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2098 nursapinova m. k. khurast agilshin tili m. k.nursapinova f. r.. avazbakieva khurast

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б 81.2Англ
А23
Казакстан Республикасьшьщ Бшм жэне гылым министрлт
С. Торайгыров атындагы Павлодар мемлекетпк университет!
АГЫЛШЫН Т1Л1
Химия жэне биология мамандыкгары бойынша мэтчндерд1
окуга арналган оку эдастемелне кздэалы
Павлодар
i f f i К jb t U f
Казаке™ Республикасьшьж БМм х ж , ■
I
Т° РаЙГЫр0В аты« а,ы Павлодар м еш ске,
K
1
| | l
упивсрсш с!
АГЫЛШЫН TIJII
Химия жэисбиология мамаидыктары бойыиша Moiiiuop.ii
окуга арналган оку эд!стемел!к куралы
11авлолар
Керску
2011
УДК 811.111. 2(075.8)
БЬК 81. 2 Англ -9
"ЯТз
С. Торайгыров атынлагы Павлодар мемлекетпк университетшш
филология, журналистика жене онер оку-ед!стемел1к кенеамен
басуга усыиылды
Шкчрсарапшмлар:
Д. F. Капанова филология гылымларыиыи кандидаты, лоцент;
Р. Ж. Саурбаев - филология гылымдарынын кандидаты,
Павлодар мемлекетпк педагогокалык ииститутын шетел тйшер
кафелрасынын профсссоры.
Курастыруш ылар: Нурсапинова М. К.. Авазбакиева Ф. Р.
Д23
Д гы лш ы и Т1л1: химия жэне биология мамандыктары бойынша
мэт 1нлерд1 окуга ариалган оку эдгстемел1к куралы / кураст.:
Нурсапинова М. К., Авазбакиева Ф. Р. 1 Павлодар : Кереку,
2011.-516.
Оку э д 1стемел 1К куралында «Агылшын riлi» п э т бойынша
химия жэне биология мамандыктары бойынша мэтшдерд1 окуга
мемлекетпк тш де окитыи студеиттерге ариалган мэтшдер. пгарлер,
жумысты жазудын максаты, такырыптын нускаулары бершген:
УДК 811.111.2(075.8)
ББК 81.2 А нгл-9
.
д е i/ и к С . Б е - с е м О а е Е
‘ 11 1‘ДЭГЫ г ЫЛЫМ1^ Нурсапинова М. К., Авазбакиева Ф. Р., 2011
ЬР
ПХАИ ACBF- Торайгыров атындагы ПМУ, 2011
Материаллыцлурмс болуына. грамматнкалык жэне орфографиялык кателерге
авторлар м е н курастырушылар жауапты
Алгы cot
Ел1М1з тэуел азд!к алым, егеменд1 c.i болып, казак li.ii Кашксшп
Републикасынын мемлекетпк ri.ii болыи жарияланлы. Замам 1алабына
сай камрп танда мелекетпк тглде окигын жогары оку орындарынын
етуденттерш е арналган с а пал ы оку oici смел i к куралдар мен
окулыктарды шыгаруга баса кешл бол iнуде.
Усынылып отырган оку эд1стемел1к куралы «Химия жэне
биология мамандыктары бойынша м эп н дерд! окуга арналган»
мемлекетпк "плде жогары оку орындарында окигын c i\; ie im e p ie
арналган. Оку эд1стемел1к куралы 1мд1к ем ес ж о 1 ары оку
орындарындагы шетел т!лiniii багдарлама галаптарына сай жасалгап.
Оку эд1стемел1к куралы 12 сабактан турады. Негпхч м этж дер соц
жаттыгулар берш ген. Олар аудигорияда орындаута арна.и ан.
3
I Chem istry: key to progress and abundance
1.1 Read and translate the text
The science o f chem istry includes a study o f properties,
c o m p o sitio n , and stru ctu re o f m atter, th e c h a n g e s in stru ctu re and
com position w hich m atter undergoes, and the a c co m p an y in g en erg y
c h an g es.
T he R ussian chem ical ind u stry now h o ld s seco n d place in the
w orld in overall volum e o f p roduction. M uch cred it for th is is d u e to o u r
scien tists w hose research has w on w orld w ide recognition. T he classical
w orks by M endeleyev, B u tlero v , Z e lin sk y , Z a itz e v . L e b e d e v , F av o rsk y
an d m any o th ers not only served as a theoretical basis for the
d evelopm ent o f th e chem ical industry, but en ab led o u r scien tists to set
up a num b er o f m odern bran ch es o f the ch em ical in d u stry a s w e ll.
The clo se links betw een scien ce and industry en ab led the ch e m ic a l
in d u stry to m ak e g re a t p ro g re ss.
T he Soviet U nion w as the first country to o rg an ize large-scale
p ro d u ctio n o f sy n th e tic rubber.
Z e lin sk y ’s w o rk s form ed th e b a sis fo r th e sy n th e s iz in g o f a large
n um ber o f new chem ical com pounds. T hese com p o u n d s are now counted
in thousands, and they are extrem ely im portant in the co u n try 's econom y.
O ur scientists evolved an original m ethod o f ex tractin g phenol and
acetone sim ultaneously from benzene and propylene. Phenol and acetone
are needed for the m anufacture o f plastics, textile fibres, organic g lass
and o th e r ch e m ic a l p ro d u cts.
S c ien tists arc m aking a m ajo r co n trib u tio n to th e p ro d u c tio n o f
a n ilin e d v cs, an d m any new d y e s h a v e been e v o lv e d w ith th e ir help .
T h e re se a rc h o f o u r sc ie n tists h as re v e a le d th e p h y sic a l and
physico-chem ical conditions necessary for the industrial p ro d uction and
p rocessing o f polym eric m aterials.
T he th e o ry o f ch ain re a c tio n s is a m a jo r d is c o v e ry o f o u r tim e.
T he d evelopm ent o f this theory is linked w ith th e nam e o f the Soviet
scientist S em yonov, a Nobel Prize w inner.
The su c c e sse s a c h ie v ed by c h e m istry and e n g in e e rin g have
played an im portant part in o u r co u n try 's ach ie v em en ts in sp a ce .
1.2 Fields of chem istry
T he field o f c h e m istry is n o w a v ery larg e o n e. T h e re are m ore
than 30 different branches o f chem istry. Som e o f the b etter know n fields
are inorganic chem istry, organic chem istry, p h ysical chem istry,
analytical ch em istry , b iological chem istry, pharm aceutical chem istry,
nuclear chem istry, industrial ch em istry , co lloidal chem istry, and
electrochem istry.
Inorganic chemistry. It is originally considered th at the fie ld o f
in o rg a n ic c h e m is try c o n s is ts o f th e stu d y o f m a te ria ls not derived
4
from living organism s|. H ow ever it now in c lu d e s all su b s ta n c e s o th e r
th a n th e h y d ro c a rb o n s an d th e ir deriv ativ es.
O rg an ic chem istry . A t o n e tim e it w as th o u g h t th a t all
su b sta n c e s found in p la n ts and a n im a ls c o u ld be m a d e on ly by usin g
p a rt o f a liv in g p la n t o r a n im a l. T h e stu d y o f th e s e s u b s ta n c e s, m ost
o f w hich c o n ta in carb o n w as th e re fo re called organic chem istry. It is
now know n that this idea is quite w ro n g , for in 1828 Г. W o h ler m ade an
« org an ic» su b stan ce u sin g a sim p le lab o rato ry p ro cess.
O rg a n ic c h e m istry n o w m erely m e a n s th e c h e m istry o f carbon
com pounds.
Physical chem istry is c o n c e rn e d w ith th o se p a rts o f c h e m istry
w hich are c lo s e ly lin k e d w ith p h y sic s as, fo r in stance, the b e h av io u r o f
substances w hen a current o f electricity is p a sse d th ro u g h th em .
Electrochcm istry is co n cern ed w ith the rela tio n betw een
e lectrical en erg y and ch em ical ch an g e. E le c tro ly sis is the p ro cess
w hereby e lec trical en erg y c a u se s a ch em ical c h a n g e in the co n d u ctin g
m edium , w hich usually is a solution o r a m o lten su b sta n c e . T h e p ro c e ss is
g en erally used as a m ethod o f d e p o sitio n m etals from a so lu tio n .
Magnetochemistry is the study o f behav io u r o f a chem ical
substance in the presence o f a m agnetic Held. A p a ram ag n etic su b stan c e,
i.e. one h a v in g unp aired e lec tro n s is d raw n into a m ag n etic field.
D iam ag n etic su b stan ces, i.e. th o se h a v in g n o u n p a ire d e le c tro n s , are
re p e lle d by a m a g n e tic field.
Biochem istry. Ju st as th e p h y sic a l c h e m ist w o rk s o n the
boundaries betw een physics and chem istry, so the biochem ist w orks on the
boundaries betw een biology and chem istry. M uch o f th e w ork o f th e
b io ch em ist is co n c e rn e d w ith fo o d stu ffs and, m ed icin es. T h e m edicines
k now n as antibiotics, o f w hich p en icillin is an early ex am p le, w ere
p repared by biochem ists.
Exercises
Task 1 Answer the questions
1. W hich branch o f chem istry deals w ith the study o f m aterials not
derived from living organism s?
2. W hat is the study o f substances containing carbon called?
3. W hat other branches o f chem istry do you know ?
4. By w hom were antibiotics prepared?
Task 2 Fill in the gaps with suitable words given below
1. D iam agnetic substances are ... by a m agnetic field.
2. M uch o f the w ork o f the biochem ist is concerned w ith . . . and
medicines.
3. ... is the process w hereby electrical energy causes a chemical
change in the conducting m edium.
4. Electrolysis is generally used as a m ethod o f deposition o f m etals
from ....
d iato m ic m o lecu les, m ore ele c tro p o sitiv e e le m e n t is p laced first in the
form ula.
2.2 Periodic law
O n e o f th e c o rn e rs to n e s o f m o d e rn c h e m ic a l th e o ry is
the Periodic Law . it can be sim ply stated as follow s: T he pro p erties o f the
elem ents are a periodic function o f the nu clear c h a rg e s o f th e ir a to m s.
In 1869 M e n d e le y e v a rr iv e d a t th e c o n c lu s io n th a t by the
arran g em en t o t the elem en ts in o rd e r o f in cre asin g atom ic w eig h t the
sim ilarity an d periodicity o f p roperties o f v ario u s, v a len c e g ro u p s o f the
e le m e n ts w ere c le a rly d elin e a te d .
T h ere w ere several v acan t sp aces in M e n d e le y e v 's tab le w hich led
him to predict the existen ce o f six un d isco v ered elem en ts, (scan d iu m ,
g allium , g erm anium , polonium etc). H is co n fid en ce in the new
classification w as clearly expressed in the p red ictio n s w hich he m ade o f
the chem ical pro p erties o f these m issin g elem en ts. A nd w ith in fifteen
y ears g allium , sc a n d iu m an d g e rm a n iu m w e re d is c o v e re d .
A lth o u g h th is tab le has been m o d ified h u n d re d s o f tim es, it has
w ithstood the o n slau g h t o f all new facts. Iso to p es, rare gases, atom ic
num bers, and electron config u ratio n s have only s tre n g th e n e d th e id ea o f
th e p erio d ic ity o f the p ro p e rtie s o f th e elem en ts.
Exercises
Task I Answer the questions
1. H ow m any chem ical elem ents are there now ?
2 . W hat is the sym bol o f M anganese?
3. W hat is a sym bol usually derived from ?
4. W hat does a subscript show ?
5 . W hat elem ent is alw ays d esignated first in th e form ula ?
6 . W hen did M endeleyev d iscover the periodic law ?
7. H ow can the Periodic Law be sim ply stated?
8. W hat elem ents w ere discovered after M endeleyev m odified the
table?
9. G ive som e exam ples o f polyatom ic m olecules o f single elem ents.
10. W hat are sim ple diatom ic m olecules o f a single elem ent
designated by?
Task 2 T rue o r false?
1. Sym bols and form ulas are used to indicate chem ical reactions.
2. G roups o f sym bols are called equations.
3. G roups o f sym bols are called form ulas.
4. T here are 102 chem ical elem ents now.
5. T he m ore electropositive elem ent is alw ays d esig n ated last in the
form ula.
6 . Subscriptions arc used to d esignate the nu m b er ol atom s ol each
elem ent present in the m oleculc.
7. M endeleyev m ade his discovery in 1879.
7
8 . T h e ta b ic w a s n 't m o d ified .
9. P ro p e rtie s of the e le m e n ts a rc p e rio d ic fu n c tio n s o f th e n u cle a r
c h a rg e s o f th e ir a to m s.
T ask 3 Identify the w ords, each dash sta n d s fo r one le tte r only
9)
2)
3)
sig _
co m
Iva
4)
5)
6)
7)
Ю)
11)
12 )
13)
14)
15)
ar
t
t
ex
a rr
tio n
m _ s s ___g
v a r_
___ _ fy
tio n
X»
T ask 4 T ra n sla te the w o rd s from exercise III an d m ake up your
own sentences w ith them
3 Rules o f reading fo rm ulas an d equations
D esignation and nam e o f th e m ost im p o rta n t chem ical elements
(for M endeleyev's tab le)
Л 1 -— a lu m in iu m
A g — a rg e n tu m
A r — a rg o n
A s •— a rsen ic
A u — a u ru m = g o ld
B - — b o ro n
Ba — b a riu m
Be — b c rilliu m
Bi — b is m u th
B r — b ro m in e
C - — c a rb o n
O'a — calc iu m
C'e — c e riu m
C d — c a d m iu m
CT — c h lo r in e
C o — c o b a lt
C r — c h ro m iu m
C s — c a e siu m
C u — copper
F - - flu o rin e
Fe — fe rru m = iron
C»e — g e rm a n iu m
I I - — h y d ro g e n
h e liu m
tlc
H g — h y d ra rg y ru m = m e rc u ry
L i — lith iu m
M g — m a g n e s iu m
M n — m an g a n e se
M o — m o ly b d e n u m
N — n itro g en
N a — n a tr iu m = so d iu m
N e — neon
N i — n ick e l
О — oxygen
P — p h o sp h o ru s
P b — p lu m b u m = lead
P t — p la tin u m
R a — ra d iu m
R b — ru b id iu m
S — s u lp h u r
S b — a n tim o n y
S e — s e le n iu m
S i — silico n
S n — s ta n n u m = tin
S r — stro n tiu m
Т е — te llu r iu m
T h — th o riu m
T i — tita n iu m
U — u ra n iu m
VV — w o lfra m = tu n g ste n
к
J — io d in e
Z n — z in c
Z r — zirc o n iu m
l r — irid iu m
К — kalium = potassiu m
3.1 D. I. Mendeleyev
T he list o f spheres o f k now ledge w hich M endeley ev's genius
touched upon is enorm ous: chem istry, physics, earth sciences, m etrology,
econom ics, m etallurgy and m uch e lse 1. M en d le le y e v 's legacy com prises 25
volum es, a third o f them devoted to chem istry.
D .l. M endeleyev, the outstanding R ussian scientist, u a s born in
T obolsk in 1834. In 1850 at the age o f 16 he entered the Pedagogical
Institute in St. P etersburg to study chem istry, l ive years later lie graduated
from it w ith a gold m edal and w as invited to lecture on theoretical and
organic chem istry at St. Petersburg U niversity. T o con tin u e his stu d ies and
research M endeleyev w as sent to G erm any in 1859. W hile living abroad he
m ade a num ber o f im portant investigations.
T he y ear 1868 w as the beginning o f his highly im portant w ork
« F undam entals o f C hem istry». W hen w orking at the subject M endeleyev
analysed an enorm ous am ou n t o f literature, m ade thou san d s o f experim ents
and calculations. T h is trem endous w ork resulted in the fa b le o f l-.lements
consisting o f vertical groups and horizontal periods. M endeleyev w as the
first to suggest a system o f classification in w hich the elem ents are
arranged in the order o f increasing atom ic w eights. T he m ain idea o f the
Periodic, System is th e idea o f periodic repetition o f properties w ith the
increase o f the atom ic w eights.
A rranging all the existin g elem ents in the T ab le M endeleyev had to
overcom e g reat difficulties, as a considerable n um ber o f elem en ts were
unknow n at that tim e and the atom ic w eights o f 9 elem en ts (out o f 63) w ere
w rongly determ ined. T hank s to his investigations M endeleyev w as able to
predict not only th e existence o f a few unknow n elem en ts but their
p roperties as w ell. L ater the elem ents predicted w ere discovered.
M ore than 350 w orks created by M endeleyev deal w ith a great m any
subjects. C om bining theory with practical activ ities he carried out
enorm ous research in coal, iron and steel industries in R ussia, lie d ied in
1907 at the age o f 73.
The achievem ents in chem istry and physics at the end o f th e 19th
and the beginning o f the 20th century m ade it necessary to reconstruct the
Periodic T able taking into account" new discoveries.
T im e is the severest ju d g e in science. A lter m ore than 100 years ol
its existence, the Periodic Law has preserved its full value and is being
constantly developed w ith each new discovery.
9
Exercises
Task I Find sentences with Participle I. Note the function of the
sentences and translate them
Task 2 Answer the questions.
1. W hat fields o f science did D.l. M endeleyev touch upon?
2. W here and w hen w as he bom ?
3. W hat institute did he enter?
4. W hat subjects did he study at the institute?
5. W hen did he graduate from it?
6. W hen w as he sent abroad?
7. W hat is the m ain idea o f the Periodic Law ?
8. W hat could the scientist predict thanks to his investigations?
9. W ere these unknow n elem ents discovered?
10. In w hat spheres o f science did M endeleyev carry o u t research?
1 1. W hy w as the Periodic T able reconstructed?
Task 3 Find sentences with Participle II. Note the function of the
sentences and translate them.
Task 4 Find and translate the sentences with equivalents of
modal verbs must and can.
Task 5 Retell the text.
3.2 C lasses of oxides
O xygen will com bine directly w ith nearly all elem ents (silver, gold
and platinum are notable exceptions) form ing oxides.
An oxide is a com pound w hich contains oxygen and one other
elem ent only.
The follow ing form ulae represent oxides: H gO , C uO , PiO?; but the
follow ing form ulae do not: K<POi, N aN O i, Z nC O j.
The four c h ie f classes o f oxides are:
1) A cidic O xides. All acidic oxides arc the oxides o f non-m etallic
elem ents (but note that not all non-m etallic oxides are acidic oxides). An
acidic oxide is one w hich dissolves in w ater and form s an acid, e.g.:
sulphur dioxide
SO? + IL O = H jS O i
sulphurous acid
sulphur trioxidc
SO? + IL O = H2SO4
sulphuric acid
carbon dioxide
C O : + IL O = H2C O j
carbonic acid
phosphorous oxide
P2O 5 + 3 H ? 0 = 2 H 3PO 3
phosphorous acid
phosphoric oxide P ; 0 ? + 31LO = 2H?PO^
phosphoric acid
B ccause these oxides behave like acids (e.g.: they neutralize bases)
but do not have the elem ents o f w ater in their m olecules, they are know n as
acid anhydrides (i.e. acids w ithout w ater);
2) Basic Oxides. All basic oxides are the oxides o f m etals (note that
not all m etallic oxides are bases);
A basic oxide is one w hich neutralizes an acid and form s a salt and
w ater only, e.g.:
10
copper oxide
C uO + H2S 0 4
S jC u S 0 4 r ISM.)
calcium o xide
C aO + 2H C I = CaC' 12 + I l20
m agnesium oxide M gO + 2 H N O ; = M g(NO-,): + H20
O nly four basic oxides dissolve in w ater. T hese four react w ith the
w ater form ing hydroxides. T he solutions are term ed alk alis and hence the
oxides w hich form ed them are know n as alkaline oxides:
alkaline o xide + w ater = alkali
K20 + H 20 = 2K O H caustic potash
N a ,0 + H 20 = 2N aO H caustic soda
C aO + H -.0 = C a(O H )i lim e w ater
M gO + Н Ю = M g(O H )2;
3)
H igher o xid es are m etallic o x id es w hich contain a highe
proportion o f o x ygen than the basic oxide, e.g.:
m anganese form s a basic oxide M nO and a h ig h er oxide M nU ;,
lead form s a basic oxide PbO and a hig h er oxide PbO :,
T he characteristic properties o f h ig h er oxid es are:
a) w hen they are heated they ev o lv e the ‘ex tra ’ oxygen,
2PbO i = 2PbO+ 0 :
b) w hen they are heated w ith con cen trated hydrochloric acid,
chlorine is evolved,
P b 0 2 + 4HC1 = P bC l2 + 2H20 + C l2;
~ 4) N eutral oxides are those w hich do not react w ith e ith e r an acid or
an alkali to form a salt and w ater, and w hich cannot be placed in any other
class o f oxide, e.g. w ater, carbon m onoxide, nitric o xide, nitrous oxide.
Exercises
Task 1 M ake plural form of the following nouns
form ula, class, alkali, property, base.
Task 2 T ranslate into Kazakh
acid, acidic; base, basic, basic oxides; m etal, m etallic oxides;
m onoxide, hydroxide.
Task 3 Make analysis of participles in the text
Task 4 W rite name of chemical substances and read them
S02, S03, H,S03, H2S04, C02, H2COj, P2Oj, 1I |P04, PjOj, H20.
3.3 Read and title the text
in 1896, one y e a r after the discovery o f X -rays by R oentgen, a
French physicist, B ecquerel, discovered that uranium em its rays sim ilar lo
those o f X -rays; these rays were c a lle d «B ecquerel rays».
In 1897, tw o brilliant physicists, M aria S k lodow ska-C urie and Pierre
C urie, began w ork on pitchblende residues Irom B ohem ia containing
uranium oxide, U3O 11. Soon they discovered an elem ent m ore radioactive
than uranium itse lf and this w as nam ed polonium , in honour o f M arie's
native Poland. T he C uries then succeeded in separatin g radioactive barium
sulphate from pitchblende. T his led them to conclude that pitchblende
contains a certain elem ent w hich renders o th er elem ents radioactive.
C onsequently, they treated the barium sulphate and obtained a new
com pound, one m illion tim es as active as uranium , radium brom ide. In
1902, after com pleting nearly five hundred experim ents. M adam Curie
obtained about 0.2 gram o f radium chloride from a series o f fractional
cry stallizations o f pitchblende. T his com pound is a salt o f radium and its
activity is o v er tw o m illion tim es as great as that o f uranium . In 1910, four
years after her husband had been killed in a street accident. M adam C urie
finally succeeded in isolating pure radium from radium chloride. T hus, the
science o f radioactivity w as established, a new science that has changed
m any concepts regarding the structure o f m atter, and opened the d o o r to the
A tom ic Age.
D uring their research, the C uries also discovered that thorium is
nearly as radioactive as uranium . M any new radioactive elem ents have
been discovered since M adam C urie succeeded in isolating pure radium,
hut uranium and thorium still com prise the parent elem ents o f natural
radioactivity.
Exercises
Task I T ranslate descriptions of the following elements:
chlorine, tin, hydrogen, zinc, copper, bromine, carbon, helium, silver,
oxygen. Give their names and chemical formulas
1. C hem ically it is a reactive m etal, co m bining w ith oxygen and
o ther nonm etals and reacting w ith dilute acids to release hydrogen.
2. C hem ically it is reactive. It com bines directly w ith chlorine and
oxygen and displaces hydrogen from d ilute acids. It also dissolves in
alkalis to form stannates.
3. It is a w hite lustrous soft m etallic transition elem ent. It is used in
jew ellery , tablew are, etc.. and its com pounds are used in photography.
4. A colourless, odourless gaseous elem ent. It is the m ost abundant
in the Earth's crust (49.2 percent by w eight) and is present in the
atm osphere (28 percent).
5. A colourless, odourless gaseous chem ical elem ent. It is the lightest
and the m ost abundant elem ent in the universe. It is used in the Haber
process.
6. T his nonm etallic elem ent is totally inert and has no know n
com pounds. It w as discovered in the solar spectrum in 1868.
7. It is a red volatile liquid at room tem perature. C hem ically, it is
interm ediate in reactivity betw een chlorine and iodine. The liquid is
harm ful to hum an tissues and the vapour irritates the eyes and throat.
8 . It is m anufactured by the electrolysis o f brine and also obtained in
the D owns process for m aking sodium . It has m any applications, one o f
which is purification o f drinking w ater.
9. The nam e o f this elem ent com es from the island o f C yprus. It is
used for m aking electric cables and w ires. Its alloys are used extensively.
12
W ater does not attack it, hut in m oist atm o sp h eres ii slow ly form s a
characteristic green surface layer (patina).
10.
A nonm etallic elem ent belon g in g to g ro u p IV o f the Period
T able. It has tw o m ain allotropic form s (d iam o n d and g raphite).
4 Petroleum
Exercises
Task I Read, translate and memorize the words
petroleum (oil)
T he term “ petroleum ’' has its o rigin in the Latin w ord m eaning
«stone oil».
crude oil (base oil)
raw m aterial
to m anufacture
decom position
to utilize
to convert
gasoline
naphtha
hydrocarbon
to vary
cut
com pound
volatile
to regard
com m ercial
vapour
liquid
pressure
loss
to retard
im petus
installation
Task 2 Guess the meaning of the following w o rd s
production, conversion, m olecules, phase, reaction, organism ,
industry, term inology, process, m aterial, apparatus, type, term , com m ercial,
classification, chem ist, phenom enon.
Task 3 Define parts of speech of the following words. Underline
prefixes and suffixes that change the meaning of the word
K now — unknow n, to build - build er - b uilding, co m fo rt com fortable — discomfort., to see - seen - unseen, scientist - science scientific, system — system atical - system atically, to com pose
- decom position, to produce productive - produced producing.
com p osition
production — p roducer -
Task 4 Define the function of gerund and translate the sentences
1. In passing from the solid to the liquid state w ater becom es reduced
in volum e.
2 . T he aim o f the scientists and engineers is finding new w ays o f
u tilizin g these polym ers in light industry.
3 . Plasticity o f m any substances increases at heating.
4. The experim ent resulted in their finding new properties o f this
m aterial.
5 . W orld science is thankful to D .l. M endeleyev for his arranging the
elem ents in his Periodic Table.
6! P roducing m aterials w ith different properties from polym ers is
closely associated with the nam es o f our outstanding scientists.
4.1 Cracking
Ihe m ain raw m aterial for m anufacturing organic chem icals is
petroleum , it having been form ed in the past from m arine organism s.
Ih e pyrogenic decomposition o f petroleum w ith the consequent
breaking up o f the m olecules and the production o f both lighter and heavier
hydrocarbons is term ed «cracking». In the term inology o f the industry
«cracking processes» are those designed to utilize the above
decom position for the conversion o f heavier oils into the m ore valuable
g a so lin es and naphthas.
All petroleum hydrocarbons have a characteristic tem perature above
which the cracking reaction takes place. T his tem perature varies for the
different cuts from a given crude oil and for sim ilar cuts from different
crude oils.
H istorically, cracking dates back to the early y ears o f the nineteenth
century when the form ation o f volatile com pounds by cracking anim al oil
w as discovered. T hese early discoveries were regarded m erely as
scicntific phenomena o f no commercial value.
The system s in com m ercial use may be broadly classified as
cracking in the vapour phase and cracking in the liquid phase. C racking in
the vapour phase consists in vapouring the oil and then producing the
reaction by the addition o f heat, o r o f heat and pressure together. High gas
loss and difficu lty w ith apparatus tended to retard th e developm ent o f this
type o f process. C onsequently, the liquid phase processes received a
trem endous impetus, and the great m ajority o f com m ercial installations
are o f this type.
Task 6 Find sentences with gerund analyze them
Task 7 Answer the questions
1. W hat is term ed «cracking»?
2. W hat arc «cracking processes» designed for?
3. At w hat tem perature does the cracking reaction take place?
14
4.
5.
6.
7.
W hen w as cracking discovered?
W hat are the tw o m ain types o f crack in g pro cesses?
W hat do es cracking in the v ap o u r phase consist in?
W hat type o f process received a trem endous im petus?
Task 8 T ranslate the following sentences. Pay attention to
constructions «both» and «both...and»
I.
Both cracking in the vap o u r phase and c rack in g in the liqu
phase are in com m ercial use. 2. Both p rocesses w ere widely used. 3. Both
gas loss and d ifficulty w ith apparatus have retarded crack in g in the v apour
phase.
Task 9 W rite the transcription and memorize new words
Translate the sentences
petroleum chem istry
petrochem ical (petroleum product)
oilfield (field)
oilm an
oil platform (production platform )
production (output)
E xplosions on a Shell production platform further lim ited N orth Sea
oil output.
oil w ell (w ell)
to drill
T he drilled by E dw in D rake in P ennsylvania in 1859 w as the first
one in the w orld.
to produce (to get)
T he oilfield began producing in 2000 and last y e a r reached its peak
at 1,6 m illion barrels a day.
petroleum processing (oil refining)
accum ulations
to com m ission
reserve
N ow adays 2/3 o f the w orld energy reserves is oil and natural gas.
recoverable
Lukoil began production in the G uryanovsky field in the Saratov
region w ith recoverable reserves o f 70 tons p er day.
fuel
oil diesel fuel
kerosene (burning oil)
petrol (gasoline)
exploration
to rehabilitate
4.2
Read the text. Give short characteristics of each oil company
Which company is the leader of industry?
All ten vertically-integrated oil com panies o f R ussia have th e ir ow n
reasons to be proud o f their perform ance in 2002. L U K O IL strengthened its
15
leadership in oil production and refining, and achieved a 2.5-ton increm ent
o f reserves per each ton o f extracted crude. Y U K O S d em onstrated one o f
the best dynam ics o f oil production in the sector. Surgutneftegas
com m issioned 3 new oil fields and w idened even further its gap w ith other
vertically-integrated com panies in term s o f gas production volum es.
T yum en Oil C om pany cut its oil production costs by $ 0.5 per barrel.
Sibneti confirm ed its leadership in grow th rates and increased its m arket
capitalisation by m ore than 3 tim es. The last year o f S ID A N C O 's existence
ended on a high note. T atneft built a basic com plex o f th e N izhnekam sk
refinery. Slavneft significantly im proved the level o f its refineries* load to
the delight o f its new ow ners. R osneft produced an unprecedented volum e
o f crude, launched m ajor projects and rehabilitated oil production in
C hechnya. B ashneft started m ore active production beyond the rep u b lic’s
borders.
In 2002, L U K O IL com m issioned 588 new w ells. By year-end, the
total num ber o f its developm ent w ells reached 28,179, including 19.1 % o f
idle w ells (versus 23. 4% on average in Russia).
I he developm ent o f new transportation schem es, including by rivers
and railw ays, contributed to the increase o f oil export. Som e 0.8 million
tons w ere exported through these routes. B esides, the com pany organised
the all-year-round oil shipm ent by arctic tancers fron the fields o f T im anPechora oil and gas province, Pre-O b region and the K olguyev Island.
The exploration efficiency o f the com pany is also notew orthy and
discovered 10 new fields and 16 hydrocarbon accum ulations.
fu e l oil (9 m illion tons) and diesel fuel (8.9 m illion tons) w ere the
key products o f L U K O IL 's Russian refineries in 2002. It produced 4.4
million tons o f gasoline and 1.6 m illion tons o f aviation kerosene.
B esides its ow n products, the com pany sold petroleum products o f
other m anufacturers through its ow n distribution netw ork.
Y U K O S is the m ost «expensive» oil and gas com pany o f the
country. The developm ent o f the Priobskoye field provided the main
increm ent: oil production there alm ost doubled in 2002 from 6.5 to 12.8
m illion tons.
It is Y U K O S that plays the key role in the developm ent o f export
routes to C hina and the US. H ow ever, its grow th o f export w as m uch lower
than the dynam ics o f production last year.
The sam e is true for oil refining w here both quantitative and
qualitative indicators leave m uch to desire.
The avcraue dom estic sales price o f petroleum products dropped by
12 %.
Surgutneftegas is one o f the three leading oil producers o f R ussia and
is dem onstrating a stable grow th o f oil production volum es.
Having increased its gas production by 20 % in 2002, Surgutneftegas
w idened even further its gap with other oil m ajors.
The T yum en Oil C om pany is developing about tw enty fields.
Sam otlor. Pcrm yakovskoye. K hokhryakovskoye, K oshilskoye, O rekhovo-
16
Y erm akovskoye, T allin sk o y e and Y em -Y eg o ro \ skoye fields account lo r
the bulk o f productio n and are characterized by a sig n ifican t d egree o f
crude recovery (u p to 77 % ).
S ibneft b ecam e n u m b er five by its oil p roduction level, nu m b er four
by refining volum es and n u m b er three by retail trad e scope. T he main
production base is in the N oyabrsk region o f the Y am al-Nenet.sk
A utonom ous D istrict. It also extracts oil from the K rapivninsk field in the
O m sk region and in the K hanty-M ansi A u tonom ous D istrict.
In 2002, S ibneft com m issio n ed 273 new w ells, including 3 3
horizontal ones. T he com pany invites the best international service
com panies, such as S chlum berger, H alliburton, and B ak er H ughes, to work
at its Helds.
T he O m sk refinery is the only refining subsidiary o f Sibneft.
H ow ever, S ibneft began deliveries o f crude to the M oscow refinery in
2002. Processing co sts in the capital (570 roubles p er ton) are 1.5 lim es
higher than in O m sk.
T atn eit operated 61 oil and 2 bitum en fields. K oinashkinskoyc, the
oldest and on e o f the biggest fields in R ussia, is the lead er am o n g them . Ii
is characterised by high w ater cut.
46.5
% o f annual production volum e w as generated by appl ication
advanced m ethods o f en h an cin g oil output.
R osneft is particularly proud o f its resu lts in reh ab ilitatin g oil
production in C hechnya. 5 fields w ere co m m issioned during one y ear and
several im portant p roduction facilities w ere restored. A lm ost 1.5 m illion
tons o f crude w ere p roduced in the republic.
R osneft allocated 28 billion roubles for funding its investm ent
program m es, 30 % m ore than in 2001. Investm ents in the d ev elo p m en t o f
oil production, refining and m arketing am ounted to 17 billion roubles,
including 1 1.6 billion roubles for d evelopm ent d rilling and construction o f
oil fields, 3.1 billion roubles for refineries u pgrading and 1.8 billion roubles
for building and m odernizing g as-filling stations and storage facilities.
Exercises
Task 1 T ranslate the following definitions chains. Remember
that the last word is the main in such group
C rude production, crude production volum es, oil production, oil
production grow th, crude production grow th rates, offsh o re production
platform , oil com panies gas field, the leading oil producers, gas turbine
pow er stations, crude recovery, gas-fillin g station, oil transportation
system .
C . I o p d )ip etT 0 №lim, petrochem ical, oil platform , to produce, production.
о
Э ТЫ vP^tSftlfeM'iriprttfe^sirig, petrol, to drill.
'а к а д е м и к
' re |)jjjn g ,j petroleum product, g asoline, to sink, to gel, oil,
prodircfion (jliltToriTl, output.
атындагы г ы л ы м и
17
4.3 Chemical processes
W hen w e follow the sequence o f events in th e chem ical plant w e can
see solid raw m aterials go from the stock pile to crushers, grinders and
screens and then by conveyers to the reaction vessels. For liquid raw
m aterials, the storage tank is the starting point, after w hich pum ps, and
perhaps proportioning devices, are required. The sam e is true o f gases
w hich m ust be propelled by m eans o f fans, blow ers, and com pressors;
frequently they are to be cooled in coolers and w ashed. T he d evices used
for the cleaning o f a gas include m ainly dust collectors, d ry cyclones, filters
and scrubbers.
M aterials m ust be m ixed, liquids as well as solids. T his process is
perform ed in various types o f m ixers and agitators. A t the o th er stages,
solids are to be separated from liquids in filters, centrifuges, o r sim ply by
setting the suspended solid in a settling tank o r in continuous m echanical
setting units generally know n as thickeners o r clarifiers. Solutions o f solids
are evaporated in evaporators; they crystallize in crystallizers, and they are
dried in driers. M ixtures o f liquids, on the o th er hand, are usually separated
in distillation equipm ent.
A uxiliary equipm ent, such as vacuum pum ps, heat exchangers, and
reaction vessels, especially kettles, are required in m any o f these
operations, as well as num erous types o f instrum ents for m easurem ent and
control.
5 Air
Exercises
Task I Read, translate and memorize the words
substance
altogether
bulb
capacity
to contam inate
to escape
stu ff
to mix
to rust
to rem ove
to com bine
rid o f
carbon dioxide
constituent
to m ention
apart from
m inor
IX
Task 2 Read and translate the words
Organic, inorganic, alcohol, energy, activity, general, thesis, aqua,
laboratory, m eeting, atm osphere, m ineral, radium , uranium , m ass, nature,
visit, theory, technician, form.
Task 3 Match synonyms
1. stu ff
2 . suddenly
3. spontaneously
4. burning
5. rusting
6. unreactive
7. to rem ove
8. m ixture
9. gradually
a) to delete
b) unexpectedly
с ) m atter
d) im pulsively
e) little by little
t) am algam
g) inert
h ) corrosion
i) com bustion
Task 4 Define p art of speech of words in bold
1. O ne o f M endeleyev’s im portant w o rk s is his book «Principles o f
C hemistry».
2. I f you don’t work hard y o u ’ll m ake no progress.
3. The work leading to the discovery w as an investigation into the
density o f nitrogen.
4. Though nitrogen is essential to all fo rm s o f life, the huge am ount
present in the atm osphere is not directly available to m ost organism s.
5. C om bining with an elem ent, oxygen fo rm s a product called an
oxide.
6 . C arbon dioxide is a by product from the manufacture o f lime and
from ferm entation process.
7. These plants manufacture chem ical equipm ent.
Task 5 Translate the sentences. Pay attention to the infinitive
1. To synthesize w ater we had to com bine oxygen and hy drogen.
2. The devices are used to m easure the am ounts o f the m aterial and
energy baring the process.
3. The stability o f the com pound to be formed is to be considered.
4. The aim o f the experim ent to be carried out in our laboratory is to
prove the crystalline structure o f the substance.
5. The m olecule is considered to be com posed o f m ore than a single
structural unit.
6 . We know such gases as nitrogen, helium , and argon to m ake up as
much as 26 % o f pitchblende.
S.l Read the text and answer the questions
The layer covering all over the Earth like a blanket is called the
atm osphere. It is made o f very thin stu ff called air. A ir is so thin you hardly
know it's there. But it's all around us. Really, w e live at the bottom o f a
very deep «ocean o f air».
A ir gets thinner and thinner as you go up. T here's enough air to
breathe at the top o f Mt. Everest (five m iles above sea level), but getting
there is hard w ork! M ost clim bers have used b reathing apparatus on their
w ay up. By the tim e you get to 50 m iles above sea level, there's practically
no air left. The air doesn't stop suddenly, how ever, so it's im possible to say
exactly how deep the atm osphere is.
A ir is not a single substance. It's m ade o f a n u m b er o f gases all
m ixed together. It’s im possible to stop gases m ixing together. They mix
together spontaneously. So a g as that escapes from the Earth becom es a
part o f the atm osphere. S cientists believe that the atm o sp h ere has changed
a very great deal since the Earth w as first form ed. A t first, the atm osphere
m ay have been m ade up o f gases like am m onia, m ethane, carbon dioxide
and w ater vapour. I.ater, the first early form s o f life developed and
gradually m ore and m ore oxygen w as added to the atm osphere. N ow adays
the m ain gases in the air are oxygen and nitrogen.
You can easily m ake experim ents in the laboratory to find out about
the air. for exam ple, to prove that it's a m ixture rather than a single
substance, o r find out how m uch oxygen there is in it. T hese experim ents
usually involve getting the oxygen to com bine w ith an o th er substance. In
oth er w ords, to get rid o f the oxygen altogether a chem ical reaction is used.
T here are plenty o f w ays to do this because oxygen is a very reactive
gas. For instance, burning and rusting are tw o kinds o f chem ical change
that use up oxygen.
T he m ain g as left after rem oving oxygen is nitrogen. In fact, nearly
all o f the rem ainder (about four-fifths) is nitrogen. T o put this ano th er way,
78 percent o f the air is nitrogen.
A part from oxygen and nitrogen, there are only sm all am ounts o f
oth er gases in the air. O ne o f them is carbon dioxide. A nother o f the m inor
constituents o f the air is w ater vapour. O rdinary a ir alw ays contains som e
o f it. T h e best w ay to show that there is w ater vapour in th e air in the
laboratory is to condense the w ater. T his can be done by co o lin g the air.
A lthough there's not m uch o f eith er w ater vapour o r carbon dioxide in the
air, both o f them are very im portant.
So far w e've m entioned oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide and w ater
vapour. Are these the only gases in the air? The answ er is «по», but it's
hard to prove.
Task 6 Answer the questions
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
W hat is air?
W hat o ther gases are there in the air?
W hat is atm osphere?
W hat experim ents w ith air can one m ake?
How deep is the «ocean o f air»?
5.2 Read the text, find sentences with participial and gerundial
tu r n s
20
N on-chem ist can't help being surprised to learn th at m any ch em ical
com pounds are obtained from living things. F o r ex am p le, su g ars, ethanol,
m ethane, urea, etc.
W hat all these com pou n d s have in com m on are the elem en ts carbon
and hydrogen. T hus, it can be said that nearly all c o m p o u n d s obtain ed from
living things are carbon com pounds.
In the early days o f chem istry ihe co m p o u n d s o b tain ed Irom living
things w ere not even thought o f to be m ade in the laboratory'. T h e idea w as
that there w ere special processes g o in g on inside the o rg an ism (living
thing). T he special processes w ere believed to be essen tial fo r the
form ation o f the com pounds. So, chem ists co n sid ered the c o m p o u n d s from
organism s to be som ehow special and d ifferent from "o rd in ary " ch em icals
th at could be m ade in the laboratory, lh e y called c h em icals from living
things organic chem icals and the others inorganic chem icals.
H ow ever, in 1828 a chem ist called W oh ler sho w ed organic
ch em icals to be ju s t ordinary chem ical substances. H e d id this bv
c o nverting an inorganic chem ical into an organic one sim ply by h eating it
in the laboratory. G radually, m ore and m ore o rganic ch em icals w ere show n
to be ju s t like ordinary chem icals. B ut w e still use the term s “o rg a n ic ” and
"inorganic" to divide chem icals into tw o classes. N ow adays, how ever, we
use the term "organic com pounds" to m ean carbon com pounds, there being
som e exceptions to the rule.
M ost o f the organic ch em icals we have n o w ad ay s are m an -m ad e and
are obtained directly from organism s. H ow ever, the m ain raw m aterial for
m anufacturing organic chem icals is petroleum , it h av in g been form ed in the
p ast from m arine organism s.
W hy do w e have to separate a branch o f ch em istry ju s t for carbon
com pounds? C ouldn't its com pounds be included w ith those o f other
elem ents?
T here's a sim ple reason for k eep in g carbon co m p o u n d s separate:
there are ju s t too m any o f them . T here are m ore co m p o u n d s o f carbon than
com pounds o f all the o th er elem ents put together. O rg an ic ch em istry is sure
to be a very large branch o f chem istry. It includes m illio n s o f com pounds.
M ost o f these are com pounds o f carbon involving ju s t a few other
nonm etallic elem ents, for exam ple, hydrogen, nitro g en , oxygen and the
halogens.
W hy does carbon have so m any m ore co m p o u n d s than oth er
elem ents? W hat is special about it? The a n sw er to these q u estio n s is:
carbon atom s have the special property o f being ab le to jo in to g eth er to
form chains o f atom s. T he chains m ay be short, o r they m ay be hundreds or
even thousands o f atom s long.
The carbon chain being practically any length, the nu m b er o f
possible hydrocarbons is enorm ous.
21
5.3 Carbon
C arbon is to be ranked alo n g w ith hydrogen and oxy g en as on e o f the
m ost im portant o f all the elem ents to m an. C arbon o ccu rs in nature as a free
elem ent and in m any com pounds. It co nstitutes only about 0.03 percent o f
the Earth's crust, but this relatively sm all am ount, o f the elem en t is o f great
im portance. Its im portance is indicated by the 300,000 o r m ore com pounds
o f the elem ent w hich exist naturally o r w hich have been prepared. Ft is
proved that this num ber is approxim ately ten tim es the num ber o f
com pounds o f all the o th er elem ents put together. F or a long tim e it w as
believed that these com pounds m ight have nev er been produced except
with the aid o f organic life, in oth er w ords, by living p lants and anim als,
l o r this reason they w ere called organic com pounds. It is know n that
carbon occurs in tw o crystalline form s w hich d iffer strikingly by their
properties. G raphite is black, soft, a good co n d u cto r o f electricity.
D iam ond, on the contrary, is colourless and transparent, th e hardest o f
know n substances, a non-conductor o f electricity. It is th e crystal structure,
as determ ined by X -rays, w hich gives an explanation o f this contrast o f
properties. The four valence electrons o f each carbon atom en able it, by
sharing electrons with four o f its neighbours, to be linked w ith them in a
covalent union. It m ay be show n by X -rays ex am ination that in the
diam ond the four nearest neighbours o f each carbon atom are
sym m etrically arranged about it in space. All atom s in ,a diam ond are thus
firmly linked together, hence the w hole crystal acts as a gian t m olecule.
T hus we account for the extrem e hardness o f the diam ond, its high m elting
point, and its failure to dissolve in any solvent. O n th e o th er hand, it is
found that graphite possesses parallel planes o f atom s, and each is at a
considerable distance from its neighbours. Each carbon atom in graphite
has three nearest neighbours and they all are present in its ow n plane. O nly
three o f the four valence electrons o f each atom are n eeded for furnishing
bonds with these nearest neighbours and the fourth is available for
producing a bond with a neighbouring plane. C ertain portions o f the
electrons in graphite are relatively free to m ove as it is true o f metals.
H ence, graphite is a conductor o f electricity.
Exercises
Task 1 Read and memorize expressions for annotation
1. T he a rticle is d iv id e d into ... m ajo r parts.
2 . T he article presents a picture o f ....
3. T he
4. T he
5. The
6 . T he
7. T he
8 . The
9 . The
article reveals the problem h o w __
article points o u t th at ....
article is supplem ented w ith extensive notes.
article is com pleted by ... figures and tables.
first part d eals w i t h __
second part show s (presents, exam ines, s tr e s s e s ) ....
third part contain s (stu d ies, analyses, d escrib es) ....
10. T he fourth part co ncen trates o n __
11. T he a u th o r c o n sid ers (p o in ts o u t, c o n c lu d e s, a n a l) s e s ) ....
12. T he a u th o r b eliev es (stresses, u n d erlin e s) t h a t __
13. T he a u th o r g o es on to d i s c u s s __
14. In e x a m in in g th e pro b lem the a u th o r p o in ts o u t t h a t __
15. In th e first p art the a u th o r d e te rm in e s ....
16. In the o p inion o f the a u th o r __
17. A c c o rd in g to th e a u t h o r __
18. T he au th o r calls attention to the tact that ....
19. T he a u th o r sum m arizes th e re su lts o f __
20. A t the end o f the article the au th o r sum s u p __
21. T he a u th o r w arn s t h a t __
2 2 . F u rth er d a ta c o v e r (sh o w ) ....
23. G re a t a tte n tio n is c a lle d to th e fact t h a t __
Task 2 Match the word with its definition
1) funnel
a) a tool that consists o f tw o m ovable burs jo in e d
2) beaker
at one end, used to pick up an object
3) m icroscope
b) a scientific instrum ent that m akes extremely
4) slides
sm all things look larger
5) electric balance c) a short slick with a heavy round end
6) tongs
d) the science that is concerned w ith studying the
7) m ortar
structure o f substances and the w ay they change
8) pestle
e) a round piece o f rubber or w ood used to close
9) tripod
the top o f a container
10) rubber tubing f) a round pipe m ade o f rubber for liquids to go
11) g as tap
through
12) matches
g) a substance used in chem istry or produced by
13)measuring
chemistry
cylinder
h) a tube used for pouring liquids or pow ders into a
14) test tube
container w ith a narrow opening
15) test tube rack
i) an electric instrum ent for w eighing things
16) pipette
j) a natural process in w hich the atom s o f chem icals
17 ) conical flask
mix and arrange them selves differently to form
18) bung/stopper
new substances
19) labcoat
k) a glass container used for m easuring liquid
20) chemical
I) a thing glass tube for sucking up exact am ounts
21 (chemical
o f liquid, used especially in chem istry
reaction
m ) a small glass container that is shaped like a lube
22) chem ist
and is used in chem istry
2 3 ) chemistry
n) a piece o f clothing that is worn over your
clothes in laboratory to protect them
o) a scientist w ho has a special know ledge in
chem istry
p) a glass cup with straight sides lhat is used in
chemistry for m easuring and healing liquids
q) small pieces o f thing glass used for holding
23
something when you look at it under a microscope
r) a hard howl in which substances are crushcd into
pow der or very small pieces with a pestle
s) a special type o f bottle mat you use to keep
liquids
I) a special shelf lor tubes
u) a support with three legs, used for a camera,
telescope etc.
v) small wooden sticks, used, to light a tire
w) a piece o f equipment for controlling the flow o f
gas from a pipe or container
Task 3 Learn the words and special term from the list
1)
I -63
laboratory
apparatus
( laboratory equipm ent)
2)
B unsen burner
3)
gas inlet (gas inlet pipe) air
regulator T eclti burner
4)
pipe union
5)
gas regulator
6)
stem
7)
air regulator
8)
bench torch
9)
oxygen inlet hydrogen inlet
oxygen jet
10) tripod
11)
ring (retort ring)
12)
funnel
13)
pipe clay triangle
14)
w ire gauze
15)
w ire gauze with asbestos
centre (A m . center)
16)
beaker burette (for delivering
m easured
quantities o f liquid)
burette stand burette clam p
17) graduated pipette
18)
pipette
19)
m easuring
cylinder
(m easuring glass)
2 0 ) m easuring flask
2 1 ) volum etric flask
2 2 ) evaporating dish (evaporating
basin), m ade o f porcelain
23)
tube
clam p
(tube
clip,
p inchcock)
24)
clay crucible with lid
25)
crucible tongs
26)
clam p
27)
test tube
28)
test tube rack flat-bottom ed
flask ground glass neck
29)
long-necked round-bottom ed
flask F rlen m ey er flask (conical
flask) filter flask
30)
(luted filter
3 1) one-w ay tap
32)
calcium ch lo rid e tube
33)
stopper w ith tap
34)
cy lin d er distillation apparatus
(distilling
apparatus)
distillation
flask (distilling flask) condenser
return tap, a tw o-w ay tap distillation
flask
(distilling
flask,
Claiscn
flask) desiccato r lid w ith fitted tube
35)
tap desiccato r insert m ade o f
porcelain three-necked flask
36)
co nnecting piece (Y -tube)
37)
three-necked bottle
38)
g as-w ashing bottle
39)
gas
gen erato r
(K ipp's
apparatus. Am. K ipp generator over
flow container)
4 0) co n tain er for the solid
41)
acid con tain er gas outlet
Task 4 Describe the functions of each piece of equipment
6 Descriptions of chemical elements
6.1 Chlorine
C hlorine is an elem en t w ith atom ic n u m b er 17, ato m ic w eight
35.5 (thirty-five point five). It is a gas at ord in ary te m p e ra tu res and is
n ever found free in nature. It is found in nature com bined with other
elem ents. At norm al tem peratures, chlorine is a diatomic gas ( C l2), greenishyellow in colour and about 2 1/2 (tw o and a half) tim es as heavy as air. It
26
liquefies at atm ospheric pressure at — 34. 1° С (m in u s th irty-four point one
degrees Centigrade) to a yellow ish liquid approxim ately 1 1/2 (o n e an d a hall')
tim es as heavy as w ater. T h e liquid freezes at — 100.98° С (m inus one
hundred point nine eight degrees C entigrade). C hlorine is soluble in w ater
and indirectly exerts bleaching and bactericidal actio n by reacting w ith
w ater to form h y p o ch lo ro u s acid.
C l3 + H20 — HCI + Н С Ю — HCI + (O )
C hlorine
W ater
H y d rochloric H ypo ch lo ric
acid
acid
T he h ypochlorous a cid is un stab le, g iv in g up o x y g en to form m ore
НС 1. T he o x y g en attack s an d d estro y s bacteria; it also o xidizes coloured
organic substances, form ing colourless o r le s s-c o lo u r e d component.-*.
A s one o f the m ost activ e elem en ts, chlorine ran k s in reactivity about
w ith oxygen. It com bines directly and readily w ith h y d ro g e n and m ost
n on-m etals ex cep t n itro g en , carb o n and oxyg en ; it also u nites w ith all the
fam iliar m etals ex cep t gold and platin u m .
P articipating in a nu m b er o f im p o rtan t organic reactio n s, in som e
cases chlorine appears in the final product, as in in se c tic id e s (D D T ) o r in
the p lastic, p o ly v in il c h lo rid e .
C hlorine is generally produced by electrolysis ol w ater solutions о I
sodium chloride in electrolytic cells. W hen sodium c h lo rid e o r p o tassium
chloride so lu tio n s are sub jected to e le c tro ly sis , th e re a re th ree p ro d u cts;
cau stic so d a o r caustic potash, chlorine and hydrogen. If fused sodium
chloride is used, there are tw o products: chlorine, and m etallic sodium .
W rite the transcription and memorize new words
Is never found free in to c o m b in e
nature
1/2 tim e s as h e a v y as a ir
to liq u e fy
a p p ro x im a te ly
to fre e z e (fro z e , fro z e n )
so lu b le to e x e rt
b le a c h in g a n d b a c te ric id a l
action
h y p o c h lo ro u s a c id
u n sta b le
to d e stro y
to o x id iz e
com ponent
fa m ilia r
to
p a rtic ip a te
in s e c tic id e
so d iu m c h lo rid e
e le c tro ly tic c e ll
p o ta s siu m c h lo rid e
to s u b je c t
c a u s tic so d a
c a u s tic p o ta sh
fu s e d -m o lte n
Exercises
Task 1 Answer the questions
1. In w hat state is chlorine found in nature?
2. A t w hat tem perature does chlorine liquefy?
27
to
a p p e a r;
2. Is chlorine easily soluble in w ater?
3. W hat action does chlo rin e exert in w ater?
4. W hat is the reactivity o f chlorine?
5 . W hat products are obtained w hen sodium chlo rid e o r potassium
chloride solutions are subjected to electrolysis?
6 . By w hat m ethod is chlorine generally p roduced?
7. W hat products arc produced if fused sodium ch lo rid e is used?
Task 2 Make up a description of any element you like
7 A nalytical chem istry
7.1 Methods of analysis
T he an a ly sis o f a co m p lex m aterial u su ally in v o lv es four steps,
sam pling, d issolving the sam ple, sep aratin g m utually in terferin g
su b sta n c e s, and d ete rm in in g th e c o n stitu e n ts o f interest. The first step,
sam pling can be a significant problem , p a rtic u la rly in ind u strial
a p p lic a tio n s.
S am pling is com plete w hen th e su b d iv isio n is sm all enough to
p erm it a n a ly sis.
T he second step is th e d isso lv in g o f a sam p le . I f w e know the
n a tu re o f th e sa m p le w e u se a s u ita b le re a g e n t.
I/G ra v im e tric m eth o d s in v o lv e a w e ig h in g o p e ra tio n as th e final
m easurem ent.
G ravim etric analysis have been developed for alm ost everything
from A (lu m in iu m ) to Z (irc o n iu m ).
G ravim etric procedures may be done in various ways: by
p recip itatin g , by d isso lv in g , by rem o v in g as a v o latile com pound.
V o lu m etric m eth o d s in v o lv e m e a su rem en t o f th a t v o lu m e o f a
solution o f know n concentration w hich reacts with a know n am ount o f the
sam ple. Such a solution is called a standard solution.
V olum etric tech n iq u es are now applicable to m ost o f the elem en ts
and to m any sp ecific ino rg an ic and o rg an ic co m p o u n d s. T hey are w idely
used in all phases o f chem istry , in m edicine, and in m an y allied sciences.
P hysico-chem ical m eth o d s depend upon th e m easu rem en t o f
physical p ro p erties o th er than m ass and volum e. Such m ethods are
im portant w hen the sim pler m ethods o f analysis are inadequate.
7.2 M ethods of separation. Ion exchange methods in analytical
chemistry
M ethods o f sep aratin g a solid and a liquid are b uilt around tw o
p ro cesses, filtratio n and cen trifu g a tio n .
F iltration is the process o f p assin g th e su sp en sio n o f solid and
liquified through a porous barrier w hich will trap th e solid. T he b a rrie r
m ay be filte r p ap er, sin te re d g la s s, a sb e s to s m a ttin g , g la ss w ool and
o th ers.
C entrifugation is m echanized settin g (o r flo atin g ) and d e p e n d s
upon the d ifferen ce betw een th e d e n sitie s o f th e so lid an d th e so lu tio n .
G ravitational settin g is u su ally in ad e q u a te . A c en trifu g e can be used to
enhance the gravitational force m oving the particles. M ost centrifuges
operate at hundreds o f revolutions per m inute. E xtrem ely difficult
separations require speeds o f ten s o f th o u san d s o f re v o lu tio n s p er
m inute.
Ion exchange is now one o f th e reco g n ized p ro cesses o f c h em ical
engineering. It has been applied to th e sep aratio n p ro c e sse s o f
qu antitative analysis.
G eneral Principles. By ion ex c h a n g e w e m ean the ex ch an g e o f io n s
o f like sign betw een a so lutio n and a so lid in so lu b le body in c o n ta c t
with it. For such an exch an g e to be p o ssib le, th e so lid m u st co n ta in
ions o f its ow n. T he solid (c a lle d th e ion e x c h a n g e r) m ust have an open,
permeable m olecular structure, so th a t io n s and s o lv e n t m o le c u le s can
move freely in and out. M any substances, both natural and artificial, have
ion exchanging properties.
In analytical w ork w e are p rim arily in terested in th e synthetic
organic exchangers. These have a high capacity for h o ld in g ions an d th ey
are not broken dow n by a cid s o r a lk a lie s , they have a relativ ely sim ple
com position.
7.3
Chrom atography
Chromatography techniques
and
ion
exchange
technique.
C hrom atography is a m ethod o f ch em ical a n a ly sis b ased upon the
selective absorption and partial fractionation o f v ario u s su b sta n ce s by
certain suitable m aterials. T he m ethod is sim ple and requires a m inim um
o f special equipm ent. The technique co n sists o f p o u rin g a solution
through a colum n containing a su itab le ad so rb in g m aterial. A selectiv e
developing agent is then passed th rough the colum n and th e d ifferen t
substances in the solution are sp read dow n th e c o lu m n into layers
visibly separated from one another, provided the su b sta n ce s are co lo red .
In the case o f co lo rless su b stan ces, th e la y e rs o f th e d iffe re n t
sub stances m ay be located by th e u se o f u ltra-v io let light o r by
chem ical tests.
T his m ethod w as first d escrib ed by the R u ssian b o ta n ist T sw ett,
in 1906. T sw ett w as engaged in the extraction and p u rific ta io n o f plan t
pigm ents.
M ethods o f chrom atography have been applied to the sep aratio n o f
the rare e a rth s and a n u m b er o f p ro c e d u re s, b a se d on chrom atography
techniques, have been developed for the s e p a ra tio n o f th e in o rg a n ic
cations and anions.
The techniques o f carrying out a ch rom atographic investigation arc
very sim ple. The basic apparatus is the adsorption c o lu m n . T he
adsorption colum n m ay be co n stru c te d o f so ft g la s s o r in sp e c ia l c a se s
o f quartz. T he d iam eter and len g th o f the colum n is determ ined by the
24
quantity
of
m aterial
to
be
absorbed.
N o universal adsorben t has been found. A g ood ad so rb en t should
satisfy the follow ing criteria: it sh o u ld h old relativ ely large q u a n titie s o f
the m a terials to be resolved ; the reso lv ed m aterials m u st be elu ted from
th e ad so rb en t by p o lar so lv en ts; th e siz e o f th e p a rtic le s o f a d so rb e n t
sh o u ld be su ch as w ill allo w rap id an d u n ifo rm p erco latio n ; the
a d so rb e n ts m ust not react w ith e ith e r th e m a te rials to be reso lv e d n o r the'
m a te ria ls to be used as so lv en t o r c o lo r d ev elo p e r; th e a d so rb e n t should
n o t be p o ro u s an d sh o u ld , if p o s s ib le , be c o lo rle ss .
I he ch ro m ato g rap h is m ade as follow s: a so lu tio n o f th e m aterial
to be adborbcd is p o u red in to th e a d so rp tio n c o lu m n an d a llo w e d to
p e rc o la te th ro u g h the a d so rb e n t. T h e c o lu m n is w ashed w ith additional
portions o f the original solvent from w h ic h the c o m p o u n d w as ad so rb e d .
T h e sid e s o f th e c o lu m n are w ashed w ith sm all portions o f the solvent and
then larger quantities are added to th e colum n. T he passage o f the solvent
th ro u g h th e c o lu m n c a u s e s th e a d s o rb e d m a te ria ls to m o v e at
d iffe re n t ra te s an d th u s p ro d u c e th e c h ro m a to g ra m .
7.4
analysis
P aper chrom atography, applications and procedure. G
In p ap er ch ro m ato g ra p h y -th e ab so rp tio n co lu m n is re p laced by
strips o f paper. T he ab so rb en t o r ion ex ch an g er is p recip itated into the
p o res o f the paper. O ne end o f the p rep ared p a p er is d ip p ed into d istilled
w a te r and allo w ed to stan d until the w ater has clim bed a b o u t a
c en tim eter a lo n g the paper. It is th e n re m o v e d a n d d ip p e d in to a
s o lu tio n o f th e m a te ria ls to be sep arated . A fte r th e unkn o w n so lu tio n
has clim b ed about 2 cm , the p ap er is rem o v ed from th e u n k now n
so lu tio n an d re tu rn e d to th e d is tille d w a te r. A fte r th e w a te r h as
c lim b e d to ab o u t 12 to 16 cm , th e strip is rem o v ed and d ried b etw een
filter paper. B rushing the d ried p a p er strip w ith the p ro p er d ev elo p in g
ag en t w ill pro d u ce b an d s sim ila r to th o se p ro d u ced in th e a d so rp tio n
co lu m n .
N um erous studies have been m ade o f the paper-strip m ethod for
se p aratin g cations, an io n s and m etal co m p lex es. T he p ro ced u re is sim ila r
to th at o f c o lu m n ch ro m a to g ra p h y .
T he paper-strip m eth od has the advan tage that the d e v e lo p in g
r ea g e n t d o e s not p a ss th rou gh the a d so rb en t a s it is required in colum n
chrom atography. T he strip m ethod requires a m inim um o f test so lu tio n ,
abou t 0.1 m m , se v e ra l d e v e lo p e r s m ay be a p p lie d to the sa m e strip.
T he paper-strip m ethod has been applied to quantitative
d eterm in atio n o f the inorganic catio n s and to m any organic m aterials.
S p e c ia l te c h n iq u e s are u su a lly e m p lo y e d in the a n a ly s is o f the
gases. Since the analysis o f a gas, o r gas m ixture usually in v o lv e s th e
m e a s u re m e n t o f a v o lu m e an d o n ly v ery rare ly th e w e ig h in g o f a
sa m p le , th e re s u lts are m o st fre q u e n tly re p o r te d in p e r c e n t by
v o lu m e r a th e r th a n p e r c e n t by w eight.
3U
It must be rem em bered that the volum e o f a gas is greatlv d e p e n d e n t
upon both the te m p eratu re an d th e p re ssu re an d it is n ecessarv to
adjust each m easurem en t to stan d a rd c o n d itio n s o f te m p e ra tu re and
p ressure. It is o b v io u s th en th a t these conditions m ust rem ain constant
over the course o f the analysis.
7.5
mixtures
Some physical methods used in gas analysis. Analysts of
The relative proportions o f various com ponents o f gas m ixtures can
be determ ined by m erely m easuring som e physical constants o f the
mixture: the density, the viscosity, the therm al co n d u ctiv ity , heat o f
com bustion, ionization potential.
C ondensation m ethod s arc o ften ap p lic a b le in th e se p a ratio n o f
com plex m ix tu res o f g ases. T h is m eth o d has been ap p lie d to th e g ases
o f the argon g roup and o f natural g as mixtures.
The application o f the m ethods o f mass spectrom etry to gas analysis
has been extensive. The use o f a m ass spectrom eter in a n aly sis en ab les one
to determ ine the com ponents o f m ix tu res o f h y d ro c a rb o n s, fuel g a se s,
rare g ases, etc.
T herm al c o n d u c tiv ity a p p lie d to g as a n a ly s is is ra p id , sim p le to
carry out and a d a p ta b le to c o n tin u o u s o p e ra tio n .and process control.
Some attem pts to apply the m ethods o f em issio n and ab so rp tio n
spectroscopy to gas an aly sis have been m ade.
O ther m iscellaneous m eth o d s include m ag n etic su scep tib ility ,
m icro-wave analysis, acoustical m ethod based on th e p rin c ip le th a t th e
v e lo city o f so u n d in a g a s is a fu n c tio n o f the m olecular w eight o f the
gas, inferometric m ethods, diffusion m eth o d s and o th ers.
M any problem s o f quantitative chem istry are m ore com plex than
determining the am ount o f a pure substance o r the com position o f an
aqueous solution o f a pure com pound. O ften the problem arises sim ply
because the com pound or solution has an unknow n o r com plex
composition.
There are three fundam ental schem es than can be used in the
problem at hand.
1. Phase separation: The metal ion. A, can be determ ined
without interference front В if we separate A from B. W e do
this by preparing a tw o-phase system such that all o f A is in
one phase and all o f В is in the other phase.
2. Selective determ ination: The metal ion. A, can be determ ined in
the
presence
of
В
if
wc
can
find
a
determ ination
which is selective tow ard A, ignoring B.
3. Com bined determ ination: The tw o metal ions, A and B,
can be determ ined together. T his type o f m easurem ent com
bined with another independent m easurem ent gives the am ount
o f each ion.
7.6 Extraction. Precipitation. Electrolysis
L iq u id -liq u id phase sep aratio n s are po ssib le w hen a m etal form s a
com pound soluble in tw o im m iscible liquids. The distribution o f the
co m pound betw een the tw o liquids can be co n sid ered to be a so lu b ility
c o n te s t. P ra c tic a l c o n s id e ra tio n s dictate that one o f the liquids m ust be
w ater. A m ong the liquids oth er co n testan ts are: carbon tetrachloride,
ch loroform , carbon disulfide, eth ers, paraffin hydrocarbons, an d arom atic
h y d ro carb o n s. A lco h o ls ca n n o t be ad d ed to th is list.
M ost in o rg an ic c o m p o u n d s ju s t are not in terested in th e organic
solvents w hich are im m iscible w ith w ater. S om etim es, how ever, a
com plexing agent can be found which will coach an in o rg a n ic s u b s ta n c e
in to an o rg a n ic so lu tio n . C 'upric, lea d , zinc, silver, m ercu ric, and
cadm ium salts, for ex am p le, w ill d isso lv e, in eith er ch lo ro fo rm o r carbon
tetrachloride if it co n tain s som e d ith izo n e.
T he m ost g e n erally useful tech n iq u e for a c c o m p lish in g a p h a se
s e p a ra tio n is th e s o lid -liq u id s e p a ra tio n , o b ta in e d in a p recipitation.
T o have w ide applicability a p recipitant should form co m p o u n d s
w ith m any m etal ions, an d th ese c o m p o u n d s sh o u ld have a w id e ra n g e
o f so lu b ility . T o o b tain p ro p e r c o n d itio n s, the co n cen tratio n o f the
p recip itant should be contro lled easilly.
W hat so rt o f p re c ip ita n t is m o st d e sira b le d ep e n d s u pon m any
variables: how m any sam ples m ust be determ ined, w hat c o n stitu e n ts are
p resen t, w h at re a g e n ts are at h an d , w h at tim e is av a ila b le, w hat
accu racy is d esired , etc.
A n o th e r type o f so lid -liq u id p h a se se p a ratio n is fu rn ish ed by
e lec tro ly tic tech n iq u es. T w o elec tro d e s are placed in th e so lu tio n o f
in terest, and a cu rre n t is p assed th ro u g h th e so lu tio n at a v o ltag e
su ffic ie n t to red u ce som e but n o t all o f the m etals present. I f the current
and concentrations arc adjusted pro p erly , the m etals w hich are reduced
w ill plate out on the elec tro d e in a p ure m etallic d ep o sit w h ich can be
d ried and w eighed directly.
7.7 Ion exchange
A nother procedure utilizing the elution technique is the ion exchange
separation. T his tim e the solid (w hich is called the substrate) is a salt or
c om pound w ith salt-form in g capacity, so m eth in g like a su lfo n ic acid
g roup. W hen a so lu tio n c o n ta in in g m etal io n s is p assed th ro u g h su ch
an acid s u b s tra te , the ions can replace the protons, form ing salts. Further
elution repeats m any tim es the cycle o f ion exchange, replacem ent o f a
p roton by a salt ion, follow ed by rep lacem en t o f the m etal ion by proton.
A s in ch rom atography, the rep etitio u s p rocedure m ag n ifies sm all
d iffe re n c e s in saltfo rm in g ca p a c ity and p erm its sep aratio n s w hich are
ex trem ely d iffic u lt by any o th e r method.
Ion exchange su b strates fall into tw o g roups: cation ex ch an g e rs
an d an io n e x ch an g ers. A cid ic fu n ctio n al g ro u p s a re effectiv e as cation
exchangers. T hese gro u p s include su lfo n ic acids,— SOjH; carboxylic
acid,— C OO H; phenols or alcohols,— O H ; an d m e rcap tan s,— SH . T h ese
interact only w ith catio n s and by an e x c h a n g e re a c tio n o f th e fo llo w in g
sort
SO ,H + M ‘ = — S O ; M + H
Most anion exchangers are am ines, d e p en d in g u p o n o n e o f the
functional groups — N bL— NHR, and N R :. These groups form a m m o n iu m
type salts, and the anion can be d is p la c e d
—
N H : - H C I + X = — N H .- H X + CI
8 Famous chemists
8.1 Antoine Lavoisier
Antoine Laurent L avoisier is a French c h e m ist, w a s th e fo u n d e r o f
modem chemistry.
Lavoisier carefully m easured th e w eig h ts o f su b sta n c e s in v o lv ed in
chemical reactions. In 1772 he began a scries o f e x p e rim e n ts th at
demonstrated the nature o f com bustion. Me co n c lu d e d th a t c o m b u stio n
results from the union o f a flam m able m aterial w ith a n ew ly d isco v ered
gas, which he called oxygen. L avoisier p u b lish ed h is fin d in g s in h is
Elementary Treatise on C hem istry (1789).
With French astronom er and m athem atician P ierre S im o n L ap la c e ,
Lavoisier conducted experim ents on respiration in an im als. T h e ir stu d ie s
demonstrated a sim ilarity betw een com m on ch em ical rea c tio n s an d th e
processes that occur in living organism s. T h ese e x p erim en ts p ro v id e d th e
foundation for the science now know n as b io ch em istry . L a v o isie r also
helped to develop a system for nam ing chem ical su b sta n c es b a se d on th e ir
composition. T his system is still in use.
Lavoisier w as bom in Paris. He received an ex c e lle n t e d u c a tio n an d
developed an interest in all branches o f scien ce, esp ec ia lly c h e m istry . H e
was elected to the French A cadem y o f S cien ces in 1768.
Lavoisier w as arrested in 1793 by the lead e rs o f th e F ren ch
Revolution. Many years earlier, he had becom e a p a rtn e r in a firm th a t
collected a num ber o f taxes for the g o v ern m en t. In sp ite o f h is
achievements, Lavoisier w as found guilty o f co n sp iracy w ith th e en e m ie s
of France because o f his involvem ent in tax collection. H e w a s ex e c u te d by
guillotine.
Questions
1. W hat fam ous scientist did L av o isier w ork w ith?
2. W hat experim ents did they conduct?
3. The foundation o f w hat science did th eir ex p e rim e n ts p ro v id e?
4. Why w as he arrested?
5. W hat scries o f experim ents did L avoisier b eg in in 1772?
8.2 Alfred Nobel
A lfred B ernard N obel, a Sw edish chem ist, invented d ynam ite and
founded the N obel Prizes. A s a yo u n g m an, N obel experim ented with
n itroglycerin in his fa th e r's factory. H e hoped to m ake this dangerous
substance into a safe and useful explosive. H e prepared a nitroglycerin
explosive, but so m any accid en ts o ccurred w hen it w as put on the market
that for a num b er o f years m any people considered N obel alm o st a public
enem y.
Finally in 1867 N obel com bined n iter w ith an absorbent substance.
T his explosive could be handled and shipped safely. N obel nam ed it
dynam ite. W ithin a few years he becam e one o f the w o rld ’s richest men.
I le set up factories throughout the w orld and bought the large B ofors
arm am ent plant in Sw eden. H e w orked on synthetic rubber, artificial silk
and m any o th er products.
N obel w as never in good health. In later years he becam e
increasingly ill and nervous. H e suffered from a feeling o f gu ilt at having
created a substance that caused so m uch death and injury. He hated the
thought that dynam ite could be used in w ar w hen he had invented it for
peace. N obel set up a fund o f about 9 m illion U.S. dollars. T he interest
from the fund w as to be used to aw ard annual prizes, one o f w hich w as for
the m ost effectiv e w ork in prom oting international peace.
A lfred N obel w as born on O ctober, 21, 1833 in Stockholm . H e was
the son o f an inventor. H e w as educated in St. Petersburg, R ussia, and later
studied engineering in the U nited States.
Questions
1. W ho w as N o b el’s father?
2. W hat w as N obel’s c h ie f invention?
3. W hy did people consider him a public enem y for a num ber o f
years?
4. W hat kind o f Prizes did he set up?
5. W hat w as the interest from this fund?
9 Biology
9.1 Read and translate the text
B iology, the science o f life. T he English zoologist T hom as H enry
H uxley, w ho w as also an im portant educator insisted that the conventional
segregation o f zoology and botany w as intellectually m eaningless because
scientists now realize that m any low er organism s are neither plants nor
anim als. T oday biology is subdivided into hierarchies based on the
m olecule, the cell, the organism , and the population.
M olecular biology is the branch o f biology w hich spans biophysics
and biochem istry. M uch is now know n about the structure and action o f
nucleic acids and protein, the key m olecules o f all living m atter. The
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discovery o f the m echanism o f heredity w as a m ajor breakthrough in
modem science. A nother im portant advance w as in u nderstanding how
molecules conduct m etabolism , that is, how' they process the energy needed
to sustain life.
C ellular biology is closely linked w ith m olecular biology. To
understand the functions o f th e cell— the basic structural unit o f living
matter - cell biologists study its com ponents on the m olecu lar level.
Organismal biology, in turn, is related to cellu lar biology, because the life
functions o f m ulticellular organism s are governed by the activities and
interactions o f their cellular com ponents. The study o f o rganism s includes
their growth and developm ent (developm ental biology) and how they
function (physiology). Particularly im portant are investigations o f the brain
and nervous system (neurophysiology) and anim al b ehavior (ethology).
Population genetics, the study o f gene changes in populations, and
ecology, the study o f populations in their natural habitats, have been
established subject areas since the 1930s. T hese tw o fields w ere com bined
in the 1960s to form a rapidly developing new discipline often called,
simply, population biology.
Biology also includes the study o f hum ans at the m olecular, cellular,
and organismal levels.
Vocabulary
H ierarch, interaction, nucleic acid, brain, protein, behavior, cell,
matter, genetics, heredity, hum an, m etabolism , habitat, m ulticellular.
Exercises
Task 1 Answer the questions
lW hat did Thom as H uxley suggest? H ow did he explain his
suggestion?
2 W hat the most im portant advances w ere m ade in recent years?
3 What is m etabolism ?
4 G ive the definition o f the word “cell".
5 How is organism al biology connected w ith cellu lar biology?
6 W hat does population genetics study?
7 W hat levels does the study o f hum ans include?
Task 2 Give the main idea of the text: say !-2 sentences for each
passage
9.2
Read the text about botany. Find the passage which contain
the information about the nomenclature and division of plants. Read
and translate the passage
Botany is the branch o f biology concerned w ith the study o f plants.
Plants are now defined as m ulticellular organism s that carry out
p hotosynthesis. O rganism s that hud p re\ iously been called plants, how ever,
such as bacteria, algae, and lungi, continue to be the province o f botany,
because o f th eir historical co nnection w ith the discipline and th eir many
sim ilarities to true plants. B otany is concerned w ith all aspects o f the study
o f plants, from the sm allest and sim plest form s to the largest and m ost
com plex, from the study o f all aspects o f an individual plant to the com plex
interactions o f all the different m em bers o f a com plicated botanical
com m unity o f plants w ith their en v ironm ent and w ith anim als.
G ross observations and experim ents on photosynthesis and the
m ovem ent o f w ater in plants can be m ade w ithout know ledge o f their
structure, but explanations o f these phenom ena require know ledge o f
m orphology —the study and interpretation o f plant form, developm ent, and
life histories - and o f anatom y - the study o f plant tissues and th eir origin
and relations to one another.
Such o bservations w ere im portant not only in the developm ent o f
plant physiology and anatom y b u t also in the understanding o f genetics, the
science o f heredity, and o f evolution. In the 19th century the A ustrian
b otanist G regor M endel w orked out the basic principles o f genetics. His
h ybridization experim ents required a know ledge o f the function o f the
v arious parts o f the flow er in reproduction, and this know ledge w as derived
from the experim ents o f the D utch botanist R udolph Jacob C am erarius,
w ho established the nature o f sexual reproduction in plants. M en d el's
experim ents w ent unnoticed; in the m eantim e, C harles D arw in founded the
theory o f evolution (w hich in m odem form depends on the principles o f
g enetics) w ithout know ledge o f M en d el’s w ork. D arw in observed variation
and changes in organism s through tim e, an d M endel w orked out the law s
g o v erning the assortm ent and recom bination o f different traits. T he source
o f d ifferences and changes becam e to be know n, due to the D utch botanist
H ugo M arie de V ries.
K now ledge o f anatom y, genetics, and evolution has greatly advanced
p lan t classification by providing a rational basis for this subdivision o f
botany. T he 17th-century B ritish n aturalist John Ray divided plants into
n o n flow ering and flow ering types, and flow ering plants into dicots and
m onocots. T he 18th-century S w edish b otanist C arolus L innaeus, how ever,
p rovided the fram ew ork on w hich m odern classifications are based and,
ju s t as im portant, a sim plified system o f nom enclature in w hich each plant
is given tw o nam es: the first the nam e o f the genus and th e second the
nam e o f the species.
B otany does not depend on the fossil record for inform ation
concerning evolution and classification as m uch as does zoology, because
th e record for plants is m uch less com plete than that for anim als. B otanists
- those engaged in the study o f plants - occupy them selves w ith a broad
range o f activities. M any botanists are in academ ic positions that involve
both teaching and research duties. T he latter m ay involve laboratory w ork
o r field studies. Strictly speaking, botany is a pure science concerned w ith
investigating the basic nature o f plants.
36
Vocabulary
Plant, photosynthesis, bacteria, algae (alga), fungi (fungus), tissue,
flower, reproduction, trait, flow ering, nonflow ering dicots, m onocots,
species, to investigate, to concern, to involve, to observ e, to w ork out.
Exercises
Task 1 Answer the questions
1. G ive the definition o f plants.
2. W hat organism s w ere previously included in the kingdom o f
plants? Speak about each o f them in short.
3. Speak about the sphere o f study o f botany.
4. W hat know ledge does the explanation o f photosynthesis require?
5. Speak about the great botanists and their contribution.
6. Speak about the kind o f work botanists do.
10 Zoology
10.1 Read and translate the text
Zoology is the branch o f biology devoted to the study o f the anim al
kingdom.
The study o f zoology can be view ed as a series o f efforts to analyze
and classify anim als. A ristotle w as the first to devise a system o f
classifying anim als that recognized a basic unity o f plan am ong diverse
organisms; he arranged groups o f anim als according to m ode o f
reproduction and habitat. He noted that general structures appear before
specialized ones, and he also distinguished betw een asexual and sexual
reproduction.
Until the M iddle Ages, zoology w as a conglom eration o f folklore,
superstition, m isconception, and descriptions o f anim als, but during the
12th century it began to em erge as a science. The anatom ical studies o f
Leonardo da Vinci w ere far in advance o f the age. His dissections and
com parisons o f the structure o f hum ans and o ther anim als led him to
important conclusions. He noted, for exam ple, that the arrangem ent o f
joints and bones in the leg is sim ilar in both horses and hum ans, thus
grasping the concept o f hom ology (the sim ilarity o f corresponding parts in
different kinds o f anim als, suggesting a com m on grouping).
Contem porary zoological studies have tw o m ain focuses: on
particular taxonom ic groups, and on the structures and processes com m on
to most o f them.
Taxonom ically oriented studies concentrate on the different
divisions o f animal life. Invertebrate zoology deals with m ulticellular
anim als w ithout backbones; its subdivisions include entom ology (the study
o f insects) and m alacology (the study o f m ollusks). V ertebrate zoology, the
study o f anim als with backbones, is divided into ichthyology (fish).
37
herpetology (am phibians and reptiles), ornithology (birds), and
m am m alogy (m am m als). Paleontology, the study o f fossils, is subdivided
by taxonom ic groups. In each o f these Helds, researchers investigate the
classification, distribution, life cycle, and evolutionary history o f the
particular anim al o r group o f anim als under study.
M orphology, the study o f structure, includes gross morphology,
w hich exam ines entire structures o r system s, such as m uscles or bones;
histology, w hich exam ines body tissues; and cytology, w hich focuses on
cells and their com ponents. Physiology, the study o f function.
A nim al behavioral studies developed along tw o lines: animal
psychology, concentrated on laboratory techniques such as conditioning,
and ethology, that has its origins in observations o f anim als under natural
conditions.
The study o f the interactions betw een anim als and their environm ent
is know n as ecology.
Vocabulary
K ingdom , to classify, dissection, conclusion, to conclude, joint,
backbone, bone, leg, m uscles, horse, vertebrate, invertebrate, insect, reptile,
am phibian, m am m al, life, cycle.
Exercises
Task 1 Answer the questions
1.What can you say about A ristotle’s suggestion o f anim al
classification?
2. Do you now any m odem classifications? Speak about it.
3. W hat was zoology until the M iddle Ages?
4. W hat contribution and in what way did da Vinci make?
5. W hat focuses do m odem zoological studies include?
6. W hat are the tw o main branches o f zoology?
7. W hat do paleontologists study?
8. Speak about the subdivisions o f morphology.
9. W hat is the difference betw een anim al physiology and ethology?
10. W hat does ecology study?
10.2
Read the text about animals. Find the passage whi
contains the information about the kind of food animals eat and the
way they get it. Read and translate the passage
Anim al are m ulticellular organism s that obtain energy by eating
food. They live in a vast range o f habitats, from deserts and Arctic tundra
to the deep-sea floor.
Like all living things, anim als show sim ilarities and differences that
enable them to be classified into groups. Birds, for example, are the only
anim als that have feathers, while m am m als are the only ones that have fur.
38
Animals are also classified according to o th er characteristics, including
their internal anatom y, patterns o f developm ent, and genetic makeup.
Scientists divide the anim al kingdom into approxim ately 30 groups, each
called a phylum.
One phylum o f anim als, the chordates, has been m ore intensively
studied than has any other, because it com prises nearly all the w o rld 's
largest and most fam iliar anim als as well as hum ans. T his phylum includes
mammals, birds, reptiles, am phibians, and fish to g eth er w ith a collection o f
lesser-known organism s. Som e invertebrate phyla contain relatively few
species. V ertebrates are custom arily divided into cold-blooded (an anim al
whose tem perature is dictated by its surroundings) and w arm -blooded
animals (is one that keeps its body at a constant w arm tem perature by
generating internal heat).
Few parts o f Earth’s surface are entirely d evoid o f anim al life.
Animals cannot survive in places w here w ater is unavailable or
permanently frozen, o r w here tem peratures regularly exceed 55° C.
However, in all habitats that lie betw een these extrem es, anim al life
abounds. In the seas and oceans, the greatest diversity o f anim al life is
found in habitats close to shores. O n land, anim al h abitats are strongly
influenced by clim ate, the com binatioh o f precipitation and tem perature
conditions experienced in a region. For land anim als, the m ost testing
habitats are ones that experience intense drought o r extrem e cold.
A nim als all feed on organic m atter, but th eir diets and w ay o f
obtaining food vary enorm ously. Som e anim als are om nivores, m eaning
that they are capable o f surviving on a very w ide range o f foods. M any
other anim als have extrem ely precise requirem ents and cannot deviate from
their highly specialized diet. In general, anim als eat plants, other anim als,
or the rem ains o f living things. Plant-eaters, or herbivores, often do not
have to search far to find things to eat, and in som e cases - for exam ple
wood-boring insects - they are entirely surrounded by their food. But plant
food can be difficult to digest and is often low in nutrients. C arnivores live
on flesh from other anim als that is often nutrient-rich and easy to digest but
difficult to obtain. Finding and capturing this kind o f food calls for keen
senses. Some m am m alian predators increase their chances o f success by
hunting in groups. Some position them selves in a suitable location and wait
for their prey to com e w ithin striking distance. In predatory anim als, teeth
or other m outhparts often play a part in catching and subduing food as well
as in preparing it for digestion.
W herever they live, anim als need oxygen in o rd er to survive. By
breathing, or respiring, they extract oxygen from th eir surroundings and
dispose o f carbon dioxide w aste. V ery sm all anim als do not need any
special adaptations for obtaining oxygen. O xygen sim ply diffuses in
through their body surface, with carbon dioxide traveling out the sam e way.
To obtain sufficient oxygen, large anim als have to boost their oxygen
intake by using special respiratory organs. In w ater, m any anim als breathe
by using gills.
39
Vocabulary
T o obtain, habitat, desert, tundra, bird, feather, fur, internal anatom y,
chordates, to com prise, reptile, am phibian, fish, invertebrates, vertebrates,
cold-bloo ded, w arm -blooded, to abound, diversity, clim ate, precipitation,
condition, drought, carn ivo res, om n iv o res, herbivores, keen senses,
predator, prey, to hunt, teeth, to subdue, to breathe, gills, to extract, to
dispose.
Exercises
T ask I M ake the reference of the text
T ask 2 Give each passage a title
Task 3 Say 1-3 sentences to each passage
10.3
Read the text about anim als. Find the passage whi
contains the inform ation about the defensive models of animals. Read
and translate the passage
A ll anim als can m ove parts o f their bodies. M any sim ple anim als
m o ve w ith the help o f m icroscopic hair like structures called cilia. A nother
form o f creep in g m ovem ent, seen in earthw orm s, involves changes in body
shape.
Jointed lim bs are found in only tw o groups o f anim als: the
arthropods and vertebrates. M any anim als can glide, but only insects, birds,
and bats are capable o f pow ered (light.
Like all living things, anim als have lim ited life spans. A lthough
individual anim als eventually die, reproduction ensures that they hand on
th eir characteristics to future generations. A nim al reproduction takes tw o
overall form s. In the first fo n n , called asexual reproduction, anim als
produce offspring w ithout need in g a partner. A second and m uch m ore
com m on form o f reproduction, sexual reproduction, involves tw o parents.
T he parents produce sperm and egg cells (gam etes), w hich are brought
together to form a fertilized cell (zygote) with a new and unique
com bination o f genes.
A sexual reproduction is relatively easy to achieve because it involves
only a single anim al. Sexual reproduction is much m ore com plex because
the partners often have to find each o ther and precisely coordinate their
reproductive behavior.
In the living w orld, resources such as food and space are lim ited. As
a result, survival is a constant struggle. T hrough evolution, anim als have
developed a range o f adaptations that give them the best chances o f
success. T he need to eat exposes anim als to the d anger o f being attacked
and eaten them selves. T o avoid this fate, all anim als have physical
adaptations that enable them to escape being attacked o r to survive an
attack once it is underw ay. T he sim plest form o f defense is a rapid escape.
M any plant-eating m am m als depend on this strategy for survival and must
40
maintain a constant lookout for clanger. A less-dem anding survival strategy,
found in many small anim als such as insects, involves deception. T hese
anim als use cam ouflage to blend in with their backgrounds, o r they m im ic
inedible objects such as tw igs o r bird droppings. A m ore sophisticated form
o f mimicry occurs in anim als that resem ble species that are poisonous. An
alternative defense, seen in a w ide range o f anim als, uses arm or o r spines to
fend o ff an attack (hard shells, overlapping scales, bands o f hardened
plates).
Many form s o f behavior help anim als to survive severe
environmental conditions. T w o exam ples are hibernation, w hich enables
animals to survive cold and food shortages in w inter; and estim ation, w hich
allows anim als to survive drought and heat in sum m er. Special forms o f
behavior also help anim als to find food, to avoid being eaten, and to protect
their young. O ne o f the m ost advanced forms o f this b ehavior is the use o f
tools. M ore rarely, som e tool-using anim als seek out a particular object and
then shape it so that it can be used. D efensive beh av io r is exhibited by
individual anim als and also by anim al groups. G roup defense is com m on in
herding m am m als, w hich form a protective ring around their calves w hen
threatened by wolves. Individual defensive behavior is often based on
threatening gestures that m ake an anim al look larger o r m ore dangerous
than it actually is. Som etim es it involves som e highly specialized form s o f
deception. One o f the m ost rem arkable is playing dead.
Vocabulary
Locomotion, cilia, earthw orm , arthropods, bat, zygote, to attack, to
avoid, to defense, to escape, deception, cam ouflage, m im ic, inedible,
poisonous, arm or, scales, shell, hibernation, estim ation, herding, to threaten
Exercises
Task 1 Make the reference of the text. Give each passage a title
Task 2 Say 1-3 sentences to each passage
11 Plants. Tissue systems and plant organs
11.1
Read the text about plants. Find the passage which contains
the information about the division into phyla. Read and translate the
passage
Plant is any m em ber o f the plant kingdom , com prising about 260,000
known species o f mosses, liverw orts, ferns, herbaceous and w oody plants,
bushes, vines, trees, and various other forms that m antle the Earth and are
also found in its waters. Plants range in size and com plexity from sm all,
nonvascular mosses, w hich depend on direct contact with surface w ater, to
giant sequoia trees, w hich can draw w ater and m inerals through their
vascular system s to elevations o f m ore than 100 m.
41
Plants arc m ulticellular eukaryotes. They differ from other
eukar>oles because their cells arc enclosed by m ore o r less rigid cell walls
com posed prim arily o f cellulose. The m ost im portant characteristic o f
plants is their ability to photos) nthesize. During photosynthesis, plants
m ake their ow n food by conven in g light energy into chem ical energy - a
process carried out in (he green cellular organelles called chloroplasts. A
lew plants have lost their chlorophyll and have becom e saprophytes or
parasites - that is, they absorb their food from dead organic m atter o r living
organic m atter, respectively. Fungi, also eukaryotic and long considered
m em bers o f the plant kingdom , have now been placed in a separate
kingdom bccausc they lack chlorophy ll and plastids and because their rigid
cell w alls contain chilin rather than cellulose.
I he various groups o f algae w ere also formerly placed in the plant
kingdom because many are eukaryotic and because m ost have rigid cell
walls and carry out photosynthesis. N onetheless, because o f the variety o f
pigm ent types, cell wall types, and physical attributes found in the algae,
they are now recognized as part o f tw o separate kingdom s, containing a
diversity o f planllike and other organism s that are not necessarily closely
related.
The m em bers o f the anim al kingdom differ from the plants in
deriving nutrition from other organic m atter; by ingesting food rather than
absorbing it, as in the fungi; by lacking rigid cell walls; and, usually, by
having sensory capabilities and being m otile, at least at som e stage.
The many species o f organism s in the plant kingdom are divided into
several phyla. The bryophytes are a diverse assem blage o f three phyla o f
nonvascular plants, that includes the mosses, liverworts, and hom w orts.
T he other phyla are collectively term ed vascular plants, or tracheophytes.
T here are tw o types o f vascular tissue: xylem , which conducts w ater and
m inerals from the ground to stem s and leaves, and phloem, w hich conducts
food produced in the leaves to the stem s, roots, and storage and
reproductive organs. B esides the presence o f vascular tissue, tracheophytes
contrast with bryophytes in that tracheophyte leafy plants are the asexual,
or spore-producing, generation o f their life cycle.
Vocabulary
M oss, liverw ort, bush, vine, tree, vascular/ nonvascular, eukaryotes/
prokaryotes, cellulose, organelle, saprophyte, chitin, nutrition, to ingest, to
absorb, to lack, m otile, phyla, bryophytes, tracheophytes, xylem, phloem ,
root, stem, leave.
42
Exercises
Task I Draw a scheme according to the task that you choose.
You should do it with your own hands. It must be simple,
understandable and contain explanatory drawings
I
1
plant classification
the classification into kingdom s and dom ains
nom enclature
Task 2 Render the whole text
11.2
Read the text about plant tissue systems and plant organs.
Find the passage which contains the description of a stem and its
functions. Read and translate the passage
There are many variants o f the generalized plant cell and its parts.
Similar kinds o f cells are organized into structural and functional units, or
tissues. Three tissue system s are recognized in vascular plants: derm al,
vascular, and ground (or fundam ental).
The derm al system consists o f the epiderm is, o r outerm ost layer, o f
the plant body. It forms the skin o f the plant, covering the leaves, flowers,
roots, fruits, and seeds. The epiderm is m ay contain stom ata, openings
through which gases are exchanged w ith the atm osphere. The epiderm is is
covered with a waxy coating called the cuticle, w hich functions as a
waterproofing layer and thus reduces w ater loss from the plant surface
through evaporation. The vascular tissue system consists o f tw o kinds o f
conducting tissues: the xylem , responsible for conduction o f w ater and
dissolved mineral nutrients, and the phloem , responsible for conduction o f
food. The xylem also stores food and helps support the plant. The ground,
or fundam ental, tissue system s o f plants consist o f three types o f tissue.
The first, called parenchym a. T he cells o f parenchym a tissue carry out
many specialized physiological functions - for exam ple, photosynthesis,
storage, secretion, and w ound healing. C ollcnchym as' functions as support
tissue in young, grow ing portions o f plants. Sclerenchvm a tissue is
important in supporting and strengthening those portions o f plants that have
finished growing.
The body o f a vascular plant is organized into three general kinds o f
organs: roots, stems, and leaves.
The function o f roots is to anchor the plant to its substrate and to
absorb w ater and m inerals. T hus, roots are generally found underground
and grow dow nward, o r in the direction o f gravity. U nlike stem s, they have
no leaves or nodes. Some roots are im portant food and storage organs - for
example, beets, carrots, and radishes.
Stem s usually are above ground, grow upw ard, and bear leaves,
which are attached in a regular pattern at nodes along the stem. Stem s are
•13
m ore \ ariable in external appearance and internal structure than are roots.
Stems increase in diameter through the activity oflateral meristems, which
produce the bark and uood in woody plants. The bark serves as a
protective outer covering, preventing damage and water loss. Within the
plant kingdom there are many modifications o f the basic stem, such as the
thorns of haw thorns. Many plants have reduced leaves or no leaves at all.
S om e steins creeps along the surface o f the ground, other stems are borne
underground and serve as food-storagc organs.
The leaf is the primary photos) nthetic organ o f most plants. Many
specialized forms o f leaves occur. Some are modified as spines, which help
protect plants from predators. Insectivorous plants possess leaves that trap
and digest insects. Some leaves are brightly colored to attract pollinators.
Perhaps the most highly modified leaves are flowers themselves. The
individual parts o f flowers - carpels, stamens, petals, and sepals - are all
modified leaves that have taken on reproductive functions.
Vocabulary
Ground tissue system, seed, fruit, stomata, to exchange, layer, to
reduce, evaporation, nutrients, to store, parenchyma, to carry out,
underground (adv.), carrot, radish, beet, meristem, bark, protective, to
prevent, thom, to creep, to serve as, spine, insect, pollinator, carpel,
stamen, petal, sepal.
Exercises
Task 1 Draw a scheme according to the task that you choose
-
tissue system o f a plant organ
the structure o f a plant organ
the diversity o f plant organs
the structure o f a plant
Task 2 R eader the whole text
12. Anatomy
12.1
Read the text about anatomy. Find the passage whi
contains the brief overview of the development of anatomy. Read and
translate the passage
Anatomy (from the Greek anatomia - to cut up, cut open) is a branch
o f biology and medicine that is the consideration o f the structure o f living
things. It is a general term that includes human anatomy, animal anatomy
and plant anatomy.
44
T he history o f anatom y has been characterized, o v er tim e, by a
continually developing understanding o f the functions o f organs and
structures in the body. M ethods have also im proved dram atically,
advancing from exam ination o f anim als through dissection o f cadavers
(dead human bodies) to technologically com plex techniques developed in
the 20th century including X -ray. ultrasound, and M RI im aging.
Human anatom y is prim arily the scientific study o f the m orphology
o f the adult human body.
G enerally, students o f certain biological sciences, param edics,
physiotherapists, nurses, and m edical students learn gross anatom y and
microscopic anatom y from anatom ical m odels, skeletons, textbooks,
diagram s, photographs, lectures and tutorials. The study o f m icroscopic
anatomy (o r histology) can be aided by practical experience exam ining
histological preparations (or slides) under a m icroscope; and in addition,
medical students generally also learn gross anatom y w ith practical
experience o f dissection and inspection o f cadavers.
Human anatom y, physiology and biochem istry are com plem entary
basic medical sciences, w hich are generally taught to m edical students in
their first year at m edical school. H um an anatom y can be taught regionally
or system ically; that is, respectively, studying anatom y by bodily regions
such as the head and chest, o r studying by specitlc system s, such as the
nervous o r respiratory system s. A thorough w orking know ledge o f anatom y
is required by all m edical doctors, especially surgeons, and doctors
w orking in som e diagnostic specialities, such as histopathology and
radiology.
Vocabulary
M edicine, cadaver. X-ray, ultrasound, adult, skeleton, histology,
chest, respiratory system, surgeon.
12.2
Read the text about the skeleton and the m uscular system of
a human body. Find the passage which contains the information about
the bones forming the upper part of a body. Read and translate the
passage.
Humans
Part I: The Skeleton and the M uscles.
The human body is separable into the head, the trunk and the limbs.
In the head the skull is distinguishable from the face. The trunk includes
the chest (thorax) and the abdom en. O f the lim bs there are tw o pairs - the
upper (arm s), consisting o f the upper arm , the forearm , the w rist and the
fingers, and the low er limbs (legs), including the thigh, the leg and the toes.
The bones form the skeleton o f the body. The m ost im portant part o f
the skeleton is the backbone. The bones w hich form the skeleton or bony
framework o f the body include the bones o f the head, the bones o f the
45
trunk, the bones o f the lower and upper limbs. The bones of the head
include the bones which make up the skull and freely movable bone which
forms our lower jaw. The bones o f the trunk include the spinal column, the
ribs and the breastbone. The amis join the body at the shoulder, which
consists o f two bones - the collar-bone in front, and the shoulder-blade
behind. Between the shoulder and the elbow there is only one bone in the
arm (humerus), but between the elbow and the wrist there are two (ulna,
radius). In the wrist there are eight small bones. Next come the bones o f the
hand itself. We have twenty-seven bones in the framework o f the hand and
wrist alone.
We know that the muscles constitute approximately fifty per cent of
the total body weight. There are three main types o f muscular tissue that we
identify and classify on the basis o f structure and function: smooth or
visceral muscle, striated or skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle.
Smooth muscles can contract slowly. They make up the walls o f the
internal organs such as those o f the blood vessels and the digestive tract.
The walls o f the blood vessels are contracting and expanding when they
respond to certain chemicals in the blood or in response to the effect of
temperature, but we can’t cause them to lift our arm or to open our mouth
(involuntary muscles). Striated muscles are most necessaiy for
manipulation of the bones o f the skeleton. Those are the muscles necessary
for walking, running, turning the head and so on. That’s why they are
sometimes called the skeletal muscles. This type includes all those muscles
which must react quickly to changes in the environment, i.e. those that
become active through an effort o f will (voluntary muscles). A
characteristic feature o f cardiac muscle is that fibers have neither a
beginning nor an end. In other words, the heart is simply a huge net of
muscles in which all elements are continuous with each other.
Vocabulary
Trunk, limbs, skull, thorax, abdomen, upper arm, forearm, wrist,
thigh, leg, toe, backbone, framework, jaw, spinal column, rib, breastbone,
shoulder, collarbone, shoulder-blade, elbow, Humerus, ulna, radius, smooth
(visceral), striated (skeleton), cardiac, to contract, internal, blood vessels,
digestive tract, voluntary/ involuntary, fibers.
Exercises
Task 1 T ranslate from English
1. The number o f the bones in the hand and wrist alone is 27.
2. A separate bone in the vertebral column is called a vertebra.
3. Each hand has four fingers and one thumb.
4. We have no special names for ulna and radius in the modem
English language.
5. There is the skull at the upper end of the backbone..
46
6. There are three bones in each finger.
7. T here is no backbone in invertebrate.
8. N aturalists divided all anim als into tw o classes.
9. T he bones o f the trunk include the spinal colum n, the ribs and the
breastbone.
10. The upper cavity, the thorax, includes the heart and the lungs.
11. The parts o f the body are the head, the trunk, and the lim bs.
12. Sm ooth or unstriated m uscles contract w ithout any volition.
13. Blood vessels are contracting w hen they respond to the
temperature.
14. The bones o f our body m ake up the skeleton.
15. The word «m uscle» m eans «little m ouse» in Latin.
16. C ardiac m uscle is under involuntary control.
17. The involuntary m uscles control the beating o f the heart.
18. The walls o f the blood vessels are expanding w hen they respond
to certain chem icals in the blood.
19. The skeletal m uscles are the organs o f m uscle system .
20. Smooth m uscles form the m uscular coat o f internal organs, blood
vessels and skin.
21. We call the m uscles that form internal organs visceral m uscles.
Task 2 W rite the bones of the skeleton according to the task
№•-a1 p
J*—
1-
2-
346-
47
7-
8151718 ">■>_
Task 3 Speak about the bones of the lower limbs. You may use
the passage in which the bones of the upper limbs a re described
Task 4 Speak about the functions of the muscles
- sm ooth /visceral/
- striated /skeletal/
- cardiac
Task 5 M ake the reference of the text
12.3
Read the text about the cardiovascular and respira
systems of the human body. Find the passage which contains the
description of the heart. Read and translate the passage
Part II: T he C irculatory System . R espiration.
T he cardiovascular system is th e system o f b lood circulation. By the
cardiovascular system we m ean the heart, the arteries, the veins and the
capillaries o f the hum an body. T he centre o f the circulatory system is the
heart, it lies in the thoracic cavity and has four cham bers. T he right heart
con sists o f an upper cham ber - th e atrium o r the auricle - an d a low er
cham ber - ventricle. B etw een these tw o cham bers is a one-w ay valve, the
tricuspid valve. T he left heart has tw o cham bers, but the valve that
separates them is called the m itral valve. T he right heart receives blood
(w hich is a red fluid) from the veins and pum ps it into the lungs by w ay o f
the lesser circulatory system . In the lungs the blood receives oxygen. Then
it m oves into the left heart. From the left heart the w ell-oxygenated blood
m oves into a large artery, th e aorta. The blood returns to the heart by m eans
o f the veins.
from the heart and tow ards oth er organs are arteries. T he arteries continue
to divide and form sm aller and sm aller vessels and finally divide into
48
capillaries. G radually the capillaries begin to jo in into larger vessels - the
veins. The pulm onary vein carries the freshly oxygenated blood to the left
auricle. The pulm onary artery and the pulm onary vein m ake up the
pulmonary circulation.
The term “respiration” m eans the exchange o f gases, w hich takes
place betw een the living organism and the environm ent. It is the process by
which the body cells and tissues m ake use o f oxygen and carbon dioxide or
the waste products o f respiration are rem oved. A ir is breathed through
either the mouth or nose into oral cavity (pharynx). It then passes through
the voice box (larynx) into the trachea. The trachea divides into tw o sm aller
tubes (bronchi), one is going to each lung. The bronchi divide into tiny
passage-ways that are nam ed bronchioles, w hich lead to air sacs (alveoli).
The exchange o f life-giving gases is effected through the w alls o f the
alveoli.
Inhaled air contains about 20 per cent oxygen and four hundredths o f
one per cent carbon dioxide. Exhaled air consists o f approxim ately 16 per
cent oxygen and 4 per cent carbon dioxide. N itrogen, w hich m akes up
about 79 per cent o f the atm osphere, is not involved in the breathing
process. When the air is inhaled into the lungs, a portion o f the oxygen is
passing into the blood and is being circulated through the body. At the
same time, carbon dioxide is being diffused o f the blood into the lungs and
exhaled.
Vocabulary
C ardiovascular, blood circulation, pulm onary, artery, aorta, vein,
capillaries, thoracic cavity, atrium / auricle, ventricle, valve, to separate,
tricuspid, m itral, to pom p, lung, to breathe, pharynx, larynx, oral cavity,
trachea, bronchi, passage-w ay, bronchioles, inhale/ exhale, approxim ately.
Excrcises
Task 1 Translate from English
1. The heart m akes 70-80 contractions a m inute.
2. The veins are larger than capillaries.
3. A orta is the largest artery w hich distributes the blood throughout
the body.
4. The blood reaches the arteries, because o f the contraction o f the
heart.
5. The w alls o f the arteries and veins are thicker than those o f the
capillaries.
6. There are no blood capillaries in certain parts o f the body.
7. We call the valve that separates the cham bers, the atrium and the
ventricle, the mitral valve.
8. The heart is a hollow organ and has four cham bers.
49
8 . W e call th ree m ajo r ty p es o f b lo o d v e ssels arte rie s, v ein s and
cap illaries.
9. T h e h eart p u m p s the b lo o d into the lungs by circu la to ry system .
10.F rom th e left heart the b lo o d is p u m p ed into the aorta.
11 .H arvey co llected ideas o f th e c ircu latio n o f b lo o d w h ich until
th en had been stu d ied but n o t co n firm e d by ex p erim en ts.
12. W hen th e left v en tric le is c o n tra c tin g its c o n tain ed b lo o d is being
fo rced into th e ao rtic artery.
13.T h e total n u m b er o f alv eo li in the lung has b een estim ated as 750
m illions.
14.R esp iratio n is usually th o u g h t o f as the m ech a n ical p ro c ess o f
b reathing.
15. A ir is b reath ed into the lu n g s 20 tim es a m in u te all o u r lives.
16 .T h e lungs are built o f alv eo li an d th ro u g h the b ro n ch i, larynx,
phary nx, m o u th cavity an d nasal o n e they ex p ire C 0 2 an d in sp ire o x y g en .
17.T h e term “resp iratio n ” m ean s the e x ch an g e o f gases.
18 .T h e e x ch an g e o f g ase s v aries a c co rd in g to th e size and activ ity o f
the o rganism .
19.T he rig h t lu n g th at is slig h tly larg er o f the tw o is d iv id ed into
th ree lobes.
2 0 .lt is p o ssib le to rem o v e one lobe o f the lu n g w ith o u t any d am ag e
to th e rest.
T ask 2 W rite down the p arts of the heart. Describe the way of
the blood through the heart.
T ask 3 Speak about the large circulatory system. (Describe the
process)
T ask 4 Speak about the contents of inhaled and exhaled air.
T ask 5 M ake the sum m ary of the text.
50
Эдебнеттер
1 Dooley J. G ram m arw ay 2/J. Dooley, V. Evans. - N ew bury :
Express Publishing, 1998. - 152 p.
2 Dooley J. G ram m arw ay 3/J. D ooley, V. Evans. - N ew bury :
Express Publishing, 2000. - 216 p. Shipm an J. T. An Introduction to
Physical Science / J. T. Shipm an.
3 Giancoli D. C. C hem istry: Principles w ith A p plication/ D. C.
Giancoli. - New Jersey : Prentice Hall, U pper Saddle R iver, 1998. - 196 p.
4 G raver B. D. A dvanced English Practice/ B. D. G raver. - O xford :
University Press, 1996. - 320 p.
5 Evans V. Round - Up. English G ram m ar Practice / V. Evans. England : Pearson Education Lim ited, 2000. - 176 p.
6 J. D. W ilson. - M assachusetts T oronto : D. C. H ealth and
company, 1990. - 630 p.
51
Ма шу ны
А.и'ы co 'i.................................... .........................................
3
1 Chem istry: key to progress and a b u n d a n c e ......... .........................................
2 S ym bols, form ulas and equations. Inorganic molecules and
co m p o u n d s............ ...................................................................................................
3 R ules o f reading form ulas and e q u a tio n s .......................................................
4 P e tro le u m ...............................................................................................................
5 A i r . . . . . . ........ ........... ............. ................................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.... "
6 D escription o f chem ical e le m e n ts........................................ ...........................
7 A n aly tical c h e m is tr y .................................................................................
8 Fam ous c h e m is ts ..................................................................................................
9 B io lo g y ...................................................................................................................
10 Z o o lo g y ................................................ .......................................................
11 Plants. T issue system s and plant o rg a n s ......................................................
12 A natom y............................................................................................................
4
5
g
13
18
26
28
33
34
37
41
44
Эдебиеттер.............................................................................................
51
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