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Ы
Я
ХЯ
15–16
я 2016
2016
81+37.016:81
81.2-9
43
-
№ 10
25
(
2016 .)
:
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(
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.);
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:
, 15–16
2016
:
, 2016. – 148 .
]. –
,
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. .
-
«
-
/ [
»,
,
,
,
.
15–16
2016
.


ISBN 978-5-4222-0302-4
2
«
, 2016
.
», 2016
3
15–16
.
2016
-
«
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I.
81’25+81’37
81.432.1-8+81.003
И.А.
«
.
»
,
CHALLENGE –
А
challenge
.
.
.
,
,
ы
.
:
,
,
challenge
.
,
,
,
I.A. Sternin
Voronezh State University
Voronezh, Russia
CHALLENGE – WORD AND CONCEPT
Abstract. The article is devoted to the problem of translation of the English
word ‘challenge’ into Russian. It is suggested, that the word ‘challenge’ nominates a
concept belonging to American mentality and, hence, having no equivalent in the Russian language. The translation into Russian by means of the word ‘
’ is shown to
be adequate, since it conveys the American concept and helps forming an equivalent
concept in Russian consciousness.
Key words: concept, conceptual sphere, meaning, dictionary definition, lexeme.
challenge
.
,
(
)
,
challenge,
– XIV .).
challenge
,
.
,
. .
challenge, n.
-
,
(
XIII,
,
:
5
1. 1)
(
,
); 2)
;
to address a challenge to smb. –
- .
(
) to have
a challenge delivered [carried, brought] by a second –
[
,
]
.
2.
;
to bring smth. into challenge –
- .
;
- . to bring
smb.’s title into challenge –
ё- .
a challenge of the
premises of an argument –
.
3. 1)
,
(
)
;
;
,
: my new job is not easy but it’s a challenge –
,
; 2)
;
: the challenge of a nuclear age –
,
to issue the challenge –
to meet the
challenge –
.
4. 1)
peremptory challenge –
challenge to the array –
, challenge to the polls –
, challenge to the favour –
/
/to uphold [to overrule] the challenge –
[
]
; 2)
(
- .)
.
5. 1)
; 2)
the election of a new government was met by a challenge from its opponents –
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
.
,
challenge of superiority –
to lay challenge to smth. –
(
).
(
) to give the challenge –
.
,
,
,
.
- .
.
challenge, v.
1. (to) 1)
(
);
; 2)
to challenge smb. to run a race –
- .
.
2. 1)
;
to challenge smb.’s knowledge –
- .
,
- .
ё
;
2)
,
to challenge the accuracy of a statement –
to challenge the wisdom of a
procedure –
- .
.
6
3.
(
) this job will challenge your abilities –
/
,
/this event challenges an explanation –
.
4. 1)
,
; 2)
;
3)
(
- .
).
5. 1)
(
);
2)
.
6.
(
);
,
.
7.
.
.
:
challenge
1. noun 1)
(
,
. .); 2)
(
);
3)
,
; 4) naut.
(
); 5) leg.
(
) – peremptory challenge.
2. v. 1)
,
to challenge to socialist emulation –
; 2)
,
the
teacher challenged my knowledge –
;
3)
;
to challenge the accuracy of a statement –
; 4)
(
,
. .); 5)
(
);
,
; 6) naut.
; 7) leg.
.
Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, 11th Edition (2003)
:
challenge
I. verb (challenged; challenging) Etymology: Middle English chalengen to
accuse, from Anglo-French chalenger, from Latin calumniari to accuse falsely,
from calumnia calumny Date: 13th century transitive verb 1. to demand as due
or deserved; require < an event that challenges explanation > 2. to order to halt
and prove identity < the sentry challenged the stranger > 3. to dispute especially
as being unjust, invalid, or outmoded; impugn < new data that challenges old assumptions > 4. to question formally the legality or legal qualifications of < challenge a juror > 5. a. to confront or defy boldly; dare < he challenged his critics to
prove his guilt > b. to call out to duel or combat c. to invite into competition <
he challenged his brother to a tennis match > 6. to arouse or stimulate especially
by presenting with difficulties < she wants a job that will challenge her > 7. to
administer a physiological and especially an immunologic challenge to (an organism or cell) intransitive verb 1. to make or present a challenge 2. to take legal
exception • challenger noun.
II. noun Date: 14th century 1. a. a summons that is often threatening, provocative, stimulating, or inciting; specifically a summons to a duel to answer an
affront b. an invitation to compete in a sport 2. a. a calling to account or into
question; protest b. an exception taken to a juror before the juror is sworn c. a
7
sentry’s command to halt and prove identity d. a questioning of the right or validity of a vote or voter 3. a stimulating task or problem < looking for new challenges > 4. the act or process of provoking or testing physiological activity by
exposure to a specific substance; especially a test of immunity by exposure to an
antigen.
The Oxford Thesaurus – An A-Z
Dictionary of Synonyms Lingvo 10.0 English-Russian Edition.Version 1.5
11/03/2005
challenge:
1. question, dispute, defy, object to, take exception to, contest, doubt, call
into doubt, call into or to question, impugn: I challenge the validity of your accusation.
2. invite, dare, summon, call out, provoke: The duke was challenged to a
duel.
3. brave, dare, confront, defy, contest: We could challenge criticism with
an easy confidence.
4. question, dispute, doubt: His opinions are open to challenge.
5. invitation, dare, summons, provocation, confrontation, defiance; ultimatum: An older opponent might not have issued such a challenge.
6. problem, demand, stimulation, trial, test: Are you sure that Mr. Wilson
will be able to meet the challenge of the new position?
challenge
challenge – to
challenge – challenger,
( .
).
,
challenge
.
,
,
,
–
.
,
challenge
.
Ы
?
challenge
.
challenge
/
, 1998):
1.
(
.
,
.
.
,
.
,
.
.
.
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.
8
,
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.
.
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(
. .
.
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).
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.
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(
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).
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2.
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3 .
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3.
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1.
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2.
. 3.
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,
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).
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-
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,
-
,
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,
challenge
.
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;
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,
,
8, 9
–
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.
challenge
.
,
,
. .). .
.
,
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
(
. .
.
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11.
12.
13.
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.). .
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;
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)
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9
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3
)
,
;
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4 –
.
–
;
,
,
,
.
.
(
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;
)
,
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,
–
(
,
)
.
.
,
,
,
.
(
.
challenge
,
;
,
,
(
)
:
;
;
;
;
;
(
);
,
;
;
;
,
;
,
.
;
:
challenge
to confront or defy boldly;
to arouse or stimulate especially by presenting with difficulties;
a stimulating task or problem;
brave, dare, confront, defy, contest;
invitation, dare, summons, provocation, confrontation, defiance; ultimatum;
10
problem, demand, stimulation, trial, test.
:
,
,
,
,
,
,
.
,
,
–
,
,
,
.
-
,
challenge
,
,
.
.
,
.
,
,
.
:
,
,
,
,
.
11
,
,
81’25+801.73
81.18
. .А
«
.
-
.
,
.
,
,
ы
»
-
:
А
,
.
,
,
:
,
,
.
Y.V. Aleksandrova
Murmansk Arctic State University
Murmansk, Russia
PHRASEOLOGICAL UNITS AS NATIONALLY SPECIFIC
METAPHORS: PHILOLOGICAL HERMENEUTICS APPROACH
Abstract. The article looks into the possibility of evaluating the translation of
phraseological units from the point of view of philological hermeneutics that is comparing the ways reflexivity flows. Methods of hermeneutics, if applied to phraseological units, can allow the translator to understand the meaning of the unit in the text,
thus reaching the equivalence which is understood in the article as interpretation
equivalence.
Key words: Interpretation equivalence, phraseological units, reflexivity, translation.
,
-
.
.
,
,
,
,
,
,
12
,
,
. .,
:
я
,
,
,
.
,
,
,
,
,
.
.
,
. .
.
.
,
13
(
[1, . 10; 2, . 544–576].
,
,
.
,
.
.
.
,
-
,
-
,
-
,
suit the action to the word –
.
,
.
,
,
.
‘You must forgive me’, Mr. Smith replied with courtesy, ‘but I don’t touch
alcohol’. ‘I don’t touch it myself’, Jones said. ‘I drink it’, and he suited the action to the words. (Gr. Greene, “The Comedians”, part I, ch. I)
–
,–
,–
.
–
,
, –
.
,
.
,
,
.
,
.
The ld gentleman bowed respectfully; and advancing to the magistrate’s
desk, said, suiting the action to the word, ‘That is my name and address, sir’.
(Ch. Dickens “Oliver Twist”, ch. XI)
,
,
,
,
: «
,
».
.
,
,
,
14
,
:
to pull smb’s chestnuts out of the fire –
,
(
).
‘You can’t make me your cat’s paw to pull your chestnuts out of the
fire…’ (Th. Dreiser “The Titan”, ch. XLIX)
–
…
,
cry wolf –
,
,
.
(
,
,
,
,
,
«
,
!»).
‘Come, come now, Nessie’, he replied in a low tone which could not carry
to the scullery, ‘you’re aye talkin’ about that headache. If you’re always crying
“wolf, wolf” we’ll not be believing you when it does come to the bit. (A.J. Cronin, “Hatter’s Castle”, book III, ch. I)
–
,
,
,–
,
,
.–
!
,
:«
!
!»,
,
,
?
,
;
,
,
.
,
,
,
.
,
,
.
an eager beaver –
.
,
,
;
,
;
,
–
,
.
,
.
I was an eager beaver once, Alec thought. (R. Rouark, “The Honey
Badge”, ch. 4)
–
- ,–
.
15
,
,
.
This guy, Marshall, is an eager beaver, a go-getter, but he’s relatively inexperienced. (E.S. Gardner, “The Case of the Amorous Aunt”, ch. 15)
Э
,
,
.
,
( ), . .
,
.
Kilkenny cats (fight like Kilkenny cats) –
,
(
,
).
Kilkenny Irishtown XVII .,
.
Members of Parliament and ladies of fashion, like himself and Fleur...
now and then... going for each other like Kilkenny cats. (J. Galsworthy “The
Silver Spoon”, part I, ch. XIV)
,
...
...
,
.
,
- .
,
,
- ,
,
,
,
like a bat out of hell –
.-
.
.
,
,
,
,
Horwitz... drove off like a bat out of hell. (J. Salinger, “The Catcher in the
Rye”, ch. 12)
...
,
.
,
,
.
.
,
16
,
,
.
,
-
.
Already they must spy the cloven hoof, since with all your pretended eagerness for the honour, you take a pleasure to degrade it in my person.
(R.L. Stevenson, “The Master of Ballantrae”, ch. X)
,
,
:
,
,
,
.
In the big city political machines we find the unholy alliance of Big Money
and Big Politics. (G. Green, “The Enemy Forgotten”, ch. XI)
–
.
,
,
,
,
:
(
,
);
(
);
(
XIX .,
).
,
,
.
-
.
,
,
ё
.
,
-
,
,
,
.
1.
2.
. .
. .
.
***
. .
:
.
, 1995.
.
- , 1999.
/
17
:
. .
/
.
.:
18
81’37
81.053.1+81.003
.А.
«
.
А
.
,
:
.
.
ы
,
:
,
»
.
,
,
-
,
.
,
,
.
S.A. Vinogradova
Murmansk Arctic State University
Murmansk, Russia
TRADITIONAL AND COGNITIVE APPROACHES
TO THE STUDY OF POLYSEMY
Abstract. Existing approaches to the study of polysemy as a systematic phenomenon of language are discussed in the article regarding their impact on the modern cognitive-semantic methods. The study of semantic derivation in Russian linguistics based on the conceptual interrelations of mind including classificational and implicational ones is viewed as the foundation for the modern cognitive approach to polysemy. Modern invariant and network models of polysemyas the reflections of mind
structures in the language are described. A complex analysis is suggested that includes building network structures and the study of construing models of metaphor,
metonymy and hyper-hyponymy.
Key words: polysemy, the semantic structure of the word, implicational and
classificational interrelations of mind.
(
,
X
19
,
,
) «
»
[11].
,
.
,
,
. .
,
.
XIX
,
,
.
. .
,
.
.
,
. .
. .
, . .
, . .
.
,
,
.
. .
, . .
,
. .
.
,
,
.
,
,
.
.
–
.
,
. .
,
.
.
.
,
.
,
» [13]
.
.
.
XX
.
«
,
.
.
.
.
.
.
20
,
.
.
–
–
–
,
,
,
,
–
,
,
.
,
,
(
,
)
,
.
(
)
,
,
,
«
,
-
,
,
. .
,
,
» [10, . 191].
.
,
,
. .
.
,
,
,
,
,
– «
,
,
» [12, . 272].
,
)
(
.
,
.
«
»
[8, . 18], «
,
.
,
-
,
–
«
» [4, . 52].
» [8, . 3].
,
,
.
21
,
,
,
.
–
,
,
«
. .
. .
,
,
. .
.
.
,
,
,
,
,
(
[10,
.
.
-
,
,
,
.
:
:
,
.
,
. .
[10, . 225].
).
-
–
.
–
(
,
,
,
(
,
.
» [9, . 70].
,
.
-
-
-
).
«
-
. 226].
)
»
«
»
steel – 1)
a general name for certain varieties of iron; 2) a particular variety of steel.
,
(
)
(
.
–
,
–
.
,
),
22
,
.
,
«
,
,
,
, “
«
»,
,
–
,
,
,
[2,
,
.
,
.
.
–
(
(
(
).
,
. 83].
.
.
,
,
».
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
. .,
,
.
,
.
,
.
,
,
,
23
.
)
(
. .
.
”
,
» [5, . 23].
«
,
)
[2, . 83].
,
.
.
.
,«
,
. .
o
,
...
» [1, . 33].
,
,
,
,
«
,
,
,
,
,
.
,
,
,
:
,
,
. .
» [1, . 35].
foot
– «
»
«
»
» (the foot of a bed, the foot of a mountain, etc.).
,
,
,
,
,
.
.
,
foot
,
«
:
,
.
.
,
,
:
»
«
,
,
,
,
.
,
–
24
. .
.
,
.
.
,
,
,
ring,
»
».
«
», «
(
(
,
,
:«
»
.
.
,
,
»,
,
,
«
-
,
,
,
.
,
,
,
,
[8]
–
(
,
,
,
.
,
,
.
[15: XIV].
»
[18].
)
,
,
.
.
.
.
«
», «
).
,
take
.
,
.
,
(
,
:
)
,
«
/
. .
[17].
.
,
.
-
,
,
-
.
(
.
,
–
.
),
.
25
).
-
,
(
–
).
«
»,
. ,
. . [19, . 108].
»
«
.
,
,
,
»
,
,
.
«
,
.
,
[16, . 135],
.
(
.
,
)
«
.
»
,
,
.
,
.
.
,
,
,
,
.
(
.
):
,
,
,
–
26
.
,
,
[3,
. 6].
–
, «
,
» [14,
.
,
–
,
. 22].
.
,
,
.
-
:
–
(
–
);
;
–
).
(
,
.
,
,
-
,
-
,
,
.
***
. .
1.
. Studia Linguistica – 4.
1997. . 27–36.
2.
. .
…
. .
3.
.
.
. .
/ . .
5.
.
. 18–34.
:
) /
., 1991.
. .
4.
6.
(
.
.:
.
.:
.
.:
. .
//
.:
,
:
, 1971. . 178–194.
. .
//
, 1956. . 39–386.
.
//
/
, 2004.
// Studia linguistic cognitiva. 1:
. .:
, 2006.
27
7.
.
8.
. .
/
9.
, 1971.
. .
10.
. .
11.
. .
, 2003. 406 .
. .
12.
13.
. 5:
.
.
/
, 1981.
.:
,
-
;
.
:
, 1997.
.
.:
.
.
.
//
. 10. . 350–369.
.
. .
.
//
, 1973. . 68–79.
/
. .
/
-
. .
, 1980. . 280–319.
//
, 1970. . 250–299.
/ . .
.:
.
.:
.
:
//
.
. .:
. .
. .:
, 1980. 356 .
15. Johnson M. The Body in the Mind: The Bodily Basis of Meaning, Imagination, and
Reason / M. Johnson. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987.
16. Lakoff G., Johnson M. Metaphors We Live By / G. Lakoff, M. Johnson. Chicago:
University of Chicago Press, 1980.
17. Langacker R.W. Concept, Image, and symbol: The cognitive basis of grammar /
R. Langacker. Berlin; New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 1991.
18. Norvig P., Lakoff G. “Taking”: A study in lexical network theory // Proc. Of the
13th Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society. Berkeley: Berkeley Linguistics Society, 1987. P. 157–195.
19. Taylor J.R. Linguistic Categorization: Prototypes in Linguistic Theory / J.R. Taylor. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995.
14.
28
81’2/’44
81.003
. .
«
.
А
.
,
ы
,
»
,
,
.
,
:
.
,
,
,
.
Y.S. Ganitch
Murmansk Arctic State University
Murmansk, Russia
CULTURAL CONCEPTUALIZATION OF EUROPE BY STUDENTS
OF NON-LANGUAGE SPECIALIZATION
Abstract. The paper presents the results of linguistic association experiment
concerned with cultural conceptualization of Europe by students f Bachelor’s and
Master’s programmes of non-language specialization. The author suggests that, if a
person lacks linguistic and cultural knowledge, as well as, experience in cross-cultural
communication, it enables to present a genuine cultural conceptualization of Europe.
Key words: worldview, concept, linguistic association experiment, ethnocultural stereotypes.
,
,
,
,
,
.
,
.
,
,
,
,
,
.
29
,
.
,
.
.
,
,
[2, . 71–73].
,
.
[4, . 2–29].
.
,
,
,
,
,
,
.
75
. .
,
,
-
,
2014–2015
.
.
.
«
.
» [5, . 49].
«
,
,
.
,
».
:
,
10
1.
,
.
30
29
.
,
.
,
,
.
,
,
,
,
.
,
( )
,
-
,
,
,
,
.
,
.
,
,
.
,
1
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
.
,
.
,
,
,
,
,
.
,
31
( )
-
,
,
,
,
,
.
,
,
.
,
.
,
,
.
. .
1.
;
2.
. .
:
***
4.
5.
. .
-
.
.
. 3.,
. .:
. .,
. .,
:
/
, 2003. . 196–223.
. .,
. .
«
/ . .
, . .
.
. .
. .
. .:
, 2008.
. .
3.
/
32
.
.
. .
. . .
:
. 6-
, 2009.
:
/
«
. .
», 2006.
.
»
.:
, 1999.
:
.
.:
.
,
/
81’25
81.18
А. .
«
ы
.
А
.
,
«
,
,
.
»,
ы
,
,
:
».
,
.- .
,
,
,
»
»
,
( .
,
«
,
.
ё
,
.).
«
A.V. Kopylov
Murmansk Arctic State University
Murmansk, Russia
TRANSLATION ETHICS AS A THEORETICAL PROBLEM
Abstract. The article discusses the opposition between the traditional approach
to translation ethics which normally involves developing a ‘code of ethics’ for translators, and the approach put forward in a number of studies of the ethical dimension of
translation (A. Berman, J.-L. Cordonnier, P. Ricœur etc.) which envisage the translation phenomenon in its entirety. The author suggests that, whereas the former approach is narrowly deontological, the latter marks a significant turn towards virtue
ethics, opening an entirely new perspective on the problem of translation ethics.
Key words: translation, translation ethics, the translator’s code of ethics, deontological ethics, virtue ethics, “linguistic hospitality”.
»
,
.
«
,
,
33
. .
/
–
,
.
,
».
,
«
. .
,
(
)
.
. (1)
(
.
. (2) «
».
,
,
,
)
,
,
,
,
. (3)
. (4)
,
(
. (5) «
[…]
,
).
,
,
,
,
». (6)
,
«
» [1, c. 29–30].
,
:
,
,
,
»:
.,
,
«
«
«
«
«
-
,
»
»
.
,
», . .
the translator’s invisibility ( .
).
,
«
»
«
»
,
.
,
«
34
»
»
,
.
.
: Le Code de déontologie de la SFT (
Société française des traducteurs).
,
,
.
,
,
,
ё (Paul Ricœur),
(Antoine Berman),
(Lawrence Venuti)
:
Meschonnic),
(Jean-Louis Cordonnier),
,
«
1973 .),
«
, «
«
,
.
«
».
–
».
,
,
,
,
».
,
(Henri
.
«
»
,
,
,
,
35
»,
,
,
. .) [2,
. –
«
«
,
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,
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.
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)
,
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. – . .):
»,
,
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:
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,
SFT
,
. 201–202].
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, . .
».
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,
,
,
ё .
[…]
ё ,«
,
«
»:
,
299–300].
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,
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. – . .)».
,
,
,
»,
,
[3, .
: «
.
,
,
–
,
»
. .)
«
[6, p. 20].
,
,
«
,
,
,
,
,
(
[6, p. 19].
, –
(
,
,
,
: «
,
,
«
. .
ё ,
,
.
–
,
» [7, p. 285–286].
,
, ,
«
,
» [7, p. 285],
(
,
,
,
«
. .
:
,
:
,
.
,
36
.
,
).
,
?
,
,
»
,
,
«
.
»
.
286].
.
.
[7, p.
,
,
,
,
.
Cordonnier J.-L.
Traduction et culture. Paris: Hatier, Didier; Les Editions Didier, 1995 (Langues
et apprentissage des langues).
,
«
»(
) «
»(
,
,
1970.
,
«
»).
,
,
( . . «
»),
, ,
, –
,
,
.
,
,
.
,
,
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–
,
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–
«
».
:
1813 .
,
»,
«
.
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«
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,
,
.
.
.
,
,
37
),
»
»
»,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
.
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,
,
,
»(
,
,
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,
)
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,
,
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.
,
,
.)
(
).
(
,
,
. .
«
»
,
,
: «
–
***
2006.
. .
/ . .
38
.:
.
,
,
;
2.
,
.
.
,
» [5, p. 35].
1.
,
.
,
»
,
,
ё ,
«
«
,
,
(
)
-
-
,
),
,
cc
(virtue ethics), . .
,
(
,
ё ,
.
,
.).
,
/
. .
.
.:
,
. 2«
,
.
, 2001.
,
,
,
.:
»,
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
(
)/
.
. .
,
. .
.
:
, 2007.
Cordonnier J.-L. Traduction et culture / Jean-Louis Cordonnier. Paris: Hatier, Didier; Les Editions Didier, 1995 (Langues et apprentissage des langues).
Meschonnic H. Ethics and Politics of Translating / Henri Meschonnic. Amsterdam:
John Benjamins BV, 2011.
Ricœur P. Sur la traduction / Paul Ricœur. Paris: Bayard, 2004.
Venuti L. (Ed.). The Translation Studies Reader / Lawrence Venuti (ed.), Mona
Baker (advisory editor). London and New York: Routledge, 2000.
39
81’367
81.052.2
. .
«
.
»
,
(
)
А
.
.
.
«
.
. Э
ы
–
,
:
,
,
.
,
.
–
»
,
,
,
;
.
T.V. Lobovskaya
Murmansk Arctic State University
Murmansk, Russia
SYNTACTIC SYNCRETISM OF THE SUBORDINATE CLAUSE
Abstract. The article presents syntactic syncretism of the subordinate clause.
Syncretism has been an object of linguistic discussions for a long time. The term “syncretism” in its linguistic meaning denotes a concurrence of functionally different
grammatical categories and forms in one form in the process of the language development. Syncretism is a combination (synthesis) of differential structural and semantic
features of language units (some categories of words, meanings, sentences, parts of
sentence etc.) opposed to each other in the language system and connected with the
phenomena of transitivity. These are hybrid formations. Syncretism appears at all language and speech levels. Syntactic syncretism is used in the English and the Russian
languages and has a universal character.
Key words: syntactic syncretism; subordinate clauses of reason, purpose, condition, concession, result, manner.
,
.
,
,
,
.
40
–
.
,
.
(
«
,
.),
(
446].
,
.
,
,
«
)
,
,
.
,
–
»
» . .
.
,
,
. .
,
,
–
[7, . 102].
,
,
,
.
,
,
.
–
.
.
A.M.
,
–
,
,
.
,
,
,
» [1,
,
.
«
)
,
,
,
(
.
,
,
ё
,
.
,
41
,
[7, . 93].
,
,
.
,
,
.
,
, «
,
,
,
. .
,
[4, . 75].
.
,
–
.
«
»,
“as”, “for”
. .
» [6, . 327–328].
,
,
,
«
“because”, “since”
».
“so that”, “that”, “so”.
: He stood his ground firmly, for he was a
brave man. –
,
[9, . 311]. As we hadn’t any food we couldn’t continue our trip. –
,
. She went to England to learn English. –
,
. He spoke for such a long time that we began to
think that he never stop. –
,
,
. The reason why he resigned was that he had been offered a better job. –
.
.
,
,
“if”, “unless”, “in case”.
:
says he’ll
accept the post provided on condition that (because) the salary is satisfactory. –
,
,
,
(
)
[9, . 299].
.
: If he arrived only
yesterday, he will probably not leave before Sunday. –
, ,
,
. ( . He arrived only yesterday,
so he will probably not leave before Sunday. –
,
42
,
,
means he is having a date. –
.
[9, . 301].) If he cleans his shoes it
,
.
that”.
things. –
.
,
“that”, “in order that”, “so
: Children go to school in order that they may learn
,
[9, . 308].
“so that” “so as”.
: I stepped
aside so that she might (could) go in. –
,
. Let the dog loose so that it can (may) have a run. –
,
[5, . 348]. They grow a hedge round the garden so
that the neighbours may not overlook them. –
,
.
.
“although”, “though”, “however”,
“whoever”, “whatever”, “even if”.
: Although the children come
from poor homes, they are quite well behaved. –
,
[5, . 323]. ( .: The children come
from poor homes, so they are not well behaved. –
,
.) However rich people are they always want to make more money. –
,
.
.
: Whatever you may say (Say what you will) I shall still trust to my
own judgement. –
(
,
),
[5, . 324].
,
.
“that”, “as if”, “as though”.
: It was
so hot (that) I couldn’t sleep. –
,
[5, .
311].
ran so quickly that I couldn’t catch him. –
,
[5, . 310]. He looked at me as if he saw me for the
first
time. –
,
.
,
.
,
43
.
,
,
. .
. .
2.
:
3.
4.
. .
.… . .
, 1972.
. .
.
5.
6.
7.
- 8.
9.
.
.
,
, 2009.
. .
.:
.
. .
. . .
***
//
.:
/ . .
:
. .
. .:
.
. …
:
.
.
/
:
., 2006
/ . .
. …
:
-
:
.
- , 2003.
.
.:
.
.
.
.
/
,
. .
, 2009.
/
,
44
», 1992.
. .
. .
:
.
. .
/
«
.:
/
/
, 1956.
.
/
, 1990. . 564–565.
.
, 2010.
. .
, . .
. .
.
. .
. .
.
,
.
1.
,
. .
. .
.
316.4(08)
60.52. 43
«
А. .
.
,P
-
»
»
«
А
.
ы
.
:
,
,
«
»,
,
,
.
A.L. Lomonosova
Saint Petersburg State University of Economics
Saint Petersburg, Russia
THE STRUCTURES OF SENSE PERCEPTION WITH
THE SYNTACTICALLY REALIZED COMPONENT
“BODY OF PERCEPTION” IN THE GERMAN LANGUAGE
Abstract. The article analyzes the structures of sense perception with the syntactically realized component “body of perception”, their semantic structures and
possible meaning.
Key words: the perceptive modality, subject of perception, object of perception,
body of perception, semantic structures.
«
»
,
,
,
.
,
,
,
:
.
,
,
,
.
: “ er sah sie mit den Augen an”
sah sie mit den verliebten Augen an”.
.
*
«
45
“Er
».
,
,
,
,
,
,
[10: 89, 157, 174, 813, 860],
“sehen”, “hören”, “betasten”,
,
“Auge”, “Ohr”
“Finger”.
.
,
“riechen” ё
“einen Geruch wahrnehmen”,
,
,
,
“schmecken”,
ё
: “einen Geschmack im Mund empfinden” [13: 265].
ё
,
“riechen”
“durch den Geruchssinn wahrnehmen”, a “schmecken”
“den Geschmack von etwas feststellen”,
: “er
schmeckte vorsichtig mit der Zunge” [5: 605, 853].
. .
,
“riechen”
“Geruchsempfindungen wahrnehmen”,
“schmecken”,
, “auf die Zunge nehmen u. Geschmack. die Beschaffenheit
von etw., einer Speise wahrnehmen, feststellen” [4: 161].
.
,
,
.
,
«
,
,
,
,
.
Blick/Auge,
.
.
,
»
.
:
,
)
,
–
2)
,
,
:
,
(
,
: 1)
(
,
).
”,
.
46
,
“
1. a) S + V +
b)
+ ;
+V+ ,
S–
,V–
,O–
.
2. ) S + V +
+ ;
b)
+ V + O,
V–
.
1.
: a) Der große Mann betrachtete ihn aus seinen nahe
beieinanderliegenden, versonnenen und dabei scharfen Augen [11: 162].
Er schaute mit seinen kleinen, blauen Augen Herr Gingold schlau und
freundlich in dessen braune, späherische, bebrillte [7: 368].
b) … die geblähten Nüstern schnupperten ein penetrant süßes und gemeines Parfüm [11: 63].
2.
,
: a) Durch sie[die
Scheibe] hindurch sog er den Abgrund gierig in seine nun zum erstenmal weit
geöffneten Augen [6: 760].
b) Meine Augen stürzten sich auf das Haus [3: 38]. …um die Briefe nicht zu
beschmutzen, die seine späherischen bebrillten Augen rasch überfliegen [7: 363].
,
,
«
»:
,
.
.
»
:
.
«
,
.
Blick/Auge,
,
:
Gleich gierigen Ratten liefen Gingolds harte Augen über die Zeilen,
bissen sich an einer Stelle fest, gingen weiter, bissen sich an einer zweiten Stelle
fest [7: 30]. … dabei glitten seine prüfenden Augen durch das Lokal, über die
Schauspieler hin … [11: 51]. ... um die Briefe nicht zu beschmutzen, die seine
späherischen bebrillten Augen rasch überfliegen [7: 363]. An dieses Haus
klammerte ich mich gleichsam mit meinen Blicken [3: 38]. Wohlgefällig gleitet
sein Aug über die silbrig grauen Dächer, dann zurück, die Reihen seiner Bücher
entlang [7: 108]. Fenice wandte sich nach ihm, ihr Blick folgte ihm … [8: 93].
.
.
47
.
,
,
.
,
,
,
:
Benjamin schaute ihm, solange er sprach, voll ins Gesicht mit seinem fanatischen, gesammelten und gleichwohl abwesenden Blick [7: 33]. Er … beschnüffelte und beroch das ungefügige Quadrat mit halbgeschlossenen Augen
nicht minder ergriffen als ein sentimentales Mädchen eine Tuberrose [14: 47].
,
,
,
ё
.
: Er ... schaute ihn aus den braunen, immer blutunterlaufenen Augen
böse an [7: 274].
:
,
.
.
,
,
:
,
,
,
,
: Der Mann
strahlte den Fischer an [9: 58].
,
,
,
. .: Das Mädchen glühte über das ganze
braune Gesicht, und ihre Augen funkelten [2: 180]. – Der Mann strahlte den Fischer an [9: 58].
,
.
.
«
»
.
,
,
:
,
,
.
, «
»,
–
.
,
,
: Er tastete mit seinen Fingern nach ihren hohen und
geschmeidigen Stiefeln [11: 72]. Grenouille sah mit sehr nüchternem Blick auf
die Stadt Grasse [12: 211].
ё
,
. .
48
,
,
:«
.
.
,
,
,
,
» [1: 128–129].
“betasten”
,
,
ё
–
,
.
Betasten; j-n/etw. b. j-n/etw. mit den Fingern berühren (zum Zweck e-r
Untersuchung) [10: 157].
«
–
»
: Er tastete mit seinen Fingern nach ihren
hohen und geschmeidigen Stiefeln [11: 72].
mit + Dat.,
.
,
«
–
»: … er schnuppert mit der eingedrückten Nase den süß vertrauten Geruch
… [11: 69].
«
–
»: er schmeckte vorsichtig mit der Zunge [5: 853].
,
“Ohr(en)”
,
.
,
“horchen, lauschen”
,
,
: Er
sprach hinunter zu dem Mann, der gespannt dasaß, die Hände hochgehalten, die
Augen auf die Klaviatur der Maschine gerichtet, dabei den Kopf etwas schräg
geneigt, bemüht lauschend auf die krähende Stimme [7: 185].
,
ё
,
,
.
–
–
,
: Sie hört nur mit halbem Ohr hin [7: 478].
,
,
,
,
«
,
ё
–
,
,
,
49
der Nase die Gegend ab –
,
» [2: 35].
–
.
,
– er suchte mit
.
,
.
»
,
«
«
ё
»,
,
,
«
»
: .: *Er schaute mit den
Augen ihn an – Er schaute mit seinen kleinen, blauen Augen ihn schlau und
freundlich an. *Der Mann betrachtete ihn aus seinen Augen – Der Mann betrachtete ihn aus seinen nahe beieinanderliegenden, versonnenen und dabei scharfen
Augen. Er schnuppert mit der Nase den süß vertrauten Geruch – er schnuppert
mit der eingedrückten Nase den süß vertrauten Geruch.
,
«
»
.
: 1)
; 2)
3)
.
1.
. .
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
/
. .
. 2-
,
. 1:
.
:
.,
.«
», 1995.
. .
:
/ . .
. .:
, 1991.
Böll, Heinrich. Mein trauriges Gesicht. Erzählungen. Moskau: Raduga Verlag,
2001.
Büntig K.-D. Deutsches Wörterbuch / K-D. Büntig, R. Karatas. Chur/Schweiz: Isis
Verlag AG, 1996.
Duden, “Stilwörterbuch der deutschen Sprache”: d.Verwendung d. Wörter im
Satz. 7., völlig neu bearb. u. erw. Aufl. / von Günther Drosdowski. Mannheim;
Wien; Zürich: Dudenverlag, 1988.
Dürrenmatt F. Der Richter und sein Henker. Der Verdacht: Romane / Friedrich
Dürrenmatt. Moskau: Tsitadel, 2000.
Feuchtwanger L. Exil: Roman / Leon Feuchtwanger. Berlin und Weimar: AufbauVerlag, 1988
Heyse P. Am Tiberufer: Novellenauswahl / Paul Heyse. Moskva:
«
», 2000.
Kauer W. Der Fischer // Erzählungen von deutschsprachigen Schriftstellern. Moskva:
- «
», 2000. S. 294–298.
.
2.
***
:
.:
50
10. Langenscheidts Großwörterbuch. Deutsch als Fremdsprache.
. .:
- «
», 1998.
11. Mann K. Mephisto: Roman einer Karriere / Klaus Mann. Moskva: Tsitadel, 2001.
12. Süskind P. Das Parfüm / Patrick Süskind. Zürich: Diogenes Verlag, 1994.
13. Wahrig G. Deutsches Wörterbuch / neu hrsg. von Dr. Renate Wahrig-Burfeind.
Gütersloh: Bertelsmann Lexikon Verlag, 2000.
14. Zweig S. Novellen / Stefen Zweig. Moskau: “Tsitadel”, 2001.
81.112’25
81.432.4-8
«
. .
.
А
.
,
-
,
.
,
.
,
.
,
ы
»
:
,
,
.
,
,
,
.
,
.
,
N.M. Maleeva
Saint Petersburg State University of Economics
Saint Petersburg, Russia
PECULIARITIES OF TRANSLATION OF GERMAN APHORISMS
OF ECONOMIC CONTENT
Abstract. This article describes language peculiarities of German aphorisms of
economic content, analyses causes of difficulties in their translating into Russian and
describes the possible ways of translation of aphorisms. While translating German
aphorisms into Russian one should consider such characteristics as their semantic
complexity, accuracy, brevity, expressiveness. The task of the translator is to accurately convey the author’s ideas, maintain the aphorism’s brevity, reflect the author’s individual style. The greatest challenge for the translator is represented by stylistically
51
marked statements. The article describes peculiarities of translation of syntactic structures, economic terms, occasional words, stylistic devices.
Key words: aphorism, translation, translation method, stylistic device.
,
,
,
«
.
.
,
» [3, 4].
«
. .
.
«…
,
»
,
»
ё
,
,
-
-
ё
,
.
» [4].
,
,
,
,
.
,
–
,
[2].
:
«
,
,
,
,
,
,
.
,
.
,
,
,
,
,
, “Moderne Form der
Astrologie: Wirtschaftsmagazine” ( . .
,
,
,
) [5].
“Der Kampf gegen den Mangel ist die ewige Grundlage der
Wirtschaft: er charakterisiert alle Zeiten, alle Zonen und alle Gesellschaftssysteme” ( . ё ,
) [5].
.
52
.
(
,
(
).
,
,
,
ё
,
.
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
[1, c. 248],
,
( .
,
-
,
,
,
,
.
.
.
,
.
,
,
),
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
.
.
.
Wirtschaft –
,
,
,
,
).
.
Nationalökonomie
:
“Nationalökonomie ist, wenn die Leute sich wundern, warum sie kein Geld haben” ( .
,
) [5]; “Wirtschaften ist
nichts anderes als die fortgesetzte Wahl zwischen verschiedenen Möglichkeiten,
und die Nationalökonomie ist im Grunde nichts anderes als die Lehre von den
Alternativen”
( . ё ) [5].
,
,
,
.
,
“Die einzige Wirtschaft, die immer
Konjunktur hat, ist die Cliquenwirtschaft” ( .
,
) [5]
Konjunktur.
nen
.
freie Preisbindung
,
, Fehlinvestitio: “Überkapazitäten und Fehlinvesti53
tionen gehören zu den Konstanten der freien Marktwirtschaft” ( .
,
) [5]; “Wer Marktwirtschaft sagt, sagt freie Preisbindung, Konkurrenz, Verlustrisiko und Gewinnchance, Selbstverantwortung, freie
Initiative, Privateigentum” ( . ё ) [5].
,
,
,
,
.
.
(
um... zu
,
).
,
,
.
: “Gewinn ist so notwendig wie die Luft zum Atmen,
aber es wäre schlimm, wenn wir nur wirtschaften würden, um Gewinne zu machen, wie es schlimm wäre, wenn wir nur leben würden, um zu atmen” ( . .
,
).
,
,
,
.
,
.
,
.
,
,
.
.
,
.
,
«
»
,
: “Es
wird so viel von Tariflöhnen der Arbeitnehmer gesprochen. Müßte es da nicht
gerechterweise auch so etwas wie Tarifgewinne geben?” ( .
,
,
) [5].
“Großunternehmen sind Umsatzriesen, die selbst als Ertragszwerge noch einen blendenden
Eindruck machen” ( .
,
) [5]
Umsatzriesen Ertragszwerge.
,
,
,
Ertragszwerge («
», «
»
.)
.
54
,
–
.
,
,
.
«
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
»,
. .
,
/
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
.
,
.
.
,
,
,
,
: “Mein Wirtschaftstip: Investieren Sie in
Telemark, Knochenmark oder Tomatenmark. Die Inflationsrate ist in allen drei
Fällen erstaunlich gering” ( .
,
,
) [5].
Bank («
»)
Bank («
»),
: “Mit einer Bank kann man viel anfangen, wenn man nicht darauf schläft” ( . .
,
,
) [5].
“Das Marktgewissen will nur das eine wissen” ( .
) [5]
Gewissen
wissen.
“Nicht jeder, der ab und zu eine Wirtschaft besucht, versteht
auch etwas von Wirtschaftspolitik” ( .
,
) [5]
Wirtschaft («
,
»)
Wirtschaft,
«
,
».
.
(
,
. . .
schaftswachstum:
.
»(
:«
,
).
Wirtschaft
,
.: «
. . .
»
-
“Wirtfloriert,
,
).
55
Flora
ё
:
krepiert”
[5]
,
,
,
. .
: “Wirtschaftspolitik wird von der Politik der Wirtschaft regiert” ( .
,
) [5] “Ob man es mag oder nicht, es ist Tatsache, dass
die Hauptthemen der heutigen Politik rein ökonomisch sind und nicht verstanden werden können ohne ein Verständnis von ökonomischer Theorie zu haben”
[5] ( . . .
,
).
,
,
.
,
“Die Volkswirtschaft, das sei hier nur angemerkt, ist die Arena, wo die Gegenwart zeigen kann,
was sie nominal leistet: zum Beispiel Karrieren zerstören, Privilegien versauen
und Geld zu entwerten” ( .
,
) [5]
,
versauen,
.
,
.
.
–
,
. .
.
.:
. .
//
1.
2.
. 13–19.
,
.
,
,
,
***
, 2006.
.
.
:
. 14.
.:
/
/
-
. .
, 2015.
. .,
. .
/ . .
, . .
//
.
.
.
. - . 2009. № 559. . 63–81.
4.
. .
.
:
. …
.
.
/ . .
. ., 2004 [
].
: http://www.dissercat.com/content/aforistichnost-kakcherta-idiostilya-v-tokarevoi.
5. Aphorismen.de: Aphorismen, Zitate, Sprüche und Gedichte [
].
: http://www.aphorismen.de.
3.
56
57
82(091)+94(44).05
83.000.3+63.3(4
)521.2
.А.
«
ы
.
«
А
»
.
–«
1812
.
,
ы
:
I,
»
,
I
»
I
.
,
,
,
.
.
,
.
,
-
N.A. Muzychuk
Murmansk Arctic State University
Murmansk, Russia
THE REFLEXION OF NAPOLEON’S RUSSIAN CAMPAIGN
IN FRENCH AND RUSSIAN LITERATURE
Abstract. One and the same event, the Russian campaign of Napoleon I, has
been viewed differently in the Russian and French societies. The events of the year
1812 played a significant role in the development of the Russian state and national
identity. For the French, however, it was one of Napoleon’s long military campaigns
which did not affect their daily and public life directly. In Russia these important
events were comprehended at all levels, including fiction. In French society these
events remained a subject matter of memoirs, preserving their clichéd perception and
not requiring special understanding.
Key words: Russian and French literature, Napoleon I, military campaign.
1812 .,
.
ё
,
(1796–1797)
58
.
,
(1815),
12
.
.
«
.
1812
1812 .
,
»
,
-
.- .- .
ё
.
,
.
.
,
-
.
.
: XVIII
:
,
.
,
,
,
1812 .
,
,
.
–
–
.
,
ё
,
,
,
,
,
.
,
59
,
,
,
,
,
,
-
.
,
.
.
,
,
,
XIX .
,
’
.
[1].
.
,
,
,
.
,
,
,
,
,
-
,
,
,
,
.
,
:
,
,
,
.
,
ё
,
,
,
«
,
.«
,
.
–
,
,
,
»
.
»
,
«
,
,
,
–
1812 .,
.
,
.
,
,
,
«
»
«
»
1812
».
.,
.
1812 .
.
«
XVIII .
.
».
.
.
–
.
.
,
.
-
,
,
.
.
,
,
,
,
,
»
.,
:
,
,
,
1812
.
-
«
,
.
.
,
,
» [2].
«
:
,
.
,
,
,
,
,
:
60
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
.
,
,
,
,
.
.
:
,
.
.
,
I.
,
,
[3, c. 239].
,
,
,
,
,
.
1812 .,
.
,
,
«
: «
». «
40–50
«
.
,
.
– 10
.
,
1812 .,
.
,
,–
, 5–
18»
»
,
,
(
,
.–
» [4].
[4].
.
.
, 29.11, «
,
,
,
» [5, c. 265–266].
,
,
.
61
...
,
,
,
)
:«
.
,
ё ,
: «
-
ё
»,
.
.
».
».
,
1812
,
» [6, c. 59].
.
,
.: «
.
.
, ,
,
,
,
,
.
ё
,
,
.
.
,
,
.
,
(un ours blanc).
1812 .
,
«
,
ё
,
.,
,
,
.
,
1812
,
,
,
.
1812 .
,
,
«
.
,
,
,
,
»
,
,
.
,
,
,
.
(
62
,
),
(
),
.
,
[7].
,
.
,
, ,
,
,
.
.
,
(
),
XIX . (1870–1871
,
XIX .
,
.
.
,
,
,
.)
.
«
.
.
ё
,
.
».
,
XX .
1812 .
.
. .
.
,
«
»
.
«
,
.
(Stendhal,
, 1783–1842)
,
–
.
,
.
,
.
ё
,
.
.
.
»
,
,
1812 .,
».
63
.
ё
.
,
,
,«
,
-
.
.
,
,
.
1812
.
,
.
ё
.
».
,
.
«
.
.
.
1812 .
,
,
,
.
.
«
,
1990,
1812 .
,
99%
1812/13
.
.
.
.
I.
1812 .
.
.
,
,
.
,
.
,
,
95%
.
,
,
1812 .
.
–5
.
.
***
1.
,
» [8].
.
[
no.ru/index.php?page=toread&type=view...
64
].
/
: http://www. borodi-
2.
. .
«
»
) //
(
. № 6. 2002.
[
].
http://vivovoco.rsl.ru/VV/JOURNAL/RUHIST/BOROD. HTM.
3.
. . .
1812
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
/ . .
. 38–51
:
.
(
-1.2.2-42) [
].
: www.borodino.
ru/download.php?file_id=190&__CM3.
.
.
/
.
:
, 1991.
.
.
//
. 2008. № 5. . 105–124.
. .
//
. 2012. № 2. . 53–63.
. .
1812
/ . .
[
].
: http://www.museum.ru/museum/1812/
Library/Borodino_conf/2006/Timasheva.pdf.
Hourtoulle F.-G. La Moscowa – Borodino. La bataille des redoutes / Francois-Guy
Hourtoulle. Paris: Histoire & Collections 2001.
65
811.11
81.2
-5
«
. .
.
А
»
,
-
.
.
,
.
ы
,
,
,
:
,
.
,
,
,
J.G. Timralieva
Saint Petersburg State University of Economics
Saint Petersburg, Russia
SPECIFICITY OF VERBAL FORMS USAGE IN THE LYRICS
OF GERMAN EXPRESSIONISTS
Abstract. The article is devoted to the lyrics of German Expressionists. The article reviews some features of the grammatical structure of expressionistic texts, in
particular reveals key trends in the functioning of verbal forms and analyses their role
in the realization of the artistic principles of Expressionism as a special aesthetic system.
Key words: expressionism, language picture of the world, verb, time, mood,
voice, nominative style
–
,
–
,
.
,
,
,
66
–
.
,
. «
,
,
»
,
.
.
,
.
,
:
.
,
,
,
-
,
«
»,
,
,
.
,
:
,
,
[2, c. 133–135].
:
,
/
,
,
.
–
.
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
sein/werden.
-
.
.
“Strand”
,
.
.
“Bolschewik” –
, .
,
,
. .
.
-
:
Welch ein Mai! Fest restloser Verbruderung! / Hymnische Chöre schwebender Frauen. / Von Kindern ein Psalm. / Männer schwingende. (Becher, “Ode
im Frühling 1916”)
,
,
.
,
.
67
.
,
75
Präsens,
10
Präsens.
,
129
44
,
Präteritum [5, s. 85]. Präsens
«
»:
,
,
,
,
,
.
«
»
«
»
.
.
Der Acker leuchtet weiss und kalt. / Der Himmel ist einsam und ungeheuer. / Dohlen kreisen über dem Weiher / Und Jäger steigen nieder vom Wald.
(Trakl, “Im Winter“)
Präteritum
,
.
,
«
».
«
,
,
,
.
,
,
,
,
,
»
[5, s. 107]:
Der Mund eines Mädchens, das lange im Schilf gelegen hatte, / sah so
angeknabbert aus. / Als man die Brust aufbrach, war die Speiseröhre so löcherig. / Schliesslich in einer Laube unter dem Zwerchfell / fand man ein Nest von
jungen Ratten. (Benn, “Schöne Jugend”)
,
Indikativ. Konjunktiv
.
,
.
,
.
–
,
,
,
:
,
:
Die Wärter schleichen auf den Sohlen leise, / Wo durch das Tuch es weiss
von Schädeln blinkt. / Wir, Tote, sammeln uns zur letzten Reise / Durch Wüsten
weit und Meer und Winterwind. (Heym, “Die Morgue”)
als ob
:
als wenn,
,
:
Schien der Opal des Himmels sehr wundersam / Als ob er die Leiche begütigen müsse. (Brecht, “Vom ertrunkenen Mädchen”)
68
Friedliche Welt, du grosse Mausefalle, / Entkäm’ ich endlich dir… O hätt’
ich Flügel // <...> Wär’ doch ein Wind… zerriß mit Eisenklauen / Die sanfte
Welt. Das würde mich ergetzen. / Wär’ doch ein Sturm… der müsst den schönen
blauen / Ewigen Himmel tausendfach zerfetzen. (Lichtenstein, “Sommerfrische”)
Imperativ
,
.
,
,
,
:
Lernt! Vorbereitet! Übt euch! (Becher, “Der Dichter meidet strahlende
Akkorde”)
,
–
:
/
,
:
Tritt aus dem Tor, Erscheinung, namenlose! / Kommt, ihr geheimnisvollen
frühen Triebe! / Kehr wieder, Sonntag! Schlaf mit mir, Rose / Am weissen Kleide
meiner ersten Liebe! (Hasenclever, “Tritt aus dem Tor, Erscheinung”)
–
:
O Gott, schließ um mich deinen Mantel fest… (Lasker-Schüler, “Gebet”)
–
–
,
,
(pars pro toto),
(
):
Komm, hebe ruhig diese Decke auf. / Sieh dieser Klumpen Fett... (Benn,
“Mann und Frau gehen durch die Krebsbaracke”)
(
),
(
)
(
):
Entrücke dich dem Stein! Zerbirst / die Höhle, die dich knechtet! Rausche /
doch in die Flur! verhöne die Gesimse – / sieh... (Benn, “Karyatide”)
/
,
)
,
(
,
,
(
ё
,
),
,
,
(
/
,
,
,
).
,
,
,
[3, c. 133–139].
–
69
,
(
,
).
.
,
:
Aufbiete deine Klugheit, deinen Glauben, deine Gesundheit, deine Phantasie, deine Stärke, deine Liebe, deine Gewandheit. / Versammle um dich die
Gefühle deiner Jugend... (Otten, “Gott“)
,
,
Aktiv.
Passiv
,
,–
.
,
,
: «
», «
», «
»
,
,
[4, c. 213].
–
,
,
:
,
,
[4, c. 218]:
Sieh, die Dinge sind lieb und wollen mich trösten... (Ehrenstein,
“Schmerz”)
–
lassen:
Man lässt sie schlafen. (Benn, “Mann und Frau gehen durch die Krebsbaracke”)
–
:
Gegrüßet und geheißen: Schlaf, Träne, Stube... (Werfel, “Warum mein
Gott”)
.
,
,
/
,
,
;
,
,
–
,
,
.
O Gelöbnis der Sünde! All’ ihr auferlegten Pilgerfahrtenin in entehrte
Betten! (Stadler, “Tage”)
Auf lange Krücken schief herabgedrückt/ Und schwatzend kriechen auf
dem Feld zwei Lahme. (Lichtenstein, “Dämmerung”)
70
Fäden möchte ich um mich ziehen/ Wirrwarr endend!/ Beirrend,/ Euch
verwirrend… (Lasker-Schüler, “Weltflucht”)
,
,
,
,
.
***
1.
.:
2.
. .
//
, 1968. . 4: 1848–1918. . 536–564.
. .
//
2013.
№ 5.
3.
4.
5.
6.
.
:
:
.
:
5
.
.
, 2013. . 132–138.
. .
//
.
.
:
. 2014. № 2
:
, 2014. . 133–139.
. .
//
.
.
:
. 2015. № 2.
:
, 2015. . 213–219.
Grote Chr. Wortarten, Wortstellung und Satz im lyrischen Werk Geog Heyms:
Dissertation. München, 1962.
Menschheitsdämmerung. Ein Dokument des Expressionismus. Mit Biographien
und Bibliographien neu her. von K. Pinthus. Berlin: Rowohlt, 2013.
71
81’2/’44
81.003
.А.
«
.
»
,
1
А
.
«
.
»,
ы
,
.
,
:
,
.
,
,
,
.
Y.A. Tyurkan
Murmansk Arctic State University
Murmansk, Russia
GEOGRAPHICAL COMPONENT AS PART OF THE CONCEPT
STRUCTURE: SOME ASPECTS OF DESCRIPTION
Abstract. The paper discusses geographical component as part of the concept
structure and some ways of its language representation. Geographical component is
viewed as an immediate constituent of the sphere of concepts “Space” as well as an
element belonging to other spheres of concepts which describe the life of man and society. The manifestation of geographical factor may occur in various parts of the conceptual domain through the indication of natural and weather conditions, geographical names, specificity of flora and fauna names.
Key words: concept, conceptual analysis, geographical component, language
representation of the geographical component.
,
.
,

«
1
(
).
72
№ 15-04-00465
(
)».

«
»
«
.
. . (
.
»
(
.
: «
).
/
,
,
ё
,
», «
,
,
),
,
,
.
,
»,
ё
,
,
,
.
,
,
. . [6; 7].
.
(c .,
[2]).
-
.
,
[5].
,


. .
.
,
.
, «...
,
. .
,
,
» [2].
,
ё
.
.
/
,
,
.
73
,
. .
,
,
,
(
);
,
–
,
[4, . 40–44; 10].
«
».
(
.
);

:
,
,
:
,
–
;
;
,
,
.
:
,
,
–
[3].
. .
);
,
,
,
(
,
. .
,
);
);
(
[9]
,
(
,
(
,
,
(
);
) [1].
,
:
(
)
,
)
(
);
(
1)
,
(
-
);
),
.
:
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
(
.
,
,
,
(
,
,
.
,
).
,
,
,
74
,
,
;
,
2)
,
-
,
,
. .
(
.
[8]
)
:

;

,
ё ,
,
;

,
-
,
-
,
,
,
-
,
-
-
,
,
.
ё
,
,
,

-
-
,
,
-
,
-
-
,
,
;
,
.
.
[
1)
,
.
: 8]:
:

.
,
(
)
(
:
,
,

.
),
,
(
), . .
.
75
,
,
,
:
;

,
,
,
,
,
,
,
.
(
3)
:
.
,
2)
,
.
. .
,
,
),
,
.
ё
,
,
-
,
. .
,
.
,

, . .
,
,
,
-
.
,
,
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,
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ё
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.
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,
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,
,
(
,
,
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;
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,
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, . .
,
,
.
, . .
,

76
,
[
.
: 2],
,
,
:
,
,
,
),
. .,
,
,
,
,
,
.
.
,
:
,
,
,

.
.
,
).
,
(

,
:
(
/
-
,
,
Rose

,
,
/
, . .
).
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
:
/
- -
,
,
.
,
,
).
. .
,
»
-
. .
-
«
(
,
,
),
,
,
,
:
(
-
:
:
,
.
,
(
street
,
,
«
77
,
,
.
/
,
,
,
,
»,
,
,
:
,
.
,
,
,
-
,
-
. .
.
. .
,
1.
:
. .
,
***
-
,
-
) /
. .
«
.
,
і
» (
.
. 4. 2013. № 2. . 30–34.
2.
. .
/ . .
//
.
/
.
. . .
, . .
. .:
, 2000. . 127–134.
3.
. .
:
.
. ...
.
: 10.02.02 / . .
.
, 2008.
4.
. .
:
. ...
.
.
: 10.02.19 /
. .
.
, 2004.
5.
. .
(
) /
. .
.
.
:
. 2006. № 2. . 5–16.
6.
. .
,
/ . .
//
.
/
.
.: . .
,
. .
. .:
, 2000. . 84–93.
7.
. .
/ . .
. .:
,
2008.
8.
. .
«
»
:
.
. ...
.
.
: 10.02.05 / . .
.
, 2013.
9.
. .
«
»/ . .
//
. 2009. № 11. . 185–188.
10.
. .
/ . .
[
].
: http://
psibook.com/linguistics/struktura-i-interpretatsiya-polya-lokalnosti-v-sovremennomrusskom-yazyke.html.
78
79
II.
372.881.111.1
74268.13=432.1
.А.
«
.
,
.А.
.
А
,
»
№5
.
.
.
-
:
ы
:
,
.
.
.
,
,
S.A. Vinogradova
Murmansk Arctic State University
Murmansk, Russia
E.A. Vinogradov
School № 5
Murmansk, Russia
FORMATION OF DISCUSSIVE SKILLS AT ENGLISH LESSONS
IN HIGH SCHOOL
Abstract. The article discusses the use interactive forms of work for the formation of pupils’ discussive skills in the frame of communicative competence. Discussive skills are viewed as the ability to manage speech for the purpose of solving communicative tasks. Discussive skills are presented as belonging to three levels: communicative-reproductive, communicative-active and communicative-interactive. Examples of interactive activities are suggested.
Key words: discussive skills, communicative competence, interactive forms of
teaching.
80
(
,
:
•
;
)
,
,
•
,
,
,
[1].
,
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,
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.
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,
,
81
,
,
,
«
. 34].
» [2,
.
,
,
» [2, . 34],
,
.
,
,
,
.
,
,
,
[2, 3, 4].
,
,
,
,
[3].
,
,
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» [2, c. 10].
,
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,
,
,
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82
. .
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,
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,
.
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,
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–
,
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,
[2, c.
48].
.
[2, . 58]. . .
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83
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;
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
;
, «
»
[2, c. 69].
.
,
(
,
.
)
,
[4].
ё
,
ё
,
.
.
,
:
1. Find the odd one out and explain your choice to the partner.
2. One partner names a word, another names the opposite.
3. Translate into English. Check your partner’s notes.
4. Guess the word by the definition given by your partner.
5. Listen to the tape script, fill in the gaps then check your partner by asking questions.
,
,
,
.
-
:
1. Describe the landscape of Australia using the following words: largest
island, population, great deserts, main rivers, different from… The task for the
listener is to count how many new words the partner has used.
2. Take one of the pictures, do not look at it, but show it to your partner.
The partner has to describe the landscape which is shown. Your task is to guess
the landscape of which country is described. You can also ask questions.
3. Listen to the tape script, fill in the gaps then check your partner by
asking questions.
,
84
.
.
-
,
,
,
,
«
.
»,
.
,
.
.
,
,
,
.
,
,
,
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.
,
:
. .
,
,
…;
;
(



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

.
:
,
–
,
[2, . 130].
,
,
,
),
,
-
,
,
,
,
:
,
,
(“What do you mean saying that…?”, “Can you
prove your point of view?”);
–
,
(“You said
that…”, “Still I don’t understand your position…”);
–
,
(“Can you explain your position once more”);
«
»
(“Is it so?”, “Are you sure?”);
«
» –
,
;
«
» –
,
;
85
 «
» –
-
(“It is impossible”) [2, . 130–131].
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
.
,
.
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
–
.
***
1.
.
2.
[
/documents/2365.
. .
].
. .
;
.
.
61:05-13/1248 [
].
ru.net/diss/cont/108843.html.
3.
. .
//
:
, 19–20
2012 . /
, 2013. . 76–81.
4.
. .
:
.
.…
-
.
.
. .
,
,
,
,
,
(
: http://
)
-
.
. 13.00.02 /
, 2004.
,
: http://www.lib.ua-
-
.
:
-
:
. …
.
.
. 13.00.08 / . .
.
, 2008 [
].
:
http://www.dslib.
net/prof-obrazovanie/razvitie-kommunikativno-kognitivnojavtonomii-studentov-na-prodvinutom-jetape.html.
86
378-046
74.58
. .
«
.
А
»
,
.
-
.
,
-
«
.
ы
,
:
,
,
»
,
,
.
Zh.Ye. Voinova
Petrozavodsk State University
Petrozavodsk, Russia
ORGANIZING INDEPENDENT WORK OF ENGLISH EDUCATION
MAJORS: PAIR AND GROUP MODEL
Abstract. The article discusses the problem and sums up the author’s personal
experience of arranging English Education majors’ (BSED) independent and selfdirected learning by means of pair and group work. Possible ways of creating pair
and group work, tasks and speech situations samples are highlighted.
Key words: key competences, students’ independent and self-directed learning,
pair and small group work, stable and rotating pairs, cooperative learning tasks,
speech situations.
. .
, . .
.
,
( . .
.)
(
, . .
,
. .
)
,
,
.
,
87
,
,
.
,
«
44.03.05
»
», «
«
.
(
,
,
–
,
,
,
.
;
2»;
.
,
. .).
,
.
«
»
;
«
,
,
1» –
;
;
c
Moodle;
(
(FCE)
; c
,
,
.
. .,
;
;
;
;
,
.
.
88
;
c
Moodle moodle.petrsu.ru
«
.
».
,
: “Education”, “Eating
styles”, “Healthy way of life”, “Sports”, “Travelling”, “Political and Social
issues”, “Theater”.
,
(
)
.
,
.
,
,
,
,
.
.
. .,
,
.
,
,
,
,
.
.
,
,
,
.
.
-
,
«
»
: Mona Lisa Smile
(«
») 2003, An Education («
/
») 2009, Dead Poets Society («
») 1989, Good
Will Hunting («
») 1997, Larry Crown («
»)
2011, The Perks of Being a Wallflower («
») 2012.
,
.
;
:
;
89
,
.
. .,
-
(
,
);
/
(
;
)
,
,
;
;
;
,
;
,
;
;
;
,
;
;
;
;
,
;
;
/
.
(task-oriented
/
approach),
(cooperative learning tasks) [5, . 8].
«
(cooperative
learning)» (Bejarano J.A., Hadfield J., Tomalin B., Stempleski S.,
.)
,
,
.
[3, 4, 5].
[1].
:

:
;

:
(
,
–
,
).
,
,
.
,
,
,
,
.
,
,
.
90
.
.
,
.
,
,
.
,
.
.
,
.
.
«
»( . .
3–7
.
,
) [1, . 60].
.
–
,
,
.
.
:


,
(


;
);
;
.
[1]
»,
,
,
. .
«
-
.
,
. .
, rrange a discussion on typical
American and Russian diets, state their advantages and disadvantages. Find out
which diet your friends would prefer to follow, if they have any stereotypes
about American diet.
,
,
.
, poll
your friends and find out what they think about sports in Russia. Sum up the
results and present them in class.
(
,
,
,
,
. .).
91
, look through the given
information and speak about the financial aspect of getting education in GB.
Discuss this problem in class.
«
»
:
/
. . Which one do you support –
living to eat or eating to live? Discuss it with your friends and find arguments
for and against each part of the statement. If possible, find out what Americans
think about it, compare the attitudes to the statement in both cultures, and make
your conclusions.
(
).
.
ё
,
,
,
.
ё
/
«
.
.
.
,
.
,
,
,
,
) [2].
»( . .
,
-
,
,
.
.
,
( . .
) [2],
•
(
,
:
.
. .)
,
, poll your friends and find out what they think
about their lifestyles. Sum up the results and present them in class.
•
/
,
,
. .
,
,
, make a presentation on school and university education in Great
Britain. Be ready to answer your classmates’ questions.
92
,
,
,
,
.
«


,


( . .
,
,
(
,
)
;
,
.
,
-
,
.
2.
. .
***
:
/
. .
;
,
;
,
. .
.
. .
;
,
,
)
;
,

1.
)
»:
,

(
, 1989. 89 .
//
,
/
.
.
.
. 4:
. .
. .
:
, 2000. . 4–15.
3. Bejarano J.A. Cooperative Small-group Methodology in the Language Classroom /
J.A. Bejarano. Washington, 1987.
4. Hadfield J. Classroom Dynamics / J. Hadfield. Oxford: Oxford University Press,
1992.
5. Tomalin B., Stempleski S. Cultural Awareness / B. Tomalin, S. Stempleski.
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993.
93
94
372.881.111
22.18-9
«
.
А
-
А.А.
,
»
.
,
.
,
.
ы
:
,
.
,
,
,
,
A.A. Karasev
Saint Petersburg State University
Saint Petersburg, Russia
TEACHING GRAMMAR TO MASTER DEGREE STUDENTS
OF MATHEMATICS AT THE FINAL STAGE
OF THE ENGLISH COURSE
Abstract. The article discusses peculiarities of teaching English Grammar to
master degree students of Mathematics, identifies subject matter of educational activity of the students. Also a set of exercises, directed to reinforcing of obtained grammar
skills is defined.
Key words: teaching Grammar, grammatical section, Master Degree students
of Mathematics, system of exercises, grammar skills.
,
,
.
,
,
95
.
ё
,
,
.
-
,
,
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.
.
(
1)
.
,
(2001) [2]
(2001) [1],
,
2)
;
,
,
.
.
,
,
-
,
,
,
.
•
•
:
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.
,
:
;
;
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.),
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,
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,
;
,
,
,
.
:
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;
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,
);
;
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,
;
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.
: 1)
-
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; 2)
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/
); 5)
/
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); 6)
.
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; 3)
/
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,
,
,
),
,
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; 7)
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.
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/
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; 4)
-
.
,
,
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.
.
:
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;
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; )
; )
; )
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,
;
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-

,
,
,
;
;
;
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;

;
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,
;
,

ё
,
,
.
.
,
,
,
.
,
,
.
ё



,
:
,
,
;
,
;
,
;
-
98
,
ё

;
,
ё

ё
,


,
ё

,



;
ё
,
,
;
,
;


,
,
,
. .;
,
;
ё
;
,
;



;
,
;
,
;
;
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,
-
-
,
;
.
,
,
,
.
1.
2.
.:
-
. .
/ . .
. .
«
***
.
.:
-
», 2001.
99
«
»
, 2001.
/ . .
.
100
372.881.111
22.18-9
«
.
-
А.А.
»
,
-
А
.
.
-
,
.
,
.
ы
,
:
,
,
-
.
,
A.A. Karasev
Saint Petersburg State University
Saint Petersburg, Russia
ON DEVELOPING BACHELORS’ GRAMMAR SKILLS
IN THE PREPARATION FOR THE FINAL TESTING
Abstract. This article is devoted to topical issues of improving the effectiveness
of teaching English grammar undergraduate students of mathematical specialties. The
author investigates the final stage of formation of grammatical skills prior to the final
state test. The article also discusses some practical aspects of the didactic use of examination materials obtained during earlier tests.
Key words: final testing, students-bachelors, actual questions, grammar skill,
educational activity.
,
,
,
.
-
,
,
,
,
,
,
.
-
101
,
.
,
.
,
,
,
.
,
,
,
,
.
,
-
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
.
.
,
,
:
1)
,
,
,
.
,
,
[1];
2)
,
,
,
,
;
–
;
,
,
3)
;
,
-
4)
,
ё
:
. .;
102
,
5)
ё
;
6)
,
,
,
,
;
7)
[2, . 141].
,
,
.
,
,
,
.
-
.
,
,
.
,
,
.
:
•
,
;
•
ё
,
•
,
,
ё
;
,
;
,
. .),
103
(
),
(
,
•
(
,
•
,
•
,
•
,
ё
,
);
ё
,
;
ё
,
-
,
;
,
ё
,
;
,
,
;
,
,
•
•
,
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,
;
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,
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,
;
,
;
,
,
,
)
•
.
,
(
;
;
,
,
;
,
;
,
;
104
,
,
,
,
;
•
•
.
;
•
,
ё
ё
ё
,
,
,
•
,
•
ё
;
•
;
,
ё
ё
•
,
.
,
,
,
,
,
ё
ё
,
,
;
,
,
,
ё
,
,
.
.
,
-
,
,
,
***
1. Finocchiaro M., Brumfit C. The Functional-Notional Approach: from theory to
practice / Mary Finocchiaro, Christopher Brumfit. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1983.
2. Ivanovskaya I.P., Nefyodov O.V. Teaching foreign languages to nonlinguistic students in non-authentic environment //
:
VIII
.
«
». North Charleston, SC, USA, 2015.
. 139–146.
105
372.881.111.1
74.268.1
. .
«
.
А
.
,
ё
.
,
,
»
.
,
ы
ё
,
:
,
.
Y.N. Kvasyuk
Murmansk Arctic State University
Murmansk, Russia
PECULIARITIES OF TEACHING ENGLISH TO VISUALLY
IMPAIRED CHILDREN
Abstract. The article states the importance of creating adaptive environment for
pupils with sight violation, it describes the main methods of teaching English to visually impaired children. These methods help to master the main educational program and
to keep the eye-sight of the children. The article describes the peculiarities of teaching
grammar and vocabulary to the visually impaired children.
Key words: visually impaired children, special adaptive methods, teaching English.
ё
.
,
.
/
.
.
106
,
,
,
,
,
,
(
,
,
,
).
(
,
,
,
-
,
.
,
,
.
,
,
) 0,05–0,2
(
).
,
,
.
;
-
,
,
,
,
,
.
ё
,
ё
.
,
,
,
,
.
,
.
,
,
,
. .,
.
:
-
,
.
107
,
«
ё
,
».
.
.
,
[7]
, /
,
,
.
(
,
,
:«
»
(
):
,
. .
:
,
«
).
,
,
,
».
.
ё
[3].
.
:
.
,
.
,
.
,
,
)
,
.
,
.
.
,
).
,
,
108
,
(Total Physical Response)
[5; 7].
(
(
,
–
,
«
.
»
,
.
I haven’t, I won’t
,
. .
.
.
,
,
,
,
:
1.
,
.
.
2.
,
.
.
3.
(
).
4.
,
,
,
.
5.
: 10×10, 20×30
.
6.
[1].
,
,
(
ё
,
(
,
,
.
,
,
. .).
. .),
(
[2, 4].
)
,
.
109
,
,
,
,
(
,
.
ё
,
,
***
].
. .,
. .
. № 7. 2015. . 37–42.
. .,
3.
[
4.
. .,
].
ё
. .
. .
/ . .
: http://www.english4blind.ru.
//
/ . .
, . .
: http://www.english4blind.ru.
//
.
:
/
.
. . .
:
, 2015. . 134–141.
Araluce H.A. Teaching English as a foreign language to blind and visually impaired young learners: the Affective Factor (Tesis Doctoral) / H.A. Araluce. Cuenca, 2005. URL: https://ruidera.uclm.es/xmlui/bitstream/.
Barnes R., Kashdan S. Teaching English as a new Language to Visually Impaired
and Blind ESL Students: Problems and Possibilities / S. Kashdan, R. Barnes,
C.E. Walsh.
: http://www.afb.org.
Harmer J., The practice of English language teaching (third edition) / Jeremy
Harmer. Longman, 2001.
Listen and Touch: a basic English course for the visually impaired. Socrates Lingua, 2002.
XIII
5.
6.
7.
8.
,
ё
.
. .
2.
,
.
,
,
[
,
,
)
1.
,
:
110
811:37.018.43
81.2-9
.А.
«
.
А
.
–
,
.
,
,
-
.
,
ы
:
»
.
,
-
,
.
,
-
S.A. Kobtseva
Murmansk Arctic State University
Murmansk, Russia
POSSIBILITIES OF USING SKYPE FOR FOREIGN
LANGUAGE TEACHING
Abstract. This article focuses on one of the modern technologies of teaching
foreign languages – Skype-technology which gives a unique opportunity to receive
new knowledge and practice language practical skills. The article discusses the technical possibilities of this educational technology. In addition, the author shares the
experience of training and considers Internet resources that contribute to effective
teaching foreign languages with Skype.
Key words: technical possibilities, the advantages of Skype-technology, Internet resources.
:
,
.
,
111
,
.
,
,
.
, . .
.
?
,
,
,
,
.
,
,
,
,
.
,
,
,
.
,
.
,
,
[3, c. 150].
.
,
«
,
,
,
»
,
. .
«
“English-Natali”,
»
,
112
,
,
.
.
.
,
–
,
, . .
[5].
.
.
–
,
,
.
,
,
,
,
,
.
).
–
(
,
,
,
,
.
,
,
.
,
,
.
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
-
.
.
.
:
[2, c. 250–251].
«
«
,
).
–
-
,
,
(
»
.
»
,
,
–
,
113
,
.
1.
,
,
2.
,
,
.
.
,
(
3.
,
.
,
,
off-line
5.
).
.
6.
ё
.
.
.
(
,
. .).
–
.
•
• screen share
,
•
-
(
.
,
(Whiteboard);
.
,
,
:
;
,
(
.
on-line,
,
.
);
,
.
4.
•
•
–
).
.
(
7.
8.
,
,
. .) –
-
–
;
(
):
http://www.englishexercises.org/makeagame/viewgame.asp
http://www.englishexercises.org/buscador/buscar.asp
http://www.englishexercises.org/makeagame/viewgame.asp
http://learnenglishteens.britishcouncil.org/grammar-vocabulary/grammarvideos/used
http://www.flashcardmachine.com
114
,
https://www.facebook.com/EnglishNatali
Whiteboard
http://www.
lessonpaths.com/learn/i/whiteboard-wall-project/idroo-whiteboard-for-skype.
,
,
. .
.
,
.
,
,
,
, . .
[1, c. 290].
,
.
[4, c. 84].
«
»
,
,
.
«
»
,
.
1.
***
. .
)
/ . .
2010. . 13. № 2. . 289–301.
2.
. .
-
(
//
.
/
//
,
. 150–151.
3.
(
):
/
. .
. 2010. № 1. . 203–210.
Skype-
-
. . .
/
115
. .
. .
,
//
.
.
.
.
2011.
4.
5.
. .
. .
:
[
-
-
//
«
].
. 2014. № 3. . 83–86.
».
7, № 1 (
–
: http://naukovedenie.ru.
116
/
.
2015).
378.14
74.58
. .
«
.
(
»
,
)
А
.
.
,
.
ы
.
,
:
,
,
.
M.M. Kremlyova
Murmansk Arctic State University
Murmansk, Russia
TRAINING SPECIALISTS IN TEACHING
A FOREIGN LANGUAGE TO YOUNG LEARNERS
(DRAWING ON THE EXPERIENCE
OF MURMANSK ARCTIC STATE UNIVERSITY)
Abstract. The article discusses problems of training of specialists in teaching a
foreign language to young learners (drawing on the experience of MASU). Special
emphasis is placed on competences to be acquired by the specialist. In the article an
attempt is made to correlate the necessary teacher’s knowledge and skills with training programmes, as well as the possibilities of their correction.
Key words: teaching a foreign language to young learners, competence of the
specialist in early language training, the curriculum.
1.
,
,
:
,
,
117
,
.
2.
,
.
3.
4.
.
.
,
,
.
,
.
,
[2, . 3].
«
»,
. .
[3, . 78].
. .
,
,
.
«
.
»,
,
.
,
,
.
. .
.
,
,
[1, . 2].
,
118
,
,
,
:

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;
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:
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,
,
.
:
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,
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,
,
;
,
;
;
;
;
.
119
;
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,
;
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;
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:
;
:
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,
(
.
,
,
);
,
44.03.05
.
.
,
.
,
.
,
,
,
.
.
,
.
,
,
44.03.05
(
)
,
,
.
».
,
,
«
.
,
.
700–800
),
(
.
120
,
.
***
1.
.
. .
2.
.
3.
030900.00
. ., 2000.
/ . .
. .
.
, 2000.
/ . .
. 1990. № 6. . 78–82.
121
:
.
,
. .
.…
.
//
122
372.881.111.1
74.268
. .
«
, . .
.
,
»
7А
.
7-
.
,
ы
,
:
.
,
,
.
,
O.S. Martovitskaya, O.V. Putistina
Murmansk Arctic State University
Murmansk, Russia
INTERACTIVE TECHNOLOGIES IN TEACHING ENGLISH
GRAMMAR TO THE PUPILS OF THE 7th GRADE
OF THE SECONDARY SCHOOL
Abstract. The article discusses the peculiarities of the use of interactive technologies in teaching English grammar to the pupils of the 7th grade of the secondary
school. The authors of the article explains why the use of interactive technologies is
effective in terms of developing secondary school pupils’ productive grammar skills in
speaking, and the authors also give the examples of the interactive technologies that
have been successfully used in the classroom in the process of developing pupils’
grammar skills.
Key words: interactive approach, interactive technology, pair and group work,
communicative task, productive grammar skills.
.
123
,
(
)
(
)
. .,
.
.,
. .,
.,
.,
(
.,
. .,
,
. .,
. .,
,
,
(
.,
.)
. .
)
,
.
,
(
•
);
•
•
•
•
. .
.
,
.
[1,
:
. 127]
,
;
;
;
.
)
:
,
-
–
.
(
,
.
.
,
124
-
,
-
.
-
.
,
,
,
,
,
,
.
,
–
,
.
:
–
–
,
,
).
–
–
,
/
).
. .
. .
(
,
,
(
[2, . 179]
.
,
,
:
.
,
,
,
.
.
.
,
. .
:
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;
;
;
.
,
,
–
,
,
,
.
–
.
–
.
,
125
;
;
[5]
,
,
[3, 4].
№
Simple (
33
.
–
,
–
-
,
,
fect”
»:
.
,
,
.
,
«
-
».
,
.
.
,
“Present Perfect Continuous”,
,
).
-
.
–
,
,
,
,
Present Simple.
,
4
,
.
.
–
»
:
,
(
3
»
«
(Buzz groups),
,
2
Present
)
«
1
.
7-
,
,
.
,
,
Perfect Continuous.
,
,
and always enjoy your life” («
),
–
126
,
,
«
,
“Present Per-
–
(
–
Present Perfect
,
Present
: “You are an optimist
»)
“You are a very arrogant person and think you
are smarter than anybody” («
»).
«
»
«
»,
«
cream?” («
»)
:
30
.
»,
.
,
/
: «
»,
(
).
: “How many people in the class like chocolate ice
-
“Who has pink/green/red on his clothes?” («
/
?»).
,
,
.
,
.
,
«
», «
», «
,
,
«
».
,
.
«
»
.
,
»,
. .
,
.
1.
/ . .
***
. .
.
. .,
2.
. .
:
. .
,
, 2013.
-
:
-
/
. .
.
.:
«
“
”», «Cambridge University Press», 2001.
3.
.
/
.
,
.
. .:
, 1983.
4.
. .
//
. 2005. № 8. . 39–42.
5. Little D. Communicative Language Teaching / D. Little. Cambridge University
Press, 2013.
127
128
811:37.016
81.003+74.026
. .
«
.
(
А
)
.
.
.
,
ы
,
,
»
,
:
,
,
,
.
,
.
,
,
,
V.G. Piksendeeva
Murmansk Arctic State University
Murmansk, Russia
THE COGNITIVE APPROACH IN THE INNOVATIVE
LANGUAGE TEACHING TOOLS
Abstract. The article is devoted to the problem of implementation of cognitive
approach in the language teaching methodology. The author depicts the ways of building up lexical skills within the framework of cognitive science, providing some useful
examples and peculiar features of this method. There are some teaching tools which
can be identified as main for getting key words, structuring associative fields and organizing associative experiments.
Key words: cognitive linguistics, concept, conceptualization process, world picture, cognitive picture, language picture, language system, mental pictures, the method of associations.
.
(
.
–
,
,
,
–
[3, . 65].
129
,
)
.
:«
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
“
,
,
!”,
» [1, . 114].
ё
.
,
ё
ё
. 78].
,
.
-
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
[5,
,
.
,
.
,
,
ё
. 269].
,
,
,
» [1,
,
,
.
,
.
,
,
,
,
.
«
;
,
.
world) [10, . 13].
,
ё
,
,
«
»
(projected
ё
.
,
:
)
(
,
,
.
.
ё
.
.
.
ё
,
,
,
,
,
130
(
-
,
,
,
,
,
).
ё
,
».
(
).
«
,
, . .
» [6, . 67].
,
«
»
«
,
,
–
,
.
.
,
,
,
table.
,
.
[8, . 34].
,
.
,
.
.
2.
«
».
,
,
,
,
,
.
«Family»
:
»
,
,
-
,
,
131
,
.
(
,
).
,
,
,
,
:
:
-
«
(
(
«
,
»
,
));
,
,
;
,
);
,
(
,
» [6, . 38].
warming up activities,
.
:
1.
(key word) –
,
,
,
,
.
.
2.
,
.
,
.
-
,
.
.
,
,
,
,
–
,
,
,
.
,
(
.
,
.
).
.
132
1.
,
,
3.
,
(journal/magazine).
4.
5.
.
-
2.
,
,
.
,
,
,
(
-
,
.
,
).
.
,
6.
,
.
7.
8.
,
.
1.
2.
:
.
,
,
(
,
.
.
),
.
,
.
3.
,
.
.
–
.
,
,
,
.
,
,
.
,
.
133
1.
. .
2.
3.
.
c
4.
5.
.
.
. . .
, 1999.
. .
.
. …
. . .
. .
. .
) //
***
. .
. . 1.
;
.
, 2004.
.:
.
.
/
.
, 1994.
. .
.
«
: 10.02.04 /
/ . .
.
31.
;
. .
.:
/
.
.
.
;
»
:
.
.:
-
.
., 1959.
(
. 1997. . 56. № 3. . 22–
. .
/ . .
.
.: . . .
, 2003.
7.
. .,
. .
/ . .
,
. .
. .:
:«
», 2007.
8. Atkinson R.C., Raugh M.R. An application of the mnemonic keyword method to
the acquisition of Russian vocabulary // Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory. 1975. 1 (2). P. 126–133
9. Gruneberg M.M. A commentary on criticism of the keyword method of learning
foreign languages // Applied Cognitive Psychology. 1998. 12. P. 529–532.
10. Jackendoff R. Semantics and cognition / R. Jackendoff. Cambridge, Mass: The
MIT Press, 1993.
6.
134
135
378.14
74.58
. .
«
.
,
»
А
.
,
,
.
.
-
,
,
-
ы
,
:
,
.
-
,
O.V. Putistina
Murmansk Arctic State University
Murmansk, Russia
ON USING OF INTERACTIVE FORMS IN THE PROCESS
OF TRAINING FUTURE INTERPRETERS AND TRANSLATORS
Abstract. The article discusses the compliance of the teaching potential of interactive forms with the requirements of the Federal state educational standard on
“Linguistics. Interpretation and Translation”. The author verifies the idea that despite
some peculiarities of the future professional activities of interpreters and translators
the use of the elements of interactive education in the process of professional training
contributes to the development of some basic professional competences of future interpreters and translators.
Key words: interactive approach, competence, interactive forms, linguistinterpreter, translator.
.
-
,
.
,
136
,
10
. .
, ,
. .
,
,
: «…
(
. .
,
.),
. .
. .
(
. .
.
,
,
,
,
,
,
» [4, . 96].
, . .
.),
,
,
. .
, . .
,
,
ё
«
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?».
,
?», «
?», «
?»
«
?»,
,
«
».
035700
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. 7.3
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(
) «
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» [6].
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)
,
(
,
,
)
(
-
[5].
«
»?
,
.
,
,
,
.
,
.
,
137
,
.
.
,
,
.
-
. .
,
,
. .
.
.
–
,
,
,
. .
,
,
,
«
»
,
,
.
–
,
.
.
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,
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[5]:
,
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,
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,
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-19);
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,
;
138
-17).
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;
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-
.
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.
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.
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;
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);
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.
)
)»;
;
);
,
;
,
139
,
«
», «
.
,
«
»
.
.
,
/
,
,
ё
.
.
.
, The story is about a horse.)
,
.
,
,
ё
(
,
,
.
,
» (mind maps),
,
1
,
,
3-
.(
.)
,
,
.
,
.
:
,
.
,
140
,
.
,
,
,
.
,
,
,
,
,
.
:
,
,
.
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»,
,
,
,
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,
.
.
,
(
,
. .).
,
,
. .
,
.
«
[7].
. .
,
(
,
,
.
«
».
-
.
,
.
,
».
,
:
. .).
,
,
,
141
,
,
;
,
.
,
-
.
,
,
. .
. .
4.
. .
:
.
. .
.
. .
.
***
. .
1.
2.
3.
,
.:
/ . .
.:
, 1991.
.
.
.:
, 2000.
:
/
,
, 2013.
/
//
. 2015. № 9 (51), . 1. .
96–99.
5.
.
45.03.02
[
http://fgosvo.ru/uploadfiles/ fgosvob/450302_Lingvistika.pdf (
14.01.2015).
.
6.
(
(
) «
») [
URL: http:// fgosvo.ru/uploadfiles/fgos/3/20111115120152.pdf (
14.01.2015).
7.
. .
//
. 2013. № 9. . 427–430.
142
].
URL:
:
035700
].
:
143
378.14
74.58
. .
«
.
А
,
»
.
,
,
ы
,
,
.
:
,
.
,
O.V. Savateeva
Murmansk Arctic State University
Murmansk, Russia
ON FORMING SKILLS OF USING EMOTIONAL VOCABULARY
IN THE PROCESS OF TEACHING ENGLISH TO THE STUDENTS
OF A LINGUISTIC DEPARTMENT
Abstract. The article is devoted to special techniques in purposeful systematic
work in studying and teaching linguists of how to use English emotional vocabulary.
Some peculiarities of correct certain words and collocations use for building skills not
only to find but also to apply this vocabulary in speaking are being considered too.
Key words: emotional vocabulary, neutral words, formal and informal communication.
,
,
,
, «
,
,
,
,
,
» [3, c. 210].
144
,
,
,
.
,
,
,
–
,
[3, c. 10].
–
,
,
,
. .
, ,
,
[4, c. 139].
,
[4, c. 42–
43].
,
.
,
,
,
,
,
/
,
,
,
,
,
,
;
,
,
,
,
;
.
–
;
,
;
;
.
,
,
,
,
,
[2, c. 205].
,
,
,
,
.
,
–
,
145
,
,
[5, c. 193],
.
,
(
.)
,
.
,
,
,
,
,
.
,
.
,
,
,
,
(
)
,
,
[3].
,
,
.
,
,
,
,
fear, delight, gloom, cheerfulness, annoy,
,
rain,
,
.
,
,
,
,
,
,
tears, honour,
.
.
,
,
,
,
.
,
,
“terrible” –
“magnificent”,
«
,
.
,
(
,
«
,
,
[3].
146
).
,
,
»;
«
,
,
»,
».
,
,
(how
!»,
wonderful!, it is charming!, what a splendid hour! – «
«
!», «
!»).
,
.
-
.
,
:
, . .
,
;
,
. .
;
,
ё
,
,
ё
“oh” – «
,
» –
.
,
,
(
;
)
)
,
.
,
)
[1].
,
:
-
)
;
.
.
.
.
,
.
,
,
,
.
-
,
.
:
147
)
)
)
;
,
,
.
;
.
,
,
,
,
: rude – rustic – barbarous; ruin – wreck – raze; ask – request – beg –
implore
.
,
,
. .
.
.
,
.
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
.
,
.
,
,
,



:
.
;
/
,
,
,
,
;
,
.
148
,
, . .
,
.
,
,
,
,
1.
.:
2.
. .
5.
6.
. .
;
. .
3.
4.
[6].
«
»
. .
. .
. .
.
. .
№ 1. . 425–427.
, 2002.
/ . .
,
/ . .
***
.
.
.:
,
.
.:
/
.
.
.
, 2010.
,
/ . .
, 1978.
.:
. .
.
.
, 1983.
.
.:
/
, 1971.
/
. .
149
//
-
. 2015.
150
378.046.4
74.047.8
.А.
«
.
А
.
»
«
,
»,
»
«
,
ы
:
.
,
,
T.A. Sokolovskaya
Murmansk Arctic State University
Murmansk, Russia
ON SELF-EDUCATION OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHERS
IN THE CONTEXT OF CONTINUING EDUCATION
Abstract. The article deals with the concept of “continuous education of foreign
language teachers” and “self-education”, practical measures for professional selfimprovement of the teacher of a foreign language are offered, including the ways and
forms of self-education provided by the Internet.
Key words: self-education, continuing education, forms and ways of selfeducation.
.
,
.
( . .
,
. .
,
. .
. .
.
,
)
,
,
,
.
,
151
,
,
(
.
) –
,
,
[5].
,
,
.
–
–
,
,
;
ё
-
,
. .,
,
;
,
,
,
,
,
.
.
.
.
«
».
. .
,
. .
[1].
[2]. . .
,
[4].
(
,
,
)
,
,
:
,
,
[3]. .
,
.
,
–
,
;
.
,
,
152
-
.
.
:
−
−
−
−
−
−
−
−
,
,
;
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, 2000.
, 1976. . 15–18.
:
…………………………………………………………………………………….…..
3
…………………………………….…..
4
I.
. .
hallenge –
…………………………………………………………………………... 4
Sternin I.A.
Challenge – word and concept……………………………………………………………………….….. 4
. .
:
…………………………………………………………….….. 11
Alexandrova Y.V.
Phraseological units as nationally specific metaphors:
Philological hermeneutics approach……………………………………………………………….….. 11
. .
……………………..…….. 17
Vinogradova S.A.
Traditional and cognitive approaches to the study of polysemy………………………………….. 17
. .
…………..
27
Ganitch Y.S.
Cultural conceptualization of Europe by students of non-language specialization………….. 27
. .
…………………………………………………...….31
Kopylov A.V.
Translation ethics as a theoretical problem……………………………………………………….….. 31
. .
(
)………………..…..37
Lobovskaya T.V.
Syntactic syncretism of the subordinate clause…………………………………………………..….. 37
. .
«
»
……………………………………………………………… 42
Lomonosova A.L.
The structures of sense perception with the syntactically realized component
“body of perception” in the German language……………………………………………………… 42
. .
……….……..
48
Maleeva N.M.
Features of the translation of the German aphorisms with economic content…………….….. 48
156
. .
«
»
I
…………………………………………………………………………………….
54
Muzychuk N.A.
The reflexion of Napoleon’s Russian campaign in French and Russian literature……….….. 54
. .
…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….… 62
Timralieva Ju.G.
Specificity verbal forms usage in the lyrics of German expressionists…….…….…….…….… 62
. .
…………………………………………………………………………………….
68
Tyurkan Y.A.
Geographical component as part of the concept structure:
some aspects of description……………………………………………………………………………… 68
II.
………..………..………..………..………..………..………..………..75
. .,
. .
………..………..………..………..………..………..………..………..………..……
75
Vinogradova S.A., Vinogradov E.A.
Formation of discussive skills at English lessons in a high school………..………..………..……75
. .
…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…
82
Voinova Zh.Ye.
Organizing independent work of English education majors: pair and group model…….…….82
. .
…….…….…….…….…….…….…
89
Karasev A.A.
Teaching grammar to master degree students of mathematics at the final stage
of the English course…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…… 89
. .
…….…….…….…….…….…….…….……. 94
Karasev A.A.
On developing bachelors’ grammar skills in the preparation for the final testing…….……. 94
. .
…….…….…….
99
Kvasyuk Y.N.
Peculiarities of teaching English to visually impaired children…….…….…….…….…….……. 99
157
. .
…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…104
Kobtseva S.A.
Possibilities of using Skype for foreign language teaching…….…….…….…….…….…….……. 104
. .
(
)……………………………………………………………………. 109
Kremlyova M.M.
Training specialists in teaching a foreign language to young learners
(drawing on the experience of Murmansk arctic state university) …….…….…….…….…….… 109
. .,
. .
7…….…….…….……. 114
Martovitskaya O.S., Putistina O.V.
Interactive technologies in teaching English grammar to the pupils of the 7th grade
of a secondary school…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….……… 114
. .
(
) …….…….…….…….…….…….……119
Piksendeeva V.G.
The cognitive approach in the innovative language teaching tools…….…….…….…….…….…119
. .
…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….… 125
Putistina O.V.
On using of interactive forms in the process of training future interpreters
and translators…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….……. 125
. .
…….
132
Savateeva O.V.
On forming skills of using emotional vocabulary in the process of teaching English
to the students of a linguistic department…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….… 132
. .
…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….…….
138
Sokolovskaya T.A.
On self-education of foreign language teachers in the context of continuing education……. 138
158
А
Ы / AUTHORS
,

Aleksandrova
Yelena Vladislavovna
-
; .
,
;
e-mail: aevea@mail.ru
 PhD in Philology, Senior Lecturer of the Modern Languages
Department, Institute for Humanities and Social Sciences,
Murmansk Arctic State University; Murmansk, Russia
,

,
-
Vinogradova
Svetlana Ayupovna
; .
,
e-mail: svetvin@mail.ru
 PhD in Philology, Associate Professor, Head of the Modern
Languages Department, Institute for Humanities and Social
Sciences, Murmansk Arctic State University; Murmansk,
Russia
,
№ 5; .
,
e-mail: eldarvin23@mail.ru
 Master of Pedagogy, teacher of English at school № 5;
Murmansk, Russia

Vinogradov
Eldar Andreevich
,

Voinova
Zhanna Yevgenn’evna
; .
,
e-mail: zhanna@onego.ru
 PhD in Education, Associate Professor of the English Department, Petrozavodsk State University; Petrozavodsk,
Russia
,

Ganitch
Yelena Sergeevna
; .
,
e-mail: elga2004@mail.ru
 PhD in Education, Associate Professor of the Modern Languages Department, Institute for Humanities and Social Sciences, Murmansk Arctic State University; Murmansk, Russia
,

Karasev
Andrey Alexandrovich
-
,
.
,
e-mail: andrej.karasiow@yandex.ru
 PhD in Education, Associate Professor of the Foreign Languages for Mathematics Faculties Department, Saint Petersburg State University; Saint Petersburg, Russia
159
,

-
Kvasyuk
Yelena Nikolaevna
; .
,
e-mail: lkvasyuk@pochta.ru
 PhD in Education, Associate Professor of the Modern Languages Department, Institute for Humanities and Social Sciences, Murmansk Arctic State University; Murmansk, Russia
,

-
Kobtseva
Svetlana Alexandrovna
; .
,
e-mail: kobtseva@yandex.ru
 PhD in Education, Associate Professor of the Modern Languages Department, Institute for Humanities and Social Sciences, Murmansk Arctic State University; Murmansk, Russia

,
-
Kopylov
Andrei Vasilievich
ё
Kremlyova
Marina Mikhailovna
; .
,
e-mail: andreikopylov2010@yandex.ru
 PhD in History of Philosophy, Associate Professor of the
Modern Languages Department, Institute for Humanities and
Social Sciences, Murmansk Arctic State University; Murmansk, Russia
,

; .
,
e-mail: m.Kremlyova.marina@yandex.ru
 PhD in Education, Associate Professor of the Modern Languages Department, Institute for Humanities and Social Sciences, Murmansk Arctic State University; Murmansk, Russia
,

Lobovskaya
Tatyana Vasilyevna
-
-
;
,
 PhD in Phil, Associate Professor of the Modern Languages
Department, Institute for Humanities and Social Sciences,
Murmansk Arctic State University; Murmansk, Russia

,
-
Lomonosova
Alla Leonidovna
; .
,P
e-mail: annalomo@yandex.ru
 PhD in Philology, Associate Professor of the German and
Scandinavian Languages Department, Saint Petersburg State
University of Economics; Saint Petersburg, Russia
160
,

-
Maleeva
Natalya Mikihailovna
; .
,
e-mail: natstsch@rambler.ru
 PhD in Philology, Associate Professor, German and Scandinavian Languages Department, Saint Petersburg State University of Economics; Saint Petersburg, Russia

Martovitskaya
Olga Serg evna
«
«
2
»
»,
,
№ 33;
.
,
e-mail: olgamart@inbox.ru
 Master’s Degree student of the 2nd year, specialization “Pedagogical education”, Master’s Programme “Techniques in
teaching Foreign Languages” at Murmansk State Arctic University; teacher of English at school № 33; Murmansk, Russia
,

Muzytchuk
Nadezhda Aleksandrovna
; .
,
e-mail: gest_nad_al@mail.ru
 PhD in Phil, Associate Professor of the Modern Languages
Department, Institute for Humanities and Social Sciences,
Murmansk Arctic State University; Murmansk, Russia
,

Piksendeeva
Viktoriya Gennadjevna
-
-
; .
,
e-mail: pvg12@mail.ru
 PhD in Philology, Assistant Professor of the Modern Languages Department, Institute for Humanities and Social Sciences, Murmansk Arctic State University; Murmansk, Russia

,
-
Putistina
Olga Vladimirovna
; .
,
e-mail: onitsitup@mail.ru
 PhD in Education, Associate Professor of the Modern Languages Department, Institute for Humanities and Social Sciences, Murmansk Arctic State University; Murmansk, Russia

,
;
.
,
161
Savateeva
Oxana Viktorovna
e-mail:ovsavateeva@mail.ru
 PhD in History of Philosophy, Associate Professor of the
Modern Languages Department, Institute for Humanities and
Social Sciences, Murmansk Arctic State University; Murmansk, Russia

-
Sokolovskaya
Tatyana Alexandrovna
;
.
,
e-mail: f_alke@mail.ru
 Senior Lecturer of the Modern Languages Department, Institute for Humanities and Social Sciences, Murmansk Arctic
State University; Murmansk, Russia

Sternin
Iosif Abramovich
;
,
;
.
,
e-mail: sterninia@mail.ru
 Honoured Scholar of the Russian Federation, DPhilol, Professor of General Linguistics and Stylistics Department Voronezh State University; Voronezh, Russia
,

Timralieva
Julia Gennad’evna
-
; .
,P
e-mail: juliati@yandex.ru
 PhD in Philology, Associate Professor of German and Scandinavian Languages Department, Saint Petersburg State
University of Economics; Saint Petersburg, Russia

,
-
Tyurkan
Yelena Alexandrovna
; .
,
e-mail: elenabelichenko@mail.ru
 PhD in Philology, Associate Professor of the Modern Languages Department, Institute for Humanities and Social Sciences, Murmansk Arctic State University; Murmansk, Russia
162
2016
15–16
.
.
. . .
29.09.2016.
. . 9,3.
100
-
163
.
60×90/16.
(
)
.
183038, .
,
.
164
, 15.
.
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