Journal of Cleaner Production 201 (2018) 820e829 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Journal of Cleaner Production journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/jclepro Life cycle carbon dioxide emissions for ﬁll dams Sookack Noh a, Younghwan Son b, c, *, Jaesung Park d a Civil Design Team, Daelim Industrial Co., Ltd., Seoul, South Korea Department of Rural Systems Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea c Research Institute for Agriculture & Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea d Division of Environmental Science & Technology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan b a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t Article history: Received 13 June 2017 Received in revised form 10 August 2018 Accepted 10 August 2018 Available online 13 August 2018 The construction industry including infrastructure construction, affects the environment due to the use of a considerable amount of resources and energy. The management of the environmental effect of dams for agricultural reservoirs is especially important in South Korea because of their large scale and nationwide distribution. The objective of this study is to propose an assessment method for evaluating life cycle carbon dioxide emissions associated with ﬁll dams and to characterize carbon dioxide emissions to use in effectively addressing the environmental concerns for infrastructures. A total of four dams were selected for the research, and the material production, use of equipment and transportation were considered as the causes of carbon dioxide emissions at the dams. The effective life cycle of a ﬁll dam was assumed to be 100 years. The results of the research indicated that the total amount of carbon dioxide emissions were different for each dam according to their characteristics, and the results showed that the dam size is the primary cause. In addition, the carbon dioxide emissions increased as the period of use increased, and a rapid increase was indicated in 40e50 years interval of the dams’ use periods because the repair activities were concentrated in those years. Materials were the biggest contributor in the amount of total carbon dioxide emissions at all four sites and the ratio of carbon dioxide emissions caused by materials was higher than any other factors in most processes. There was little difference in the proportion of carbon dioxide emissions for each process in the total carbon dioxide emissions for the four sites. Most carbon dioxide was emitted during repair activities at the two largest dams. Activities associated with the construction process was the major source of carbon dioxide emissions at the two other dams. This difference in process carbon dioxide emissions was the result of the difference in the construction scale for the embankment elevation. The assessment method that has been proposed in this study reﬂects the characteristics of ﬁll dams, and the result of estimating carbon dioxide emissions indicates that we are able to reduce carbon dioxide emissions in the life cycle of ﬁll dams by selecting the construction materials and the repair methods with a low carbon dioxide emissions. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Handling Editor: Yutao Wang Keywords: Life cycle assessment Infrastructure Fill dam Survival function Carbon dioxide emissions 1. Introduction Concerns about the local and global environment are rising all over the world as a result of environmental problems caused by intensive environmentally harmful human activities such as the burning of fossil fuels, deforestation and land use changes (Buchanan and Honey, 1994; Koomey et al., 2001a, 2001b; Khasreen et al., 2009). Currently, global warming is one the most serious environmental problems, and requires special attention * Corresponding author. Department of Rural Systems Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea. E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org (Y. Son). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.08.099 0959-6526/© 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. from the government, industry and the people. (Buchanan and Honey, 1994; Bilec, 2007; Khasreen et al., 2009). Green-house gases (GHG) should be considered when assessing environmental impacts because global warming is the consequence of long term formation of GHG in the upper layers of the atmosphere. In addition, many researchers have investigated GHG emissions because they can be more readily quantiﬁed than other impacts (Buchanan and Honey, 1994). In addition, the research about carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions was conducted in many industry ﬁelds because CO2 is a major cause of global warming and accounts for 80% of total greenhouse gas emissions CO2 emissions (Gustavsson et al., 2010; Noh et al., 2014a). The construction industry is considered to be one of the greatest S. Noh et al. / Journal of Cleaner Production 201 (2018) 820e829 contributors of CO2 emissions. This is because it consumes substantial amount of natural resources, such as energy, water, land and minerals. (Raynsford, 1999; Bilec, 2007; Fairmairn et al., 2010; Gustavsson et al., 2010). In South Korea, 40% of the total energy is expended by the construction industry, which produces approximately 42% of the total CO2. (Seo et al., 1998; Kim et al., 2004). Therefore, total CO2, which is emitted during the entire life cycle of a structure, should be accurately quantiﬁed for activities in the construction industry to prevent global warming (Ochoa et al., 2002; Junnila and Harvath, 2003; Noh et al., 2014a, 2014b). For this reason, a considerable amount of research regarding life cycle CO2 emissions has been performed on activities associated with the construction industry but most of the research focused on the materials and some of the processes in construction project (Lippiatt and Norris, 1995; Nicoletti et al., 2002; Horvath, 2004; Flower and Sanjayan, 2007; Tae et al., 2011; Hong et al., 2012), and has targeted construction with relatively well-deﬁned designs such as buildings, bridges and roads (Eaton and Amato, 1998; Citherlet, 2001; Park et al., 2003; Treloar et al., 2004; Sharrard, 2007). Thus, a life cycle CO2 emissions assessment about various infrastructures, which can include the full duration of a construction project, must be performed to help understand the environmental impacts of the construction. Dams are one of the oldest structures that humans built for the sake of collecting. They can be mainly divided into ﬁll dams, concrete gravity dams and concrete arch dams. Fill dams are deﬁned to be made of all kinds of earth materials such as soil and rock. These days, a great number of ﬁll dams have been built nationally and globally. This increasing trend are due to the good adaptability to geological and topographical circumstances, the resistance on rigid climate, the ease on materials and goods from exterior region, the economy of construction material quantities, the saving of time on construction process, the freedom from danger in operation and the easier maintenance. Particularly, from 2005 more than 150 ﬁll dams have been constructed or is in process of building in China (HongQi and Cao, 2007). In addition, there are approximately 17,000 agricultural reservoirs in South Korea, most embankments of which are ﬁll dam type (Um et al., 2004). Thus the management of the environmental effects of ﬁll dams is important in South Korea, because of the large scale of ﬁll dams and their distribution nationally. The management of pollutant emissions during infrastructure construction is needed to assure development that includes environmental awareness. The management of pollutant emissions should include the assessment of life cycle CO2 emissions because infrastructure repairs require considerable resources and emit various pollutants, including CO2. Therefore, the objective of this study is to propose an assessment method for evaluating life cycle CO2 emissions associated with ﬁll dams and characterize the method through the analysis of 821 dams of agricultural reservoirs in South Korea, with an emphasis on ﬁll dams. 2. Methodology 2.1. Study area Dams of four reservoirs located in South Korea that could provide data about the construction process and the status of embankments were selected to estimate life cycle CO2 emissions for the earth ﬁll dams. Dams, which were constructed lately and had a lot of relevant information among construction sites of reservoir embankment elevation, were selected in order to analyze the construction statement that is able to describe the construction process of ﬁll dams for this research. At ﬁrst, the dam, which was established newly, was selected for estimating CO2 emissions during construction of the ﬁll dam. Additionally, three more dams, which other methods of the reservoir embankment elevation were applied, were selected in order to analyze the characteristics of CO2 emissions according to the method. The status of each reservoir is presented in Table 1. 2.2. System boundary An entire life cycle of an earth dam includes the production of materials, construction, operation and demolition (ISO, 2006; Noh et al., 2014b). Fig. 1 explain the method of the life cycle assessment. In this study, the life cycle is limited from the material manufacturing to the construction, the use, maintenance and reinforcement over the entire life cycle of the embankment because the embankment is installed to remain in place indeﬁnitely, without a disposal stage. CO2 emissions for each of the individual processes were estimated separately based on the construction materials, equipment and transportation. System boundary of this research is shown in Fig. 2. Moreover, the period of analysis was assumed to be 100 years. The service life of agricultural reservoirs is deﬁned to be 60 years. However, a lot of dams are being still used in South Korea although it has been more than 60 years since the construction through appropriate reinforcements. Therefore, the life cycle of ﬁll dams was deﬁned 100 years based on current situation in this research. The hybrid method is used in the estimation of life cycle CO2 emissions. The process method is generally considered in the analysis regarding life cycle and the Energy Input-Output (EIO) method is used in the calculation of density of CO2 emissions for materials. Electricity consumption was the only activity considered for the use stage because an automatic system operates during this stage, which eliminates the need for other energy and materials to be Table 1 Description of study area. Classiﬁcation Sindong Bocheong Maehwa Woongyang Total (10,000 ㎥) Effective (10,000 ㎥) Embankment Classiﬁcation Height (m) Length (m) Width of crest (m) Gradient Up slope (Vertical:Horizon) Down slope (Vertical:Horizon) Construction type 1887 1881 Fill dam (Zone type) 19.5 / 25.5 149 6 1:2.8 e e Fill dam (Zone type) 35.5 / 37.8 418 8 1:3.0 257 255 Fill dam (Zone type) 23.8 / 28.8 154 7 1:2.7 3291 3185 Fill dam (Zone type) 47.5 / 50.7 356 8 1:3.5 1:2.5 1:2.0 1:2.5 1:3.0 New establish of the embankment Raising the crest of the embankment Extension of the backside of the embankment Raising the crest of the embankment Capacity 822 S. Noh et al. / Journal of Cleaner Production 201 (2018) 820e829 Fig. 1. The method of the life cycle assessment. consumed for most agricultural reservoirs. Expansion of crosssection, grouting work and repair of riprap as the surface protection method of ﬁll dams, which are primarily conducted in the maintenance of embankments of most agricultural reservoirs, were selected in the present study as repair activities included in the maintenance and reinforcement stage. Fig. 3 explain each repair works. 2.3. Formation of survival function We propose the use of the survival function to deﬁne the period of each repair work, and we refer to detailed inspection reports for 150 agricultural reservoirs administrated by the Korea Rural Community Corporation regarding the formation of the survival Fig. 2. System boundary of this research. Fig. 3. The maintenance of embankments. S. Noh et al. / Journal of Cleaner Production 201 (2018) 820e829 function. Cross-section repair, grouting and riprap repair, which are the typical reinforcement tasks for reservoir embankments, are considered as repair activities. We used Excel software developed by Microsoft Corporation to estimate the survival functions for each repair activity. In addition, the Weibull distribution function is assumed as the survival function of repair works, and the parameters of the equation are estimated using the repair history. In probability theory and statistics, the Weibull distribution is deﬁned as a continuous probability distribution. The Weibull distribution was named for Waloddi Weibull, who described the dischet tribution in detail in 1951, though it was ﬁrst identiﬁed by Fre (1927) and initially applied by Rosin and Rammler (1933) for the description of a particle size distribution. The probability density function of a Weibull random variable is as follows: f ðx; l; kÞ ¼ 9 8 k1 k <k x eðx=lÞ = : l l 0 x0 ; x<0 (1) where, k > 0 is the shape parameter and l > 0 is the scale parameter of the distribution. Its complementary cumulative distribution function is a stretched exponential function (Papoulis and Pillai, 2002). 2.4. Calculation of CO2 emissions The life cycle of a reservoir embankment is composed of 5 stages (construction, use, repair, maintenance and disposal) as described above, and the life cycle CO2 emissions for a reservoir embankment can be expressed as eq (2). ELifeCycle ¼ EConstruction þ EUse þ ERepair þ EMaitenance þ EDisposal (2) ELifeCcycle , Life cycle CO2 emissions for the embankment of the reservoir, kg CO2 EConstruction , CO2 emissions during the construction stage, kg CO2 EUse , CO2 emissions during the use stage, kg CO2 ERepair , CO2 emissions during the repair stage, kg CO2 EMaitenance , CO2 emissions during the maintenance stage, kg CO2 EDisposal , CO2 emissions during the disposal, kg CO2 823 ECO2 , total CO2 emissions in each stage, kg CO2 EMaterial , CO2 emissions caused by construction materials, CO2 kg EEquipment , CO2 emissions caused by construction equipment, CO2 kg ETransportation , CO2 emissions caused by transportation, CO2 kg The amount of CO2 emissions in respective components is calculated by the result of the product of the density of CO2 emissions and the amount used in the construction. Furthermore, the density of CO2 emissions for each component was calculated based on the fuel consumption. The amount of materials and equipment used in each stage is based on the construction statement published by the Korea Rural community Corporation. 2.5. Data origin and collection In this study, the cause of CO2 emissions are divided into the production of construction materials, fuel consumption of the construction equipment and transportation to estimate life cycle CO2 emissions for ﬁll dams. Further, to calculate CO2 emissions, there are two types of data that must be collected for the energy input-output (EIO) analysis method and a process method that is based on the amount of the fuel consumed. The datasets for the intensity of CO2 emissions for each construction material were obtained from the EIO analysis in South Korea. The EIO table was used in making the energy consumption caloriﬁc table. Finally, CO2 emissions table for construction materials were analyzed using the energy consumption caloriﬁc table. IO tables published by The Bank of Korea (BOK) in 2011 were used for the EIO analysis. The datasets for the fuel consumption per unit time for the construction equipment were obtained from the Korean Institute of Construction (KIC, 2011) and the intensity of CO2 emissions for the equipment was estimated based on the amount of fuel used in a unit of time. IPCC (2007) data were used for the coefﬁcient of CO2 emissions for each type of fuel in the calculation of intensity of CO2 emissions for materials and equipment. The intensity of CO2 emissions for the transportation was obtained from the Korean Ministry of Environment (KME). We obtained the information regarding the amount of the construction materials, the equipment and the transportation distance in the construction ﬁeld from the construction statement of each site published by Korea Rural Community Corporation. The history for repair works was consulted in the detail investigation report regarding 150 agricultural reservoirs. Table 2 shows the reference for each collected dataset. CO2 emissions in each stage were composed of three components: material, equipment and transportation. They were expressed as the following eq (3) 3. Results and discussion ECO2 ¼ EMaterial þ EEquipment þ ETransportation We simulated the survival functions for each repair activity for the ﬁll dams using the dams’ histories. Moreover, we evaluated the (3) 3.1. Survival function Table 2 References for collected data. Class Division Reference Remarks Intensity of CO2 emissions Material Equipment Transport The Bank of Korea (2011) Korean Institute of Construction (2011) Korean Ministry of Environment (2003) IPCC (2007) Korea Rural Community Corporation (2010) Korea Rural Community Corporation (2010) Korea Rural Community Corporation (2010) Korea Rural Community Corporation (2010) Korea Rural Community Corporation EIO method Fuel consumption Emissions constant Construction statement Life cycle proﬁle Sindong Bocheong Maehwa Woongyang e 824 S. Noh et al. / Journal of Cleaner Production 201 (2018) 820e829 Fig. 4. Life cycle function simulated. relationship between the observed data and the simulated data to estimate the error of simulation. The simulation results are presented in Fig. 4, and the results of comparing between observed data and the simulated data are shown in Fig. 5. Most repair works were performed for ﬁll dams when the period of use for the dams was between 40 and 60 years, as shown Fig. 4. The distribution of survival probability for repair activities during the observation period was most widespread for grouting. Survival functions for cross section repair and the riprap repair were similar and the probability for the riprap repair decreased more rapidly than the probability for the cross section repair during the 40e60 years interval of the use period, as shown in Fig. 4. We analyzed the period of use associated with each survival probability for repair works by using the simulated survival function. Table 3 indicate the period of use for each survival probability. In this study, we assumed that the embankments must be repaired when the survival probability is 0.5. Therefore, the estimated Table 3 Period of use according to survival probability. Survival probability Period of use (years) Cross section Grouting Riprap 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 56 52 50 48 46 45 43 40 37 56 51 48 45 43 41 38 35 30 65 57 52 48 44 40 36 31 23 periods of use for a dam before cross section repair, grouting and riprap repair are expected to be required are 46, 43 and 44 years, respectively. These periods were used in the analysis of the life cycle CO2 emissions for the ﬁll dams. 3.2. CO2 emissions for the construction process Fig. 5. The error of simulation. To estimate life cycle CO2 emissions for the ﬁll dam, we analyzed the amount of CO2 emitted in the construction stage. The ﬁll dams in the study areas were repaired on a large scale, similar to establishing new dams as a part of a project named Four Major Rivers Restoration Project in South Korea. The construction process was analyzed and the CO2 emissions were estimated using the detail statement of the construction cost. The CO2 emissions were divided into three groups: material, equipment and transportation, depending on the cause, as previously discussed. The estimated CO2 emissions in the construction stage are shown in Fig. 6 for the four dams including in the study. The CO2 emissions at Sindong and Woongyang were higher than the other two dams during the construction process, as shown in Fig. 6(a). The difference in the amount of CO2 emissions during the construction process was caused by the scale of the construction. Although the ratio of the dam elevation at Woongyang was smaller than at Sindong, the CO2 emissions were higher at Woongyang because of the size of the original dam. Not only the ratio of the dam elevation but also the dam size affects CO2 emissions during the construction because the total construction scale of the dam elevation is inﬂuenced by the size of dams. The result of the analysis of the causes of CO2 emissions during S. Noh et al. / Journal of Cleaner Production 201 (2018) 820e829 825 (a) Total CO2 emissions in the construction stage (b) The ratio for each causes of CO2 emissions Fig. 6. CO2 emissions in the construction stage. construction indicated that the consumption of materials constituted the largest fraction of emissions, while transportation had minimal contribution in the total CO2 emissions. The consumption of construction materials generated 2.78%e8.10% more CO2 emissions than transportation and the use of construction equipment, because most materials and equipment are procured from locations near the construction site for all four dams and the construction stage of dams includes a relatively simple process of loading, dropping and compacting. The consumption of materials at Bocheong caused 71.8% of total CO2 emissions, because a substantial amount of natural aggregates was consumed for the construction of the dam instead of aggregates generated from existing embankments compared to other dams. Thus, it is necessary to consider the construction activity to evaluate the CO2 emissions from each process, which inﬂuences the total amount of CO2 emissions during the construction stage because the cause ratio differs depending on the process and the difference in scale at each site. To conclude, the ratio of CO2 emissions caused by construction materials is the highest, and aggregates among construction materials is widely used in the construction process of ﬁll dams. Thus, total CO2 emissions during the construction process can be reduced if environmental friendly materials are used as construction materials. In addition, the transportation distance should be considered in order to reduce CO2 emissions when the environmentalfriendly materials are used as construction materials because aggregates for ﬁll dams are supplied near the construction site (Noh et al., 2015). 3.3. CO2 emissions for repair activities In this study, we consider the cross section repair, grouting and riprap repair as repair activities. In addition, curtain grouting, which is the most widely used grouting method for ﬁll dams, was chosen for the leakage reduction method. To estimate CO2 emissions for repair processes at each study area, the detail process for a work unit for each repair method was initially analyzed using the Standard Estimating for Construction Works (KIC, 2011), and then 826 S. Noh et al. / Journal of Cleaner Production 201 (2018) 820e829 Fig. 7. Total CO2 emissions from repair activities. Fig. 8. The ratio for each causes of CO2 emissions from repair works. the scale of the dam at the study area was applied. The scale for each repair works was determined depending on the scale of the target dam. The CO2 emissions for each of the repair activities were also estimated separately based on the construction materials, equipment and transportation. The CO2 emissions for all kinds of repair activities at Woongyang were the highest for all four study areas, and the CO2 emissions at Meahwa and Sindong were relatively lower than the other two sites (Fig. 7). The amount of total CO2 emissions is directly proportional to the scale of repair activities, which is inﬂuenced by the size of the dam, and Woongyang is the largest of the four dams studied, as shown in Table 1. Furthermore, CO2 emissions caused by grouting were the highest for all repair activities conducted at each of the four study areas, and CO2 emissions caused by cross section repair were the lowest. The difference in CO2 emissions among repair works occurs due to differences in the kinds and the quantities of emission causes. In order to analyze the characteristics of CO2 emissions for each repair works, we analyzed the ratio of each cause in total emissions. The trend for CO2 emissions associated with repair activities was similar at all sites, as shown in Fig. 8. The use of construction materials was the major cause of CO2 emissions for the cross section repair and grouting. Especially, the CO2 emissions from materials exceeded 90% for grouting because cement and bentonite, which have higher densities of CO2 emissions than other construction materials, are primarily used in the curtain grouting method (Noh et al., 2014b). However, the CO2 emissions caused by equipment were the highest for riprap repair, because a considerable amount of construction equipment is needed for reorganizing the riprap, and CO2 emissions caused by materials are lower due to the use of existing material. The result of analyzing CO2 emissions for each repair works reﬂected the characteristics of materials and equipment used, and expressed the features for each repair works. 3.4. Life cycle CO2 emissions for ﬁll dams Life cycle CO2 emissions for ﬁll dams at the study areas were estimated to occur over a period of 100 years. The survival function estimated was used to analyze the cycle of repair works and CO2 emissions were estimated separately based on each activity and S. Noh et al. / Journal of Cleaner Production 201 (2018) 820e829 Fig. 9. Life cycle CO2 emissions for the study areas. (a) Process (b) Element Fig. 10. Characteristics of CO2 emissions for the study areas. 827 828 S. Noh et al. / Journal of Cleaner Production 201 (2018) 820e829 Fig. 11. CO2 emissions over time based on the period of use. CO2 emissions causes. The result of the estimation of total CO2 emissions over the life cycle of ﬁll dams is shown in Fig. 9 and the ratio for each processes and emission causes in total CO2 emissions is shown in Fig. 10. The CO2 emissions over time were also analyzed (Fig. 11). The characteristics of CO2 emissions for each dam were different according to the amount of CO2 emitted during the construction and repair stage. The total CO2 emissions at Woongyang were the highest for all four study areas due to the large scale of repair activities at that site. The lowest total CO2 emissions were at Sindong and Maehwa because the construction stage was a major source of CO2 emissions at both sites, especially, at Sindong, where the construction process produced 67.43% of total CO2 emissions for that site. The difference in process CO2 emissions was a result of the scale of construction of the dam elevation project. The new dam was established at Sindong and the ratio of dam elevation is higher than other two dams. The results of our analysis of the causes of CO2 emissions indicate that construction materials were the major source and transportation had little impact on the total CO2 emissions at all four study areas, because a considerable amount of construction materials were used at each site, and most materials and equipment were transported from a close area during the construction and repair stages. During the life cycle of the ﬁll dam, CO2 emissions accumulated over time during periods of use, and increased substantially between 40 and 50 years, when most repair works are conducted. However, the amount of CO2 emissions caused by the electricity used for maintenance during the period of no repairing construction slightly increased, which makes the increasing trend not clear. In addition, the increasing amount of CO2 emissions during the use period was different in each step for each dam, although the increasing trend was similar for all four study areas. The CO2 emissions during the repair activities at Sindong and Maehwa were low compared with the construction process. However, the CO2 emissions increased rapidly during the repair works at Woongyang and Bocheong. This difference in process CO2 emissions is due to the construction scale of the dam elevation projects and the size of dams as described above. Therefore, there should be a proper consideration of the maintenance process for larger dams, and more focus on the construction process for smaller dams to manage the CO2 emissions. 4. Conclusions In this study, we proposed an assessment method for evaluating the life cycle CO2 emissions associated with ﬁll dams to quantify the environmental effect for the infrastructure, and we also analyzed the characteristics of life cycle CO2 emissions for ﬁll dams through the application to embankments of agricultural reservoirs. The method for estimating life cycle CO2 emissions suggested in this study accurately reﬂect the characteristics of ﬁll dams, and the total CO2 emissions were more affected by the size of the dam than by the construction scale of the dam elevation. For all four dams, the construction material was the primary source of most CO2 emissions, because there is a substantial amount of aggregate used during the construction of ﬁll dams but minimal use of construction equipment due to the relatively simple construction process. Therefore, the development of more environmentally sensitive substitute materials is important in the ﬁeld of infrastructure construction to prevent global warming. During the life cycle of ﬁll dams, CO2 emissions increased substantially in the 40e50 years interval of the period of use, when most repair works are performed. The CO2 emissions caused by repair works account for a high proportion of total CO2 emissions and exceeded 70% at Woongyang and Bocheong. Thus, the total CO2 emissions will be better managed in the life cycle of ﬁll dams through the selection of proper methods that emit less CO2 when the dam needs repair due to defects and deterioration. To conclude, the method for assessing life cycle CO2 emissions proposed in this research reﬂects the characteristics of ﬁll dams, and CO2 emissions for the ﬁll dams is expected to be properly managed by making use of this method. The proper administration of CO2 emissions in the life cycle of ﬁll dams on large scale nationwide could serve to reduce the CO2 emissions in the construction industry. In addition, the method suggested in this research is able to help understanding the characteristics of CO2 emissions in life cycle of ﬁll dam for any country. However, as a limitation of available data, only CO2 emission was analyzed considering main process and main material in this research. If the LCI of variable construction materials is analyzed in the future, a more diverse analysis for pollutant emissions would be possible, including the effects of pollutant emissions. Acknowledgment This research was supported by the National Research S. Noh et al. / Journal of Cleaner Production 201 (2018) 820e829 Foundation of Korea grant funded by the Korea government (MEST) (No. 2012R1A1A1010633). References Bilec, M.M., 2007. A Hybrid Life Cycle Assessment Model for Construction Processes. 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