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Available online at www.sciencedirect.com
ScienceDirect
Natural Gas Industry B 5 (2018) 132e138
www.elsevier.com/locate/ngib
Research Article
Application of element logging to lithologic identification of key horizons in
SichuaneChongqing gas provinces*,**
Yin Ping a, Qi Lin a,*, Zhu Qianxia a, Luo Li a, Tang Jiaqiong a, Ruan Cong a, Zhao Lei a &
Liang Hong b
a
Geology Exploration and Development Research Institute, CNPC Chuanqing Drilling Engineering Co., Ltd., Chengdu, Sichuan 610051, China
b
No.4 Gas Production Plant, PetroChina Changqing Oilfield Company, Yinchuan, Ningxia 750006, China
Received 23 March 2017; accepted 25 September 2017
Available online 21 March 2018
Abstract
With the popularization and application of fast drilling technology in SichuaneChongqing gas provinces, the returned cuttings are fine and
even powdered, so the traditional cutting lithology identification methods are not applicable any longer. In this paper, qualitative lithology
identification and quantitative interpretation based on element logging were conducted on the key oil and gas bearing layers in this area according to the principle of elemental geochemistry. The study results show that: (1) different lithologies can be identified easily because of their
different element logging characteristics. For example, basalts have the element characteristics of 0.35 < Fe/Si < 0.55 and Ca/(Na þ K) <4.00,
while sedimentary rocks have Fe/Si < 0.35 or >0.55. (2) Clastic rocks, carbonate rocks, sulphate and transition rocks in the category of
sedimentary rocks can be identified based on the element combination of (Al þ Si þ Fe) and (Ca þ Mg þ S). Among them, clastic rocks have
(Al þ Si þ Fe) >31%, carbonate rocks have (Al þ Si þ Fe) <8% and (Ca þ Mg þ S) <36%, and sulphate rocks have (Al þ Si þ Fe) <5% and
(Ca þ Mg þ S) >36%. (3) Then, based on the element combination of (Si þ K þ Ca)þSi/Al and (Al þ Si þ Fe þ K)þ(Ca þ S)/Mg, sandstone,
mudstone (shale), gypsum, dolomite, limestone and transition rocks can be identified. Finally, a qualitative identification chart and a set of
quantitative interpretation software of element logging on key horizons in SichuaneChongqing gas provinces were developed to make this
method convenient for field application. This method was applied on site in ten wells (such as Well MX207) in SichuaneChongqing gas
provinces. It is indicated that the coincidence rate of lithology identification is in the range of 88.75e95.22% (averaging 92.42%). Obviously, it
can satisfy the requirements of fast lithology identification while drilling of key oil and gas horizons in SichuaneChongqing gas provinces.
© 2018 Sichuan Petroleum Administration. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND
license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
Keywords: SichuaneChongqing gas provinces; Key horizon; Element logging; Lithologic identification while drilling; Quantitative lithologic interpretation;
Qualitative identification chart; Interpretation software
Along with the continuous progress of oil and gas exploration and development in SichuaneChongqing gas provinces,
and with the popularization and application of fast drilling
technologies (such as PDC drill bit þ stud and gas drilling),
the returned cuttings are fine and even powdery, rock textures
are seriously destroyed, so the traditional cuttings lithology
identification methods (such as by naked eyes and by microscope) are not applicable any longer, which has directly
affected the accuracy of key horizon calibration and even
engineering progress. Element logging can effectively realize
*
Project supported by the Science and Technology Project of CNPC Chuanqing Drilling Engineering Co., Ltd “Element logging features of key horizons and
application in SichuaneChongqing gas provinces” (No.: CQ2014B-14-1-1).
**
This is the English version of the originally published article in Natural Gas Industry (in Chinese), which can be found at https://doi.org/10.3787/j.issn.10000976.2017.09.004.
* Corresponding author.
E-mail address: 349211899@qq.com (Qi L.).
Peer review under responsibility of Sichuan Petroleum Administration.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ngib.2018.01.005
2352-8540/© 2018 Sichuan Petroleum Administration. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
Yin P. et al. / Natural Gas Industry B 5 (2018) 132e138
fast while-drilling lithologic identification of fine-powered
cuttings and horizon judgment [1].
Element logging is a type of mud logging technology that
analyzes element content in cores and cuttings by means of Xway luminoscope, and identify lithologies based on the
element content [2e5]. This technology is to identify lithologies and evaluate formations by measuring element content
in stratigraphic rocks and then by analyzing the variations of
rock elements and element combination features [6]. It is not
subject to the influences of well bores, drilling fluid properties,
drilling modes and personnel experiences, etc. After years of
development, element logging technology has been favorably
applied in identifying lithologies of clastic rocks, carbonate
rocks, volcanic and metamorphic rocks, in stratigraphic division and correlation, and in deposit facies analysis etc. in some
oil fields (Changqing, Tarim, Bohai Bay, Liaohe, Daqing,
Yuanba, Fuling and Tuha, etc.) [7e13].
In this study, element logging measurement was conducted
to more than 1.2 104 cuttings samples from four wells (Well
YA24 in the east, Well MX105 in the middle, Well G2 in the
south and Well HS1 in the west of the Sichuan Basin). Besides, normalization and statistical analysis was conducted to
the measured data. Finally, the lithology identification method
was established based on element logging for the key horizons
in SichuaneChongqing gas provinces, so as to fast identify the
lithologies of key horizons in the process of drilling.
1. Confirmation of key horizons in SichuaneChongqing
gas provinces
During Sinian PeriodeMiddle Triassic Period, the Sichuan
Basin was mainly in marine facies, receiving the deposits of
carbonate rocks interbedded with muddy shale or other clastic
rocks. After Late Triassic Period, it was chiefly continental
deposits with lithologies of terrigenous clastic rocks interbedded with carbonate rocks in lacustrine facies [14e16]. As
the depositional environments in various geologic periods
133
varied a lot, and the erosion degrees in various areas were
different as the result of tectonic movements, and the contact
formations beneath and over the weathered and eroded interfaces are also different somewhat. Based on current petroleum
exploration
and
development
status
in
SichuaneChongqing gas provinces, the calibration horizons
in cementation of intermediate casing and production casing,
primary drilling target horizons and secondary drilling target
horizons were confirmed as the key horizons. Exploration and
development practices show that the key horizons in
SichuaneChongqing gas provinces mainly include Upper
Triassic Xujiahe Fm (T3x), the 1st and 4th Members of the
Middle Triassic Leikoupo Fm (T2l1and T2l4), the 2nd Member
of the Lower Triassic Jialingjiang Fm (T1j2) and the Feixianguan Fm (T1f ), the Upper Permian Changxing Fm (P3c),
the Middle Permian Maokou Fm (P2m), the Lower Permian
Qixia Fm (P1q), the Carboniferous System (C), the Lower
Cambrian Longwangmiao Fm (V1l ), and the Sinian Dengying
Fm(Sd ), etc. (Table 1).
2. Lithologic identification based on element logging
2.1. Qualitative identification
Studies on geochemistry show that rocks are composed of
the oxides of some major elements (C, H, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, S,
Ca, K, Fe, Mn etc.), and various lithologies have different
content of the major elements [17]. The average oxide content
of these elements is 98.3% in acidic rocks, 97.7% in intermediate rocks, 95.9% in basic and ultrabasic rocks, 94.9% in
sandstones, 91.4% in mudstones, and 60% in carbonate rocks
[18]. Because of the complexity and the variety of deposition,
the element compositions of deposit rocks have more substantial variations. In clastic formations, the main characteristic elements are Si and Fe (among them, Si represents sandy
materials, Fe represents muddy materials, and Ca indicates
certain contents of limy materials), while coals feature low Si
Table 1
Key horizons and features of their major lithologies in SichuaneChongqing gas provinces.
Region
Cementing horizon of Lithologic feature
intermediate casing
Eastern Sichuan
Top of T1j32
Central Sichuan
Top of Tx
Top of T1j32
Southern Sichuan Top of T3x
Western Sichuan
Top of T3x
Cementing horizon of Lithologic feature
production casing
Gypsum interbedded Top of
with dolomite
Top of
Top of
Sandstone
Top of
Gypsum interbedded Top of
with dolomite
Top of
Top of
Sandstone
Top of
Top of
Sandstone
Top of
Top of
Top of
T1f3
P3c
C
T3x4
T2l
V1l
Sd
P2m
P1q2
T3x2
T3x1
T2l
Top of P2m
Top of Sd
Target horizon Lithologic feature
Limestone
Limestone
Limestone or dolomite
Sandstone
Dolomite or argillaceous
limestone, muddy dolomite
Sandy dolomite
Dolomite
Limestone
Limestone
Sandstone
Sandy limestone
Dolomite or muddy dolomite
T1f
P3c
C
T3x4
T2l1 and T2l4
Oolitic dolomite
Dolomite
Dolomite of limestone
Sandstone
Pinhole-like dolomite
V1l
Sd
P2m
P1q
T3x2
T3x1
T2l
Limestone
Dolomite
P2m and P1q
Sd
Dolomite
Dolomite
Limestone
Limestone
Sandstone
Sandstone
Dolomite interbedded
with limestone and
gypsum
Limestone and dolomite
Dolomite
134
Yin P. et al. / Natural Gas Industry B 5 (2018) 132e138
Fig. 1. Features of element logging curves.
content, moderate Fe content and high S content (Fig. 1-a). In
carbonate formations, the main characteristic elements are Ca,
Mg and S (among them, Ca represents limy materials, Mg
represents dolomitic materials, and S represents gypsum materials) (Fig. 1-b). Lithologies can thus be identified according
to the variations of elements and their combinations.
According to the statistics of element logging data of cuttings from four typical wells (Table 2 and Table 3), the Fe/Si
and Ca/(Na þ K) element combinations of magmatic rocks
(basalts) and deposit rocks in SichuaneChongqing gas provinces are apparently different: in basalts, Fe/Si is greater than
0.35 and smaller than 0.55 and Ca/(Na þ K) is smaller than
4.00; in deposit rocks, Fe/Si is smaller than 0.35 or greater
than 0.55. Based on the above element combination and
variation features, the lithologic identification chart of
magmatic and sedimentary rocks in SichuaneChongqing gas
provinces was established (Fig. 2).
Sedimentary rock is the major rock type in key horizons in
SichuaneChongqing gas provinces, which includes clastic
rock, carbonate rock, sulphate rock and transition rock. In
clastic rocks, Al, Si and Fe are the major composition elements; in carbonate rocks, Ca and Mg are the major composition elements; in evaporite rocks, Ca, S, Na, Cl and K are the
major elements. Affected by drilling fluids, halite and halosylvite are hard to be preserved in cuttings, thus the major
composition elements are Ca and S in evaporite rocks. In
transition rocks, as they contain different minerals, their major
composition elements are somewhat different. According to
further analysis of the data in Table 2, 25% of the
(Al þ Si þ Fe) content (mass fraction, similarly hereinafter) is
the boundary of clastic rocks, carbonate and sulphate rocks:
the value of clastic transition rocks is between 25% and 31%;
the value of clastic rocks is higher 31%; the value of carbonate
transition rocks is between 8% and 25%; the value of
Table 2
Statistics of percentages of characteristic element combinations of major rock types in key horizons in SichuaneChongqing gas provinces.
Lithology
Si þ K þ Ca
Basalt
Argillaceous sandstone
Sandstone
Lime sandstone
Mudstone
Shale
Carbonaceous shale
Limy shale
Argillaceous limestone
Limestone
Dolomite
Sandy dolomite
Gypsum
28.72e32.45%
24.86e33.89%
32.49e40.60%
30.00e38.05%
24.71e35.36%
16.07e31.06%
32.60e33.94%
28.52e29.24%
34.15e36.88%
33.08e37.12%
22.54e27.45%
26.79e31.45%
16.24e17.20%
(30.89%)
(26.85%)
(36.65%)
(35.77%)
(28.55%)
(25.26%)
(33.34%)
(28.88%)
(36.00%)
(35.57%)
(24.25%)
(27.92%)
(16.62%)
Note: The data in brackets are average values.
Al þ Fe
Al þ Si þ Fe þ K
Ca þ Mg þ S
Al þ Si þ Fe
14.26e17.60% (16.56%)
13.52e17.86% (16.88%)
6.49e15.40% (10.47%)
5.38e14.38% (7.55%)
9.17e19.23% (15.68%)
12.88e29.81% (18.98%)
9.79e10.87% (10.36%)
9.43e11.39% (10.41%)
2.06e5.38% (2.69%)
0.59e1.67% (1.00%)
0.17e3.61% (0.69%)
0.16e5.15% (1.13%)
0.08e0.35% (0.16%)
38.20e40.92% (39.82%)
39.35e47.33% (41.45%)
40.59e50.22% (45.76%)
22.87e36.10% (29.08%)
36.58e44.77% (41.51%)
33.85e45.86% (39.49%)
37.33e40.41% (39.66%)
26.41e27.18% (26.80%)
9.51e21.15% (11.88%)
3.86e9.53% (6.34%)
2.15e10.89% (3.69%)
8.85e25.80% (12.33%)
0.75e1.67% (1.16%)
9.56e12.80% (10.57%)
0.81e5.79% (3.88%)
0.81e6.07% (2.24%)
10.13e20.62% (15.54%)
1.18e8.94% (4.30%)
0.93e11.60% (6.84%)
6.57e9.19% (7.20%)
16.27e16.78% (16.53%)
21.44e30.98% (28.96%)
30.81e35.07% (33.43%)
28.31e33.80% (32.55%)
18.07e28.68% (26.48%)
39.53e41.63% (40.92%)
36.52e39.28% (38.34%)
36.2e44.41% (38.11%)
37.91e47.47% (43.22%)
20.89e32.44% (26.84%)
31.93e40.79% (37.93%)
31.85e42.98% (37.53%)
34.33e37.48% (36.77%)
25.64e26.79% (26.22%)
7.99e19.23% (10.31%)
2.92e7.23% (4.70%)
2.01e8.95% (3.52%)
8.80e21.61% (11.47%)
0.72e1.52% (1.10%)
Yin P. et al. / Natural Gas Industry B 5 (2018) 132e138
135
Table 3
Statistics of ratios of characteristic element combinations of major rock types in key horizons in SichuaneChongqing gas provinces.
Lithology
Fe/Si
Basalt
Argillaceous sandstone
Sandstone
Lime sandstone
Mudstone
Shale
Carbonaceous shale
Limy shale
Argillaceous limestone
Limestone
Dolomite
Sandy dolomite
Gypsum
0.37e0.52
0.09e0.26
0.05e0.35
0.12e0.30
0.10e0.27
0.13e2.37
0.11e0.14
0.39e0.56
0.10e0.14
0.07e0.14
0.01e1.40
0.01e0.20
0.03e0.20
(0.47)
(0.22)
(0.11)
(0.17)
(0.20)
(0.65)
(0.13)
(0.47)
(0.13)
(0.11)
(0.25)
(0.04)
(0.07)
Ca/(Na þ K)
(P þ S)/Cl
(Ca þ S)/Mg
Si/Al
1.05e2.72 (1.72)
0.02e0.79 (0.45)
0.02e1.17 (0.28)
1.51e6.09 (3.86)
0.02e1.55 (0.53)
0.03e3.30 (1.52)
0.62e1.16 (0.79)
4.25e7.21 (5.61)
5.82e13.44 (10.04)
7.28e15.72 (11.07)
4.54e15.67 (9.93)
1.82e11.20 (7.39)
6.90e9.66 (8.16)
0.88e4.17 (2.17)
0.50e41.96 (13.28)
0.95e16.22 (3.73)
1.39e9.92 (4.08)
0.35e73.48 (8.32)
1.60e59.98 (12.76)
89.64e261.17 (156.72)
13.61e20.19 (16.65)
5.43e53.85 (12.94)
5.93e68.53 (20.04)
9.38e81.58 (19.00)
13.88e29.57 (20.73)
93.61e247.98 (160.16)
1.74e5.21 (3.50)
0.19e2.87 (1.46)
0.26e11.78 (2.61)
4.61e21.87 (14.34)
0.12e7.95 (2.16)
0.23e10.10 (5.11)
2.21e4.10 (3.14)
13.45e18.59 (15.88)
12.12e32.58 (22.30)
8.57e46.64 (17.35)
1.74e2.39 (1.97)
1.69e2.76 (1.88)
12.88e88.27 (44.72)
2.90e4.32 (3.44)
1.47e2.84 (1.71)
2.84e7.62 (5.18)
2.01e8.09 (5.12)
1.43e4.81 (2.17)
1.22e6.64 (2.81)
3.55e4.06 (3.79)
5.14e5.44 (5.29)
3.67e5.14 (4.52)
3.49e10.45 (6.53)
5.51e86.30 (22.24)
4.38e93.53 (59.76)
8.54e16.11 (11.46)
Note: The data in brackets are average values.
transition rocks is lower than 8% and (Ca þ Mg þ S) is lower
than 36%; the value of sulphate rocks is less than 5% and
(Ca þ Mg þ S) is more than 36% (Fig. 3). Though the
dolomite, limestone and transition rocks in carbonate rocks
can be better separated and they have distinctive linear relationship, clastic rocks have no such a relationship, but present
a chaotic distribution and poor separating degree.
According to statistics, it is also indicated that sandstone
and its transition rocks in clastic rocks have (Si þ K þ Ca)
content higher than 32% and Si/Al greater than 4; while
mudstone (shale) and its transition rocks have (Si þ K þ Ca)
contents lower than 32% and Si/Al smaller than 4. Among
them, carbonaceous shale has a high (P þ S)/Cl ratio (>80),
argillaceous sandstone has a low Si/Al ratio (1.7) and a high
Al þ Fe content (16.88%), and limy shale has a high Si/Al
ratio (5.28) and a moderateelow Al þ Fe content (10.41%).
Lithologic identification chart of clastic rocks based on
element logging was established accordingly (Fig. 4).
Carbonate and sulphate rocks are widely distributed in
Triassic
System
and
underlying
formations
in
SichuaneChongqing gas provinces. Because of quick lithofacies change, there are more transition rocks. Studies indicate that argillaceous limestoneesandy dolomiteelimestonee
dolomiteegypsum have decreasing (Al þ Si þ Fe þ K)
content, and gypsumeargillaceous limestoneelimestonee
dolomiteesandy dolomite have decreasing (Ca þ S)/Mg
values. Accordingly, the lithologic identification chart of carbonate and sulphate rocks was established based on the relationship of (Al þ Si þ Fe þ K) and (Ca þ S)/Mg (Fig. 5). The
(Al þ Si þ Fe þ K) content of gypsum is lower than 2%; the
(Al þ Si þ Fe þ K) content of dolomite is between 2% and
8.5% and the (Ca þ S)/Mg ratio is smaller than 6; the
(Al þ Si þ Fe þ K) content of limestone is between 2% and
8.5% and the (Ca þ S)/Mg ratio is greater than 6; the
(Al þ Si þ Fe þ K) content of sandy or argillaceous dolomite
is higher than 8.5% and the (Ca þ S)/Mg ratio is smaller than
6; the (Al þ Si þ Fe þ K) content of argillaceous limestone is
higher than 8.5% and the (Ca þ S)/Mg ratio is greater than 6.
Fig. 2. Lithologic identification chart of magmatic and sedimentary rocks
based on element logging in SichuaneChongqing gas provinces.
Fig. 3. Lithologic identification chart of sedimentary rocks by element logging
in SichuaneChongqing gas provinces.
2.2. Quantitative interpretation
The key horizons in SichuaneChongqing gas provinces
have diversified types of lithologies. Based on charts, the rock
types of samples can be qualitatively confirmed. However,
136
Yin P. et al. / Natural Gas Industry B 5 (2018) 132e138
Fig. 4. Lithologic identification chart of sandstone, mudstone (shale) based on
element logging.
transition rocks (such as sandy shale/mudstone and argillaceous/shaly sandstoneargillaceous sandstone, limy dolomite
and dolomitic limestone, sandy dolomite and dolomitic
sandstone) have to be quantitatively interpreted and accurately
named through processing and calculation of element logging
data.
Due to the limitation of the measuring apparatus, C, H and
O cannot be measured. Thus, for coaly and carbonaceous shale
with rich C, H and O element, the total element content is
apparently lower: generally, the total element content of coal is
lower than 30%, and that of carbonaceous shale is between
30% and 40%. Therefore, coal and carbonaceous shale can be
identified firstly. Accordingly, normalization is conducted to
the measured data, followed by qualitative lithologic identification to the results by charts, to quantitatively calculate
element content of secondary compositions in rocks. For
clastic rocks, sandstone and mudstone content are allocated as
per Si/Al ¼ 4, to calculate sandstone content and mudstone
content respectively; for carbonate and sulphate rocks, allocation is conducted according to the reverse deposit sequence
by chemical method, followed by the calculation of gypseous,
dolomitic and limy content, and by the interpretation of the
lithologies of the samples according to rock nomenclature.
A set of software was developed for quantitative lithology
interpretation based on element logging to facilitate field
application. Through on-site experiments, the comparison between quantitative lithology interpretation profile based on
element logging and well logging interpretation profile (Table 4)
shows that the coincidence rates are between 88.75% and
95.22% (averaging 92.42%), meeting the requirement of on-site
mud logging.
3. Application cases
Fig. 5. Lithologic identification chart of carbonate and sulphate rocks based on
element logging.
Well MX207 is an appraisal well in central Sichuan Basin,
and its drilling target is the Longwangmiao Fm that gradationally contact with overlying formations. The PDC drill
cuttings are tiny, thus they are hard to be distinguished.
Element logging shows that at the well depth of 4676.00 m, Ca
Table 4
Statistics of coincidence rates in lithologic identification in key horizons based on element logging in SichuaneChongqing gas provinces.
Well name
Identified horizon
Total thickness of identified lithologies*/m
Dolomite Limestone Gypsum Shale Sandy
Mudstone Dolomitic Siliceous Bauxitic
dolomite
silt
dolomite dolomite
T1j3eT1j32,V1qeSd3
T1j3eT1j22, V1q, Sd4eSd3
T1j3eT1j32, V2xeV1c, V1qe
Sd4, Sd4eSd3
MX111
T1j3eT1j1,V2geV1c, V1qeSd4
MX119
T1j3eT1j1, V2xeV1c, V1qeSd4
MX207
T1j3eT1j32, V2xeV1c
HT1
T1j3eT1j1, O1teV1l, Sd4eSd2
NC2
T1j3eT1j32, P2leP1q
MX001eH6 T1j32eC
SF1
T2leS
GS16
MX39
MX41
76/79
100/100
118/115
45/41
45/39
27/25
25/24
58/57
35/39
50/54 17/15
12/18 15/16
22/23 82/71
251/261
462/468
168/165
575/578
18/21
37/31
310/339
108/99
111/102
4/5
105/101
408/410
254/252
1704/1702
66/60
35/36
24/26
115/112
36/31
83/89
497/478
40/42 18/19
41/42 18/23
3/4
42/47
9/9
13/15
43/45
92.83%
90.89%
91.38%
37/37
69/80
42/44
73/69
57/56
32/37
11/11
100/91
Note: The total identified thickness like “76/79” means that based on element logging vs. well logging.
Coincidence
rate
49/45
8/8
9/8
94.03%
93.04%
88.75%
93.52%
95.22%
90.73%
93.82%
Yin P. et al. / Natural Gas Industry B 5 (2018) 132e138
137
Fig. 6. Comparison of lithologic interpretation results between element logging and well logging at the interval of 4640.00e4850.00 m in Well MX207.
content is 27.25% Y 13.06%, Mg content is 13.06% Y 8.17%,
Al content is 0.66% [ 3.89%, and Si content is
4.56% [ 18.60% with apparent increase, thus the identified
lithology is sandy dolomite, which enters the Gaotai Fm. At
the well depth of 4732.00 m, the content of Mg and Ca, Al and
Si present four times of alternative increase and decrease.
According to element logging interpretation, there are three
sets of sandy dolomite interbedded with two sets of dolomite.
At the well depth of 4733 m, Ca content is 10.81% [ 24.37%,
Mg content is 4.88% [ 11.26%, Al content is 2.03% Y 0.59%,
and Si content is 14.06% Y 3.58%. According to element
logging interpretation, it is dolomite, which enters the Longwangmiao Fm. At the well depth of 4830.00 m, Ca content is
25.15% Y 16.97%, Mg content is 12.76% Y 9.06%, Si content
is 3.55% [ 13.18%, Al content is 0.75% [ 4.10%. According
to the element logging interpretation, it is sandy dolomite,
which enters the Canglangpu Fm. These lithologic interpretation results based on element logging are consistent with that
based on well logging (Fig. 6).
4. Conclusions
1) Element logging technology can provide plentiful
element analysis data of stratigraphic rocks. It has special advantages in identifying lithologies, and can
effectively deal with the difficulty in lithologic identification caused by the development of drilling techniques
and depositional environments etc.
2) As a type of special mud logging technique, it can
quickly and accurately identify lithologies while drilling, and provide reliable geologic data and a technical
support for confirming and classifying important stratigraphic interfaces and key horizons, as well as for
drilling engineering.
3) The field application results of ten wells (Well MX207
etc.) in SichuaneChongqing gas provinces show that the
coincidence rates of the identified lithologies based on
element logging technology are between 88.75% and
95.22% (averaging 92.42%). This means that element
138
Yin P. et al. / Natural Gas Industry B 5 (2018) 132e138
logging technology has a strong practicability and
operability that have been verified in exploration and
development practices, with a significant effect and an
abroad popularization prospect.
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