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811.111’367.623’37
81.432.1-213
49
(
№5
12.12.2016)
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2017. – 185 .
ISBN 978-5-4222-0322-2
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811.111’367.623’37
81.432.1-213
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ISBN 978-5-4222-0322-2
2
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» 1.
,
(
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,
,
Oxford English Dictionary [OED]2,
VII
,
(
.
right 2009),
(copyright 2016).
800
,
)
CD-ROM (copy-
.
Shorter Oxford Dictionary on Historical Principles3,
,
4
.
,
BYU corpus portal,
(COHA) c 1810
2010, Hansard 1803
2005,
(COCA, BYU-BNC, NOW,
5
GloWbE, TIME, CORE) .
,
,
,
1
2
3
4
5
. .
:
«
» //
. 2001. № 2. . 13–25.
Oxford English Dictionary. The definite record of the English Language. Copyright 2016.
URL: www.oed.com; Oxford English Dictionary on CD-ROM. Copyright Oxford University Press, 2009.
Shorter Oxford Dictionary on Historical Principles / by Angus Stevenson. 6th ed. Oxford
University Press, 2007.
Oxford Concise Dictionary of English Etymology / edited by T.F. Hoad. Oxford University
Press, 1996.
BYU Corpus Portal. URL: http://corpus.byu.edu/coha/.
5
.
220
,
[CDO1, EOLD2, OALD3, Hornby4, MDO5, Lingvo
.
.].
,
(
)
,
,
,
.
.
:
academic/academical, airy, angular, brassy, beechen, brotherly, bushy, bilious, cardinal,
cavernous, central, civil, chivalrous/chivalric, cerebral, creamy, criminal, crystalline, clayey, cloudy, dewy, dramatic, fishy, flinty, flowery, frosty, ghostly,
grassy, gritty, global/globular, heavenly, husky, insular, icy, leathern, linen,
lumpy, lunar, manual, marginal, marine, metallic, mousy, nightly, nuclear, oaken, ryen, sandy, scrubby, seedy, senile, seminal, servile, shady, shadowy, silky,
silken, slushy, snowy, spicy, spiky, starchy, starry, steelen, steely, sticky, stingy,
stonen, stony, stormy, strawy, stubbly, sugary, tinnen, treen, polar, reedy, rocky,
rosen, tragic, tropical, volcanic, watery, woollen, wooden.
,
(Germanic Lexi6
con Project) ,
,
(
),
,
: fæmnlīc, mæʒdenlīc –
, nihtlīc –
, wīnlīc –
,
heolfrig –
,
,
.
.
,
1
2
3
4
5
6
-
Cambridge Dictionaries Online. URL: http://dictionaty.cambridge.org/.
English Oxford living dictionaries. URL: https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/.
Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary. URL: http://oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/.
Hornby A.S. Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English. Oxford: Oxf. University press, 1982. V. 1. 509 p.; V. 2. 527 p.
MacMillan Dictionary. Free Dictionary and Thesaurus Online. URL: http://www.macmillandictionary.com/.
: Bosworth-Toller Anglo-Saxon Dictionary. URL: http://www.bosworth.ff.cuni.cz;
Old English to Modern English Translator. URL: http://www.oldenglishtranslator.co.uk;
A Concise Anglo-Saxon Dictionary. URL: http://www.lexicon.cuni.cz.
6
(
,
,
),
: coastal, colloquial, colonic, conceptual, congenital, cordial, corporal, critical, dialectic, maternal, mental, mortal,
oriental, provincial, traditional, vocal . .
-
)
(
–
.
,
diagnosis – diagnostic, consul – consular,
,
,
)
,
: etymology – etymological,
,
,
.
,
,
(
.
,
: bile – bilious, brass – brassy,
cerebrum – cerebral, cloud – cloudy, crystal – crystalline, fish – fishy, flint –
flinty, flower – flowery, husk – husky, ice – icy, island – insular, moon – lunar,
lump – lumpy, rock – rocky, semen – seminal, spike – spiky, steel – steely, star –
starry, starch – starchy, stone – stony, storm – stormy, stubble – stubbly, sugar –
sugary,
tropic
–
tropical,
wood
–
wooden
. .
,
: moon
– lunar, island – insular, heart – cordial,
.
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,
-
;

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).
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,
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,
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, . .
).
.
1
. .
, 2004. (
.
.
:
,
). . 29.
8
.
.:
:
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,
,
.
. .
1
.
,
,
,
«
,
,
,
».
2
,
,
(
)
,
» 3.
,
.
,
–
,
.
. .
:
1996. . 218–224;
//
16–18
:
:
3
4
.
/
. .
/
, 1997;
.
. . 219.
. .
, 2008. . 24–25.
:
.
.
.
IV
. .
. .
.
.
. .
//
. .
.
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.
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:
:
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.
.
.,
-
.
.:
,
. .
.
-
.
.
//
.:
.
., 1996. . 218.
. 2-
9
. .
«
.
.
, 2004;
, 2008.
.:
/
. .
,
2003
/
, 2003. . 32–34;
. 2. .
2
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//
10
.
,
;
,
. .:
, 2012. . 21.
,
»3.
,
,
,
. .
, 2003. . 35.
. . 37.
. .
, 2003. . 38.
. .
.
. .
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. «
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. . 22.
. .
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. .
. . .
//
. .:
, 2012. . 25.
11
;
:
/
,
» 1.
2
-
,
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.
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3
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.
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(
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.).
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,
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2
3
4
. . 39.
. . 59.
. .
, 2008. . 3.
. .
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-
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-
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1
»,
», «
-
.
,
,
-
,
,
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,
. 2.
. . 69.
12
.:
.
.
.:
, 1968.
. III:
1
.
.
,
,
,
,
«
,
,
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.
1.2
-
,
.
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2
(
«
V, 14).
(
XII, 1).
,
.
,
,
3
3
.
:
.
//
. 1946. . V.
. 3. . 183;
:
.
», 2010. . 169.
:
/
.
. . .
. .:
;
.:
-
«
.
: «
-
2
VII, 1).
.
. .
1
(
.
,
,
–
,
a priori,
,
»
13
. 3- .
. .
.:
.
. .:
, 2005. . 457.
, 2007. . 97.
,
».
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,
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2
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,
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2
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:
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.; .:
).
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«
» (
, 1982. . 65.
.:
. .
.:
»4.
«
/
“
. 2012. № 2. . 85.
14
.
:
. .
,
”», 2010. . 263.
//
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,
//
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–
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–
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15
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//
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-
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,
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).
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,
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–
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. .
:
,«
».
2
,
‘
(
’,
,
1
2
3
4
3
,
,
4
,
stone wall ‘
– statives)
,
(
. . 83.
’
. .
musical clock
asleep ‘
’
,
,
-
.
.
-
)
. .
(
). 2. .:
, 1972. . 151.
C .,
,
.
. .:
, 1988.
Jespersen O. A Modern English Grammar on Historical Principles. V. VI: Morphology.
London: Allen & Unwin LTD, 1954; Myklestad J. Meyer. An advanced English Grammar
for students and teachers. N.-Y.: St. Martin’s Press; Oslo: Univ. forl., 1971.
16
–
.
,
.
,
:
,
,
,
,
–
.
»1,
.
«…
,
,
,
,
–
.
,
. .
,
,
. .
,
,
,
.
:
1.3
,
,
(
1
2
3
. .
. .
. .
, 1972. . 172.
.
//
.
,
:
(
,
,
»3.
,
,
).
,
,
.
«
. .
»2.
,
,
,
,
,
«
,
,
. .
-
, 1986.
8.
. 2004. № 1. . 35.
). 2. .:
(
17
)
-
,
,
,
,
,
,
:
.
.
1
,
(
.
5
. .
.:
. .
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.
;
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-
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3
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2
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2
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,
.
5
)
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,
,
. .
,
.
(
/
/
.
. .
.
. . .
.
.:
.
.:
.
.; .:
, 1980. . 1.
/
, 1978.
. .
. .
.
18
.:
, 1979.
, 1947.
.
.
.:
.:
, 1957
, 1938;
, 1957;
,
:«
1
(
,
,
)
,
.
–
»2.
,
,
,
.
,
,
(
.
,
,
,
).
,
-
.
,
.
,
,
,
.
. .
:
1)
2)
3)
;
;
«
;
4)
–
.
,
XIX
,
. .
) //
.
2
,
:
,
,
(deaf, blind, dead
«
»
. .).
1
,
«
.
, 1969
/ .
.:
1990. . 397.
19
., 1908.
.
. . .
.
», «
(XVIII–
. .
. 12;
.
»,
.:
.
.,
(biological – biologically, political – politically, historic – historically).
,
,
.
,
,
.
,
–
(
.
,
,
,
,
–
),
,
. .
«
», «
», «
sorrowful, beautiful.
,
,
.
,
:
,
.
,
,
1
,
,
: «
»,
weighty, lengthy,
»;
.
,
,
.
,
2
,
,
,
,
.
. .
,
«
,
,
1
2
3
. .
. 1960. № 2. C. 65–70.
. .
.
. .
//
, 1972. . 343.
»3,
,
,
//
:
20
.
, 1986.
.
.:
.
,
,
.
:
,
.
,
,
1
.
–
,
.«
...
-
,
,
».
2
,
.
.
,
:
–
».
leaden bullet – leaden sky, wooden object – wooden face, «
», «
–
,
.
:
,
«
1
2
3
. .
».
3
,
:«
», «
’, black market ‘
. .
(
. .
. .
.
.:
, 1978;
.
. .
,
,
steel ‘
,
,
–
.
,
», «
’
. .
21
,
», cold
.
. .
:
,
). .:
-
-
, 1979.
, 1986. . 33.
. .:
, 1938. . 182.
,
,
,
,
:
.
. .
,
«
»,
«
,
,
,
.
»
,
«
‘
;
.
,
,
. .
,
».
1
-
: foxy ‘
;
’,
;
;
economical
’
,
,
,
,
‘
,
’, cattish
;
,
.
,
,
–
,
1.4
,
(
)
,
,
. .
, 1972. . 158.
,
:
,
,
,
.
,
1
,
,
. .,
(
,
,
.
). 222
. .
.
.:
, . .
1
,
,
:
,
(
«
: 1)
»; 2)
:«
. .
(
).
,
.
. .
/
.
«+»
,
,
,
2
«–»,
:
,
,
,
(
1
2
3
. .
.
,
,
public).
. 1973. № 5. . 82–87.
. ., 1985.
.
.
,
,
,
,
.
-
.
442
7633.
//
. .
,
.
, dear,
. .
(
,
(
-
,
. .
)
,
. .
,
(
)
).
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,
1 078
,
,
,
,
»,
,
)
,
,
», «
.
»; 3)
,
(
,
,
«
», «
,
,
,
).
., 1966.
23
. 2. . 14–26.
-
//
.
. .
proud, humble
.
,
.
. .
.
,
1
,
.
.
,
,
,
.
2
,
,
,
.
,
,
,
.
,
/
,
,
,
–
,
,
,
,
,
. .
. .:
.
-
.
1980.
24
-
.):
(
,
.
(
.
: the table is wooden to
: there is some,
,
.
. .
,
(wooden, metallic,
leaden; atomic, electronic, industrial).
,
),
.
,
(
me),
,
(
thing atomic in this bomb).
2
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
.
1
,
,
,
,
,
,
. .
low, high;
.
:
, 1972.
. ...
.
.
. .,
(big, long),
(kind, noble).
,
(fat, lean),
,
.
,
(
.
:
),
. .
,
nice).
,
.
,
:
,
.
.
,
. .
.
,
,
1
–
.
,
.
-
,
right, left, distant, narrow, daily, present2.
.
,
(
«
»,
),
(tel ‘
‘
’).
,
.
.
(
))
,
(
– mon ‘
(
1
2
3
.
,
,
–
’, mon ‘
:
’)
(blanc
,
).
,
’, cartesian ‘
,
,
»,
»,
(different,
(pleasant,
understandable),
-
(clear,
(necessary, obligatory)
,
/
foreign),
,
’(
). .
3
, «
«
Jespersen O. A Modern English Grammar on Historical Principles. V. VI: Morphology.
London: Allen & Unwin LTD, 1954.
Myklestad J. Meyer. An advanced English Grammar for students and teachers. N.-Y.:
St. Martin’s Press; Oslo: Univ. forl., 1971. P. 81.
.
. .:
, 1988. . 82.
25
»1,
«
.
.
,
/
,
(
.
,
,
,
-
-
(cudly bear),
.
,
(polar bear).
(
,
.
4
(
,
.
:
,
.
,
/
(
(noise),
.
)
:
.
-
-
-
-
5
/
,
,
3
.
:
– tall,
– careful);
(tall, British);
/
,
(a wooden cross, a wooden actor)2.
,
.
.
.
),
-
)
(redness, length),
(stones, dust)
6
.
,
-
.
,
(hunger),
,
(tailed, bearded, additional).
1
2
3
4
5
6
. . 81.
Quirk R., Greenbaum S., Leech G., Svartvik J. A Comprehensive Grammar of the English
Language. London; N.-Y.: Longman, 1991. P. 434.
Bolinger D. Adjectives in English: Attribution and Predication // Lingua. 1967. V. 18. № 1.
P. 1–36.
Teyssier J. Notes on the Syntax of the Adjectives in Modern English // Lingua. 1968. V. 20.
№ 8. P. 235.
Warren B. Classifying Adjectives. Goteborg: Acta Universitatis Gothoburgensis, 1984.
Ibidem. P. 94.
26
.
,
,
:
(
own, present, absent, mutual, reciprocal;
,
: central, habitual, basic;
similar, identical, equal.
): local,
,
:
.
,
,
.
: woollen:
woolen dress – the dress which is woollen – 1
big stove – a stove whose size is big – 2
;
fast horse – a horse whose running is fast – 3
.
1
.
;
. .
,
: beautiful dancer:
1) a dancer who is beautiful (1
);
2) a dancer whose dancing is beautiful (3
).
.
2
.
.
. .
(
)
(
‘
–
.
’,
),
,
,
(
.
.
,
(‘
–
’, ‘
,
),
:
,
(
‘
.
’).
’).
,
: 11 – quantifier
1
2
Vendler Z. Adjectives and nominalisation // Papers on Formal Linguistics. The HagueParis: Mouton, 1968. P. 85.
Sussex R. The deep structure of adjectives in noun phrases // Journal of Linguistics. 1974.
V. 10. № 1. P. iii–131.
27
(
), 10 – shape, 9 – colour, 8 – de-numerals, 7 – possesi n +
resemble (
), 6 – time adverbials (
), 5 – place
adverbials (
), 4 – sphere of relevance (
,
),
3 – contents and component material (
), 2 – power (
,
1
,
. .) .
2
3
.
.
, .
,
,
,
,
.
,
,
.
.
,
,
,
,
;
–
,
,
;
–
.
.
4
.
,
,
(
.
,
.
)
,
,
.
,
,
.
,
,
.
(
1
2
3
4
,
,
,
).
Ibidem. P. 117.
Vendler Z. Adjectives and nominalization // Papers on Formal Linguistics. The HagueParis: Mouton, 1968. P. 60–93.
Givon T. Notes on the Semantic Structure of Adjectives // Language. 1970. V. 46. № 4.
P. 816–837.
Postal P. The derivation of English pseudo-adjectives. Unpublished Manuscript, Thomas J.
Watson Research Center, IBM (Yorktown Highheights, N.-Y.), 1972.
28
1.5
-
,
,
«
»1.
,
,
,
,
«
»
,
,
», «
...
,
».
2
. .
–
,
.
.
,
,
,
«
...
:
.
,
,
«
,
,
...
,
3
. .
».
,
.
,
4
,
,
,
,
,
5
.
,
.
,
,
.
1
,
2
3
4
5
. .
C. 119–135.
.
. .
. .
. .
,
.
.:
.
.:
:
, 1976. C. 36.
. .:
//
.
29
:
, 1985. C. 58.
, 1974. C. 153.
.:
, 1988.
/
.
.:
,
, 1979.
.
,
,
,
1
, . .
,
. .
.
,
–«
. .
,
–
».
2
3
,
,
,
.
,
«
4
».
.
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,
.
,
,
)
,
,
.
,
,
,
.
:
.
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
2
. .:
. .:
. .
3
4
.
. .
. .
,
.
.
.
, 1971.
.
.
.
-
.
//
- , 1969;
., 1979.
.:
,
. .
//
. 145. C. 10.
//
, 1977.
.
,
,
,
.
1
.
:
30
-
, 1986. C. 17.
,
,
,
1
. .
.
.
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
.
.
,
,
.
:
,
,
.
,
,
.
,
,
я
. starry night, bearded man, nasal sound,
,
.
.
-
,
«
,
я
,
».
,
,
.
,
-
я
stars.
,
, .
я
я
–
,
;
я
–
, starry sky – sky full of stars, starry system – system constituted by
, .
,
я
, vocal cords, oceanic winds
. .
,
.
. .
1
,
? //
. Studia Linguistica-6. C
79.
31
:
., 1998. C. 65–
,
,
,
,
–
,
(
.
)
-
,
-
,
я
/
/
( .
).
/
,
:
,
-
,
,
independant state «
.
,
–
,
,
,
.
:
,
я
,
,
–
),
,
,
я
.
–
–
,
,
»),
,
(
?)
:
«
»),
32
»),
(useful «
,
–
(
», an
».
left eye «
,
(far
»
–
. .
: a far star «
(
?)
,
,
,
», ‘round’ «
,
. ‘red’ «
,
. .
,
.
.
,
,
,
,
wooden table/chair/spoon/post
,
-
,
«
«
,
-
»),
» –
,
(sad
(upper
(real «
( .
.«
К
R,
»)
»).
–
,
.
D
R1
.
.
,
D1,
,
),
(
/
(
/
)
.
. .
,
,
,
. a sad maiden «
sad
song
«
a
: far «
» (
,
,
,
), upper «
«
,
» (
,
» – false «
,
)
» =
»
=
»
,
. .
.
: left «
»
.
,
–
)
,
: a good book «
».
,
)
,
(
), known «
.
.
(
,
,
.
D2
R2.
.
,
»
».
33
. .
», a nice evening
.
real «
,
: «
–
: this – that «
.
,
–
–
(
»,
–
,
я
–
–
.
, «
,
1
,
«
,
».
,
.
(
,
,
),
-
.
.
,
(
.
,
).
:
. .
,
,
,
,
,
».
,
. .
. .
,
,
,
–
,
.
.
: STELLAR CONFIGURATION, MUSICAL SOUND,
: AGRICULTURAL WORK,
EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM,
: ACADEMIC
KNOWLEDGE, SCIENTIFIC APPROACH,
MUSICAL COMEDY, SOCIAL REVOLUTION . .
,
,
.
1
. .
? //
. Studia Linguistica-6.
34
:
., 1998. C. 73.
.
. .
,
–
,«
,
,
,
,
,
:
–
».
,
,
1
,
,
.
1.6
:
,
.
.
,
,
.
-
,
,
-
,
,
,
,
,
),
(
.
. .
:
,
,
.
,
1
.
/
.
.
,
,
. .
,
35
. .
.
//
.
., 1996. . 224.
.
,
.
:
:
,
.
-
:
.
,
.
,
(
),
(
,
).
:
,
,
-
.
,
-
,
,
,
,
,
.
.
,
(
,
,
(
,
,
),
,
).
,
.
,
36
-
.
1.7
.
.
,
,
,
. .
,
: «
,
,
».
1
,
,
»3.
2
3
4
,
,
»2.
. .
(
«
,
«
. .
, 2004. . 22
. .
1981. . 6.
. .
. .:
. .
,
-
«
,
,
)
1
. .
,
.
,
,
,
,
)
,–
(
4
».
.
:
.
.
, 1959. . 41.
. 1970. № 1. . 81.
37
.:
:
.:
.
//
//
,
,
.
. .
2
5
.).
8
,
.
11
,
14
).
1
2
3
4
5
6
1984. . 31.
1
. .
,
,
. .
,
. .
3
,
. .
6
. .
, . .
. .
,
,
. .
,
,
( . .
. .
,
7
«
,
,
4
10
12
,
,
. .
. .
( . .
.
//
«
. .
. .
.
. .,
.
.
/ :
-
», 2000. . 61.
-
:
.
,
,
. .
. .
);
.
:
,
,
.
» 9.
13
. .
.
. .
,
,
,
( .
,
.:
.
.,
., 1973. . 188.
, 1986.
, 1981. . 99.
. .
-
//
. 1983. № 1. . 52–65.
. .
.
. 3- . .:
«
», 2010. . 169.
8
Levi J.N. The Syntax and Semantics of Complex Nominals. N.-Y.: Academic Press Inc.,
1978.
9
. .
. .,
1961. . 42.
10
. .
.
. ., 1973. . 188.
11
. .
//
. 1960. № 2. . 52–65.
12
. .
//
.
:
, 1970. . 107–118.
13
. .
// .
.
. № 299.
.
.
. 1971. № 59. . 116–122.
14
. .
.
/ :
, 1981. . 90.
7
38
( . .
.).
,
2
. .
. .
1
,
,
,
,
. .
,
. .
–
».
,
,
,
3
«
,
»
»,
. .
–
«
,
,
,
.
-
(
),
:
.
,
,
.
«
. .
. .
1
1974.
2
.
. .
–1
.
. .
. 4- . .:
. .
//
, 1988. . 7.
. .
.
.:
,
, 2007. . 106.
-
.
//
2010.
, 2004. . 412.
,
» 5.
(models),
5
«
.
,
4
4
.
,
«
3
.
,
–
»,
. .
:
,
,
,
.
:
:
. . .
-
:
.
39
.:
, 2010. . 435.
:
.
29
(constructional schemas)1.
,
. .
.
,
,
.
,
2
,
.
,
.
,
.
,
.
,
,
3
,
(
),
26
: ABOUNDING IN, ABOUNDING WITH, FULL
OF, FILLED WITH, HAVING, etc.,
: CAUSING, DESERVING, CONSTITUTING, GIVEN TO, IN
ACCORDANCE WITH, HAVING, RESEMBLING,
,
.
4
. .
,
:
(
),
),
),
(
(
-
,
),
(
(
),
(
(
),
)
.
1
2
3
4
. .
20–30
Langacker R.W. Concept, image, and symbol: the cognitive basis of grammar. Berlin; N.Y.:
Mouton de Gruyter, 1991.
. .
:
/
.
.
. .
;
. . .
.
. 2- ,
. .:
, 2008. . 177.
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of High-Frequency Denominal Adjectives in English. Goteborg: Acta Universitatis Gothoburgensis, 1970.
. .
.
. .:
,
1974.
40
.
.
.
. .
1
.
)
(
,
,
(
: )
.
)
.
),
: HAVE (clever man), EXPERIENCE
(weary reader), MANIFEST (kind look), TIME (hot day), PLACE (sunny
valley), CAUSE (infuriating behaviour) . .
2
.
,
.
: CAUSE (tear gas, malarial mosquitoes), HAVE (government law,
reptillian scoles), MAKE (honey bee, stellar configuration), USE (steam iron,
manual labour), BE (soldier ant, consonantal segment), IN (field mouse, marine
life), FOR (horse doctor, nasal mist), FROM (olive oil, rural visitors), ABOUT
(tax law, linguistic lecture).
,
,
: atom bomb – atomic bomb, ocean winds – oceanic
winds, city life – urban life.
.
3
,
.
«
»
,
,
‘constituted by’ – SOURCE-RESULT,
‘resembling’ – COMPARANTCOMPARED,
‘having’ – PART-WHOLE
. .,
239
.
.
. .
,
.
–
,
.
, .
–
,
.
,
,
,
.
,
,
.
,
,
«
» – ‘meanings’
1
2
3
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(
), «
» – ‘relators’ (
‘recoverable deleting predicates’ (
link’ (
). .
)
), «
«
,
«
,
),
-
».
,
.
,
1
.
(head
.
noun)
«
,
,
.
. .
(Post M.)
(relational adjectives)
,
,
(base noun).
,
,
,
«
,
,
,
,
2
hawkish
,
».
,
+
,
«
–
(
»–
» – ‘connecting
»
,
,
,
.
2
3
,
,
.
…»,
.
,
,
,
,
-
1
,
. .
3
.
//
. .:
, 1967. . 195.
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42
,
-
(
)
-
.
.
,
-
,
,
,
,
.
-
«
» (‘related to’),
-
,
(‘consisting
«
»
of’).
.
,
,
,
,
.
. .
,
(
,
«
,
,
,
. .)
,
«
»,
–
,
,
–
,
-
(
» 1.
),
.
:
:
1.8
1
18–20
. .
:
III
. 2002 .: 2 .
:
.
43
.-
//
. . .
.
,
, 2002. . 115–116.
–
,
,
(
,
).
,
,
. .
,
,
-ly,
.
,
,
.
,
,
–
,
,
,
.
.
-
.
-
,
.
2
,
,
(
,
-
)
.
,
:
), «
»5 (
2
3
4
5
,
,
1
)
. .
. .
1
.
,
,
,
«
»4 ( .
»3
.
( .
), «
,
//
.
:
, 1970.
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Watson Research Center, IBM (Yorktown Highheights, N.-Y.), 1972.
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fransais. Stockholm, 1980.
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etudie d’apres la place accordee a l’adjectif epithete. Uppsala, 1966.
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Jahan, Leon Wagner, Madeleine Marlion. Paris: Larousse, 1936.
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,
;
1
.
,
,
. .
,
,
-
.
.
. .
,
.
,
»,
«
,
«
»,
.
.
,
«
.
,
,
»,
,
.
:
.
,
,
-
,
,
,
. . –
,
,
,
,
)
,
,
,
(
,
2
,
,
,
,
–
–
:
)
,
,
;
1
. .
. . .
2
.:
-
//
:
.
.
.
.
. .
.
.
:
. . .
.
/
, 1952. . 176.
-
45
. .
, 2005. . 133.
. . .
/
.
)
,
,
,
,
,
,
.
,
,
,
,
.
.
,
,
,
.
.
. .
,
,
. «
,
,
».
1
(
,
)
,
.
,
,
,
, «
».«
2
».
,
3
. .
«
-
»,
4
. .
2
3
4
. .
, 1972. . 152.
. .
. .
. .:
. .
1947. . 204.
,
«
»
–
-
-
,
,
:
1
,
(
). 2.
, 1978. . 33.
.
.
.:
.:
, 1938. . 102.
.
46
.
.;
.:
,
,
«
»1.
,
,
.
«
«
»
,
.
,
.
. .
,
,
,
, «
,
,
,
,
,
» 4.
«
,
,
,
».
5
:
.
.
,
1
2
3
. .
. 1960. № 2. . 69;
, 1996. . 52.
. . 67.
. .,
4
5
.
. .
,
,
,
,
,
…
3
,
,
. .
»2.
-
. .
,
//
. .
//
. .
.
47
.:
.
. 1983. № 1. . 52–65.
, 1996. . 55.
.:
,
,
. .
.).
–
,
,
–
–
(
,
,
.
,
,
,
.
,
,
,
,
,
,
1
,
.
,
2
,
,
,
:
«
,
(
«
«
» (
,
–
.
.
»
(
»
).
. .
),
.
. .
,
-
,
1
:
2
. .
:
. .
. .
.
. .
.
//
. .
.:
. .
.:
«
«
/
«
/
«
48
.
.
:
. .
, . .
», 2010. . 262–270.
//
:
. .
, . .
», 2010. . 263.
,
,
-
(
(
),
,
».
1
«
).
)
,
(
,
,
,
. .
:
:
,
»2.
,
:
,
,
.
,
,
: an angry man – a man EXPERIENCING anger, an angry
look – a look SHOWING anger, an angry talk – a talk OF an angry person, etc.
“related to + N”: industrial = related
to industry, oceanic= related to the ocean, stellar = related to stars (a star), silken = related to silk.
,
,
.
, polar bear = bear LIVING near the pole,
oceanic wind = wind BLOWING in the ocean, etc.,
«
,
. .».
. .
«
»,
«
,
. …
,
…
. .
1
2
:
. .
. .
.
,
//
. 2012. №2. . 80.
. .
.:
«
/
//
«
49
.
:
. .
,
», 2010. . 268.
. .
,
».
,
: «
,
»1.
,
,
,
(
,
. .):
,
:
(
)
,
,
,
,
– (
.
.
,
),
. .):
)
1
. .
:
(
,
.
–
:
,
,
,
,
–
,
,
–
:
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
:
(
.
,
)
,
:
,
:
,
;
,
,
,
,
,
. .
(
,
,
–
,
–
,
.
,
. 2012. № 2. . 89.
50
;
:
.
//
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
.
,
– (
),
)
:
–
:
,
,
,
,
(
–
–
,
,
,
,
.
,
,
,
,
. .
.
:
,
.
,
,
,
.
.
51
1
,
.
.
,
.
.
,
,
.
,
.
,
(
,
.
. .)
,
,
.
,
,
,
-
.
.
,
,
,
.
,
,
,
.
.
-
-
,
,
,
.
-
,
.
-
,
52
.
,
.
,
.
–
,
,
(
я
,
, near, distant
,
,
.
,
,
,
,
.
,
,
«
»
«
. .
,
»,
(
),
.
,
-
.
-
,
,
,
.
,
. .).
,
,
.
-
.
.
-
,
.
,
,
,
.
.
.
53
2.
(
.
,
«
- ,
,
,
1
,
»
,
-
,
)
.
-
,
,
(
)
.
,
,
.
,
,
2
.
.
,
,
,
.
.
-
.
,
,
,
,
,
–
,
,
2
.
,
(
. .
. .
.
.
.:
-
.
,
.
1
,
. . .
54
.:
, 2011. . 3.
)
, 1978.
(
)
,
,
.
.
.
,
.
,
-
,
,
-
.
,
.
:
-
,
,
,
.
2.1
,
-
,
,
. .
1
,
,
)
1
2
,
. .
.
1947. . 204.
. .
. 1960. № 2. . 96;
, 1996. . 52.
,
.
-
,
,
2
,
,
)
,
(
)
,
,
.
. .
55
;
,
.;
.:
//
,
.
.:
(
)1.
,
я
(
(
2
,
.
,
).
:
.
,
,
.
(
я
я,
queer, blue caps),
. .
,
–
,
,
,
,
:
я
–
, absolute monarchy, gay,
.
,
,
»3.
(traumatic childhood, anaemic face,
«
,
. .
.
( .
2
3
.
1991. . 27.
, 2005. . 8.
. .
–
:
. .
1
,
,
.
etc.).
).
(
.
):
):
. .
-
.
56
.…
.:
,
.
:
.
.
я
.
.
(
-
,
, 1956. . 102.
я ,
1
).
–
,
»
» ,
.
,
–
»
(
»
,
,
2
:
.
«
»
-
,
,
.
-
,
-
.
я
(
-
. .
), «
).
-
. .
, 1972. . 170.
. .
:
. .
,
-
,
-
2
,
.
«
1
«
. . .
,
,
,
,
. .
)
,
,
(
–
,
,«
,
)
(
,
.
(
,
-
). 2-
.
.:
//
. .
.:
«
/
“
57
.
:
. .
, . .
”», 2010. . 262–270.
,
,
(
,
.
)
.
,
,
,
,
.
. .
,
.
,
1
.
. .
.
2
.
acid, varicose vein .
.
.
-
3
,
,
: fallopian tube, platonic
-
,
: statistical + work, information, probability, office, trick, average, series, computing, theory, methods, laboratory, physics, problems, skills
.
-
,
.
. .
1
1991;
2
3
.
):
. .
.
. .
. .
-
.
:
.
):
, 2005.
):
. .
, 2005. . 10.
. . 10–11.
58
(
.
(
(
. …
.
,
. …
.
.
-
,
: a governor who is provincial – a
provincial governor, a lawyer who is criminal – a criminal lawyer.
,
,
,
,
,
1
. .
.
,
2
,
,
(
,
,
.
),
: domed parish church – shape of the church.
–
3
,
.
–
‘characteristic of’, ‘typical
of’, ‘resembling’.
:
1) volcanic – of or pertaining to a volcano or volcanoes; a volcanic eruption –
;
2) discharged from or produced by volcanoes; volcanic mud –
;
3) suggestive of or resembling a volcano; potentially explosive; volatile:
a volcanic temper –
.
,
/
golden…,
1
2
3
-
.
:
: the sky was now
: he would perceive to be a stuff, linen or woolen…;
: and a self-image that was getting rockier the older he got.
.
. .
.
. .
1979. . 12.
.
.
59
//
., 1996. . 104.
.
.:
-
,
: turkish bath, digital camera, volcanic glass.
–
,
: triangular pediment – having the shape of a triangle.
–
,
,
,
,
,
,
.
,
.
,
-ly.
,
.
,
. .
1
,
,
-
.
:
,

lated to…’;
‘re-
(of)


(for);
,
‘resembling’, ‘like
of’
that
.
,
,
.
,
. .
1
. .
):
, 2005.
60
(
.
. …
.
.
,
,
,
.
,
,
.
2.2
,
.
,
«
-
.
»,
,
. .
1
2
-
3
hoc
.
.
.
,
,
–
,
,
. .).
1
2
3
4
,
,
,
,
ad
.
4
.
. .
,
,
,
.
,
,
(
,
. .
(
)
(
.
.
.) //
.:
.
. - , 1993. . 3–8.
Levi-Strauss C. Introduction a Sociologie et Anthropologie de Marcel Mauss. Paris: Presses
universitaires de France, 1950. P. 48–49.
Barsalou L.W. Ad-hoc Categories // Memory and Cognition. 1983. 11 (3). Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia. P. 211–227.
Thompson S.A., Hopper P.J. Transitivity, clause structure, and argument structure: Evidence from conversation / J. Bybee & P. Hopper (Eds.), Frequency and the Emergence of
Linguistic Structure. Amsterdam / Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 2001. P. 27–60.
61
,
.
,
. .
,
яя
,
«
1
,
- .»
,
,
я
,
,
.
. .
,
–
.
,
я
я
,
,
», «
-
.
-
:
,
,
.
,
,
(
,
).
,
,
,
»,
«
я
я,
.
;
«
»
.
.
,
я
,
,
.
(
,
1
. .
:
. .
),
.
,
//
. .
.:
«
/
“
62
.
:
. .
,
”», 2010. . 264.
. .
,
(
,
).1
,
,
.
,
tropics,
belonging
,
to
(
)
.
tropical,
– ‘occurring in, pertaining to or inhabiting the
the torrid zone’ [SOD].
: tropical climate, tropical diseases, tropical forest, tropical fruit [COHA]. «
»
«
,
,
,
» . .
-
(
).
tropical clothes, tropical suit [COHA]
<suitable for the tropics> [SOD].
,
.
.
,
tropical
‘like the climate or growth in the tropics, hot, ardent, luxuriant’ [SOD]: tropical sun [COHA] – <like in the tropics, hot>; tropical colour
[COHA] – <of those in the tropics; bright, vivid>; tropical rage [COHA] – <hot,
violent, fierce>.
,
.
,
.
.
,
. .
:
,
,
,
.
,
1
:
. .
. .
.
//
. .
:,
«
/
“
63
.
:
. .
,
”», 2010. . 268.
. .
,
,
,
,
(
.
.)
,
,
.
,
1
)
.
.
,
(
,
,
,
,
«
–
,
».
2
tropical temper
,
«
,
». «
,
,
-
, «
»
»
.
:
stony ground, stony road, stony island [COHA]
‘abounding in, having the
character of a stone/rock, full of rocks, containing many stones’ [SOD],
: stony
face, stony look, stony gaze [COHA] <rigid, fixed, motionless>;
«
,
».
,
«
–
».
,
:«
–
».
:
stony grief, fear, silence [COHA] ‘petrifying, stupefying, having no relief, etc.’
[SOD]
:
–
,
–
,
,
,
. .
1
:
. .
. .
2
. .
//
.
. .
.
.:
. .
. .
.:
«
«
/
/
.
“
. .
.
“
. 2012. № 2. . 85.
64
:
. .
”», 2010.
//
, . .
. 17–27;
,
:
:
, . .
”», 2010. . 262–270.
,
//
. .
Stony heart – «
,
(
»
,
,
),
,
,
,
.
.
:
,
,
,
,
-ly.
(
)
.
,
,
,
«
,
.
. .
,
.
,
»1.
.
,
,
.
,
–
.
1
:
.
,
,
. .
. .
:,
«
.
/
. .
.
“
65
: .
, . .
”», 2010. . 263.
//
,
. .
.
,
.
.
.
,
.
airy
,
‘
…’: <of or belonging to the air> (1398), <performed
in the air> (1551), <living in the air> (1656), <taking place in the air> (1624).
,
.
‘airy’ (
) – light, lightweight –
‘air’ –
.
‘airy’ – light – graceful –
‘airy tread’ (
‘airy’ – light – careless, cheerful, merry –
laughter’ (
);
‘airy’ – light – empty, giddy, flyaway –
,
(
);
‘airy’ – aerial, ethereal, unreal –
,
tions’ (
,
) [SOD].
,
,
,
),
grumpy’ (
‘spiky’
(‘a spiky dog’ (
)) [SOD].
,
:
);
, ‘airy
,
‘airy promise’
, ‘airy no-
.
‘spike’ (
)
‘a spike of light’ (
‘cantankerous, quarrelsome,
,
),
), ‘a spiky churchman’ (
.
,
66
.
,
,
,
: ‘airy room’ (
‘airy behaviour’ (
).
,
,
)) –
, (
.
,
,
,
: ‘husky’ (
‘husk’ –
)–
, ‘reedy’ ( ‘reed’ –
)–
,
‘silvery’ (
‘silver
) –
,
,
. .
:
‘Volcanic’ (
) – of or pertaining to a volcano or volcanoes, ‘a
volcanic eruption’ (
); discharged from or produced
by volcanoes, ‘volcanic mud’ (
); suggestive of or resembling a volcano; potentially explosive; volatile: ‘a volcanic temper’
(
) [SOD].
icy,
,
,
:
1) abounding in, or characterized by the presence of, ice; covered or overlaid with ice;
2) composed or consisting of ice † [OED];
3) resembling ice; having the nature or properties of ice; extremely cold,
frosty; slippery. Of demeanour, character, speech, etc. [OED, OALD, CDO].
,
<made of ice>
XIX
,
ice.
<resembling ice, extremely cold>: icy feet, hands, lips, fingers; icy shower, icy
sweat.
: icy reserve, dignity, indifference;
: icy glare,
look,voice, silence [COHA, BNC].
slushy
:
1) covered with, consisting of, having the character of, slush. Marked by
the prevalence of slush;
2) trivial, silly, and without value because it is too emotional and romantic;
3) thick, indistinct.
slushy reminiscences, poems, novels, etc. <too romantic,
sentimental>,
slushy voice <thick, indistinct>.
,
67
.
:
,
,
,
,
.
,
,
,
.
-
,
,
,
.
2.3 Ф
,
,
,
“phenomenal
.
,
( .
world”,
-
.
world”)
,
,
,
“projected world” (“experienced
1
).
,
.
2
,
-
.
.
«
.
. .
» 3.
,
1
2
3
,
,
,
Jackendoff R. Semantics and Cognition. Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT Press, 1995. P. 28.
. .,
A.B.,
. .,
H.A.
. .:
, 1991; Knowledge of language: Its nature, origin, and use / by
Noam Chomsky. N.-Y.: Praeger, 1986.
. .
:
.
:
. - , 2001. . 48.
68
.
–
.
–
,
–
–
.
.
.
,
-
,
«
,
,
».
,
1
,
(
. .
-
,
)
.
,
,
,
.
,
:
,
,
,
,
-
.
-
:
1)
-
; 2)
,
; 3)
2
,
1
2
. .
,
.
,
. .
. 2006. № 2. . 5–22.
. .
«
», 2009. . 124.
69
–
,
-
//
.
. 2- .
.:
,
«
.
»
(
) «
»
–
,
)
-
.
(
–
,
.
.
(
:
,
,
),
,
.
,
.
.
,
,
.
,
,
,
,
.
(
(
)
,
.
)
,
.
. .
1
.
,
,
.
1
. .
:
.… 70
.
.
.:
, 1994.
,
:
;
,
,
–
;
,
,
.
,
-
,
,
-
:
,
,
.
.
,
.
)
,
1
»
,
,
(
,
.
-
,
1
-
,
,
.
,
2.4
»,
...».
«
»
«
:
,
«
«
,
. .
. 2012. № 2. . 79–91.
71
,
,
,
.
//
«
».
,
.
,
,
,
,
,
. .
,
1
. .
.
,
.
,
-
,
,
. .,
,
,
,
(
2
,
.
,
,
.
2
3
4
.
,
,
4
,
. .
, 1992.
. .
.
.… . .
, 1999.
. .
–
,
.
-
,
.
.
.
,
1
.
,
)3.
,
,
. .
,
,
,
.
.
/ :
-
-
.
.
–
:
., 1990.
.
.
.:
72
, 2001.
.:
-
,
1
,
,
,
-
.
.
,
.
.
,
(
,
)
.
,
.
-
,
,
,
,
,
. .,
,
.
,
,
.
,
,
,
,
.
,
,
2
.
fresh
,
[OALD]: ‘(usually of food)
in a natural condition rather than artificially preserved’
,
:
fresh meat/fish – not salted, pickled or smoked;
1
2
. .
. .
, 1997. . 638.
. Studia Linguistica-8.
73
//
.
,
.:
.:
, 1999. . 6–14.
fresh vegetables – not artificially preserved.
‘
,
fresh meat – not tainted;
fresh milk – not sour;
fresh bread – not stale;
fresh eggs – not bad, rotten;
fresh butter – not rancid, rank.
recently taken
»:
;
. .
. .
я
;
1
–
–
,
’
:
,
: fresh flowers – recently picked, fresh milk –
,
,
«
,
,
,
,
;
–
–
,
,
‘
’
,
.
‘
’,
.
,
,
.
,
,
-
.
<of, related to>,
(
-
),
-
,
.
,
,
<made of, consisting of>.
: stony <full of >
<made of>
stone; reedy <full of or characterized by the presence of>
<made of, consisting of> reed or reeds; flinty <of, consisting of>
<containing> flint
stones.
,
1
,
–
-
. .
, 1997. . 638.
.
74
.:
.
.
icy
,
: ice seas <abounding in ice>, icy steps <covered with ice>,
: icy crust <consisting of ice>, icy mountain <made
of ice, iceberg>.
flinty
:
: flinty heart – <obdurate, unfeeling>,
,
<related to>.
: flinty stone, flinty pebble <of flint>, flinty sparks <derived
from flint>; flinty ground, flinty gravel <full of flint-stones>, etc.
,
: flinty boulevard <consisting of
flint>; flinty flake, flinty lock <made of flint>.
,
.
-
.
shady
<related to shade>
:
1) <affording shade> shady trees, shady leaves;
2) <protected by shade shady side of the road.
flowery.
,
«
»,
- ,
,
:
<decorated with pictures of flowers> [OALD, CDO].
,
,
:
1) abounding in or covered with flowers; producing flowers (flowery valley, land, May, spring);
2) composed of flowers; having the nature of flowers; proceeding from or
characteristic of flowers (flowery dew, growth, band) [OED].
,
(
400
),
:
1) <covered with> flowers: flowery banks, meadows, fields;
2) <abounding in> flowers: flowery garden;
3) <made of > flowers: flowery garlands, wreaths;
4) <designed with> flowers: flowery hats; flowery dress, shirt, clothes;
wallpaper;
75
5) <like that of> a flower: flowery odour, scent, fragrance, perfume
[COHA, BNC].
,
.
,
,
.
.
starry
:
1) <full of> stars: starry night, sky, darkness, firmament, etc.;
2) <of or relating to> the stars: starry light;
3) <consisting of> stars: starry system;
4) <shaped like> a star: starry form (of an asteroid), gem, starry flowers;
5) <sprinkled or studded with> star-like forms: starry primroses, starry
coral [COHA, BNC].
,
: <lit by star>
<shining like a star> [OALD, CDO, MMD].
bilious spiky,
,
.
bilious
<of or pertaining
to> the bile.
(ill-tempered),
:
bilious secretion, system, duct: <secreting> bile;
bilious attacks, disorders: <affected by the excess of> the bile;
bilious pills, surge: <curing illnesses caused by> the excessive bile secretion [COHA, BNC].
spiky
: <fitted with a spike or
spikes>, <having the form of a spike>,
–
<aggressive, uncompromising> [OALD, CDO, MMD].
,
,
:
spiky grass, leaves, thorn: < having the form of > a spike;
spiky branches, flower, hedge, pineapple: <having> spikes;
spiky wheels, iron, fence: <fitted with> spikes;
spiky hair, curles, hairdo, haircut: <done in a form of> spikes, sharppointed.
,
.
-
(
,
.
76
)
,
.
,
2.5
,
.
щ
.
,
,
,
,
(
.
. .
.).
1
–
lar radiation, muscular pain,
.«
,
.
–
. .,
«
. .
. .
.
+
:
.
: bodily movement, so», «
»
. .
,
,
: body moves, the sun radi», «
» . .
,
,
,
,
,
.«
ates, muscle(s) hurts,
.
,
.
,
,
,
-
1
,
.:
77
,
. . .
» //
, 2000. . 69–75.
.
.
,
(
)
.
–
,
(
,
: wooden table.
-
. .
-
,
.
.
:
,
,
,
:
,
,
,
,
,
1
,
.
.
,
-
: ‘made or produced of’ oaken cross, woolen sock,
‘consisting of’ sandy ballast, stony powder, ‘comprised of’ reedy (reeden) hut,
‘covered with’ brassy plate, golden ring.
,
.
:
.
–
.
,
,
–
.
,
,
: ‘being a part of’ industrial plant, acoustic effect, ‘being a component of’
filmy growth, ‘belonging to’ vocal tone, cerebral cancer.
,
:
,
«
–
».
,
,
: ‘according to’ constitutional right, conventional method; ‘appearing or taking place in’ insular pride, continental cli1
. .
:
, 1997. . 225.
78
.
.:
mate; ‘containing’ ferrous ore, ‘abounding in’ stony fruit, spicy food, ‘generating, delivering’ spicy shore; ‘locative’ colonial produce, ‘temporal’ Victorian
England;
‘prevailing
in a certain place’ rainy region, ‘prevailing at a certain time’ nuclear age; ‘operating, working in’ scientific worker, military exercise; ‘causing’ electric shock,
‘providing’ atomic power plant; ‘serving for’ athletic equipment, merchant fleet.
,
‘related to’,
.
(
.
)
–
. .
-
1
.
,
-
,
:
,
)
,
: ‘resembling … in
taste’ watery vegetable, ‘resembling … in colour’ sandy hair, ‘resembling … in
behaviour’ servile manner, ‘resembling … in sound’ wooden sound, reedy
sound, ‘resembling … in form’ starry (stellar) configuration, ‘resembling … in
consistence’ steely corn, stony hail, ‘resembling … in function, purpose’ flowery
interprelation; ‘making a similar impression’ icy manner, crystalline eyes,
cloudy liquid, creamy voice.
,
.
,
.
(
-
,
.
-
,
,
.
1
. .
,
:
, 1997. . 227
79
.
.:
.
:
,
-
,
.
.
-
2.6
,
,
. . .
,
.
,
,
,
–
,
–
,
,
.
(
–
«
),
,
»,
1
.
.
:
-
,
2
2
. .
.
,
/
;
. .
.
. .
1
–
.:
.
.
,
,
:
,
,
:
, 2010.
-
,
. . .
80
, 1988. . 63.
:
,
«
(
». «
1
,
)
,
».
2
,
,
.
3
.
«
,
,
,
‘
(
,
,
. .
110.
3
4
1973. . 14.
. .
,
’
.
),
.
,
-
2
.
,
,
.
–
.
,
1
»
»4.
,
,
,
, «
. .
.
.
:
. .
‘
.
.
,
…’ (related to…),
.
.
(
:
) //
. .
. . .
-
. .
. .
.
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/
.
:
,
.
.
.
:
.:
-
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-
‘
,
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,
–
,
,
,
.
2
,
.
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83
,
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…’ (related to…),
,
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.
,
,
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,
.
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,
,
84
.
3.
(
)
3.1
.
.
.
–
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,
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,
,
,
)
(
. .
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,
,
.
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. .,
,
.
1
–
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2
.
,
,
,
,
,
,
1
2
.
.
.:
.
, 1960.
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. .
.
.:
, 1996;
. .
(
).
.:
, 1998;
. .
(
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. .
. .:
, 1988;
. .
.
.:
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.
//
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&
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,
.
-
,
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4
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,
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».
5
(
6
2
4
5
6
7
. .
,
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.
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.
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2
:
...
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.
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.
»
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«
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,
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:
»
«
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,
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,
,
,
.
. .
,
,
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.
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,
»
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,
,
,
,
,
,
3
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.
2
3
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. .
. .
. .:
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2
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1
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.
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.
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.
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,
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,
;–
a, b, c,
;=–
(
)
: m1(W) = A, m2(W) = a /
,
a
m2
,
); m1, m2 –
; W–
.
–
x,
;
.
.
: m1
/
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–
,
,
,
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.
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,
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)/
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.
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,
,
–
,
,
)
.
:
,
: m1 A; m2 = b / a,
), m2 –
1
.
, bear m1A –
/
.
«
»
(
«
»
steel:
1) a general name for certain varieties of iron;
2) a particular variety of steel.
,
,
,
,
.
.
,
,
(
(
)
1
2
2-
.
. .
)
,
. . .
–
,
,
.
,
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).
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. .:
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.
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-
,
.
«
»1 .
,
,
,
.
,
».
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. .
3
».
«
«
».
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,
,
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4
5
.
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.
.
. .
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. .
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.
.:
.
:
.:
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,
–
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,
–
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.
2
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.
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,
.
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-
)
-
,
.
.
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
.
–
,
.
.
,
,
.
,
,
,
,
1
.
-
,
green ‘
green (apple) = unripe (apple).
,
,
,
,
’
«
»:
,
, green (grass) = fresh (grass), sappy (grass), young (grass/
leaves/plant).
,
.
,
.
,
,
,
( .
, .
, .
, . .
, . .
. .).
.
1
. .
? //
. Studia Linguistica-6. C
102
:
., 1998.
–
),
1
.
(
–
,
«
,
-
→
→ я
→
я→
(
/

:
,
→
«
:
я
:
;
/
;
:
) →
→
;
я
→
→

.
(
-
)
»;
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,
. . .
,
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»
-
,
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):
/
→
я;
:
→
:
;
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→
:
/

;
→
→

→
,
;

я
–
«
1
2
. .
, 2004;
. .:
. .
я
–
–
–
:
→
/
.
»
,
.
103
, 2004.
.:
:
:
.
. .
.
–
:
→
;
)
2
:
,
;

(=
→я
:
:я

→
я
.:
, 2010. . 418.
→
→



. .
–
«
2
. .
. .
яя
:
:
→
(
,
–
.
–
.
)
–
(
(
я
).
–
,
).
).
,
,
:
,
,
.
–
,
)
(
’, raw (data) ‘
,
.
,
,
,
),
.
104
.:
,
,
–
, raw (material) ‘
,
(
:
.
–
. .
,
,
. . 423.
. .
я
(
,
2
–
,
–
,
1
.
.
–
(
1
:
–
-
.
;
,
,
:
,
–
→
.
»
,
→
;
я
,
)’.
,
, 2010. . 427.
,
,
1
,
-
.
,
,
.
,
-
,
,
,
,
.
.
,
.
,
.
3.5
,
,
«
»2,
,
. .
,
.
, «
,
,
79.
,
? //
. Studia Linguistica-6. C
. .
2
3
»3.
. .
1
. . 33.
-
.
:
105
-
,
:
., 1998. . 65–
, 1986. . 31.
.
,
,
: etymology – etymological, diagnosis –
,
diagnostic, consul – consular.
,
–
,
.
,
.
,
,
,
.
bile – bilious.
bile – 1) the fluid secreted by the liver, bitter, yellowish or green in colour;
2) (fig.) anger, peevishness.
bilious – 1) of or pertaining to the bile; affected by or arising from excess
or derangement of the bile: e.g. bilious migraine;
2) choleric, peevish, ill-tempered.
.
’.
– bile ‘
,
.
,
’.
.
,
,
-
,
«
»,
bile
<anger, peevishness> ‘
,
.
–
.
,
.
.
,
,
,
,
,
bilious,
:
bilious – 1) related to the bile: pertaining, causing;
106
,
–
2) resembling a person affected by the excess of the bile.
,
<related
to the bile>,
<pertaining> bilious
duct, <causing> bilious migraine,
.
:
,
,
<choleric, peevish, ill-tempered>
’, e.g. a bilious person.
‘
,
:
: bi-lious cynicism «
» . .
remark «
», bilious
,
,
.
,
-
-
,
–
.
,
,
.
starchy.
starchy – 1) of or belonging to starch; containing starch grains;
2) (fig.) of a person: stiff, formal, precise.
–
starch,
:
starch – 1) a substance obtained from flour;
2) chem. an organic compound found in plant cells being the chief constituent of starch (1);
3) (fig.) stiffness, esp. of manner or conduct.
starch – ‘
’
,
, <stiffness, esp. of manner of conduct> ‘
,
’,
,
,
.
,
, to take the
starch out of somebody ‘
,
’.
starchy: <of
107
a person: stiff, formal, precise> ‘
:
,
.
,
,
«
starch,
’.
2
»
,
.
,
,
,
.
,
.
sugar – sugary.
sugar – 1) a sweet crystalline substance, white when pure, obtained from
a great variety of plant juices;
2) particular kinds of sugar: refined ~, granulated ~, brown ~, etc., also
cargoes or stocks of sugar;
3) sweetness; also sweet or honeyed words;
4) any member of the sacharose and glucose group of carbohydrates.
sugar
‘
’
<sweetness;
sweet
and
honeyed
words>
‘
,
,
;
,
’.
–
,
.
sugary,
:
sugary – 1) full of, containing or impregnated with sugar; pertaining to
sugar; sweet, sweetened;
2) deliciously or alluringly sweet; honeyed, deceitfully or flatteringly
pleasant, also excessively or offensively sweet.
,
.
,
,
.
,
,
.
2 <particular kind of
108
4 <any member of the sacharose and
sugar>
glucose group>.
,
,
,
,
-
.
,
,
.
-
stubbly
:
stubbly – 1) covered with stubble;
2) resembling stubble; esp. of hair, bristly.
stubble – 1) each of the stumps or lower ends of grainstalks left in the
ground after reaping;
2) the stumps or lower parts of stalks left on the ground by the sickle or
reaping mashine;
3) a rough surface or short growth likened to this, esp. the short bristly
growth on a man’s unshaven face;
4) the straw of grain-stalks, etc. gathered after the crop has been harvested;
5) a field that has been reaped and not yet ploughed again: a stubble field.
<related to stubble>
<covered with>.
2
stubble – ‘
,
’,
‘
,
,
’–
1 <each of the stumps or lower ends of grainstalks
left in the ground after reaping>.
,
stubble
,
,
«
» [ROD].
,
3 stubble – ‘a rough surface or short growth likened to this, esp. the short bristly growth on a man’s unshaven face’.
,
,
,
.
2,
,
4
109
3
.
,
,
1
2
1
-
.
stony/
stoney.
stony – 1) abounding in or having the character of stone;
2) full of stones;
3) made of stone;
4) resembling stone in consistence, hard like stone, very hard: e.g. stony hail;
5) hard, insensible or unfeeling as if consisting of stone;
6) rigid, fixed, motionless; c. of fear, grief: petrifying, stupifying, having
no relief: e.g. stony stare, stony speechless sorrow.
:
stone – 1) a piece of rock or hard mineral substance of a smaller or moderate size; a rock, cliff, crag; a mass of rock;
2) the hard compact material of which stones and rocks consist;
3) (fig.) smth. resembling stone or a stone;
4) as a type or emblem of motionless or fixity, hardness, insensibility, stupiduty, etc.;
5) a piece of stone of a definite form and size used f r some special purpose;
6) a precious stone;
7) hailstone;
8) a fruitstone, a pit of fruit;
9) a measure of weight.
:
stony – 1) relating to stone (1): abounding, having;
2) relatinng to stone (2): made of;
3) resembling stone (1–2):
– in consistence: stony hail;
– in insensibility, unfeelingness, stupidity: stony heart;
– in fixity, rigidness: stony stare.
: «
,
‘
», «
«
».
. Stone
3,
,
»
,
,
,
,
. .’
110
,
,
.
5, 6, 9
,
7, 8,
.
,
,
.
: crystal – crystalline.
crystal – 1) a mineral, clear, transparent like ice; (also transfig.);
2) a piece of rock-crystal or similar mineral; esp. one used for magic art;
also fig. of the eyes;
3) short for crystal-glass;
4) anything made of crystal glass;
5) (chem. & min.) a form in which molecules regularly aggregate;
crystalline – 1) consisting or made of crystal;
2) clear and transparent like crystal;
3) of the nature or structure of a crystal;
4) of or pertaining to crystals or their formation.
:
crystalline – 1) related to crystal (1): consisting, made of;
2) resembling crystal (1) in clearness and transparency;
3) related to crystal (6): constituting, forming, pertaining to.
1
‘related to crystal’
<consisting of> <made of>.
3 4
,
crystal
‘
’,
.
,
crystalline
2 <clear and transparent like a crystal> ‘
,
’, e.g. crystalline waters of the lake.
crystal
.
(crystal glass)
,
,
(rock crystal),
,
,
,
– <clear ice> ‘
,
,
.
,
’ (
,
.)
, –
,
,
,–
. ., e.g.: Her eye seene in the tears / tears in her
111
,
eyes / Both crystals [SOD].
,
crystal,
,
,
: Her crystal eyes were full of lowleness [SOD].
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
2,
.
5 «
»
.
3
,
4.
crystalline
crystal.
stormy.
storm – 1) a violent disturbance of the atmosphere;
2) used spec. as the distinctive apellation of a particular degree of violence in wind;
3) magnetic disturbance;
4) a heavy discharge or downfall (of missiles, blows, etc.);
5) a violent disturbance of (political, social, etc.) affairs; commotion, sedition, tumult;
6) a tumultuos rush (of sounds, tears, etc.); a vehement utterance (of
words); a violent outburst (of censure, ridicule, etc.); a passionate manifestation
of feelings;
7) commotion or unrest (of mind, etc.); a tumultous assemblage (of
thoughts, feelings, etc.).
stormy – 1) of the weather, season, air, sky, sea, etc. characterised by
storm or tempest; tempestuous. Of a place or region: subject to storms;
2) of persons, their temper or looks; of times, events, circumstances, etc.
(
[ROD]).
storm ‘
,
,
,
,
.
’
,
<a violent disturbance of affairs; commotion, sedition, tumult> ‘
,
,
,
,
’,
a
vehement utterance ‘
’, <a violent outburst> ‘
,
’, <a passionate manifistation of feelings> ‘
’
[ROD].
,
,
,
. .
,
,
,
.
112
.
‘
region – ‘
,
‘
,
,
stormy ‘
’, stormy sunset – ‘
’)
,
’, stormy session – ‘
.
3,
, stormy weather –
’, stormy
: e.g. stormy look –
’
. .
star – starry.
,
1 –
4–
‘
’, (
2–
,
,
,
,
–
,
5–
’ ( . «
6 7–
.
star – 1) one of the celestial bodies in the night sky;
2) in extended use, any one of the heavenly bodies, including the sun and
the moon;
3) in astrol., used of the plannets and zodiacal constellations, as supposed
to influence human affairs;
4) fate, destiny;
5) a person of brilliant reputation or talents;
6) an image or figure of a star;
7) a natural object resembling a star.
starry – 1) full of stars, spangled or lit up with stars: e.g. starry night, starry sky;
2) relating to the stars; consisting of stars: e.g. starry system;
3) shining like a star or stars; bright as a star, star-like;
4) shaped like a conventional figure of a star; arranged in a form of
a star; = stellate: e.g. starry flower;
5) sprinkled or studded with star-like forms: e.g. starry forehead of a horse.
»),
:
starry – 1) relating to stars (1 or 2): belonging, consisting, constituting,
full of;
2) resembling a star(s) (1 or 2) in brightness;
3) resembling a star (6, 7) in form.
113
,
1, 2, 6
4
.
athlete ‘
’.
7,
5
-
’,
star
,
.
1, 2, 4
5
,
,
,
’, star performance ‘
an all stars cast ‘
cloudy.
, star
,
.
cloud – 1) † a mass of rock, a hill;
2) a visible mass of condenced watery vapour floating at various heights
in the upper air;
3) a cloudlike mass of smoke or dust floating in the air;
4) an appearance of dimness in a clear liquid or transparent body;
5) a cloudlike body of insects, birds, etc.;
6) anything that obscures or conceals;
7) anything that darkens or overshadows with gloom, trouble, suspicion;
a state of gloom, etc.; a darkening of countenance;
8) a loose-knitted woolen scarf.
cloudy – 1) † rocky, hilly;
2) of cloud, of or pertaining to the clouds: e.g. cloudy region;
3) characterised by or full of clouds: e.g. the cloudy North;
4) not clear, having cloud-like markings;
5) darkened by ignorance, etc.; dim, obscure, indistinct;
6) darkened by misfortune, grief, anger, forebodings, etc.; gloomy, sullen,
frowning.
4
<having cloud-like markings> ‘
’,
,
4
.
.
.
,
c
.
3
5
.
,
6
7
.
,
.
114
,
,
,
. .
,
,
snow ‘
,
snowy
’.
,
–
snow, the snow of her hair,
:
.
,
.
,
,
-
.
: as white as
.
: <resembling
’, e.g.: There did he loose his
the colour of snow, snow-white> ‘
snowy innocence [SOD].
,
,
,
,
.
,
–
,
. .
,
,
,
»1.
,
«
,
,
.
,
.
3.6
,
1
,
,
,
.
. .
, 1997. . 225.
.
115
,
:
.:
,
,
. .
.
,
,
,
,
.
.
-
seminal
‘
’
semen ‘
’ [ROD].
semen the impregnating fluid of male animals; the seed or sperm.
seminal – 1) of or pertaining to the seed or semen of men and animals;
of the nature of semen;
2) (fig.) having the properties of seed; containing the possibility of future
development.
,
<of or pertaining to, in the nature of>
. .,
: <having the properties of seed; containing the possibilities of future development>,
«
» [ROD], e.g. It is pleasant to see great works in their seminal state, pregnant with latent possibilities of
excellence [SOD].
seminal work ‘
’
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
c
semen,
,
C
,
,
,
,
.
– cerebral –
.
cerebrum the brain proper; the anterior, and, in the higher vertebrates,
largest part of the brain; in man it fills the whole cavity of the skull.
cerebral – 1) pertaining to the brain; analogus to a brain;
2) intellectual.
,
- 116
‘
’.
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
.
-
‘
‘
,
’.
,
’:
a
cerebral
: cerebral –
conclusion
–
cavernous
‘
’
<abounding in caverns, full of cavities and
interstices; of or pertaining to a cavern>
<resembling a cavern>: e.g. cavernous eyes ‘
’, cavernous voice ‘
’ [ROD].
cavern
-
<a hollow place underground>.
,
–
‘
senile
– <belonging to or suited for, or incident to old age> ‘
senile
diseases
‘
’.
senectitude ‘
’
,
,
,
.
senile anger ‘
’, senile gait ‘
,
,
’.
’, e.g.
,
:
’,
.
tropical.
tropic – 1) the most notherly and southerly points of the ecliptic;
2) (geog.) each of the two parallels of latitude on the earth’s surface (corresp. to celestial circles), being the boundaries of the torrid zone; the region between these parallels.
tropical – 1) pertaining or relating to the tropics (1);
2) (geog.) pertaining to, occuring in, or inhabiting the tropics (2); belonging to the torrid zone;
3) very hot, ardent, luxuriant.
: pertaining or relating to the tropics; <belonging to the torrid zone> ‘
,
’, e.g. tropical fruit ‘
’, tropical
117
diseases ‘
’ tropical rig ‘
tropical
,
’
luxuriant> ‘
‘
,
’.
,
’,
)
<torrid> ‘
,
‘
,
‘
(
–
,
,
(
)
,
,
’,
.
,
)
,
,
tropical temper
.
,
,<
tropicus (
(
,
tropical vegetation
’,
tropic
,
tropic –
».
.
’
.
3 <
)»
.
=
,
,
trope,
trope
–
.
.
,
’.
,
,
‘
,
(
«
«
‘
’; torrid zone ‘
: like in the tropics,
.
,
’,
– <very hot, ardent or
tropical sun
. tropus (
tropos) ‘
tropicos) ‘
’,
>
/
tropical 1.
lunar ‘
’
118
3
,
>
,
,
’,
tropical
moon ‘
’.
moon – 1) the satellite of the earth;
2) the moon as visible during one lunar month;
3) a figure or representation of the moon;
4) the satellite of a planet;
5) (poet.) a moonlight;
6) a lunar month.
lunar – 1) of or belonging to the moon; situated in the moon;
† influenced or dependent on the moon, or supposed to be so;
2) (fig.) like the moon; not warmly bright; pale, pallid;
3) crescent-shaped.
moon
,
,
,
«
.
».
: Even the lustre of Patridge (in
Tom Jones) is pallid and lunar beside the noontide glory of Micawber [SOD].
lunar lustre ‘
’
,
,
.
rocky ‘
,
’.
rock – 1) a large rugged mass of stone forming a cliff, a crag or natural
prominence on land or in the sea;
2) hard and massive stone; (agric.) the base on which the subsoil immediately lies; (geol.) mineral constituent of the crust;
3) (transfig.) a hard confection of candid sugar, variously flavoured.
rocky – 1) full of, or abounding in, rocks; consisting of or formed by
rocks; having the character of rock;
2) (fig.) of the heart or disposition: flinty, stony, unfeeling;
3) firm so as rock, unflinching, steadfast;
4) growing upon or among the rocks.
,
:
rocky – 1) related to rock (1): full of, abounding in, consisting, forming,
having, being in;
2) resembling rock (1):
– in consistence (firm);
– in unfeelingness.
rock ‘
’
,
.
,
,
,
119
,
‘
,
(
)
,
,
,
. .
,
,
: rocky heart ‘
’ [ROD] . .
’, rocky muscules
,
.
,
,
,
.
3.7
,
-
.
,
.
,
,
,
,
.
.
,
,
.
,
,
husky ‘
,
’.
:
husky – 1) full of, containing or consisting of husk, of the nature of a husk;
2) dry as husk, arid (lit. and fig.) ‘
,
’;
3) of persons and their voice: dry in the throat, so that the sound becomes
more or less hoarse whisper ‘
,
’.
husk – 1) the dry outer ingredient of certain fruits and seeds; a glume or rind;
2) (fig.) the (usually worthless) outside or exterior of anything.
120
2 ‘
’
,
‘c
,
’.
.
:
,
,
.
1.1 ‘
’,
’;
,
1.2 ‘
2 ‘
’.
husk
‘
,
’,
,
.
3 ‘
’.
,
,
’
,
2
«
;
4 ‘
,
»:
,
,
,
.
m2 /
/.
husky – 1) of the nature of a husk;
2) dry, arid (husky region);
3) dry, dull, plain (husky person);
4) dry, hoarse (husky voice).
,
,
2 ‘
’,
3
4,
2.
fishy:
fish – 1) an exclusively aquatic vertebrate or invertebrate animal;
2) a particular kind of fish;
3) the flesh of fish used for food;
4) a person – often used with a disparaging qualifier: e.g. a handful of poets, philosophers and other odd fish;
5) a person who is easily taken in: sucker.
fishy – 1) of or relating to a fish: e.g. a fishy taste;
2) inspiring doubt or suspicion (dubious, questionable, unconvincing):
e.g. that story sound very fishy to me;
121
3) lacking warmth or passion: e.g. she looked with a fishy eye on the
glamorous scenes that we loved.
fish
, ,
,
fish-blooded ‘
,
,
’.
fishy
‘
’:
–
(his fishy handclasp ‘
’);
–
c
,
,
(she looked with a fishy eye on the glamorous scenes
we
loved).
–
that
–
4 <dubious> ‘
’,
–
,
,
fishy to me; fishy business).
spiky
: ‘
,
’.
,
– <extremely sharp or aggressive> ‘
:
fishy “
”:
(that story sound very
,
,
’.
:
spike – 1) a sharp-pointed piece of metal or wood used for fastening
things together; a large and strong kird of nail;
2) a sharp-pointed piece of metal which may be fixed in smtn. that the
point is turned outwards;
3) (fig.) a stiff sharp-pointed object or part: e.g. spike of light;
spiky – 1) fitted with a spike or spikes; having a sharp protecting points:
e.g. spiky wheels;
2) having the form of a spike or spikes; stiff and sharp-pointed;
3) (fig.) extremely sharp or aggressive;
4) (slang) extreme and uncompromising in Anglo-Catholic belief or practice.
,
spike – ‘
,
,
’,
,
,
: a spike of light.
churchman ‘
,
,
,
«
»:
–
(a spiky dog ‘
’).
122
,
’, a spiky
,
,
-
,
,
.
3
,
.
,
,
,
.
,
,
,
–
.
,
.
,
,
.
.
,
,
,
.
,
,
,
.
.
(
–
,
.
,
123
-
)
.
,
.
,
,
,
,
-
.
,
.
,
,
,
,
,
.
,
.
,
.
,
.
(
,
;
-
,
)
-
.
,
,
.
(
+
)
-
:
.
,
,
-
,
124
,
,
.
,
.
,
,
.
.
,
-
,
.
-
,
,
,
,
: steel – similative and figurative uses in which steel is taken as a type of hardness,
,
steely weapon/ armour,
,
stone – as a type or emblem of motionless or fixity, hardness, insensibility, etc.
stony
cliff/crag/rock.
,
.
,
,
.
-
,
,
-
-
(
-
(
).
)
,
.
–
–
.
4.
(
«
,
)
»
.
125
,
.
. .
, «…
,
,
,
,
,
.
,
»1.
,
.
,
,
,
.
,
».
2
–
,
«
.
.
. .
,
,
,
,
,
.
,
,
,
«
,
» 3.
,
.
1994
«
,
–
1
2
3
»,
«
.
,
.
,
. .
. . 14.
. .
//
:
. 2001. № 2. . 13.
» //
.
–
., 1998.
126
. 36. . 355.
«
,
. .
–
»1.
,
.
,
,
:
.
,
.
,
–
.
–
,
,
–
–
.
,
,
-
.
,
-
. .).
-
,
(
,
(
.
,
,
1
. .
. .:
, 1994. 1138 . (
. 17. URL: http://www.twirpx.com/file/1000692/.
127
),
,
,
.
)
-
,
(
,
).
,
BYU1 (COHA, COCA, BNC,
2
(OED)
NOW),
(CDO3, OALD4, MDO5, Lingvo, ROD6, SOD7, Hornby8)
.
,
,
,
.
,
,
,
,
.
-
-
,
.
,
,
.
4.1
-
-
.
,
: cerebral palsy = cerebrum + palsy; cerebral letters/sounds = cerebrum + letters/sounds; cerebral person = cerebrum (brain) + person; cerebral conclusion = cerebrum
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
BYU Corpus Portal. URL: http://corpus.byu.edu/: British National Corpus [BNC]; Corpus
of Contemporary American English [COCA]; Corpus of Historical American English [COHA]; News on the Web [NOW].
Oxford English Dictionary Second Edition on CD-ROM. Copyright © Oxf. Univ. pr., 2009,
2016. URL: http://www.oed.com [OED].
Cambridge Dictionaries Online. URL: http://dictionary.cambridge.org/ [CDO].
Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary. URL: http://oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/ [OALD].
MacMillan Dictionary. Free Dictionary and Thesaurus Online. URL: http://www.macmillandictionary.com/ [MDO].
Oxford Russian Dictionary. Oxford: Oxf. Universitypress, 1997. 1340 p. [ROD].
The New Shorter Oxford Dictionary on historical principles, Ed. by Lesley Brown. Repr.
Oxford: Clarendon press, 1993. V. 1. 1876 p.; V. 2 [SOD].
Hornby A.S. Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English. Oxford: Oxf. University press, 1982.
128
(brain) + conclusion.
.
-
,
(
): wooden figure, woolen sock, stony island, etc.,
.
(
,
(
).
.
)
,
–
-
,
–
(
,
.
.
)
: flower – a figure of speech, flowery language; star – an image
or figure of a star, starry flowers; sting – something that inflicts pain on the mind
or heart, stingy sarcasm, etc.
,
,
(
tropics, seminal work – fruitful.
,
: fishy – inspiring doubt or suspicion
), tropical heat – hot, like in the
–
,
,
.
–
,
,
-
.
,
,
.
,
,
129
.
,
.
shady.
(
[OED], [SOD], [OALD], [MDO], [CDO]):
1) affording shade;
2) shaded, protected by shade;
3) of questionable merit or prospects of success; uncertain, unreliable; disreputable [OED], dishonest or illegal [SOD, OALD].
1
‘
,
’
( .
),
,
,
,
2 ‘
,
’,
,
:
.
3‘
,
’
.
shade:
1) comparative darkness given by shelter from direct light and heat;
2) area so sheltered;
3) comparative obscurity;
4) slight amount;
5) ghost; reminder of, suggesting (esp. something undesirable) [ODCE].
.
,
, –
‘
’,
:
You naked trees, whose shady leaues are lost (1579) [OED].
The shady trees couer him with their shadow (1611) [OED].
The wedding took place on a glorious summer day, amid shady trees and
beds of bright flowers (2005) [COHA].
Shady leaves/trees – leaves/trees <affording shade>
tree, leaves
,
.
‘
’.
–
,
’, ‘
place
valley, side (of the street)
<
>, <
>:
The shadie valleies [shall be] thy euenings arbour (1589) [OED].
130
Her angels face made a sunshine in the shady place (1590) [OED].
But instead of walking down the shady side of Depot Street to the tracks
and then heading up the hill toward home – 2009 [COHA].
Shady valley/place/side – valley/place/side <protected by shade, shaded>
[COHA, BNC]
.
‘
’
:
This Globe which seemeth to vs a dark and shady body is in the view of
God as Christall (1605) [OED].
From dawning Day till shady Night (1746) [OED].
Shady night – night <opaque like> shade
night
<dark>,
<opaque>,
,
:
‘
,
’–
‘
’.
( .
1
shade)
.
,
shade
<comparative obscurity>.
: ‘
’,
-
,‘
’,
– ‘
,
’.
shade <comparative obscurity>
:
You shall see diuers such Super-Reflexions, till the species speciei at last
die. For it is euery Returne weaker, and more shady (1626) [OED].
The light of Conscience may be made shine very dim, so as to give but a
very faint and shady direction (1710) [OED].
Shady direction – direction <indefinite, faintly perceptible like in shade>
,
shady
<
,
,
,
>
,
,
<
>
<
>.
,
shady
knowledge
.
What looks very well one way may look very shady the other (1858)
[OED].
The Tutor Shady in Latin, said Lindsay, but topping in plays and Aldrich
(1848) [OED].
131
Shady knowledge of Latin – knowledge <uncertain like in shade, unreliable, questionable>.
Did Casolaro know too much about a shady operation? (1998) [COHA].
Shady operation – operation <inspiring doubt and suspicion like in
shade>
shady ‘
,
,
’
,
:
He’s been in the news recently because of some shady business deals
(2009) [COHA].
…catering to “big dudes with nicknames, in good suits, making shady
deals at the back tables” (2008) [COHA].
One shady deal, one buried scandal (1968) [COHA].
De Brasto and Stander were shady lawyers, and got several of these gangsters off  probably saved more than one from the chair (1933) [COHA].
(3) <dishonest>, <illegal>
[SOD, OALD].
shady <dark>
<dark>
(human quality)>.
.
<negative
,
.
<dark>, <bad, unpleasant>,
,
,
Ы –
,
Ы –
.
«
» – «
»
.
If the World had half his good Nature, all the shady Parts would be entirely struck out of his Character (1719) [OED]
A Roman lady of extraordinary beauty and somewhat shady character
(1894) [OED].
Shady character – character <of the nature of shade, defect, disreputable>
,
shady
,
,
/
.
,
,
,
132
,
,
,
shady
,
.
,
,
,
,
.
<slight amount (a shade better)>.
shady: <degree of darkness or depth of colour>, <a minutely
differentiated degree or variety>,
shady
side
,
,
<of some age>, <a shade older>.
The younger being somewhat on the shady side of thirty (1824) [OED].
Thou art on the shady Side of sixty too (1884) [OED].
I’m a sedate and elderly lady already on the shady side of thirty (1922)
[COHA].
,
shade,
,
,
.
shady
retirement/idleness
: <a retired spot, a quiet habitation>:
We were full of courage, giuen to martiall exercises; and not lulled a
sleepe in shady idlenes with Poets pastimes (1586) [OED].
But the raven, and the gazelle, and the mouse, and the tortoise, all came
together in their shady retreat, safe and sound, and rejoicing in their good fortune (1868) [OED].
“He’s all right now,” this gentleman observed to himself, in the shady retirement of his inner consciousness (1901) [OED].
In The Boys from Brazil, he pulls 64-year-old Mengele out of shady retirement to play a grotesque caricature of himself (1976) [COHA].
(
-
.
,
:
,
.
.
,
)
,
,
‘shaded’, ‘quiet’, ‘a shade older’.
,
)
(
,
133
‘dark’
‘doubtful’,
‘bad’
‘illegal’
place’,
,
,
. .,
,
†.
,
.
‘uncertain, indefinite’,
.
‘shady
m1-m2-m3
.
,
‘dark’, ‘indefinite’,
. 1. CCC shady
academic.
[COD, CDO, OALD, ODCE, MDO]
,
:
1) connected with education, especially studying in schools and universities; belonging to the learned society;
2) unpractical, not connected to a real or practical situation and therefore
not important, theoretical, formal;
3) excessively formal, conforming too rigidly to the principles;
4) involving a lot of reading and studying rather than practical or technical skills; good at subjects involving a lot of reading and studying (US).
/
:
134
1) place of specialized training;
2) society or institution of distinguished scholars, artists, scientists, etc.;
3) secondary school (Sc.) [SOD].
.
1
[OED] <of the school or philosophy of Plato>,
,
,
,
,
.
«
»
( .
1: especially studying in schools and universities),
,
.
XVI
<of or belonging to an academic institution,
place of training>,
,
,
.
Masters of our academic state That rule in Oxford (1588) [OED].
There is an old debate in academic life between those who believe that the
world is moved by individuals or heroes and those who believe it is moved by
abstract and faceless forces (1986) [COHA].
The district policy for the corresponding indicates that test scores…
demonstrated academic achievement (2007) [COHA].
year: academic year – a year <of
learning in an academic institution>.
«
»,
. Academic life – life <in an academic institution>
. .
<related to>
.
,
academic rank, academic degree, academic
achievements, academic hour
<related to the learned society, academic sphere>.
Each successively forced the heavy portals of Somerset House and Trafalgar-square to admit them to Academic rank (1879) [OED].
<related to the learned society,
<unpractical,
,
,
academic sphere>
formal>
,
.
This discussion partook of an academic character, for it was well understood that, whatever the result of the discussions might be, no practical step
would be taken in the present Parliament (1866) [OED].
135
Thus a project has been transferred from the plane of academic discussion
to that of actual diplomatic negotiations, which are to be extended to other countries later (1948) [COHA].
Russia’s rockets can do what Mr. Khrushchev claims they can the blocking of American ports would surely be academic (1957) [OED].
Academic discussion – discussion <in the sphere of academic knowledge,
not leading to a decision; unpractical; theoretical, formal, or conventional>.
:
‘
’
–
‘
’
‘
’
‘
’
‘
,
’,
‘
’ (academic claims
).
–
,
.
(
US)
<not important because it is based on possibil-
ities>:
Which diamond ring you like is purely academic, because I can’t afford
either one [CDO].
,
‘
academic decision.
(
,
)’
,
<society or institution of distinguished scholars,
artists>:
academic style – style <conforming too rigidly to the principles (in painting, etc.) of an academy; excessively formal>.
Figure of academic proportions, in painting, a figure of a little less than
half the natural size, such as it is the custom for pupils to draw from the antique
and from life, hence, an academic figure, composition, etc., is one which appears
conventional or unspontaneous, and smacks of practice-work or adherence to
formulas and traditions (1889) [OED].
…and the most unshackled popular poets, Burns and Beranger, too often
preserve an academic style (1908) [COHA].
…a British composer who works in a more traditionally thorny academic
style (1989) [9].
His ceiling for the Paris Opera, painted in 1963–64 and peopled with
Chagall angels, lovers, animals and Parisian monuments, provided a dramatic
contrast to the pompous, academic painting and decoration in the rest of the
Opera (2003) [COHA].
<involving a lot of reading and studying rather than practical or
technical skills>; <good at subjects involving a lot of reading and studying>,
XX
.
136
They must be good in academic studies as well as coordination,’ she said
(1974).
She was not very academic and hated school [OALD].
. 2. CCC academic
,
,
(
)
.
.
,
,
,
,
,
academic freedom,
,
.
.
,
,
,
academic freedom
.
Every right-thinking man will stand firmly for academic freedom of
thought (1901) [OED].
137
The Chancellor of the University of Natal unveiled a plaque to commemorate ‘the death of academic freedom’ through the imposition of racial segregation in South African universities (1963) [CO A].
academic freedom – freedom <in the sphere of (academic) education>
insular
,
.
<
>.
1) a piece of land completely surrounded by water;
2) smth. resembling an island in position.
‘
’:
. .
island
island
:
,
insular
<related to an island>
:
1) of or pertaining to an island; inhabiting or situated on an island; of the
nature of an island; composing or forming an island;
2) having the characteristic traits of islanders; isolated; self-contained;
narrow or prejudiced in feelings, ideas, manners.
.
,
<pertaining to an island>
:
Insulaire, Insular, Iland-like; of, or belonging to, an Iland (1611) [OED].
<of the nature of an island; composing
or forming an island>:
That the Tyre mentioned by Sanchoniathon was not the famous Insular
Tyrus, but some other Tyre (1662) [OED].
:
The insular culture created by the mining life and its Scandinavian forebears has given the region a distinctive flavor (2000) [COCA].
:
The relief given to the mind in the penury of insular conversation by a
new topick (1775).
Percy Bobus, with true insular breeding, took up the newspaper (1829)
[OED].
insular;
,
138
: <pertaining to an is-
land> – <pertaining to islanders>,
–
.
: <having the characteristic
traits of the inhabitants of an island>,
: insular character – the character of an insular inhabitant.
«
»
,
. .
.
,
(
).
:
Moorhouse examines his insular intolerance of strange customs and his
lack of confidence in his ability to evaluate his (1974) [BNC].
I told him that as soon as he got through the crust of a rather insular manner and a most unaccountable enthusiasm for Americans… (2000).
“We are such insular creatures,” she said (1993).
The insular world of intelligence reaches out for a few new ideas (2006)
[COCA].
insular (intolerance) – <ignorant of or uninterested in cultures, ideas, or
peoples outside one’s own experience>
insular manner – <reserved>
insular creatures – <dimwitted>
insular world – <limited>
.
,
,
,
(insular climate, charac-
ter, eccentricity, goods),
.
,
,
–
<detached or standing out by itself like an island; standing out by itself like an island; insulated>
XIX
:
We are inclined to think that the evidence of insular sclerosis is not quite
convincing (1891) [OED].
,
<moderate, temperate> (of climate),
. .
island
(
),
,
:
139
,
.
An alteration from what has been termed an ‘insular’ to an ‘excessive’
climate (1830).
Hence comes the subdivision of climates into insular or moderate, and
continental or excessive. The west coasts of continents enjoy insular climates
(1885) [OED].
News on the WEB,
2010
,
:
But it’s that sort of insular climate that produces so much creativity and
collaboration (2013) [BNC/NOW].
. 3. CCC insular
.
flowery
:
1) relating to or covered with flowers; composed of, proceeding from
flowers;
2) smelling or tasting of flowers;
3) ornamented with figures of flowers;
4) ornate and florid (of speech); inclined to the use of flowery language.
(CDO, MDO, OALD, OED, L5, GDO)
140
.
:
1) the coloured part of a plant from which the seed or fruit develops, a
plant with flowers, a flower with a stem;
2) the best, freshest, choicest part of smth.; the finest individuals out of a
number of people or things;
3) the state or time of bloom; season;
4) an ornamental representation of a flower, etc.
5) embellishment or ornament of speech; a figure of speech.
<related to>
,
: <abounding in or covered with flowers>; <produc-
,
ing flowers>
The floury ʒer [orig. florifer annus] (1374).
Come, sit thee downe vpon this flowry bed (1590).
The flowery May, who from her green lap throws The yellow cowslip
(1630) [OED].
,
– <†flourishing, vigorous>
flower <the state or time of
bloom; season>,
,
:
Now age unorne away puttethe favour, That floury youthe in his cesoun
conquered (1420) [OED].
,
,
flourishing, efflorescent, floriferous,
bloomy, flowering
.
,
flowery
,
,
.
<composed of flowers>; <having the nature of
flowers>; <proceeding from or characteristic of flowers>
<related to flower(s)>
,
:
Neighbring Hermon sweated flowry dew (1635).
She viewed the flowery luxuriance of the turf (1671) [OED].
flowery <ornamented with figures of flowers>; <of floral design>,
(
,
)
flower <an ornamental representation of a flower, etc.>,
141
1230
:
As a flourie verge, to binde The skirts of that same watrie Cloud (1667).
flowery <abounding in flowers of speech; full of fine words
and showy expressions>,
flower,
‘
’
1508
.
Thinke you I can a resolution fetch From flowrie tendernesse? (1603).
Certain flowery gentlemen, who told us, in very pretty language that
[etc.] (1784).
The answer was plain and practical; not flowery (1824) [OED].
(COCA)
,
“disapproving”,
‘
’, ‘
’
Directly following his paean to Darwin from his English monograph
(quoted earlier), and as an excuse for such flowery generality, he wrote… (1996)
[COCA].
,
<smelling or tasting of a flower>
Oxford English Dictionary [OED],
XIX
,
1810
:
Catching no flowery scent from fields elysian, Weak, grovelling, and
blind! 1854 [COHA].
When a gust of flowery fragrance comes to me, as when I walk by a blossoming bean-field or a field of lucerne, it is always like a new and wonderful
experience, a delightful surprise (1922) [COHA].
.
,
,
ery,
,
,
.
,
.
142
flow-
. 4. CCC flowery
icy
:
Þær æt hyðe stod hringed-stefna isiʒ & utfus (Beowulf).
Saturnus is se cealda eall isiʒ tungel (1000) [OED].
icy star <abounding in ice>; icy stem <covered or overlaid with ice>
,
‘
’
‘
’,
,
:
Striuing against the streame, and beating amongst the Isie mountains
(1600).
†icy mountains or icy hills <composed or consisting of ice>
,
,
‘
‘
,
’,
,
’:
Sprinkle the pauements dayly with water that is altogether ycie, and cold
(1590).
icy water <resembling ice; extremely cold>
Florio, Sdrúsciolo, slipperie, gliding, isie (1598).
They dispatched nearly 100 trucks to spread salt and sand over icy pavements (1958) [OED].
icy pavement <frosty; slippery>
,
143
‘
’
.
If he be leaden, ycie, cold, vnwilling, Be thou so too (1594) [OED].
an icy person <cold, reserved in manner, aloof>
to
’,
break
the
‘
ice,
.
,
,
‘
’,
e.g. his icy firmness.
:
,
,
–
,
.
-
«
.
:
»
. 5. CCC icy
,
,
-
,
,
,
<related to>
.
,
,
.
144
.
,
(
,
)
.
,
,
,
,
.
,
(
)
,
,
,
,
,
.
,
-
,
.
4.2
(
.
)
,
,
,
stalactites, flinty spire, crystalline cup,
<consisting of>
<made of>.
,
,
,
:
,
,
round table).
-
-
: icy
,
,
( .: red dress,
-
:
-
,
.
,
,
-
-
-
(ryen, beechen),
,
145
-
,
,
(
(snowy, icy, flinty, etc.).
,
,
,
)
.
,
.
(
.
1
,
,
,
.
,
,
(
«
<
,
(
,
(
. .).
,
.
,
,
.
,
,
.
).
,
,
. .
.
,
1
,
» 2.
.
>
,
,
.
,
,
,
2
,
,
)
,
)
,
. .
-
,
. .
. .
:
:
146
.
.
.
.
., 1997. . 234–235.
., 1997. . 284.
,
1
2
-
,
.
. .
.
,
,
,
3
,
,
,
-
.
,
,
,
,
».
,
–
<made of wood>
,
4
,
.
,
,
. «
,
,
.
,
,
made of, consisting of, composed of, covered with,
.
,
,
–
,
,
.
wooden,
1538
(
)
.
wooden
,
.
.
:
1) made of or consisting of wood;
2) engaged or concerned with the preparation of wood;
3) resembling or producing a sound characteristic of a struck hollow
wooden object; dull and dead (of sound);
4) resembling wood in stiffness and lack of resilience;
1
2
3
4
. .
. .
. .
. . 59–60.
.
147
.:
:
.
, 2010. . 418.
.
.
., 1997. . 259.
., 2003.
5) lacking in ease, grace, charm, liveliness, lifelikeness, interest or zest –
awkward, clumsy, dry, lifeless, dull.
wood
,
,
(
):
1) a dense growth of trees;
2) the hard fibrous substance that makes up the greater part of the steams;
3) timber;
4) (attr.) made of wood.
‘a tree’,
1),
(
2,
.
,
.
,
-
:<made of>
<consisting of>:
1. Raking them with woodden Rakes (1577) [OED].
2. To fall downe prostrate before a wooden Idoll (1592).
3. Put the whole lump into a wooden Fire (1677) [OED].
4. From the security against fire afforded by the absence of wooden floors,
Nottingham houses are proverbially fire-proof [COHA].
wooden rake/idol/floors – rake/idol/floors <made of> wood
wooden fire – <consisting of wood>
(
’ –
,
(
,
,
<consisting
,
),
.
)
.
of
‘
.
wood>
<engaged or concerned with the preparation of wood>,
,
.
I would no more endure This wodden slauerie [sc. piling logs] (1610).
Trees useful for the Carpenter, Joyner, or other wooden Tradesman to
work upon (1703) [OED].
,
148
.
:
1. He wyll neuer blush, he hath a wodden face (1566).
2. A feeling as if the throat were ‘wooden’ (1897).
3. The fingers have become slender, pale and wooden (1899) [OED].
wooden
.
wooden
,
,
’
,
face, throat,
wooden ‘
fingers.
’,
‘
,
.
: Arkady removed the camera from the wooden
wooden face –
hand grip [ NC].
,
:
Wooden-faced country people (W. Faulkner) [COHA].
She tried to smile, but her wooden face had never learned that art [COHA].
–
wooden wit
,
,
.
,
<lacking in resilience> – <dull, unintelli-
gent, stupid>.
Who have so leaden eyes, as not to see sweete Beauties showe: Or seeing,
have so wooden wits as not that worth to knowe (1586) [OED].
(
,
)
,
.
,
The book is wooden and insensitive (G. Noble) [COHA].
,
,
.
‘
,
woodenhead, woodenheaded.
,
‘
/
:
,
149
,
’
,
wooden
’
‘
,
,
’
.
,
,
,
.
,
wooden instrument/object.
,
:
1. Like a strutting Player To heare the woodden Dialogue and sound
’Twixt his stretcht footing, and the Scaffolage (1606) [OED].
2. Tick the clock with a wooden sound, And fill the hearing with childish
glee Of rhyming riddle, or story (1887).
3. “Then it’s hopeless,” Burke said, and planted his knuckles with a hard
wooden sound, once, on the desk (1961) [COHA].
wooden sound
‘
,
’,
«
,
–
»
.
/
,
–
.
,
(
).
(
),
–
(
,
,
)
.
wooden
‘
’,
’, ‘
‘
-
’.
-
,
<made of wood>
,
’,
‘
,
’,
‘
’,
‘
,
‘
wooden nickel.
‘
’
.
,
‘
–
’;
–
XIX
’
,
:
But I never received that damned silver-tipped claw, the claw I was promised, no, all I received in return was a wooden nickel [COHA].
150
,
),
,
(
,
:
,
I shall haue but wodden lucke (1592).
In old time were golden prelates, and wooden chalices, but in this time,
wooden prelates and golden chalices (1630) [OED].
,
,
XIX
.
. 6. CCC wooden
silken,
,
888
,
silk (OE seolc):
1. Seolocenra hræʒla mid mistlicum bleowum hi ne ʒimdon (888).
2. Heo draweþ heore wede Mid seolkene þrede (1275).
3. Nou is Susa sengeliche arayed, In a selken schert (1400) [OED].
Silken hræ฀l/þred/schert – robe/thread/shirt <made of> silk
<fiber>
.
,
,
.
,
.
,
,
<made of>.
151
:
-
,
,
(
)
:
1) worked in silk
Those silken pictures hallowed by the pope (1055).
2) producing silk
Insomuch as we need not wonder any more at the Seres or Indians for
their cotton and silken trees (1587).
3) lad in silk
Every silken coxcombe that has but a Page at his heels (1604).
4) pertaining to silk goods
The Encouragement of our Woollen Manufacture; the Consequence of
which, is the Encouragement of the Silken (1719) [OED].
,
<related to
silk or silk goods>.
,
,
,
silken cocoon,
«
».
<made of silk>
.
,
,
,
,
.
,
silk/seolk
,
,
.
,
,
,
,
‘
’
,
,
, silken cloth/fabric.
‘
’ ‘
’, ‘
’, ‘
’.
silken
,
,
,
,
. .
1. The balmy vapour from thar sylkyn croppis (1513).
2. Now blessed be the day, That I see your silken hyde Fil’d with round
flesh (1591) [OED].
3. His browny locks did hang in crooked curles, And euery wind Vpon his
lippes their silken parcels hurles (1597).
4. Pleasing, smooth, and silken skin (1607) [OED].
152
5. They ran their white, jewelled fingers through her silken hair (1980)
[COHA].
Silken skin/hair  skin/hair <silk-like; soft; glossy, shining, lustrous>
silken hair/silken skin
:
«
»
,
,
,«
»,
.
,
:
All day between them in silence The silken butterflies glide (1871)
[OED].
,
,
,
,
.
.
silk
.
silken
,
,
,
bonds
“silken
thread – silken bonds”.
1. Tho’ nature gives you power To bind his duty, ’tis with silken bonds
(1673) [OED].
2. He became firmly attached, in the silken bond of friendship, to a youth
(1799) [OED].
3. You are weaving silken bonds to fasten me more securely here, when
you ought rather to aid me [COHA].
Silken bonds – <firm>.
, silken bonds –
,
.
.
,
,
,
silken language.
:
1. Taffata phrases, silken tearmes precise (1588) [OED].
2. Silken thoughts attend this deare beautie (1599) [OED].
153
3. A late Patron of Episcopacie, who seemeth to be very neere of kinne to
the Remonstrant in confidence and silken language (1644) [OED].
4. To be restrained by such mild and silken language (1741) [OED].
: silken language/words/thoughts – <ingratiating,
soft, flattering>.
silken
dress,
,
‘
,
’, ‘
(
)’, ‘
’.
,
,
.
,
,
‘
–
’.
–
silken wine.
silk
.
’Tis all Sincerity, a Silken Wine (1704) [OED].
silken <silky, mellow>
,
,
silken <soft>
silken <mellow>.
.
,
:
1. Time has a dove’s wing, Unsoil’d, and swift, and of a silken sound
(1784) [OED].
2. Mrs. Browning Lady Geraldine’s Courtship v, In her lovely silken
murmur (1844) [OED].
3. Mr. Russell’s voice, usually so soft and silken, was absolutely husky
with passion (1885) [OED].
4. Feminists, beware: when she wraps that silken voice around the notion
that getting a man is secular salvation, you’ll believe (1980) [COHA].
silken
,
,
,
.
<soft>,
<pleasant>
–
.
,
,
,
.
,
.
1. It is so good to sit thus bathed in silken air (1894) [OED].
2. Even her voice was light, floating through the silken air without a
thought about what Andrew might find when he pushed open the door (1998)
[COHA].
154
Silken air – soft, sweet, balmy; gentle.
,
,
,
(
–
. .),
,
.
,
,
.
.
.
,
:
1. The silken Minions of the Samian Court (1703) [OED].
2. One would look instinctively for a vision of silken ankles and the red
drugget on the pavement (1896) [OED].
3. Spiced dainties, every one, From silken Samarcand (1820) [OED].
«
»–‘
,
(
)’ –
.
:
«
» ‘
,
’.
,
:
: «
» 
–
,
«
–
jeans, astrakhan – leather, damascus – steel, etc).
,
,
,
.
,
,
,
–
,
.
:
155
» (Genoa –
,
,
,
.
,
,
. 7. CCC silken
woollen
,
,
,
,
Ic ʒe-an sancte Æðelðryðe anes wullenan kyrtle (1046).
Þe spere carf þorouʒ out As þorouʒ a wollene clout (1300) [OED].
woollen tunic, woollen cloth <made of wool>
File de Layn appelle Wolyn-yerne (1376).
woollen yarn <manufactured from wool>
,
<wearing
,
woollen
:
<covered with (a fleece of) wool>.
clothing>
:
By comyn acord of the bisshoppes they cam wullen and barfote in the
chirche of our lord (1481).
woollen bishops – bishops <wearing woollen clothes>
,
,
pedes laneos or lanatos habere ‘to have woollen feet’
<to walk silently, to move unperceived>.
,
woollen feet – feet, as if <made of wool>, <silent>.
Following with wollen feet, but smiting with an arme of iron (1597) [OED].
156
,
,
:
<made of
<related to the produc-
wool>,
tion of wool>:
A company in the interior of Illinois are putting up a woolen factory (1850).
In the woolen industry, peculiar advantages are gained by mixing different
varieties of the raw material (1871) [COHA].
,
, woollen interests, woollen schedule,
“interests in
woolen industry”, “schedule of woolen production”.
I say to the Senator that this wool and woolen schedule is the crucial
schedule in this bill (1913).
The woolen interests smacked their lips and started the looms whirring
(1922) [COHA].
,
,
,
:
. 8. CCC woollen
,
,
‘
brassy
-
-
,
‘
’,
,
‘
,
’,
’
:
Thee stayrs brassye grises stately presented (1583).
That dreamed of Imagery, Whose head was gold, brest siluer, brassie
thigh (1599) [OED].
brassy stairs – <consisting of or covered with brass>
157
,
.
‘
,
,
,
<hard as brass>
‘
’,
,
’.
:
To make them blush were they never so brassie and impudent (1576).
brassy face – <unblushing, impudent>
And plucke commiseration of his state From brassie bosomes (1596) [OED].
brassy bosom – <pitiless, unfeeling>
brassy
,
,
:
This present age, which is growne so harde and brassye, for the golden
dayes are long sithence ouer-passed (1586) [OED].
brassy age – <debased yet pretentious>
,
<tastelessly showy> ‘
: ‘her brassy, audacious ex-
,
’,
terior’
:
She is brassy, voluptuous, flirttatous and fun-loving [OALD].
Those looks were the sing of brassy girls and hussies without shame.
brassy girls – <shameless>
,
:
That hard, brassy, over-stretched style (1865).
brassy style – <harsh and feelingless in tone, like a brass instrument>
Aretino proved his originality by creating a new manner, brassy and meretricious (1884) [OED].
brassy manner – < having a strident artificial tone>
<of the nature of brass>
(
(
):
):
[It] left a brassy taste in my mouth for a whole day (1789) [OED].
Everything had suddenly gone sour. Even the world’s most expensive vintage left a brassy taste in his mouth (2003) [COHA].
,
:
Of a pale brassy colour (1803).
The sky is brassy green (1857) [OED].
158
Circling slowly in the brass sky, it (the aircraft) transmitted no signal
(1972) [COHA].
,
,
brassy
,
,
,
,
(
,
.
,
.
,
,
.
. 9. CCC brassy
steely,
‘
’,
‘
,
-
’
,
‘
’,
,
: <made or consisting of steel>,
,
<of or belonging to steel>:
His soule was clog’d with steely boultes of care (1562).
The steely head stuck fast still in his flesh (1590).
Again the foe discharge the steely show’r (1726) [OED].
But in all this sickly-sweet barrage there would be some steely hook of
the practical (1982) [COHA].
steely shower,
(a shower of steely ar159
rows),
“steely hook” (
steely
,
).
–
<of a blow: given with a sword or
spear>:
Such as with steelie strokes haue stablished stout stomackes (1562).
)
(
4
.
-
,
.
(
)
.
,
<resembling steel in appearance, colour> <resembling steel
in hardness>
,
,
:
The boystrous sea, Of warres deuouring gulphes and steely rocks (1596).
His steely eyes narrowed on Cassandra with intense interest and she could
feel him trying to penetrate… (2006) [COHA].
, <hard as steel>
,
<hard and cold as steel, unimpressionable, inflexible, obdurate>
<strong
as steel>
:
Wheat somtime is steelie, or burnt as it growes (1580).
That she would vnarme her hart of that steely resistance against the sweet
blowes of Loue (1586) [OED].
Dust with his own Grave agree, Or steely Samson turn to rotten Clay (1648).
,
:
160
. 10. CCC steely
reedy
:
1) (of a voice, sound, or instrument) high and thin in tone;
2) (of water or land) full of or edged with reeds;
3) (of a person) tall and thin.
«
»,
«
» <abounding with, full
of, reeds>; <characterized by the presence of reeds>:
As sparcles in reeddy places thei shuln renne hider and thider (1382).
To Simois reedie bankes the red bloud ran (1437) [OED].
«
»,
-en: reeden.
How must Velino shake his reedy crest! (1763)
A shepherd, who charmed his weary hours by playing rustic airs upon his
reedy pipe (1865) [OED].
reedy crest < consisting of reed or reeds>, reedy pipe <made of reed>
:
reed,
‘one of
the tall straight stalks or stems formed by plants of the genera Phragmites or
Arudo; also a cane’ (
,
),
.
<a thing or person resembling
or likened to a reed>,
: On that slim reed of hope that an agreement might still be reached, the talks adjourned at 6 a.m. [ODO].
‘
’:
161
She rests full, in her owne approuement, without the weak Worlds reedy
under propping (1628).
A reedy state of health forbids my going to Dinners (1890) [OED].
reedy woman, health – <weak>
<stiff or coarse like reed/reeds>:
Nothwithstanding it was weedy, and the barley-straw reedy, they have
eaten it up very clean (1778) [OED].
reedy straw – < having the form or texture of a reed>
The leek with crown globose and reedy stem (1807).
reedy stem – < having the warp threads unevenly distributed>
Reedy, a term applied to a cloth which shows reed marks (1931) [OED].
,
«
»
«
»
reedy pipe (
,
,
–
):
And in the hollows between the hills lay well-watered green pastures
where flocks of fat sheep and bleating lambs grazed peacefully while their shepherds stood guard with their crooks or sat playing rustic and reedy music on
their pipes [COHA].
reedy music – <having a high and thin tone>
: reedy music – reedy voice,
,
:
reedy
voice – reedy gentleman – <having a reedy voice>.
Ronzi, notwithstanding her thin reedy voice, [is] very charming (1823).
A poor little reedy piping old gentleman, like a worn-out bird (1855) [OED].
,
.
‘
‘
’,
pipe, reedy cabin.
,
,
.
-
’
,
,
reedy
:
162
-
reedy whistle, reedy
. 11. CCC reedy
strawy
,
[COCA]),
(14
[COHA], 4
straw.
,
100
,
.
1552
<of the nature of, full of
,
straw>:
Some birdes can eate the strawie corne, And flee the lime the fowlers set
(1557) [OED].
[COCA, NOW, BYUBNC].
<made with straw; filled, thatched, or strewed with straw>:
The yoked Oxe doth smell his strawie stall (1568).
Rome if her strength the huge world had not fild, With strawie cabins now
her courts should build (1593) [OED].
, ‘
,
’,
straw,
:
You’ll see him turn a strawy hue (1879) [OED].
163
«
»:
He was not more than nineteen, with a lock of strawy hair half covering
his brow (1945).
It should be just off-yellow; a strawy colour (2015) [NOW].
,
,
: yellow hair.
,
:
‘
’.
‘
’
strawy cabin.
Luther sayth, the epistle of Iames in comparison of these, is strawye, or
like straw (1583).
The iron, the brasse, and the clay of those muddy and strawy ages that follow (1641) [OED].
With love so like fire they dared not Let it out into strawy small talk
(1957) [OED].
strawy epistle/age/talk – <worthless>
strawy
,
strawy manure, strawy grass
,
‘
’ strawy
hair,
‘
’
.
.
. 12. CCC strawy
164
,
,
,
,
.
stony
:
1. Covered with or full of small pieces of rock.
2. Made of or consisting mainly of stone.
3. Not having or showing feeling or sympathy.
-
«
»:
Þæt oþere þonne ʒefeollon on staniʒ lond (975).
Wyclif Acts xxvii. 27 In the stoony see (1382) [OED].
stony land/sea – <abounding in stone or rock; full of rocks; rocky>
Stony sea –
,
.
<of fruits: having a stone;
also, abounding in stone-like seeds>:
Pomum calculosum, lapidosum, stonie fruite, or such fruit as hath a
grauellie core (1585).
Guavers are a Fruit that’s very stony (1683) [OED].
XIX
stony
‘pertaining or relating to stone/
stones’,
:
Chattering stony names Of shale and hornblende, rag and trap and tuff,
Amygdaloid and trachyte (1847).
I have been at stony work ever since, as I could find time (1864) [OED].
,
XIV
,
-en: stǣnen/stanen/stonen,
:
God sealed his bebodu on twam stænenum bredum (900).
Ænne strongne stanene wal.
Have you come over the stonen bridge? (Berks.) [OED].
stonen tablet/wall/bridge – <made of stone>
stonen
«
»:
Hie wæron stænenre heortan & blindre (971).
No man had so hard a stonen hert That might his iyen kepe drye (1554)
[OED].
stonen heart – <unfeeling>
,
,
stony
stonen:
165
Writun not in stoony [1388 stony, stonen] tablis but in fleischly tablis of
herte (1382).
Jerusalem hath suffred utter wrack, To stony heapes her buildings turned
(1586).
Batter Cadmus walls with stony showers (1736) [OED].
stony table – <made of stone>; stony heaps – <consisting of stones>
XIII
stony,
-y:
Stani were his heorte ʒef ha ne mealt i teares (1230).
He hauit stoni herte, no-þing him ne smerteþ (1250).
The herte begynneth to melte whiche before was all harde and stony as a
flynte (1526) [OED].
stony heart – <hard’, insensible, or unfeeling, as if consisting of stone>
,
,
.
,
,
.
: stony granules, concretion = stony hail:
Noe rayny cloude but breakes in stony haile (1856).
Stony statue = stony figure: <rigid, fixed, motionless; destitute of movement or expression>
Some Giant With stony staring eyes (1642) [OED].
Gravestone, tombstone, a piece of stone of definite form = stony grief/
silence/fear – <petrifying, stupefying: having no relief>.
Suddein cold did ronne through every vaine, And stony horrour all her
scences fild (1590) [OED].
stony substance = stony colour
In colour they range from a pale stony or yellowish shade to a rich dark
brown (1910) [OED].
166
. 13. CCC stony
flinty.
– flinty rock <consisting of>,
).
,
,
‘
,
,
,
’
(
.
1536
,
-y
‘
’:
If his heart be so stony, so flinty (1536).
Gratitude Through flintie Tartars bosome would peepe forth (1601)
[OED].
Bush didn’t back down, saying he wanted a bill passed quickly. The flinty
Congressman would not let the matter drop and moments later brought it up
(2003) [COHA].
,
,
unfeeling>,
flinty heart – <obdurate, unfeeling>
167
,
<hard, obdurate,
,
:
<hard, impenetrable, rugged>
:
All the new grain comes to hand in a flinty condition (1542) [OED].
Flinty snow half-blinded him as he slogged to the corral (1999) [COHA].
<hard>
:
This is the flinty course of this our age (1613).
Mr. George struck out sharp, strong, flinty sentences (1888) [OED].
It was this Fraser, who had not yet developed such a malign and flinty dislike of all things associated with mechanical flea circuses (2001) [COHA].
,
,
: a heart of flint – ‘
’, he set his face like a flint – ‘
’,
flinty-hearted – having a hard heart or core [SOD],
flint-hearted ‘
’ [ROD] . .
<related
to>,
.
:
Let vs resolue to scale their flinty bulwarkes (1591).
The gathering up of Flints in Flinty Ground is no good Husbandry
(1626).
Pieces of fossil wood have been found penetrated with flinty matters (1799).
Sometimes flinty sparks from the horse’s hoofs outshone the daylight
(1891) [OED].
Walking barefoot in a field, he cut his toe on a sharp, flinty rock, and the
infection poisoned his blood and killed (2003) [COHA].
<related to>: flinty stone, flinty pebble <of flint>,
flinty sparks <derived from flint>; flinty ground, flinty gravel <full of flintstones>, etc.
: flinty boulevard <consisting of flint>; flinty flake, flinty lock <made of flint>.
The tomahawk and flinty knife Drink their vile blood (1859) [COHA].
,
,
,
.
168
–
.
,
:
. 14. CCC flinty
,
-
,
,
(
-
.
,
,
.
-
.
,
,
,
.
,
,
)
,
,
,
,
.
,
.
,
.
-
169
-
,
.
,
–
,
,
,
(
,
,
,
,
-
-
)
,
,
-
.
-
.
4.3
,
,
.
–
,
,
.
,
,
,
,
,
1
.
.
«
,
,
…»
. .
,
,
:
,
.
,
1
-
. .
, 1993. . 3–8.
.
,
.
,
(
)
170
.
//
.:
.
,
,
,
.
,
.
,
(
,
,
.
.
1
(
)
,
.
–
,
,
,
,
,
. .
,
).
[OED]
,
,
– grēne (green), græ฀
(grey), hāwi (azure), hæsel (hazel), hræd (speedy), rēad (red), ฀elu (yellow),
weorÞ (worth) (550–700).
,
,
,
.
,
,
linen (700)
(
līnum – ‘ ’),
.
(
,
,
)
‘ ’ – līn,
linen.
: linen (700), apostolic (880),
woruldlic – worldly (888), bisceoplic – bishoply (890), nihtlic – nightly (897),
mununlic – monkly (900), stænen – stonen/stony (900), prēostlic – priestly
(1000), summorlic – summery (1000), sandi฀ – sandy (1000), ri฀en – ryen,
made from rye (1000), treowen (1000) – treen, made of tree (1670), rosen –
formed or consisting of roses (1000), wætery – watery (1000), hæselen – pertaining to hazel (1000), bēcen – of or derived from the beech (1000), tinnen –
made of tin (1000), broðorlic – brotherly (1000), modorlic – motherly (1000),
clæi฀ – clayey, made of clay (1024), wullen – woollen (1046).
1
2-
.
. .
.
.:
;
, 2012. . 60.
171
:
.
(nightly, bishoply, apostly, monkly),
(summorlic – summery,
(rosen
stonen – stony)
– rose; ryen – rye),
(hazelen),
.
,
14
: linen (
līn) (700),
brotherly (1000), clayey (1024), cloudy (893), dewy (1000), frosty (900), heavenly (971), icy (1000), nightly (897), sandy (1000), snowy (1000), stony (975),
watery (1000), woollen (1046) [OED].
–
,
,
,
.
,
,
,
– steelen <hard as steel> (1000), <made of
steel> (1175); scrubby <stunted> (1591), <covered with scrub> (1676); mousy
<quiet as a mouse> (1812); <abounding in, infested by mice> (1871)
.
,
,
,
–
.
1660
,
.
,
.
,
.
120
.
-
,
-
.
: watery (10), civil (10), cloudy (8), bushy (7), servile (6), crystalline (6),
fishy (6), flowery (6), manual (6), reedy (6), academic (5), husky (5), insular (5),
shady (5), shadowy (5), stony (5), rocky (5), tropical (5), volcanic (5).
,
21,
– 3,
: silken (9), wooden (7), metallic (6), steely (5), strawy (4), oaken
(4), brassy (3), clayey (3), flinty (3), icy (3), woollen (3).
.
172
.
: atom/atomic bomb, industry/industrial psychologist, ocean/ocea-nic winds, city/urban life, hand/manual
signal, sound/acoustic system, government/governmental law, country rural visitor, nose/nasal mist, star/stellar configuration, see/marine life
. .
manual
labour,
military
rank,
:
apostolic church, marine academy.
,
: field mouse, honey bee, steam iron,
horse doctor, olive oil, tax law.
(ryen, steelen, treen, beechen, monkly, priestly,
etc.)
.
1
(
)
–
.
,
.
.
: bushy (7–2), cavernous (5–4), civil (10–8), chivalric (4–2), cerebral (3–2), crystalline (6–4), clayey (3–1), cloudy (8–5), dewy (4–2), fishy (6–3),
flowery
(6–4), husky (5–4), insular (5–3), lumpy (4–3), manual (6–3), scrubby (3–2),
seedy (5–3), servile (7–4), shady (5–3), shadowy (4–2), snowy (5–4), spicy (8–6),
spiky (4–3), starchy (4–2), stingy (6–2), stony (5–4), stormy (4–3), reedy (6–4),
rocky (5–3), rosen (2–0), tropical (5–3), volcanic (5–3), watery (10–7), beechen
(2–0), clayey (3–1), leathern (2–1), metallic (6–3), oaken (4–3), silky (9–6), steely
(4–2), wooden (7–4), woollen (3–1), etc.
,
,
,
,
.
: airy (
1
2-
.
. .
.
.:
;
,
, 2012. . 60.
173
,
:
),
.
lumpy
reedy (
(
,
), seedy (
,
,
: brassy (
,
;
), stubbly (
,
,
,
;
,
,
), bilious (
,
. . [BNC, COHA].
)
), mousy (
,
,
,
,
), cavernous (
,
), sugary (
,
.
,
).
,
,
;
),
,
.
,
.
,
,
,
: stellar (1656), nuclear (1846), lunar
(1626), global (1676), electronic (1902) [OED].
,
,
.
,
,
,
(
).
,
,
.
.
,
,
,
(
,
).
.
,
4
174
.
,
.
,
-
-
,
.
,
.
,
.
,
-
,
(
,
,
.
)
,
-
.
,
,
-
-
,
,
,
,
,
,
.
,
,
.
–
,
,
.
,
.
,
175
–
,
.
,
,
-
,
.
-
(
-
).
,
,
).
,
(
,
.
.
,
,
,
(
).
,
(
,
) –
-
.
,
.
.
,
.
.
,
.
176
,
,
-
-
.
–
-
,
-
. .
-
.
,
(
.
-
),
(
)
,
-
.
(
-
)
.
.
,
–
,
«
,
,
…»: ‘related to’. (
,
«
‘made of or consisting of’.)
,
»:
.
.
,
,
,
.
.
,
,
,
:
.
177
,
,
–
,
-
–
.
,
,
,
,
-
,
.
,
–
–
-
–
.
,
,
,
,
,
.
,
–
,
200
–
.
-
74
22
,
-
-
,
. .
,
,
.
,
,
,
,
,
.
,
.
,
178
,
-
.
23%
11%
,
.
,
,
110
,
,
.
.
,
-
.
,
,
,
.
,
.
.
,
.
,
.
.
,
,
.
–
,
.
-
.
.
179
,
,
-
.
,
,
,
.
.
–
,
,
.
-
,
.
,
,
.
–
,
,
-
,
.
(
-
-
)
,
,
),
–
.
-
,
,
-
-
(
,
,
.
,
.
180
,
. .
]/ . .
, . .
1.
,
[
2.
, 1995. – 767 .
,
.
.
3.
.
.– .:
, 1974. – 368 .
. .2:
[
]/ . .
.–
-
[
] / . .
. – 1983. – № 1. – . 52–65.
//
, . .
4.
/ . .
, 2012. – 376 .
, . .
.– .:
, . .
[
]/ . .
, . .
]/ . .
;
, . .
.
5.
6.
7.
[
8.
331.
9.
,
.
. – 2-
[
11.
.,
. –
[
] /
, 1990. – . 10.
.–
.:
,
[
:
] /
, 1988. – . 3–12.
, . .
] / . .
//
. Studia Linguistica-4. –
,
.
.
.
.
.–
]
,
12.
.… .
, . .
.
. … , 2003. – 38 .
]:
;
.
//
/
.–
.
.:
.
.:
, 1976.
//
, 1972. – . 297–
.
.
//
–
., 1997. – . 27–35.
: 10.02.04 / . .
.
.
[
. :
[
.
.
, 1961. – 150 .
-
.
[
10.
.:
., 1994. – 39 .
[
] :
: 10.02.04, 10.02.19 / . .
. –
181
.–
] :
, . .
13.
2010. –
14.
.
15.
,
[
]/ .
2009. – 144
16.
,
17.
– 123 .
19.
20.
.
:
:
:
.
(
/ . .
. .
.
.
. .
.–
.–
,
.
.
.
/
.–
, . .
//
, . .
//
.:
.
:
.
., 1991. – 372 .
. 2- . –
/
:
.–
.… -
.
»,
[
]/ . .
. .
//
.– .:
. . .
:
-
.
- , 2001.
:
[
] /
. .
, . .
,
. .
“
”», 2010. – . 17–27.
[
]/ . .
. – 2006. – № 2. – . 5–22.
(
)[
]:
: 10.02.04 / . .
. – .
.
. …
.
.
, 2005. – 25 .
21.
, . .
. .
//
22.
, . .
(XVIII–XIX
) [
] / .
. –
., 1908. –
]:
«
:
«
)[
.:
.
//
29
–1
, 2010. – . 432–435.
. . .
-
;
, 2012. – . 17–145.
, . .
[
]/ . .
-
18.
.
,
]/ . .
[
.
.–
[
]/
., 1971. – . 178–194.
.
//
. 12. – 143 . [
http://www.directmedia.ru/book_70966_Ocherk_istorii_sovremennogo_literaturnogo_russkogo_yazyka_/.
23.
, . .
[
]/ . .
.– .:
1994. – 1 138 . (
)[
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2.6
…………………76
2………………..………………..………………..………………..…………………..77
3.
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
(
80
) ………………..………………..………………..…………
………………………..
80
………………..………………………
86
…………………
90
………………..………………..………………..
95
………………
99
…..………………………………………….……
3.7
109
………………..…113
3………………..………………..………………..………………..……………….…..116
194
4.
4.1
(
119
) ………………..………………..………………..…………
121
…………………………………………………………………………..
4.2
………………..………………..………………..………………..…………
138
4.3
………………..………………..………………..……
161
4………………..………………..………………..………………..…………………..165
168
………………..………………..………………..……………..………………..……….……..
…………………..………………..………………..……………..………………..172
195
А
А
АА
А А
Ь
(
)
: . .
.
183038, .
27.12.2016.
. . 11,6.
500
-
,
.
196
60×90/16.
.
(
)
, 15.
.
.
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