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1899 a. t. kabbasova sost communicative english for non linguistic majors uchebno-metod. posobie a. t. kabbasova a. e. baydildina sost

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б 81.2А нгл I
К12
Министерство образования и науки Республики Казахстан
Павлодарский государственный университет им. С. Торайгырова
COMMUNICATIVE ENGLISH FOR
NON LINGUISTIC MAJORS
Учебно-методическое пособие
для студентов неязыковых специальностей
Павлодар
K-iL
Министерство образования и науки Республики Казахстан
Павлодарский государственный университет
им. С. Торайгырова
Факультет филологии, журналистики и искусва
Кафедра практического курса иностранных языков
А.Т. Каббасова, А.Е. Байдильдина
COMMUNICATIVE ENGLISH FOR
NON LINGUISTIC MAJORS
Учебно-методическое пособие
для студентов неязыковых специальностей
Павлодар
Кереку
2011
УДК 811
ББК 81,2(Англ)-я73
К 12
Рекомендовано к изданию учебно-методическим советом
факультета филологии, журналистики и искусства
Павлодарского государственного университета
им. С. Торайгырова
Рецензенты:
Д. Е. Капанова — кандидат филологических наук, доцент,
Павлодарского государственного университета им. С. Торайгырова;
М. С. Кулахметова - кандидат филологических наук, доцент,
Павлодарского государственного университета им. С. Торайгырова;
Ж. А. Тусельбаева — кандидат педагогических наук, доцент,
Инновационного Евразийского Университета.
Составители: Каббасова А. Т., Байдильдина А. Е.
К 12 Communicative English for non linguistic majors : учебно-метод.
пособие / А. Т. Каббасова, A. E. Байдильдина. - Павлодар : Кереку,
2011.-179 с.
Данное учебно-методическое пособие,разработанное на основе
аутентичных текстов, ориентировано на студентов владеющих
навыками чтения, письма, аудирования и говорения на уровне
Intermediate.
Пособие
содержит
текстовые
материалы
страноведческого содержания, а так же упражнения , обеспечивающие
совершенствование
За достоверность материалов, грамматические и орфографические ошибки
ответственность несут авторы и составители
Введение
Предлагаемое учебное пособие предназначено для студентов
первого
и
второго
курсов
неязыковых
специальностей,
преподавателей, а так же всех тех, кто владеет достаточными
навыками чтения на английском языке и интересуется вопросами
страноведения и культуры Казахстана, Великобритании и США.
Авторы учебника исходили из тезиса, что совершенствование
языковых навыков невозможно без формирования знаний о
конкретных социокультурных условиях функционирования языка.
Поэтому данное пособие состоит из оригинальных текстов
страноведческого характера, предназначенных для формирования,
развития и совершенствования коммуникативных навыков, а также
для тренировки умения быстро и правильно ориентироваться в
незнакомом тексте —находить основные смысловые опоры в тексте и
ключевые идеи, понимать структуру изложения.
Учебное пособие состоит из 5 разделов и двух приложений,
материал которых подлежит активному усвоению. Каждый раздел
состоит из 7 уроков, отражающих такие темы как: Казахстан,
Великобритания, США, город. Каждый из 7 уроков включает
основной текст, а так же задания, логически и методически связанные
между собой, которые выстроены по следующим этапам:
предтекстовые, текстовые и послетекстовые упражнения.
Все тексты раздела для чтения носят актуальный характер и
являются главным источником информации по каждой теме, а также
основой для наблюдения за контекстуальным использованием
лексики. В разговорную тематику включены, главным образом,
отечественные реалии, в тематику текстов сведения о жизни в
англоязычных странах. Системы лексических
и текстовых
упражнений строятся таким образом, чтобы в каждом виде работы
присутствовала мыслительная задача, направленная на развитие и
закрепление речевых навыков.
Каждая глава снабжена системой заданий, рассчитанных на
контроль понимания и закрепления прочитанного. Раздел Discussion
направлен на совершенствование речевых навыков на основе
проработанного материала и умения оперировать полученной
информацией. Одновременно этот раздел служит расширению темы за
счет привлечения тематически адекватных ситуаций, реализующихся
в упражнениях дискуссионного характера и коллективного
обсуждения. Подобные упражнения предусматривают выход в устную
коммуникацию.
Самоконтроль усвоения страноведческого и языкового
материала, а также уровень владения речевыми навыками
осуществляется через раскрытие содержания положений в разделе
Discussion.
Данный
вид работы
позволяет
организовать
3
целешпр»и.'№ниую ргчснуш практику обучаемых на иностранном
яшме, греиироику и (ггимшиим а ее рамках наимкоа и умений
моиоло! ичеекой и диалогической речи, различных тилоа
щаимолейс1 виа наргнероа но обшгамю, фармкромнмг и
формулирование
мнмпобркшш
фуикщюишшшх
типов
мыска tu маний (описание, сообщение информации, д о ш л ш с п а ,
выражение мнения, согласна и i n.).
P au ei Suppkmm ia y Reading
органически салан с тематикой пособия и стами своей иеяио
информационное дополнение а рамках темы, а тапка дальнейшее
р а нни не социокультурной компетенции
4
1 Modern reading approaches
1.1 Theories of reading
At first we will look at some of the shifts and trends in theories
relating to reading. Then we will examine tips and guidelines for
implementing a theory of reading which will help to develop our learners'
abilities.
- The traditional view
- The cognitive view
- The metacognitive view
• Conclusion
Just like teaching methodology, reading theories have had their
shifts and transitions. Starting from the traditional view which focused on
the printed form of a text and moving to the cognitive view that enhanced
the role o f background knowledge in addition to what appeared on the
printed page, they ultimately culminated in the metacognitive view which
is now in vogue. It is based on the control and manipulation that a reader
can have on the act of comprehending a text.
The traditional view
According to Dole (1991), in the traditional view of reading, novice
readers acquire a set o f hierarchically ordered sub-skills that sequentially
build toward comprehension ability. Having mastered these skills, readers
are viewed as experts who comprehend what they read.
Readers-are passive recipients o f information in the text. Meaning
resides in the text and the reader has to reproduce meaning.
According to Nunan (1991), reading in this view is basically a matter
of decoding a series o f written symbols into their aural equivalents in the
quest for making sense of the text. He referred to this process as the
bottom-up' view of reading.
McCarthy (1999) has called this view 'outside-in' processing,
referring to the idea that meaning exists in the printed page and is
interpreted by the reader then taken in.
This model of reading has almost always been under attack as being
insufficient and detective for the main reason that it relies on the formal
features o f the language, mainly words and structure.
Although it is possible to accept this rejection for the fact that there
is over-reliance on structure in this view, it must be confessed that
knowledge of linguistic features is also necessary for comprehension to
take place. To counteract over-reliance on form in the traditional view of
reading, the cognitive view was introduced.
The cognitive view
The 'top-down' model is in direct opposition to the 'boltomup' model. According to Nunan (1991) and Dubin and Bycina (1991), the
5
psycholinguistic model of reading and the top-down model are in exact
concordance.
Goodman (1967; cited in Paran, 1996) presented reading as a
psycholinguistic guessing game, a process in which readers sample the text,
make hypotheses, confirm or reject them, make new hypotheses, and so
forth. Here, the reader rather than the text is at the heart of the reading
process.
The schema theory of reading also fits within the cognitively based
view of reading. Rumelhart (1977) has described schemata as "building
blocks o f cognition "which are used in the process of interpreting sensory
data, in retrieving information from memory, in organising goals and
subgoals, in allocating resources, and in guiding the flow of the processing
system.
Rumelhart (1977) has also stated that if our schemata are incomplete
and do not provide an understanding of the incoming data from the text we
will have problems processing and understanding the text.
Cognitively based views of reading comprehension emphasize the
interactive nature of reading and the constructive nature of comprehension.
Dole et al. (1991) have stated that, besides knowledge brought to bear on
the reading process, a set of flexible, adaptable strategies are used to make
sense of a text and to monitor ongoing understanding.
The metacognitive view
According to Block (1992), there is now no more debate on "whether
reading is a bottom-up, language-based process or a top-down, knowledgebased process. "It is also no more problematic to accept the influence of
background knowledge on both LI and L2 readers. Research has gone even
further to define the control readers execute on their ability to understand a
text. This control, Block (1992) has referred to as metacognition.
Metacognition involves thinking about what one is doing while
reading. Klein et al. (1991) stated that strategic readers attempt the
following while reading: identifying the purpose of the reading before
reading; identifying the form or type of the text before reading; thinking
about the general character and features of the form or type of the text. For
instance, they try to locate a topic sentence and follow supporting details
toward a conclusion; projecting the author’s purpose for writing the text
(while reading it); choosing, scanning, or reading in detail; making
continuous predictions about what will occur next, based on information
obtained earlier, prior knowledge, and conclusions obtained within the
previous stages.
Moreover, they attempt to form a summary of what was read.
Carrying out the previous steps requires the reader to be able to classify,
sequence, establish whole-part relationships, compare and contrast,
determine cause-effect, summarise, hypothesise and predict, infer, and
conclude.
1.2 Text characteristics
Now we can examine tips and guidelines for implementing a theory
o f reading which will help to develop our learner's abilities.
- Text characteristics
- Pre-reading tips
- During-reading tips
- After-reading tips
These tips can be viewed in three consecutive stages: before reading,
during reading, and after reading. For instance, before starting to read a text
it is natural to think o f the purpose o f reading the text. As an example o f the
during-reading techniques, re-reading for better comprehension can be
mentioned. And filling out forms and charts can be referred to as an after­
reading activity. These tasks and ideas can be used to enhance reading
comprehension.
Good readers expect to understand what they are reading. Therefore,
texts should contain words and grammatical structures familiar to the
learners (Van Duzer, 1999). In texts where vocabulary is not familiar,
teachers can introduce key vocabulary in pre-reading activities that focus
on language awareness, such as finding synonyms, antonyms, derivatives,
or associated words (Hood et al., 1996; cited in Van Duzer, 1999). The
topics o f texts chosen should be in accordance with the age range, interests,
sex, and background culture of the students for whom they are intended.
Pre-reading activities that introduce the text should encourage learners to
use their background knowledge (Eskey, 1997; cited in Van Duzer, 1999).
Class members can brainstorm ideas about the meaning o f a title or an
illustration and discuss what they know.
Pre-reading tips
Before the actual act o f reading a text begins, some points should be
regarded in order to make the process o f reading more comprehensible. It is
necessary to provide the necessary background information to the reader to
facilitate comprehension. In addition, as stated by Lebauer (1998), prereading activities can lighten students' cognitive burden while reading
because prior discussions will have been incorporated.
Teacher-directed pre-reading (Estes, 1999)
Some key vocabulary and ideas in the text are explained. In this approach
the teacher directly explains the information the students will need,
7
including key concepts, important vocabulary, and appropriate conceptual
framework.
Interactive approach (Estes, 1999)
In this method, the teacher leads a discussion in which he/she draws
out the information students already have and intetjects additional
information deemed necessary to an understanding o f the text to be read.
Moreover, the teacher can make explicit links between prior knowledge
and important information in the text.
Purpose o f reading
It is also necessary for students to become aware o f the purpose and
goal for reading a certain piece o f written material. At the beginning stages
this can be done by the teacher, but as the reader becomes more mature this
purpose, i.e. awareness-raising strategy, can be left to the readers. For
instance, the students may be guided to ask themselves, "Why am I reading
this text? What do I want to know or do after reading?"
One o f the most obvious, but unnoticed, points related to reading purpose is
the consideration o f the different types o f reading skills.
Skimming: reading rapidly for the main points; scanning: reading
rapidly to find a specific piece o f information; extensive reading: reading a
longer text, often for pleasure with emphasis on overall meaning; intensive
reading: reading a short text for detailed information.
The most frequently encountered reason as to why the four skills are
all subsumed into one - intensive reading — is that students studying a
foreign language feel the urge to look up every word they don't understand
and to pinpoint on every structural point they see unfamiliar. To make
students aware o f the different types o f reading, ask them about the types o f
reading they do in their first language.
The type o f text
The reader must become familiar with the fact that texts may take on
different forms and hold certain pieces of information in different places.
Thus, it is necessary to understand the layout o f the material being read in
order to focus more deeply on the parts that are more densely compacted
with information. Even paying attention to the year o f publication o f a text,
if applicable, may aid the reader in presuppositions about the text as can
glancing at the name o f the author.
Steinhofer (1996) stated that the tips mentioned in pre-reading will
not take a very long time to carry out. The purpose is to overcome the
common urge to start reading a text closely right away from the beginning.
During-reading tips
What follows are tips that encourage active reading. They consist o f
summarizing, reacting, questioning, arguing, evaluating, and placing a text
within one's own experience. These processes may be the most complex to
develop in a classroom setting, the reason being that in English reading
classes most attention is often paid to dictionaries, the text, and the teacher.
Interrupting this routine and encouraging students to dialogue with what
they are reading without coming between them and the text presents a
challenge to the EFL teacher. Duke and Pearspn (2001) have stated that
good readers are active readers. According to Ur (1996), Vaezi (2001), and
Fitzgerald (1995), they use the following strategies.
Making predictions: The readers should be taught to be on the watch
to predict what is going to happen next in the text to be able to integrate
and combine what has come with what is to come.
Making selections: Readers who are more proficient read selectively,
continually making decisions about their reading.
Integrating prior knowledge: The schemata that have been activated
in the pre-reading section should be called upon to facilitate
comprehension.
Skipping insignificant parts: A good reader will concentrate on
significant pieces of information while skipping insignificant pieces.
Re-reading: Readers should be encouraged to become sensitive to the
effect of reading on their comprehension.
Making use of context or guessing: Readers should not be
encouraged to define and understand every single unknown word in a text.
Instead they should learn to make use of context to guess the meaning of
unknown words.
Breaking words into their component parts: To keep the process of
comprehension ongoing, efficient readers break words into their affixes or
bases. These parts can help readers guess the meaning of a word.
Reading in chunks: To ensure reading speed, readers should get used
to reading groups of words together. This act will also enhance
comprehension by focusing on groups of meaning-conveying symbols
simultaneously.
Pausing: Good readers will pause at certain places while reading a
text to absorb and internalize the material being read and sort out
information.
Paraphrasing: While reading texts it may be necessary to paraphrase
and interpret texts subvocally in order to verify what was comprehended.
Monitoring: Good readers monitor their understanding to evaluate
whether the text, or the reading of it, is meeting their goals.
After-reading tips
It is necessary to state that post-reading activities almost always
depend on the purpose of reading and the type of information extracted
9
from the text. Barnett (1988) has stated that post-reading exercises first
check students' comprehension and then lead students to a deeper analysis
o f the text. In the real world the purpose o f reading is not to memorize an
author's point o f view or to summarize text content, but rather to see into
another mind, or to mesh new information into what one already knows.
Group discussion will help students focus on information they did not
comprehend, or did comprehend correctly. Accordingly, attention will be
focused on processes that lead to comprehension or miscomprehension.
Generally speaking, post-reading can take the form o f various activities as
presented below:
- discussing the text: Written/Oral;
- summarizing: Written/Oral;
- making questions: Written/Oral;
- answering questions: Written/Oral;
- filling in forms and charts;
- writing reading logs;
- completing a text;
- listening to or reading other related materials;
- role-playing.
Making reading communicative
If telling my students "And now we're going to practise listening,"
elicits looks o f dread and fear, announcing reading practice can often elicit
yawns, heads descending to desks, or eyes ascending heavenwards. And
these reactions are from my adult students. My young learners' reactions
may be even more extreme. "I can read at home, I come to lessons to
speak!" more than one o f my students has told me. Many students do seem
to regard reading as a waste o f class time but how many o f these students
will read outside class without encouragement inside? The aim o f this
article is to consider a few approaches to making classroom reading more
communicative, by which 1 mean integrating it with other skills work, so
that students can see its value.
- can reading be communicative?
- strategies I use for communicative reading;
- pre-reading tasks;
- while-reading tasks;
- while-reading tasks leading into post-reading tasks;
- post-reading tasks;
- conclusion.
Can reading be communicative?
Communication suggests interaction o f some sort, perhaps in many
students' minds between speaker and listener. Is reading, therefore, since it
10
is often a solitary activity, a non-comtnunicative activity? Surely not since
the reader is interacting with the writer, albeit in a less direct way than
speaker and listener. Reading is, of course, just as communicative as any
other form o f language use and as teachers our aim is to bring out that
communicative element. For example by establishing direct
communication between reader and writer by exploiting students' written
work for reading practice (see below for ideas). Another feature of real
reading is that while we may read alone we communicate what we read to
others constantly. Talking about what we have read is a rich source of
classroom possibilities.
Strategies I use for communicative reading
One o f the things to bear in mind when lesson planning is that
classroom reading is not the same as real reading. Classroom reading aims
at helping students develop the skills they need to read more effectively in
a variety o f ways (the same variety of ways as they can employ in their
own languages, of course). To enable this we plan 'pre-reading', 'whilereading', and 'post-reading' stages. These stages can help us make reading
more communicative.
Pre-reading tasks
Pre-reading tasks often aim to raise the readers' knowledge of what
they are about to read (their schematic knowledge) as this knowledge will
help them to understand the text. In our LI we use this knowledge
subconsciously and as a result need to raise it consciously in an L2. This
raising of awareness is most effectively done collaboratively. Approaches I
use include:
- tell your partner what you know about the topic;
- do a quiz in pairs to find out what you know about the topic;
- look at some pictures related to the topic;
- skimming the first paragraph for gist and then predicting.
When reading in our LI we are constantly using our schematic and
linguistic knowledge to predict content (both related to the topic and the
language itself). In class, predictions can be communicated to colleagues,
of course. Some examples of what predictions can be based upon include:
a) a title;
b) visuals;
c) knowledge of the author;
d) a skim of the first paragraph;
e) a set of keywords from the text;
f) reading the end, predicting the beginning;
g) reading the middle, predicting the beginning and the end.
While-reading tasks
11
Although reading is often a solitary activity and the idea of 'reading
in pairs' seems odd, reading can be collaborative. Approaches 1 use include:
Running and reading: this approach especially lends itself to
scanning as the idea is to encourage the students to read as quickly as
possible in a race.
1. divide the class into student A and student В pairs. Student A sits
at one end of the classroom;
2. stick the text to be read on the wall at the other end of the room.
3. give student A a list of questions;
4. student A reads the first question to student В who has to run
down the classroom to find the answer in the text, and then run
back to dictate the answer to student A, who then tells В question
2 and so on;
5. the first pair to answer all the questions wins. (I ask the students
to swap roles halfway through so everyone gets a chance to scan).
Slashed / Cut up texts: This is a genuinely collaborative reading
approach:
1. photocopy a suitable text and cut it diagonally into four;
2. seat students in fours. Give a piece of the text to each student.
They mustn't show their piece to the others;
3. give each group a set of questions;
4. the group have to work collaboratively to answer the questions
since no one has the whole of the text;
5. groups can compare answers when they have finished.
Using websites: if you have a computer room available this is a very
effective way of promoting communication as students can work on a
reading task in pairs reading from the same screen.
While-reading tasks leading into post-reading tasks
Jigsaw reading is an old favourite but perennially effective.
1. divide a text into two parts or find two (or three) separate texts on
the same topic;
2. students A get one text and a related task, students В get the other
text and task;
3. students A complete their tasks in a group. Students В likewise.
Compare answers in A & В groups;
4. students get into A & В pairs and tell each other about their tasks.
Creating a class text bank: I encourage students to bring in
interesting texts that they have found (perhaps as a homework task using
the Internet) which can be submitted to the class text bank. For weekend
homework each student selects a text to take away which they then discuss
12
with the student who originally submitted it This is, of course, what
readers do in real life.
Exploiting graded readers: this is a good way to help with detailed
reading since this implies reading for pleasure. I have used two approaches:
1. using a class set of the same reader so that everyone reads the
same book. This leads into class discussions of what everyone has
read;
2. students read different books and then recommend their book
(e.g. by writing reviews) to their colleagues.
Exploiting students’ written work: I often put students written work
up on the walls for the others to read. Tasks can include guessing who the
author is, voting on which is the most interesting, selecting some for a class
magazine.
Post-reading tasks
As mentioned above, telling someone about what we have read is a
very natural reaction to a text. 1 have already mentioned a few in
connection to 'while-reading' (e.g. recommending readers to the class) but
other ideas I have used include:
a) discussions about the text;
b) summarising texts;
c) reviewing texts;
d) using a 'follow-up' speaking task related to the topic;
e) looking at the language of the text (e.g. collocations).
1.3 Using texts constructively: what are tests for?
Text use may seem a dull topic after all the exciting matters that
other guest writers have dealt with recently. However, language learning is,
after all, learning language, not just doing fun things with it. And texts can,
if they are used properly, play an important part in the learning process.
Three kinds of input
Let's start by looking at the overall structure of language learning. It
is useful to identify three kinds of useful input: extensive, intensive and
analysed. Children learning their mother tongues receive massive extensive
input from the cloud of language that surrounds them, some of it roughly
attuned to their level of development, much of it not. They also receive
substantial intensive input - small samples of language such as nursery
rhymes, stories, songs, the daily mealtime and bedtime scripts, and so on,
which are repeated, assimilated, memorised, probably unconsciously
analysed, and/or used as templates for future production. And children
receive analysed input: explicit information about language. Although they
are not generally told very much about grammar and pronunciation, they
13
constantly demand explanations o f vocabulary: 'What’s a ...?*; ‘What’s
that?’; ‘What does ... mean?’
Second-language learners are no different in principle from small
children in these respects. They, too, need extensive input —exposure to
quantities' o f spoken and written language, authentic or not too tidied up,
for their unconscious acquisition processes to work on. Equally, learners
need intensive engagement with small samples o f language which they can
internalise, process, make their own and use as bases for their own
production. And since most instructed second-language learners have only
a fraction o f the input that is available to child first-language learners, the
deliberate teaching o f grammatical as well as lexical regularities —analysed
input - helps to compensate for the inadequacy o f naturalistic exposure for
at least some aspects o f language.
Three kinds o f output
Input is only half the story. People generally seem to learn best what
they use most. Children produce quantities o f extensive output, chattering
away as they activate what they have taken in. They also recycle the
intensive input they have received, repeating their stories, nursery rhymes
and so on, and speaking their lines in the recurrent daily scripts o f
childhood life. And some children, at least, seem to produce certain kinds
o f analysed output, naming things or rehearsing and trying out variations
on structures that they have been exposed to, like more formal language
learners doing ‘pattern practice’
Adults, too, need opportunities to produce all three kinds o f output.
They must have the chance to engage in extensive, ‘free* speech and
writing; they must be able to systematically recycle the intensive input that
they have more or less internalised (and thus complete the process o f
internalisation); and they need to practise the analysed patterns and
language items that have been presented to them, so that they have some
chance o f carrying them over into spontaneous fluent production.
A properly-balanced language-teaching programme, then, will have
these three ingredients —extensive, intensive and analysed - at both input
and output stages. While all the ingredients are important, the proportions
in a given teaching programme will naturally vary according to the learners’
needs, their level, and the availability o f each element both in and out o f
class.
What can texts do?
So where do textbook texts - relatively short continuous pieces of
spoken or written language - come into all this? Clearly they can contribute
in various ways to the three-part process outlined above. They can provide
material for practice in receptive skills, and thus facilitate access to
14
extensive input. They can act as springboards for discussion, role play, or
other kinds o f extensive output work. They can support analysed input by
contextualising new language items. A further role —and a very important
one —is to provide the intensive input that all learners need: short samples
o f appropriately selected language which are carefully attended to and
partly internalised, and which can then serve ^as a basis for controlled
production.
What do texts usually do?
Unfortunately, this aspect o f text use is often neglected or
ineffectively put into practice. A language-teaching text may simply be
seen as something to be ‘gone through’ in one way or another, without any
clear definition o f the outcomes envisaged. (Text-work is an awfully
convenient way o f filling up a language lesson, and teachers often feel that
any text-based activity is bound to be beneficial. This is not necessarily the
case.) One approach to ‘going through’ is the traditional pseudo-intensive
lesson where the teacher uses a text as the basis for a kind o f freeassociation fireworks display. He or she comments on one word,
expression or structure after another, elicits synonyms and antonyms,
pursues ideas sparked off by the text, perhaps gets the students to read
aloud or translate bits, and so on and so on. Meanwhile the students write
down hundreds o f pieces o f information in those overfilled notebooks that
someone once memorably called ‘word cemeteries’. When the end o f the
'lesson' is approaching, students may answer some so-called
‘comprehension questions’. Students then go away to write a homework on
a topic distantly related (or even not at all related) to that o f the text. This
kind o f activity tends to fall between two stools: the text is too short to
contribute much to learners' extensive experience o f language, but the work
done on it is not really intensive either. At the end of the cycle the students
have been given much too much input, have engaged with it too
superficially to assimilate much o f it, and have used (and therefore
consolidated) little or none o f it. They have been taught - inefficiently one lot of language, and then asked to produce a substantially different lot.
Another approach which has been fashionable in recent decades is to
use a written text to teach 'reading skills'. The text is typically accompanied
by a battery o f exercises which require students to predict, skim, scan,
identify main ideas, match topics to paragraphs, sort out shuffled texts, and
so on. There is an implicit assumption that even perfectly competent
mother-tongue readers actually need to learn to process text all over again
in a new language. Here again, students may spend substantial time
working through a text without any very identifiable payoff in terms o f
increased language knowledge or genuine skills development.
15
While texts can undoubtedly be valuable in various ways, I believe
they are best used with a clear purpose in mind, and a reasonable certainty
that they will help to achieve this purpose. In a second article 1 will focus
on the intensive input-output cycle referred to above, which 1 believe is
centrally important, and I will consider ways in which texts can be
exploited efficiently to support this aspect of language learning.
Alternatives to comprehension checking
So what can you do after telling the class a story? You can offer the
students questions that help them explore each others’ elaboration, you ask
the students to go through the questions below and cross out the ones they
do not relate to. Once this deletion is effected you pair them and ask them
to use the questions they have retained to get an idea o f their partner’s
elaboration. Here is a set of such questions:
In which sort of country did you imagine the story?
What kind o f pictures did you get as you listened.
Did you create a sort o f film from the story?
Were you ever actually in the same space as the character in the
story?
What feelings did you have during the telling?
Did you become any of the characters?
What, for you, is the moral of the story?
Did this story remind you o f other stories you know?
Did any o f the characters seem like people you know?
Can you think of someone in this group who may have disliked the
story?
Would your brother/mother/daughter/father like this story? Why
would they like it?
At which point in the story did you really start listening?
Which was the most vivid bit for you?
At which points in the story did you drift off and think o f other
things?
The list of questions could be much longer and more detailed, but
you will notice they all focus on the students’ elaborated text and on their
reactions to the text. None are about details of the original text.
“Very nice” I can hear some readers saying” but what if the students
did not understand the language during the telling?”
My answer to this is that the teacher/teller needs to make sure she
gets her meaning across by using mime, drawing and LI glosses on words
or phrases that may be hard for students. It is the teller’s job to ensure
language comprehension as she tells, and I believe minimal, disciplined
recourse to LI is natural in this situation.
By the time you get to this point in your reading, the lines you have
read will have undergone deletion, elaboration and transformation in your
mind. As you get up to get yourself a coffee and think back over these
lines, you carry in your head your own unique reading o f this text. Thank
16
God you are a normally creative reader and not a tape-recorder with the
‘Record’ button down. Do 1 really need to write comprehension questions
on your behalf?
A four stage methodology for reading.
It has been proposed a four stage methodology for teaching
reading:
- Priming
- Reading
- Form focus
- Recycling
Quizzes for priming
Priming prepares learners to tackle a text by providing a context and
a purpose for their reading and by introducing the vocabulary they will
need to handle the text. Before our text on United Kingdom there was a
brief teacher-led discussion of the question “What is lifestyle in the UK?”
Learners were then given a quiz in the form of a of true/false questions
about UK. By the end of this priming stage learners will have engaged their
knowledge of UK and will have a clear idea of what they expect to team
from the text. Instead of true/false quiz questions we could have used
multiple-choice or open-ended quiz questions. All these modes of
questioning have different advantages and. disadvantages. In deciding
which to use we need to keep in mind the purpose of the priming stage: to
prepare learners for the reading in terms of both content and key
vocabulary.
Prediction and jigsaws
We can often ask learners to predict the content of a text. Once they
have done the text on a certain topic they will have a good idea as to what
to expect from a similar introductory descriptive text.. The students can be
given a task to write down five questions about the facts which you think
will be answered in the passage.
How many of the questions can you already answer?
Then you can ask them to read out their questions at the beginning of
the next lesson, and you can lead a class discussion speculating on the
answers. Or you can take some of their questions and ask them to answer
these questions in groups before they read the passage.
The priming activity will depend on the kind of text you are
preparing for. Let's imagine you are going to read a text entitled How to
survive an earthquake. You could give learners a number of verbal cues
and ask them to predict the content of the text:
£) /2» О ^ Л
You are going to read a text entitled How to survive an earthquake.
Work jn-jgroijipfi afpFtry Шthink of three things you should do before,
durin
академик С.Бейсем^
атындагы fw nui f
j!
К1ТАПХАНАО I
17
Here are some words and phrases to help you: away from windows;
gas water and electricity; in a doorway; first aid; survival kit; radio; public
authorities; emergency procedures; heavy objects; under a table; trees;
power lines; damage to buildings; emergency telephone numbers;
dangerous spills; keep calm; turn off; shelter; check.
You could then lead a brief class discussion before asking learners to
read the text.
As an alternative you could jigsaw the clues. There are fourteen
phrases given above. You could divide the class into five groups and give
each group six of the clues to help them with their discussion. They would
be allowed to use dictionaries to help them understand their clues. You
could then lead a class discussion and make notes on the board to pool their
ideas.
All these techniques involve discussion to prepare learners for the
reading task, and these discussions will provide exposure to the sort of
language they will need to process the text which follows.
1.4
efficiently
Reading for information: Motivating learners to rea
What is efficient reading?
What happens when you read a book, a newspaper or magazine for
information on a topic that interests you, or when you are reading as part of
a course of study? If you are a good reader you almost certainly don't read
every word carefully. You read with a purpose, and as your eye skims over
the page you take from it whatever you need, predicting what is likely to
come next and adjusting your predictions as you go along.
We want our students to learn to read like this in English. We want
them to be able to skim through pages on the worldwide web identifying
relevant information with speed and efficiency. We hope that one day
many of them will read quickly and efficiently enough in English to use the
language as a medium of study at university level or beyond. More and
more schools and Ministries of Education are interested in Content and
Language Integrated Learning (Clil),recognising the importance of learning
a language, in our case English, as a means to studying other subjects more
effectively. If we want to encourage this kind of reading in the English
language classroom we need to provide a reason for reading and we need to
recreate the circumstances in which readers operate in the real world
outside the classroom. I am going to look at a task-based approach to
reading which will enable us to do this.
Providing a context and a reason for reading
18
First we need to provide a context. When we read in real life we
usually have some expectations about what we are going to read. Perhaps
we know quite a lot about a topic and we want to check on a few details. Or
perhaps we have just heard about something and are curious to know more
about it. We rarely set out to read something without knowing anything at
all about the topic and without having any expectations about what we are
going to read. So in the classroom we need to provide learners with a
context Before they begin to read they will have some idea what it will be
about and what to expect from it.
Secondly we need to provide a reason for reading. Sometimes in our
reading we are looking for very specific information. We may have certain
beliefs which we want to confirm or perhaps to reconsider. Or perhaps our
curiosity has been aroused by a newspaper headline or the title of an article
in a magazine, and we want to satisfy that curiosity. We should try to put
our students in the same situation when they approach a reading. What
exactly do they expect to get out of the reading? What gaps in their
knowledge do they want to fill? What expectations do they have which
they want to check against their reading?
Let's set up a reading activity like this for learners. One which
provides a context and a reason for reading. Let's start by asking the
question: “What is lifestyle in the UK?” The fact that we start with a
question is interesting in itself. It provides one reason for reading: to find
an answer to the question. But it may be that some of our learners know the
answer already. We can begin by asking them to work in pairs or groups to
answer the question on the basis of their general knowledge. Then we can
lead a class discussion to share the results of this pair/group work.
They may give examples. But it is also likely that their discussion
will raise more questions than it answers. Why are people living longer?
What job area is growing fast? How long do young people stay with their
parents?
Let's move on to provide a questionnaire which will focus on some
of these questions:
Here are eight statements about sharks. Say whether each one is true or
false.
On average women live 10 years longer than men.
75% of men between 55 and 64 are overweight.
Over two third of women go to work.
Nearly a third of the population live on their own.
We will go through these questions to make sure they have been
properly understood, but without giving any clues as to the answers, then
we will ask learners to discuss the questions in pairs or groups. Finally we
19
will review their answers and find out how many pairs or groups answered
true and how many answered false on each question. And what is the
answer to the big question? What is lifestyle in the UK?
Priming before reading
Let's review what has happened in our lesson so far:
We have introduced a topic and provided a context by getting our
learners to engage their own knowledge the lifestyle in the UK.
We have provided a reason for reading in two ways. First we have
aroused their curiosity. It is quite likely by now that they are eager to know
whether the eight statements given above are true or false. Secondly we
have probably aroused a spirit of rivalry. Some pairs or groups will have
offered one answer, others will have offered quite a different answer. They
will be anxious to know who is right and who is wrong.
We have covered most of the vocabulary which the learners will
come across in the reading which is to follow. We will have done this in
two stages: first in discussing the general question: What is lifestyle in the
UK?”; and secondly in introducing the statements and making sure learners
have understood them.
Learners have had a good deal of language practice centring on the
topic to be covered in the reading. We have had pair/group discussion and
general class discussion led by the teacher.
These things make up what I think of as the Priming stage of the
reading lesson: getting learners ready for reading by providing a context, a
purpose and necessary language input. It is important to note that even
though this is a preparatory stage there has been a lot of student
participation and that all of the language used in these activities has been
used with a purpose. Learners can now go on to read the text.
After learners have finished reading you will be in a position to lead
a class discussion on the text. Check the answers with them. How many
answers did they get right? Have they learned anything else from the text?
Is there anything else they would like to know about lifestyle?
We have now achieved quite a lot of language use, finishing with
reading and discussion. But there are two things we have not done - two
things that we need to do after the reading. First we need to provide a focus
on language by looking at some important linguistic features of the text, at
the grammar and vocabulary. Secondly we need to do something to make
the text memorable. All too often learners read a text and then forget all
about it. If we can recycle the text in a way that makes it memorable they
will remember not only the content of the text, but also some of the
language it contains.
20
1.5
Interacting with texts - Directed activities related to texts
(DARTs)
Good readers use what they know about language and the world to
interact with what they are reading. This helps them create meaning from
the words on the page. Classroom activities that encourage interaction with
texts, like directed activities related to texts (DARTs), improve students’
reading comprehension.
- What are directed activities related to texts (DARTs)?
- What types of activities can you use in DARTs
- What type of texts can you use in DARTs?
- What are the advantages of using DARTs?
- How can you develop your own DART?
What are directed activities related to texts (DARTs)?
DARTs are activities which get students to interact with texts. Their
aim is to improve students' reading comprehension and to make them
critical readers. They can be done by individual students or in groups.
What type of activities can you use in DARTs?
DARTs can be divided into two groups: reconstruction activities and
analysis activities.
Reconstruction activities
Definition: activities that require students to reconstruct a text or
diagram by filling in missing words, phrases or sentences, or by sequencing
text that has been jumbled.
Texts used: modified texts - the teacher modifies the original text,
taking out words, phrases or sentences, or cutting the text into segments.
Types of activities:
- Text completion (Fill in missing words, phrases or sentences.)
- Sequencing (Arrange jumbled segments of text in a logical or
time sequence.)
1 Grouping (Group segments of text according to categories.)
- Table completion (Fill in the cells of a table that has row and
column headings, or provide row and column headings where
cells have already been filled in.)
- Diagram completion (Complete an unfinished diagram or label a
finished diagram.)
- Prediction activities (Write the next step or stage of a text, or end
the text.)
Analysis activities
Definition: activities that require students to find and categorize
information by marking or labelling a text or diagram.
Texts used: unmodified texts
21
Types of activities:
- Text marking (Find and underline parts of the text that have a
particular meaning or contain particular information.)
- Text segmenting and labelling (Break the text into meaningful
chunks and label each chunk.)
- Table construction (Draw a table. Use the information in the text
to decide on row and column headings and to fill in the cells.)
- Diagram construction (Construct a diagram that explains the
meaning of the text. For example, draw a flow chart for a text that
explains a process, or a branch diagram for a text that describes
how something is classified.)
- Questioning (Answer the teacher’s questions or develop questions
about the text.)
- Summarizing
What type of texts can you use in DARTs?
You can base a DART on traditional language texts like poems and
extracts from short stories, novels and plays. You can also base them on
extracts from magazines, newspapers, pamphlets etc, and passages from
history, geography, science etc textbooks.
What are the advantages of using DARTs?
When students interact with texts, their reading comprehension improves.
They also become more aware of how texts are constructed.
This makes them more critical of texts. They begin to ask questions about
the information that has been included in, and excluded from, the text.
And about the words and sentence constructions that the writer chose.
As students' understanding of how text is constructed improves, so
too does their own writing.
Research has shown that interacting with Texts also im proves students'
cognitive development.
You don’t need fancy equipment and resources to use DARTs. You can use
textbooks from various subjects. Therefore, DARTs can be used in underresourced schools.
DARTs can make your students' textbooks more interesting.
If you teach English in a context where English is the medium of
instruction but it is not the students' first language, using DARTs based on
passages from the students' textbooks will help prepare them for the texts
they will encounter in other subjects.
It will also help prepare them for the types of tasks they will encounter in
other subjects. For example, filling in tables, labelling diagrams,
completing Venn diagrams etc.
DARTs also help students learn how to use texts without plagiarizing them.
22
And they help students learn how to produce their own graphic
information like tables, flow charts, branch diagrams etc.
How can you develop your own DART?
Here is one method you could use:
Once you have chosen the text, read it carefully. As you read,
interact with the text. For example, underline or circle important
information, write questions which you think the text raises or doesn't
answer, list the main ideas and the supporting detail, draw a table or a
diagram etc.
Take note of how you interacted with the text. Did the text lend itself
to a particular type of interaction. For example, it is often quite natural to
develop a graphic organizer when we are reading and interacting with some
If the text...
... compared and contrasted two or more things
you
may
developed ...
a table or
diagram
a flow chart.
have
Venn
... described a process
... described a fictional or non-fictional sequence of a flow chart.
events
a branch diagram.
... described how something can be classified
a labeled diagram.
.. 8 described an object
a spider diagram or
... presented an argument
mind map
Decide whether you want your students to do a reconstruction
activity or an analysis activity.
Use how you interacted with the text as a basis for your DART.
For example, if you developed a flow chart while reading the text
and you want your students to do a reconstruction activity, develop a
relevant flow chart and then delete some of the information from the chart.
Your students must fill in the missing information as they read. Write the
instructions for the task.
Or, if you developed a flow chart while reading the text and you
want your students to do an analysis activity, write the instructions that will
help them construct their own flow chart. There might be several steps in
this activity. Firstly, you might ask your students to underline the steps in
the process that is being described. Then you might ask them to draw a
flow chart and fill this information in to it.
23
In this part we look at the guidelines which can also be used as
general ideas to aid students in reading and comprehending materials.
These tips can be viewed in three consecutive stages: before reading,
during reading, and after reading. For instance, before starting to read a text ,
it is natural to think of the purpose of reading the text. As an example of the
during-reading techniques, re-reading for better comprehension can be
mentioned. And filling out forms and charts can be referred to as an after­
reading activity. These tasks and ideas can be used to enhance reading
comprehension.
It is important to mark the value of reading as a way to develop their
language independently of the classroom but equally saw the value of
investing class time in becoming more effective readers in English. They
were willing to make this investment because they realised that reading
could be fully integrated into other skills work and thereby be just as
communicative as any other classroom practice.
24
2. Making reading communicative
2.1 Kazakhstan
Lesson 1
Great People of Kazakhstan
Task 1 Answer the following questions.
1.
2.
3.
4.
What famous people of the past can you name?
Why are they remembered?
Who was the founder of Kazakh state?
How are “heroes” called in the Kazakh language?
Task 2 Read the text and check your guesses.
Ablai Khan
Ablai (Abilmansur) Khan (1711 - May 23, 1781) was a Kazakh khan of the
Middle juz. Bom as Abilmansur, Ablai Khan belonged to the senior branch
of descendants of the 15th century founder of the Kazakh state, Janybek
Khan. In the first half of the 18th century, Ablai Khan proved to be a
talented organizer and commander as he headed detachments of the Kazakh
militia fighting the Dzungars. He participated in the most significant battles
against the Dzungars from the 1720s to the 1750s, for which he was
declared a "batyr" ("hero") by the people.
Ablai's activity aimed to create a strong and independent Kazakh
state. He headed the unified forces of the Kazakhs and furthered the
centralization of state power in Kazakhstan. Until his election as the khan
of the three jtizes, Ablai had to compete with Khan Abul Mambet and his
descendants of Middle juz for leadership. Initially, Russia recognized Abul
Mambet as the Khan of Middle jQz, while Ablai was supported by China.
Ablai's talent in playing China against Russia gradually made him the
unrivalled Khan of the steppe. Unlike Abul Khair Khan of Little jQz, Ablai
never submitted to Russian rule. In 1771, at the meeting of the
representatives of the three jiizes, Ablai was elected as the Kazakh khan.
Russian Empress requested that the title of khan should be recognized and
officially approved by Russia. To that end, she sent an official letter to
Petropavl, where Ablai was expected to receive the title in 1779. He never
showed up at the fort, declining Russia's request to appoint him as the khan
of Middle jtiz. In contrast to Ablai, other khans and sultans had been
competing for the lavish gifts and stipends of the Emperors of Russia in
return for their submission.
25
During the Qing campaigns against the Dzungars, Ablai Khan chose
not to take sides in the Dzungar-Chinese conflict. Once the conflict was
settled, Ablai offered his submission to the Qianlong Emperor. Ablai was
confirmed as Kazakh khan by both the Chinese and the Russians. He led
numerous campaigns against Kokand Khanate and Kyrgyzs. In the last
campaign his troops liberated many cities in Southern Kazakhstan and even
captured Tashkent. Then he proceeded to present day Kyrgyzstan and won
the furious battle with troops o f local warlords. Upon his death in 1781 he
was interred in the Mausoleum o f Khoja Ahmed Yasavi in Hazrat-e
Turkestan.
Shokan Walikhanuli (1835-1865), a Kazakhstani scholar and
historian, is a descendant of him.
The life of Ablai Khan is the subject material for the 2005
Kazakhstani film The Nomad.
Task 3 Are these sentences True or False according to the text?
1. Ablai Khan was a Kazakh khan of the Senior juz.
2. Ablai Khan was an adviser of the first Kazakh Khan.
3. Ablai Khan was never elected as the Khan of three juzes.
4. Abul Mambet was elected as the Khan in 1771.
5. Abilmansur had chosen the Chinese side in the Zhungar-Chinese
conflict
6. Ablai in his last battle conquered Tashkent
7. Ablai Khan was buried in Turkestan.
Task 4 Complete each sentence with one of the words from the box.
I_________ compete liberate win submit approve support capture____
1. If you ... somebody, you encourage him
2. If you ... a person, you set him free.
3. If you ... a battle, you defeat an opponent.
4. If you ... somebody, you catch him and stop him from escaping.
5. If you __, you accept somebody’s power over you.
6. If you ... with somebody, it means that you try to win him.
7. If you ... somebody’s behavior, you think that it is good.
Task 5 Discussion
Divide into two groups.
Group A gives positive influence of joining Kazakh khanate to Russia
Group В gives negative influence of joining Kazakh khanate to Russia
26
Task 6
Debate on the following statement.
Nowadays unknown names appear as persons who made an important
contribution to the history of Kazakhstan.
Lesson 2
The Grand Silk Roaid
Task 1
Which of this statistics about the Great Silk Road do you think are true?
1. The Great Silk Road ran through China, Iran and Georgia.
2. The Great Silk Road was the cause of wars.
3. The Great Silk Road started in the first century B.C.
4. Caravan sarays were the places where people could relax during their
long journey.
5. Caravan routes on the Great Silk Road were never changed.
Task 2
Read the text and check your guesses.
The Great Silk Road
The Great Silk Road is the trading caravan way from China to the
capital of Rome Empire. Existed from the 2nd century B.C. till the 16th
century A.D. the total length of the route was about 7 thousand km. It got
its name from the first item of transit trade - Chinese silk, later beside silk,
appeared other goods: jewellery, glass, iron etc.
The main route of the Great Silk Road went through the territories of
China, over Pamir and Tien-Shan mountains, Central Asia, Afghanistan,
Iran, along the eastern shore of Mediterranean and farther to the main trade
centres of Near East, North Africa and Europe. The Great Silk Road played
an important role in lifestyle of many nations of Eurasia. It was an
important artery in ancient and middle aged time, the source of trade and
information, cause of many conflicts and wars. Along the route appeared,
reached the golden ages and died many nations and cultures, trade centres
and many capitals of world empires.
In the 2nd century B.C. people took many attempts to cross the TienShan barrier, some scientists suppose that this part of the Great Silk Road
already functioned in the 4th century B.C. In any way the territory and
nations of ancient Tien-Shan were located in the heart of this huge
economical and cultural phenomenon.
Many caravan routes on the Great Silk Road were changed by time, and
27
only the main directions from the East to the West and back were kept
originally.
Caravan traffic was very slow, in good day the caravan consisted
from 100 to 10 thousand camels. They covered 8 farsah (50 km), in nasty
days - 4 farsah (25 km). Along the route the one could take a rest in
Caravansarays.
The Great Silk Road promoted the transition to settled style of life,
and developing of animal breeding. There were no similar phenomenon in
the history of humanity with the same economical and cultural importance.
The Great Silk Road put the Order, Commonwealth and Peace in general
chaos of the Middle Ages.
T ask3
Read the text again and answer these questions
1. What animals were used to carry luggage?
2. What was the total length of the Great Silk Road?
3. Why was it an important artery in the ancient times?
4. What was the first item of transit trade?
5. Did the route go along the eastern or western shore of the Mediterranean
sea?
Task 4
Match the following words with their definitions.
farsah
traffic
caravan
shore
trade
ancient
life style
jewellery
ornaments made of gold, silver etc.
a group of people and
animals traveling across
movement along a road
length measure
coast line
business of a particular kind
very old
way of living
Task Ь
Discussion. In small groups discuss the following questions. •
Why did the Grand Silk Road become the reason of war and conflicts?
Do you agree or disagree with the opinions of the other groups.
28
Task 6
Debate
Choose one of the following statements and share your opinion
1.Geographical position influences development of Kazakhstan
2. Despite transferring the capital to Astana, Almaty remains the centre of
cultural and economic importance
Lesson 3
Raising Children in Kazakhstan
Task 1 Answer the questions.
1. Who gave you your name?
2. What does your name mean?
3. What are popular names in your country?
4. Have you heard of any strange names?
5. What traditions do you know connected with children?
Task 2 Skim the text and find the answers to the following questions.
1. What do the names “Mynzhasar” and “Toksanbay” stand for?
2. What names are considered to be “offensive”?
3. Why did people give their children funny and strange names?
4. What tradition did our grandparents follow to protect children from
death?
5. Who participated in the ritual?
6. What presents did parents bring to buy their child back?
Raising Children in Kazakhstan
Kazakhs believe that a person's name foretells and determines his or
her future. Children were named by the names of their famous fathers and
ancestors such as: Zhanibek, Abylai, Abai, Ybrai, or Shokan. There are
also wishing names like: Mynzhasar (live a thousand years), Zhuzbai (a
hundred years), and Toksanbai (ninety years) indicate the wish for a long
and wealthy life.
But there are also so-called «unpleasant» names like Kushikbai
(puppy) or Ayubai (bear). This tradition has an explanation to it. In the old
times, when the medical knowledge was limited and life conditions were
tough, baby death rate was quite high. Nomadic people tended to blame the
evil forces and spirits for that. The idea was to give funny or strange names
to babies (people would laugh when hearing them) as protection from evil
spirits or evil people. An evil person or a spirit would be distracted by the
name of the child rather that paying attention to the child himself. That was
29
a very common in the families whose babies had not survived. For this
reason babies were also named Tursyn (may he live) or Toktasyn (may he
stay). Families that had no boys gave the name to a girl with a certain
wishful meaning: Ultuar, Ulbolsyn (may she be followed by a boy).
There was also a tradition of buying a child “satyp alu”. In many
Kazakh families children died young. The couples whose children died
young didn’t know what to do. Nobody understood the reasons for their
death. Of course, the death of a child was very sad and gloomy. How might
a family protect their dear creature from death? There was a traditional way
to do that. They should conduct a "buying" ceremony. For this purpose an
old woman was required. The lady would approach the house where the
family lives at night. She shouts loudly: «I found the thieves who have
stolen my baby! Give me my child back!» The old woman wears a tom
dress and looks like a witch. In her hands she carries a stick with an eagle’s
and owl’s claws.
The couple pretends to be scared and puts the baby into her hands.
The old woman takes the baby to her house, but the mother continues to
nurse the baby periodically during the day-time. After sometime the parents
of the «stolen» baby put on some old clothes and appear as beggars in front
of the old lady's house. They carry their kettle, a harp of wood and three or
four sheep to the old woman’s house in order to buy their baby back. The
old woman would meet them at the door and give them flat bread. The
«beggars» would refuse to take it and ask to buy their baby back. In the
Koran the scriptures implore everyone to pity beggars, to be kind to them
and not refuse genuine requests. This is why the couple has come to the old
woman in rags, as the old woman cannot refuse their request. She returns
the baby head-first for when a baby is delivered from his/her mothers
uterus, the head also appears first. Kazakhs believed that a human bom
head-first would die standing, which was highly valued. The old woman
gives the baby head-forward, meaning she hopes the baby would live a
long life. Meanwhile, the baby’s parents would leave everything they
brought: sheep, kettle and a harp of wood. That was one of the strategies to
protect children from dying.
Task3
The following nouns appear in the text. What are their derivatives?
noun
Death
Explanation
Protection
adjective
30
verb
Life
Request
Beggar
Blame
Task 4 Can you find any synonyms to the following words?
Tradition, to steal, to refuse, baby, witch, thief, to appear, wealthy,
purpose, to return ______________________________________
TaskS Discussion
Speak on the following questions in small groups.
Why do traditions existing for so long die out?
Are there any traditions in your country appeared not long ago?
Do you agree or disagree with the other groups? Why or why not?
Task 6
Comment on the following Kazakh proverbs. Can you find any English
equivalents to them?
1. Daughter follows mother’s deeds, son follows father’s deeds.
2. Mother’s happiness is a child, child’s happiness is a game.
3. Don’t break a growing tree’s branch, don’t beat a small child.
Lesson 4
Kazakh Traditions
Task 1
Are these sentences true or false? Change any false sentences to make them
true.
1. Period o f mushel jas is 14 years.
2. Besyk is a bed for a baby.
3. The Kazakhs give their best clothes to friends when they reach mushel
jas.
4. Shashu is a ritual of presenting flowers.
5. Kumys is a national drink with the Kazakhs.
Task 2
Read the text and give an appropriate title for it
1. Boys and ages.
2. Life style o f a boy.
3. Kazakh life periods.
31
4. Important dates in a man’s life.
Mounting ashami. After the age of seven Kazakh boys were
increasingly encouraged to imitate their fathers by taking a stick and
imitating riding a horse and watching how their fathers led the cattle to
grazing. As far as girls were concerned they caught butterflies, made dolls
staying mostly at home. An ashami is kind o f a saddle. It was made o f
wood according to the boy’s size. On the front and the back it had support
or backing, but it had no stirrup. There was a soft pillow inside. The father
put the ashami on a horse and then placed his son on it Before that he
would bind his son’s two legs in order to keep him from falling. Gradually
the boy learned how to ride without his father’s help. Almost half o f a male
Kazakhs life was spent on a horse. Later on the boys were taught to bear
cold and hot weather, to bend a bow and to defend their aul from enemies.
Tokym kagu, bastan. Soon after Ashami, or near the age of ten, the boy
would ride his young horse on his first long trip. His parents would wait for
him and arrange tokym kagu, which means «waiting for the boy arriving
soon» from the trip. They would invite quests while the father prepared
bridle, stirrup and breastplate all to be fastened to the saddle and saddle
girth.
Kozy jasy. After the age of ten a boy would be considered to be on kozy
jas because at this age his parents would trust him to graze a lamb. It would
be the beginning of labor training. Kazaks from early times were concerned
to bring up their children to be industrious. From an early age the boy could
help his father to feed and graze cattle. In such way he might become
healthy and strong. It is still necessary in the rural places of Kazakhstan to
bring up boys to be able to look after the cattle.
Koi jasy. When a boy reached fifteen years old he was considered to be
ready for the koi jas —a time when he would be trusted to graze the family
sheep without supervision. The koi jas period lasted from age fifteen to
twenty five and during that age he could marry. To successfully perform
koi jas duties the teenager has to be able to graze a flock of sheep in rainy
windy oj sunny weather as well as to protect them from wolves and wild
dogs. This was a difficult task, but the ultimate task for a young male.
Jhylky jasy. The age o f twenty five symbolized entering the period of
youth and strength. In early times, zhigits of one clan were sometimes
charged to drive off another clan’s cattle in the case of an intertribal feud.
To protect the livestock only the strong zhigit of twenty five to forty years
of age were trusted to graze the important animals. It was also their duty to
graze the animals in periods of windy winter weather, when starving packs
of wolves were also likely to attack sheep as well as horses.
32
Patsha jasy. There were no tsars among Kazakhs but there were khans who
were the equal to tsars. According to the Muslim lows even if a person was
wise and clever enough to be monarch or tsar, that could not be allowed if
the man wasn’t yet forty. For K azakhs this age patsha ja sy was likened to
the development o f a sharp sword —it took that long to be polished or to
become respectable and clever enough to become a khan, sultan or the
holder o f some other honorable position like of a'poet or a hero.
Task3
Match the following words with their definitions.
ITo ride
2 Clan
3 Cattle
4 Saddle
5 Bridle
6 To graze
7 Zhigit
8 Starving
9 Khan
10 Sword
a) Part o f a horse’s equipment over the head
b) Seat for a person on a horse
c) Respected head leader
d) Take cattle somewhere to eat grass
e) Hungry
f) A group of relatives
g) Cows and bulls, etc.
h) Weapon with a long steel blade
i) Travel on an animal
j) Young man
Task 4
Underline the correct alternatives in the following sentences about the text.
1. Girls / boys mostly stayed at home.
2. At the age of seven / ten starts a period of mounting ashami.
3. Kozy jas is known as the period when a boy is able to graze a cow / a
lamb.
4. During koy jas /kozy jas a boy is allowed to get married.
5. A person is allowed to be a khan when he is over thirty / forty.
6. Only during patsha jas a zhigit could make a knife /a sword himselt.
Task 5
In small groups discuss the following questions.
1. Why did men play a leading role in a society in the past?
2. Why are there no definite periods o f a Kazakh woman’s life?
3. Does the sex discrimination exist in our modem society?
Task 6
Debate on the following statement.
33
The men’s and women’s roles in the home are changing under the force o f
circumstances.
Lesson 5
National Clothes
Task 1
Which o f this statistics about the Kazakh headwear do you think is true?
1. Clothes were made o f camel’s, horse’s, cow ’s skin.
2. Saukele is a head covering for married women.
3. The Kazakhs used gold and silver to decorate clothes.
4. It took three months to make a saukele.
5. Married women had different head covers.
Task 2
Read the text and check your guesses.
Kazakh Women Headwear
In Kazakh national dress, national skills and creativity are clearly
reflected. It possesses nomad influences in materials and style. Kazakhs
have always cherished the use o f the skins and furs o f animals. The outer
clothing was made o f furs o f wild and domestic animals. The clothes had
the following names: janat ton - raccoon fur coat, kara tulki ton - blackbrown fox fur coat, kamshat boric - beaver cap, bota ton - a coat from baby
camel's skin, jargak ton- a coat made from young horse skins, and others.
When manufacturing clothes, beading and precious stone embroidery were
commonly applied. Mainly geometrical and plant patterns, as well as
contour iconic images, for example, hunting scenes, were used in
embroidery.
Kazakh women's wedding head coverings are notable. They are called
saukele. They were especially beautiful till the end o f the 19th c, and some
cost as much as a thousand roubles or the equivalent o f 100 fine horses.
They have metallic open work, a diadem (sometimes it was made o f gold
with inlay o f semi-precious stones or coral and pearl beading and so on),
pendants hanging from the temple, and chin adornments. A fabric was used
to cover the body o f the saukele; on that fabric metallic plates o f different
configurations were attached. In the jacks o f these plates precious and
semi-precious stones were inlaid. The nape part o f the ancient saukele was
decorated with a sculptured image o f a fish head, a symbol o f well-being. A
34
wide band of expensive fabric, with a brocade o f gold threads sewn on it,
was hung on the nape. The most skilful cutters, embroiderers (women), and
jewellers took part in manufacturing o f the saukele. To make such a head
gown took a whole year or more. Many saukeles are kept in Omsk
museums, the museum o f Tatarstan (Kazan'), Kasteev memorial museum
(Almaty) and others. At present the saukile js not worn unlike other
traditional costumes.
Married women had other head covers. Till the birth o f the first child,
the wife wore her marriage head cover, which was tall (up to 70 cm), coneshaped, and decorated with precious stones and fur. In the past this head
cover showed her social position. After the birth o f the first child till she
died, the wife had a special head cover o f white cloth, made o f two parts:
the lower, kimeshek, had an opening for the face, and the upper part was a
turban. In some areas o f Kazakhstan, the kimeshek was replaced by a white
shawl with a turban, with varying forms in different regions. It is still worn
by older women.
Task3
Read the text again and answer the questions.
1. What was Kazakh outer clothing made of?
2. What patterns were used in embroidery?
3. What head cover did young women wear on their wedding day?
4. How saukeles were decorated?
5. How long did it take to make a saukele?
6. How long did women have to wear saukele?
7. What is kimeshek?
Task 4
Match the word from column A with the word from column В to make a
phrase.
A____________________ В
threads
Precious
costumes
head
coverings
traditional
stone
fur
position
social
coat
gold
____
patterns
geometrical
Task 5
35
Read the text again. Which is the best summary o f the text? Prove your
choice.
1. Kazakhs paid much attention to head cover o f a woman. Decorations
played an important role in making head wear.
2. Head wear reflected the status o f a woman. You could judge wealth o f a
woman according to her head cover.
Task 6
Discussion
“Abroad many universities have their own uniforms. It is planned to
introduce uniforms in universities o f Kazakhstan”.
Divide into two groups. Group A must think o f five arguments that
support the innovation. Group В must think o f five arguments against it.
When you are ready, each group must present their ideas to the class.
Lesson 6
Wonders o f Kazakhstan
Task 1 '
Answer the following questions.
1. What are wonders o f the world?
2. What new wonders were included into world wonders?
3. What wonders o f Kazakhstan would you include in this list?
4. If you have a chance what part o f Kazakhstan will you visit first?
5. What are the most popular places with tourists visiting Kazakhstan?
Task 2
Read the text and find information about the following:
1. Where can you find Charyn?
2. Where is the Valley o f Castles?
3. How long is The Zailiysky Alatau?
4. What is the highest peak o f The Zailiysky Alatau? How high is it?
5. Where can you see cheetah?
Places to Visit
36
Visitors from any part o f the world can find a place in Kazakhstan
that will remind them of their home countries. These are the most amazing
ones.
Charyn. Everyone who has happened to see Charyn says that it
clearly deserves visiting. The site is named after a small river that
originates from the glaciers o f the Zailiysky Alatau and empties into the Ili
River.
Charyn is famous for its magnificent canyon which is second in size
only to the Grand Canyon in Arizona, USA. The fantastic panorama o f the
Charyn Canyon would make you feel like you are a space traveller
exploring another planet.
The canyon's walls, up to 300 m high, have been exposed to wild
winds, heavy rains and extreme temperatures for thousands o f years. You
can see there the ruins of ancient fortresses, mythical creatures, and even
armies ready for battle, hence the fancy names given to these places: "the
Valley of Castles", "Witch Ravine", "Devil's Ravine", etc. Over 300 birds,
20 amphibians and over 800 arthropods inhabit Charyn.
Zailiysky Alatau. The northern end of the Tien Shan system, the
Zailiysky Alatau comprises a number of peaks, intermountain troughs and a
tract of plain. The Zailiysky Alatau extends eastward between the Chu and
the Chaiyn for 380 km. There are 22 peaks with a height greater than 4,500
m. Special mention is given to Mount Talgar, which is higher than Europe's
highest peak Mont Blanc (5,017 and 4,807 m, respectively).
The Zailiysky Alatau is a place of great charm, and is one o f the
most promising areas in South Kazakhstan in terms of tourist industry
development. As you climb to 2,000 m above sea level or higher, you will
be fascinated at the breathtaking view o f the plain below and clouds curling
at your feet. From the plain, the mountains look like a wall hiding half of
the world. It is indeed an unforgettable spectacle.
Bayanaul. An amazing hill country called “Bayanaul” is located in
the northeast part of the Sary-Arka steppe.
In Kazakh, Bayanaul means “rich, happy mountains”. It is a
combination of fantastic rocks, mysterious caves, pine forests with
mushrooms and berries. Bayanaul is not only one of the most beautiful
places in Kazakhstan; once this land was the scene o f many legends and
important historical events, and is sacred to the Kazakh people.
As you come to Bayanaul, you will understand why this land is so
celebrated. The everlasting change from cold to hot, strong winds and
geological processes created beautiful natural formations. Some of them
are true granite "sculptures": "the Stone Head", "the Dove", and others. The
37
lakes of Jasybai, Sabandykol and Toraigyr are like mirrors in the precious
rim of the mountains.
A few years ago Bayanaul received the status of a National Park, so the
beauty of this land will be preserved for generations to come. For centuries,
people celebrated the healing climate of Bayanaul in poetry; many
children's recreational camps and rest homes have been built on the shores
of its lakes.
Ustyurt. The amazing Ustyurt plateau is located in the western part
of Kazakhstan. Like the famous Charyn Canyon. The surface of Ustyurt is
perfectly flat, as if it was sliced by a gigantic knife, with steep ledges on the
edge (up to 400 m high). It is an unforgettable experience to walk across
this vast plain and suddenly see the land in front of you literally collapsing
hundred of metres down.
Ustyurt stands like a fortress guarding the western steppe between the
Caspian and the Aral Seas. These solitary places with a harsh climate are
the habitat of some endangered animals such the Ustyurt mouflon. The
other animals inhabiting Ustyurt are the honey badger, the hedgehog, the
caracal and the sand cat The rarest animal of Central Asia, the cheetah,
sometimes can be seen there hunting jeyran and saiga antelopes. The
unique wildlife of Ustyurt is protected by the government.
Task3
Work in pairs. Give a proper title for the text.
Task 4
Find the synonyms to the following words using the text.
To flow, flat land, investigate, save, expensive, very large, to stretch, hole
in a mountain
TaskS
Match wonders of the world with the places they were found.
Pyramids of Egypt
Hanging Gardens
Statue of Zeus
Colossus of Rhodes
Temple of Artemis
Mausoleum at Halicarnassus
Lighthouse
a) Babylon 605-562 BC
b) Rodoss island 304 BC
c) Olympia 430 BC
d) Turkey 353 BC
e) Ephesus 550 BC
f) Gese 2600 BC
g) Alexandria 280 BC
38
Task 5
Discussion
Work in groups. Then compare your answers with the opponent group.
1. What are the principles to choose world wonders?
2. Make a list o f modem world wonders.
Task 6
Debate
Scientists offer to include the Golden Man into the list o f World wonders.
What is your attitude towards this fact?
Lesson 7
Family life
Task 1
Which o f these words would you expect to be in the text?
Violence
Bride
Workplace
Divorce
Tradition
Vote
Behavior
Community
• Purchase
Task 2
Now read the text and tick the words mentioned in it to see how well you
did.
Marriage
A variety o f forms o f marriage existed among the Kazakhs. The
most widespread was marriage via matchmaking and purchase o f the bride
for a kalyn (bride-price).
One form o f arranged marriage was the so-called cradle-betrothal,
in which the fathers o f the future bride and groom negotiated their marriage
immediately following the birth o f the children.
One o f the most ancient forms o f marriage among the Kazakhs was
abduction, in which, under certain circumstances, the young man abducted
his future wife either with her agreement or without it.
A necessary condition o f Kazakh wedding was the custom of
recompense payment, the kalyn, from the groom's family to the father of
39
the bride. In general, the bride-price consisted of livestock. In response to
the bride-price, the bride brought a rich dowry to the home o f her intended,
which by tradition obligatorily included a yurt.
The wedding ceremonies began with the matchmaking, at which the
size o f the bride-price and the order of its payments were agreed upon.
From this moment on the preparation o f the dowry was set into motion in
the bride's home. As a rule, the parents carried out the selection o f the
bride, since frequently the bride and groom did not know each other. Only
after payment o f part of the bride-price could the groom "secretly" visit the
bride.
After the payment o f the kalyn, the wedding day (toy) was
designated. Usually the groom first came to the bride's aul, where the
wedding ceremony took place with the aid o f a mullah. This was followed
by festivities at which various ceremonial songs were sung and everyone
was treated to kumys.
The bride departed from her own aul and set off for the groom's
home accompanied by the groom and numerous relatives. When the bride
approached the groom's home, she covered her face. Those who gathered
for the celebration, generally the groom's relatives, sang songs called bet
ashar (uncovering the face). They also sang songs in which the obligations
o f the young wife were enumerated. Then one of the groom’s young
relatives raised the veil slightly from the bride's face with a small stick. At
this time, those who gathered counted the gifts for the bride-inspection.
In the wedding celebrations of the Kazakhs, many ceremonies bear a
religio-magical character, for example the showering o f the newlyweds
with sweets and the "uniting" ceremonies—the drinking o f water by the
bride and groom from one cup, for instance.
The ceremonies associated with the wedding are generally
preserved today, but sometimes, especially in the cities, so-called youth
weddings are organized. At these the acquaintances and relatives simply
gather with the bride and groom around a common table, and lavish
refreshments are presented. In recent years, however, there has been a
tendency toward returning to traditional wedding ceremonies.
Still rather widespread, especially in rural areas, is marriage
through abduction. This is today only an imitation of abduction, however,
since the girl, as a rule, willingly goes to the groom's home. In such
instances, the wedding is arranged immediately. The groom's parents ask
forgiveness from the bride's parents, who give it. After the wedding the
bride's dowry is brought.
Among the Kazakhs a young wife must behave very modestly; she
does not have the right, especially at first, to call her husband's relatives by
40
name, especially the older ones, or show them her face; she must make way
for them, let them pass by, and do other acts o f obedience. These taboos,
for the most part, are kept even today.
Task 3
Match the words with their definitions.
Groom
Something that is forbidden because o f the strong religious
or social custom
Bride
Property or money that a bride’s father gives to her husband
Kalyn
Dowry
A man who is getting married
Payment from the groom’s family
Abduction
Taboo
Woman on her wedding day
Obedience Doing what one is told to do
Taking somebody away illegally, using force
Task 4
Fill the gaps in the sentences using these key words and phrases from the
text
|
Obligations, aul, cradle betrothal, bet ashar, dowry, taboo, veil.
1. A tradition o f uncovering the face is called ....
2 ... is when parents arrange marriage o f their children just after their birth.
3 ... is a community o f relatives living together in one place.
4. During the wedding ceremony groom’s relatives show the bride’s face
by raising...
S .... include livestock and sometimes a yurt.
6. It is ... to call husband’s relatives by their names
7. Bride’s ... are enumerated in songs
TaskS
Read the text again and answer the following questions.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
When can a groom see his bride for the first time?
Who is a bride accompanied by when she leaves her aul?
Who usually starts the wedding ceremony?
What does a uniting ceremony include?
When is the reason o f asking bride parents' forgiveness?
41
6. How does a married woman show her obedience?
Task 6
Discussion
Parliament is passing legislation to permit Polygamy. Is Polygamy
acceptable in a modern society? What is your point on polygamy? Do you
accept it? Give your reasons.
Task 7
Debate on the following statement
Simplifying the procedure of adoption leads to orphans’ number decrease.
2.2 Great Britain
Lesson 1
Royal family
Task 1
Answer the following questions
1. What famous people o f Great Britain do you know?
2. Who is the head o f the country?
3. Who is the head o f the government?
4. What is the residence of the Queen?
5. Who belongs to the Royal family?
6. Who will be a King or a Queen after Elizabeth П?
Task 2
Find an appropriate answer to the following test.
1)What it the surname of the Royal Family?
a)Buckingham b)Windsor
c)Kensington
2)Which member of the Royal Family is next in line to the throne?
a)Prince Charles b)Prince William c)Prince Andrew
3)What’s the name of the Queen’s official residence in London?
a)The Tower of London b)Buckingham Palace c)Westminster House
4)Which member of the Royal Family died on 31 st August 1997?
a)Lady Diana b)The Queen Mother c)Princess Margaret
5)Which sport do Prince Charles and his sons like to play?
a)Waterpolo b)Golf c)Polo
6)Which of the following things does the Queen not have?
42
a)Number plates on her cars
general elections
b)Money in her handbag
c)A vote at
Task3
Read the text.
PRINCE WILLIAM .
The elder son and heir of the Prince and the late Princess of Wales
was born on June 21, 1982. The boy was christened William Arthur Philip
Louis Windsor.
Both parents wanted William, and later Harry, to have as normal a
childhood as possible. Unlike previous heirs to the throne, who were
educated at home by private tutors at the same age, William's formal
education began at the age o f three at Mrs Mynor’s Nursery School. It
continued at Wetherby, a nearby preparatory day school, where emphasis
was placed on music and manners.
At first, Princess Diana was against sending William to boarding
school. Prince Charles equally did not want his son to suffer as he had at
Gordonstoun. But for reasons of security, a compromise was reached. Aged
eight, William was sent to Ludgrove Preparatory School in Wokingham.
His school reports revealed his talent on the sports field, where he
impressed as a rugby and hockey team captain.
At 13, William was sent to Eton College. His housemaster Dr
Andrew Gailey, a respected constitutional historian and music lover from
Northern Ireland, has taken William under his wing educationally and
emotionally, and has been an important influence as William has sought to
rebuild his life. Having proven to be the fastest junior swimmer at Eton in
10 years, from this term William will captain the swimming team, holding
the title o f Joint Keeper of Swimming. His duties include team selection,
greeting visiting teams, keeping records, training new boys. William has
also been appointed secretary of the renowned Agricultural Club, and
recently received Eton’s Sword o f Honour, the school's highest award for a
first-year army cadet. “My boy’s got a good brain,” Diana would note
proudly, “considering how hopeless both his parents were.” And close to
the first anniversary of his mother’s death, William, who had gained three
GCSE passes the previous year, received a further nine GCSEs with top A*
and A grades in English, history and languages, and Bs for other subjects
including maths and science. He returned for his final year at Eton on
September 8 to take geography, English and history of art at A level.
Like any other teenager, the second-in-line to the throne listens to
techno music, selects all his own clothes, and enjoys playing computer
43
games. For his seventeenth birthday, William was given a VW G olf car by
Charles.
Being tall, elegant and self-assured, William has become the focus o f
much female attention —which embarrasses him terribly. He has chosen to
socialise only with girls from families known to him. His circle includes
Lady Iona Douglas Home, Holly Branson, Emilia D ’Erlanger and Zara
Simmonds, among many other attractive young women.
“William has so much sheer personal confidence for his age, but it
has absolutely nothing to do with his position,” observes one Royal insider.
William always seems to know where he’s going and he always gets what
he wants.” As he reaches adulthood, Prince William has already
demonstrated that he possesses the maturity, sensitivity and strength he will
need to rise to his destiny as the future o f the Monarchy.
Task 4
Match the words on the left with those on the right to make collocations.
Private
Boarding
Sport
Team
Throne
Personal
army
cadet
field
tutor
heir
school
confidence
captain
Task 5
Discussion
Imagine you are the Queen /King for a day. What would you do? Where
would you go? Who would you meet? You have all the money you need
and all the people you need to help you plan your ideal day.
Morning:
Afternoon:
Evening:
Night:
Task 6
Debate on one o f the positions which is close to you and prove it.
1. The main reason for having a Royal Family is to attract more tourists to
a country.
44
2 . 1 would hate to be a member o f a Royal Family.
3 .1 would love to be a member o f a Royal Family.
4. Countries that have Royal Families should be proud o f them.
5. Royal Families spend too much public money.
6. Royal Families are an important part o f a country’s history.
Lesson 2
The UK today
Task 1
Which o f these statistics about the UK do you think are true?
1. On average, women live ten years longer than men.
2. 75 per cent o f men between 55 and 64 are overweight.
3. Over two-thirds o f women go to work.
4. Nearly a third o f the population live on their own.
5. Over three-quarters o f the population get up before 8 a.m. during the
week.
Task 2
Read the text and check you guesses.
The Way People Change Their Lifestyle In The Uk
Let's start with some good news - people live longer nowadays. The
bad news for the government is that it has to pay out more in pensions. On
average, people live for 78 years (75 for men and 80 for women) - in 1911
it was only 52! It is because we have a healthy lifestyle? Maybe. More
people see smoking as a health hazard; only a quarter o f the population
smokes compared to half 30 years ago. People eat more fruit and less fat
but about three-quarters o f men and two-thirds of women between 55 and
64 are seriously overweight.
More people work than ever before - 79% o f men and 69% of
women have jobs. And people earn three times more than 50 years ago but the difference between rich and poor people is bigger. The most
important growth area for jobs is in computers. Young people certainly see
qualifications as important to get a good job. The percentage o f 16-18 yearolds in education went up from 35% to 55% in the 1990s. And did you
know, the British work the longest hours per week in Europe? That's an
average o f 45.7 hours for men and 40.7 hours for women.
Traditional family and home life is changing. In fact, nearly a third
o f the population lives alone and there are fewer marriages nowadays. Each
year, almost a quarter o f a million babies are bom in England and Wales to
45
parents who are not married. Women are having children later and 29 is
now the average age for having a baby. Young people are staying with their
parents longer than before, mainly because it is expensive to get a place to
live.
The proverb 'Early to bed, early to rise' seems a good description of
the British lifestyle. On weekdays, most people get up before 8 a.m. and go
to bed before midnight. Main meal times are from 8 a.m. to 9 a.m.
(breakfast), at 1 p.m. (lunch) and between 5 p.m. and 9 p.m. (dinner).
What do people do in the evenings? Are the Brits a nation of coach
potatoes? On average, they watch TV for 25 hours a week. Children and
teenagers watch less TV than 25-44 year-olds but spend five times longer
on computers, mainly playing computer games. The biggest Internet users
are the 16-24 year-olds - on average they are online for four minutes a day.
Task 3.
Read the text again and answer these questions.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Why are people living longer?
What job area is growing fast?
Why are young people staying with their parents longer?
Why do some people think the UK is a nation of'couch potatoes'?
Task 4
Discussion
- Did any information about the UK surprise you? Compare it with
Kazakhstan.
- Do you think you do the same things your parents did 20 years ago?
Discuss it with your classmates.
- Are you satisfied with your lifestyle today?
Look through the list of jobs and put them into 3 columns. Which column
is larger? Comment on it.
Jobs for men
Jobs for women
Jobs for both
Accountant, doctor, teacher, nurse, bank manager, tax inspector,
police officer, post officer, chef, farmer, worker, plumber, road inspector,
pilot, artist, engineer, judge, attorney, electrician, computer programmer,
soldier
46
Which of these jobs will you choose to have and which one will you never
have and why?
Task 5. Debate
Marriage is an obstacle to get a promotion in one’s job.
Divide into two groups. Group A must think, of five arguments that support
the statement above. Group В must think of five arguments against the
statement.
When you are ready, each group must present their ideas to the class.
Lesson 3
Citizenship
Task 1
Key words
Skim the text to find words with these definitions.
1. Someone who travels to another country in order to find work.
___________ {Para I)
2. Someone who has the right to live permanently n a particular country
and has the right to the
legal and social benefits of that country._______________ (Para2 )
3. A plan or suggestion, especially a formal one, that a group has to
consider._______ (ParaS)
4. To be an important part of something._______________ ( Verb, para
4)
5. To do some work without getting paid._______________ ( Verb, para
5)
6. Happening or existing now.______________ (Рагаб)
7. Someone who has recently started to live or work somewhere, or who
has just arrived in a place.
______________ (Para 8)
8. The fact that very different people or things exist within a group or
place.__________ (Para 10)
9. Feeling that someone or something cannot be trusted.
(Para 11)
10. A gradual change or development that produces a particular
result._______________ (Para 13 )
Task 2
47
Which of these words would you expect to be in a text about citizenship
and immigration?
Tick your choices.
National
violence
'
vote
pay
report
community
points
extremism
differences
integration
judge
democracy
passport
plane
neighbour
workplace
Task 3
Now read the text to see how well you did.
Rules to Make Migrants Integrate
1 Government ministers want to introduce national British day as
part of a ‘citizenship revolution’. They also want to toughen rules for
migrants and to instill community pride in all 18-year-olds.
2 They intend to give every teenager in the UK a citizenship pack
when they are old enough to vote, and say that migrants should only be
able to become British citizens if they can demonstrate good behaviour and
willingness to integrate.
3 The national day would be a public holiday, similar to Australia
Day in Australia. The proposals come from the communities secretary,
Ruth Kelly, and the immigration minister, Liam Byrne. They would also
like to introduce citizenship ceremonies for anyone who wants to come to
live n the UK.
4 Some of the ministers’ ideas are likely to feature in new report.
The prime minister-in-waiting, Gordon Brown, is very much in favour of
some of the ideas.
5 Another idea is to improve links between veterans and young
people. The citizenship pack for 18-year-olds would provide information
on democracy, volunteering and civic duties such as jury service. Young
people could reduce their student loan repayments if they volunteer for
community work.
6 Mr Byrne and Ms Kelly say that the current settlement policy for
new migrants is “difficult to understand and unclear ”.In future, new
citizens would gain points for the length of time they have spent in the
country, for bringing new investment into the UK, for passing English
tests, for demonstrating their knowledge of the UK, for doing civic work
48
and for living in a law-abiding way. Points would be deducted for anti­
social behaviour and for criminal behaviour.
7 The ministers continued, “This form of points system would be the
basis of a clearer relationship between the citizen and the state. An easy to
understand contract such as this would encourage integration and
demonstrate a clearer sense in which British citizenship is earned.’"
8 Local government should also provide citizenship deal for
newcomers, setting out their responsibilities to be good neighbours, as well
as heir access to English language training and employment, say the
ministers.
9 A ‘life in Britain —good neighbour contract ’ would be provided to
all migrants from inside and outside the EU, including those that stay
temporarily. The contract would be introduced alongside identity cards.
The ministers also agree that councils should spend less on translation
services and more on English language teaching.
lOThe ministers warn that after 40 years of diversity, Britain ’s
communities are no longer looking outwards and celebrating what they
have in common, instead, they are beginning to look inwards, stressing
their differences and divisions.
1
IThe threat to integration comes both from Islamist extremism and
also groups like the British National Party. Mr. Byrne said that, “We risk
seeing a more divided society, more suspicious of each other and no longer
coming together around shared goals. We need a stronger sense of why we
live in a common place and have a shared future.” Mr Byme admitted that
the large number of eastern European migrants had proved a “shock to the
system ”.
12He aid new migrants needed to do more to “help them understand
British values and its way of life.’’ He added: “We need to make it clearer
that citizenship isn’t simply handed out, but is something which is earned. ’
13The ministers say new trends are dividing Britons in the
workplace, the family, the media and new technology. They insist
migration has brought benefits, but say that the changes are happening too
quickly
Task 4
Are these sentences True (T) or False (F ) according to the text?
Change any false sentences to make them true.
1. Britain already has a national day.
2. British people can vote from the age of sixteen.
3. Government ministers want to introduce citizenship ceremonies.
4. The ministers would like more people to do volunteer work.
49
5. The current settlement policy for new immigrants is easy to understand.
6. Minority groups in Britain are becoming more integrated into society.
7. British society s becoming divided.
8. Ministers say citizenship shouldn’t be easy to obtain.
9. A lot of migrants from eastern European countries have recently arrived
in Britain.
Task 5
Odd word out
Which word doesn’t fit into each word-group? Put a cross next to it. Prove
Government words
council
newcomer
Prime Minister
party
Minister
Legal/official words Words to describe
people and their status
Teenager
Policy
student
workplace
media
contract
goal
veteran
report
18-year-old
Task 6
Collocations
Match the words on the left with those on the right to make collocations
from the text.
system
civic
policy
jury
settlement
loan
points
duty
student
behaviour
provide
information
pass
service
criminal
tests
Now complete the sentences using the collocations.
1. The
government
are hoping to
introduce
a new
for immigrants.
.
2. Many people no longer have a sense of_______________
3. You have to go to court to do_________________
.
4. Is it a good idea to use a ____________________ to decide who can
stay in a country?
50
5. Many websites___________________ on different countries and their
immigration policies.
6. I don’t have any money and I still haven’t managed to pay off my
7. Is there a connection between___________________ and drugs?
Task 7 Discussion
Does your country have a national day? If yes, how would you explain it to
a visitor?
If no, choose a date for a new national holiday. Give reasons why you
would choose this date.
Does your country require new immigrants to take a citizenship test? What
subjects would you include when writing questions for a citizenship test? Is
nationalism a good or a bad thing? Tty to think of different instances where
national pride is acceptable or not acceptable.
Lesson 4
St. Patrick’s day
Task 1
Answer the questions
1. When is St Patrick’s Day?
2. Why is this day celebrated as St Patrick’s Day?
3. Where is it celebrated?
4. When was St Patrick bom?
5. What happened to St Patrick at the age of 16?
6. What did the saint see as his ‘calling’?
7. What is a shamrock?
8. What use did St Patrick make of the shamrock?
9. What is a leprechaun?
10. What should you do if you meet a leprechaun?
11. Where is the blarney stone and what is special about it?
12. What does the word ‘blarney’ mean today?
13. Did St Patrick drive all the snakes out of Ireland?
14. What should you wear on St Patrick’s Day?
15. What do children do on St Patrick’s Day?
16. What do people traditionally eat on St Patrick’s Day?
17. What do pub owners do on St Patrick’s Day?
Task 2
Skim the text and check your guesses about St Patrick’s Day.
51
St. P a tric k ’s D ay
St. Patrick is the patron saint and national apostle of Ireland. He
was born in the fourth century and is famous for bringing Christianity into
Ireland. St. Patrick’s Day is a very well known Irish national holiday,
which is celebrated not only in Ireland but all around the world. It falls on
the 17th of March.
St. Patrick was born to wealthy parents in the late fourth centuiy.
Until the age of 16 years old, he thought of himself as a pagan. He was
kidnapped and sold as a slave at this age by Irish marauders. It was during
this capture that he turned to God. He managed to escape after being a
slave for six years and then studied in a monastery in Gaul for 12 years.
This was when he knew that his ‘calling’ was to try and convert all the
pagans in Ireland into Christianity. St. Patrick went from monastery to
monastery, successfully converting people to Christianity. The Celtic
Druids were very unhappy with him and tried to arrest him several times
but he always managed to escape. After 30 years of being a missionary in
Ireland, he finally settled down in a place called County Down. He died on
the 17th of March, AD 461.
Shamrocks, leprechauns and the blarney stone are associated with
St. Patrick’s Day. Shamrocks are three-leaved clovers found growing in
patches on grass. You are thought to be lucky if you find a four-leaved
clover, so do keep it if you ever come across one! Leprechauns are little
Irish fairies, and they are thought to work as shoe-makers for other fairies.
The Irish say that if a leprechaun is caught by a human, he will reveal
where he hides his pot of gold. On this day, pictures of shamrocks and
leprechauns are hung everywhere. Some people even dress up as
leprechauns complete with their big green hats!
The village of Blarney is situated northwest of the Irish village of
Cork. Blarney comes from the Irish word ‘An blama’, meaning the plain.
Lamey Castle is a very famous castle in this village and is 90 feet tall. The
world famous Blarney Stone is on the top story. It is said that if one kisses
this stone, one will be given the gift of eloquence, meaning to have
beautiful speaking abilities. Nowadays, the word blarney means the ability
to influence and coax with fair words and soft speech without offending.
Legend also says that St. Patrick could raise people from the dead.
He is well-known for driving the snakes out of Ireland, although many
people dispute how true this is! Another great story was how he used the
shamrock, with its three leaves, to explain the Holy Trinity (the Father, the
Son and the Holy Ghost) to his followers.
52
St. Patrick’s Day is celebrated world-wide with people dancing
and singing in Irish pubs, watching St Patrick’s Day parade, drinking
‘green’ beer, wearing green clothes and juts generally having a good time.
Children in Ireland have a tradition of pinching their friends who don’t
wear green on this day!
Corned beef and cabbage is what most people have on this day.
Another popular dish is Irish soda bread and potato pancakes. Irish pub
owners go crazy on this day, putting green food colouring into their beers
and traditional Irish Guinness Stout is a sell out in all Irish pubs! People
also drink lots of Irish coffee, which is made with warm whiskey, sugar,
coffee and topped off with whipped cream. Sounds delicious? It is!
Task3
Are these sentences True (T) or False (F) according to the text?
Change any false sentences to make them true.
1. St Patrick's day is celebrated on the 17th of March.
2. St Patrick was a slave owner.
3. You are lucky if you find a four-leaved clover.
4. Leprechaun is a wild animal.
5. Leprechaun can help you to find gold
6. If you kiss Blarney Stone you will be beautiful.
7. People say that St Patrick could make dead people «alive.
8. Children pinch friends if they don’t wear green.
9. Irish people drink coffee made with whiskey and cream.
Task 4 Match the following words with their definitions.
Capture
marauder
dispute
pinch
delicious
plain
whiskey
leprechaun
escape
catch
tasty
fairy
flat place
hard drink
thief
discuss
hurt
hide
Task 5
Discussion. Comment on the following Irish proverbs in small groups
- Better the coldness of a friend than the sweetness of an enemy.
- Let your anger set with the sun and not rise again with it.
53
Task 6 Debate.
Parliament is planning to introduce St Patrick’s Day in Kazakhstan.
Divide into two groups. Group A must think of five arguments that support
the statement above. Group В must think of five arguments against the
statement.
When you are ready, each group must present their ideas to the class.
Lesson 5
Teenagers
Task 1
Look at the adjectives below. Which words describe young people? Which
ones describe older people?
Wise
dynamic
innovative
adolescent
knowledgeable
shallow
rebellious
skeptical
moody
Task 2
In your opinion, in what ways do the following reflect the values and
concerns of young people?
recent films
modem art
television programmes
Task3
Read the text. Which is the best summary of the text?
1 Culture is dominated by the concerns of young people. This is a bad thing
because this culture is shallow and lacks a sense of history.
2 The vibrant, energetic culture of young people is transforming our society
and culture, making it more profound and meaningful.
We're All Teenagers
There is a strange phenomenon. Britain is getting older. In fact, the
population is older now than it has been for over a century. Yet at the same
time our culture has never been more adolescent. Young people may be a
dwindling minority, but they exercise an extraordinarily powerful influence
on the cultural stage, from television and newspapers to film and art. The
turning point, of course, was the 1960s. Until then, young people were
largely ignored in a culture that was stiflingly middle-aged.
54
A generation, who were brought up in very different conditions from
those of their parents, rebelled in a way that remains unprecedented in
western society. It is not difficult to explain or understand the 60s. The
young were a product of the long postwar boom, not war and
unemployment, and the baby boom lent them exceptional demographic
weight. What is far more difficult to comprehend is why our culture, in the
decades since, has become progressively more infantile. It is as if the 60s
gave birth to a new dynamic, which made young people the dominant and
permanent subjects of our culture. It started with the birth of pop music as a
youth genre, but the concerns and attitudes of the young generation have
since permeated areas that were never adolescent. One only has to think of
Britart, for example, whose motif has been the desire to shock, or film,
whose preoccupation with violence as spectacle is driven by the appetite of
the young, to see how powerful these adolescent values have become. It is
not that they are simply negative or offer nothing: on the contrary, there is
much to be admired in their energy, skepticism and commitment to
innovation. But they are also characterised by transience and shallowness, a
desire to shock for shock's sake, and a belief that only the present is of
value.
A culture that succumbs to adolescence is a culture that is drained of
meaning and experience, not to mention history and profundity. But why is
it happening? It can be argued that the 60s unleashed a new cultural
dynamic, which is still working its way through society. A new mindset
was formed, which gave priority to the young. It is plausible to suggest that
parents and grandparents who themselves were the rebels of the 60s are
more inclined to respect, and defer to, the sensibilities and demands of
youth. And this tendency has been reinforced by a new technological
dynamic, manifest in the internet, mobiles and the like, which has left older
generations feeling a little left out, and lent credence to a misplaced
technological determinism among the young. There is more than a grain of
truth in all this. But as the proportion of young people steadily declines,
one would still expect the sheer weight of growing age to assert itself.
So far there is absolutely no sign of this. In fact, extraordinarily, the
opposite is happening. The underlying reason for all this could not be more
fundamental. It concerns the western condition. For over half a century we
have only known prosperity, never experienced mass unemployment,
never fought wars except on the edges at other people's expense,
never known the extremes of human existence, comfortable in a continent
that has enjoyed, for the most part, a similar existence and, having turned
its back on grand visions, opted for the quiet life. Yet it is extremes,
personal or political or both, that teach us the meaning of life. Without
55
them, the excesses of the young provide a little of the excitement otherwise
lacking. The outcome is a growing shallowness.
Britart may shock, but it hardly provides us with a deeper insight into
the human condition. Hollywood movies may entertain, but they barely
ever enlighten. An adolescent culture is one that lives on the surface,
unencumbered by memory, light on knowledge and devoid of wisdom.
Task 4
Read the text again and complete the sentences with the correct ending.
1 The tastes and concerns of young people are dominant...
a. because there are more young people nowadays.
b. despite the fact that there are more old people nowadays.
2 Key factors in the social and cultural change that began in the 1960s
were...
a. economic prosperity and peace
b. unemployment and hard work
3 The concerns of young people...
a. are only reflected in pop music
b. are reflected in many areas of the arts
4 According to the writer, youth culture...
a. is negative and dull
b. is only interested in the present
5 According to the writer, our culture is shallow because...
a. life is too easy
b. life is demanding and hard
Task 5 Choose the correct definition for the words from the text.
1 dwindling
a. getting bigger
b. getting smaller
2 stiflingly
a. unencouragingly
b .ЬаЬ у
b. encouragingly
botim
a. increase in the birth rate
birth rate
b. decrease in the
56
4 motif
a. repeated idea
b. shape
5 transience
a. lasting a long time
b. lasting a short time
6 succumbs
a. loses the fight against something
against something
b. wins the fight
7 plausible
a. incredible
b. believable
8 manifest
a. clearly shown
b. unclear
9 opted
b. lost
b. chose
10 devoid
a. lacking
b. possessing
Task 6
Debate.
‘Teenage culture is shallow, transient and lacks a sense of history.’
Divide into two groups. Group A must think of five arguments that support
the statement above. Group В must think of five arguments against the
statement.
For example
Group A Young people like watching reality TV programmes like Big
Brother —they are only interested in celebrities
Group В Some young pop stars write great songs which say profound
things about life and love
When you are ready, each group must present their ideas to the class.
Have a class vote. Find out who agrees, and who disagrees with the
statement.
Lesson 6
57
National Clothes
Task 1.
Answer the following questions.
1. What national clothes are there in your country?
2. Do you wear them every day?
3. What do young people prefer to wear in your country?
4. Do you follow fashion trends?
5.
Task 2. Match the words with their definitions.
A metal or plastic fastener for a belt
Kilt
To cover smth or somebody in material
Garment
A jacket for official occasions
Buckle
National Scottish clothing
Strap
A cut in the clothing
To wrap
A piece of clothing
Tuxedo
To pay for using smth. for short time
Pride
A narrow middle part of the human body
Slit
A feeling of pleasure at your own achievements
Waist
A strip of leather used for fastening
To hire
Task 3. Read the text.
Kilt
The Scottish kilt displays uniqueness of design, construction, and
convention which differentiate it from other garments fitting the general
description. It is a tailored garment that is wrapped around the wearer's
body at the natural waist around the front and back and across the front
again to the opposite side. The fastenings consist of straps and buckles on
both ends, the strap on the inside end usually passing through a slit in the
waistband to be buckled on the outside.
A kilt covers the body from the waist down to just above the knees.
The history of the kilt stretches back to at least late 16th century Scotland.
However, the nationalism of that tradition is relatively recent. It was only
in the early 19th century that the kilt was adopted by Lowlanders and the
Scottish Diaspora as a symbol of national identity. People from other
countries with Celtic connections, some Irish, Cornish, Welsh and Manx,
have also adopted tartan kilts in recent times..
The kilt first appeared as the great kilt, a full length garment whose
upper half could be worn as a cloak draped over the shoulder, or brought up
over head as a cloak. The small kilt or walking kilt (similar to the 'modern1
kilt) did not develop until the late 17th or early 18th century, and is
essentially the bottom half of the great kilt
58
Today most Scotsmen regard kilts as formal dress or ceremonial
national diess. Although there are still a few people who wear a kilt daily,
it is generally owned or hired to be worn at weddings or other formal
occasions, much the same way as tuxedos in America, and may be worn by
anyone regardless of nationality or descent. For formal wear, kilts are
usually worn with a Prince Charlie.
Kilts are also used for parades by groups such as the Scouts, and in
many places kilts are seen in force at Highland games and pipe band
championships.
Certain regiments/units of the British Army and armies of other
Commonwealth nations (including Australia, Canada, New Zealand and
South Africa) still continue to wear kilts as part of dress or duty uniform,
though they have not been used in combat since 1940. Kilts are considered
appropriate for ceremonial parades, office duties, less formal parades.
In recent years, kilts have also become increasingly common in
Scotland and around the world for casual wear. It is not uncommon to see
kilts worn at Irish pubs in the US. The kilt is associated with a sense of
Scottish national pride and will often be seen being worn, along with a
football top, when members of the Tartan Army are watching a football or
rugby match.
Task 4. Are these sentences True (T) or False (F) according to the text?
Change any false sentences to make them true.
1. Welsh people adopted kilt as a national cloth in the 19 century.
2. First kilt was like a long dress.
3. Kilts are never worn daily.
4. A small kilt was developed in the 1?7 century.
5. You can’t hire a kilt for ceremonies.
6. You can see people wearing kilts even in America.
Task S Answer the following questions.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
When did the history of a kilt begin?
How long is a modem kilt?
What is the national Scottish instrument?
Where is a kilt still considered to be a uniform?
Are kilts worn only by men?
Task 6 Discussion. Work in groups. Then compare your answers with the
opponent group.
Young people nowadays do not value national clothes and neglect to wear
even on holidays. What are the reasons for this?
How much is dress code important in your society? How much is it
important for you to follow fashion trends?
Task 7
Debate on the given statement.
Unisex clothes erase borders between women and men
Divide into two groups. Group A must think of five arguments that support
the statement above. Group В must think of five arguments against the
statement.
Lesson 7
Task 1
Ask and answer these questions with another student:
1. Where was the World Cup in 2006? Which country won?
2. What does the winner’s flag look like? Is it a tricolour?
Does it have an emblem, or a coat of arms?
3. Which country’s flag is flying here?
4. Was your country’s flag flying in the World Cup in 2006? If yes, did
many people wave the flag during the competition, or wear clothes in the
flag’s colours?
Task 2
Read the text and decide which of the following is the best title for it and
prove your choice.
1. World Cup flags
2. World Cup 2006 flags
3. Flags from around the world
During the World Cup in 2006 many English people started to fly the
English flag. There were flags from car windows, from the top of houses
and in the street. English flags were eveiywhere. Some people thought it
was great because it made everyone feel happy. Other people thought it
was terrible. They said flags from car windows were dangerous, and flags
60
on houses didn’t look good. However, during World Cup month England
was a sea of red and white!
Before 1996 English people usually waved the British flag during
football matches, but now they wave the English flag. This is because
during the 1996 European Football Championship England played against
Scotland. English football supporters didn’t want to wave the ‘Union Jack’
because it includes the Scottish flag. However, the Union Jack was flying
at the World Cup, but not for England. It’s in the Australian flag.
Sweden, who was in group В with England, has a different opinion
of their flag - they fly it all year round. In private gardens, in public parks
and in town the blue and gold Swedish flag is a familiar sight all the time,
not just during the World Cup.
What about other flags that were flying in the World Cup in 2006?
Well, they included the only two flags which haye writing on them that can
be easily seen: the flags of Saudi Arabia and Brazil. The former is in
Arabic, and the latter is in Portuguese. In fact, because of the religious
words on the Saudi Arabian flag it can’t be used on T-shirts etc. The
flagpole is on the left of the flag so that the writing can be read from left to
right. In addition, there’s a sword on this flag. But it wasn’t the only flag in
the competition with a weapon on it. The Angolan flag includes a machete
- a large heavy knife. However, the only country with a modem weapon on
it wasn’t in the competition: Mozambique’s flag includes an AK-47.
Only two national flags are square and one of those was flying in the
World Cup in 2006: the flag of Switzerland. Symbols for the ICRC include
a red cross on a white background (a reversal of the Swiss flag) a red
crescent and, since 2005, a red crystal. Only one country was flying the
Islamic crescent: Tunisia.
The oldest tricolour, the flag of the Netherlands, was flying as well
as the French tricolour. The latter influenced the flag designs of Costa Rica,
Italy and Mexico - all seen flying in the World Cup in 2006. In addition
there were no less than ten other countries which had flags of three
different coloured bands, either horizontal or vertical.
But one tricolour flag will not be seen again after the World Cup.
Just before the competition Serbia and Montenegro decided to become
independent states. So their football team represented a country that no
longer existed. And Paraguay’s red, white and blue may have the most
common colours, but it’s unique among national flags. This is because it’s
got two different sides. On one side is the national coat of arms but on the
reverse side there’s a different emblem.
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But my favourite flag, the only one with 5 sides, didn’t appear in any
German stadium. That’s because the Nepalese are much more interested in
cricket than football!
Task 3
Read the text again and answer the following questions.
1. What colour is the English flag?
2. The Union Jack is made from 3 countries’ flags. Name two of them.
3. Which country has a blue and gold flag?
4. Which two countries’ flags have writing on them?
5. What language do they speak in Brazil?
6. How many countries’ flags in the competition had a weapon on them?
7. What colour is the cross on the Swiss flag?
8. How many flags were tricolour in the World Cup 2006?
9. What are the three most common colours for flags?
10. Which countries in the reading did not play in the World Cup in 2006?
11. How many flags, which are unique is some way, are mentioned in the
reading?
Task 4
Vocabulary
The following adjectives appear in the text. What is the object that they.
describing and where is the object? An example is done for you.________
what?
where?
adjective
terrible
dangerous
familiar
religious
modem
Islamic
horizontal
common
reverse
flags everywhere
in England
Task 5
Represent the flag of your country. What does each element mean?
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Task 6 Debate on the following statement.
“Black colour is not acceptable in flags.”
2.3 The USA
Lesson 1
Prominent people of the USA
Task 1
Answer the following questions
1. When did slavery end in the United States?
2. Did the end of slavery mean that blacks and whites were treated
equally?
3. Do you know the meaning of segregation?
4. Why do you think Martin Luther King, JR. was able to persuade
people that things had to change in the United States?
Task 2
Read the text and check your guesses.
Martin Luther King, JR.
Martin Luther King, JR., helped black people in the southern
United States win equal rights.
King was bom in Atlanta, Georgia, on January 15, 1929/ As a
young boy, he loved books and was a good speaker. After graduating
from collage in 1948, King trained to be a minister like his father.
During that time, he learnt about Mahatma Gandhi, the Indian leader,
and his belief in nonviolent protest.
King then went to Boston University where he studied to be a
doctor of theology. He met Coretta Scott there.
They were married in 1953 and had four children.
In 1955, King became the minister of a Baptist church in
Montgomery, Alabama. He knew that black people were not treated
fairy in the south and wanted to try to change that. He met Ralph
Abernathy, another minister, there. They worked together to help black
people.
Some people did not like what King and his followers were doing.
In 1957, someone bombed his home and his church. He was put in a jail
many times for protesting how people were treated. He was also
stabbed. But he never used violence and asked his followers not to use
violence.
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King was famous for the speeches he gave to persuade people that
things must change. He inspired black and white people to fight for the
fair treatment o f blacks. In 1963, King gave his most famous speech to
thousands o f people in Washington, DC. It is called his “I have a
dream” speech.
King led many protest marches in the American south during the
1960s. He won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964. He also wrote two books
about black people’s struggle for the same rights as white people.
King knew he might be killed one day by someone who did not
like what he did. He was shot and killed on April 4, 1968, in Memphis,
Tennessee. Today, people are still inspired by the speeches he gave and
by his courage to fight for what he believed in without using violence.
T ask3
Are these sentences True (T) or False (F) according to the text? Change
any false sentences to make them true.
1. Martin Luther King,Jr. had the same profession as his father.
2. King studied religion at the university.
3. King believed in using violence to make changes.
4. In the 1950’s, black and white Americans were treated equally.
5. Many people tried to hurt King.
Task 4
Answer the following questions according to the text.
1. What did Dr. King learn from the Indian leader, Mahatma Gandhi?
2. What did King want to change in the United States?
3. In what ways did people try to stop King’s work?
4. How did King inspire people to work for change? (Give two things
King did.)
5. What was Dr. King’s most famous speech?
6. What kind o f books did he write?
7. What prize did he received for his hard work?
8. When and how did Martin Luther King, Jr. die?
Task 5
Choose the best alternative to the underlined words
1. King trained to be a minister.
a) traveled by rail
b) studied c)
fought
2. He believed in nonviolent actions.
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a) fighting
b) doing nothing
c) peaceful
3. He studied to be a doctor of theology,
a) religion
b) law c) education
4. In the 1950’s in the U.S., black people were segregated from white
people.
a) hurt b) together c) separated
5. King tried to persuade people that thing had to change,
a) convince b) force c) march
6. King’s speeches inspired people to work for change,
a) fought b) encouraged c) trained
7. King’s home was bombed and someone once tried to stab him.
a) explosion b) shoot c) cut with a knife
8. King had a lot of courage.
a) money b) bravery c)education
9. He wrote two books about the black people’s struggle,
a) fight b) treatment c) church
10.King led many protest m arches in the 1960’s.
a) parades b)music concerts c) demonstration walks
Task 6
Questions for discussion.
1. Have you ever heard Dr. King’s famous “I have A Dream” speech?
2. “I have a dream that my four children will one day live in a nation
where they will not be judged by the color of their skin, but by the
content of their heart.” This quotation comes from the “I have A
Dream Speech”. Explain it in your own words.
3. Do you think that Dr. King’s dreams have become a reality?
4. Do you believe it is possible to make great changes in society
without violence.
5. What other great leaders have believed in non-violent protest?
65
Lesson 2
Native Americans
T ask 1
Answer the questions
1. What is a tribe?
2. How many American tribes can you name?
3. Why did most of the native tribes disappear?
4. What states do they live?
5. What is an Indian reservation?
Task 2 Read the text
Cherokee
Cherokee is the largest Native American group in the United States.
Formerly the largest and most important tribe in the Southeast, they
occupied mountain areas o f North and South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama,
and Tennessee. The Cherokee language belongs to the Iroquoian branch of
the Hokan-Siouan linguistic stock (see Native American languages).
By the 16th cent., the Cherokee had a settled, advanced culture
based on agriculture. Hernando De Soto visited them in 1540. They were
frequently at war with the Iroquois tribes o f New York but proved
generally valuable allies for the British against the French. Soon after
1750, smallpox destroyed almost half the tribe. Formerly friendly with
Carolina settlers, they were provoked into war with the colonists in 1760,
and two years followed before the Cherokee sued for peace.
In 1820 they adopted a republican form o f government, and in 1827
they established themselves as the Cherokee Nation, with their capital at
New Echota, in N Georgia, under a constitution providing for an elective
principal chief, a senate, and a house o f representatives. Literacy was
aided by the invention of a Cherokee syllabic alphabet by Sequoyah. Its 85
characters, representing the syllables o f the Cherokee language, permitted
the keeping of tribal records and, later, the publication o f newspapers.
The 1830s discovery o f gold in Cherokee territory resulted in
pressure by whites to obtain their lands. A treaty was extracted from a
small part o f the tribe, binding the whole people to move beyond the
Mississippi River within three years. Although the Cherokee
overwhelmingly repudiated this document and the U.S. Supreme Court
upheld the nation's autonomy, the state o f Georgia secured an order for
their removal, which was accomplished by military force. President
Andrew Jackson refused to intervene, and in 1838 the tribe was deported
to the Indian Territory (now in Oklahoma). Thousands died on the march,
66
known as the “Trail of Tears,” or from subsequent hardships. Their leader
at this time and until 1866 was Chief John Ross.
The Cherokee made their new capital at Tahlequah (Okla.),
instituted a public school system, published newspapers, and were the
most important of the Five Civilized Tribes. In the U.S. Civil War their
allegiance was divided between North and South, with large contingents
serving on each side. By a new treaty at the close of the war they freed
their black slaves and admitted them to tribal citizenship. In 1891 they sold
their western territorial extension, known as the Cherokee Strip; in 1902
they approved the division of the reservation into allotments; and in 1906
tribal sovereignty was abolished. Tribal entities still exist, however, and
many Oklahoma Cherokee live on tribal landholdings. With a 1990
population of about 370,000, the Cherokee, while scattered, are by far the
largest Native American group in the United States. Close to 6,000,
descendants of the few who successfully resisted removal or returned after
the removal, live on the Eastern Cherokee (Qualla) reservation in W North
Carolina.
Task3
Are these sentences True (T) or False (F) according to the text? Change
any false sentences to make them true.
1. The Cherokee have their own language.
2. The Cherokee were friendly to their neighboring tribe the Iroquois.
3. Many people from the Cherokee tribe died of an incurable disease.
4. Discovery of gold brought great harm to the Indian tribes.
5. The Cherokee’s capital was in Oklahoma.
6. The reason of war between the South and the North was religion.
7. The Cherokee is the largest native group in America.
Task 4
Replace the underlined word with the most appropriate word from the box.
Be careful with verbs: they should be in an appropriate form.
allow
sovereignty
occupy destroy permit
treaty
deport
allotment
government
abolish_________________
1. The United States of America covers most of the Northern America
continent.
2. The government allowed Native Indians to live only on certain
territories.
3. People from the Old World broke many historical monuments o f the
Indians.
4. Authorities gave Native groups with land in certain states.
5. Authorities restricted Native Americans to use their own language.
6. People living illegally are sent back from the country.
7. Slavery was ended in 1807 in Britain.
8. Indians refused to leave their territories.
9. The USA declared its independence in the 18th century.
10. Peace agreement was the best way out for Indians.
T ask 5
Role play
It’s now your turn to create your own speech. Read the situation on
your card. You can write a draft o f your speech but don’t write every
word, just an outline o f what you’re going to say.
Situation
S tudent A You are a fourth year student at Iowa University (Saun). You
are not allowed to pass finals by Mr. Stones. You think that the reason is
your colour o f skin. You come to the dean’s office to discuss this problem.
S tu d en t В
You are a Dean o f Business department. You are already aware o f the
problem from Mr. Stones. You should listen to all the people and take a
right decision.
S tu dent С You are a 60 year old teacher o f Management, Mr. Stones. You
are not satisfied with one o f your students as he failed pre-exam te s t Your
aim is to prove that the reason o f dismissal is lack o f knowledge not race
discrimination.
S tudent D You are a group mate o f Saun. You are his close friend who
believes that Saun is a perspective student but Mr. Stones does not give
him a chance to show his abilities.
S tu dent E You are Mr. Stone’s colleague. He was your teacher. You have
never mentioned that he differentiated people by their skin colour. You
should prove that Saun can not catch up with the group.
T ask 6
Discussion. Work with your partner and share your ideas with him on the
following situation.
The elections o f 2008 were the most intriguing in the history o f the USA.
For the first time in a political life the opponents were a black American
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and a woman. Does this fact show that the USA is a real democratic
country? Prove you point
Task 7 Debate
Comment on the following statement.
There never was a good war, or a bad peace (Benjamin Franklin 17061790)
Lesson 3
Transportation in the USA
Task 1
Answer the following questions.
1. How do you get to the university?
2. Is there Underground in your city?
3. What is the cheapest means of transport in your city?
4.
Task 2
Read the text
Means of transport
Since the 1800's, when a vast network of railroads was laid to
connect the United States from coast to coast, the transport of items (and
people) has been a priority on our country.
Today, there are well maintained Interstate Highways that run from
state to state, and a person can drive continuously from coast to coast, or
from Canada and Mexico, and to most locations in between. State roads are
also maintained and connect smaller towns and cities to the Interstate
Highways (think of it as a huge web, with the Interstate highways the main
strands, and the state highways the smaller, interconnecting ones). Local
farm roads or county roads fill in the network at the rural level.
And Americans do use these roads, as they travel to work, on
vacation, to visit family and friends, or for leisure time activities. In fact, it
may seem in some large cities that people are always driving somewhere,
and the major roads are literally packed with people during "rush hour" (the
morning and evening hours when most people are going to and then
returning from work).
Most large cities will have some form of public transportation or
transit, such as bus lines, subways, or commuter trains. For instance, in
69
New York city and the suburbs of Washington, DC, many people take
commuter trains and subway trains (underground trains) from the outlying
regions into the city to work during the day, then return on the train in the
evening. There is often parking at the station in the outlying city or town,
and people will go to their car from the train station and drive home.
All major cities have some form of bus transportations. Typically,
these routes will be differentiated by color code (such as a "blue" or
"green" route, for example) and by route numbers. A "blue 10" route may
be different from a "green 10 route". It is important to check a bus schedule
that will tell you the times that the buses come to the terminals or to the bus
stops (small covered benches at the side of the street along the route).
Many buses will stop at a bus stop every ten or fifteen minutes, but they
may be going different routes, which is why checking the number (and
color) is important. Soon you will be able to memorize a route and
schedule that you use frequently, and will know that the 8:10 am blue bus
with the number 15 is the one that goes near your work.
Some people travel by airplane for business reasons: for instance, if
an important business meeting or conference is in another state, then your
business may pay for you to fly there. Often your work will make the
arrangements. If you are flying for private reasons, you can contact an
airline agency directly, or a local travel agent to help with making a
reservation. Normally once reservations are made, they cannot be changed
without paying a fee or percent of the original fare. Sometimes certain days
of the week and/or certain times of day will have lower fares than others, so
be sure to compare rates for different flights to the same destination. Prices
may also vary between airlines. And normally the further ahead a flight is
booked, the cheaper it is.
Increased security at airports has been a topic in recent news, and if
you choose to fly, you will need to have your luggage and carry bags xrayed and checked before traveling at security points near the entrances to
departure gates.
You may choose to carpool to work with others. In carpools, people
take turns driving, and usually several people go in one automobile to save
on gas (and to cut down on pollution). One advantage of carpooling in
some large cities is that there are special carpool lanes that you can use
when driving if there are two or more passengers in the car. These lanes
often move more quickly than the normal lanes during rush hour.
Task 3
Match the words with their definitions.___________________________
frequently
1in the countiyside
~~]
70
route
flight
passenger
destination
rural
reservation
a place to which somebody is going
an agreement to keep something
way from one place to another
a journey made by water
person traveling in a bus, train etc.
often
Task 4
Answer the following questions.
1. What transport do people use in New York?
2. Why is it important to know the colour of the bus?
3. What does the fee for the flight depend on?
4. What procedures do travelers have to get through before traveling?
5. What is carpool?
Task S Discussion
In small groups discuss the following statement. ,
Do you agree or disagree with this statement: “Underground will not solve
the problem of traffic jam in Almaty”.
Lesson 4
Famous Cities
Task 1
Answer the following questions.
1. Have you ever been to New Orleans, Lousiana?
2. Do you know what is New Orleans famous for?
3. Do you know what Mardi Gras is?
4. What is a nickname? Do you know the nickname for New Orleans?
5. What do you know about Hurricane Katrina?
Task 2
Read the text
New Orleans
New Orleans often has been called the most unique city of the USA.
It is one of the oldest cities and is located in the state of Lousiana. The
Mississippi River winds around and through it. New Orleans is famous for
its food, its architecture, its celebrations and especially its music. It is said
to be the birthplace of jazz. For years it has been a popular destination for
tourists from around the world particularly at Mardi Gras time.
New Orleans was named after Philippe II, Duke of Orleans, Regent
of France. Because the city was on the Mississippi River, it became an
important port for shipping, and played a large role in the slave trade. By
1840, with more than 100,000 residents, New Orleans was one of the
largest cities in the country.
By the early 1900s, New Orleans was an exiting place. Its nickname,
“The Big Easy”, was thought to have come from musicians who said how
easy it was to find work. Others said it meant the city was more carefree
than the city of New York, nicknamed “The Big Apple”.
New Orleans was built mostly on higher ground along the river. A
drainage and pump system, devised by an engineer a Baldwin Wood,
allowed the city to grow into low-lying areas. But by the late 1900s, people
realized that these low-lying areas were at risk. In 1995, a flood from heavy
rain proved that the pumping system was not good enough.
In August 2005, Hurricane Katrina caused the worst civil
engineering disaster in American history. Floodwalls failed, and 80% of
New Orleans flooded. Even though most residents had been evacuated
before Katrina hit, thousands who stayed behind had to be rescued, many
by helicopter. More than 1500 people died. Most of the city has reopened
to residents, but some badly damaged areas still are not ready to be lived in.
Before Katrina destroyed so much of the city, 485,000 people lived in New
Orleans. In June 2006, the population was less then 230,000.
Workers continue to clean up and rebuild this special city.
T a sk 3
Are these sentences True (T) or False (F) according to the text? Change
any false sentences to make them true.
1. New Orleans’ nickname is “The Big Apple”.
2. New Orleans got its name from the tide of a French nobleman.
3. In the mid 19 century, New Orleans was one of the biggest cities in
the U.S.
4. People in low-lying areas of New Orleans were always very safe
because of an excellent pumping system.
5. Many people left New Orleans before Hurricane Katrina hit.
Task 4
Answer the following questions according to the text.
1. What is New Orleans famous for?
2. Why did New Orleans grow to become a big American city by the
mid 1800’s?
3. How did New Orleans get its nickname?
72
4. How was the city of New Orleans able to grow from its original high
ground along the river to low-lying areas?
5. What warning did New Orleans have that its pumping system was
not good enough?
6. What happened to New Orleans during Hurricane Katrina?
7. What is the condition of New Orleans today?
Task S
Match the words with their definitions.
having the possibility of danger
Unique
wind
title of a member of a noble or royal family
architecture save from danger
destination think of, plan, create
duke
move in a curving or twisting way
port
terrible situation
slave
only one of its kind; very special, not like others
harbor; place where ships dock
drainage
devise
overflow of water
at risk
design and style of buildings
flood
move people away from a place of danger
person who is owned by someone and forced to work
evacuate
place
rescue
a person is going to
disaster
emptying water or making dry
Task 6
Discussion questions
1. There are two words in the article that refer to royal tittles. Try to
think of as many other words as possible that refer to members of a
royal or noble family.
2. What is Mardi Gras? Have you ever been to a Mardi Gras
celebration or seen one on television? If so, describe it. Besides New
Orleans, what other city is very famous for its Mardi Gras
celebrations?
3. Have you ever experienced a hurricane? If so, describe it.
4. Do you think that the American government did enough to help the
victims of Hurricane Katrina? Explain your answer.
5. Do you think that New Orleans will once again become a very
popular tourist destination? Why or why not?
73
L esso n 5
Extreme education
Task 1
Fill the gaps in the sentences using these key words and phrases from the
text.
Attitude, admission, appropriate, zero, tolerance, mentor, achievement,
disadvantaged behaviour, proficient, strict.
1. If you are___________ , you do not have the same advantages as other
people.
2. If you are___________ at something you have learned, you are skilled
at it.
3. A person’s ___________ is the way in which he or she follows basic
social rules.
4. A person’s ___________ is the way they show their feelings or
opinions about something, especially as shown by their behaviour.
5. If a rule i s __________ , people must obey it completely.
6. A ___________is an experienced person who helps someone with less
experience.
7. Academic ___________ at school consists of the things children
succeed in doing well.
8 .
is permission to join an institution like a school or a
college.
9. If something i s ___________ , it is suitable or right for a particular
situation.
10 .
is a situation in which all offences, even the most minor,
are strictly punished in
accordance with the law or a set of rules.
Task 2
Look in the text and find the answers to these questions as quickly as
possible.
1. How many hours a day do pupils study in US ‘small’ or ‘charter’
schools?
2. What percentage of children at the North Star Academy get free meals?
3. How many charter schools are there in the US?
4. How many children are on the waiting list for the North Star Academy?
5. How many pupils normally attend charter schools?
6. How many children at the Kipp Academy can read music?
74
Extreme Education
For some people it is extreme education: 10-hour days,
contracts with parents and very strict rules on behaviour in small, 200pupil academies. The result in a new type of school in the US is 100%
acceptance of college, test results as good as those in private schools,
and teenagers from New York’s South Bronx district who play the
viola like their neighbours in Manhattan.
James Verrilli, principal of the North Star Academy in Newark,
America’s second poorest city, said: “These kids know drugs. These
kids know crime and violence. Their fathers are in jail. We have a
school culture here which is very different from the attitude they have
when they first walk through the door. It’s a culture that tells them
they can go to college.”
At the North Star Academy children like Charism and QueenAma smile politely as they shake your hand and welcome you in.
About 85% of pupils are African-American and 90% get free school
meals. Last year 80% got ‘proficient or advanced’ grades in maths,
compared with just 28% in the local neighbourhood school. This was
above the state average. Pupils work in silence with a professionalism
they have learned during a three-day process. From the beginning
pupils are taught to speak clearly, answer questions in full sentences
and look the teacher in the eye.
Parents have to sign a three-way contract with their child and
the principal, and must promise to participate themselves. When a
child’s homework isn’t handed in by 8am, there is a phone call home.
When the parent doesn’t turn up for a meeting, their child is not
allowed back into school until they turn up. There are signs saying
‘No excuses’ on the walls: “I was working until 11 last night. I’m
tired, but I know I’ve got to work,” says one 11-year-old, as she
finishes up her homework over breakfast. “Even my mother’s gone
back to school since I’ve been here.” Pupils are tested every six weeks
and their results are examined carefully.
“As a principal of a small school I know how every child is
progressing and how they are behaving,” says Mr Verrilli. He also sits
in on classes himself, observing the students and writing notes for the
teachers
North Star and other small schools like it have developed from
the charter school movement in the US. The 3,500 charter schools are
independent schools, funded by the state, and allowed more freedom
to set policies, including their admissions procedures. North Star runs
a lottery for admissions and has 1,800 children on the waiting list.
Parents have to put their child’s name into the lottery; three times
more girls apply than boys.
Mr Verrilli strongly rejects the idea that his students might not
be the ones most in need. “It’s quite wrong to say that parents from
disadvantaged backgrounds don’t care about their kids’ education.
95% of parents just want a better education for their children. “We’re
not taking the best kids. I’m defensive about that. It’s something a lot
of people say. How hard is it to put your child’s name down on a piece
of paper?” he said.
Every child who attends the Kipp (Knowledge is Power
Programme) academy in south Bronx, New York, plays in its
orchestra, the best school orchestra in New York. Every child can read
music. Shirley Lee, a director of the Kipp academy in the Bronx, says
the school works because there is a consistent structure throughout the
school. “The truth and reality is that kids like structure,” she said. “It’s
about telling them what’s appropriate and them learning when to use
it. I wouldn’t talk to you like I am now if I was out in some of these
areas. But if we teach them to look in my eyes when I’m speaking to
them, they will use that if they get stopped by the police and that will
protect them.”
In the UK, there is a growing political debate about the
differences in academic achievement between rich and poor in schools in
big cities. A recent report highlighted the growing gap in achievement
and the government is trying to deal with this problem. Three London
academies are experimenting with small school principles and last week
a group of British teachers in training visited the US looking for methods
they could use to deal with the problems o f‘complex urban education’.
Ark, a UK educational charity, is taking key components of the
small school model into London academies. Lucy Heller, managing
director of Ark, says: “It’s small schools, strict rules on behaviour and a
firm belief that inner city children can be just as successful.” The UK
schools minister says small schools can teach disadvantaged children the
skills that middle class children take for granted: “High ambition, zero
tolerance of failure, an expectation that children will go to university and
that schools will give them the education to go to university.”
Ark is also helping to fund the 30 ‘Future Leaders’ group on the
school leadership training scheme visiting the US. The trainees are
expected to take some of the ideas they experience in the US back home
to the UK. Many Of them think it will be difficult to transfer the model to
the UK, however. They talk about the fact that most of the US schools
are middle schools, for 10-14 year-olds. The model has been tested less
76
in the secondary school age group (11—18).
They also ask where the
money to fund smaller schools will come from, though others point out
the fact that in the US facilities are basic. “They don’t even have
interactive whiteboards,” says one of the group’s mentors. “They just
teach. Small schools might not be practical in the UK, but what I really
want these new school leaders to take back is the sense of culture in
these schools.”
Task 3
Are these sentences True (T) or False (F) according to the text? Change
any false sentences to make them true.
1. Newark is the poorest city in the US.
2. Pupils at the North Star Academy are better at Maths than kids in the
local neighbourhood school.
3. Pupils have to look teachers in the eye when they speak to them.
4. If a pupil doesn’t hand in their homework by 8am, the school calls their
parents.
5. Pupils have a test every six days.
6. Mr Verrilli doesn’t go into classrooms himself.
7. More girls apply to go to North Star than boys.
8. The UK is planning to start academies like the US charter schools.
Task 4
Match the following words with their definitions.
grade
high level
ask officially for something
advanced
school for special training
principal
harmful attitude
to examine
admission
correct
entering a school
education
violence
training and instruction
to test knowledge or ability
apply
appropriate
head of a college or school
class in a school
academy
TaskS
Fill the gaps in these phrases from the text using prepositions. Check your
answers in the text.
1. look someone______ the eye
2. hand in homework______ 8am
3.
the waiting list
4. care______ their kids’ education
5. the difference______ rich and poor
6. to deal______ a problem
7. take something______ granted
8. where will the money come
?
Task 6
Discussion
Do pupils achieve better results in schools with strict rules? Would you like
to attend such a school?
Why? / Why not?
1. Look at the following quotes. Comment on one of them.
"Society produces rogues, and education makes one rogue cleverer than
another." -Oscar Wilde
"Children enter school as question marks and leave as periods." - Neil
Postman
"We are shut up in schools and college recitation rooms for ten or fifteen
years, and come out at last with a bellyful of words and do not know a
thing." - Ralph Waldo Emerson
"The founding fathers in their wisdom decided that children were an
unnatural strain on parents. So they provided jails called schools, equipped
with tortures called education." - John Updike
Task 7
Debate on the given question: "How can we improve this country's
educational system?". Share, the ideas with other students choose 5 best
solutions of the problem.
Lesson 6
American music
Task 1. Before you read.
Which rap Singers or groups do you know? Are there any in your country?
Task 2. Match the words with the definitions._____________________
[ Crime_________ I drawings or writing on the wall________________
78
drug addiction
graffiti
slums
street gangs
unemployment
the situation o f not having a job
an action which is punishable by law
dependence on drugs
an area o f poor living conditions
groups o f young people who cause trouble
Task 3. Read the article and answer these questions.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Where did Hip Hop begin?
Why did middle-class people move out of the Bronx?
Who were the Black Spades?
Why is Jamaica important in the history of rap?
Do many people still do break dancing?
Name two things that influenced Hip Hop fashion.
Why were the group Run-DMC important?
From the History of Rap
Many people think rap music is a fad which they hope will go away.
However, it has been around for over 20 years. To understand it, you need
to know about 'Hip Hop' culture. This includes graffiti, break dancing and
the attitude and dress of the people of this sub-culture. Everything points to
the Bronx area in New York City as the origin of Hip Hop.
The Bronx underwent major changes in the 1960s. Enormous
apartment buildings were built for the growing population and these soon
turned into slums. Well-off middle-class people moved out of the area and
poor black and Hispanic families moved in. Crime drug addiction and
unemployment were big problems. Young people formed street gangs, such
as the Black Spades, and many future rappers were gang members at some
time of their lives. One thing which affected the Hip Hop culture was gang
graffiti. Street gangs wrote graffiti to mark their territory and to assert their
identities.
Meanwhile, something was happening in Jamaica which had an
enormous influence on Hip Hop. The DJs there performed as well as
played music. For example, one DJ, Duke Reid, dressed in a gold crown
[ and a long cloak. But more important than the way they dressed was the
I fact that they talked over the records. They shouted to the dancers in time
with the rhythm of the music - the first form of'rapping'.
When rapping started in New York, new dances were invented. First,
there was break dancing. This often involved spinning your body around on
the floor but it is no longer popular. Later, the electric boogie appeared.
79
I
1
With this, the dancers moved like robots, twitching their bodies in time to
the music. Nowadays, there is free style - dancers just do what they want!
If you look at the fashions of the 'Hip Hop' culture, you can see the choice
of clothes was influenced by the way of dancing. You needed loose clothes
to do break dancing. Also, you need comfortable shoes and trainers seemed
the best style. The fashion for trousers hanging below the hips has a
different origin. Unfortunately, a lot of young people from the Bronx have
had prison experience. Prisoners have to remove their belts so they can't
use them as weapons. As a result, prisoners would walk around with their
jeans hanging low. When these young men were released, they brought this
habit to their neighbourhood. And this style became popular with many
young men who didn't realize where it came from.
Today, rap music is popular with audiences of all ethnic groups. The
music industiy has taken it over. 'Run-DMC' were the first black rap group
to become popular with a mass white audience. Even though they dressed
as if they came right off the street comer, this was not true. They came
from middle-class families. In fact, they were never deprived of anything
and they were never in a gang!
Task 4. Match
1. rap
2. break
3. sub4. under
5. well6. middle
7. drug
8. music
the words to make compound words from the text.
a) culture
b) off
c) music
d) industry
e) went
f) dancing
g) addiction
h) class
Task 5. Discussion
Work in groups. Discuss these questions. Compare your answers with other
groups.
1. Do you like rap music? Is it popular with young people in Russia?
2. Do you know any rap songs? What are they about?
3. What do your parents think of rap? What sort of music do they like?
Lesson 7
American family values
Task 1. Before you read.
Would you like to be a millionaire? Why or why not?
80
Task 2. Read the text. Are the statements true or false?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Michael Owen was happier when he was poorer.
British people are happier than in the past.
Millionaires and very poor people are often unhappy.
Ralph Crow has not got much money.
It's a good thing to have friends.
A lot of money makes you very happy.
Does money really make you happy?
Michael Owen won over nine million pounds on the lottery three
years ago. At first, life was fantastic and Michael had some fun - he spent a
lot of money on a big house and five new cars. Then the problems started.
Some friends began to ask him for money. He had a lot of arguments with
his wife and they divorced. Now he says, 'I haven't got any friends and I
feel lonely. Life was better when I didn't have much money.'
Many people think that money brings happiness. However, according
to Professor Mark Dean, this is not true. In Britain, we are richer but
unhappier than fifty years ago. The USA is the richest country in the world
but Americans are not the happiest people in the world.
Professor Dean has found that very poor people and very rich people
are unhappier than those in between. For example, very poor people in the
developing world live in overcrowded houses without any running water
and with no electricity. However, there are also many millionaires with
personal problems. A lot of young people who get rich very quickly are at
risk.
Because of this, a few young millionaires are changing their
lifestyles. Ralph Crow, a multi-millionaire computer analyst from
Washington, is an example. His house shows no signs of his wealth. There
is a small garden and there are only two cars parked outside his house. 'I
want my kids to live a normal life,' says Ralph.
So what can make us happy? According to Professor Dean, you
should have one close relationship and some close friends. You should do a
little sport and have a lot of contact with other people. Other people make
you happy, not money!
Task 3. Match the words to make phrases from the text.
1.
2.
3.
4.
have
feel
bring
get
a) rich
b) life
c) relationships
d) arguments
81
5. a normal
e) happiness
6. close
f) lonely
Make your own sentences with the phrases.
Task 4. Discuss in groups things in your life that make you happy. Share
the information with other groups.
Task 5 Debate on one of the following sayings and share your ideas.
Money makes the world go round
Money is the power, power is the money
2.4 City
Lesson 1
Tips for visitors
Task 1 Before you read.
1. What ancient cities in Kazakhstan do you know?
2. What cities played an important role in the past?
3. What cities in Kazakhstan have you visited and which of them made the
greatest impression on you?
Task 2
Read the text and choose the best title for it.
1. Visiting Turkestan.
2. Ancient centre of Kazakhstan.
3. The second Mecca of theEast.
Hazrat-e Turkestan (modern name Tiirkistan), a city in the southern
region of Kazakhstan, near the Syrdarya river, is where the capital of
ancient Kangju was located prior to being moved to Zhe’she. It has a
population of 85,600 and is situated 160 km (100 miles) north-west of
Taraz (Aulie-Ata) on the Trans-Aral Railway between Ak-Mechet
(Perovsk) to the north and Tashkent to the south.
Tiirkistan is the most historic city in Kazakhstan with an
archaeological record dating back to the 4th century. To the Chinese it was
known as Beitian. Later it was known as Yasi or Shavgar. It was an
important trade centre.
The name Hazrat-e Turkestan literally means "the Saint (or Blessed
One) of Turkestan" and refers to Khoja Ahmad Yasavi, the great Sufi
Shaikh of Turkestan, who was born here at the turn of the 11th century AD,
and is buried in the town. Under his rule the city became the most
82
important centre of learning for the people of the Kazakh steppes. In the
1390s Timur erected a magnificent domed Mazar or tomb over his grave,
which is without doubt the most significant architectural monument to be
found anywhere in Kazakhstan.
The city still attracts thousands of pilgrims. According to local
tradition, three pilgrimages to Tiirkistan are said to be equivalent to one
hajjj to Mecca, although this is not widely accepted elsewhere in the
Muslim World. The Saint was held in such respect that the city was even
known as the Second Mecca o f the East, and it is of enormous importance
for Muslims in Kazakhstan.
Other important historical sites include a medieval bath-house and
four other mausoleums, one to Timur's granddaughter and three to Kazakh
khans (rulers).
Modern-day Tiirkistan has a population of 85,600 people, almost all
of whom are ethnic Uzbeks. The population rose by 10 percent from 198999, making it the second-fastest growing town in Kazakhstan, after the new
capital Astana.
Turkestan may be reached by train from Almaty, in a journey of
nearly 20 hours. The road trip from the nearest airport at Shymkent takes
about two hours.
Task 3
Work with a partner. Find words which go with the following definition
1. magnificent
a) business of buying, selling and exchanging goods
2. monument
or services.
3. pilgrimage
b) hole in the ground for a dead body.
4. trade
c) to have authority over smb. or smth., to govern.
5. grave
d) extremely good or beautiful, splendid.
6. to rule
e) building or statue to remind people of a person or
event.
f) journey made by a person to a holy place.
Task 4
Now using the words from task 3 complete the sentences.
1. You can find a ... to a great Kazakh poet Abay in Semey.
2. Kazakhstan was ... by the Russian Empire till the nineteenth centuiy.
3. Every Muslim must go on a .. .to Mecca at least once.
4. Bayterek is a ... building that attracts tourists visiting Astana.
5.... of Mashur Zhusup is situated in Bayan aul region.
6. Slavery ... was one of the leading sources of income in the USA.
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Task 5
1. Find these fifteen items of city lexis.
Church, deserted, downtown, drugstore, hectic, historic, hospital, packed,
К L
U
E E
D A
E M
S U
E С
R G
T I
E F
D E
D P
S С
H I
E M
z
о
L
W
V
P
J
R
N
L
К
A
Y
I
S
H
L н R
С L W
A О А
T Н Т
U А N
С S О
D о Р
С А О
С I Р
С Р R
N W О
X Р S
T С Е
т о R
W R К
N
и
D
М
D
W
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F
L
О
Т
В
Н
I
S
X
Z
N
R
G
S
О
F
V
J
N
R
Е
С
N
Н
J
D
D
и
N
R
Т
А
Е
W
и
X
D
J
А
D
М
F
V
G W
I S
R р
Т N
С т
О D
в и
с А
R F
Т S
С
L
W
М
О
Q
к
н
F
J
Н
N
Т
Р
S
F
S
J
О
N
Н
О
S
р
I
т
А
L
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А
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W
L
К
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н
и
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м
R
Н
и
Y
Z
Q
V
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W
в
W
т
F
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в
к
2. Now divide the words into three different categories, a) places in a city,
b) parts of a city, and c) adjectives to describe a city.
T ask 6
Now write the words next to their definitions.
1. This is part of a city that is outside the city center. .. ■
2. You can borrow books and CDs here.____________
3. You can leave your car here.____________
4. You can keep your money here.____________
5. You can find shops and sometimes a cinema here.____________
6. You can see exhibits and learn things here.__________ _
7. You can buy medicine here._________ .
8. You can buy books here.____________
9. The government o f the city works here._________I
10. You can buy food and drink here.__ _________ j
Look at the above definitions. Can you write similar definitions for
these places?
a restaurant, a bar, a post office, a school, a train station
84
Task 7 Discussion
1. Work in pairs.
Student A describes a city in Kazakhstan and student В identifies it.
Sample city descriptions:
- Now it is a large industrial centre and a transportation center. In 1930s
a great amount of beetroot was grown here; in afterwar period phosphorites
of high quality were mined here; this led to the development of industry in
this town. Some enterprises of light, chemical and food-processing
industries are established here. There are a lot of trees and gardens in the
town. This town is situated on Talas river. Its population is 307,000 people.
It is the most ancient town of КZ as it is known since the 6th century. It was
a big trading centre on the Grand Silk Route. The town decayed after the
invasion of Mongols and revived only in the late 18th century.(Taraz)
- The architects and constructors of this town were awarded a gold
medal for creating a town with ample greenery and water in difficult
conditions. As for its beauty the town goes along with some resorts on the
shore of Black Sea. Apartment houses are built from shell rock; their
appearance is beautiful and they are comfortable inside. Apartments are
ventilated through and people living there don’t feel so much the desert
climate of this area. There are many bushes, small parks and flower
gardens in the town. The characteristic feature is that there are no suburbs,
no private houses and no temporary constructions there. This town was
founded as a completely new town in 1963. It is a port on the Caspian
Sea.(Aktau)
2. State your preference for one thing or another and say why. If you have
no preference (I like or hate both) you must still give reasons.
When you are in a city, which do you prefer...
Public transport or travelling by car?
Shopping or sighseeing when you visit a city?
Going to a restaurant or having a picnic in a city park?
Living in the city or living in the country?
Living downtown or in the suburbs?
Lesson 2
Troubles of megapolice
83
Task 1
Fill the gaps using these key words from the text:
commuter
tense
disruption
shanty town
road rage
shoot-out
stationary
potholed
irritable
neglect
1. If a vehicle is___________ , it isn’t moving.
2. A ________ f is a fight in which guns are used.
3.
is a situation in which something cannot continue
because of a problem.
4. A ___________ is an area in which poor people live in badly built
houses made of wood, metal or other thin material.
5.
is a situation where drivers behave violently towards
other drivers.
6. If a road or street is___________ , it is foil of holes.
7. If you___________ something, you don’t look after it properly and
you don’t pay any attention to it.
8. If you are___________ , you become angry or impatient very easily.
9. A ___________ is someone who travels regularly to and from work.
10. If you are___________ ,you feel nervous and you cannot relax.
Task 2
What do you think?
The article gives advice on what to do if you are stuck in a traffic-jam.
Which three of these six pieces of advice do you think will be given?
1. read a newspaper
2. close your eyes
3. take deep breaths
4. do a crossword puzzle
5. eat a snack
6. punch someone
Task3
Now read the text and check your answers.
Car boom leaves Almaty ine one big jam
The capita] city of Kazakhstan, Almaty, has great problems with
traffic. The situation is so bad that psychiatrists have now begun to give
advice to drivers about what to do when they are in a traffic jam. The
86
advice includes the following: eat a snack, read a book, do a pfossword,
listen to music but don’t punch or shoot anyone.
The number of car owners in Almaty has increased dramatically
and the result of this has been blocked highways and side-streets that are
jammed from early morning until late at night. Entire districts are
paralyzed and the situation is driving some drivers crazy. Doctors say the
stress is causing both physical and mental damage and is leading to more
cases of road accidents.
People who try to avoid the traffic jams by leaving home at 6 a.m.
have been warned that they may suffer from lack of sleep, which will
reduce productivity, make them nervous.
People are feeling more and more anxious and tense, the former
head of the Kazakhstan Society of Psychiatry, told the daily newspaper
“Kazakhstanskaya Pravda”. A psychologist, Hasan Danyarov, said that
the disruption in mental processes was making people less open to
criticism.
With no obvious solution, people have been advised that when
they are sitting in a traffic jam they should have a drink or something to
eat and occupy their minds with music, a book, newspaper or crossword.
The rapid increase in vehicle ownership in Kazakhstan is the result
of huge number of car loans from the banks. Last year car sales doubled
to 600,000. There are no new roads so the extra traffic streams into
secondary streets that have been neglected for years.
Almaty lies in a long narrow valley between skyscrapers and poor
suburbs. In the hot sun it can appear to be the site of a battle against both
geography and climate.
The government has started a programme of building branches and
metro lines, but many of these are unfinished, including a branch
connecting the eastern and western parts of Almaty, the central part of
the city with the airport, which means that drivers have to take detours
through hillside barrios.
Everyone agrees that the traffic jams are getting worse every
month. Taxi drivers say their income has fallen dramatically. “It’s
impossible. If someone asks to go into especially heavy traffic I say no
because it will take up half my day,” said Aman Zhusupov, a local taxi
driver.
President Nursultan Nazarbayev has criticized former
infrastructure ministers but has praised the present minister for doing a
good job. He is also looking abroad for help.
Task 4
87
Comprehension check
Are these statements True or False according to the text?
1. Traffic jams in Almaty are not as bad as in other parts of the world.
2. The jams are caused by a rapid increase in car ownership.
3. There is no simple solution to the problem.
4. The government has a lot of money from the sale of oil.
5. Taxi drivers are earning more money now.
6. There is a new bridge linking the centre with the airport.
7. The president has criticized the work of the current infrastructure
minister.
Task 5
Vocabulary opposites.
Replace the underlined words with their opposites. Check your answers in
the text.
1. increase productivity___________
2. increase slightly_____________
3. gradual increase___________
4. very small profits___________
5. getting better___________
6. light traffic_____________
7. too much sleep___________
8. a long wide valley____________
Task 6
Vocabulary
Find these words or expressions.
1. A word meaning a street that is not a main street, (line 6)
2. A word for blocked, (line 7)
3. A verb meaning to increase quickly (line 17)
4. A word meaning a very tall building containing offices or flats, (line 20)
5. A word meaning a way of going from one place to another that is not the
shortest or the usual way. (line 24)
6. A word meaning a poor district in a city, (line 25)
Task 7 Discussion
Do you have traffic jams in your town or city? What are the best ways to
avoid such jams in the future?
Lesson 3
Ecological problems
Task 1
Complete the sentences using the following words.
Pollution, environment, wastes, depositories, protection, destroy, mine.
1. Air ... is a great problem of industrial cities like Pavlodar, Karaganda
and Semey.
2.... are often thrown into rivers and lakes.
3.Chemicals ... ozone layer.
4.Law about ... forces industrial enterprises to install filters in order to
protect the air.
5.Coal ...can be found in Karaganda and Ekibastuz.
6. ... is deep holes, tunnels made in the earth from each ore is taken.
7.Environmental ... is one of the main topics discussed in the Parliament
now.
Task 2
Which of these statistics about environment do you think are true?
1.About 90 % of plants around drillings have disappeared.
2.The ground is polluted by breaks in oil pipes.
3. Due to the pollution the numbers of fish increases every year.
4. Oil-processing enterprises try to avoid environment protection action.
5.Mazut is one of the main pollutants in Western Kazakhstan.
Task3
Now read the text and check your answers.
The Environment Of Oil-Producing Regions
The oil industry is intensively developed in Kazakhstan but not all
oil producing enterprises at present observe the environment protection
legislation of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
Abnormal pollution of atmospheric air is occurring with the burning
of casing-head gases. Oil floods and oil from oil depositories pollute the
soil. At the exploring, drilling and exploitation fields of hydrocarbon
sources, 70-80% of plants around each drilling within a radius of 500-800
m have disappeared. The land area polluted with oil from deserted,
exploratory oil wells is significant
In Atyrau oblast more than 1.3 mln hectares of land have been
polluted by mazut. On some oil fields the thickness of such mazut-spoiled
ground is as much as 10 metres.
89
In Mangistau oblast about 4,000 hectares of land have been polluted
with mazut. There are 580 oil depositories containing 279,773 tons of oil:
148 technological and 432 emergency ones. In 1999 alone 755 breaks in oil
pipes occurred. The ground was polluted by 1756.56 tons of oil.
In addition, a huge amount of layer and mine water are wasted
during oil production. For example, 1 billion cubic metres of water were
wasted by the oil fields in Atyrau oblast. The situation became severe in the
pre-Caspian region due to a flood from units of the oil and gas complex.
Due to the pollution of seawater, the numbers of fish, seals and waterfowls
all decreased.
Nevertheless, oil-processing enterprises are canying out environment
protection action. During 1999, for example, 13 oil depositories were
destroyed, 17.06 hectares of land were cleaned of mazut and 12397.5 tons
of oil products were pumped out of oil depositories. At the Tengiz field 897
hectares of land were restored and transferred to other lands.
Task 4
Answer the following questions according to the text
1.How deep does mazut go through the ground?
2.When did the most dangerous catastrophe happen?
3.Why do the fish die out in the pre-Caspian region?
4.1n what way do enterprises clean the ground?
5.How much of land has already been cleaned?
Task 5
Work out definitions to the following words,
land
hectare
fish
enterprise
to decrease
to bum
to disappear plant
Task 6 Discussion
Speak about your city. What problems does it face? Is there any
environmental problems? How does the municipal government try to solve
them?
Task 7
Debate
Do you agree or disagree with each of the statements below?
1.Government is planning to introduce more strict measures for enterprises
that throw wastes.
90
2.Greenpeace movement fights for the rights of animals and rejects to wear
furry clothes.
Lesson 4
Endangered destinations
Task 1
Match these key words with the definitions.
devastation
1. To vanish, to go and never return, (para 1)
landmark
2. Opposite of common. Unusual, (para 1)
rare
3. Damage and destruction affecting a large area or a lot of
people (para 2)
disappear
4. A famous building or object that you recognize easily,
(para 3)
at risk
5. Another way of saying in danger, (para 3)
diverted
6. A poisonous silver liquid metal (used in thermometers).
(para 4)
marine life
7. When the course or way has been changed, (para 5)
mercury
8. Things that live in the sea. (para 5)
Regency
9. Very old. (para 5)
gloom
10. Relating to buildings, (para 6)
ancient
11. A period in history - the time from 1811 to 1820
before George IV
became King of England, (para 7)
architectural
12. Bad depressing news, the feeling of having no hope,
(para 8)
Task 2
Read the text and
500 Places To See Before They Die
The first guidebook of Mast chance' holidays will be published
tomorrow for travellers who want to visit the most across the world.
Frommer’s 500 Places To See Before They Disappear lists places where it
is still possible to see rare animals, special landscapes and cultural sights.
Holly Hughes, one of the authors and a former executive editor of
Fodor's Travel Publications, said: “We all know about devastation brought
on by climate change and humans. But this book is a list of last-chance
destinations that travellers can visit —if they go soon —for possibly the last
time.”
According to Hughes and co-author Larry West, a journalist, more
than 20 of Britain’s best-loved landmarks have a place in their book. The
91
Tower of London and Greenwich Maritime Museum, for example, are at
risk from rising sea levels which could cause the River Thames to flood.
Hughes suggests that tourists go to the Everglades in southern
Florida. This ecosystem which is filled with rare animals, birds, fish and
plants is disappearing very quickly. Already half has been lost to farms and
towns. Low water levels and pollution have put the rest of the Everglades
at risk. “The number of birds has fallen by 93 per cent and many of the fish
and even the alligators who still live there have high mercury levels in their
blood,” said Hughes.
The Dead Sea may only be a tourist destination for another thirty
years. By then, says Hughes, “it could be completely dry, because the
rivers that run into it are being diverted”. Marine life around the Falkland
Islands is in great danger from pollution. The Nazca lines in Peru, one of
the world’s most interesting and mysterious ancient sites, may disappear as
too many roads are being built. Many trees are cut down to build the roads
and this leads to floods and mudslides. New York’s Little Italy, which was
made famous by films such as The Godfather and Mean Streets, is also in
danger as the districts around it grow.
Tourists should also visit some of Britain’s ancient architectural
treasures which, she says, are in danger of falling down because there is no
money to save them. Strawberry Hill, Sir Horace Walpole’s building in
west London needs £8m. One of the oldest churches in England. St Mary’s,
in Stow in Lindsey, Lincolnshire, needs £3m. Another London landmark,
Battersea power station, becomes more run-down every day as government,
property developers and the local people argue about its future.
Hughes also suggests a trip to Kentish Town, north London, to visit
Little Green Street, one of the last complete Regency streets in London.
Further north, the Holdemess coast, in East Yorkshire, loses nearly 6ft (1.8
metres) a year due to rising sea levels caused by climate change and man,
she said.
West points out that the guidebook’s message is not all gloom.
“Some of the destinations can be saved”, he said. “We have to learn from
our mistakes because the planet is poorer every time we allow something
beautiful to die.”
Task 3
Are these statements true (T) of false (F) according to the text?
1. The co-authors of the book are a journalist and an editor.
2. The book lists the 500 most endangered birds and animals.
3. Part of the film The Godfather was filmed in New York.
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4.93% of alligators in the Everglades have high mercury levels in their
blood.
5. Little Green Street is a district of New York.
6. The Nazca lines are on the Falkland Islands.
7. The Greenwich Maritime Museum is near the River Thames in London.
8. There is no hope for any of the places mentioned in the book.
9. The Dead Sea could be dry within 20 years.
10. If you are quick you will still be able to visit the places mentioned in
the book.
Task 4
Comprehension check
Match the sentence halves to find information from the text.
1. The two authors of the book are ...
a) ... in Little Italy,
New York.
2. The book lists the 500 most...
b)... to visit the places
mentioned in the book.
3. Part of the film The Godfather was filmed ...
c)... in Florida have
too much mercury in their blood.
4. Fish and alligators in the Everglades ...
d )... within 30 years.
5. Little Green Street is a beautiful Regency street... e) ... a journalist and
an editor.
6. The Nezca lines in Peru are in danger because ... f)... is near the River
Thames in London.
7. The Greenwich Maritime Museum ...
g)-. too many new
roads have been built.
8. The Dead Sea could be dry ...
h )... in north London.
9. There is still hope for many of the places listed ... i)... endangered
tourist destinations.
10. If you are quick you will still be able ...
j) ... in the book.
Task 5
Discussion
Explain the statement in your own words:
"Changing the face of the land the people are changing themselves".
Task 6
Debate
Where is the Aral sea situated? What problems does it face? What are the
ways solve them?
93
Lesson 5
Carnival in Rio de Janeiro
Task 1
Why do people visit these places?
Brazil
France
China
Kenya
Spain
Egypt
Italy
Australia
To see a bull fight
To visit pyramids
To look at the Eiffel Tower
To relax on a world famous Copacabana beach
To walk along the Great China Wall
To find a Dingo dog and kangaroo
To participate in a safari
To look at the Coliseums
Task 2
Skim the text to see if these sentences are True (T) or False (F)?
1. Carnival is celebrated in summer.
2. The Rio Carnival officially opens with the parade.
3. The Queen of Carnival is chosen by her beauty.
4. The parades were stopped during World War П.
5. The samba songs are always the same every year.
6. Nudity is officially allowed.
Although Carnival (Camaval in Portuguese) is celebrated in towns *
and villages throughout Brazil and other Catholic countries, Rio de Janeiro
has long been regarded as the Carnival Capital of the World. Foreign
visitors to it alone number around 500,000 every year.
Rio Carnival is a wild 4 day celebration, 40 days before Easter. It
officially starts on Saturday and finishes on Fat Tuesday with the beginning
of Lent. It usually happens in February, the hottest month in the Southern
Hemisphere, when the Rio summer is at its peak.
It begins with the crowning of the Fat King (King Momo), who is
presented with a giant silver and gold key by the city's mayor. King of
Carnival (King Momo) "Momo" is the name of the god of mockery in the
Greek mythology, and according to Carnival tradition, King Momo should
be jolly and as big as a house. Legend suggests that he was expulsed from
the Olympus to come and settle down in Rio, the City of Carnival. The Rio
Carnival officially opens with the delivery of the key of the city to King
Momo. The Queen of Carnival is chosen by contest based on her beauty,
self-assurance, sociability, ease of expression, congeniality and samba
94
abilities but all in all she must have the "carnival spirit". The 2nd and the
3rd place candidates in the contest are named the Princesses of Carnival.
The Portuguese first brought the concept of "celebration or carnival"
to Rio around 1850. They acquired unique elements deriving from African
and Amerindian cultures. The black slaves became actively involved in the
celebrations. They were able to be free for three days. Nowadays the slums'
black communities are still the most involved groups in all the carnival
preparations and they are the ones for whom Rio Carnival means the most
By the end of the 18 century the festivities were enriched by
competitions. People would not just dress up in costumes but also perform
a parade accompanied by an orchestra of strings, drums and other
instruments.
The parades were halted during World War II and started again in
1947. By then the main competition took place downtown on Avenida Rio
Branco.
Preparation for the Samba Parade starts month in advance the year
preceding Carnival, as each samba school mobilizes thousands of
supporters who will create the various parts of the school's display.
First of all, the theme of the year is chosen. Then the school's samba
song of the year is selected through competition, while the school's
Carnival Designer creates the ideas of the costumes and the floats. When
ready, the sketches move into production. By December, the rehearsals
begin and, in time for Christmas, the schools' annual samba songs are
recorded and released to the record shops.
Each year each school chooses a different theme for the Samba
Parade. It can be celebrating a particular period or some famous figures of
the Brazilian history, highlight a special event or talk about anything really
what might move the spirit and imagination; like a special animal or one of
the elements, like water or fire, etc. The school has to illustrate the chosen
theme through all its work - the samba times, especially written for that
year’s theme, the richly decorated floats and the costumes of their 3,000 to
5,000 parading members designed by the school's Carnival Designer.
The parade of every school is highly organized and designed. They
line up in a unique way to present their pageant. The schools are divided
into a number of sections and each section has a number of wings of about
100 people wearing the same costume. Sometimes even 2 wings (app. 200
people) have the same costume.
The costumes are extremely imaginative, colorful, elaborate and
detailed. They are truly original, designed and made from scratch each
year. They have mirrors, feathers, metallic cloth, silk and sometimes gems
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or coins. These costumes take months to make. The work starts roughly 8
months in advance.
Each samba school has its own distinctive colors (of its flag) and
costume style. The biggest and most elaborate costumes are worn by the
main floatees (destaques), members chosen with honor by the samba
schools to wear these special costumes. Even though complete nudity is not
officially allowed, sometimes floats carry topless or almost-naked beauties,
male and female, wearing only body paint, lots of glitter and a smile.
Task 3
Match the words with their definitions.
Day when Christians celebrate resurrection of Christ
Carnival
National dance
Easter
Public festival
Lent
People who is owned by forced to work for another
Samba
The period of forty weekdays before Easter
Slaves
Public entertainment in which historical events are
Float
acted
Pageant
A low vehicle use for showing things in a procession
Task 4
Read the text again and complete the sentences.
Greek, carnival designers, floatees, slaves, keys, samba song
1. Momo is the name of the ... god.
2. The city's mayor presents ... to a King of Carnival.
3......of the year is selected through competition.
4. During the Carnival ... became free from their owners.
5. Samba school’s parades are organized by ... .
6. ... wear the biggest and most beautiful costumes.
Task 5
For each of the six questions choose the one correct answer.
1. In my town people____________ a traditional festival every year.
a) celebrity
b) celeiy
c) celebrate
d) celebration
2. Festivals often start with a long_________ through the streets.
96
a) march
b) walk
c) procession
d) stroll
3. In national festivals people often wear the traditional ___________
from their
country.
a) costume
b) clothes
c) outfit
d) suit
4. Which of the following is not a festival?
a) film festival
b) pagan festival
c) religious festival
d) birthday festival
5. On the 4 th of July, the U.S.A. celebrates__________day.
a)independence
b) independense
c) independanse
d)independence
6. The most popular Hindu festival is ‘Diwali’, also known as ‘The Festival
of
a) darkness
b) lights
c) love
d) heaven
Task 6
Discussion
Answer the questions.
Have you ever participated in any festivals?
If yes, how did you feel about it?
If no, what pageant would you like to take part in?
What festivals are held in your city?
Which of them are the most popular and why?
Task 7
Debate on the following statement
97
1. Arranging festivals and holidays nowadays is a complete waste of
money.
2. Nowadays teenagers lack a sense of traditions.
Lesson 6
Branding and Brand names
Task 1
Skim read the following text.__________________________________
The name is the most important element of a successful brand.
Packaging changes, advertising changes, products even change but brand
names never change. Where do great brand names come from? All
different sources, they may come from family names or perhaps the
inventor’s favorite color or animal or sometimes the names are just
completely made up. For example, McDonald’s is a family name, Adidas
was created from the inventors name Adi Dassler, Volvo means “to roll”
in Latin and KODAK was completely made up by the inventor George
Eastman because he thought it was unusual and different._____________
Task 2
Discuss the following questions in pairs:
1. Why are brand names important?
2. Name three different sources of brand names.
3. Do you think brands are important? Why?
4. Do you have a favorite brand? What is it and why do you like it?
Task3
Can you guess where the following brand names came from?
Match the brands in the box with the correct text below.
1. Toyota
2. Chanel no.
3. Rolls Royce
4. Reebok
5. Nike
6. Nivea
a) From the Latin word meaning, ‘snow-white’.
b) This was the fifth perfume made by the same company.
c) Named after the Greek Goddess of Victory
d) Originally a Japanese family name Toyoda. The inventors changed one
letter to make it easier to pronounce overseas.
e) Named after an African Gazelle
98
f) The family names of two men, one a motor enthusiast and the other an
engineering genius.
Task 4
Rank your favorite brands from 1-10(1 = like the most, 10 =like the least)
and explain your choice.
1
2
|
4
I
6
7
8
9
10
Task 5
In pairs invent a new product and give it a name.
Think about the following points:
• What is special or unusual about your product?
• Why would people want to use or buy it?
• How does the name relate to the product?
Once you have chosen the name for your product prepare a short oral
presentation to give to the rest of the class. In your presentation you should
describe your product and explain how and why you chose its name. Both
of you should speak in the presentation.
Here are some useful phrases that may help you with your presentation:
We would like to introduce our new invention...
We chose the name ... because...
You can use it to...
If you can’t think of any ideas for a new product use one of these ideas.
1. A thick slimy green jelly soda drink
2. A flying schoolbag that you can control by remote control
3. An alarm clock that switches off when you shout at it
4. A television computer
5. A digital watch with a built in mobile phone and mini computer. .
6. A new digital homework personal organizer
Lesson 7
Accommodati on
Task 1
Answer the following questions
1. Is your living arrangement an important factor in your success as a
student.
2.What types of accommodations do you know?
3.Where do you prefer to live in a university hostel or private
accommodations?
Task 2
Read the text. Find out all types of accommodation of the UK. Make up a
table:
types of accommodation
I
II
advantages
disadvantages
Good living arrangements is an important factor in your success as a
student in the UK. When you live in comfortable accommodation that meets
your needs, you are better able to study and relax properly and can make the
most of your time here.
Universities and many colleges own and run their own
accommodation for their students. There are several kinds:
- halls of residence —large buildings for large numbers of students
- houses for small groups of students
- flats for married students or students with families
In a hall of residence you live in a study bedroom (either by yourself or
with another student) and you expect to have a bed, bed-linens, storage
space for your clothing, a desk, a desk lamp, a chair and perhaps some
bookshelves. Your room might also include a bathroom and/or a
telephone.
It’s a great way to get to know other students, you’ll be close to your
study facilities, and it will give you time to get to know the local area
before you start searching for other accommodation.
Private accommodation may be owned and run by organizations (such as
charities) or by individuals (landlords or landladies). There are several
types available:
- student hostels
- lodgings
100
- flats and houses
Hostels generally rooms for single students, and a few also
provide rooms for married ones. Many hostels provide meals, and some
provide cooking facilities so you can prepare your own food.
As with university or college accommodation, staying in a hostel
allows you to grow familiar with an area and decide where you would like
to look for other accommodation.
Furnishings and facilities may be of a simpler standard than in some
other types of accommodation.
Living in ‘lodgings’ means that you rent a room in someone’s home.
The home could belong to anyone: a single person or a married couple,
young people or elderly ones; or a family with children.
You have your own room to yourself, but you’ll probably have to
share the bathroom. Your host may provide meals, or else you will have
access to the kitchen to prepare your own.
You need to adapt your lifestyle to the customs and routines of the
household, so you have less independence than in some other types of
accommodation..
This is a popular option for groups of two or more students who are
willing to share costs.
A self-contained, furnished flat or house, usually with living room,
kitchen, bathroom, bedroom(s), and sometimes a dining room. You'll have
to sign a legal agreement with the landlord or landlady and you may have
to pay an initial deposit as security, in case you break or damage anything.
Depending on the arrangement, you and your friends may also need to pay
the heating and electricity bills, and you’ll almost certainly have to pay the
telephone bill. Most students in this type of arrangement also choose to
share their food costs.
You and your friends will have lots of independence, and splitting
your costs this way can sometimes be even cheaper than other types of
accommodation.
Sometimes it’s hard to find a suitable flat or house near the college
or university, so you may have to travel further to get to classes.
Task 3
Skim the text to see if these sentences are True (T ) or False (F)?
1. Every university in UK has its own accommodation for students.
2. You are not allowed to prepare food in a hostel.
101
3. Lodging is a room in a hostel.
4.You must sign a document with a landlady to rent her flat.
Task 4
Match the words with their definitions.
Man from whom one rents a room
Landlord
Accommodation A place for someone to live in
An agreement
Arrangement
Services or pieces of equipment that are provided for
Facilities
people
To supply
To provide
To pay money regularly to use a house that belongs to
To rent
someone
To give a part of something to someone else
To share
Price paid for a thing
Cost
Harm, loss
damage
Task 5
Discussion
Where do you prefer to live (you can use 3 arguments during discussion)
University hostel
+ 1. Good place to start
2. Close to your study facilities
- 1. Too noisy.
2. Furnishing are standard and dull
Private accommodation
+ 1. Lots of independence
2. a very comfortable
arrangement
- 1. It is far from the university.
2. Less contact with your
friends.
Task 6
Debate
Divide into two groups. Group A must think of five arguments that support
the statement above. Group В must think of five arguments against the
statement.
“Students who live in a university hostel are more involved in social
university life”.
102
L ite ra tu re
1. Hewings M. Advanced grammar in use. - Cambridge University Press.
2 0 0 6 .-2 9 5 p.
2. Michael Vince. Advanced language practice. — Macmillan publishers
limited, 2005. —326 p.
3. Macmillan essential dictionary. —Macmillan publishers limited, 2003. 861 p.
4. www.onestopenglish.com.
5. www.macmillanenglish.com.
103
Appendix A
L e s so n 1
Mobile phones
Task 1
Look at the first two columns of the chart below and the different reasons
people use their mobile phones.
Reasons you use
your mobile
phone
Reasons people use phones
Conversation
or text
message
To let their people know where they
are
To flirt with someone
As a clock
To play games
Just to say hello
To arrange to meet friends
To find out about the cinema or
football results
Task 2
Now fill in the grid for you. You may write either your own reasons or
choose from the first column.
Number the empty boxes 1-7 with 1 being the most frequent reason you
use your mobile phone.
If you don’t have a mobile phone then fill in the table with your neighbour.
Now decide for each reason whether you speak to someone or whether you
send a text message. Circle either conversation (C) or text message (TM) in
each box.
104
Task 3
Dialogue reconstruction
You are now going to look at a telephone conversation.
• In pairs put the pieces of paper into the correct order.
| When you’ve finished check your order with the pair sitting next to you.
• What is the relationship between the two people?
• What is the main reason for the telephone call?
• Now practice reading the dialogue in your pairs.
“Hello”
“Hi Sophie, it’s Justin.”
“Hi. How are you?”
“Fine thanks. Listen I haven’t got long because I’ve got a maths class in a
minute. I just wanted to see if you are still coming tonight.”
“I'm not sure. I think my mum wants me to stay in tonight. We’re going to
my
aunt’s house tomorrow and we have to leave really early.”
“Why, where does she live?”
“Miles away!”
“Well, what about if you came early and then my dad could give you a lift
home at about ten. Most people are coming around seven anyway and it
would be cool if you came.”
“Ok well, let me speak to my mum and I’ll text you later.”
“Ok, cool.”
“See you later.”
“Yeah, bye.”
105
Task 4
Role-play
It’s now your turn to create your own telephone conversation. Read the
situation on your card and ask about any words you don’t understand.
• Yo u can write a draft of your telephone conversation but don’t write
every word, just an outline of what you’re going to say.
You need to cancel a trip to the cinema because your grandmother is
coming for dinner.
Arrange with a good friend to go shopping on Saturday at the shopping
centre.
You phone your best friend the morning of his/her birthday.
Phone your parents to ask them if you can be late for dinner to stay for an
extra drama class after school.
Tell your friend that you’re going to be late meeting them because of a
train strike.
Phone your friend to find out where they are. You’ve been waiting for
them in a cafe for twenty minutes.________________________________
Task 5
Text messages
• What do you think the following words / messages mean?
• Can you think of any other words or short messages you use in your own
language?
• Can you use the same ‘codes’ in English?
GR8
С u 18r
BFN
HowRU
THNQ
XLENT
106
Task б
Text writing
In pairs write your own message to another pair in the class.
• First of all write it in English and then translate it into a text message.
Send it to someone in the class. When you receive a message write a reply.
Contexts for messages:
______________________________________
You need to cancel a trip to the cinema because your grandmother is
coming for dinner.
Arrange with a good friend to go shopping on Saturday at the shopping
centre.
Text your best friend the morning of his/her birthday.
Contact your friend to say that you’re going to be late meeting them
because of a train strike.
Send a text message to your friend to find out where they are. You’ve been
waiting for them in a cafe for twenty minutes.
Lesson 2
Young people and television
Task 1
Pair Work
Student A
Start reading the text aloud allowing time for your partner to write the
missing words. Then listen carefully to your partner and write the words
that are missing from your text.
(Text A)
Children’s Television Viewing Habits in КZ
Parents and teachers throughout the country often express concern about
According to recent statistics, teenagers watch between 2.5 and 3.2 hours
of television every day.
Peak viewing times for teenagers are between nine and eleven o’clock.
________________________________________________ , when the
107
programmes are specifically aimed at children, the viewing figures are
much lower.
Boys
watch more
science fiction and sport.
. They are
affected
by the images they see and they find role models in their favourite
programmes.
which programmes are
suitable or
unsuitable.
Young people and television
Student В
Start by listening carefully to your partner and writing the words that are
missing. Then change roles and you read the next part of the text allowing
time for your partner to complete the missing words.
(Text B)
Children’s Television Viewing Habits in KZ
the amount of hours that children spend in front of the television.________
_____________ Many children watch television in the mornings over
breakfast but
most viewing takes place after school in the evenings.
They watch cartoons, music programmes and quiz shows. Between the
hours of four and six, Girls watch more drama series, music and fashion
programmes.
Television plays an important part in the lives o f children.______________
What parents and their children have to consider is how much time should
be spent watching television
and___________
Task 2
Television questionnaire
Read your completed texts again and answer the following three questions.
1. How many hours a day do teenagers in KZ spend watching television?
2. What time o f the day does most viewing take place?
3. Do boys end girls watch the same kind o f programmes?
108
Task 3
Complete a questionnaire about you and your partner’s television viewing
habits.
Compare your answers and discuss the questions where you have different
responds.
You
Your partner
1. Do you watch television every day?
2. Have you got a television in your
bedroom?
3. Do you ever watch television before
going to school?
4. Do you think you watch too much
television?
5. Does anybody restrict your
television viewing?
6. Do you have a favourite television
channel?
7. Do you watch more television at the
weekend?
8. Do
you
watch
educational
programmes?
9. Would you find it easy to stop
watching TV for a week?
lO.Do you think children in your
country watch too much TV?
Task 4 Role play
Here is your role card. The other students in your group must not see your
card. Study the TV programme guide with your group. You are going to
discuss the programmes and try to agree on what to watch. Remember you
must take on the role on your card and forget about what you’d really like
to watch!
Role card 1
You are a fifteen-year-old teenager. You like action films and sport
programmes. You don’t mind factual programmes like the News or
documentaries but you hate soap operas and romantic films. You like films
that are violent. You think they are exciting._____________________ __
109
Here is your role card. The other students in your group must not see your
card. Study the TV programme guide with your group. You are going to
discuss the programmes and try to agree on what to watch. Remember you
must take on the role on your card and forget about what you’d really like
to watch!
Role Card 2
You are a parent. You like anything that is funny. You don’t like violence
on TV. You like all sport except football. You love music and
documentaries. You prefer watching programmes that last less than an
hour because you always have a lot of things to do.__________________
Here is your role card. The other students in your group must not see your
card. Study the TV programme guide with your group. You are going to
discuss the programmes and try to agree on what to watch. Remember you
must take on the role on your card and forget about what you’d really like
to watch!
Role Card 3
You are a grandparent. You like to watch documentaries and soap operas.
You always fall asleep in films. You don’t like sport very much but you
like football. You like watching television programmes that make you
laugh.______________________________________________________
Here is your role card. The other students in your group must not see your
card. Study the TV programme guide with your group. You are going to
discuss the programmes and try to agree on what to watch. Remember you
must take on the role on your card and forget about what you’d really like
to watch!
Role card 4
You are a fourteen-year-old teenager. You love sport and all films. You
hate documentaries and news programmes. You don’t mind comedy
programmes. You don’t like soap operas unless they are about young
_____ _________________________________________
people.
110
L esson 3
Parts Of Great Britain
Task 1
Answer the following three questions.
1. Can you label the different countries of the United Kingdom on the map
below?
3. Do you know the names of their capital cities?
2. What words / phrases do you associate with each of these countries?
Make a list below.
Task 2
Work with a partner. Find the answers to these questions about the different
UK countries as quickly as you can.
ТаякЗ
Work with a partner. Find words or phrases which go with the following
definitions (the words appear in the text in the same order as the
definitions)
About England
Paragraph 3
1) someone who is very famous and people think represents a particular
idea
Paragraph 4
2) difficult to define or see clearly
3) a set of questions that you ask a large number of people
About Northern Ireland
Paragraph 2
4) a way of thinking about things
5) to deliberately avoid a person, place or activity
Paragraph 4
6) to form two very different groups that are completely opposite to each
other
7) a generalization, not based on specific facts and maybe not completely
correct
(2 words)
About Scotland
111
Paragraph 1
8) very impressive or beautiful
Paragraph 3
9) to arrange a special event and provide the buildings and services needed
Paragraph 6
10) very successful
About Wales
Paragraph 3
11) to be a characteristic that makes something clearly different from other
similar things
Paragraph 6
12) the place where a sports team is based and plays most of its games
Now use the correct form of one of these words to complete the following
sentences
1. London___________ the 2012 Olympic Games.
2. Madonna has been a pop__________ since the 1980s.
3. Britain was divided on the Iraq war. Opinions were completely
4. Manchester United’s ___________ is the Old Trafford stadium, just 3
kilometres from the centre of Manchester.
5. Some people think that British people are cold and unfriendly, but it’s a
very___________ . Actually, the people I’ve met have been very nice.
6. I argued with my brother and he hasn’t called me since. I think he
me.
7. Internet businesses had some problems in the 1990s, but now sites like
EBay, Amazon and Yahoo! are___________ again.
8. People questioned in a recent ~~ '________said that they spent on
average 3 hours a day watching TV.
9. This website___________ from other similar sites by the quantity of
up-to-date information it contains.
10.1 think that people from the capital city have very different ideas from
people who live in the countryside. It’s a completely different
11. From our hotel window, you can see the mountains and the sea. It’s a
view.
12. The town centre has all the usual shops. There’s nothing different or
original. Really, it’s ___________ from any other British town.
112
Text: About Northern Ireland
Great craic, live music and the Ulster fry
Where it is
Northern Ireland is part of the UK but is physically separated from
mainland England, Wales and Scotland by the wild and sometimes
treacherous Irish Sea. Northern Ireland has sea to the north and east, and
borders the Republic of Ireland on the west and south, making it the only
UK country with a European border.
Unsurprisingly these physical characteristics affect the mindset of its
population, and it is not unusual to find some people who feel
simultaneously a UK citizen, and Irish citizen and a European citizen.
Alternatively, others shun their UK identity and embrace their Irishness,
and many others insist on being ‘British’ and ignore their Irish
neighbours.
In a population of 1.5 million nearly 60% are under 40, making it a
country with an influential youth culture.
Religion and identity
Identity tends to be polarised according to the religious divide Protestants tend to see themselves as ‘British’ and part of the UK (except
when the Irish rugby team is in action and allegiance conveniently
switches!), and Catholics tend to embrace the Irish identity and an allIreland ethos. As with any such sweeping statement there are many
exceptions to the rule, and Northern Ireland is home to many people of
other religions and cultural identities. There are also a huge number of
people from both the Protestant and Catholic communities who value
each other as friends and fellow citizens, and to
whom religion takes a back seat.
Language
In common with the UK, people in Northern Ireland speak English (with
a distinctive, hard to mimic accent). There also exist the lesser-used
languages of Irish and Ulster Scots and many associated cultural
activities.
Political devolution
Northern Ireland shares the Westminster government with the UK but has
had its own devolved Assembly, currently suspended, with local control
over various issues including education and arts. The population waits for
local politicians to come to agreement so that the Assembly can be
reinstated as independence from Westminster is valued.
Stereotypes
Stereotypical images of Northern Ireland often centre on its troubled and
violent past: bombs, shootings, brutality, along with the more positive:
113
building the Titanic, the Giants Causeway World Heritage Site, linen
industry and musicians such as Van Morrison and Ash.
Text: About Wales___________________________________________ _
Language, rugby and the millennium stadium
Living in Wales
Wales is a land of rugby, singing and beautiful scenery situated on the
western side of the UK. Its population is just under three million which is
about 5% of the total UK population. The main cities are Cardiff, the
capital city, Swansea and Newport. Wales was ruled directly from
London until 1999 when the first elections to the Welsh National
Assembly were held. The Assembly has some powers specific to people
in Wales and can make decisions on areas such as education and health.
Wales remains part of the UK and Members of Parliament (MPs) from
Welsh constituencies continue to have seats in the UK Parliament at
Westminster. Laws passed by Parliament in Westminster still apply to
Wales.
Language
The Welsh language is probably the most important thing that
distinguishes Wales from the rest of the UK. Welsh (or Cymraeg) is one
of Europe’s oldest languages and is spoken by one in five Welsh people.
This number doubles among children and teenagers which shows that the
language is very much alive among the young. Road signs and other signs
are in both English and Welsh. The language is at its strongest along the
Llyn Peninsula in North-West Wales, where 75 per cent of the population
speak Welsh. Towns, villages and cities in Wales often have both a
Welsh and an English name and Wales is home to one of the longest
place
names
in
the
world
Llanfairpwllgwyngyllgogerychwymdrobwllllantysiliogogogoch
which means St Mary's (Church) by the white aspen over the whirlpool,
and St Tysilio's (Church) by the red cave!
Sport and culture
Wales is also known for its ‘Eisteddfodau’ which are festivals celebrating
Welsh language, art, culture and heritage and which include an eclectic
mix of music, dance, drama, debate and cultural competitions. Most
people know of the annual National Eisteddfod which is held alternately
in North and South Wales and the International Eisteddfod which is held
in Llangollen, but there are Eisteddfodau of varying sizes held in towns
and villages-throughout the land. The national sport is very much rugby
union and the national team are sometimes known as the Dragons as a red
114
dragon appears on the national flag of Wales. The home ground is the
Millennium Stadium at Cardiff Arms Park in Cardiff.
_________
Text: About Scotland
Festivals, lochs, shopping and beaches
Living in Scotland
Where it is
Scotland is the UK’s most northern country and has around 790 islands
off its coasts - 130 of which have people living on them. Scotland is well
known for its stunning landscapes, beautiful beaches and lochs, which are
fresh water lakes. There are over 600 square miles of lochs in Scotland
including the most famous one, Loch Ness.
It has a population of just over five million people which is about 8.5 per
cent of the whole UK population. Over 2 million of these live in Glasgow
and Edinburgh, and almost half of Scotland's population live in the
Central Belt, where both the largest city (Glasgow) and the capital city
(Edinburgh) are located.
Festivals and music
Scotland also hosts one of the biggest arts festivals in the world. This is
commonly known as the Edinburgh Festival but is actually made up of a 1
number of different festivals which happen at different times of the year,
though many do take place in August and September. Many people have
heard of the Fringe Festival, but there are also the International Festival,
the Film Festival, the Children’s Festival and the Edinburgh Mela w hich1
is an intercultural festival. Musically it has recently produced bands
Travis and Franz Ferdinand and other famous Scots include Ewan
McGregor, Sean Connery and IK Rowling.
Political devolution
In July 1999 the Scottish Parliament was opened, the first for over 300
years as Scotland had been governed from London. Scottish
Parliamentary responsibilities include health, education and local
government.
Stereotypes
Stereotypical images of Scotland often focus on things like tartan, kilts,
heather and haggis as well as the scenery. These are a\\ still a part of the
country but contemporary Scotland is building a name for itself in other
areas, such as its thriving computer games industry________
Text: About England
IDiverse society, football and food
\ Where it is
115
England is perhaps the country most people first think of when they think I
of the United Kingdom. It borders both Scotland and Wales and almost
50 million people live there, which is over 80% of the UK’s total
population. Major cities include London (the capital), Birmingham,
Sheffield, Leeds, Newcastle, and Manchester. London is one of the most
well-known cities in the world and for many is representative of the
whole of England, if not the whole of the UK. Other icons include
football, actors Jude Law and Kate Winslet, Bridget Jones, pubs and beer.
But for most these represent the whole of the UK, not just England.
Indistinct identity?
Many of the people in our survey, either English by birth or now living
here, commented that it was very difficult to distinguish between English
and British culture and identity. People found that they often identify
more with other things than with England as a country. These other things
include: the place or region in which they live, whether it be a major city
or one of the English counties such as Yorkshire, Devon or
Northumberland; the UK as a whole; or the religious or ethnic
community they are from.
Task 4 Role play
Divide into 4 groups, choose and read one of the texts below.
Text A
Scotland: National icons
If you had to choose one thing to represent Scotland what would it be?
I t would be a white sandy beach on the North West coast of Scotland. I
think this area of Scotland is forgotten about and it’s beautiful.'
'Don’t think one thing or person could accurately represent the whole
nation. But if pushed, fish suppers.'
'The Firth of Clyde, where the lowland and the highlands meet and the
ships that shaped the industrial city of Glasgow came to and fro.'
'The scenery and the Lochs represent the natural beauty of Scotland.'
The culture of Scotland
If you’re asked about the culture of Scotland what kinds of things do
you say?
Everyone who answered this question seemed enthusiastic about the
shopping opportunities to be had in Scotland two biggest cities - not to
mention the social life!
- 'It seems to have improved greatiy in recent years within Scotland and
also how it is perceived by others. It is very varied with the main cities
116
bare cafe culture... and chib music scene. On the other hand the highlands
and islands have not changed greatly...’
-‘Scotland is a county which only has two really good cities for going out
in and shopping in my opinion! - Edinburgh and Glasgow. The shopping in
Glasgowis excellent and there are plenty of pubs and clubs to choose from
Edinburgh is becoming a better shopping city with the likes of Harvey Nics
being added. Edinburgh has loads going on with music, film and literature,
especially when the festival is on.
lenjoy living in Scotland a, it only takes halfan hour to get to the country
fiwnwhere I |lve. However, I do think that a lot of Scots are quite narrow
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117
-wonderful natural recreational facility
-representative of the beautiful landscape and scenery across Northern
Ireland.’
‘I’m afraid it would probably be the good old Ulster Fry, plenty of potato
bread and soda bread dipped in egg. Yum. Why? Because it is perfect for
that other thing Northern Ireland is known for - curing the morning after
the night before.’
‘Going up Cavehill on a sunny day. You can see right across Belfast.
Cavehill is also special being the inspiration apparently for Gulliver’s
Travels as it looks like a giant lying down on the landscape sleeping.’
‘The cranes at Harland and Wolff. A distinct feature of Belfast which
encompasses not just the past but stability in the face of major difficulties.’
The culture of Northern Ireland
What one thing represents Northern Ireland for you?
‘The Mountains of Moume because
-immortalised in song
-wonderful natural recreational facility
-representative of the beautiful landscape and scenery across Northern
Ireland.’
‘I’m afraid it would probably be the good old Ulster Fry, plenty of potato
bread and soda bread dipped in egg. Yum. Why? Because it is perfect for
that other thing Northern Ireland is known for —curing the morning after
the night before.’
‘Going up Cavehill on a sunny day. You can see right across Belfast.
Cavehill is also special being the inspiration apparently for Gulliver’s
Travels as it looks like a giant lying down on the landscape sleeping.’
‘The cranes at Harland and Wolff. A distinct feature of Belfast which
encompasses not just the past but stability in the face of major difficulties.’
Text С______________________ ______________________________
English national icons
If you had to choose one thing to represent England what would it
be?
'London - the Royal family and London (landmarks) remain the
iconic image for visitors.'
'Buckingham Palace.'
'London —our capital city and a great example of the old and the new
combining together to make a world class city.'
'Football.'
'St George’s cross —his flag is associated with the national football
team. 'Manchester. Birthplace of the computer, Industrial Revolution,
118
Emmeline Pankhurst Local and friendly but quirky and full of the old
Cromwell attitude (go against them Royals, do your own thing). Music: The
Smiths and Morrissey, Joy Division, New Order, Happy Mondays, Stone
Roses. Exactly!’
1 think it would be the centre of Manchester. Within a few miles of
the Town Hall you have a microcosm of the entire country: Victorian
industrialisation, stunning countryside, thriving modem and traditional
culture and leisure, urban deprivation and cuisine from every continent. Oh.
and pubs and football clubs as well.'
The album by One Giant Leap, as it says so much about who we are
and where we come from, with particular respect to our place in the world.'
'St George: What else is there that isn’t British?'
The culture of England
If you’re asked about the culture of England what kinds of things do
you say?
England perhaps differs from the other countries of the UK in that it
is much harder to identify culture that is specifically English rather than
British. This can be seen in some of the responses given which range from
Morris Dancing (distinctly English) through to attitudes and activities that
could relate to anywhere in the UK and probably many other countries - for
example a love of eating out but an over reliance on junk food!
'Nostalgia, living in the past on previous successes, parochial.’
’Morris dancing, football, football hooligans, beer louts, pretty
country.'
Traditions, architecture, history, the Royal family, museums and
galleries, sport, pop music, fashion, the BBC.'
'Annual 2 week holidays, small homes with small gardens, love of
pets, openness and intimacy with partners...high percentage of single
parent families. Families are very child focussed and children are given
rights which in other countries would be accorded adults only. Love of
eating out, clubbing and boozing. Little interest in (learning) other world
languages but love of other cultures’ food. English people it seems don’t
make for very good cooks and eat junk food a lot... Being young is perhaps
seen as more desirable than being 35+.'
'Westminster, the English language, international power.'
'Very diverse in terms of values, living standards and
interests...There is a wealth of activities to keep us busy. Surprised and
delighted that reading seems to be getting a look in these days...We are
more open to different culinary experiences and this is a passive as well as
an active interest - I love this. I feel that a lack of community has led to
massive interest in reality shows as we don’t often have local drama to push |
119
our noses in. We love to see dysfunctional behaviour in others and act as
moralists. We are personality/celebrity obsessed and this brings out the
judgmental in us.1
'English culture is generally quite anti-establishment —there’s a big
tradition in our arts that attempts to question and challenge authority. Even
in the language, there’s a playful attitude —puns, irony, sarcasm. We like
one thing to mean a lot. Musically, it’s where a lot of innovation happens new forms, experiments. Social life is similar. There’s an attitude to
drinking etc. that isn’t very healthy - going against common sense - binge
drinking and talking about binge drinking.'
'Culture is all pervasive and almost impossibly diverse in England.
There are thousands of forms of cultural pursuit, many o f which we pursue
to globally recognised levels. For me, the most important elements are film
and television, music, sport and architecture.'
'Creative society, multi cultural with much new creativity stemming
from the meeting of different cultures, particularly in music, literature and
I enterprise.'_______________________________________________
■j
TEXT D
Wales: National icons
If you had to choose one thing to represent Wales what would it be?
It seems as if the Millennium Stadium is set to become Wales’ best known
landmark if the enthusiasm of the Welsh for the building is anything to go
by! ‘Millennium Stadium —instantly recognisable as a Welsh landmark’1
'Millennium Stadium - a fantastic innovative stadium (the first in the UK
with a sliding roof) in the heart of the Welsh capital and where the religion
of rugby takes place'
Millenium Stadium - best stadium in the UK. Built at a fraction of the cost
of Wembley, has hosted key events of the other home nations, big
concerts, and symbolises successful regeneration.'
The mountain of Snowdonia which reflects the strength of the Welsh
nation without being overpowering’
'Mountains- Snowdonia, Brecon Beacons'
The culture of Wales
If you're asked about the culture of Wales what kinds of things do you
say?
When we asked this we were immediately told about sport, music and
food!
‘Sport (rugby), singing, pub culture’
‘Rugby (or rugbi in Welsh) is the national sport, passion and religion —
120
games against the English are particularly savoured! Music and song both popular, Stereophonies etc, and more classical, Bryn Terfyl and
Katherine Jenkins.’
‘Rugby mad people —the mood o f the nation can depend on the Wales
team’s results. In recent years Wales has produced several good bands
(Manic Street preachers, Catatonia, Stereophonies) which has movedaway
from the stereoptypical Tom Jones label (although we still like Tom
Jones).’
Friendly, welcoming people. Modem vibrant society yet still retaining
much o f the Welsh tradition’
‘Food —lava bread (seaweed), welsh cakes, bara brith (tea Bread), welsh
lamb and beef. A very popular and trendy restaurant in Cardiff is the
Armless Dragon serving Welsh dishes)’_____________________________
Two students are a professional couple or friends (they can decide on their
occupations) who wish to emigrate to the UK. They haven’t yet decided
where in the UK they want to live.
Prepare a short presentation aimed at persuading the couple to come to
‘their’ UK country. Choose one spokesperson from your group to give the
presentation,
- Use the role cards to prepare your presentations.
- Give the couple a few minutes to take a decision.
- Finally, the couple gives and explains their decision.
Role cards______________________________________________________
You are a professional couple, or friends, who want to emigrate to the UK.
You haven’t decided where you want to live.
Think about what you are looking for. You should consider:
• Job opportunities
* Culture - the arts, sport etc.
* People and attitudes
• Quality o f life
s Anything else that is important to you in deciding where to live
Think o f some questions to ask the representatives of each country.
You represent England. You have to persuade a professional couple to
come and live in England instead of one o f the other UK countries. In your
group, prepare your arguments. Think about:
I Job opportunities____________________________ __________________
121
• Culture —the arts, sport etc.
• People and attitudes
• Quality o f life
• Anything else that might persuade the couple to come to your country.
Be ready to give a presentation about England and answer the couple’s
questions______________________________________________________
You represent Scotland. You have to persuade a professional couple to
come and live in Scotland instead o f one of the other UK countries. In your
group, prepare your arguments. Think about:
• Job opportunities
• Culture —the arts, sport etc.
• People and attitudes
• Quality o f life
• Anything else that might persuade the couple to come to your country.
Be ready to give a presentation about Scotland and answer the couple’s
questions______________________________________________________
You represent Wales. You have to persuade a professional couple to come
and live in Wales instead of one of the other UK countries. In your group,
prepare your arguments. Think about:
• Job opportunities
• Culture —the arts, sport etc.
■People and attitudes
• Quality of life
• Anything else that might persuade the couple to come to your country.
Be ready to give a presentation about Wales and answer the couple’s
questions______________________________________________________
You represent Northern Ireland. You have to persuade a professional
couple to come and live in Northern Ireland instead of one of the other UK
countries. In your group, prepare your arguments. Think about:
• Job opportunities
• Culture —the arts, sport etc.
■People and attitudes
• Quality of life
• Anything else that might persuade the couple to come to your country.
Be ready to give a presentation about Northern Ireland and answer the
couple’s questions______________________________________________
122
Lesson 4
Mobile phones in our life
Task 1. Answer the following questions.
| Have you got a mobile phone?
- Do you think mobile phones are useful?
Task 2. Read the article and make a list of advantages and disadvantages of
using mobiles.
Mobiles Change Us And Our Life
I am standing in a queue at the supermarket. The woman in front of me is
talking on her mobile while the shop assistant is filling her bags. I’ll say
something if she doesn't stop soon. No, I won4. My phone's ringing too. If
it's my boyfriend. I'll tell him he's late again! 'Oh, it's you Mum. Well, I'm
just
Why are we so addicted to mobile phones? There are now over forty
million people in Britain with mobiles and if the present trend continues,
every man, woman and child in Britain will soon have one - or two, or
three!
They can be expensive and are possibly bad for us. You can spend a
fortune if you use your mobile a lot. According to some scientists, if we go
on using mobiles, we'll cook our brains. Some people even think that
radiation from mobiles causes cancer. Psychologists sat we are becoming
dependent on mobiles. Dr Oscar Jones talks about 'phoneliness' - in modem
society we are lonely, so if people ring up or send text messages, we feel
wanted.
Teenagers are among the biggest users of mobiles, and 'texting' is creating
a new language full of abbreviations such as How RU?' In Japan, surveys
show teenagers are reading less and mobile use is affecting the marks of
secondary school students. A big problem in England is crime. Last years
many English teenagers were victims of mobile phone th eft
As technology improves, mobiles can do more and more. If you have one
of the new multimedia mobiles, you can log on the Net pay for things, play
games, interact with TV programmes and take photos to send to your
friends.
Very tempting, isn't it? If I have the money next month. I'll get one of those
new ones with a camera... Г11 be able to send photos of the supermarket
queue to my boyfriend. And if I get one with an Internet connection, I
123
won't have to come to this supermarket at all. I'll sit at home and order
everything with my mobile. What a good idea!
T ask 3. Read the article again. Which o f these statements are true?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Over fifty million people in Britain use mobiles.
Mobiles cause cancer.
We use mobiles because we want more communication.
The use o f text messages is changing the English language.
Mobile phones contribute to reading more.
The latest mobiles are very versatile.
T ask 4 Match the words to make phrases from the text.
1,
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
phone
create
саше
present
spend
affect
a) theft
b) language
c) cancer
d) trend
e) fortune
f) marks
Make your own sentences with the phrases
T ask 5 Vocabulary
Choose the correct definition for the words from the article.
1 queue
a. stand in row
b. sit in row
2 improve
a. make better
b. make worse
3. interact
a. contact
b. conduct
4 .survey
a. show
b. research
5.trend
a. tendency
b. model
124
Lesson 5
Travelling by water
Task 1
What is the difference between?
a ship and a dinghy,
a boat and a catamaran,
a vessel and a yacht?
Task 2
Answer the following questions.
Have you been on board a boat? Where did you sail to?
Do you think a coastguard has a boring job?
Does the idea of being a crew member on a boat that’s sailing around the
world interest you?
Task3
Now read the text to see if the title suits the story. Give your own
alternatives.
Mystery
When a yacht was found off the east coast of Australia without its
crew, journalists immediately started to compare it with the Mary Celeste.
But is there justification for comparing the two events?
The case of the Mary Celeste may not have become so well-known if
Arthur Conan Doyle of Sherlock Holmes fame hadn’t used it for one of his
stories. In fact many people confuse the fiction of the Conan Doyle story
with the facts. It was he who changed her name to Marie Celeste and said
that there was warm food ready on the table including steaming cups of tea.
He also said that the ship was in excellent condition. This was not the case.
The Mary Celeste was spotted by the captain of the Dei Gratia, a ship
that had left New York a week later on a similar route from the States to
Italy. Both ships had liquid cargo. The former had 1701 barrels of
industrial alcohol on board whereas the latter had 1735 barrels of
petroleum. The two captains knew each other. In fact, the two men had
dined together before the Mary Celeste set sail on 7 November 1872.
Captain Morehouse was surprised to see Captain Briggs's ship drifting
although she was flying no distress signals. He knew that on board were
seven crew members, Captain Briggs, his wife Sarah and their two-year-old
125
daughter Sophia. He tried to make contact but there was never any reply.
After two hours of observing the ship he sent a small boat with some of his
crew over to investigate.
Although the vessel was found to be in a good seaworthy condition, all
was not as it should have been. First o f all there was a lot of water between
the decks and everything was soaking wet, including the captain’s bed.
There were things missing, for example the sextant and the marine
chronometer. Not only marine equipment but papers were missing too,
although the captain’s logbook remained. This suggests that the ship was
deliberately abandoned, but in a rush - oil skin boots had been left behind.
Captain Morehouse’s explanation was that they had left quickly because
they thought the ship was sinking, Importantly, there were no lifeboats on
board either and ropes were found hanging over the side. One thick rope
was found tom. Captain Morehouse said it appeared that the boat had been
launched but attached to the ship. However, there had been gale force
winds and torrential rain the days before they found the ship. If the crew
and passengers were in the lifeboat it could easily have broken away. It’s
much more difficult to stay afloat in a small boat in bad weather. The
passengers could have drowned or floated out to see to die of hunger and
thirst.
In addition the galley was in a terrible state. The cooking pots and pans
were all over the place and the cooking stove had been knocked over. The
cargo was untouched although when it eventually arrived at its destination,
nine of the barrels were found to be empty. This could link to the fact that
the hatch to the cargo was open. Leaking alcohol may have caused fumes
and the captain may have worried there could be an explosion —another
plausible reason for leaving the ship.
The possibility o f a mutiny has always been considered unlikely,
Captain Briggs was a highly respected seaman with an excellent reputation,
as was his second-in-command.
The boat, a 12m catamaran, had been bought just a week before by
skipper Derek Batton, 56, and Peter and James Tunstead, brothers aged 69
and 63. She left Airlie Beach on 15 April 2007 and was spotted drifting in
calm waters three days later by a patrol aircraft. Unable to communicate
with the Kaz 11, a rescue helicopter winched down a man the following
day, he found a table set for a meal but nobody on board. Not only was
food ready but there were a couple of laptops on, and the crew’s mobile
phones, sunglasses, wallets and cameras were there. The boat engine was in
neutral and the lights were on. Apart from a tom sail there no problems.
After authorities stopped searching for the men the families spent
thousands of dollars hiring helicopters and boats to scour the sea and the 74
126
nearby Whitsunday Islands. They reluctantly called off their search after
three weeks. There was speculation that the men had jumped out o f the
boat to push her off a sandbank, but then the wind set the boat free leaving
the men stranded. Whatever happened, the disappearance o f the crew is one
more maritime mystery.
Task 4
Decide if the following sentences are facts or theories about the Mary
Celeste case.
theory
fact
1 The Mary Celeste was found on 14 November 1872.
2 There were ten people on board the Mary Celeste.
3 The ship was deliberately abandoned.
4 Everybody left the ship quickly.
5 The captain and crew thought the ship was sinking.
6 There were ropes hanging over the side o f the ship.
7 At least one o f the ropes had been attached to the
lifeboat.
8 The lifeboat broke away from the ship.
9 It’s more difficult to be in a storm in a small boat than
a ship.
10 The passengers drowned or died o f thirst pr hunger.
11 Some o f the barrels o f alcohol were empty.
12 Alcohol leaked from the barrels.
13 The leaking alcohol caused fumes.
14 The captain thought the boat was in danger o f
exploding.
Task 5
Match the words with their definitions below.
sail
cargo
dinghy
rope
a small boat.
to travel somewhere by boat / A large piece of strong cloth
fixed to a tall
pole on a boat.
a type o f very thick string that can be used for tying or
pulling things.
things that are sent by ship, plane, train or truck.
Task 6
127
Debate.
Comment on the following statement.
Traveling teaches more than anything else. Sometimes one day spent in
distance is better than 10 years at home (A. France, philosopher)
Lesson 6
Cooking in britain
Task 1
Think of as many national or typical dishes as you can under the following
headings:
Kazakhstan
UK
Other countries
Task 2 Discussion questions
• Have you tried any of these dishes? Which ones? Did you like or dislike
them?
• What is your favourite food? What is your least favourite?
• What is the strangest food you have ever eaten? Did it taste good or bad?
• Do you like trying new foods?
• Are there any foods that you wouldn’t eat as a child that you eat now?
• T)o you prefer your own country’s food or other kinds o f food? Has your
country ‘adopted’ many foods from other countries?
• I f you were living abroad, which food would you miss most from this
country?
T»sk 3 Vocabulary exercise
In pairs think of a food to match each adjective.
Tastes
Adjective
Textures
Adjective
Example
sour
Sweet
soft
hard
128
Example
salty
chewy
b'tter
crunchy
bland
crispy
strong
smooth
hot
creamy
spicy
flaky
T£ sk 4
Now read the following clues and guess what food/dish is being described.
CLUES
This food is soft and it tastes sweet. It is made from cream, sugar and
fruit or chocolate. It is eaten very cold, usually in summer.
This food is crunchy and it can be salty or sweet. It is often eaten in the
cinema.
T his food is hard on the outside, but usually soft in the middle. It is very
versatile and is used to make lots o f sweet and savoury dishes. In the UK
people also eat it on its own for breakfast or in a sandwich.
This food is usually hard and crunchy, and it is red or green in colour.
People often use it to make desserts, e.g. pies.
Write some more clues o f your own and see if your partner or the rest of
t> s class
can guess which food you are describing.
T *sk5
Read the following article about cookery programmes and their effect on
British cuisine.
| /v e Brits becoming more adventurous in the kitchen?
129
What comes into your mind when you think o f British food? Probably
fish and chips, or a Sunday dinner o f meat and two vegetables. But is
British food really so bland and uninteresting?
Despite a reputation for less-then-spectacular cuisine, Britain is
producing more and more top class chefs who dominate our television
screens and whose recipe books frequently top the best seller lists.
1• s thanks to these TV chefs rather than any advertising campaign that
E litons are turning away
from meat-and-two-veg and ready-made meals and becoming more
adventurous in their cooking habits. It seems that TV programmes have
the power to bring a higher profile to cooking and are wielding real
influence on what people cook at home.
According to a new study from market analysts, 1 in 5 Britons claim that
v atching cookery programmes on TV has encouraged them to try
different food. Almost one third say they now use a wider variety of
ingredients than they used to, and just under 1 in 4 (24%) say they now
buy better quality ingredients than before. One in four adults say that TV
chefs have made them much more confident about expanding their
culinary knowledge and skills, and young people are also getting more
interested in cooking. With an increasing number o f male chefs on TV,
i' 5s no longer ‘uncooF for boys to like cooking. The UK’s new obsession
v. ith food is reflected through television scheduling. Cookery shows and
documentaries about food are broadcast during prime time evening slots.
Ь-iany o f the new celebrity chefs promote modem ‘fusion cuisine’, which
btends classic ‘British’ cooking with international and exotic influences.
E ven the chefs themselves are younger, more beautiful and much more
experimental, such as Nigella Lawson and Jamie Oliver. Jamie Oliver
v. as only 23 when he first appeared on British television screens. More
f an 4 million people tuned in to his popular show ‘Jamie’s Kitchen’. The
show began as an experiment and turned into a phenomenon. Jamie gave
h mself nine months to take a team o f unemployed 16 to 24- year-olds,
v ith virtually no previous experience o f cooking, and transform them into
top class chefs to work in his new restaurant in East London, ‘Fifteen’.
.1 imie left school himself without formal qualifications and believes that
Vi ith a passion for food, anyone can become a good cook. ‘Fifteen’ has
become a hit in London and is booked up months in advance,
j imie Oliver has proved to be a huge inspiration for British people. The
r cent survey finds that the number o f those sticking to a traditional diet
i - slowly declining and around half of Britain’s consumers would like to
r. nange or improve their cooking in some way. There has been a rise in
_t. ie number of students applying for food courses at UK universities and
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colleges, such as those offered by the School of Culinary Art at South
Trafford College. Having been ridiculed for centuries for its mediocre
cuisine, is Britain now competing with countries such as France and Italy
in the field of culinary excellence?________________________________
Task 6 Decide whether the following statements are true or false:
1. Britain is starting to get a reputation for bad cuisine.
2. Advertising campaigns are encouraging British people to try new foods.
3. The most popular TV chefs in Britain are younger and more charismatic
than they used to be.
4. ‘Jamie’s Kitchen’ is a TV programme about ordinary people who set up
their own restaurants with no cooking experience.
5. Jamie’s restaurant ‘Fifteen’ will be opening in several months time.
6. The traditional British diet may be dying out.
Task 7 Questions for discussion
• Apart from popular cooking programmes, can you think of any other
reasons why people may be changing their cooking and eating habits in
Britain? Think about the following factors:
- Travel
- Health
- Vegetarianism
- Ingredients available
| Have there been many changes in your country? Are there any ‘new’
foods?
• Do you ever cook? If so, what do you like to cook?
• Would you like to train to w ork in Jamie Oliver’s restaurant, ‘Fifteen’?
Why/why not?
Task 8
Read these reviews written about a variety of restaurants in London. Write
down any new vocabulary or phrases which can be used to describe
restaurants.
The Ritz
Food: traditional British or fusion cuisine
Price per person: £80
This spectacular palace-style dining room is famous as one of London’s
most luxurious, romantic restaurants. It's hard to resist splashing out on
the exquisite 5-course menu. The staff are discreet and extremely polite.
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It’s hardly surprising that the clients are a mixture o f celebrities, business
executives and wealthy tourists. Come here for a memorable dining I
experience, which will certainly do damage to your bank account!
Yo sushi!
Food: Japanese
Price per person: £10-15
The best known sushi place in town. This restaurant is great both for its
raw fish and its kitsch Japanese decor. Service is efficient and speedy.
You can eat delicious sushi for a few pounds, serve yourself unlimited
beer, select food from a conveyor belt and even have a relaxing head
massage! Sometimes there are karaoke nights here. This restaurant is
bright and unromantic but great fun.
Amaretto
Food: Italian
Price per person: £15-20
A family-owned restaurant that has faithful clients coming back again and
again. Amaretto offers
classic Italian food in warm and friendly surroundings. Whatever time
you come here, this restaurant is always busy and lively. The pizzas and
pasta dishes are well recommended as being tasty and excellent value for
money. Great for families or big groups o f friends.
Levant
Food: Lebanese/Middle Eastern
Price per person: £20-30
An exotic Middle Eastern restaurant which is perfect for a romantic
evening. The atmosphere is moody and intimate, with lots o f candles, soft
cushions and coloured glass lanterns. When you find the entrance, hidden
away down a small street, you are greeted by luscious plants and the
smell o f incense and exotic perfumes. The menu offers a feast of
authentic Lebanese food for people who like to try something new and
unusual. If you stay late, you will even be able to watch a belly-dancing
show!
The George Inn
Food: traditional British pub food
Price per person: £5-10
A dark and smoky pub, which was built in 1780. Come here if you want
to taste traditional English fish and chips or steak and kidney pie in a
lively atmosphere. The food isn’t great, the service is slow, but this pub
serves a good range o f beers and ales.
Food for Thought
Food: vegetarian________________________________________________
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Price per person: £5-10
This tiny colourful vegetarian restaurant and takeaway offers food free of
chemicals, pesticides and preservatives. The food is good and the menu
changes every day, but this place is also great if you just want a
coffee-Don’t come here at busy times if you want a slow, leisurely meal.
Cafe Sol
Food: Mexican
Price: £20-30
Caf<: Sol is a great place to go at any time. Enjoy authentic Mexican
cuisine at lunch time (watch out for the chilli!) or go for a drink and a
dance when it gets dark. The atmosphere is always buzzing and vibrant,
and the food is reasonably priced. On a Saturday night, the young crowds
in Cafe Sol are usually very loud and merry after sampling the extensive
list of tequilas!
The Hard Rock Cafe
Food: Tex-Mex and burgers
Price per person: £10-20
A genuine celebration of rock ‘n’ roll! This is the original Hard Rock
Cafe, here since the 1970s, and it’s the first ever theme restaurant. The
queue to get in is legendary. You can’t make reservations and you will
find a queue almost all day long, every day of the year. But this actually
adds to the memorable experience. Once in, there’s good food and a great
atmosphere, created by rock music, dim lighting and walls covered in
rock memorabilia.
Task 9 Questions for discussion
In pairs answer the following questions:
1. Which of these restaurants would you most like to go to? Why?
2. Which one would you least like to go to? Why?
3. Choose one of these restaurants for:
- A birthday night out with friends
- A family meal
- A first date
- A quick lunch
Explain your choices
4. Do you prefer to eat at a restaurant or at home?
5. What is the best restaurant you have ever been to? Why did you like it?
6. Have you ever had a bad experience at a restaurant?
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Task 10 Creative task. Design your own restaurant.
Imagine you are going to open your own restaurant. In groups prepare a
brief presentation describing your restaurant, using the following headings:
- Size
- Type o f food
- Drinks
- Atmosphere
- Music
- Clientele
- theme/entertainment
Extra Task
Food Proverbs and Quotes
Read the quotes and proverbs about food and answer these questions:
• What is the meaning or implication o f each proverb/quote?
• Which proverbs or quotes do you agree with?
• Are there any which you disagree with?
• Which is your favourite?
• Do you have any proverbs in your own language which refer to food or
diet?
Food Quotes
La Rochefoucauld ‘To eat is a necessity, but to eat intelligently is an art.’
‘Stomach: A slave that must accept everything that is given to it, but which
avenges wrongs as slyly as does the slave.’
Emile Souvester ‘Part o f the success in life is to eat what you like and let
the food fight it out inside.’
Mark Twain ‘The discovery o f a new dish does more for human happiness
than the discovery o f a new star.’
Cervantes ‘Strange to see how a good dinner and feasting reconciles
everybody.’
Samuel Pepys ‘Kissing doesn’t last: cookery does.’
George Meredith ‘Cooking is like love. It should be entered into with
abandon or not at all.’
Harriet Van Home ‘Fish, to taste right, must swim three times —in water, in
butter and in wine.’
Virginia Woolf ‘There is no such thing as a little garlic.’
George Bernard Shaw ‘I didn’t fight my way to the top o f the food chain to
be a vegetarian.’
Food Proverbs
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‘An apple a day keeps the doctor away.’
‘You are what you eat.’
‘Hunger is the best sauce in the world.’
‘Even were a cook to cook a fly, he would keep the breast for himself.’
‘One cannot think well, love well, sleep well, if one has not dined well.’
‘A smiling face is half the meal.’
‘Give a man a fish and you feed him for a day. Teach a man to fish and you
feed him for life.’
‘There is no sincerer love than the love of food.’
Lesson 7
The american cultural invasion
Task 1
Name one of each o f the following. Tell your partner about them, and say
what you think of them.
1 An American TV programme that is popular in your country.
2 An American movie that is popular in your country at the moment.
3 Your favourite American movie star.
4 An American play that was recently performed in your country.
Task 2
American cultural product is popular all over the world. Some people think,
however, that too much of it has a negative effect on the culture o f other
countries. What do you think? Discuss the questions below.
1 Do you think that TV stations in your country should be obliged to show
a high percentage of home produced programmes, or do you think
they should be allowed to show whatever they want, even if most of
it is American?
2 Do you think that cinemas in your country should show home produced
movies rather than Hollywood ones, even if fewer people want to go
and see them?
135
3 Would you rather go and see a play about issues in your country, starring
actors from your country, or well-known American plays starring
famous Hollywood stars? Why?
T ask3
Reading
You are going to read a newspaper article about how American plays now
dominate London’s theatre district - the West End.
Look at the sentences below and check you understand all the words. Then
read the passage and decide which are true and which are false, in the
writer’s opinion.
1 American plays are not as good as the publicity for them claims.
2 Only theatre in Britain is dominated by American product.
3 Both Britain and the United States should support writers and actors from
their own countries.
4 American plays should be banned from Britain.
5 There are twice as many American movies as there are European ones on
British TV.
6 The themes o f British and American plays are very similar.
7 American plays are more glamorous than British ones.
8 The people who decide which plays and films we watch should choose to
show things from other countries, not just the United States.
American dominance in the West End by Michael Billington
A
Overrated, overhyped and over here, American fare dominates the
West End, the television and British cinemas. We hear a lot about London
theatre's domination by stars. Less noticed has been its surrender to the
stars and stripes. Whole weeks now go by in which, as a critic, I see
nothing but American product and I learn far more about life in Manhattan
or the midwest than Manchester or Midlothian. But that is merely a symbol
o f a far wider phenomenon in which Britain's cultural and political agenda
is increasingly set by the world's one surviving superpower.
В
Some will argue that this is merely a healthy symptom o f cultural
free trade and o f a historical tit-for-tat. Britain has long dominated
Broadway; now American theatre is getting its revenge. But I share the
view o f critic Robert Brustein, who argues, from an American perspective,
that the anglicising o f New York theatre "has not only worked to exclude
the best work coming out o f Europe, but has also managed to eclipse our
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native traditions". I am not asking for the erection of cultural barriers,
simply a measure of moderation and a recognition that both Britain and
America need to nurture their native talent. What really appals me is
Britain's capitulation to American economic and cultural power. It's hard to
find a non-American film at the local cinema. Only last week 34 of 46
movies on mainstream television were American, while only one came
from continental Europe. American fast-food chains and coffee shops cover
the country. And now there is even talk of the Booker prize, which has
done an immense amount to stimulate British, Irish and Commonwealth
writing, being open to American fiction at the behest of a financial services
company.
С
Does it matter? Isn't this merely a symptom of the new globalised era
in which we all live? Without descending into little-Englandism, I think it
matters deeply, because we are increasingly cutting ourselves off from
other sources of supply and neglecting our native strengths. In purely
theatrical terms, we would much rather do a mediocre American play than
a good one from Europe, Africa, Australia or Canada. And the traditional
British belief that theatre is a means of analysing society as well as
exploring character is in danger of being eroded by the American fixation
with personal psychology. American plays habitually ask, "Why am I not
happy?" British plays, at their best, ask, "What's wrong with the world?"
None of this means that I want to prohibit the best American work: I still
want to see great American plays like The Producers, Edward Albee's The
Goat and Mary Zimmerman's Metamorphoses in Britain. What I am against
is the lazy belief that everything American is invested with a glamour and
radical edge lacking in Britain.
D
For what it's worth, my own observation, after a week recently spent
in New York, was that articulated by Jonathan Freedland in the Guardian's
opinion pages: America is a society that currently stifles genuine debate
and dissent. And, although I saw a handful of good shows in New York
theatre, I came away convinced that our slavish submission to everything
American is unwarranted. We are in danger, given the current artistic
deluge, of becoming the 51st state. It's high time our cultural arbiters woke
up to the fact that there is a world elsewhere.
T-isk 4
Reading 2
Read the passage again and match each brief summary below to the
paragraph being summarized.
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1 Americans should encourage culture produced in their country, in
Britain, local culture should be encouraged, rather than buying in to
American culture, often for economic reasons.
2 Britain is wrong to import so many American plays because, although
some are good, the United States is not open to discussing many issues at
the moment, and British plays, or plays from other countries, may well be
better.
3 There are too many American films and plays on in Britain, many o f
which are not that good. This is typical o f how American culture influences
many aspects o f British society.
4 It is important to worry about this trend because we are in danger o f not
seeing plays from countries other than the United States, and o f
discouraging British plays which address very different issues from
American plays.
Task 5
Vocabulary in context
Match the verbs from the passage on the left to their definitions on the
right.
Erode
Set
Stifle
Nurture
Stimulate
Neglect
Articulate
put into words
stop from expressing
make less
help to grow and develop
put in place
ignore
encourage
Task 6
W hich o f the verbs in the list on the left above best collocate with which set
of nouns below?
1 oeliefs values confidence
2 dissent debate comment
3 an opinion a point o f view an observation
4 .he agenda the table
5 youth talent creativity
6 jnterest creativity writing
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7 strengths your health children
Task 7 Follow-up
Think of a film or play from your country or culture. In what ways is it
typically different from an American film or play? Think about the
following.
1 The story.
2 The setting.
3 The style of acting.
4 The message or theme.
5 The budget.
Talk to your partner.
Lesson 8
Shopping in America
Task 1.
Before you read.
Who shops for food in your family? How often do they go shopping?
Where do they buy the food from?
Task 2. Read the text about food shopping. Which different ways of
shopping for food does it mention?
New Markets
Making a long trip to the supermarket and queuing for hours
used to be the normal weekly routine for British and American shoppers.
But since the 1990s, there is a better way to get your groceries.
Supermarket shopping on the Internet has boomed in the UK and the USA.
The major supermarkets have their own websites, and if you order
on-line with them, for a small extra sum such as $8/ £5 the supermarkets
will do your shopping for you and deliver it to your door. If you shop with
them regularly, they'll 'remember' your favourite items so you can order
them next dme without searching for them!
These days thousands of people in the UK and the States regularly do
their supermarket shopping in this way. In contrast, in many rural areas of
Britain there has been a return to the traditional outdoor market. Farmers’
markets, where farmers sell their products directly to the customer, had
practically died out in Britain because of the attraction of the large
supermarkets, but they have been resurrected recently, both to help farmers
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make more profits, and to provide customers with ‘real’ food again, such as
fresh meat, eggs, vegetables and preserves. Organic food has become very
popular, and some producers run a ‘box service’, where they deliver a
weekly box o f fruit and vegetables to your door. Customers can’t select the
food —they just receive whatever is in season —but it is guaranteed to be
fresh and free from chemicals, and now you can often order these on-line
too!
Task 3. Underline the correct alternatives in the following sentences about
the text.
1. It is cheap/ expensive to o rd er y o u r superm arket shopping o n -lin e
and h ave it delivered.
2 . S uperm arket w eb sites can/ can ’t rem em ber w hat you h ave ordered in
the p ast.
3 . Farmers’ markets have always been well-supportedV have recently
become popular again.
4. Organic food has a lot of/ no chemicals in it.
5. The custom er/producer decides what fruit and vegetables are used
in a ‘box service’.
T ask 4. Match the following words with their definitions.
1. To boom
2. to die out
3. groceries
time o f year
4. to guarantee
5. in season
6. preserves
7. to resurrect
particularly jam
8. to run
that was dead
a) to promise
b) every day items o f shopping
c) growing naturally at a particular
d) to grow veiy quickly
e) to disappear completely
f) to organize
g) preserved fruit and vegetables,
h) to m ake alive again something
Task 5. Discuss in pairs. What are the advantages and disadvantages of
getting your food from:
a)
a supermarket b) a smaller shop or a market?
140
Think about:
Price, choice of products, quality of products, ecological reasons
Appendix В
Text 1
Pancake day
Pancake Day is the popular name for Shrove Tuesday, the day
preceding the first day o f Lent. In medieval times the day was characterized
by merrymaking and feasting, a relic o f which is the eating o f pancakes.
Whatever religious significance Shrove Tuesday may have possessed in the
olden days, it certainly has none now. A Morning Star correspondent who
went to a cross-section o f the people he knew to ask what they knew about
Shrove Tuesday received these answers:
“It’s the day when I say to my wife: ‘Why don’t we make pancakes?’
and she says, ‘No, not this Tuesday! Anyway, we can make them any
time.’”
“It is a religious festival the significance o f which escapes me. What
I do remember is that it is Pancake Day and we as children used to brag
about how many pancakes we had eaten.”
“It’s pancake day and also the day o f the student rags. Pancakes luscious, beautiful pancakes. I never know the date — bears some
relationship to some holy day.”
The origin o f the festival is rather obscure, as is the origin o f the
custom o f pancake eating.
Elfrica Viport, in her book on Christian Festivals, suggests that since
the ingredients o f the pancakes were all forbidden by the Church during
Lent then they just had to be used up the day before.
Nancy Price in a book called Pagan’s Progress suggests that the
pancake was a “thin flat cake eaten to stay the pangs o f hunger before
going to be shriven” (to confession).
Holidays and traditions in English —speaking countries.
In his Seasonal Feasts and Festivals E. O. James links up Shrove
Tuesday with the Mardi Gras (Fat Tuesday) festivals or warmer countries.
These jollifications were an integral element o f seasonal ritual for the
purpose of promoting fertility and conquering the malign forces o f evil,
especially at the approach o f spring.”
The most consistent form o f celebration in the old days was the allover-town ball game or tug-of-war in which everyone let rip before the
traditional feast, tearing here and tearing there, struggling to get the ball or
rope into their part o f the town. It seems that several dozen towns kept up
these ball games until only a few years ago.
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Е. О. James in nis book records instances where the Shrove Tuesday
celebrations became pitched battles between citizens led by the local
church authorities.
Today the only custom that is consistently observed throughout
Britain is pancake eating, though here and there other customs still seem to
survive. Among the latter, Pancake Races, the Pancake Greaze custom and
Ashbourne’s Shrovetide Football are the best known. Shrovetide is also the
time of Student Rags.
Text 2
Columbus and his voyages
In the early modem period, the voyages of Christopher Columbus
initiated European exploration and colonization of the American
continents. Christopher Columbus was a navigator and an admiral for the
Crown of Castile whose voyages to America are of great significance in
western history; particularly his original voyage of 1492, although he did
not actually reach the South American mainland until his third voyage in
1498.
Columbus' discovery of the Americas subsequently led to the major sea
powers in Europe sending expeditions to the New World to build trade
networks and colonies and to convert the native peoples to Christianity.
Pope Alexander VI divided "newly discovered" lands outside Europe
between Spain and Portugal along a north-south meridian 370 leagues west
of the Cape Verde islands (off the west coast of Africa). This division was
never accepted by the rulers of England or France. (See also the Treaty of
Tordesillas that followed the papal decree.)
Departure of the first voyage from the port of Palos, by Evaristo
Dominguez, in the municipality of Palos de la Frontera.
On the evening of August 3, 1492, Columbus departed from Palos de
la Frontera with three ships. They were property of Juan de la Cosa and the
Pinzon brothers (Martin Alonso and Vicente Yanez), but the monarchs
forced the Palos inhabitants to contribute to the expedition. Columbus first
sailed to the Canary Islands, which were owned by Castile, where he
restocked the provisions and made repairs. While securing provisions from
the island of La Gomera, Columbus received word that three Portuguese
caravels had been seen hovering near El Hierro with the supposed intention
of capturing him. However, on September 6, 1492 the westward voyage
began without incident.
143
On September 6, he departed San Sebastian de la Gomera for what
turned out to be a five-week voyage across the ocean.
Three days into the journey, on August 6, 1492, the rudder o f the
Pinta became broken and unhung, rendering the ship disabled. The owners
o f the ship, Gomez Rascon and Christoval Quintero, were suspected of
sabotage, as they and their ship had been pressed into service against their
will. The captain o f the Pinta, Martin Alonso Pinzon, was able to secure the
rudder temporarily with cords until the Canary Islands could be reached on
August 9, 1492. Here the fleet repaired the Pinta and re-rigged the Nina's
lateen sails to standard square sails.
As described in the abstract o f his log made by Bartolome de Las
Casas, on the outward bound voyage Columbus recorded 2 sets o f distance
figures. He reported the shorter distances to his crew so that they would not
worry about sailing too far from Spain. However, according Oliver Dunn
and James Kelley, this was a misunderstanding by Las Casas. Columbus
did report two distances each day but one was in measurements he
normally used, the other in the Portuguese maritme leagues used by his
crew.'
On September 8, 1492, Columbus observed that the needle o f his
compass no longer pointed to the North star, a phenomenon which had
never before been recorded in Europe. The needle instead had varied a half
point to the Northwest, and continued to vary further as the journey
progressed. Columbus keenly reasoned that the needle didn't point to the
North star, but to some invisible point on the Earth. His reputation as a
profound astronomer held weight with the crew, and his theory alleviated
their alarm.
He at first made no mention o f this, knowing his crew to be prone to
panic with their destination unknown, but after several days his pilots took
notice with much anxiety. A legend is that the crew grew so homesick and
fearful that they threatened to sail back to Spain.
The route o f first voyage o f Columbus in the Caribbean. This map
shows the Spanish-given names by which Columbus would have known
these places.
After 29 days out of sight o f land, on October 7, 1492, the crew spotted
shore birds flying west, and they changed direction to make their landfall.
A later comparison o f dates and migratory patterns leads to the conclusion
that the birds were Eskimo curlews and American golden plovers.
Land was sighted at 2 a.m. on October 12, by a sailor named Rodrigo
de Triana (also known as Juan Rodriguez Bermejo) aboard Pinta.
Columbus would later assert that he had first seen the land and, thus,
earned the reward o f 10,000 maravedis. Columbus called the island (in
144
what is now The Bahamas or the Turks and Caicos) San Salvador, although
the natives called it Guanahani. Exactly which island in the Bahamas or
Turks and Caicos this corresponds to is an unresolved topic; prime
candidates are Samana Cay, Plana Cays, Grand Turk, or San Salvador
Island (named San Salvador in 1925 in the belief that it was Columbus' San
Salvador).
The indigenous people he encountered, the Lucayan, Tamo or
Arawak, were peaceful and friendly. Columbus proceeded to observe the
natives and how they went about. Columbus also explored the northeast
coast of Cuba (landed on October 28) and the northern coast of Hispaniola,
by December 5. Here, the Santa Maria ran aground on Christmas morning
1492 and had to be abandoned. He was received by the native cacique
Guacanagari, who gave him permission to leave some of his men behind.
Columbus founded the settlement La Navidad and left 39 men.
On January 15, 1493, he set sail for home by way of the Azores. To
achieve that goal, "He wrestled his ship against the wind and ran into a
fierce storm." In his first journey, Columbus visited San Salvador in the
Bahamas (which he was convinced was Japan), Cuba (which he thought
was China) and Hispaniola (where he found gold).
Leaving the island of Santa Maria in the Azores, Columbus headed
for Spain, but another storm forced him into Lisbon. He anchored next to
the King's harbor patrol ship on March 4, 1493, where he was told a fleet of
100 caravels had been lost in the storm. Astoundingly, both the Nina and
the Pinta were spared. Not finding the King John in Lisbon, Columbus
wrote a letter to him and waited for the king's reply. The king requested
that Columbus go to Vale do Paraiso to meet with him. Some have
speculated that his landing in Portugal was intentional.
Relations between Portugal and Castile were poor at the time.
Columbus went to meet with the king at Vale do Paraiso (north of Lisbon).
After spending more than one week in Portugal, he set sail for Spain. Word
of his finding new lands rapidly spread throughout Europe. He reached
Barcelona on March 15, and the Monument a Colom commemorates his
arrival.
He was received as a hero in Spain. He displayed several kidnapped
natives and what gold he had found to the court, as well as the previously
unknown tobacco plant, the pineapple fruit, the turkey and the sailor’s first
love, the hammock. He did not bring any of the coveted East Indies spices,
such as the exceedingly expensive black pepper, ginger or cloves. In his
log, he wrote "there is also plenty of aji, which is their pepper, which is
more valuable than black pepper, and all the people eat nothing else, it
145
being very wholesome" (Turner, 2004, P ll) . The word aji is still used in
South American Spanish for chili peppers.
Columbus's report to the royal court in Madrid was extravagant. He
insisted he had reached Asia (it was Cuba) and an island off the coast of
China (Hispaniola). His descriptions were part fact, part fiction:
"Hispaniola is a miracle. Mountains and hills, plains and pastures, are both
fertile and beautiful...the harbors are unbelievably good and there are many
wide rivers o f which the majority contain gold...There are many spices, and
great mines o f gold and other metals...".
Text3
Abandoned ship
20 April 2007
Yesterday afternoon coastguards in Australia began searching for
three men. The air and sea rescue operation included 12 planes and four
boats. The search began after a boat was found with no crew.
The 12-metre Kaz 11 left Arlie Beach on IS April and was sailing
around the coast o f Australia. On board were the skipper Derek Batten, 56,
and brothers Jim and Peter Tunstead aged 69 and 63. All three are
experienced seamen. The men bought the boat last week, they wanted to
sail for six to eight weeks around the north to western Australia.
However, only three days later, a plane spotted the boat off the coast
o f Queensland. The pilot couldn’t see any people so he tried to make
contact but there was no reply. Yesterday morning a rescue helicopter sent
a crewman down to the Kaz 11 to have a look.
He found that the boat was in good condition. One o f the sails was
tom but everything else was normal. The table was set and there was food
ready to eat. There were two laptop computers on, mobile phones and
sunglasses were on the table - but there was nobody on the boat. There
were also life jackets and emergency equipment on the boat The dinghy
was also there. The only thing missing was the crew.
The pilot o f the rescue helicopter said, “It’s almost like they just
walked off the boat.”
He also said that the lights were on and the engine was on too.
So what happened? A spokesperson said, “It was very windy when
the men left on Sunday but this was normal and not a problem. It was good
sailing weather. Everything on the boat was in a good state, nothing was
146
knocked over. However, there were three fenders on the side o f the boat.
These are put out when another boat comes near. To me it looks like the\
left in a hurry. Perhaps they went on another boat.”
However, why the crew left their boat and what happened to them
next is a mystery. The search continues.
Text 4
Kazakh clothing
Men had various head covers. They wore various skull caps, and
summer and winter hats. The summer hats - kalpak - were sewn of fine
thread, were mostly white and had ancient traditional decoration. Winter
men's hats were round with fur trim. Men also wore interesting ushanka
hats with a fox fur neck flap. There is also the bashlyk, an old hat made of
camel fur (later cloth); it was worn over other head covers. It protected
against dust, sun, rain and snow. Many elements of national dress were
made o f leather, armiachin, felt and other materials. Cotton and silk were
purchased in Central Asia. When Kazakhstan became part o f Russia,
Russian manufactured goods became popular, including cloth. Kazakhs
sewed traditional forms o f clothes from Russian materials (chintz, heavy
cloth, buckram and velveteen). Rich Kazakhs often used woolen cloth
(sukno), felt, silk, and brocade). The traditional outer clothes allowed free
movement during long trips in the saddle, were warm in the winter and
cool in the summer. The clothes for men and women were broad, long and
tied at the waist with a sash. Both men and women wore wide shirts with
vertical openings in front, and loose trousers gathered at the ankles
(sharovar). The upper clothes o f men included a jacket, loose sleeves
gathered at the wrist, and cloaks. Fur coats were for the rich. The poor
made do with tulups. Kamzols were light and lined with camel fur and
sew n from purchased wool cloth (sukno), brocade and felt Cloaks were
sew n from textiles and Bukhara silk. In the winter, a warm lining o f camel
or sheep fur was attached. A shekpen sewn from sukno prepared from
camel wool was worn over the shoulders. Men wore warm jackets made of
ca nel wool gathered when their coats were trimmed. Women wore old
blouse-skirts, and at the end of the 19th c, they were gathered at the waist
A frill was sewn to the skirt, and embroidered with a galloon.
Young women and girls wore a bib over the dress made from sukno
or felt with embroidery, a galloon and silver badges. Upper dress of women
w as like that o f men - the same kamzol, sleeveless shirts, cloaks, and
leather belts. The women's dress was more colorful and detailed. Girls wore
striped skull caps of bright silk or felt in the summer, and round caps of fur
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in the winter with eagle owl feathers. From the late 19th с girls started to
wear red scarves tied at the back.
Winter boots were high with a wide shin cover, worn over felt
stockings. Summer boots had heels. Old women wore socks turned up. The
shoes of young women were decorated with beads and embroidery. Old
people preferred soft heelless boots. They wore leather galoshes over them
Poor and shepherds wore felt boots with leather soles, and the poorest wore
leather sandals with leather soles tied to the legs with small straps.
Decorations were varied - wonderful applique work was sewn on
clothes, hats and shoes. Women wore gold, silver, copper, bronze, coral,
pearl and colored glass. Bracelets, earrings and necklaces - flat forged rings
and furs. Decorations were important. Rings, depending on the tradition
form, had various names, for example the ring "bird's claw". Necklaces
were made from pearl, coral and beads. The waist was especially decorated
for both men and women. Embroidery included silver badges and others.In
the 19th c, traditional dress began to change. Instead o f wide, long-sleeved
tunics, shorter, more comfortable outfits were worn. Kazakhs living in
cities started to wear city clothes like Russians and Tatars, wearing furlined coats, valenki and Russian boots. By the 1920s traditional dress had
changed dramatically. Kazakhs now mixed with many other peoples,
especially Russian. The transition in dress proceeded in fits and starts.
Clothes o f city and rural people became more and more urban and
purchased. Elements o f traditional costumes made at home were
maintained only by old people and shepherds and herders. The latter spent
long periods in the saddle in harsh conditions, so they continued to wear
winter fur trousers, tulups, lined cloaks, fur tanki, and boots with warm
wool stockings.
Text 5
Highlights of Kazakhstan
Southern Kazakhstan has plenty of places that can compete world
famous sites of our planet. At first, the country has many natural sites
where you can enjoy untouched beauty o f nature and landscapes. Ancient
architecture sites that are spread through the region will amaze you with
their shapes and stories. People of different origin and lifestyle living in
this part of the world will become heroes o f your best pictures.
In any city of Southern Kazakhstan you have a choice interesting
spots you can visit in one day. Many sites are located inside the cities or
even across the street from your hotel. To take a full advantage of your visit
148
you should hire a professional guide who will show you places from the
v йгу correct angle.
Let’s check how much do you know about Kazakhstan? Can you find
th„‘ appropriate definitions to the sights given in column A.
B*
Ruins of once great city which attempted to resist
Mongolian invasion.
Zenkov Cathederal Three beautiful alpine lakes full of king’s trout, lies
amid the unspoiled coniferous, mixed forests and
alpine meadows at the altitude from 1800 to 2500
metres.
A valley with a natural accumulation of about 4000
7. kistanunique petroglyphs. It feels like in ancient open-air
art gallery.
City with accumulation of historical sights including
Счугаг the great mausoleum of Khodja Akhmed Yassavi.
S firam It is a mighty fortress, now in ruins, which was one of
the most famous cities in the Syr Darya region.
L i g Almaty Lake - A shining mirror reflecting the sky and mountains on
its surface, surrounded on all sides by magnificent
mountain peaks.
Beautiful Russian Orthodox church inside Almaty
Koi-Sai lakes considered as world highest all-wood building.
Located near Almaty gorgeous mountain valley with
Tf*.mgaly Tash an ice skating complex and dam protecting city from
floods.
Слагуп Canyon A vast territory on the southeast of Kazakhstan with
unspoiled nature, abundance of wildlife and
vegetation, known for its Singing Sands and Beshatyr
Saka burial mounds.
Aliyn Emel One of the most fascinating highlights of Southern
Kazakhstan - the first nature reserve in Central Asia
obtained the status of UNESCO biosphere reserve in
M :deo -
1934
Ausu-Djarbagly -
Majestic nature, using winds and water as it's tools
has created a beautiful scenery of Castle Valley.
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Text 6
Economy of Kazakhstan
In the pre-Revolutionary period the Kazakhs were prominent on the
Eurasian Steppe, leading nomadic and seminomadic life-styles. Their chief
occupation was livestock raising; the animals were kept in pastures yearround. These pastures were divided according to season—summer,
spring/fall, and winter, based on when grass was sufficient, in turn
depending on climatic conditions. The summer pastures were located in the
north, in the steppe zone, with abundant, lush grass. It was impossible to
remain there during the winter, however, as the huge amount o f snow
would not permit the livestock to graze. Therefore the nomadic livestock
breeders were required to move with their herds far to the south to the
desert and semidesert zones in the winter, where vegetation flourished after
the autumn rains and where there was little snow. Sometimes the migration
reached upwards o f 1,000-1,500 kilometers. En route, the nomads would
stay for a short while at the spring/fall pastures when they were migrating
to the north in the spring and to the south during the fall. Such a migratory
system was quite widespread among the Kazakh nomads and seminomads;
it has been designated "meridianal" in the literature.
In the mountainous regions the nomadic and seminomadic Kazakhs
passed the winter in the valleys o f the mountain rivers and ravines, where
there was little snow, whereas in the summer they and their herds went
high into the mountains to the alpine and subalpine meadows. This type of
migration is called "vertical."
The particular nomadic life-style determined the specific makeup o f the
herd. The domesticated animals had to withstand travel during the lengthy
migration and, crucially, had to be able to procure food for themselves
from under the snow during the winter. The horse was most suited to these
conditions and was thus highly prized among the Kazakhs. The horse was
also the main transport and riding animal, able to cover a long distance in a
relatively short time. The horse also supplied kumys, which has been
revered since the days of the Scythian nomads. Horse meat was also
considered most tasty and nutritious; horse hair was used in the preparation
o f strong, thick ropes.
In early childhood the Kazakh nomad was given a colt, which she or
he called by name, looked after, and by the age o f 5 to 7 was already riding.
Adult Kazakhs, both men and women, were spectacular riders; so great was
there skill that several researchers noted that the rider seemed to become
one with the horse. The importance of the horse in the life of the Kazakh
nomads is further attested by the fact that instead o f "to the left" the
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K azakhs say "mounting side" (minar yak): instead of "to the right" they say
"whip[-holding] side" (kamshi yagt). From as early as the Scythian-Sak
period, nomadic livestock breeders have revered the horse as a totemic
animal.
Sheep have no lesser significance to the Kazakh nomads and
seminomads. As with the horse, the Kazakhs had-their own particular breed
of heep, which was well suited to the conditions of year-round pasturing
without warm refuge during the winter. "Fatty-tail" sheep were particularly
prized—that is, sheep that instead of a tail had a large fatty growth that
reached a weight of 10-16 kilograms. Kazakhs get all that is necessary for
life from sheep. From its wool they make felt, with which they cover the
traditional nomadic dwelling, the yurt, and make felt carpets decorated with
multicolored ornamentation. They cover the earthen floor in the yurt with
these carpets. In the winter the Kazakhs put stockings of thin felt in their
boots for warmth. Felt is also used as a saddlecloth.
From sheepskins, which the Kazakhs, as a rule, process themselves, they
sew warm coats, hats, and sometimes men's trousers. The pelts of domestic
animals, including sheep, are sent to market. A minority of Kazakhs also
rai e goats, from which they also get milk, meat, wool, and pelts.
Camels serve as the basic beast of burden among the Kazakh nomads
and seminomads. During the migrations they load all domestic goods on
them , including the dismantled parts of the yurts. Kazakhs keep fewer
ca <els than they do other domestic animals, however. Even rich families
po>«ess no more than fifty to sixty camels; other households, the poorer
on<.s, have no more than three or four—that is, only as many as are
rer .ired to transfer all domestic items during the migrations. In several
ret ons of Kazakhstan—on the Mangyshlak Peninsula, for example—the
Kazakhs drink shubat (the sour milk of camels), which is their preferred
be. ' rage. Camel’s wool is valued for its great warmth. Like the horse and
thr sheep, the camel is highly esteemed by the Kazakhs. Muslims view it as
a holy animal.
The Kazakhs also raise cattle. Among the nomads, it is true that there
ar< only a few, and often none, because they are not suited for long and
rapid migrations and are not capable of procuring food for themselves from
underneath the snow. Relatively more cattle are found among the
se> u nomads, who, in contrast with the nomads, undertake shorter
mi< rations and prepare hay for the livestock to eat during winter. Cattle are
nc only a source of milk, meat, and leather; they are also the principle
be ist of burden in agricultural endeavors.
In general, the Kazakhs grew a variety of grains: wheat, millet, a
lit rye, barley, and others. At present Kazakh fanners, for the most part.
151
raise the best kinds of wheat: the so-called hard (durum) wheats. The
cultivation of rice, peas, com, and industrial crops, especially cotton and
tobacco, is widespread. In the south of Kazakhstan, the cultivation of fruits
and vegetables is developing.
In a number of regions of Kazakhstan where the conditions are
suitable for irrigation agriculture—along large rivers and lakes, for
example, or in foothill regions where streams abound—the Kazakhs have
always practiced agriculture.
Food. Kazakhs make butter and various types of curds and cheese
from sheep's milk. The most widespread is' a dry cheese from sour milk,
kurt. It is one of the chief means of nourishment for the average Kazakh in
the winter months, when there is no milk. The Kazakhs always boil sheep
or cow's milk; only mare's milk is used fresh and, in this case, always
soured. The most beloved and widespread Kazakh dish is boiled lamb, in
Kazakh bes barmak ("five fingers," since the Kazakhs, like many other
Eastern peoples, eat with their hands). They give the specially prepared
lamb's head to the most esteemed guest.
Division of Labor. The community is divided into smaller units,
auls, which consist of closely related families headed by the senior
member, an aksakala ("white beard"). Usually this is the father, although
the adult married sons head the other households. After the father’s death,
his oldest son becomes head of the aul.
The households of the aul cooperate in many labor-intensive activities,
such as tending the livestock. The most difficult jobs necessitate the
strength of many workers; for example, the shearing of sheep in spring and
fall requires the combined efforts of the households and auls of the entire
nomadic community. At present, Kazakhs are trying to preserve the
traditional forms of the family, especially in rural areas; under urban
conditions, this is obviously more difficult
Text 7
Domestic unit (kazakhstan)
Among nomadic Kazakhs the small, individual family predominated,
consisting, as a rule, of a married couple, their unmarried children, and
elderly parents. In accordance with custom, the oldest son was able to
marry first, followed by the other sons in descending order of age. The
father allotted livestock (enshi) to the married son and in this way created a
new household (otay). According to the ancient customs of the minorat, the
youngest son was not allotted a household, even after marriage. He
remained the heir to the ancestral hearth. Among the seminomadic and
settled Kazakhs, there were extended families in which several closely
152
related families lived in one household. Usually this was the family o f the
head of the household, as well as his married sons, and, after his death, the
families o f his married brothers. As a rule, however, after the death of the
household master, the married brothers parted company. The daughters
went to live with the families o f their husbands after marriage.
Elements o f patriarchal relations were preserved in certain ways,
however. Married sons, even when they had their own individual
households, did not break ties with the paternal household completely.
Many labor-intensive tasks, such as pasturing o f livestock, shearing of
sheep, preparation of felt, and so on, were accomplished through the efforts
o f several households with close relations along paternal lines. This was
especially important in defending livestock and pastures from the
encroachment o f others. Such a unification o f families, the basis o f kinship
ties, is called in the literature a "family-kin" group. In Kazakh, these
groupings are called bir ata baralary (children of one father). If a familykin group was called Koshenbaralary, for example, then their ancestor was
called Koshen, and the families o f this group had heads who were
grandsons and great-grandsons of Koshen. Among the Kazakhs, such
family-kin groups formed communities. The heads o f families were
considered close relatives up to the fourth or fifth generation.
Socialization. The Kazakhs attach great significance to the birth and
raising o f children. A Kazakh family is not considered happy without
children, especially sons—the continuers o f the clan. There are many
customs and ceremonies associated with birth and raising of children.
These customs arose from centuries o f experiences and from the Kazakh
worldview. Thus, they protected a pregnant woman from the evil eye with
the aid o f amulets and did not allow her to leave the house alone at night;
weapons, wolves' teeth, eagles' bills, and owl talons were forbidden
wherever she lived. All this was necessary to protect her from impure
forces. The pregnant woman herself had to observe a multitude of taboos.
In order not to tangle the child's umbilical cord, for example, she could not
step over the staff for raising the dome o f the yurt (bakan), the device for
catching horses (ки ги к ), rope (<arkcm), and many other items. She was also
forbidden to eat camel meat because it was thought that, were she to do so,
she would carry her child for twelve months, like a she-camel. Kazakhs
protect pregnant women from heavy labor, especially in the later months.
Kazakhs carefully guard the woman and child during the actual birth
and the first forty days thereafter, which are regarded as especially
dangerous for the baby. Various rituals are followed—placing the child in
the cradle on the seventh day, for example. The fortieth day after birth is
153
seen as especially festive because the danger is deemed to have passed.
Only women gather at this celebration.
Kazakhs accustom children to work from an early age. They teach a boy to
ride a horse at age 3 and to tend it and other livestock at age 5 or 6. The
shaving ceremony, strongly upheld in modem times, is conducted when a
boy has reached age 3 to 10. Girls are taught to sew, embroider, and carry
out other household activities. In the past, Kazakhs believed that at age 13
to 15 they were ready for independent life and could have their own family;
at present girls marry at age 16 to 18.
Text 8
Religious beliefs and practices
The Kazakhs are Sunni Muslims. Islam began to appear in southern
Kazakhstan in the eighth to ninth centuries, after the Arab conquest of
Central Asia. After the foundation of the Kazakh khanate in the fifteenth
century, Islam became the predominant religion among the Kazakh people.
Its influence was especially strengthened after the Russian colonization of
the Kazakhs in the eighteenth to nineteenth centuries because the czarist
government attempted to solidify its position in Kazakhstan through Islam.
During this period many mosques were constructed and madrasahs
(Islamic secondary schools) opened. Pre-Islamic beliefs—the cults of the
sky, of the ancestors, and o f fire, for example—continued to a great extent
to be preserved among the common people, however. The Kazakhs
believed in the supernatural forces of good and evil spirits, o f wood goblins
and giants. To protect themselves from them, as well as from the evil eye,
the Kazakhs wore protection beads and talismans. Shamanic beliefs were
widely preserved among the Kazakhs, as well as belief in the strength of
the bearers of this cult—the shamans, which the Kazakhs call bakhsy. In
contradistinction to the Siberian shamans, who used drums during their
rituals, the Kazakh shamans, who could also be men or women, played
(with a bow) on a stringed instrument similar to a large violin.
At present both Islamic and pre-Islamic beliefs continue to be found
among the Kazakhs, especially among the elderly. Following the severe
Soviet persecutions, in which the mullahs were annihilated, there are few
today who have received special religious training. For this reason, literate
elderly people who know the prayers fulfill the role of mullahs in rural
areas. Quite frequently these are school teachers on pension or other people
with higher education.
154
Death and Afterlife. The Kazakhs observe funerary rites that are a
mixture of Muslim customs with рге-Islamic beliefs. Mainly the relatives
and neighbors of the deceased take part in the funeral ceremonies; they
place the deceased, washed and wrapped in a white shroud, into a separate
yurt specially put up for this event and do not leave him or her unattended
for a single minute until the burial. Those who gather for the funeral pray
under the guidance of a mullah. The women bemoan the deceased. The
mourners bring the deceased to the cemetery on special stretchers; after
further prayers, they lower the body into the grave and bury it. Among the
Kazakhs, as among many other Eastern peoples, women are not allowed at
the cemetery. After interment, ablutions are enacted at home and the
clothing of the deceased is distributed to funeral participants; refreshments
are prepared for all. Near the yurt of the deceased they set up a spear with a
mourning flag, which is red if the deceased was a young person, black if
middle-aged, and white if elderly. They do not remove this spear
throughout the entire period of mourning—that is, the whole year. Funeral
banquets for the deceased are held on the third, seventh, and fortieth days.
Kazakhs observe the first anniversary funerary feast especially solemnly,
with as many people as possible coming together. For this day, they
slaughter the favorite horse of the deceased, whose mane and tail they had
shaved on the day of it's master's death. They also slaughter a good deal of
other livestock for the feast.
This anniversary funeral banquet is celebrated quite ceremonially;
many people gather—representatives come from various tribes and clans,
sometimes several hundred people. For this reason, they set up many
additional yurts and organize equestrian races, the victors receiving rich
prizes. At present the Kazakhs are attempting to preserve all customs and
ceremonies associated with the funerary rites.
The Kazakhs set up domed monuments on the graves, frequently
mausoleums of stone, adobe bricks, and clay. The simpler grave constructs
are clay or brick fences in a rectangular shape, or sometimes simply a pile
of stones with a pole to which they attach bundles of horse hair. They also
make sacrifices at the graves, laying bones of animals on them.
155
Text 9
Art of Kazkahstan
Oral folk art is widely developed among the Kazakhs: songs, epic
tales, folktales, heroic epics, and so forth. The Kazakhs greatly value their
performers: the storytellers (zhyrsy) and improvisational poets (akyn).
Several of these achieved great popularity, including Bukharzhyrau
Kalmakanov (1693-1787) and the improvisational poet Makhambet
Utemisov (1803-1846), who along with his friend Isatay Taymanov led the
Kazakh uprising in the Bukeevsky Horde in 1836-1837.
The work of the eminent Kazakh educator and scholar Chokan
Valikhanov (1835-1865), who painstakingly gathered and attentively
studied the national poetic works of the Kazakhs, had great significance for
the development of Kazakh literature. Kazakh written literature took shape
under the influence of Russian literature in the second half of the
nineteenth century. The renowned pedagogue Ibray Altynsarin (1841-1889)
made-a great contribution to the development of Kazakh literature as well.
He created the first Kazakh chrestomathy for Russian/Kazakh schools and
published his own works, those assembled by him from the national oral
literature, and translations from Russian. Abay Kunabaev (1845-1904) was
also a prominent figure o f the Kazakh literary movement. From the
beginning of the twentieth century a plethora of Kazakh poets and writers
has produced works in Kazakhstan. Among them are the giants of Kazakh
literature Mokhtar Auezov (1897-1961), Saken Seyfullin (1894-1939),
Beymbet Maylin (1894-1939), and others. The modem Kazakh writers are
successfully continuing the traditions of Kazakh national art and of the
founders of Kazakh literature.
The folk music traditions are an inseparable part of the spiritual
culture of the Kazakh people: the songs, the vocal accompaniment of the
professional improvisational poets, the instrumental works, and so on.
Popular musical instruments include the dombra, a "plucked" string
instrument, and the kobyz—an instrument played with a bow. The favorite
wind instrument is the sybyzgy, in the shape of an elongated flute; as for
percussion instruments, the dauylpaz, a small drum, is favored. Since the
second half of the nineteenth century, new musical instruments have
appeared: the accordion and the violin. In the twentieth century
professional musical arts have arisen and developed greatly among the
Kazakhs. In 1934 the first musical performance took place, and in 1935 the
Kazakh State Philharmonic opened. In 1937 the Abay State Academic
Theater of opera and ballet opened.
156
Formerly there were no professional theatrical arts among the
Kazakhs. Only in the beginning of the twentieth century and during the
years of Soviet dominance did amateur forms of Kazakh theater begin to
grow. The first Kazakh theater opened in 1926 in Orenburg (at that time the
capital of the Kazakh Republic). At present, Kazakh drama and theatrical
arts, as well as the national cinema, have achieved-a great deal of success in
a short period of time.
Until recently the decorative arts of the Kazakhs have focused mainly
on the details of Kazakh dwellings, clothing, and other everyday objects.
One can find original Kazakh ornamentation on teased and unteased
carpets, strips, the yurt, and felt coverings. Kazakh women decorate their
clothes and embroider.
Woodworking, leatherwork, and metalwork have occupied places of
distinction within the Kazakh national arts, but a professional decorative
arts industry developed only in the twentieth century. Moreover, the first
professional artists in Kazakhstan were Russians. The openings of the
Kazakh State Artists Gallery in 1935 and the Artistic-Theatrical Gallery in
1938 played a large role in the development of art in Kazakhstan. The
communications media have greatly expanded, including print, radio, and,
in recent times, television.
Academics have developed intensively in the course of the twentieth
century; this includes the study of a variety of disciplines from mathematics
and mechanics to various social sciences. In Kazakhstan today there are
hundreds of scientific institutions where tens of thousands of scholars
work. There is also a Kazakh Academy of Science.
Text 10
Location of Kazakhstan
The territory of the Kazakhs, known as Kazakhstan, is quite large. It
stretches from the Balkhash Lowlands in the east to the Ural River in the
west (about 3,000 kilometers) and from the Syr Darya and Chu river
systems and the Tobol River in the south to the Imum and the Irtysh rivers
in the north (about 2,000 kilometers). Basically the region consists of
steppe, desert, and semidesert lands, which in the east and southeast are
bounded by the Altai and Tianshan massifs. In the extreme northwest are
the southern marshes of the Common Syrt; in the south the wide, flat PreCaspian Lowlands and. further on, the desert peninsula of Mangyshlak. The
Ural River flows almost all the way across the Common Syrt and the Pre-
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Caspian Lowlands, emptying into the Caspian Sea. To the west, Europe
begins at the UraJ Mountains, and Asia is to the east.
The Mangyshlak Peninsula, along with the low mountain ridges of
the Aktar and Karatar, is distinguished by deep hollows, the deepest of
which—Karagie— is 132 meters below sea level. To the east from
Mangyshlak there extends the desert plateau o f Ust Urt. Both of these
places are now used by the Kazakhs for winter pasturage. To the northeast
lie the Pre-Caspian Lowlands bordering the spurs of the Urals and the low
mountain massif o f Mugogzhari. Further east lie the Turgay plateau and,
south of it, the Tuvan Lowlands filled by the desert o f Kyzylkum. To the
north of the Aral Sea are the sandy massifs of the great and small Balger.
The desert of the Pre-Aral Kanakum is north o f the Aral Sea. The Aral Sea
has recently become well known, as it is gradually growing shallow and
creating an ecological crisis. Since ancient times, the Kazakhs have used
this region for winter pasturage for their cattle.
Further to the east, the Kazakhs occupy the southern region of the
western Siberian plain, to the south o f which spreads the fme summer
pasturage that the Kazakhs affectionately call the Sary-Arka. Yet further to
the south is the desert of Betpak-Dala. The Chu River, its waters flowing
from the west, separates the southern part of Betpak-Dala from the sands of
Muyunkum. From the southeast to the northwest the land is framed by the
mountain ridges of the Karatay. To the east of the Betpak-Dala Desert lies
Lake Balkhash and, to the south of the lake, the well-known province of
Gemirechye, or, as the Kazakhs call it, Jetys.
The wide variation in the landscape and variable distances from the
oceans have led to a climate that is basically continental but with marked
regional variation. In the north the winters are cold and long, with
temperatures dipping to as low as -45° C. In the central regions winters are
moderate, and in the south they are gentle and short, almost without snow.
Summers are dry and range from warm in the north to hot in the south.
Precipitation is rare almost everywhere other than the mountains, and
especially so in the desert regions, where it is less than 10 centimeters per
year. Only in the foothills and mountains is rainfall plentiful, ranging from
40 to 160 centimeters per year. Winds blow across the entire region; in the
steppe lands these winds turn into severe snowstorms (Jburari) in the winter,
and in the fall (and less often in the summer) into dust storms. The
variations in topogaphy and climate have also produced marked variation
in the distribution of water sources. Although there are about 85,000 lakes,
many are in the mountains in the north, with hardly any in the desert and
semidesert regions. The water level in lakes and rivers rises and falls
markedly with the seasons, and during droughts some dry up completely in
158
the summer months. The water in the great majority of lakes is saline.
Fresh water is found only in the steppe lands and the mountains and in the
flatland along the major rivers and lakes. The two seas—the Caspian and
Aral—and the largest lakes, including Balkhash, are isolated basins. Only
major rivers such as the Ishim, Irtysh, and Tobal cross the Kazakh region
and extend into other regions.
The flora is diverse. Many varieties of grain (feather grass,
wormwood, and tipchak—an oatlike grass that grows in steppes and
deserts) flourish in the steppe in the north; the main summer pasturage is
found here. Wormwood and grasses predominate in semidesert regions.
Most of Kazakh territory is desert covered by drought-resistant bushes,
small brush, and different grasses called salt grass {solyanka). In the sandy
deserts are sand wormwood, sage, acacias, and haloxyon (saksaul). In the
flatland are tugamye woods, and around the lakes reeds are found in
abundance. The foothills are covered with poppies and tulips. Higher up in
the mountains are bushes and mixed woods of aspen and birch and, even
higher, coniferous forests. In the forest belt, fed by the glacial streams, are
alpine and subalpine meadows with a rich variety of flora. The soil in
Kazakhstan is mostly fertile. In the north it is chernozem, to the south
chermits soils are most common, and in the desert regions there is a mix of
red-brown, grey-brown, and sandy soils. Agriculture in the desert regions
requires irrigation.
As with the flora, there is also a rich variety of fauna including 155
varieties of mammals, 480 of birds, 49 of reptiles, 11 of amphibians, 150 of
fish, and many invertebrates.
Text 11
Settlement
As of 1989, 16,538,000 people live in Kazakhstan, of which 57
percent are urban dwellers and 43 percent rural residents. The capital of the
republic, Alma-Ata, was founded in 1854 and is situated at a height of 700900 meters by the northern slopes of the Zailiiski Altai range; its
population is 1,132,000. There are 82 cities and 132 urban-type settlements
in Kazakhstan. The 17 provinces (oblasts) include 218 rural and 33 urban
districts. In the cities Kazakhs live in large apartment buildings, paying
monthly rent, as well as in houses of the rural type, which, in general, they
own. In the rural settlements and auls of rural areas, Kazakhs live in houses
of their own construction. A portion of rural dwellers use houses built for
them on collective or state farms. At the present time, measures are being
undertaken toward the privatization of all housing. A distinguishing feature
159
of the Kazakhs living in rural preas is the retention o f the traditional
transportable dwelling—the yurt—in several regions o f Kazakhstan (the
Mangyshlak Peninsula, the areas around the Syr Daiya, etc.), even up to the
present. The yurt is a round, collapsible dwelling consisting of a wooden
frame covered in felt. The basis o f the frame is several sliding wooden
lattices (kerge), which fold up when collapsed. The bigger these lattices
are, the bigger are the yurts themselves. Long curved poles (uuk) are
attached to these lattices from above, the sharp upper ends o f which are put
into a wooden hoop (shangyrak). Thus the roof o f the yurt has a dome­
shaped appearance. In one place between the lattices Kazakhs fasten a
wooden bivalved door frame. A flap o f felt on the hoop o f the yurt’s dome
is tied back to form an opening for smoke from the hearth, which is
traditionally positioned in the center o f the yurt, slightly closer to the door.
Today yurts are used mainly during the summer. They serve as
dwellings chiefly for families of shepherds who set off with their herds for
the summer pastures. Other rural inhabitants set up yurts near their homes
in the summer.The entire internal space o f the yurt is strictly arranged
according to tradition. Opposite the door by the wall is the zhuk, where
trunks filled with household items are stacked; during the day the bedding
is also piled up there. The place in front of the zhuk is considered the most
honored (tor). The most esteemed guest occupies this spot and, in the event
no guest is present, the master of the yurt does so. The floor o f this area is
covered with fleece carpets or even fur bedding over the usual felt. The
woman’s half of the yurt is located to the left of the tor, where she stores
household tools and food supplies as well as the large skin bag (saba) for
kumys (a beverage prepared from sour mare’s milk). The bedding of the
master and his wife is located nearer to the tor. The area to the right of the
tor is considered the male half, where the horse harness, saddle, and the
master’s tools are found. Closer to the door is the place reserved for the
younger members of the family, including sometimes even a married son.
The door of the Kazakh yurt always faces south. Kazakhs still try to
preserve the traditional layout of the yurt’s interior as much as possible.
Among the settled and semisettled Kazakhs (among the latter during
their winter camp), permanent dwellings are found, differing according to
the climatic conditions of the vast Kazakh homeland and depending on the
influence of neighboring settled peoples. Thus, among the northern
Kazakhs, a permanent dwelling in a yurtlike form was originally
widespread, as is common among peoples of western Siberia. In the south
and west of Kazakhstan, the ancient form of dwelling was the adobe
cottage. In the middle of the nineteenth century, however, quadrangular
buildings with flat roofs covered with earth and turf appeared. As a rule,
160
these were built without a foundation and had an earthen floor, which was
covered with felt and carpets. They utilized turf, adobe bricks, wood, and
stone as building materials.
Today the rural dwelling of the Kazakhs is a rather large
accommodation with several rooms. Usually there is a room for the elderly,
in which they maintain the traditions particularly-strongly. There is also a
guest room with modem furnishings. The kitchen is set off separately. Even
now, however, the whole life of a family is spent in a single room,
especially during the winter. Many rural homes have their own steam
heating.
Despite the predominance of a nomadic or seminomadic life-style
among the Kazakhs, they did construct a large number of “cult”
monuments—funerary buildings.
The Mazar of Shaikh Ahmad Yasavi in the town of Turkestan. Built
by Timur in the 1390s
The seventh century A.D. Chinese writer Yan Shigu described the
Wusun as: "A“ong the various Rong in the Western Regions, the
Wusun's’shape was the strangest; and the present barbarians who
have green eyes and red hair, and are like a macaque, belonged to the
same race as the Wusun.”
Round the year 105 B.C. the Chinese ambassador Zhang Qian came
to the Wusun with suggestion that they should return to the East and in
alliance with the Chinese resume their struggle against the Xiongnu, but
was coldly received at the kunmo's’camp and found no response. In the
second century the Wusun completely detached themselves from China,
and Xiongnu in formidable numbers crossed Jeti-su in their migration from
Mongolia to the west The place o f the Huns was taken by the Xianbei,
who conquered all the Huns lands to the Wusun possessions. In the fourth
century the Xianbi ruler Yulu conquered the ancient Wusun lands. From
the end of the 4th century to the middle of the 6th ‘he Jeti-su subordinated to
the [Rouran]. The raids of the Rouran forced Wusun to abandon the plains
of the Jeti-su for the mountains of Tianshan. After this the name of Wusun
as independent people disappeared from history, and as is well-known,
their name has survived only in the name of the great Kazakh horde (the
Uysun).
In the sixth century A.D. Jeti-Su, formerly the land of the Wusun,
became the centre of the Western Tiirkic Kaganate, and as such remained
in all successive nomad states in the western part of Central Asia.
Chinese, Arab and Persian sources draw a comparatively clear
picture of the grouping of the Turkic tribes after the fall of the Western
Turkic Kaganate. In the Jeti-su alone remained Ttirgeshes. They had two
161
tribes: Tukhshi (Tukhsi) and Azes, Azes are identical with the people Az
mentioned in the Orkhon inscriptions. At that time was mentioned the Yasi
pass on the road from Fargana to Barskhan. In the second half of the 8th
century supremacy in the Jeti-su passed to the Karluks. Another reference
to the Yasi pass came from 1370es, on the road to Uzgand. In the 1598 the
Uzbek khan Tevek Ktil took the towns o f Tashkent and Yasi, already also
called Hazrat-e Turkestan.
Text 12
Akhmet Baytursinuli
Akhmet Baytursinuli (Kazakh: Ахмет Байтдосынулы; Russian:
Ахмет Байтурсынов) (January 28, 1873 — December 8, 1937) was a
Kazakh intellectual who worked in the fields o f poetry, linguistics and
education.
Baytursinuli was bom in what is today Kostanay Province, and was
educated at the Orenburg Teachers' School. After graduating in 1895,
Baitursynov held teaching positions in a number o f cities in Kazakhstan,
including Aktobe, Kostanay and Karkaralinsk.
The same year as his graduation, Baytursinuli published his first article,
"Kirgizskie primety i poslovitsy" ("Kazakh Omens and Proverbs") in a
regional newspaper. While living in Ural city in 1905, he collaborated with
other Kazakhs to form the Kazakh wing o f the Constitutional Democrat
Party. His involvement in politics probably led to his 1909 arrest and exile
from the Steppe regions. After being exiled, he went to Orenburg.
During his exile, he wrote articles for Ay Qap. He also served as the
chief editor o f Qazaq, the Kazakh newspaper there, and published "Qyryq
Mysal" ("Forty Proverbs"). His other significant publication of this time
was a Kazakh translation o f Ivan Krylov's fables. In 1911, Baytursinuli
published his first work o f a distinctly political nature — Masa
("Mosquito").
When the Russian Revolution o f 1917 occurred, Baytursinuli
returned to the steppes and began to work with the Alash Orda political
party. With them, he fought for the Kazakhs to have an independent state.
He began to work with the Bolsheviks in 1920 when they established their
dominance over the region. He served as a Member of the Committee of
Deputies of the Constituent Assembly and as Deputy Chairman of the
Revolutionary Committee of the Kazakh Krai, as well as Commissioner of
Enlightenment. In these capacities, he helped to reform education and to
establish the first university in Kazakhstan.
162
Another of Baytursinuli's significant accomplishments was his
adaptation of Arabic script for the Kazakh alphabet.
However, in 1937, Baytursinuli was arrested for hiding "bourgeois
nationalist sentiments” and summarily executed. This had resulted in an
outcry, which was quickly and bloodily silenced. To this day, he is held in
great regard in Kazakhstan, but is viewed as somewhat tragic figure,
signifying the extent of the numbers of authors, poets and thinkers who
have perished due to the Soviet repressions.
Baytursinuli's work is part of the curriculum for high school education
system of Kazakhstan.
163
Appendix С
Quizes
Topics: Holiday English
For each o f the six questions choose the one correct answer.
1. When you arrive at the airport, the first thing you do is go t o ______
a) reception
b) the check-in desk
c) the departure lounge
d) the arrival desk
2. It’s boring going on holiday with you, all you want to do i s _________
on the beach.
a) take the sun
b) sunbathe
c) take a sun bath
d) have a bath in the sun
3. Which o f the following is NOT holiday accommodation?
a) guesthouse
b) I’m youth hostel
c) В & В
d) borstal
4 .1 love going away, but there’s no place like__________
a) house
b) the office
c) home
d) my bed
5. It was the best holiday ever! We had a ________ o f a time!
a) fish
b) shark
c) whale
d) great
6. The nearest town was 80 km away, I mean really in the middle of
a) nowhere
b) somewhere
c). anywhere
d) everywhere
Holiday English - Answers
1.
a) You find a reception in an office or hotel.
164
b) Correct. Go to the ‘check-in desk’ and show your ticket.
c) Go to the departure lounge after you check in.
d) The ‘arrival desk’ is not correct
2
a) ‘Take the sun’ is not correct.
b) Correct. ‘Sunbathe’ is the verb which describes lying in the sun to get
brown.
c) ‘Take a sun bath’ is not correct.
d) ‘Have a sun bath’ is not correct.
3.
a) A guesthouse is a small hotel.
b) Youth hostels offer cheap accommodation especially for young people.
c) В & В stands for bed and breakfast and is similar to a guesthouse.
d) Correct. Borstal is a place where young criminals are sent rather than to
prison.
4.
a) One of the words completes the expression —but ‘house’ is not the
correct one.
b) One of the words completes the expression —but ‘the office’ is not the
correct one.
c) ‘There’s no place like home’ means being at home is my favourite place.
d) One of the_words completes the expression —but ‘my bed" is not the
correct one.
5.
c) ‘We had a whale of a time’ means we had a fantastic time.
6.
a) We can describe an isolated place as
Topic: University life
For each of the six questions choose the one correct answer.
1. Which of the following is NOT correct? "I cant come out tonight, I have
to
my essay tomorrow morning and I've only just started it!"
a) hand in
b) hand out
c) submit
d) give in
2. Professor Abdykarimov’s a great speaker. Although there are 150 people
listening to his_________, you feel like he's talking directly to you.
a) presentation
b) lecture
c) seminar
165
d) tutorial
3. Which informal verb means 'to study very hard' "I'll really have to
the books this weekend."
a) study
b)read
c) hit
d) learn
4. What do you call a weekly meeting o f students and a tutor, who come
together to discuss an aspect o f the course?
a) A presentation
b) A lecture
c) A seminar
d) A tutorial
5. A: 'I'm finding the course really difficult'
B: 'Well why don't you discuss it with your tutor when you have your
__________ on Thursday?"
a) presentation
b)lecture
c) seminar
d) tutorial
6. I think Mayra just could cope with the workload o f university and a
young family, m aybe__________ was the most sensible decision she could
have made.
a) dropping off
b) dropping in
c) dropping to
d) dropping out
University life - Answers
1.
You can 'hand in', 'submit' or 'give in' an essay.
b) When something is 'handed out' it is distributed, e.g. Could you hand out
these papers to the class please? Correct.
2.
a) A presentation is usually given by one student to other members o f the
course and a tutor who then go on to discuss the issues raised.
b) In a lecture, the professor or lecturer talks to a large group o f students in
a lecture theatre. The students listen and take notes and may ask questions
at the end. Correct.
c) In a seminar, a small group o f students meets with their tutor on a
weekly basis to discuss an aspect of the course.
166
d) A tutorial is a one-to-one meeting with a tutor to discuss the student's
progress on the course and whether they are having any problems.
3.
a) You can study a book, but which verb means to study hard?
b) You can read a book, but which verb means to study hard?
c) If you flit the books' you study very hard —note that this is used more in
American English and is informal. Correct
d) Which verb means to study hard?
4.
c) In a seminar, a small group of students meets with their tutor on a
weekly basis to discuss an aspect of the course. Correct.
5.
d) A tutorial is a one-to-one meeting with a tutor to discuss the student's
progress on the course and whether they are having any problems. Correct.
6.
a) If you 'drop off, you fall asleep "I dropped off in the middle of his
boring lecture"
b) If you 'drop in', you call at someone’s house. "I thought I'd drop in as I
was passing"
c) Drop to' is not correct.
d) If you leave a course without completing i t you drop out. Someone can
also be a college 'drop-out'. Correct.
British Food Quiz
In pairs try to guess the right answer for each question.
1. Which of these do the British eat most of in Europe?
a. crisps and chocolate
b. fresh fruit and vegetables
c. sausages
2. What is the most popular food in Britain?
a. fish and chips
b. pizza
c. curry
3. What is ‘haggis’?
a. a cocktail made from whisky and fruit juice
b. a type of fish eaten in Scotland
c. a Scottish dish made from sheep’s stomach and innards
4. Stilton, cheddar and double gloucester are all kinds of:
167
a. apple
b. pig
с. cheese
5. What do most British people have for breakfast'?
a. toast and cereal
b. cappuccino and croissant
c. fried eggs and bacon
6. Who invented the sandwich and why?
a. The Earl o f Sandwich —he wanted food which he could eat with one
hand
while gambling
b. Lord Sandwich —he wanted food which he could take for a picnic in the
countryside
c. Queen Elizabeth I - she wanted food which could be prepared quickly
for
guests
7. What is a ‘kebab’?
a. a type of pub
b. Turkish fast food
c. A hot drink
8. Which of the following ingredients would not be a possible ingredient of
a British
pudding?
a. pig’s blood
b. chocolate
c. lettuce
9. Which o f these do you find in a pub in Britain?
a. lager
b. cider
c. bitter
(trick question)
10. What is ‘chicken tikka masala’?
a. a type of salad
b. a type o f Chinese food
c. a curry
11. How many vegetarians are there in the UK today?
& 3-4 thousand
b. 300-400 thousand
c. 3-4 million
12. Where do people eat deep-fried chocolate bars?
a. Scotland
168
b. Japan
c. Wales
13. When are toffee apples eaten in the UK?
a. Christmas
b. Halloween
c. Easter
14. What is the difference between these things?
a. ‘chips’ and ‘French fries’
b. ‘crisps’ and ‘chips’
c. ‘fizzy drink’ and ‘soda’
15. When did the first curry house open in Britain?
a. 1809
b. 1919
c. 1969
How much do you know about Scotland?
1. What is the capital of Scotland?
•
■
•
•
Edinburgh •
Aberdeen
Glasgow
Dundee
2. What is the official language of Scotland?
3. What is Scotland's longest river?
•
•
•
.
Forth
Tay
Clyde
Spey
4. In 1603, following the death of Queen Elizabeth I, which Scottish
monarch ascended to the throne of England?
• Mary Queen of Scots
• Elizabeth П
• James VI
169
Charles I
5. What is the largest freshwater loch (or lake) in Scotland?
•
Loch Ness
• Loch Awe
•
•
Loch Fyne
Loch Lomond
6. In 1411, one o f the oldest Universities in the world was founded in
Scotland. Which one?
• Glasgow
• St.Andrew's
• Strathclyde
• Edinburgh
7. What is the highest peak in Scotland?
• Ben Nevis
• Cairngorm
■ Ben Lomond
8. Who led the Jacobite rebellion in 1745?
• William Wallace
• Bonnie Prince Charlie
• Flora McDonald
• Robert the Bruce
9. In the infamous 'Massacre o f Glencoe', which two clans were involved?
•
I
•
•
McLeods and Campbells
McLeods and Frasers
MacDonalds and Campbells
MacDonalds and Camerons
10. What is the official Scottish currency?
•
Pound
■ Dollar
• Shilling
• Groat
170
Check your answers
1. Glasgow is the largest city, however Edinburgh is the capital. 2. Gaelic is
still used by a small percentage of the population, mostly in the North and
West, but the official language is English.
3. The River Tay is 117 miles long. The River Spey, famous for its
distilleries, is second longest at 10 miles. 4. James VI of Scotland (James I
of England), son of Mary Queen of Scots became the first king following
the TJnion of the Crowns'. 5. Loch Lomond. The Loch Ness 'monster*
inhabits
he second largest Scottish loch! 6. St. Andrew's. Glasgow
University was founded in 1451, Edinburgh over 100 years later, and
Strathclyde was founded in the 20th century! 7. Ben Nevis is the highest
mountain peak (4,406 feet). 8. Bonnie Prince Charlie. William Wallace
(also known as Braveheart) led his popular revolt in the late I200's and
early 1300's. 9. In 1692, the MacDonalds and their settlement in Glencoe
were laid waste by the Campbells. 10. Pound;. In addition to the bank of
England, banknotes from three Scottish banks are legal: Bank of Scotland,
Royal Bank of Scotland and the Clydesdale bank.
Extra task
Ideas for project work
1. Use the pictures and descriptions of popular tourist attractions in
London to make a presentation in class.
2. Make a tour guide brochure about the USA, Australia or Canada.
Look for information on the Internet.
3. Make up a quiz similar to the one in this unit to test your class-mates’
knowledge of different countries.
Topic: Takeaway food
For each of the six questions choose the one correct answer.
1. In British English we buy food to ‘take away’, but in the US they buy it
a) to go
b) to carry
c) to lift
d) to eat out
2. Which of the following is not correct?
a) fast food
b) junk food
c) food to go
171
d) rubbish food
3. Which o f the following is sweet (not savoury)?
u) pizza
b) a taco
c) a doughnut
d) sushi
4. I know they’re not very healthy, but 1 love sausages - especially in a
a) hot cat
b) hot mouse
c) hot dog
d) hot horse
5. Another word for chips is __________ fries.
a) German
b) Italian
c) English
d) French
6. Which o f the following is the odd-one-out?
a) ketchup
b) mustard
c ) soy sauce
d) chopsticks
Takeaway food - Answers
1
.
a) Correct. In the US you can say ‘I ’d like it to go please’
b) To carry is not the right answer
c) To lift is not the right answer
d) To eat out is to eat in a restaurant.
2.
a) We talk about takeaway food as fast food.
b) I f you want to say that fast food is not very healthy, you can call it junk
food .
c) Fast food is also ‘food to go’ (especially in the US)
d) Correct. If you want to describe fast food as unhealthy, we say junk
food .
3.
a) Pizza is savoury Italian food
b) A taco is savoury Mexican food.
c) Correct. A doughnut is sweet, often filled with chocolate or jam.
d) Sushi is from Japan and made with raw fish.
172
4.
a) Hot cat is not correct.
b) Hot mouse is not correct.
c) Hot dog is correct.
d) Hot horse is not correct.
5.
a) ‘German fries’ is not correct.
b) ‘Italian fries’ is not correct.
c) ‘English fries’ is not correct.
d) ‘French fries’ is the other word for ‘chips’.
6.
a) Ketchup is another word for tomato sauce.
b) Mustard is a type o f spicy sauce that you put on your hamburger or hot
dog.
c) Soy sauce is a salty sauce that you sometimes put on food from Asia.
d) Correct. You use chopsticks to eat your food, the others are all sauces to
put
on your food.
Task 1
I. In this word square there are 15 hidden American states. They are
С м I
о н I
N о О
N R О
E G R
С А Е
T D G
I G О
С О N
и и W
Т Т W
D А Н
О L О
S А Р
F S М
F W I
L Е С
О
К
R
I
L
S
О О Н и
R R I в
I I G D
D А А I
А Y N н
А М L М
L А Р А
А I В R
S N В Y
К Е S L
А N N А
S W Н N
D I н D
О К р W
S D о Р
А W А I
и
I
А
М
I
S
S
о
и
R
I
Task 2
Crossword
Guess the words and you’ll have the city where the Declaration о
Independence was signed.
173
1. The flag o f the USA known as “the Star-... Banner”.
2. Lake, one o f the Five Great Lakes.
3. “Presidents’State”.
4. City in Texas where J.Kennedy was killed.
5. Political institution which represents states.
6. New York City’s street which is famous for its theaters.
7. The youngst American President to be elected.
8. A branch o f the power o f the government.
9. Place where the US Congress meets.
10. River which flows into the Atlantic Ocean.
11. The 16th American President who was shot in the Ford’s Theater.
12. A nickname o f the USA.
Task3
Circle the names o f American States.
NEWMEXICOLORADOIIIOWASHINGTONEBRASKANSASOUTHD
AKOTALABAMAINEVADARKANSASOUTHCAROLINALASKARIZ
ONA
2.There are last letters o f the names o f American States. Guess their full
names.
a ) _______
b)
i H_______
d)
_________
174
О О ANA ANA КА МАКА МA IA IA AS AS
I. British and American English
American
British
Russian
Apartment Flat
квартира
Bathtub
Bath
ванна
Elevator
Lift
лифт
We have British words: can you find their American equivalents
a)dn b)sweets c) biscuit d)maize e)tube/underground
f)cineraa g)shop h)petrol i)lony j)main road k)postbox
l)football
m)holiday
n)surname
o)autumn
p)mum
q)postman
Find British synonims to American words and translate them.
American
British
1.mailman
2.mailbox
3.vacation
4.can
5.com
6.last name
7.mom
8.gasoline
9. store
10. truck
11 .movies
12.fall
13.highway
14.soccer
IScandy
16.subway /metro
17.cookie
175
II. Puzzle
Unscramble these states. The first letter is capitalized. With the numbered
letters, fill in the spaces to get the motto below.
li C a n ia f o r ____ 1 _
rasbNeak
2__
orgiaGe
3___
wloa
_4
raloCodo
5__
walaDere
6__
vaNeda
_ 7
taMonna
____ 8___
daFrilo
____ 9_____
taUh
JO
asnsaK
sTeax
Motto:
12
П
1.Highland in the west o f the USA.
2. The capital of the USA.
3. State, river. It is famous for its canyons.
4. Texas is rich in ___ .
5. Country which has sea-border with the USA.
6. American central lowland.
7. The smallest state is ____ Island.
8. The agricultural product which is grown in the USA.
9. State which was bought from Spain.
10. Country which borders on the USA in the South.
11. Lake which is between the USA and Canada.
12. The biggest state o f the USA.
13. State in the Pacific Ocean.
14. Country which borders on the USA in the North.
CLASS ACTIVITIES
6 SPEAKING ACTIVITIES FOR THE FIRST DAY OF CLASS
The following are six quick activities that can be used for first
classes. Some are quite well known but with variation. All have been tried
and tested in the class to get students talking quickly. The level and time
needed for each activity is included in parentheses.
176
1. In common
(Elementary 10-20 minutes)
Ask students to sit in pairs. Tell them to find five things they have in
common and three things they don’t have in common. When they are done,
set each pair with another to do the same (five things the two pairs have in
common, three they don’t have in common).
2. Tel! me about me
(Pre-Intermediate, 30 minutes)
Bring in some things to class that have information about you (your
passport, your latest plane or train ticket if you have one, a book that you
like, pictures of your loved ones etc.) Give students different things of
yours and tell them to work together to build an idea of what you are like as
a person. They must do this orally. Get them to tell you about you after five
minutes. Then they do the same activity with each other (they can use the
contents of their wallet or purse).
3. Make the Rules
(Intermediate, 30-45 minutes)
There are two ways of doing this well-known activity.
1 1. Conduct a whole-class discussion on what the rules of classroom
behaviour should be for both the teacher and the students. When you are
finished, write the rules on a large piece of paper and display it in the
classroom.
2 2. Divide the students into two groups. Have one group draft rules
for students, and the other group draft rules for teachers. When they are
finished, have students from each group pair up with someone from the
other group to tell them their rules and make suggestions. Re-form the
original groups to write a final draft based on the suggestions. Suggest
some rules yourself. Post the rules in the classroom.
4. A good way to learn English is...
(Intermediate, 10-20 minutes)
Give students the following sentences on the whiteboard or on an
overhead projector. Tell them they can agree, disagree or change the
sentences. Below are some examples. You can add your own. This can lead
into a class discussion about how to leam a language, as well as past
experiences learning a language.
A good way to leam English is...
1 1. In class with a professional English teacher.
2 2. In a cafe with a native speaker of English (not necessarily a
teacher)
3 3. Living in a country where people speak English.
177
I
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
4. Doing business in English.
5. Watching films and TV in English.
6. Repeating what the teacher says in class.
7. Keeping a notebook o f new words.
8. Doing some English homework (writing or reading) very often.
9. Having lots o f tests in class to help us remember.
10. Using a bilingual dictionary all the time.
11. Reading in English.
12. Speaking English with other students in the class.
5. Variations on the Name Whip
(All levels, 5-15 minutes)
The Name Whip is a quick activity for everyone to get to know each
other’s names. One person starts by saying “My name is ...”. The next
person continues, naming the first person and then themselves, “His name
is ..., my name is ...” and so on until the last person has to name
everybody. You can vary this by adding more information at the end. Here
are some ideas.
1 1. M y name is Maria and I like...
2 2. My name is Carlos, when I was a child they called me Carlitos
(nicknames)
3 3. M y name is James and I am ... (job)
4 4. My name is Pavel and I am ... (dream job)*
*
When you finish this name whip get students in pairs to find out from
each other what their real jobs are and why they would like that dream job.
6. Funny Holidays
(Intermediate +, 30 minutes)
Use the cards on the next page. Make enough copies so that each
group o f 12 students have a set o f cards. Students take a card in turn. I f it
says truth then they must tell a true story about a past holiday. I f they
choose a card with a destination or holiday already on it, they must talk
about an imaginary holiday they took there. Encourage them to make it as
fanciful and detailed as possible. The group must guess which is true and
which is false.
178
OTHER FIRST CLASSES.
Take a look at the following lessons that appear in
www.onestopenglish.com. They are also suitable for first classes, or early
in the year.
Names (in the American Vocabulary Section - Students learn the
vocabulary of names, look at some popular names in English and talk abut
their own names.
Intelligence (in the Metaphors Section) - Students leam some of the
metaphors for talking about intelligence in English and leam about
Multiple Intelligence Theory and Learning Styles. They can then take a test
on the Internet to find out what their intelligences and preferred learning
styles are.
Speaking in Circles (in the Lesson Share competition archives) This
activity gets students practising typical getting to know you questions from
international English oral exams but can be used in any intermediate class.
FUNNY HOLIDAYS CARDS
You went on a cruise in Tell
TRUTH
the Caribbean
the You went hiking in the
mountains
Tell the TRUTH
You went on a
You went to London for an
canoe trip in
intensive English course
Canada
Tell the TRUTH
Tell
TRUTH
the You went to New York
City
You watched TV all You went to You won a holiday in
and
Los
to Hollywood
holiday. You didn’t go Australia
visit family.
Angeles
out once.
179
Contents
Introduction.....................................
Modem reading approaches..........
Theories o f reading........................
Text characteristics.............. ..........
Using text constructively................
Reading for information.................
Interacting with texts.....................
Making reading communicative....
Kazakhstan......................................
Great People o f Kazakhstan..........
The Grand Silk Road..................... .
Raising Children in Kazakhstan__
Kazakh Traditions...........................
National Clothes..............................
Wonders o f Kazakhstan.................
Family Life......................................
Great Britain...................................
Royal Family...................................
The UK Today.................................
Citizenship.......................................
St. Patrick’s day...............................
Teenagers.........................................
National Clothes..............................
Flags.................................................
The USA......................... ................
Prominent People o f the USA........
Native Americans............................
Transportation in the United States
Famous Cities..................................
Extreme Education.........................
American Music...............................
American family values..................
City..................................................
Tips for visitors...............................
Troubles of Megapolice..................
Ecological problems........................
Endangered Destinations.................
Carnival In Rio De Janeiro.............
Branding and Brand Names...........
Accommodation...............................
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А.Т. К аббасова, А.Е. Байлильдина
COMMUNICATIVE ENGLISH FOR NON LINGUISTIC MAJORS
' Учебно - методическое пособие
Технический редактор Д.Н. Айтжанова
Ответственный секретарь А.Т. Темешова
Подписано в печать 28.06.2011г.
Гарнитура Times.
Формат 29,7 х 42 1А. Бумага офсетная.
Усл.печ. л. 8,29 Тираж 300 экз.
Заказ № 1627
Издательство «КЕРЕКУ»
Павлодарского государственного университета
им. С.Торайгырова
140008, г. Павлодар, ул. Ломова, 64
Ст.преп. Каббасова А.Т.
Ст.преп., магистр филологии Байдильдина А.Е.
Кафедра практического курса иностранных языков
Communicative English for non linguistic majors
Утверждено на заседании кафедры « A f » 0 3
Протокол № Э_
Заведующий кафедрой
X
2011 г.
Б. К. Жумабекова
Одобрено учебно-методическим Советом ФФЖиИ <Ш» о4
Протокол № S
2011 г.
Председатель УМС ________________ Е. Н. Жуманкулова
СОГЛАСОВАНО
Декан ФФЖиИ____ _______ Ж. Т. Сарбалаев «
Нормоконтролер ОМК
ОДОБРЕНО
Начальник ОП и МОУП
2011 г.
С. Баяхметова у,/Я » ОЪ 2011 г.
А /
А. А. Варакута« /9» г?Г"2011 г.
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