close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

j.eti.2018.08.003

код для вставкиСкачать
Accepted Manuscript
Improvement of the quality of struvite crystals recovered from a mixture
of human urine and municipal sewage via a novel two-step precipitation
method
Guoqi Wen, Zhengyi Hu, Xiaoning Liu, Lijuan Huang
PII:
DOI:
Reference:
S2352-1864(18)30250-5
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eti.2018.08.003
ETI 262
To appear in:
Environmental Technology & Innovation
Received date : 31 May 2018
Revised date : 9 August 2018
Accepted date : 13 August 2018
Please cite this article as: Wen G., et al., Improvement of the quality of struvite crystals recovered
from a mixture of human urine and municipal sewage via a novel two-step precipitation method.
Environmental Technology & Innovation (2018), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eti.2018.08.003
This is a PDF file of an unedited manuscript that has been accepted for publication. As a service to
our customers we are providing this early version of the manuscript. The manuscript will undergo
copyediting, typesetting, and review of the resulting proof before it is published in its final form.
Please note that during the production process errors may be discovered which could affect the
content, and all legal disclaimers that apply to the journal pertain.
3-/($, !'$,&5(3 "( -,(,&(3#()3 ,3 ,&
-**$&$-%$1-30"$1 ,#,4(0-,+$,2,(4$01(25-%'(,$1$" #$+5-%"($,"$1$()(,&
'(,
!
$. 02+$,2 -% -(*1 ,# &0(--# ,&(,$$0(,& ,(4$01(26 4 * 3$!$" , #
"
'(, $1$ 0"' $,20$ %-0 "-,4(0-,+$,2 * "($,"$1 '(,$1$" #$+5 -% "($,"$1 $()(,&
#
$5 !-0 2-05-%/3 2("-2 ,5 ,# 2$01'$#"-*-&53' ,-2 ,(" * 0#$,'(,$1$
" #$+5-%"($,"$13' ,'(,
Corresponding author
Zhengyi Hu
College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences
19A, Yuquan Road, Shijingshan District, Beijing, 100049, P.R. China
Tel: +86-10-69672969
E-mail: zhyhu@ucas.ca.cn
/-01&/"-" *1"-"!#-*(2./"./-"(.%..&$)&#& )/1'0"..0./&)'"
.'*2-"'"." #"-/&'&5"- #*- $-& 0'/0-" +-*!0 /&*) *2"1"- /%"-" -" two limiting
factors for the large-scale use of struvite:/%" *./*#($)".&0($.*0- ".and the
heavy metals in recovered struvite In our study, laboratory experiments were
conducted to &)1"./&$/"/%"#".&&'&/4*#-" *1"-&)$+%*.+%*-0.#-*((&3/0-"*#
%4!-*'45"!0-&)")!(0)& &+'."2$"2&/%*0/!!&)$$.'/.!!&/&*)''4a novel
two-step struvite precipitation method 2. 0."! /* &(+-*1" ./-01&/" ,0'&/4. Results
showed that 92.52% of the PO43--P in the mixture was recovered when1*'0("/-& -/&*
*# 0-&)" /* (0)& &+' ."2$" 2. ./&--&)$ .+""! 2. -+( )!
hydraulic retention time was 30 min. For the novel precipitation method, metal ions
were -"(*1"!!0-&)$/%"#&-././"++-"+-" &+&//&*)+-* "!0-"/*#)!/%"
P was -" *1"-"!&)/%"." *)!./"+./-01&/"+-" &+&//&*)+-* "!0-"/*#
%" *) ")/-/&*). *# !(&0( %-*(&0( '"! )! ("- 0-4 &) -" *1"-"! ./-01&/"
2"-""'*2/%"-"$0'/*-4'&(&/#*-(&)"-'#"-/&'&5"-&)%&)
%&.(")./%//%"-" *1"-"!./-01&/" )"0."!&)$-& 0'/0-'+-*!0 /&*)%"-"#*-"
/%" +-*+*."! )*1"' /2*./"+ +-" &+&//&*) ("/%*! &. #".&'" " *)*(& ' )!
+-*(&.&)$++-* %#*--" *1"-&)$%&$%,0'&/4./-01&/"#-*((&3/0-"*#0-&)")!
2&/%*0//%"!!&/&*)*#$ *(+*0)!.
$)".&0(((*)&0(+%*.+%/"%"(& '+-" &+&//&*)"14("/'.
$)".&0(.*0- "./"2/"-./-"(.
)041)0364*4"/&44&/5*"-"/%*33&1-"$&"#-&1-"/5/653*&/5"/%*43&("3%&%"4"
7*5"-$0.10/&/5*/'00%4&$63*5:$3014)&/"/%3"&%&-
4"/0/3&/&8"#-&
3&4063$&1)041)"5&30$,*4#&$0.*/(.03&"/%4$"3$&38*5)&"$)1"44*/(:&"3%6&50
3"1*% $0/46.15*0/ "4503 &5 "- !0%": "#065 0' 1)041)"5& 30$, *4
$0/7&35&%*/50.*/&3"-'&35*-*;&34"/%"11-*&%505)&40*-*/03%&3504645"*/(-0#"-'00%
130%6$5*0/ 0)&/ &5 "- &."/% '03 1)041)"5& *4 13&%*$5&% 50 */$3&"4& 50
=50/4*/
*/03%&350.&&5(-0#"-'00%3&26*3&.&/54!*-."/&5"-
5)"4#&&/&45*."5&%5)"5(-0#"-3&4&37&4$06-%#&&9)"645&%8*5)*/:&"34*'/0
*/5&37&/5*0/.&"463&4"3&"%015&% .*5&5"-
/-*()50'5)&"-"3.*/(%&1-&5*0/
0' 3&4&37&4 "/% 5)& 63(&/5 /&&% '03 "$5*0/ 5)&3& )"4 #&&/ 3&/&8&% */5&3&45 */ 5)&
$0/$&150'$-04*/(5)&$:$-&#:3&$07&3*/("/%3&$:$-*/(-4&3"/%&//&55
3&$07&3: '30. 8"45&8"5&3 *4 0' (3&"5 */5&3&45 %6& 50 5)& *.1035"/$& 0' '*/%*/(
4645"*/"#-&4063$&4'03*/%6453*"-64&"/%'&35*-*;&3130%6$5*0/
5367*5&$3:45"--*;"5*0/*4"5&$)/*26&5)"5)0-%4$0/4*%&3"#-&105&/5*"-'033&$07&3*/(
'30. 8"45&8"5&34 ")."/ &5 "- 6."/ 63*/& "/% .6/*$*1"- 4&8"(& */
8"45&8"5&3"3&580."+03/653*&/54063$&4'033&$07&3:6."/63*/&"$$06/54'0361
50<0'5)&<0'5)&/*530(&/"/%<0'5)&105"44*6.#65
-&445)"/0'453&".70-6.&*/%0.&45*$8"45&8"5&3"34&/"/%6+&358"4
&45*."5&%5)"5"505"-0'.*--*0/.&53*$50/40'$06-%#&3&$07&3&%'30.)6."/
63*/&*/
8)*$)806-%"$$06/5'03approximately0'505"-(-0#"-%&."/%
*)&-$*$&5"-
*.*-"3-:.6/*$*1"-4&8"(&(&/&3"--:$0/5"*/4)*()-&7&-40'
-#6'("' 1$, (-+8#$1(5$#%1.,'4, -$7"1$3 (-"+4#(-&41(-$ -#%$"$2 12$-
-#4)$1 ', -$3 +
(-#(" 3$#3' 3 !.43.%(-6 23$6 3$12(2
#$1(5$# %1., 2$6 &$ % 3'$ (2 -.3 1$".5$1$# %1., 6 23$6 3$1 -# 3'(2 $%%+4$-3 (2
#(2"' 1&$##(1$"3+8(-3.- 341 +6 3$12$431./'(" 3(.-6(++$5$-34 ++8.""416(3'&1 5$
".-2$04$-"$2%.1 04 3("+(%$ -#3'$6 3$124//+8%.1(-#4231( + -##.,$23("42$$
2' - -# 2' -
$,.5 +.%3'$(-6 23$6 3$12/1(.13.#(2"' 1&$3.3'$
$-5(1.-,$-3(23'$1$%.1$.%"14"( +(,/.13 -"$
Struvite precipitation occurs in an equimolecular concentration of Mg2+, NH4+ and
PO43- in slightly alkaline conditions ', -$3 +
. In general, hydrolyzed urine
contains less Mg than P or N ', -$3 +
. Adding an & source is usually
necessary to maintain favorable PO43- and Mg2+ levels for struvite precipitation;
however, the cost of & compounds is very high, accounting for up to 75% of overall
production costs ' 5$3 +
.-5($6.%3'(22(34 3(.-(3(2-$"$22 183.%(-# -
$".-.,(" +&2.41"$%.11$".5$18%1.,'4, -41(-$4-("(/ +2$6 &$, 8!$ -
5 (+ !+$ & 2.41"$ 3. 2.,$ $73$-3 1$5(.42 1$/.132 2'.6$# 3' 3 3'$ &
".-"$-31 3(.-29,&(-,4-("(/ +2$6 &$25 18#$/$-#(-&.-3'$6 23$6 3$1
2.41"$2 -#3'$6 23$6 3$131$ 3,$-3/1."$222$"3(.-.%3'$6 23$6 3$131$ 3,$-3/+ -3
%1.,6'("'3'$8 1$3 *$-.8+$ -# 12.-2
$2".#
'$&/1$2$-3
(- ,4-("(/ + 2$6 &$2 ".4+# !$ 42$# 2 /1$"(/(3 3.1 %.1 23145(3$ "1823 + -.3'$1
(,/.13 -3% "3.13' 3" -% 5.123145(3$1$".5$18%1.,6 23$6 3$121$+ 3$23.3'$ +* +(-$
".-#(3(.-2 The pH values of 2 range from 5.6 to 6.8 (-# $3 + . +* +(
"'$,(" +2 1$3'$1$%.1$1$04(1$#3. #)4233'$/(-.1#$13.(-#4"$23145(3$/1$"(/(3 3(.-
)&2&'/2&hydrolyzed urine can be used as an ",+",*.&3/,54*/.4/*.$2&"3&4)&06",5&
#&$"53&*4$/.4"*.3,"2(&"-/5.43/'"--/.*5-".%hydroxide ions *5&4",
)&2&'/2& *4 *3 0/33*#,& 4/ 2&$/6&2 34256*4& '2/- " -*8452& /' )9%2/,9:&% 52*.& ".%
-5.*$*0",3&7"(&
5.*$*0", 3&7"(&3 535",,9 $/.4"*. 6"2*/53 */.3 35$) "3 $",$*5- " $"%-*5-
%$/00&25$)2/-*5-2.*$+&,*,&"%#".%:*.$!. (,&&4",
)& 34256*4& 2&$/6&2&%'2/- -5.*$*0",3&7"(& 7*,,4)&2&'/2& $/.4"*. 6"29*.(
"-/5.43/'-&4",3",43%&0&.%*.(/.4)&-5.*$*0",3&7"(&3/52$&353&%"4"+*&4",
93",&4",
/2&8"-0,&34256*4&-"9$/.4"*.3/-&"3",43#&$"53&"
*/.3 $". #& 02&$*0*4"4&% *. 4)& '/2- /' " /2 "-/20)/53 02/%5$43 *.
7"34&7"4&237)&.4)&"-/,"22"4*/*3(2&"4&24)". &&4",
2/.&".%
",5-*.5-,"2&2&$/6&2&%%52*.(4)&34256*4&02&$*0*4"4*/.02/$&33"37&,,&4:&4&4
",
)&3&-&4",02&$*0*4"4&3*.2&$/6&2&%34256*4&2&02&3&.4"3*(.*'*$".4,*-*4*.(
'"$4/24)"4)*.%&23*430/4&.4*",53&"3"."(2*$5,452",'&24*,*:&24'/,,/734)"4"-&4)/%
4)"4$".*-02/6&4)&052*49/'4)&2&$/6&2&%34256*4&7*,,)"6&3*(.*'*$".4$/--&2$*",
6",5&.4*,./7/.,9" '&7 345%*&3 )"6&#&&. $/.%5$4&%4/ &6",5"4&4)& 15",*49/'
34256*4&2&$/6&2&%7)&.-&4",$/.4&.43"2&2&-/6&%%52*.(4)&02&$*0*4"4*/.02/$&33
##&23&4",
/"44&-04)"3#&&.-"%&4/&.)".$&34256*4&15",*49$/.$522&.4,9
7*4)4)&02&$*0*4"4*/./''2/-"-*8452&/'7"34&7"4&23)*30/*.43504)&.&&%to
explore effective methods for *-02/6*.(34256*4&15",*49*./2%&24/-&&44)&%&-".%
'/20)/30)/253#"3&%"(2*$5,452",'&24*,*:&23
The goal of the present study was to explore the possibility of producing high-grade
struvite from a mixture of hydrolyzed human urine and &.'"")% ,0 without
adding an Mg source. !,)"""&,0+to determine the available operational
parameters for struvite formation in the mixture of urine and &.'"")%,0 without
further addition of Mg salts, namely the traditional precipitation method, (2) to evaluate
the P and N removal efficiencies from the mixed liquor with the two-step precipitation
method, (3) -( ,,,, -! (',-"-.'-, ( -! ,-+./"- .,"' +2 "+-"(' '%2,",'"'-"2-!&(+)!(%( 20"-!,''"' %-+('&"+(,()"& ,
'-(/%.--!*.%"-2(-!,-+./"-,)(-'-"%+-"%"3+2'%23"' "-,
!/2&-%('-'-,
2. !!.&'.+"'.,"'-!",,-.20,(%%-+(&,(.+,)+-.+"'%,-
%-+"'"'(.+.'"/+,"-2!(%%-.+"'0,,.,*.'-%2,-(+"')+,,.+-" !-
)%,-"('-"'+-+((&-&)+-.+(+2,-(-%(&.'"")%,0 0,
(%%-+(&-!"'%.'-"'%-()+"&+2%+""+-'$"'&.'"")%0,-0-+
-+-&'-)%'-"'"#"' !"'',-(+"'++" +-(+-4-(&"'-"'-!
,-"%"-2(-!"'"-"%(&)(,"-"('!'-0(,-+&,0+0%%&"1'0,"%-+
-!+(. !&&"%-+-(+&(/-!,','(-!+,(%",+"(+-(1)+"&'--!2
0+ '-+". - +)& (+ &"' ' -! ,.)+'-'-, 0+ ., !
!+-+",-",(-!-0(0,-,-+&,+,.&&+"3"'%
%!+-+",-",(-!!2+(%23.+"''&.'"")%,0 '
Parameters
pH
TN mM)
NH4+-N mM)
TP mM)
PO43--P mM)
K mM)
Na mM)
Mg mM)
Ca mM)
Fe mg L-1)
Cd mg L-1)
Cr --1)
Cu mg L-1)
Zn mg L-1)
Ni mg L-1)
Pb mg L-1)
Hg mg L-1)
Ca : Mg (molar ratio)
NH4+-N: PO43--P:Mg (molar
ratio)
Hydrolyzed urine
9.05
466.24
457.48
5.55
4.08
5.45
15.22
0.09
0.35
0.69
nd
0.15
0.93
0.02
0.07
nd
nd
3.90:1
Municipal sewage
6.82
31.78
2.45
5.74
0.40
2.03
1.11
1.72
1.96
1.12
0.03
0.58
12.60
7.02
0.08
0.12
0.30
1.14:1
5083:45:1
6.13:1:4.30
'"'!'%"!'"'#"&#"%(&!!"'''
"%")%'%" ' +$("%"!&&'!"(%!! (!#&*
'"#%'"!#% '%&"')"( '%%'""(%!'" (!#&*
,%(%'!'"!' !&'%%!!'!&',*%&(&&),!)&''
)! '&+#% !'''%'"!#%#''"! '"+#% !'&
*% "!(' ! %%& *' & #&' & " # ' +'(% $(
!'&*
&'% &(%!! (!#&*!'"!!'"'%"*&"!!''"
!,'%"&*% !*""&*%(&"%*&'
13*$30'!!'"1-*32'-,2-4-'"++-,'3+4-*2'*'82'-,30',%2&#5&-*##6.#0'+#,2
.#0'12*2'!.3+.1-,%#05#0#31#"2-+,%#2&#$*-54#*-!'27%,#2'!
12'00#01 ,, 5#0# 31#" $-0 25- 120#+1 5#**+'6#" , 2&#1#
#6.#0'+#,21 $'4# *#4#*1 5#0# 31#" $-0 #!& .0+#2#0 -$ ," 12'00',%
1.##"&#0,%#"$0-+2-5'2&,',2#04*-$2&#0,%#"$0-+
2-+',5'2&,',2#04*-$+',,"2&#12'00',%1.##"0,%#"$0-+2-
0.+5'2&,',2#04*-$0.+&# 1'!-.#02'-,*!-,"'2'-,15#0#
+',,"12'00',%1.##"0.+&'1+#,12&22&#0#+',',%.0+#2#015#0#
)#.2 !-,12,2 5&'*# 2&# 4*3# -$ -,# .0+#2#0 40'#" "30',% 2&# #6.#0'+#,21 -0
#6+.*#5&#,!&,%#"$0-+2-,"12'00',%1.##"5#0#)#.22
+',,"0.+
'2&2&#'+-$'+.0-4',%2&#/3*'27-$2&#0#!-4#0#"12034'2#!0712*""'2'-,*
25-12#. .0#!'.'22'-, #6.#0'+#,21 5#0# !-,"3!2#" ', -0"#0 2- 1#.02# 2&# &#47
+#2*1$0-+2&#.0#!'.'22#1&# 1'!-.#02'-,*!-,"'2'-,1-$12'00',%1.##","
5#0# 1#2 2- 0.+ ," +', 1#" -, 2&# 0#13*21 - 2',#" ', 2&# 20"'2'-,*
#6.#0'+#,2&#51"'4'"#"',2-25-12#.1'012+-$&7"0-*78#"30',#
51',(#!2#"',2--$+3,'!'.*1#5%# and t&#1#"'+#,21- 2',#"',2&'112#.5#0#
,+#" $'01212#. .0#!'.'22#1 #!-," + -$ &7"0-*78#" 30',# 51 !-,2',3**7
',(#!2#"',2-2&#0#!2-0,"2&#0#13*2',%.0#!'.'22#15#0#!-**#!2#",",+#"1#!-,"
12#.12034'2#!0712*,2&'1123"72&# 0#)#015#0#*1-31#"$2#02&#$'01212#.
.0#!'.'22'-,.0-!#112&#0#1'"3**'/3'"51"05,',2-,-2&#0 0#)#02-!-,2',3#
0):65)'10(56)256478-6)24)'-2-6%6-10 ,)24)'-2-6%6)5*41/6,)69156)2/)6,1(9)4)
(4-)(%0(',)/-'%..;/)%574)(.%6)4
2.3 0 %2241:-/%6).; / 1* .-37-( 5%/2.) 9%5 '1..)'6)( %*6)4 6,) ',)/-'%.
24)'-2-6%6-104)%',)()37-.-&4-7/..5%/2.)59)4)%0%.;<)(-//)(-%6).;%*6)4&)-0+
*-.6)4)(9-6,?>/*-.6)4/)/&4%0)5 ,)28%.7)51*6,)5%/2.)59)4)/)%574)(
75-0+ % 6;2) 2 /)6)4 %00% 6%.;
'10')064%6-105 9)4) /)%574)( &; '1.14-/)64-' %0%.;5-5 %''14(-0+ 61 6,) 56%0(%4(
/)6,1(51*6,)/)4-'%07&.-')%.6,551'-%6-10)6%.-1059)4)%0%.;<)(
9-6,%0-0(7'6-8).;'172.)(2.%5/%?126-'%.)/-55-1052)'641/)6)4))/%041(-+;
! 16%. 0-641+)0 %0( 616%. 2,152,1475 9)4) ()6)4/-0)( 75-0+ 6,)
2)457.*%6)(-+)56-10/)6,1(&-0%)6%.
,) PO43--P %0( NH4+-N
,)56478-6)24)'-2-6%6)5'1..)'6)(*41/6,)4)%'61459)4)'.)%0)(6,4))6-/)59-6,
()-10-<)(9%6)4%0(18)0(4-)(%6 =*14,$,%0+)6%.
2241:-/%6).;
+1*18)0(4-)(24)'-2-6%6)9%5(-551.8)('1/2.)6).;-0/1*,;(41',.14-'
%'-(51.76-10-7)6%.
,)06,)'10')064%6-1051* PO43--PNH4+-N,
and metal ions9)4)()6)4/-0)(75-0+6,)%&18)/)06-10)(/)%574)/)06/)6,1(5 ,)
%8)4%+) '4;56%. 5-<) 9%5 /)%574)( 8-% .%5)4 (-**4%'6-10 %56)45-<)4 %.8)40
05647/)06! ,)/142,1.1+;1*6,)(4-)(24)'-2-6%6)59%51&5)48)(70()4%,-+,
4)51.76-105'%00-0+).)'6410/-'415'12;-6%',-%2%0%0(',)/-'%.
'1/215-6-109%5%0%.;<)(&;#4%;(-**4%'6-10##@)4641%.;6-'%. "
6,) )6,)4.%0(5 0 6,-5 567(; 6,) %22%4)06 4)'18)4; )**-'-)0'; %0( 0)6 4)'18)4;
!!&0/*-+!&'**,''%(*, ,*!,!'&$(*!(!,,!'&%, '&, &'.$,/'+,((*!(!,,!'&%, 'For example, the ((*&,*'.*0!!&0&
&,*'.*0!!&0'PO43--P *!.&!&'*%-$&'*%-$
$'/
&', '*%-$+-%!+, PO43--P'&&,*,!'&' 0*'$01-*!&+%
!+, PO43--P'&&,*,!'&', %-&!!($+/-!+, .'$-%', 0*'$01-*!&&+!+, .'$-%', %-&!!($+/&'*%-$
!+ , ((*&, PO43--P *'.*0 !!&0 & * % !+ , PO43--P
'&&,*,!'& ' *+!-$ $-&, & '*%-$ & !+ , &, PO43--P *'.*0
!!&0%!+, )-&,!,0'*'.*(*!(!,,+&3(%!+, %++ *,!'& ' PO43--P in , *'.* (*!(!,,+ '* , &'.$ ,/'+,(
(*!(!,,!'&%, ', PO43--P((*&,*'.*0!!&0/+$-$,'* (*!(!,,!'&+,(/ !$, &,*'.*0!!&0/+$-$,+'&, ,',$
PO43--P%'-&,',/'+,(+'*, $-$,!'&', *'.*0!!&!+'
&NH4+-N, the symbols in the above formulas were changed to the corresponding
concentrations or volumes.
&$0,!$* *&,+ -+ !& , !+ +,-0 /* ',!& *'% !"!&
%!$ '*#+ ,%& 2% %%*& !$,*+ /* ',!& *'%
!&'( *% %!$&,!"!&', **($!,!'&+/*(*'*%'*
,*,%&,
00 (%7% *35 7,) %44%5)27 PO43--P 5)'39)5< )**-'-)2'-)6 :)5) 2351%0-=)( &< 86-2+
3;3; 43:)5 75%26*351%7-32 &)*35) %2%0<6-6 3* 9%5-%2') ",) $ #! " %2(
67-55-2+-27)26-7<9%5-%&0)6:)5)75)%7)(%6*-;)()**)'76%2(7,)5)40-'%7-32%65%2(31
)**)'7",)-;)(3()03*7,)!!63*7:%5)4%'/%+)!!267-787)
:%686)(
73 %2%0<=) 7,) )**)'76 3*$ #! "%2(67-55-2+-27)26-7<327,) %44%5)27PO43--P
5)'39)5< )**-'-)2'< ",) ! 0)%67 6-+2-*-'%27 (-**)5)2') 453')(85) :%6 86)( 73
-()27-*<6-+2-*-'%27(-**)5)2')6%132+75)%71)276%7
3
",)',%5%'7)5-=%7-323*7,),<(530<=)(,81%285-2)%2(7,)182-'-4%06):%+)86)(
-27,-6678(<-645)6)27)(-2"%&0)
",),<(530<=)(85-2)'327%-2)(%,-+,0)9)03*
NH4+-N 1 %''3827-2+ *35 3* " &)'%86) -2 %0/%0-2) '32(-7-326
%1132-81-67,)1%.35*351-2,<(530<=)(85-2)-5',1%22%2()77)56632
314%5)( 73 NH4+-N, a 5)0%7-9)0< 03: '32')275%7-32 3* PO43--P was found in
,<(530<=)( 85-2) %2( 7,) 130%5 5%7-3 3* NH4+-N 73 PO43--P :%6 5083:45 "%&0) :,-',6-+2-*-'%270<);'))(67,)673-',-31)75-'5%7-33*67589-7)
",),-+,0)9)03*
NH4+-N -2 ,<(530<=)( 85-2) :%6 &)2)*-'-%0 *35 PO43--P 5)139%0 &)'%86) 67589-7)
45)'-4-7%7-327%/)640%')*3003:-2+7,)()9)0341)273*684)56%785%7-32%6735)7%0
!75%7*80)7%0
",)'32')275%7-323*+-2,<(530<=)(85-2):%69)5<
03: ",) 130%5 5%7-3 3* + 73 PO43--P :%6 "%&0) :,-', -6 *%5 &)03: 7,)
)**)'7-9)5%7-365%2+-2+*531
73
*382(*3567589-7)'5<67%0 %,1%2)7%0
07,38+,7,)49%08)3*,<(530<=)(85-2)4-6&)2)*-'-%0*355)139%0*531
/,%(! )(.!&.* !. & # %- .$! &%'%.%(# ,!#!(. "), -.,/0%.! "),'.%)( %(
$3 ,)&34! /,%(!&!
$!'/(%%*&-!1#!)(.%(! 'NH4+-N( 'PO43--P1$%$%-
,!&.%0!&3&)11$!()'*,! 1%.$$3 ,)&34! /,%(!&!)1!0!,%.)(.%(! &,#!')/(.)"#' &!$!')&,,.%))"NH4+-NPO43--P#
1-
1$%$!2.,!'!&3'!!.-.$!,!+/%,!'!(.-)"-.,/0%.!,3-.&"),'.%)(
$'(!.&
$!)(&3%--/!,!&.! .).$!&)1*)".$!'/(%%*&-!1#!
*1$%$$'*!,! -.,/0%.!"),'.%)()3&!( ,-)(-,!*),.! .$.
.$!-/%.&!*,(#!"),-.,/0%.!"),'.%)(%(1-.!1.!,1-.)$!,!"),!
$3 ,)&34! /,%(!'3!/-! -/""!,.)%(,!-!the pH of the mixed liquor after it
is injected into the municipal sewage. Then .$!*0&/!%(.$!'%2./,!)"$3 ,)&34! /,%(!( '/(%%*&-!1#!1%&&!-/%.&!"),-.,/0%.!,3-.&&%4.%)($!'/(%%*&
-!1#!*,)0% !--/""%%!(.#"),PO43--P,!')0&%"the urine and municipal sewage
are mixed using a specific .
$!'!.&)(.!(.-)"$3 ,)&34! /,%(!( '/(%%*&-!1#!,!-$)1(%(&!
$!'/(%%*&-!1#!)(.%(! ,!&.%0!&3$%#$&!0!&-)"'!.&-!2!*."),( -)'*,! .).$!$3 ,)&34! /,%(!%'%&,&3)(.!&.*!.&,!*),.! .$.
$3 ,)&34! /,%(!)(.%(-'/$&)1!,'!.&&!0!&-.$().$!,1-.!1.!,-!/-!.$!
'!.&- ,! *,!%*%..! %( .$! "),' )" ,)(.! ( $3 ,)2% ! /,%(# -.),#! $!
'!.&)(.!(.-*,)&3%(.$!'/(%%*&-!1#!),%#%(.!",)'.$!-'!&.%(#%( /-.,3
$)/-!$)& *,) /.-( -)'!-*!%&%( /-.,%!--/$-&!.$!,.((%(#( $!'%&
*,)!--%(#/(!.&$!,!"),!.$!*,!%*%..!-,!)0!,! ",)'.$!'/(%%*&
4(8$*(&105$,07$3:,0*$/160541)+($7:/(5$.48+,&+816.'.,/,55+(,3215(05,$.)13
$22.,&$5,10 $4 $0 $*3,&6.563$. )(35,.,;(3 (5;(5 (5 $. 0 2$35,&6.$3 5+( +($7:
/(5$.446&+$4'3%$0'*$3(3(*$3'('$4519,&,5,(451&3124$0'(7(051+6/$0
8+(0 5+(,3 &10&(053$5,104 $3( 17(3 5+( 5+3(4+1.' 1) 5+( 3(*6.$513: .,/,5 )13 /,0(3$.
)(35,.,;(34 $-( ' )13 $0 (9$/2.( 5+( /$9,/6/ 2(3/,44,%.( 7$.6( )13 +6/$0
$&&13',0*51(3/$0.$8,4
<*2(32(3410$0'17(3625$-(1)'&16.'.($'51-,'0(:
%10($0'26./10$3:'$/$*(1'5(5$.
+("!+$'$4,*0,),&$05())(&5105+(PO43--Precovery efficiency,8+,&+3($&+('
,54+,*+(457$.6(1)$5$"!1) $%.(#()160'5+$5',))(3(05"!
7$.6(4 3(46.5(' ,0 ',))(3(05 * PO43--P /1.$3 3$5,14 $0' 2 7$.6(4 $%.( 581
,/2135$05)$&5134,0).6(0&,0*3(/17$.)31/8$45(8$5(34,6(5$.
0&3($4,0*
5+("! )31/ 51 3(46.5(' ,0 $ '(&3($4( ,0 * PO43--P )31/ 51 8+(3($45+(2,0&3($4(')31/51 $%.($+/$0(5$.
3(2135('
5+$55+(())(&5,7(/1.$33$5,141)*PO43--P)1345367,5(&3:45$.3$0*(')31/
51
8+,&+,4&.14(515+(/1.$33$5,141)*PO43--P,05+,4456': +(',))(3(052
7$.6(4$441&,$5('8,5+',))(3(05"!&1045,565(5+(/145,/2135$05)$&513,0).6(0&,0*
3(/17$.)5(35+(5818$45(453($/48(3(/,9('51*(5+(35+(&+(/,&$.3($&5,10,0
5+(/,9563(1&&633(' $4 )1..184= 63,0* 5+,4
231&(44$.$3*($/16051)53$04)13/('51PO43--P 105(.5$28+,&+,4
#. '22'.3+#, %/-0/.'.3 /( 23145+3'*'1'(/1' +.%1'#2+.) 3*'! (1/- 3/ +.%1'#2'&3*'PO43--P1'%/5'18'((+%+'.%8-#+.,8&4'3/3*'+.%1'#2'+.05#,4'#(3'1
3*'36/6#23'231'#-26'1'-+7'&3/)'3*'1
"*'. 3*'! +.%1'#2'& (1/- 3/ # 2*#10 &'%1'#2' /( PO43--P 1'-/5#,
'((+%+'.%86#2/$2'15'&#$,'41+.)3*+201/%'223*'05#,4'26'1'6+3*+.3*'
1#.)'/(3/6*+%*+2#5#+,#$,'(/123145+3'(/1-#3+/./8,'#.&#12/.2
#.&3*')PO43--P-/,#11#3+/&'%1'#2'&(1/-
3/#$,'&&+3+/.#,,8
+4 '3 #, 0/+.3'& /43 3*#3 3*' /03+-#, 0 5#,4' 6#2 #3 6*+%* 23145+3'
2/,4$+,+38 1'#%*'& 3*' -+.+-4- *'1'(/1' 3*' 1'&4%3+/. +. PO43--P 1'%/5'18
'((+%+'.%86#2-#+.,8&4'3/3*'&'%1'#2'+.3*')PO43--P-/,#11#3+/#(('1'3#,
/$2'15'&3*#323145+3'(/1-#3+/.(1/-#%3+5#3'&2,4&)'/%%411'&6*'.3*'):
PO43--P-/,#11#3+/6#2#$/5'
#.&"#1-#&'6#.3*+#.&+41'0/13'&3*#3
3*''((+%+'.%8/(PO43--P1'-/5#,+.%1'#2'&(1/-3/
6*'.3*')PO43-
-P-/,#11#3+/+.%1'#2'&(1/-
3/
3%#.$'%/.%,4&'&3*#33*')2/41%'+23*'
-#+. ,+-+3+.) (#%3/1 +. 23145+3' (/1-#3+/. 6*'. 3*' ! +2 )1'#3'1 3*#. &&+3+/.#,,8+3+2./3+%'#$,'3*#32/-'*'#58-'3#,2#,2/01'%+0+3#3'&6+3*PO43--P as
well (Rahman et al., 2014) and more discussion will be given out in section 3.3.2.
#$,'(('%3/(5/,4-'31+%1#3+//(*8&1/,89'&41+.'3/-4.+%+0#,2'6#)'#.&1'('11'&
)-/,#11#3+//.3*'#00#1'.3PO43--P recovery efficiency (%), residual PO43-
-P concentration (mg L-1), and pH of the effluent &41+.)3*'1'%/5'1801/%'22$#2'&
/.31#&+3+/.#,/.'23'023145+3'%1823#,-'3*/&
Volumetric
ratio
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
2
Mg/PO43--P
2.14
1.43
1.08
0.86
0.72
Apparent PO43--P
recovery efficiency
43.48c2
92.52a
68.84b
64.28b
63.09b
Residual PO43--P
concentration
12.87
2.35
12.07
16.07
18.62
pH
8.04
8.43
8.54
8.68
8.81
!*%$++)*."+!"&'$,%&)&'+*" &""&+")&++
'"&'+$
)(')++!+*+"))"& "*&"%(')+&++')+'"&$,&+!PO43-
-P remove from solutions'.-)"&',)*+,0"&)*%"/"& "&+&*"+0!$"++$
+'&(()&+PO43--P)%'-$""&0.!"!"&)*)'%
+'
.!&*+"))"& *("&)*)'%+')(%&'%()"*'&+!(()&+ PO43--
P)%'-$""&0/!""+*!)(),+"'&+'*%"/"& *("&)*
)'%+')(%$"%+$
"&-*+" ++!"&$,&'*+"))"& "&+&*"+0'&*+),-"+')%+"'&&)(')++!+%"/"& "&+&*"+0&!&+!%**
+)&*))'%+!*'$,+"'&+')0*+$*&"%()'-*+),-"+)0*+$$"1+"'&'.-)
-)0 !" ! %"/"& *( ',$ $"%"+ )0*+$ )'.+! & "&)* )0*+$ )# ,))&++$&+!"**+,0%"/"& *(')(%.*%(+$
'))%'-$)'%+!%"/+,)',)"&&%,&""($*. $&$,&'*+"))"& *()(%'&+!(()&+PO43--P )'-)0""&0
&)*",$'&&+)+"'&% ,)"& +!)'-)0()'***
'&+)"+"'&$'&*+(*+),-"+)0*+$%+!'
Apparent 60
120
180
240
300
4
82.33b
85.74b
92.52a
81.63b
66.83c
5.55
4.48
2.35
5.77
10.42
!+%$,,*/",!"&'$-%&*&',+" &""&,"*&,,
!*/+&'+" &""&,,''&,!((*&,PO43--P*'.*1""&1
'+*.-*"& ,!*1+,$'*%,"'&(*'++$"%"$*$13&!&**
&',,!,!&','&+,*-.",'*%,"'&-*"& ,!*%'.$(*'++
& &*$+,*-.",'*%,"'&"&+'$-,"'&"+*$,".$1+,(*'++&,!"&,*.$
+" & "& 0(*"%&,+ "+ $'& &'- ! '* (*"(",,"'& "- , $ !
","'&' +$,+,*"
,$!+,*-.",'*%,"'&(*'++$'& +,'!%"$*,"'&/!"!&
'-*)-"#$1-*,!*%'*',!*%,$(*"(",,+&-++,!+-*"& ,!
(*"(",,"'&(*'++,'$*,+,*-.",'*%,"'&"-,$
&,!"++,-1
,!$'/+,*+"-$PO43--P'&&,*,"'&"&,!$-&,/+
% &,!!" !+,
/+
% $'/.*!+" &""&,,+'&,!(*,"$+"2
"+,*"-,"'& ' +,*-.", (*"(",,"'& $ ! .* (*,"$ +"2 *+
+" &""&,$1*'%
,'6%/!"$,!"&*+*'%,'%"&$
-+,!+'$"(!+/+ &*,"&,!*,'*&$-+,*,' ,!*-*"& ,!(*"(",,"'&(*'++&,!"++,-1/+$,&'
%"&"&,!'$$'/-(
0(*"%&,+
*+,!(*"(",,"'&/",!'-,&1&',"$$ (!+-**
!$ ("%"$$ $ !"!$$$" m)
!!"$ PO43--P " &"(("#%
$"$ %"$" &"(!" ### $"$ #$!#$"%&$"(#$$ HRT
10
20
30
40
50
Diameter
41.3
33.5
25.2
22.5
20.2
Apparent PO43--P
recovery efficiency
92.49
91.95
92.52
93.86
93.54
Residual PO43--P
concentration
2.36
2.53
2.35
1.93
2.03
&%$ $ &$' #$!!"!$$ $ " &"(# PO43--P,NH4+-N and the precipitate mass
collected from the mixture of urine and municipal sewage using two different methods
are shown in Table 5. The apparent PO43--P recovery efficiency was 92.52% with the
traditional one-step precipitation method, which was approximately twice the
corresponding net PO43--P recovery efficiency of 48.97% (Table 5). This lower net
PO43--P recovery efficiency resulted from the loss of precipitates during the collection
procedure. The precipitate with small particle size (diameter of 25.2 )m on average,
Table 4) collected from the traditional one-step precipitation method readily float in
solution and leach out during the washing process. Additionally, some organic
substances (see the unsmooth and anomalous X-ray diffraction curve in Figure 1) may
be attached to the surface of the recovered precipitates and may wash away with
deionized water, resulting in a low P concentration in the precipitates.
Table 5. The recovery efficiencies of TP, TN, PO43--P and NH4+-N and mass quantity
of precipitates collected from traditional one-step precipitation method and two
precipitation procedures of the novel two-sept precipitation method.
Meth
od
Apparent recovery efficiency (%)d
TP
TN
PO43--P
Aa
17.07
20.31
92.52
NH4+N
26.89
Bb
9.27
6.32
92.43
4.41
Net recovery
efficiency (%)e
PO43--P
NH4+-N
Precipit
ate mass
(g)
48.97
0.55
0.41
32.87
16.39
0.19
Cc
16.40
23.37
93.28
10.32
53.80
13.78
d
Apparent recovery efficiency was calculated based on Formula 1.
e
Net recovery efficiency was calculated based on Formula 2.
0.20
)& &, &($# #!,'' $ ( %&%((' $!!( &$" ( (&($#!
$#'(%%&%(($#"($(&'('(%#('$#'(%%&%(($#
'$##$*!(+$'(%'(&)*(&,'(!"($#(% '$
#"(%&(!,+('(&)*((% '$
" "'%"# "!
" "'%" "!!#' "!
" "'%"!# " !
" "' %" # " ! ! ! ! " %"
!" #$"" #"" "%"!# " !#! !""&"# !" #$"!#' !"
" ' "
In the novel two-step precipitation method, t " PO43--P recovery
efficiencies reached 92.43% and 93.28% for the first- and second-step precipitation
procedure (Table 5), with relatively low PO43--P content observed in the residual liquor
(Table 6). The net PO43--P recovery efficiencies were 32.87% and 53.80% for the first-
and second-step precipitation procedure (Table 5). The precipitates recovered from the
first step can be used as industrial raw materials and the precipitates from the second
step can be used as P fertilizer (reasons given later). In this study, 32.87% of the PO43-
-P in the mixture of hydrolyzed urine and municipal sewage can be recovered for use
as an industrial raw material and 53.80% can be used as an agricultural fertilizer. No
significant difference was observed between the apparent PO43--P recovery efficiency
(93.28%) and net PO43--P recovery efficiency (32.87%+53.80%) while two-step
precipitation method was used. This result suggests that less PO43--P is lost during the
collection of precipitates (mainly struvite) due in part to their larger particle sizes (63.2
($ , Figure 2). However, the particle size of precipitates (mainly calcium
carbonate with a small amount of struvite) in the first-step procedure was with the small
size of 20.7 m mainly due to the calcium carbonate emergence. Moreover, smaller
amounts of organic substances were attached to the surface of the precipitates as
compared to those collected using the traditional precipitation method (Figure 1). There
were still high levels of TP in the effluent after P precipitation (Table 6). The main
forms of TP should be organic P compounds and the composition of TP may vary
seasonally. Therefore, the preprocessing step was needed to transform organic P to
inorganic P before its recycle. Some well-established methods have already developed
to help inorganic P release from sludge, such as ultrasonic wave and anaerobic digestion
(Farooq et al., 2009). However, further experiments should be carried out as well in
future with the aim of reducing the pollution load for municipal sewage treatment plants.
Table 6. The residual TP, TN, PO43--P, NH4+-N and metal concentrations (mg L-1, except Cr--1) during the P recovery process based on
struvite crystal via traditional one-step precipitation method and novel two-step precipitation method.
Sample
TP
TN PO43--P NH4+-N Mg
Ca Cd Cr Cu Fe
K
Ni Zn Na Pb Hg
Aa
146.76 1162.43 2.35 801.27 2.12 20.11 0.01 0.10 4.03 0.11 24.51 0.02 2.04 35.00 0.03 0.01
Bb
166.42 680.63
Cc
153.12 1112.56 2.36 755.14 2.34 6.64 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.08 0.01 0.03 0.53 0.01 0.01
1.28 291.20 22.23 12.77 - 0.04 1.23 0.16 45.1
a
The effluent based on traditional one-step precipitation method.
b
The effluent of the pre-precipitation procedure based on novel two-step precipitation method.
c
The effluent of the second precipitation procedure based on novel two-step precipitation method.
- 3.33 10.01 0.01 0.03
'$)#'!0#-" -"#&( )+(.#'!"#!"!+ +-#%#2+-"(&)(,#-#('( -"
)+#)#--, +(/+ 0#-" -0( # +'- &-"(, -+#-#('% ' '(/% -0(,-)
)+#)#--#('&-"(0+(&)+0#-").+,-+./#-")+()(+-#(',( !
#'%%( -"+(/+)+#)#--,0+,%#!"-%1%(0+-"'-"(,#').+
,-+./#-%'#-#('-")+#)#--,('-#'"#!")+()(+-#(',( &-%,%-,
#' (&)+#,(' 0#-" ).+ ,-+./#- #-" +!+ -( -" -0( )+#)#--#(' &-"(, 0
(,+/-"--")+#)#--, +(&-",(',-))+#)#--#(')+(.+('-#'
"#!" )+()(+-#(', ( ' %(0 %/%, ( "/1 &-%, % The metal
concentrations in precipitates show a decreasing order as follows: the first-step
precipitation procedure > traditional precipitation method > the second-step
precipitation procedure (Table 7). The +1 # +-#(' 0, ., -( *.%#--#/%1
'%12-"(&)(,#-#('( -")+#)#--,'&#+(*.'-#-#,( !3
'
! '(- -!! (.- 0+ (.' #' )+#)#--, +(& -" ,(',-) )+(.+
#!.+
We also observed that the metal ions in wastewaters were precipitated
as carbonate salts during the first-step precipitation process (Figure 2, B-1). This result
was attributed mainly to the different solubility product constants (Ksp) of the different
metal salts. The solubility product constant of struvite was found to be 10-13.26 "%#'!+
-%. The solubility product constants of other salts of interest are as follows:
cadmium phosphate 10-33, calcium phosphate 10-33, copper phosphate 10-37, iron (II)
phosphate di-hydrate 10-16, and nickel (II) phosphate 10-32 1', . Another
possible reason relates to the different pH values of the first- and second-step
precipitation procedure. During the first step, the pH was 7.01 at a of 0.05,
whereas the optimal value for struvite precipitation is 9.0 0+$,$. However,
the heavy metals can precipitate in a neutral solution. "#+*+-$,/++-(('*,0,"
*0 # *,#'& &$0+#+ /"#" +"'/ ,", $*! %'-&, ' '*% #&
(*#(#,,+ #& ," ,*#,#'&$ '&+,( (*#(#,,#'& %,"' & ," #*+,+,(
(*#(#,,#'& (*'-* #!-* "-+ #, & '&$- ,", ," ,/'+,(
(*#(#,,#'&%,"'(*,#-$*$0,"+'&+,((*#(#,,#'&(*'-*"+(',&,#$
'*#%(*'.#&!,")-$#,0' (*#(#,,+&+,*-.#,(-*# #,#'&
#!-* &&#&! $,*'& %#*'+'( #%!+ ' (*#(#,,+ '$$, *'% ,"
,*#,#'&$'&+,((*#(#,,#'&%,"'," #*+,+,(&,"+'&+,(
(*#(#,,#'&+'&&'.$,/'+,(+,*-.#,*0+,$%,"'',".*!
(*,#$+#1+' (*,##(,+#&&*&
2%*+(,#.$0
Table 7. Evaluation of the quality of precipitates derived from the traditional one-step precipitation and novel two-step precipitation methods
based on the composition of pure struvite and Chinese limit values for mineral P fertilizer (unit: mg g-1, except Cr--1).
Sample
PO43--P NH4-N Mg Ca Cd Cr Cu
Pure struvite 126.53 57.14 97.96 - Aa
45.02 17.53 78.81 135.10 0.06 0.54 11.49
65.20 31.01 94.51 340.83 0.04 2.81 58.23
Bb
Cc
101.41 42.37 92.41 28.88 - - 0.07
- 0.01 0.50 LCd
a
The precipitate collected from traditional one-stepprecipitation method.
Fe K Ni Zn Na Pb Hg
2.48 185.80 0.19 10.51 125.60 0.21 0.12
5.21 221.74 0.20 15.73 165.57 0.51 1.28
0.13 66.14 0.11 1.85 84.64 0.11 - 0.20 0.005
b
The precipitate collected from the first-step-precipitation based on two-step precipitation method.
c
The precipitate sample collected from the second-step-precipitation based on two-step precipitation method.
d
Chinese limit values for mineral P fertilizer (GB/T 23349-2009).
"()&)!#- .". ( /- ), ,)0,3 ,)' 1-.1.,- "0 ..,.
#(,-#(!#(.,-.#(,(.-/-) ."(.) #(&.,(.#0-)/,-) ), #(/-.,#&/- ( ,.#&#4,*,)/.#)( &-,( ((..
*# #&&3
,)0,-.,/0#.#-"#!"+/&#.3-&)1,&- ,.#&#4,.".(/-#,.&3#(
"),.#/&./,(!,#/&./, "'( . &
)10, ).#(#(! */,-.,/0#.
,)'1-.-.,'-#-# #/&./-.")'*)-#.#)() -.,'-#-,&.#0&3)'*&2
""03'.&-#(1-.1.,-,*,-(.'$),-./'&#(!&)%#( ),.-.),)0,
-.,/0#. ),&,!-&/--(!,#/&./,& ,.#&#4,"*,-() "03'.&-#(
,.#&#4,#--.,#.&3,!/&.#(0,3)/(.,3(2--#0')/(.-) "03'.&-
(,-/&.#( ,.#&#4,#(!*,)"##. ,)'/-#(!,#/&./,(."#--./3.",
( ! )(.(.- #( ." *,#*#..- ,)0, 1#." ." .,#.#)(& *,#*#..#)(
'.")2.",!/&.),3&#'#.0&/-#'*)-#("#( ),'#(,& ,.#&#4,
"#-'(-.".-.,/0#.,)0, ,)''#2./,) /,#((
'/(##*& -1! 3 ." .,#.#)(& '.") ((). /- - ,.#&#4, #( "#(
")10,#.(-,0-,1'.,#& ),#(/-.,#&*,)/.#)(),2'*&#,)(
*")-*". #- ( --(.#& )'*)((. #( ." #(/-.,#& *,)/.#)( ) &#."#/' #,)(
*")-*". ..,#- $# ( )(! ( ."#- -./3 1"( ." ()0& .1)-.*
*,#*#..#)('.")1-/-."&0&-) .""03'.&-#(."*,#*#..- ,)'
."-)(-.**,)/,1,&)1.""#(-&#'#.0&/- ),'#(,& ,.#&#4,
", ),."#--.,/0#.,3-.&*,-(.-&#..&,#-% ),!,#/&./,
*,)/.#)(()/&/--(!,#/&./,& ,.#&#4,
) */, -./!3 PO43--P net recovery efficiency was 1%& % (")- .%.
++,*2&(."'3%'#*#*,.%*+%*-+%." )"," *0","!-#",.&'&4",$,!"-.,/0&."#,*(
the mixture of municipal sewage and urine. Based on our results in Table 4, the HRT
of 10 min seems to be better than 30 min in obtaining large particle size and also low
energy consumption. After this, .%"+,*+*-"!)*0"'.1*-."++," &+&..&*)(".%*!&-
#"-&'"" *)*(& ')!+,*(&-&)$(".%*!
4. ) .%" .,!&.&*)' -.,/0&." +," &+&..&*) "2+",&("). .%" PO43--P removal efficiency
reached the highest value with a *#-.&,,&)$-+""!*#
,+()!*#
(&)) *(+,&-*)1&.%.%")*0"'.1*-."++," &+&..&*)(".%*!(".'&*)-1","
,"(*0"!!/,&)$.%"#&,-.-."++,"+," &+&..&*)+,* "!/,".*#)!.%"
PO43--P was ," *0","!#,*(.%"-" *)!-."+-.,/0&."+," &+&..&*)+,* "!/,".
*#%"++,").," *0",3"##& &") &"-*# )!1","-%&$%-
)!
,"-+" .&0"'3&).%")*0"'.1*-."++," &+&..&*)(".%*!)!!&.&*).%"
*) ").,.&*)- *#!,)!$&) .%" ," *0","! -.,/0&."1",""'*1 .%"limit
values for mineral P fertilizer&)%&)Future studies should be
carried out to evaluate the seasonal variation in wastewater streams characteristics and
then make the research outcome more generable. After this.he proposed novel two-
step precipitation method should be a feasible, economical, and promising approach for
converting the in a mixture of human urine and municipal sewage into high-
grade P fertilizer.
# *+ , (- ,-.1 0, !$(($&&1 ,.**)+- 1 -# -$)(& 1 , +# (
/ &)*' (-&()!#$((-# 1+)% -,$(-# -$)(&
$ ( ( #()&)"1 $&&+ +)"+' )! #$( # .-#)+,
0$,# -) ,$( + &1 **+ $- # ).+ $$ !+)' . , +# (
/ &)*' (- (-+ "+$.&-.+ ("+$))(!)+# +,,$,-( $(&("." $'*+)/ ' (-
80<4.,9!?-74.0,7>3==:.4,>4:9$>,9/,</80>3:/=1:<0B,849,>4:9:1A,>0<
,9/ A,=>0A,>0< >3 0/ (,=3492>:9 &$ 80<4.,9 !?-74. 0,7>3
==:.4,>4:980<4.,9
0/0<,>4:9
(,>0<
(:<6= ==:.4,>4:9(,>0<
9@4<:9809>
309<,0/07%
%30;:>09>4,71:<849492><,.0070809>=1<:8;3:=;3,>0
<:.670,9!<:/G3>>;=/:4:<255.70;<:
:309* 4<.38,99 91E7> ! ,9,20809> :1 ;3:=;3:<?= <0=:?<.0=G
34=>:<4.,7;0<=;0.>4@0;<49.4;,7;<:-708=,9/=?=>,49,-70=:7?>4:9=9>02<,>0/
(,=>0,9,20809>':7?80<$?947?8,</$ 9%0.3
0,=3,9 ,=3,9* #0.09> ,/@,9.0= 49 <08:@492 ;3:=;3:<?= 1<:8
A,=>0A,>0< ,9/ 4>= 1?>?<0 ?=0 ,= 10<>474D0< G
(,>0< #0= G
3>>;=/:4:<25A,><0=
:49:':D0>?3<!7,=,<4
$>?/C:9=><?@4>0;<0.4;4>,>4:949,
80.3,94.,77C=>4<<49217?4/4D0/-0/<0,.>:<30892%<,9=
G
:C70!,<=:9=$
$><?@4>01:<8,>4:9.:9><:7,9/<0.:@0<C(,>0<#0=
G3>>;=/:4:<2$
?,94?+3,92(+3092+3,92"4)?*
@,7?,>4:9
,9/ $:?<.0 ;;:<>4:9809> :1 0,@C 0>,7= = 49 $0A,20 $7?/20 :1
<61+18)4 '):;->);-9 $9-);5-6; !4)6;: ''$!: 16 #0)6?1 016) 6; 6=1976
0;;8:,7179/12-980
"-:
!<*41+
-)4;0
B
<99)6; #+915:0)> #;9);.<4 -:;-9 "-=1-> 7. ;0-
-):1*141;@ 7. "-+7=-916/ !07:80);- .975 '):;->);-9 .79 %:- ): ) ")>
);-91)4 *@ ;0- !07:80);- 6,<:;9@ 6=1976 $-+0674 B
0;;8:,7179/
**-9: ;;7:-6-6:-6!
4-+;97,1)4@;1+;9-);5-6;7.5<61+18)4
>):;->);-9 )6, :4<,/- .79 ;0- 9-57=)4 7. 0-)=@ 5-;)4: )6, 9-+7=-9@ 7.
807:8079<:
0;;8:,7179/2-4-+;)+;)
4-+;97+0151+)
+;)
B
*16)$:<;:<1$#019)1$#15<4;)6-7<:,-;-9516);1767.;7;)461;97/-6)6,
;7;)4807:8079<:16>);-9<:16/8-97?7,1:<4.);-7?1,);176');-9"-:
B
0;;8:,7179/
/4-"-+0*-9/-9(-::6-9
=-9=1->)6,,-:+918;1767.;-+06747/1-:
.79 9-+7=-916/ 807:8079<: .975 5<61+18)4 >):;->);-9 "-:7<9 76:-9=
"-+@+416/
B0;;8:,7179/29-:+769-+
4:-9-66-;;
!07:8079<:+@+4-*973-6*17/-7+0-51+)4+@+4-);<9-
0;;8:,7179/
)
7,; #+0-1,1/ 97::-#1-:;9<8 :+0- & 9)6,-6*<9/ ! "-1+0 976-*-9/ $0- ;7?1+1;@ 7. +),51<5 )6, 9-:<4;16/ 0)A)9,: .79
0<5)6 0-)4;0 ++<8 -, $7?1+74 0;;8:,7179/
*A7.;'-
#1*7-+8848/,1.62;<:A*7-91A;2,;D*:.*-A:./.:.7,.
+8848/,1.62,*5*7-91A;2,*5-*<*<1.-#":.;; .?(8:4&$
*//.:(5*:4%".*:,.""*:;87;$
"8<.7<2*5918;918:=;:.,8>.:A
+A
;<:=>2<.
/8:6*<287
'*<.:
#.;
1<<9;-828:0$
C
*<*42$'.;<5*:4.*:=*1
"18;918:=;:.,8>.:A*;;<:=>2<.
#.,.7<,87,.:7;/8:=;.8/;..-*5<.:7*<2>.0;8=:,.72<:80.7,87;.:>*<287
*7- /.:<252B.: 98<.7<2*5 #.;8=: 87;.:> #.,A,5 C
1<<9;-828:03:.;,87:.,
2626#A=..$
//.,<8/62@27087;987<*7.8=;;<:=>2<.
9:.,292<*<287/:86;.62,87-=,<8:?*;<.?*<.:28:.;8=:%.,1785C
1<<9;-828:03+28:<.,1
2:,16*77".<<.:;;87$=6*7=:27.,1.62,*5,8698;2<287*7-/.:<252B.:
=;.
.//2,2.7,A
=<:
A,5
1<<9;-828:0
0:8.,8;A;<.6;
C
*1*>!%.5B1.7;4A).?=17.7-.5(.:<1*56*78'2:71*,4
$<:=>2<. :.,8>.:A /:86 6=72,29*5?*;<.?*<.: ;5=-0. ,.7<:2/=0.
;=9.:7*<*7<=;270;.*?*<.: ,87,.7<:*<.*;*,1.*90;8=:,.$.9"=:2/
%.,1785C1<<9;-828:03;.99=:
*:;.7 % =3.: ' $.9*:*<. 6*7*0.6.7< 8/ *7<1:8980.72, 7=<:2.7<
;85=<287;1=6*7=:27.'*<.:$,2%.,1785C
5:0-:,C0E:%
@?=51:?=1/;A1=C2=;94@9-:@=5:1.C>?=@A5?1
/=C>?-885D-?5;:B5?4-99;:5--0>;=<?5;:;:D1;85?1-:0B;88->?;:5?15;=1>;@=
&1/4:;8
I4??<>0;5;=3%
5@ * @ , ,4@ )1: 1:3 * @ :28@1:/1 ;2 <=;/1>>
<-=-91?1=>;:<4;><4;=@>=1/;A1=C.C>?=@A5?12;=9-?5;:2=;9@=5:1)-?1=%/5
&1/4:;8
I
4??<>0;5;=3
B>?
5@ , ,4-;#)-:3 11#5@))-:3
'=1-4C0=;8C>5>-:0
=1/;A1=C ;2 :5?=;31: -:0 <4;><4;=;@> -> " 2=;9 >?-81 4@9-: @=5:1 :A5=;:
%/5
I
4??<>0;5;=3%
-@=1="=;:7)-=>1:&
&=1-?91:?<=;/1>>1>2;=>;@=/1>1<-=-?10
@=5:1
)-?1=
$1>
4??<>0;5;=36B-?=1>
I
5418/5/$=C%4-B$
8;.-8<;?1:?5-8;2<4;><4;=@>=1/;A1=C2=;9
4@9-:@=5:1-:021/1>419;><41=1?41"4;><4;=@>C/81
I
4??<>0;5;=36/419;><41=1
F:/4 ( -== ;:?=;8810 >?=@A5?1 /=C>?-885>-?5;: 2;= =19;A5:3
<4;><4;=@>2=;9 -:-1=;.5/0531>?1=>501>?=1-9>)-?1=$1>I
4??<>0;5;=3%
!485:31= +;@:3&%/4=;101="=105/?5:3>?=@A5?12;=9-?5;:5:
0531>?5;: )-?1= $1> I 4??<>0;5;=3%
'9:58 '4-/4 '8': ! "+)5 6/25:9)'2+ 9:;*> 5, 9:8;</:+
68+)/6/:':/54 /4 ' 9:/88+* :'41 8+'):58 )54*/:/549 /4,2;+4)/4- :.+ 685)+99
/58+95;8
.::69*5/58-0(/58:+).
#+).452
'9:58 '4-/4 +88+8 "+)5 ":8;</:+ ,583':/54 ,853 :.+
9;6+84':'4:95,'4'4'+85(/)*/-+9:/546/25:62'4:/58+95;8#+).452
@
.::69*5/58-0(/58:+).
+9)5* %'9:+=':+8 ).'8'):+8/9:/)9 '4* +,,2;+4: 7;'2/:> 6'8'3+:+89
%'9:+=':+8:8+':3+4:'4*;9+/4'-8/);2:;8+,55*'4*'-8/);2:;8+58-'4/?':/54
5,
.::6===,'558-*5)8+6:+:+.:3
:.+
$4/:+*
':/549
<'/2'(2+
,853
+:?+:" +62/491/584+2 4=+:).+3/)'26.596.58;98+)5<+8>,853
9+='-+92;*-+'9.(>')/*/)58'21'2/4+2+')./4-'4*'456:/3/?+*)53(/4':/54
5,
.::69*5/58-0=':8+9
(5:.
%':+8
!+9
@
!'.3'4"'22+.!'9./*$.9'4599'/4!'"
85*;):/545,925=8+2+'9+)8>9:'2,+8:/2/?+8,853='9:+=':+89:.85;-.9:8;</:+
)8>9:'22/?':/54@ 8+</+= 8'( .+3 "6+)/'2 99;+ 4</8543+4:'2
.+3/9:8>@.::69*5/58-0'8'(0)
!54:+2:'6 .596.58;9 8+)5<+8> ,853 95;8)+9+6'8':+* ;8/4+ :.85;-. :.+
68+)/6/:':/545,9:8;</:+5):58'2:.+9/9"=/99+*+8'249:/:;:+5,#+).4525->
&;8/).
5
<'/2'(2+
,853
.::69===8+9+'8).
+744-+;176-;0A+00)6,4-
#76;-4;)8 )<9-9 <2-9( %0- *-0)=17<9 7. 80)95)+-<;1+)4: )6,
0-)=@ 5-;)4: ,<916/ :;9<=1;- 89-+181;);176 16 <916- ();-9 #-: D
0;;8:,7179/2>);9-:
#76;-4;)8)<9-9)<:0-99#<2-9(
$;9<=1;-89-+181;);176.975
<916- D 6.4<-6+16/ .)+;79: 76 8)9;1+4- :1A- ();-9 #-: D
0;;8:,7179/2>);9-:
#<*16))1A)#$7.1) )91) $$)22),&5)9 *,<9#;0-9 9:0-, ! <30;)9<4)::)6 $0)<3); $ %0- -..-+; 7. <4;9):761+
199),1);17676;0-)6)-97*1+,1/-:;1767.)+;1=);-,:4<,/-(794,884$+1
$)21 '$ $76/ 1-!
E
)67:;9<+;<9-: )*91+);-, .975 976 !07:80);--!
*@@,97;0-95)4-;07,)67:+1)67;-+0674
D0;;8:,7179/266
$$6:;1;<;-
$$ 6416-7+=-9:176$$6:;1;<;-6+)9@&$
$51; 16,9)*)6 !$ $+09B,-9 76126 ')6 ,-9 --9 !07:8079<:16)/91+<4;<9-/47*)49-:77<9+-:;9-6,:)6,,-=-4785-6;:#-879;
;7 ;0- $;--916/ 7551;;-- %-+06747/@ ::-::5-6; 7. ;0- 161:;-9@ 7.
/91+<4;<9- );<9- )6, 77, "<)41;@%0- -;0-94)6,: )6, 16 +744)*79);176
>1;0;0-<;91-6;47>%):397<8%:<8879;-,*@!#-=-4785-6;
!741+@9-=1->-;>7937
!4)6;#-:-)9+06;-96);176)4=)14)*4-.975
0;;841*9)9@><964(-*"<-9@><98<*:.<44;-?;
$;9);.<4 $+915:0)> -:;-9 76,1;176: 16.4<-6+16/ ;0-
9;.,292=*=2878/6*07.<2>6*66872>6918<91*=.&*=.;".<C
1==9<-828;0#
$256*7*;0287.&85//D7=87288+<878@*;=1"#,127-5.;
#,15.<270.; & #26+.;58// #@*,41*6.; 8;.,*<=270
*0;2,>5=>;*55A-;2?.7058+*5.7?2;876.7=*5,1*70.#,2.7,.
C
1==9<-828;0
<,2.7,.
%A<*5(256*B.5(.62;.;
$1.-.=.;627*=2878//.;=252B.;:>*52=A
8/=1./8;6.-<=;>?2=./;86.//5>.7=8/*<.@*0.<5>-0.*7*.;8+2,-20.<=.; *B*;-
1==9<-828;0331*B6*=
*=.;
C
&*;6*-.@*7=12 2> ".,8?.;A 8/ 918<91*=. *7- *66872>6 *< <=;>?2=.
/;86 <.62,87->,=8; @*<=.@*=.; #.9 !>;2/ $.,1785 C
1==9<-828;03<.99>;
(.(08>8&2>(2@.722>(2)1*70'2*
7<201=
27=8 ,1.62,*5 918<91*=. ;.,8?.;A /;86 6>72,29*5 @*<=.@*=.; #,2 $8=*5
7?2;87C1==9<-828;03<,2=8=.7?
)1*70$2!*702*70"
!18<91*=.;.,8?.;A/;86*726*56*7>;.
@*<=.@*=.; +A <=;>?2=. ,;A<=*552B*=287 *7- -.0*<2/2,*=287 ;.*,=8;
1.670#
C1==9<-828;0
.,.<
,85
Highlights:
1. Urine and sludge supernatant were used to realize P recovery without Mg addition.
2. A novel precipitation method was applied to obtain fertilizer-grade struvite.
3. The novel method significantly reduced heavy metals compared to traditional method.
4. A high P recovery efficiency was obtained by using the novel precipitation method.
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
3
Размер файла
3 121 Кб
Теги
003, eti, 2018
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа