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Journal of Cleaner Production 201 (2018) 820e829
Contents lists available at ScienceDirect
Journal of Cleaner Production
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/jclepro
Life cycle carbon dioxide emissions for fill dams
Sookack Noh a, Younghwan Son b, c, *, Jaesung Park d
a
Civil Design Team, Daelim Industrial Co., Ltd., Seoul, South Korea
Department of Rural Systems Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea
c
Research Institute for Agriculture & Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea
d
Division of Environmental Science & Technology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan
b
a r t i c l e i n f o
a b s t r a c t
Article history:
Received 13 June 2017
Received in revised form
10 August 2018
Accepted 10 August 2018
Available online 13 August 2018
The construction industry including infrastructure construction, affects the environment due to the use
of a considerable amount of resources and energy. The management of the environmental effect of dams
for agricultural reservoirs is especially important in South Korea because of their large scale and
nationwide distribution. The objective of this study is to propose an assessment method for evaluating
life cycle carbon dioxide emissions associated with fill dams and to characterize carbon dioxide emissions to use in effectively addressing the environmental concerns for infrastructures. A total of four dams
were selected for the research, and the material production, use of equipment and transportation were
considered as the causes of carbon dioxide emissions at the dams. The effective life cycle of a fill dam was
assumed to be 100 years. The results of the research indicated that the total amount of carbon dioxide
emissions were different for each dam according to their characteristics, and the results showed that the
dam size is the primary cause. In addition, the carbon dioxide emissions increased as the period of use
increased, and a rapid increase was indicated in 40e50 years interval of the dams’ use periods because
the repair activities were concentrated in those years. Materials were the biggest contributor in the
amount of total carbon dioxide emissions at all four sites and the ratio of carbon dioxide emissions
caused by materials was higher than any other factors in most processes. There was little difference in
the proportion of carbon dioxide emissions for each process in the total carbon dioxide emissions for the
four sites. Most carbon dioxide was emitted during repair activities at the two largest dams. Activities
associated with the construction process was the major source of carbon dioxide emissions at the two
other dams. This difference in process carbon dioxide emissions was the result of the difference in the
construction scale for the embankment elevation. The assessment method that has been proposed in this
study reflects the characteristics of fill dams, and the result of estimating carbon dioxide emissions indicates that we are able to reduce carbon dioxide emissions in the life cycle of fill dams by selecting the
construction materials and the repair methods with a low carbon dioxide emissions.
© 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Handling Editor: Yutao Wang
Keywords:
Life cycle assessment
Infrastructure
Fill dam
Survival function
Carbon dioxide emissions
1. Introduction
Concerns about the local and global environment are rising all
over the world as a result of environmental problems caused by
intensive environmentally harmful human activities such as the
burning of fossil fuels, deforestation and land use changes
(Buchanan and Honey, 1994; Koomey et al., 2001a, 2001b;
Khasreen et al., 2009). Currently, global warming is one the most
serious environmental problems, and requires special attention
* Corresponding author. Department of Rural Systems Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea.
E-mail address: syh86@snu.ac.kr (Y. Son).
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.08.099
0959-6526/© 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
from the government, industry and the people. (Buchanan and
Honey, 1994; Bilec, 2007; Khasreen et al., 2009). Green-house
gases (GHG) should be considered when assessing environmental
impacts because global warming is the consequence of long term
formation of GHG in the upper layers of the atmosphere. In addition, many researchers have investigated GHG emissions because
they can be more readily quantified than other impacts (Buchanan
and Honey, 1994). In addition, the research about carbon dioxide
(CO2) emissions was conducted in many industry fields because
CO2 is a major cause of global warming and accounts for 80% of total
greenhouse gas emissions CO2 emissions (Gustavsson et al., 2010;
Noh et al., 2014a).
The construction industry is considered to be one of the greatest
S. Noh et al. / Journal of Cleaner Production 201 (2018) 820e829
contributors of CO2 emissions. This is because it consumes substantial amount of natural resources, such as energy, water, land
and minerals. (Raynsford, 1999; Bilec, 2007; Fairmairn et al., 2010;
Gustavsson et al., 2010). In South Korea, 40% of the total energy is
expended by the construction industry, which produces approximately 42% of the total CO2. (Seo et al., 1998; Kim et al., 2004).
Therefore, total CO2, which is emitted during the entire life cycle of
a structure, should be accurately quantified for activities in the
construction industry to prevent global warming (Ochoa et al.,
2002; Junnila and Harvath, 2003; Noh et al., 2014a, 2014b).
For this reason, a considerable amount of research regarding life
cycle CO2 emissions has been performed on activities associated
with the construction industry but most of the research focused on
the materials and some of the processes in construction project
(Lippiatt and Norris, 1995; Nicoletti et al., 2002; Horvath, 2004;
Flower and Sanjayan, 2007; Tae et al., 2011; Hong et al., 2012),
and has targeted construction with relatively well-defined designs
such as buildings, bridges and roads (Eaton and Amato, 1998;
Citherlet, 2001; Park et al., 2003; Treloar et al., 2004; Sharrard,
2007). Thus, a life cycle CO2 emissions assessment about various
infrastructures, which can include the full duration of a construction project, must be performed to help understand the environmental impacts of the construction.
Dams are one of the oldest structures that humans built for the
sake of collecting. They can be mainly divided into fill dams, concrete gravity dams and concrete arch dams. Fill dams are defined to
be made of all kinds of earth materials such as soil and rock. These
days, a great number of fill dams have been built nationally and
globally. This increasing trend are due to the good adaptability to
geological and topographical circumstances, the resistance on rigid
climate, the ease on materials and goods from exterior region, the
economy of construction material quantities, the saving of time on
construction process, the freedom from danger in operation and
the easier maintenance. Particularly, from 2005 more than 150 fill
dams have been constructed or is in process of building in China
(HongQi and Cao, 2007). In addition, there are approximately
17,000 agricultural reservoirs in South Korea, most embankments
of which are fill dam type (Um et al., 2004). Thus the management
of the environmental effects of fill dams is important in South
Korea, because of the large scale of fill dams and their distribution
nationally. The management of pollutant emissions during infrastructure construction is needed to assure development that includes environmental awareness. The management of pollutant
emissions should include the assessment of life cycle CO2 emissions
because infrastructure repairs require considerable resources and
emit various pollutants, including CO2.
Therefore, the objective of this study is to propose an assessment method for evaluating life cycle CO2 emissions associated
with fill dams and characterize the method through the analysis of
821
dams of agricultural reservoirs in South Korea, with an emphasis on
fill dams.
2. Methodology
2.1. Study area
Dams of four reservoirs located in South Korea that could provide data about the construction process and the status of embankments were selected to estimate life cycle CO2 emissions for
the earth fill dams. Dams, which were constructed lately and had a
lot of relevant information among construction sites of reservoir
embankment elevation, were selected in order to analyze the
construction statement that is able to describe the construction
process of fill dams for this research. At first, the dam, which was
established newly, was selected for estimating CO2 emissions during construction of the fill dam. Additionally, three more dams,
which other methods of the reservoir embankment elevation were
applied, were selected in order to analyze the characteristics of CO2
emissions according to the method. The status of each reservoir is
presented in Table 1.
2.2. System boundary
An entire life cycle of an earth dam includes the production of
materials, construction, operation and demolition (ISO, 2006; Noh
et al., 2014b). Fig. 1 explain the method of the life cycle assessment.
In this study, the life cycle is limited from the material
manufacturing to the construction, the use, maintenance and
reinforcement over the entire life cycle of the embankment because
the embankment is installed to remain in place indefinitely,
without a disposal stage. CO2 emissions for each of the individual
processes were estimated separately based on the construction
materials, equipment and transportation. System boundary of this
research is shown in Fig. 2.
Moreover, the period of analysis was assumed to be 100 years.
The service life of agricultural reservoirs is defined to be 60 years.
However, a lot of dams are being still used in South Korea although
it has been more than 60 years since the construction through
appropriate reinforcements. Therefore, the life cycle of fill dams
was defined 100 years based on current situation in this research.
The hybrid method is used in the estimation of life cycle CO2
emissions. The process method is generally considered in the
analysis regarding life cycle and the Energy Input-Output (EIO)
method is used in the calculation of density of CO2 emissions for
materials.
Electricity consumption was the only activity considered for the
use stage because an automatic system operates during this stage,
which eliminates the need for other energy and materials to be
Table 1
Description of study area.
Classification
Sindong
Bocheong
Maehwa
Woongyang
Total (10,000 ㎥)
Effective (10,000 ㎥)
Embankment Classification
Height (m)
Length (m)
Width of crest (m)
Gradient
Up slope
(Vertical:Horizon)
Down slope
(Vertical:Horizon)
Construction type
1887
1881
Fill dam (Zone type)
19.5 / 25.5
149
6
1:2.8
e
e
Fill dam (Zone type)
35.5 / 37.8
418
8
1:3.0
257
255
Fill dam (Zone type)
23.8 / 28.8
154
7
1:2.7
3291
3185
Fill dam (Zone type)
47.5 / 50.7
356
8
1:3.5
1:2.5
1:2.0
1:2.5
1:3.0
New establish of the
embankment
Raising the crest of the
embankment
Extension of the backside of the
embankment
Raising the crest of the
embankment
Capacity
822
S. Noh et al. / Journal of Cleaner Production 201 (2018) 820e829
Fig. 1. The method of the life cycle assessment.
consumed for most agricultural reservoirs. Expansion of crosssection, grouting work and repair of riprap as the surface protection method of fill dams, which are primarily conducted in the
maintenance of embankments of most agricultural reservoirs, were
selected in the present study as repair activities included in the
maintenance and reinforcement stage. Fig. 3 explain each repair
works.
2.3. Formation of survival function
We propose the use of the survival function to define the period
of each repair work, and we refer to detailed inspection reports for
150 agricultural reservoirs administrated by the Korea Rural Community Corporation regarding the formation of the survival
Fig. 2. System boundary of this research.
Fig. 3. The maintenance of embankments.
S. Noh et al. / Journal of Cleaner Production 201 (2018) 820e829
function. Cross-section repair, grouting and riprap repair, which are
the typical reinforcement tasks for reservoir embankments, are
considered as repair activities. We used Excel software developed
by Microsoft Corporation to estimate the survival functions for each
repair activity. In addition, the Weibull distribution function is
assumed as the survival function of repair works, and the parameters of the equation are estimated using the repair history.
In probability theory and statistics, the Weibull distribution is
defined as a continuous probability distribution. The Weibull distribution was named for Waloddi Weibull, who described the dischet
tribution in detail in 1951, though it was first identified by Fre
(1927) and initially applied by Rosin and Rammler (1933) for the
description of a particle size distribution.
The probability density function of a Weibull random variable is
as follows:
f ðx; l; kÞ ¼
9
8 k1
k
<k x
eðx=lÞ =
:
l l
0
x0
; x<0
(1)
where, k > 0 is the shape parameter and l > 0 is the scale parameter
of the distribution. Its complementary cumulative distribution
function is a stretched exponential function (Papoulis and Pillai,
2002).
2.4. Calculation of CO2 emissions
The life cycle of a reservoir embankment is composed of 5 stages
(construction, use, repair, maintenance and disposal) as described
above, and the life cycle CO2 emissions for a reservoir embankment
can be expressed as eq (2).
ELifeCycle ¼ EConstruction þ EUse þ ERepair þ EMaitenance þ EDisposal
(2)
ELifeCcycle , Life cycle CO2 emissions for the embankment of the
reservoir, kg CO2
EConstruction , CO2 emissions during the construction stage, kg CO2
EUse , CO2 emissions during the use stage, kg CO2
ERepair , CO2 emissions during the repair stage, kg CO2
EMaitenance , CO2 emissions during the maintenance stage, kg CO2
EDisposal , CO2 emissions during the disposal, kg CO2
823
ECO2 , total CO2 emissions in each stage, kg CO2
EMaterial , CO2 emissions caused by construction materials, CO2 kg
EEquipment , CO2 emissions caused by construction equipment, CO2
kg
ETransportation , CO2 emissions caused by transportation, CO2 kg
The amount of CO2 emissions in respective components is
calculated by the result of the product of the density of CO2 emissions and the amount used in the construction. Furthermore, the
density of CO2 emissions for each component was calculated based
on the fuel consumption. The amount of materials and equipment
used in each stage is based on the construction statement published by the Korea Rural community Corporation.
2.5. Data origin and collection
In this study, the cause of CO2 emissions are divided into the
production of construction materials, fuel consumption of the
construction equipment and transportation to estimate life cycle
CO2 emissions for fill dams. Further, to calculate CO2 emissions,
there are two types of data that must be collected for the energy
input-output (EIO) analysis method and a process method that is
based on the amount of the fuel consumed. The datasets for the
intensity of CO2 emissions for each construction material were
obtained from the EIO analysis in South Korea. The EIO table was
used in making the energy consumption calorific table. Finally, CO2
emissions table for construction materials were analyzed using the
energy consumption calorific table. IO tables published by The Bank
of Korea (BOK) in 2011 were used for the EIO analysis.
The datasets for the fuel consumption per unit time for the
construction equipment were obtained from the Korean Institute of
Construction (KIC, 2011) and the intensity of CO2 emissions for the
equipment was estimated based on the amount of fuel used in a
unit of time. IPCC (2007) data were used for the coefficient of CO2
emissions for each type of fuel in the calculation of intensity of CO2
emissions for materials and equipment. The intensity of CO2
emissions for the transportation was obtained from the Korean
Ministry of Environment (KME). We obtained the information
regarding the amount of the construction materials, the equipment
and the transportation distance in the construction field from the
construction statement of each site published by Korea Rural
Community Corporation. The history for repair works was consulted in the detail investigation report regarding 150 agricultural
reservoirs. Table 2 shows the reference for each collected dataset.
CO2 emissions in each stage were composed of three components: material, equipment and transportation. They were
expressed as the following eq (3)
3. Results and discussion
ECO2 ¼ EMaterial þ EEquipment þ ETransportation
We simulated the survival functions for each repair activity for
the fill dams using the dams’ histories. Moreover, we evaluated the
(3)
3.1. Survival function
Table 2
References for collected data.
Class
Division
Reference
Remarks
Intensity of CO2 emissions
Material
Equipment
Transport
The Bank of Korea (2011)
Korean Institute of Construction (2011)
Korean Ministry of Environment (2003)
IPCC (2007)
Korea Rural Community Corporation (2010)
Korea Rural Community Corporation (2010)
Korea Rural Community Corporation (2010)
Korea Rural Community Corporation (2010)
Korea Rural Community Corporation
EIO method
Fuel consumption
Emissions constant
Construction statement
Life cycle profile
Sindong
Bocheong
Maehwa
Woongyang
e
824
S. Noh et al. / Journal of Cleaner Production 201 (2018) 820e829
Fig. 4. Life cycle function simulated.
relationship between the observed data and the simulated data to
estimate the error of simulation. The simulation results are presented in Fig. 4, and the results of comparing between observed
data and the simulated data are shown in Fig. 5.
Most repair works were performed for fill dams when the
period of use for the dams was between 40 and 60 years, as shown
Fig. 4. The distribution of survival probability for repair activities
during the observation period was most widespread for grouting.
Survival functions for cross section repair and the riprap repair
were similar and the probability for the riprap repair decreased
more rapidly than the probability for the cross section repair during
the 40e60 years interval of the use period, as shown in Fig. 4.
We analyzed the period of use associated with each survival
probability for repair works by using the simulated survival function. Table 3 indicate the period of use for each survival probability.
In this study, we assumed that the embankments must be repaired
when the survival probability is 0.5. Therefore, the estimated
Table 3
Period of use according to survival probability.
Survival probability
Period of use (years)
Cross section
Grouting
Riprap
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
56
52
50
48
46
45
43
40
37
56
51
48
45
43
41
38
35
30
65
57
52
48
44
40
36
31
23
periods of use for a dam before cross section repair, grouting and
riprap repair are expected to be required are 46, 43 and 44 years,
respectively. These periods were used in the analysis of the life
cycle CO2 emissions for the fill dams.
3.2. CO2 emissions for the construction process
Fig. 5. The error of simulation.
To estimate life cycle CO2 emissions for the fill dam, we analyzed
the amount of CO2 emitted in the construction stage. The fill dams
in the study areas were repaired on a large scale, similar to establishing new dams as a part of a project named Four Major Rivers
Restoration Project in South Korea. The construction process was
analyzed and the CO2 emissions were estimated using the detail
statement of the construction cost. The CO2 emissions were divided
into three groups: material, equipment and transportation,
depending on the cause, as previously discussed. The estimated CO2
emissions in the construction stage are shown in Fig. 6 for the four
dams including in the study.
The CO2 emissions at Sindong and Woongyang were higher than
the other two dams during the construction process, as shown in
Fig. 6(a). The difference in the amount of CO2 emissions during the
construction process was caused by the scale of the construction.
Although the ratio of the dam elevation at Woongyang was smaller
than at Sindong, the CO2 emissions were higher at Woongyang
because of the size of the original dam. Not only the ratio of the dam
elevation but also the dam size affects CO2 emissions during the
construction because the total construction scale of the dam
elevation is influenced by the size of dams.
The result of the analysis of the causes of CO2 emissions during
S. Noh et al. / Journal of Cleaner Production 201 (2018) 820e829
825
(a) Total CO2 emissions in the construction stage
(b) The ratio for each causes of CO2 emissions
Fig. 6. CO2 emissions in the construction stage.
construction indicated that the consumption of materials constituted the largest fraction of emissions, while transportation had
minimal contribution in the total CO2 emissions. The consumption
of construction materials generated 2.78%e8.10% more CO2 emissions than transportation and the use of construction equipment,
because most materials and equipment are procured from locations
near the construction site for all four dams and the construction
stage of dams includes a relatively simple process of loading,
dropping and compacting. The consumption of materials at
Bocheong caused 71.8% of total CO2 emissions, because a substantial amount of natural aggregates was consumed for the construction of the dam instead of aggregates generated from existing
embankments compared to other dams. Thus, it is necessary to
consider the construction activity to evaluate the CO2 emissions
from each process, which influences the total amount of CO2
emissions during the construction stage because the cause ratio
differs depending on the process and the difference in scale at each
site.
To conclude, the ratio of CO2 emissions caused by construction
materials is the highest, and aggregates among construction materials is widely used in the construction process of fill dams. Thus,
total CO2 emissions during the construction process can be reduced
if environmental friendly materials are used as construction materials. In addition, the transportation distance should be considered in order to reduce CO2 emissions when the environmentalfriendly materials are used as construction materials because aggregates for fill dams are supplied near the construction site (Noh
et al., 2015).
3.3. CO2 emissions for repair activities
In this study, we consider the cross section repair, grouting and
riprap repair as repair activities. In addition, curtain grouting,
which is the most widely used grouting method for fill dams, was
chosen for the leakage reduction method. To estimate CO2 emissions for repair processes at each study area, the detail process for a
work unit for each repair method was initially analyzed using the
Standard Estimating for Construction Works (KIC, 2011), and then
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S. Noh et al. / Journal of Cleaner Production 201 (2018) 820e829
Fig. 7. Total CO2 emissions from repair activities.
Fig. 8. The ratio for each causes of CO2 emissions from repair works.
the scale of the dam at the study area was applied. The scale for
each repair works was determined depending on the scale of the
target dam. The CO2 emissions for each of the repair activities were
also estimated separately based on the construction materials,
equipment and transportation.
The CO2 emissions for all kinds of repair activities at Woongyang
were the highest for all four study areas, and the CO2 emissions at
Meahwa and Sindong were relatively lower than the other two sites
(Fig. 7). The amount of total CO2 emissions is directly proportional
to the scale of repair activities, which is influenced by the size of the
dam, and Woongyang is the largest of the four dams studied, as
shown in Table 1. Furthermore, CO2 emissions caused by grouting
were the highest for all repair activities conducted at each of the
four study areas, and CO2 emissions caused by cross section repair
were the lowest. The difference in CO2 emissions among repair
works occurs due to differences in the kinds and the quantities of
emission causes. In order to analyze the characteristics of CO2
emissions for each repair works, we analyzed the ratio of each
cause in total emissions.
The trend for CO2 emissions associated with repair activities was
similar at all sites, as shown in Fig. 8. The use of construction materials was the major cause of CO2 emissions for the cross section
repair and grouting. Especially, the CO2 emissions from materials
exceeded 90% for grouting because cement and bentonite, which
have higher densities of CO2 emissions than other construction
materials, are primarily used in the curtain grouting method (Noh
et al., 2014b). However, the CO2 emissions caused by equipment
were the highest for riprap repair, because a considerable amount
of construction equipment is needed for reorganizing the riprap,
and CO2 emissions caused by materials are lower due to the use of
existing material. The result of analyzing CO2 emissions for each
repair works reflected the characteristics of materials and equipment used, and expressed the features for each repair works.
3.4. Life cycle CO2 emissions for fill dams
Life cycle CO2 emissions for fill dams at the study areas were
estimated to occur over a period of 100 years. The survival function
estimated was used to analyze the cycle of repair works and CO2
emissions were estimated separately based on each activity and
S. Noh et al. / Journal of Cleaner Production 201 (2018) 820e829
Fig. 9. Life cycle CO2 emissions for the study areas.
(a) Process
(b) Element
Fig. 10. Characteristics of CO2 emissions for the study areas.
827
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S. Noh et al. / Journal of Cleaner Production 201 (2018) 820e829
Fig. 11. CO2 emissions over time based on the period of use.
CO2 emissions causes. The result of the estimation of total CO2
emissions over the life cycle of fill dams is shown in Fig. 9 and the
ratio for each processes and emission causes in total CO2 emissions
is shown in Fig. 10. The CO2 emissions over time were also analyzed
(Fig. 11).
The characteristics of CO2 emissions for each dam were different
according to the amount of CO2 emitted during the construction
and repair stage. The total CO2 emissions at Woongyang were the
highest for all four study areas due to the large scale of repair activities at that site. The lowest total CO2 emissions were at Sindong
and Maehwa because the construction stage was a major source of
CO2 emissions at both sites, especially, at Sindong, where the
construction process produced 67.43% of total CO2 emissions for
that site. The difference in process CO2 emissions was a result of the
scale of construction of the dam elevation project. The new dam
was established at Sindong and the ratio of dam elevation is higher
than other two dams.
The results of our analysis of the causes of CO2 emissions indicate that construction materials were the major source and transportation had little impact on the total CO2 emissions at all four
study areas, because a considerable amount of construction materials were used at each site, and most materials and equipment
were transported from a close area during the construction and
repair stages.
During the life cycle of the fill dam, CO2 emissions accumulated
over time during periods of use, and increased substantially between 40 and 50 years, when most repair works are conducted.
However, the amount of CO2 emissions caused by the electricity
used for maintenance during the period of no repairing construction slightly increased, which makes the increasing trend not clear.
In addition, the increasing amount of CO2 emissions during the use
period was different in each step for each dam, although the
increasing trend was similar for all four study areas. The CO2
emissions during the repair activities at Sindong and Maehwa were
low compared with the construction process. However, the CO2
emissions increased rapidly during the repair works at Woongyang
and Bocheong. This difference in process CO2 emissions is due to
the construction scale of the dam elevation projects and the size of
dams as described above. Therefore, there should be a proper
consideration of the maintenance process for larger dams, and
more focus on the construction process for smaller dams to manage
the CO2 emissions.
4. Conclusions
In this study, we proposed an assessment method for evaluating
the life cycle CO2 emissions associated with fill dams to quantify the
environmental effect for the infrastructure, and we also analyzed
the characteristics of life cycle CO2 emissions for fill dams through
the application to embankments of agricultural reservoirs. The
method for estimating life cycle CO2 emissions suggested in this
study accurately reflect the characteristics of fill dams, and the total
CO2 emissions were more affected by the size of the dam than by
the construction scale of the dam elevation. For all four dams, the
construction material was the primary source of most CO2 emissions, because there is a substantial amount of aggregate used
during the construction of fill dams but minimal use of construction
equipment due to the relatively simple construction process.
Therefore, the development of more environmentally sensitive
substitute materials is important in the field of infrastructure
construction to prevent global warming. During the life cycle of fill
dams, CO2 emissions increased substantially in the 40e50 years
interval of the period of use, when most repair works are performed. The CO2 emissions caused by repair works account for a
high proportion of total CO2 emissions and exceeded 70% at
Woongyang and Bocheong. Thus, the total CO2 emissions will be
better managed in the life cycle of fill dams through the selection of
proper methods that emit less CO2 when the dam needs repair due
to defects and deterioration. To conclude, the method for assessing
life cycle CO2 emissions proposed in this research reflects the
characteristics of fill dams, and CO2 emissions for the fill dams is
expected to be properly managed by making use of this method.
The proper administration of CO2 emissions in the life cycle of fill
dams on large scale nationwide could serve to reduce the CO2
emissions in the construction industry. In addition, the method
suggested in this research is able to help understanding the characteristics of CO2 emissions in life cycle of fill dam for any country.
However, as a limitation of available data, only CO2 emission was
analyzed considering main process and main material in this
research. If the LCI of variable construction materials is analyzed in
the future, a more diverse analysis for pollutant emissions would be
possible, including the effects of pollutant emissions.
Acknowledgment
This research was supported by the National Research
S. Noh et al. / Journal of Cleaner Production 201 (2018) 820e829
Foundation of Korea grant funded by the Korea government (MEST)
(No. 2012R1A1A1010633).
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