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JMRTEC-453; No. of Pages 8
ARTICLE IN PRESS
j m a t e r r e s t e c h n o l . 2 0 1 8;x x x(x x):xxx–xxx
Available online at www.sciencedirect.com
www.jmrt.com.br
Original Article
Residual stress evaluation in API 5L X65 girth
welded pipes joined by friction welding and gas
tungsten arc welding
Carlos Alexandre Pereira de Moraes a , Mariane Chludzinski b,∗ , Rafael Menezes Nunes a ,
Guilherme Vieira Braga Lemos a,c , Afonso Reguly a
a
Laboratório de Metalurgia Física (LAMEF), Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Minas, Metalúrgica e de Materiais
(PPGE3M), Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, Brazil
b Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering and Inorganic Chemistry, LABCYP, University of Cadiz, Faculty of
Engineering, University of Cádiz, Av. Universidad de Cadiz 10, E-11519 Puerto Real – Cadiz, Spain
c Universidade Regional Integrada (URI), Erechim, Brazil
a r t i c l e
i n f o
a b s t r a c t
Article history:
The present study compared the residual stress states in friction welded pipes of API 5L
Received 10 October 2017
X65 to those achieved by gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW). X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used
Accepted 18 July 2018
to assess residual stresses. In addition, microstructural and microhardness were analyzed
Available online xxx
for both welding processes. As expected, results showed that each welding method led
to different residual stress states. The friction technology led to coarser microstructure,
Keywords:
increased microhardness and lower residual stress states at the weld centreline. On the
Residual stress
other hand, fusion welding was responsible for higher heterogeneity microhardness at the
X-ray diffraction
weld centerline, greater residual stress distributions and porosity formation in the joint
API 5L X65
cross section.
© 2018 Brazilian Metallurgical, Materials and Mining Association. Published by Elsevier
Friction welding
Gas tungsten arc welding
Editora Ltda. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
1.
Introduction
Welding processes are widely used in various industrial sectors, especially in the oil and gas industry [1]. In general,
pipeline joining is produced by conventional fusion welding
process. Among the several methods available, the gas tungsten arc welding (henceforth, GTAW) process is one of the most
∗
frequently used for its ability to promote high quality joints.
To achieve high thicknesses, financial aspects need to be considered due to equipment costs and consumables as well as
the productivity that may be relatively low [2]. These challenges have prompted the development of alternative welding
methods such as solid-state joining process, also known as
friction welding. The production of quality joints at relatively
low temperatures and fast welding speeds makes these friction methods increasingly attractive for API steels.
Some studies have reported pipes joined by friction welding with a rotating ring, a process typically referred to as Friex
[3–5]. In this method, a ring is placed between two pipes and
Corresponding author.
E-mail: marianechlu@gmail.com (M. Chludzinski).
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmrt.2018.07.009
2238-7854/© 2018 Brazilian Metallurgical, Materials and Mining Association. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. This is an open access
article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
Please cite this article in press as: Moraes CA, et al. Residual stress evaluation in API 5L X65 girth welded pipes joined by friction welding and
gas tungsten arc welding. J Mater Res Technol. 2018. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmrt.2018.07.009
ARTICLE IN PRESS
JMRTEC-453; No. of Pages 8
2
j m a t e r r e s t e c h n o l . 2 0 1 8;x x x(x x):xxx–xxx
Fig. 1 – Friction welding process.
it is further rotated. The pipes are then axial pressed against
the ring until a given force is reached. The friction produced
thus generates the necessary heat to plasticize the materials
and produce a sound weld without reaching the melting point.
In other words, a process of a solid state nature is achieved
(Fig. 1). It has been recognized that friction welding with a
rotating ring is a process similar to radial friction welding [6,7].
Therefore, numerous advantages can also be obtained such as
low distortion, absence of liquid phase and porosity, no solidification cracking and hydrogen embrittlement, among others
[8–11]. The extant literature also claims that other friction
based process such as Friction Stir Welding (FSW) might be
an alternative to help lower costs in pipeline welding projects
[12]. It is therefore expected that interest in high quality of
welding methods to API steels will continue to rise.
API 5L and supermartensitic stainless steel pipes have been
reported to be joined by friction welding [13–15]. Faes et al.
evaluated different pipeline steels such as API 5L X42, X52 and
X70 with relatively small thickness (from 3 to 5 in. in diameter)
[3–5]. Other studies have involved a welding machine suitable
to higher diameters (from 8 to 16 in. for API 5L X46 as well as
Duplex Stainless Steel (SAF 2205)) [16,17]. Moreover, the forging force effect was also investigated in API 5L X42 pipeline
with a diameter of 4 in. [3]. However, their findings showed
that there was no significant influence of the forging force on
the weld mechanical properties and microstructural features.
As far as optimization of the process conditions, the ring heat
affected zone (HAZ) microstructure was evaluated and found
to consist of fine-grained ferrite, pearlite and small amounts
of bainitic. In addition, in the pipe HAZ microstructure finegrained ferrite and pearlite was observed [4].
Several factors can affect the pipeline weld structural
integrity and, therefore, an understanding of the microstructure, mechanical properties, and residual stress states must
be achieved. A rarely-studied issue in pipeline joining is the
residual stresses distribution. However, it has been broadly
established that the residual stress states can be beneficial
or detrimental to fatigue properties. In this context, the residual tensile stresses found in welded joints can lead to a higher
effective stress and, consequently, negatively affect the fatigue
life. Still, compressive residual stresses are usually recognized to decrease the resulting stress and may be beneficial to
fatigue [18]. Both solid state and fusion welding generate residual stress states due to non-uniform temperature gradients
and/or plastic deformations and the resulting microstructural
changes. These would affect the material properties. In this
sense, the residual stresses in the welds produced by friction based process such as FSW have been widely reported
[19–24]. Finally, residual stresses in welded pipes have not
yet been analyzed in detail for the welding process selected
here. Therefore, the present work aims to evaluate the residual stress states in API 5L X65 girth welded pipes joined by two
different methods: friction welding and the GTAW process.
2.
Materials and methods
The welded pipes considered in the current study were made
of API 5L X65 steel with an outer diameter of 219 mm and
a wall thickness of 22.5 mm. The base material chemical
composition is presented in Table 1. The pipe was made by
Mannesmann process, which is a process of making seamless
pipes from metal billets by piercing.
The friction weld was produced in the MASF 1500 equipment [16]. The intermediated ring was made with the same
pipe material. The rotation speed applied to the ring was
500 rpm, axial and forge forces were 420 kN and the welding
time was 280 s. No cooling system was considered.
GTAW was also carried out with a filler rod made of ER70S of
3.2 mm. The filler chemical composition is provided in Table 1.
Standard V-butt configurations (single V-groove having a root
gap of 2 mm, land size of 1 mm, and an angle of 60◦ ) were
adopted on the base material before welding. The fusion welding parameters adopted were arc distance of 1.7 mm, argon
flow of 9.0 l/min, welding current of 40 A and welding speed
of 13.5 cm/min. Multi-pass welding was made with a temperature between the passes of around 200 ◦ C. The welds were
subsequently air cooled.
The microstructural analysis of the joints was performed
by optical microscopy (OM). Basic metallography procedures
were adopted and the samples were then etched with a 5%
Nital reagent. Vickers microhardness profiles were set at a
distance of 0.5 from the top surface of the joint.
The evaluation of residual stresses of the welded API 5L
X65 pipes joined by different welding methods (friction and
GTAW) was performed using a GE-Seifert-Charon-M X-ray
diffractometer (research edition) with Bragg-Brentano geometry and an X-ray tube with Cr-K␣ radiation. The voltage
and current applied to the X-ray tube were 30 kV and 45 mA,
respectively. Both welding processes resulted in welds that
needed surface finishing. To that end, the samples were cut by
Table 1 – Chemical composition (wt.%).
Material
C
Si
Mn
P
S
Cr
Mo
Ni
Al
Cu
Ti
API 5L X65
0.108
0.259
1.29
0.009
0.0011
0.0617
0.0522
0.007
0.044
0.016
0.001
0.335
Filler to GTAW
0.181
0.248
1.30
0.008
0.003
0.011
<0.005
0.025
0.011
0.402
<0.005
<0.01
Ceq
Please cite this article in press as: Moraes CA, et al. Residual stress evaluation in API 5L X65 girth welded pipes joined by friction welding and
gas tungsten arc welding. J Mater Res Technol. 2018. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmrt.2018.07.009
ARTICLE IN PRESS
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D
Outer diameter
C
B
A
10 mm
Pipe
Ring
Fig. 2 – Cross section macrograph of the friction welded pipe.
A
B
10 mm
Inner diameter
Fig. 3 – Cross section macrograph of the GTAW joint.
electrical discharge machining, a method that tends to do not
cause significant changes in the residual stress distributions.
A diffracted beam was used from a collimator with a 2 mm
primary aperture and a 20◦ GE-Meteor-1D linear detector. Evaluation of the residual stresses considered the sin 2Â method.
The diffraction peaks in the direction {211} at 2Â = 156.08◦
were evaluated. The 2Â measuring range was 147–166◦ in steps
of 0.1◦ with measurement times of 20 s for each step. The
standard deviation of the residual stress measurements is
derived from X-ray deviations of the diffraction line positions
in 11 different angular positions for the calculated regression
line. Finally, for the calculation of the residual stresses, values of the elastic constants ½ s2−s1 of 5.80 × 10−6 MPa−1 and
1.27 × 10−6 MPa−1 were used respectively, with a modulus of
elasticity of 220 GPa and Poisson’s ratio of 0.28 [25].
3.
Results and discussion
3.1.
Weld macrostructure
Fig. 2 presents a cross section macrograph of the friction
welded pipe. As expected, the microstructure of the parent material was transformed into variable microstructures
according to different regions. These resulting microstructures are related to the material flow, severe plastic
deformation and thermal cycle imposed on the API steel. Similar to other friction processes, the regions can be divided
into base material (A) (characterized as the pipe material that
was not exposed to the welding process), the heat affected
zone (HAZ) (B), interface of the pipe and ring material (C)
and the ring zone (D), which can also be characterized as the
thermo-mechanically affected zone (TMAZ). The microstructural features present at the base metal, HAZ and weld
interface were evaluated in Figs. 4 and 5.
Concerning the fusion welded pipe, Fig. 3 shows the
cross section macrograph of the GTAW process. In this context, the solidification macrostructure of multipass welding
with depositing filler metal is apparent. The regions A and
B selected here were later analyzed with respect to the
microstructure (Figs. 6 and 7). Although the surface appearance was relatively adequate, some dispersed porosities were
found. The amount of porosity is acceptable according to API
1104 standard [26], however this may exert an influence in the
fatigue properties.
3.2.
Weld microstructure
The microstructural features were classified with respect
to both welding processes according to the guidelines proposed by IIW [27]. As can be seen, different joining processes
achieved a particular microstructure. Because GTAW usually
involves higher temperatures, its corresponding microstructures are formed according to the specific thermal cycle and
heat input reached. Therefore, the multipass fusion welding
Please cite this article in press as: Moraes CA, et al. Residual stress evaluation in API 5L X65 girth welded pipes joined by friction welding and
gas tungsten arc welding. J Mater Res Technol. 2018. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmrt.2018.07.009
ARTICLE IN PRESS
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Fig. 4 – In (a) the base material with irregular and polygonal ferrite, FC, FS(NA) and FS(A). In (b) the HAZ with PF and FC
microstructures.
Fig. 5 – Interface zone (a) with FS(NA), PF(G), PF(I), AF microstructures. In the center of the ring (b) PF, FS(NA) and AF
microstructures.
a
b
Fig. 6 – Fusion zone with columnar grains (a) and network of AF and FS(A) microstructures (b).
a
b
Fig. 7 – HAZ with fine PF, FC and constituent M-A (a) and porosity of the middle of the FZ (b).
presents a solidified structure. On the other hand, friction
welding is a relatively fast joining process which occurs in a
solid state manner and is often used due to the possibility
of achieving lower distortion and residual stress, enhanced
mechanical and corrosion properties.
The original pipe material (Fig. 4a) is composed of complex
microstructural constituents such as irregular and polygonal
ferrite, ferrite carbide aggregate (FC), ferrite with aligned
second phase (FS(A)) and ferrite with non-aligned second
phase (FS(NA)). The presence of dispersed fine A-M constituents (retained austenite + martensite) characterizes a
mixed microstructure.
The friction weld microstructure evaluation is shown
in Figs. 4 and 5. The HAZ region (indicated as region B)
Please cite this article in press as: Moraes CA, et al. Residual stress evaluation in API 5L X65 girth welded pipes joined by friction welding and
gas tungsten arc welding. J Mater Res Technol. 2018. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmrt.2018.07.009
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250
Microhardness Hv0,5
Microhardness Hv0,5
250
225
200
175
225
200
175
150
150
125
125
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
10
20
30
-20
-30
40
-10
0
10
20
30
Distance from weldcenterline (mm)
Distance from weldcenterline (mm)
Fig. 8 – Microhardness profile of the friction weld.
Fig. 9 – Microhardness profile of the GTAW joint.
displayed a polygonal ferrite (PF) matrix and dispersed FC
(Fig. 4b) microstructure. Fig. 5a exhibited the pipe interface
and the ring material (region C) with coarser microstructures
where high amounts of FS(NA), grain boundary ferrite (PF(G)),
polygonal ferrite intergranular (PF(I)), acicular ferrite (AF) and
FC were found. As the ring material was rotated during the
weld, it was probably subjected to compressive stresses by the
pipes as well as substantially exposed to thermomechanical
effects from friction welding. The microstructure found at
the weld centerline of the ring (region D) exhibited mainly PF,
AF, FS(NA) and FC (Fig. 5b).
Based on the metallography presented above, it can be
assumed that the friction welding process affected the base
material microstructure and, as a result, the microstructures
appeared to be coarser. Here, upon approaching the higher
heat and deformation regions involved, the predominance of
PF and FC was observed. The region that corresponds to the
ring zone displayed coarser microstructures consisting chiefly
of PF.
Unsurprisingly, the GTAW process produced distinct
microstructural features in comparison to the friction welding
process. The microstructure found near the weld centerline, at
the center of the FZ, displayed coarse columnar grains (Fig. 6a).
This feature is a recognized characteristic of the weld metal
deposited by an arc process. The microstructures observed
were a network of AF with FS(A), some PF(I) and grain boundary ferrite PF(G) (Fig. 6b). Due to the thermal cycle achieved, the
HAZ region presented polygonal grains of ferrite with FC, as
well as constituents M-A (Fig. 7a). In a multiple-pass process,
each weld pass may affect the previous one and changes its
microstructure. It promotes the grain refining of the coarsegrained fusion zone and, the transformation into acicular
ferrite, may also contribute to an enhanced toughness [23].
The porosities were then observed in the middle of the FZ.
The Fig. 7b detailed displays this porosity with a crack. In fact,
depending on the external stress acting on this welded pipe
in a real-world application, the porosities can act as stress
concentrators and lead to a catastrophic fracture.
it is noted that the friction welding was conducive to a more
symmetrical microhardness profile along the measurements.
There is also a clear hardness increase at the weld centerline
(ring material) caused by the local microstructure developed.
From the −10 mm to 10 mm distance, at the weld centerline
and adjacent areas, the microhardness profile appeared to be
more homogenous. Moreover, the decreased microhardness
found in the HAZ is consistent with the PF matrix microstructure.
As can be observed in Fig. 9, the GTAW joint presented
a more disperse microhardness profile and therefore certain
heterogeneity along the joint cross section. In addition, at
−14 mm and 14 mm, the GTAW joint presented the highest
microhardness values. However, at the positions around 5 and
−10 mm, there was a reduction in these values. This can be
linked to the thermal cycle effect of the last filling pass in the
surrounding area, which resulted in a microstructural modification. That might also account for the scatter in hardness
values observed at the weld centerline.
3.3.
Microhardness
Figs. 8 and 9 show the microhardness profiles for friction welding and GTAW, respectively. In general, as can be seen in Fig. 8,
4.
Residual stress distributions
Circumferential Residual Stresses (MPa)
The residual stress and FWHM (full width at half maximum) results for API 5L X65 girth welded pipes are shown in
Figs. 10–12.
200
100
0
-100
-200
-300
-400
-40
Friction Weld
GTAW Joint
-30
-20
-10
0
10
20
30
40
Distance from weld centerline (mm)
Fig. 10 – Circumferential residual stresses of the friction
weld and GTAW joint.
Please cite this article in press as: Moraes CA, et al. Residual stress evaluation in API 5L X65 girth welded pipes joined by friction welding and
gas tungsten arc welding. J Mater Res Technol. 2018. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmrt.2018.07.009
ARTICLE IN PRESS
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Transverse Residual Stresses (MPa)
j m a t e r r e s t e c h n o l . 2 0 1 8;x x x(x x):xxx–xxx
300
Friction Weld
GTAW Joint
200
100
0
-100
-200
-300
-400
-500
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
10
20
30
40
Distance from weld centerline (mm)
Fig. 11 – Transverse residual stresses of the friction weld
and GTAW joint.
2,2
2,0
1,8
FWHM (°)
1,6
1,4
1,2
1,0
Friction Weld
GTAW Joint
0,8
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
10
20
30
40
Distance from weld centerline (mm)
Fig. 12 – Circumferential FWHM of the friction welding and
GTAW joint.
Circumferential residual stress distributions after friction
welding and GTAW process are shown in Fig. 10. For the solid
state joining method, it was observed values up to 70 MPa
at the weld centerline, while at +10 mm the residual stress
increased to +110 MPa. At distances between −5 and −20 mm
and +10 and +15 mm from the weld centerline, the residual
stresses change the behavior, presenting values of −100 MPa
and −70 MPa in the −20 mm and + 15 mm positions, respectively. In the direction of the base material, at distances
between approximately ±20 and ±25 mm, residual stress distributions were modified with a trend toward values of 70 MPa.
On the other hand, the circumferential residual stresses for
the GTAW joint presented a tensile behavior at weld centerline. At distances of ±25 mm, a different residual stresses
behavior with −300 MPa can be seen.
The comparison between friction weld and GTAW joint
shows that in the friction based process, the circumferential residual stresses are more homogeneous. In this regard,
the maximum tensile residual stresses take place at different
circumferential positions. Low tensile values, at the weld centerline, were also observed. The calculated standard deviation
of the circumferential surface residual stresses shows values
of 65 MPa for friction weld and 196 MPa for GTAW process. The
mean surface residual stress levels for the friction weld as well
as GTAW joint was calculated and the values were of −5 MPa
−72 MPa, respectively. However, although the circumferential
mean value is more compressive for the GTAW process, the
maximum tensile residual stress is greater than that of the
friction process. As reported by Kumar et al. [28], circumferential stresses are tensile in nature in the welded region and
this behavior is consistent with the present results. In addition, a comparison between the macrostructures observed
(Figs. 2 and 3) shows that the circumferential tensile stresses
seemed to occur in the HAZ or surrounding regions. Moreover,
in general, it is clearly noted that the residual stress states in
the friction welded pipe are less heterogeneous than those
observed in the fusion welded pipe. This is in a good agreement with the microhardness profile, which presented a lower
gradient for the weld zone.
Fig. 11 shows the transverse residual stress values for all
the welds produced. For the friction weld, it was observed
that the residual stress is of +70 MPa at the weld centerline. At
the −10 and +10 mm positions, relative to the weld centerline,
the residual stresses were found to be −50 MPa and +100 MPa,
respectively. Moreover, residual stresses values of −150 MPa
(at −20 mm distance) and −80 MPa (at +20 mm distance) were
reached. In the direction of the base material, at distances
between ±20 to ±40, residual stress of around −190 MPa was
found. Transverse residual stresses of the GTAW joint are also
shown in Fig. 11. In this context, residual stresses exhibited a
tensile behavior with a peak of 300 MPa (at −10 mm distance).
For distances between ±15 and ±40 mm, in relation to the weld
centerline, there is a residual stress behavior change with a
tendency toward compressive values, with residual stress in
the order of −400 MPa (at positions ±25 mm).
The comparison between the two welded pipes revealed
that residual stresses in the GTAW joint are more tensile at
the weld centerline, but on the other hand, they are also
compressive in adjacent regions. In the friction method, the
residual stress differences over the weld were minimized due
to the nature of the process. The calculated standard deviation for the transverse surface residual stresses shows values
of 82 MPa for friction welding and 270 MPa for GTAW process.
Still, the mean surface residual stress for friction welding
and GTAW was calculated and presented values of −54 MPa
−110 MPa, respectively. Finally, as can be seen, the residual
stress states in the friction weld are more homogeneous. This
may be somehow related to the lower microhardness gradient
found in the friction joint (at the weld centerline or closest
regions).
Fig. 12 shows the circumferential FWHM (Full width at half
maximum) values from the pipeline welded conditions evaluated. The width of diffraction lines at 50% of the intensity
after background correction (FWHM) can be used to estimate
the state of materials within the penetration depth of the X-ray
radiation. FWHM values were determined by mean values of
all ␺-angles for each measurement position. The FWHM data
present an indication of plastic deformation. A scatter of about
0.1◦ seems to be realistic for stress relieved steels, but higher
differences are observed in Fig. 12 for both welds. It appears
that the fusion/solidification phenomena that occur in the
GTAW process generate a more homogeneous FWHM distribution. On the other hand, the friction weld FWHM values were
affected by the thermo-mechanical process characteristic.
Please cite this article in press as: Moraes CA, et al. Residual stress evaluation in API 5L X65 girth welded pipes joined by friction welding and
gas tungsten arc welding. J Mater Res Technol. 2018. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmrt.2018.07.009
JMRTEC-453; No. of Pages 8
ARTICLE IN PRESS
j m a t e r r e s t e c h n o l . 2 0 1 8;x x x(x x):xxx–xxx
Residual stress distributions in welded pipes may be very
complex and vary according to each process mainly due to
the welding heat, deformation imposed and restraint conditions. Hence, residual stress in a weld component needs to
be evaluated for each material in relation to different welding
processes [29]. In other words, previous manufacturing processes may introduce or modify the material residual stress
states prior to the joining process. For example, considering
the Mannesmann process used to make the pipes, it is obvious
that the plastic deformation manufacturing process may have
a certain influence on the pipe residual stress distributions.
Therefore, the pipeline joining process would likely change
the initial material residual stress states and/or even impose
certain residual stresses. From the findings observed in the
current study, it is evident that depending on the joining process selected, distinct residual stress distributions and levels
will be achieved. Finally, the friction welded pipe exhibited
a more homogeneous residual stress state, lower microhardness heterogeneity and a more uniform microstructure at the
weld centerline. This suggests an enhanced fatigue life. However, fatigue properties would have to be carefully studied.
On the other hand, the fusion welded pipe presented higher
residual stress states, microstructural gradient features and
microhardness at the weld centerline.
5.
Conclusions
The results of the present study presented important differences related to the microstructure, microhardness and
residual stress states for each welding process adopted. The
findings of the current investigation can be summarized as
follow:
• The friction welding process promoted coarser microstructures which may be related to a slow cooling rate. By
contrast, the fusion welding process (GTAW) was responsible for porosity formation.
• The friction weld microhardness analysis revealed an
enhanced hardness in the welded joint. On the other hand,
the GTAW process led to scattering microhardness at the
weld centreline.
• The residual stresses evaluation showed that the friction
welded pipe achieved a more homogeneous residual stress
distribution in comparison to that observed in the fusion
welded pipe.
Conflicts of interest
The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
Acknowledgments
The authors would like to thank the Ministry of Mines and
Energy (MME), through the National Department of Mineral
Production (DNPM/SUP/RS), as well as the PPGE3M/UFRGS.
In addition, the authors would like to show our gratitude
7
to the Prof. Dr. Telmo Roberto Strohaecker (LAMEF) whose
presence will be forever profoundly missed. We thank the
financial support from Petrobras and ANP (Brazilian Agency
for Petroleum and Energy).
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Please cite this article in press as: Moraes CA, et al. Residual stress evaluation in API 5L X65 girth welded pipes joined by friction welding and
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