? They draw conclusions about the hypothesis
? They end the experiment or revise the hypothesis and
begin again.
Transition Expressions
(1) First (second, third, etc.) next, now, then, and finally
Example: You should put the egg in the water first.
Next, heat the water until it boils.
Finally, remove the pot from the heat and wait fifteen
minutes.
(2) before, after, once, as soon as, and while;
Example: After you put the egg in the water, heat it until it boils.
While the water is heating, peel the vegetables.
Eat the egg and the vegetables as soon as they are cooked.
(3) during, over, between+ noun phrase
Example: Over/During the first few weeks, many changes occur.
Between week 1 and week 3, the plants will grow rapidly.
A Comparison/Contrast Essay
Three Organizational Methods.
1. Comparison only. If there are many more similarities than differences,
you might decide to do a comparison essay and mainly point out the
similarities of the two subjects.
2. Contrast only. If there are many more differences than similarities, you
might decide to do a contrast essay and primarily focus on the differences
between the two subjects.
3. Comparison/contrast essay. If the number of similarities and
differences is about the same, you might find that an essay discussing both
similarities and differences is appropriate.
Transition expressions.
both (noun) and (noun),
Example: Both mathematics and biology are required subjects for graduation.
not only?but also..
Example: Not only the electricians but also the carpenters are working overtime.
Example: He not only wanted but also needed her affection. (two verbs)
nevertheless
Example: The instructor told the students to write exactly five paragraphs in the
last essay. Nevertheless some students wrote essays with only four paragraphs.
on one hand?on the other hand
Example: I?m trying to decide whether to buy a new car. On one hand, I really
need a new car. On the other hand, I could save a lot of money by taking the bus or
riding my bike for the rest of the summer.
in contrast, whereas
Example: Traditional banks have very high overhead expenses. In contrast, internet
banks do not have the usual kinds of overhead expenses to worry about.
The weather in the summer months is hot and humid, whereas the weather in fall is
cool and dry.
unlike+noun
Example: Unlike his father, Elias did not pursue a job in banking.
like+noun
Example: Like his father, Elias chose to pursue a job in banking.
conversely (наоборот)
Example: The trim on this house is white against grey. Conversely, the trim on the
next house is grey against white.
although, even though, though
Example: Although (even though, though) women were important in the
development of many kinds of early medicine, they were rarely given credit.
Cause/Effect Essay
Methods of Organization
You can focus on
1) only causes of something leading to one effect,
2) only the effects resulting from one cause,
3) more than one cause leading to more than one effect,
4) a chain reaction of cause leading to effect leading to
cause leading to effect.
Method 1: Causes leading to only one effect
Example thesis:
The main causes of unemployment in the United States are
downturns in the economy, lack of vocational or professional skills, and
personal choice to be unemployed.
Cause 1
downturns in the economy
Cause 2
lack of vocational or
professional skills
Effect
Unemployment
Cause 3
personal choice
to be unemployed
Method 2: Effects resulting from only one cause
Example thesis:
Unemployment can have terrible effects on individuals, including
financial, psychological, and social difficulties.
Cause
Unemployment
Effect 1
financial
difficulties
Effect 2
psychological
difficulties
Effect 3
social
difficulties
Method 3: Many causes having many effects
Example thesis:
The numerous factors that lead to unemployment can have disastrous effects
on individuals
Cause 1
Cause 2
Cause 3
UNEMPLOYMENT
Effect 1
Effect 2
Effect 3
Method 4: A chain of causes leading to effect leading to
cause leading to effect
Example thesis:
The loss of a job can sometimes lead to extreme actions such as suicide.
Cause
loss of job
Effect ?.
Cause
Effect?
Cause
Effect
suicide
Transition expressions
because/as/since + subject + verb
Examples: Because Rita was tired, she came home early from work.
OR Rita came home early from work because she was tired.
therefore; consequently; thus
Examples: Rita was tired. Therefore, she came home early from work.
as a result + s + v/as a result of
Examples: Rita was extremely tired. As a result, she went home from work
early.
As a result of her fatigue, Rita went home from work early.
Reaction Essay
Background information varies based on the type of stimulus you
are reacting to.
1. Description: if you are reacting to a visual prompt, the background
information is usually a physical description of the item.
2. Summary: if you are reacting to a written prompt, you can give a
summary of it in the introduction. Present the most important elements
and follow the order of the original.
3. Facts: if you are reacting to a historical event or a theory, give factual
information about it: specific dates, times, actions, and circumstances.
Coherence in Reaction Essays
1 Repeating Key Terms or Phrases.
Example: The use of symbolism in Lisa?s story was fascinating.
The symbolism was found throughout the story.
2 Using a pronoun to refer to a previous noun or noun phrase.
Example: Rhonda shocked everyone in her family. She decided to become a
balloonist.
3 Using synonyms.
Example: The Olympic Games are played every four years in different countries.
This international competition involves thousands of athletes from around the
world.
Argumentative Essay
The basic argumentative strategies are:
- making claims;
- offering supporting reasons and evidence;
- handling counterarguments.
Anticipating readers? counterarguments,
writers rely on three basic strategies:
acknowledging, accommodating,
and refuting counterarguments.
The first paragraph needs to include the following:
- a brief explanation of the issue (This can include
background information to help the reader
understand what the topic is all about);
- a clear statement of both sides of the issue;
- an argumentative thesis statement, which is
distinctive in that it takes a stand on the issue.
Method 1
Method 2
Method 3
1. Introduction
a. Explanation of the issue (Use an
introductory technique, such as turning
an argument on its head.)
b. Statement of both sides of the issue.
c. Argumentative thesis statement.
2. Argument 1 for your stance
a. Detail 1
b. Detail 2
c. Etc.
3. Argument 2 for your stance
a. Detail 1
b. Detail 2
c. Etc.
4. Argument 3 for your stance
a. Detail 1
b. Detail 2
c. Etc.
5. Counter-argument
a. Statement of the opposing view
b. Refutation of opposing view 1
c. Refutation of opposing view 2
d. Etc.
6. Conclusion
a. Detail 1
b. Detail 2
c. Etc.
1. Introduction
a. Explanation of the issue (Use an
introductory technique, such as turning
an argument on its head.)
b. Statement of both sides of the issue.
c. Argumentative thesis statement.
2. Refute the opposing
stance with
Argument 1
a. Statement of the opposing stance
b. Detail 1
c. Detail 2
d. Etc.
3. Refute the opposing
stance with
Argument 2
a. Detail 1
b. Detail 2
c. Etc.
4. Refute the opposing
stance with
Argument 3
a. Detail 1
b. Detail 2
c. Etc.
5. Conclusion
a. Detail 1
b. Detail 2
c. Etc.
1. Introduction
a. Explanation of the issue (Use an
introductory technique, such as turning
an argument on its head.)
b. Statement of both sides of the issue.
c. Argumentative thesis statement.
2. Counter-argument
a. Statement of the opposing view
b. Refutation of opposing view 1
c. Refutation of opposing view 2
d. Etc.
3. Argument 1 for your stance (weakest)
a. Detail 1
b. Detail 2
c. Etc.
4. Argument 2 for your stance (stronger)
a. Detail 1
b. Detail 2
c. Etc.
5. Argument 3 for your stance (strongest)
a. Detail 1
b. Detail 2
c. Etc.
6. Conclusion
a. Detail 1
b. Detail 2
c. Etc.
Transition Expressions
although it may be true that/despite the fact that
Examples: Although it may be true that there appear to be dry riverbeds on
the planet Mars, this does not prove that water or life once existed there.
Despite the fact that the shortest distance between two points is a
straight life, you cannot often drive or walk in a straight line to your
destination.
certainly
Examples: Certainly one would not wish to risk the lives of innocent people
by driving recklessly.
surely
Examples: Surely if the banks run into trouble, the Federal Reserve should
lower interest rates again.
Type of Writing
Argumentative
Comparison
Use of Prepositional
Examples
Phrases
To concede (admit) a point Despite, in spite of
made by the opposition
+Noun Phrase
To compare one thing or like + Noun Phrase
idea to another
as + Noun Phrase
Process/Description To
explain
the
chronological order of
events
To explain the spacial order
of things
in, on, at, during, by,
until
in,
around,
through, out of
from,
Paraphrasing
Souse A
The same ideas but different
words; the same amount of text
Summarizing
Source A
The main text in much less
text
Synthesizing
Source A
Source B
Original writing that combines
ideas from Source A and Source B
and uses paraphrasing and
summarizing
Good luck
in writing
paragraphs and essays!
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