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246 a.b. raisova sost. angliyskiy yazik dlya specialnih celey. english for specific purposes uchebnoe posobie

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Министерство образования и науки Республики Казахстан
Павлодарский государственный университет
им. С. Торайгырова
Факультет филологии журналистики и искусства
Кафедра практического курса иностранных языков
ENGLISH FOR SPECIFIC PURPOSES
Английский язык для специальных целей
Учебное пособие
для студентов технических специальностей
Павлодар
Кереку
2009
УДК 811.111. (075.8)
ББК 81.2 Англ-923
А 64
Рекомендовано к изданию Ученым советом Павлодарского
государственного университета им. С.Торайгырова
Рецензенты:
К. Н. Булатбаева – доктор педагогических наук, профессор
кафедры русской филологии и библиотековедения
ПГУ им.
С. Торайгырова;
А.М. Мубараков – доктор педагогических наук, профессор,
директор педагогической академии Инновационного Евразийского
университета;
К.А. Нурумжанова – доктор педагогических наук, профессор,
директор факультета повышения квалификации Павлодарского
государственного педагогического института;
Г.Х. Демесинова – кандидат филологических наук, зав.
кафедрой теории и практики перевода ПГУ им. С. Торайгырова
Составитель А.Б. Раисова
А 64 English for Specific Purposes: учебное пособие
для студентов технических специальностей / сост. А.Б. Раисова.
– Павлодар: Кереку, 2009. – 112 с.
ISBN 9965-573-32-8
Данное учебное пособие предназначено для студентов и
магистрантов технических специальностей, Пособие включает в себя
аутентичный текстовый материал общенаучного и технического
характера для аудиторной и самостоятельной работы.
ISBN 9965-573-32-8
УДК 811.111. (075.8)
ББК 81.2 Англ-923
© Раисова А.Б., 2009
© ПГУ им. С. Торайгырова, 2009
За достоверность материалов, грамматические и орфографические
ошибки ответственность несут авторы и составители
2
Предисловие
Основной целью данного пособия является развитие навыков
профессионального общения с опорой на предложенный текстовый
материал научно-технической тематики. Степень сложности
включенных в пособие текстов предполагает наличие базового
образовательного уровня сформированности коммуникативной
компетенции студентов, что позволит использовать различные виды
чтения: от информационно-поискового до углубленного, адекватно
предложенным заданиям.
Необходимый уровень профессиональной коммуникативной
компетенции студентов формируется на занятиях по специальным
техническим дисциплинам, поэтому следует находить такие формы
работы, которые были бы адекватны профессионально значимым
действиям и на занятиях по иностранному языку. Важным является
отбор предложенного текстового материала преподавателем по
направлению технической специальности группы и составление плана
работы по соответствующей тематике, подбор материала для
написания рефератов, докладов, проведения творческих обсуждений
«круглого стола», диспутов, ролевых игр, банка творческих заданий с
использованием различных информационных источников по
соответствующим специальностям с учетом межпредметных связей,
так как базовые учебные дисциплины изучаются параллельно.
Так, исходя из уровня сформированности базовых компетенций
для отдельных групп, тексты из тематического блока “What is
Engineering” могут быть отобраны по усмотрению преподавателя,
например: чтение и обсуждение текстов “What is Engineering”,
“Modern Engineering Trends”, “Fields of Engineering” и текста,
соответствующего направлению специальности “Electronics” или
“Computers”. В данном случае можно спланировать углубленное
обсуждение текста по специальности с использованием всех видов и
форм групповой, парной и индивидуальной работы в аудитории и
дополнительного домашнего задания: выступление с докладами,
написание рефератов, дополнительных сообщений.
В пособие включены аутентичные текстовые материалы из
газет, журналов, сети Интернет. Общенаучная тематика текстов
отражает профессиональные интересы студентов. Содержание текстов
учебного пособия имеет целью активизировать иноязычную
деятельность студентов в процессе формирования профессиональной
компетенции.
3
Пособие состоит из шести частей и приложения. В первой
части даны тексты следующей тематики: блок текстов “What is
Engineering”, два текста по проблеме “Automation” и тексты по теме
“Computers”. Данные тексты предлагаются для обсуждения во 2
семестре. Во второй части текстовый материал подобран по проблеме
“What is Internet?”. В третьей части даны тексты для дополнительного
обсуждения студентами в аудитории или для самостоятельной работы
по усмотрению преподавателя в зависимости от уровня
сформированности коммуникативной компетенции группы.
Тексты из тематических блоков “Fields of Engineering”,
“Computers”, “Internet” могут быть использованы преподавателем для
чтения и обсуждения в аудитории и предложены студентам для
подготовки устных сообщений по обсуждаемой проблеме, докладов,
диспутов «круглого стола».
Каждый тематический текстовый раздел первых двух частей
состоит из текста, словаря к тексту, вопросов на проверку понимания
прочитанного,
предтекстовых
и
послетекстовых
заданий
коммуникативной направленности. После текстов третьей части даны
пояснения и дефиниции на английском языке.
В четвертой части “Supplementary Reading Section” предложены
тексты для дополнительного чтения следующей тематики: “How to
Read in English”, “Preparation for a Group Discussion”, “Argument”,
“Formulas for Scientific Communication” и др. с целью
совершенствования навыков работы с общенаучным текстовым
материалом.
В пятой части «Phrases for Scientific Communication» и в шестой
части «Supplementary Terminology Section» вниманию студентов
представлена специальная терминология: название кафедр,
специальностей и подразделений технического вуза на английском
языке и дано объяснение понятий и сокращений, связанных с научной
и учебной работой.
В шестой части после знакомства с текстами студентам сначала
предлагается проконтролировать понимание прочитанного, ответив на
вопросы, а затем передать основную идею текста в письменной форме
или устно, написать сочинение, выразить свое мнение по
обсуждаемой проблеме, подготовить выступление, небольшой по
объему доклад.
Для самостоятельной работы студентам могут быть предложены
задания из приложения (Appendix).
Повышению уровня мотивации студентов способствуют
задания, активизирующие обсуждение проблемы в аудитории,
4
позволяющие студенту выразить свое мнение по проблеме с опорой
на фоновые знания и характеризующие общую компетенцию студента
(эмпирические и академические знания), экзистенциальную
компетенцию (личностные характеристики и взгляды) и уровень
сформированности коммуникативной компетенции (языковой,
речевой, социокультурной).
Тематическая направленность всех частей пособия, содержащих
тексты различной степени сложности, позволяет преподавателю
систематизировать предложенный текстовый материал в соответствии
с уровнем сформированности базовых компетенций студентов,
составить общий методический план и наметить индивидуальные
образовательные траектории студентов.
В заключение следует отметить, что понимание прочитанного
материала – сложный, многоуровневый процесс, включающий анализ
и систематизацию информативных сигналов. Высшим уровнем
понимания научно-технического текста является осознание проблемы,
её места в системе научно-технических проблем, связи с
современностью,
логическое
применение
фоновых
знаний,
определение индивидуально-личностного отношения и его реализация
на уровне общения с использованием элементов научно-делового
стиля.
Использование
проблемных
и
творческих
заданий
предопределяет не механическое запоминание научно-технической
информации, а ее творческое осознание, что способствует повышению
мотивации студентов в процессе изучения и практического
использования иностранного языка на уровне профессиональноориентированного общения.
5
1 Fields of Engineering
Text 1.1 What is Engineering?
Pre-reading task:
1) What is engineering? Use a monolingual dictionary to define this
term. Discuss your answers in group.
2) Can you draw a difference between mathematical and natural
sciences?
3) Look up the following words in a dictionary and explain their
meanings and usage peculiarities: trade, craft, profession, job, occupation,
work and career.
4) Read the text “What is engineering?” and take part in the
discussion on the topic "Engineering". Use Supplementary Reading Section
texts: “Preparation for a Discussion”(p.79) and “Formulas for Scientific
Communication”(p.82) to express your opinion.
5) Discuss the following problems in group:
- what are the main branches of engineering?
- what does the field of your speciality deal with?
- prove that a modern engineer has to require a basic knowledge of
lots of engineering fields.
Engineering is a term applied1 to the profession in which knowledge
of the mathematical and natural sciences, gained2 by study, experience3,
and practice, is applied to the efficient4 use of the materials and forces of
nature. The term engineer properly denotes a person who has received
professional training in pure and applied science, but is often loosely5 used
to describe the operator of an engine, as in the terms locomotive engineer,
marine engineer, or stationary engineer. In modern terminology these
latter6 occupations are known as crafts or trades. Between the professional
engineer and the craftsperson or tradesperson, however, are those
individuals known as subprofessionals or paraprofessionals, who apply
scientific and engineering skills to technical problems; typical of these are
engineering aides7, technicians, inspectors, draftsmen8, and the like.
Before the middle of the 18th century, large-scale9 construction
work was usually placed in the hands of military engineers. Military
engineering involved10 such work as the preparation of topographical
maps, the location, design, and construction of roads and bridges; and the
building efforts and docks; see Military Engineering below. In the 18th
century, however, the term civil engineering came into use to describe
engineering work that was performed by civilians for nonmilitary purposes.
With the increasing-use of machinery in the 19th century, mechanical
6
engineering was recognized as a separate branch of engineering, and later
mining engineering was similarly recognized.
The technical advances of the 19th century greatly broadened the
field of engineering and introduced a large number of engineering
specialties, and the rapidly changing demands of the socioeconomic
environment in the 20th century have widened the scope11 even further.
Vocabulary:
1) to apply – применять;
2) to gain – получать, приобретать
3) experience – опыт
4) efficient – эффективный, действенный
5) loosely – неточно, небрежно
6) latter – недавний, последний
7) aid – вспомогательные средства
8) draftsmen – конструктор
9) large-scale – крупномасштабный
10) to involve – вовлекать
11) scope – область действия
Text 1.2 Modern Engineering Trends
Pre-reading task:
1) What recent trends of engineering professions are considered to be
the most widespread?
2) What is the influence of computerization process on the
contemporary level of high-tech development?
3) Characterize modern engineering trends of our century.
4) Read the text “Modern Engineering Trends”. Discuss the
following problems in group:
5) What are the principles modern engineering is characterized by?
6) What do you know about The National Academy of Engineering?
Scientific methods of engineering are applied in several fields not
connected directly to manufacture and construction. Modern engineering is
characterized by the broad application of what is known as systems
engineering principles. The systems approach is a methodology of
decision-making in design, operation, or construction that adopts1 the
formal process included in what is known as the scientific method; an
interdisciplinary, or team, approach2, using specialists from not only the
various engineering disciplines, but from legal3, social, aesthetic, and
behavioral4 fields as well; a formal sequence5 of procedure employing the
principles of operations research.
7
Engineers in industry work not only with machines but also with
people, to determine6, for example, how machines can be operated most
efficiently by the workers. A small change in the location of the controls of
a machine or of its position with relation to other machines or equipment,
or a change in the muscular movements of the operator, often results in
greatly increased production. This type of engineering work is called timestudy engineering.
Among various recent trends in the engineering profession, licensing
and computerization are the most widespread7. Today, many engineers,
like doctors and lawyers, are licensed, by the state. The trend8 in modern
engineering offices is overwhelmingly toward computerization. Computers
are increasingly used for solving complex problems as well as for handling,
storing, and generating the enormous9 volume of data modern engineers
must work with.
The National Academy of Engineering, founded in 1964 as a private
organization, sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national
needs, encourages10 new research, and is concerned with the relationship
of engineering to society.
Vocabulary:
1) to adopt – принимать
2) approach – подход
3) legal – общепринятый
4) behavioral – поведенческий
5) sequence – последовательность
6) to determine – определять
7) widespread – широко распространенный
8) trend – тенденция, общее направление
9) enormous – огромный
10) to encourage – вдохновлять
Give English equivalents for the following Russian phrases:
1. получать, приобретать
2. крупномаштабный
3. эффективный
4. вспомогательные средства
5. область действия
6. подход
7. последовательность
8. широко распространенный
Give English definition for the following:
1. engineering
2. engineer
8
3. subprofessional (paraprofessional)
4. military engineering
5. modern engineering
6. the systems approach
7. time-study engineering
8.The National Academy of Engineering
Text 1.3 Fields of Engineering
Pre-reading task:
1) You are going to read a set of texts about the main branches of
engineering. What branches of engineering do you know?
2) Divide into groups and take part in a round-table discussion of
principal branches of engineering.
3) Do you as an up-to-date engineer have a basic knowledge of other
engineering fields?
The main branches of engineering are Aeronautical and Aerospace
Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Civil Engineering, Electrical and
Electronics Engineering, Electric Power and Machinery, Electronics,
Communications and Control, Computers, Geological and Mining
Engineering, Industrial or Management Engineering, Mechanical
Engineering, Military Engineering, Naval or Marine Engineering, Nuclear
Engineering, Safety Engineering, Sanitary Engineering. The engineer who
works in any of these fields usually requires a basic knowledge of the other
engineering fields, because most engineering problems are complex and
interrelated1. Thus a chemical engineer designing a plant for the
electrolytic refining2 of metal ores3 must deal with the design of structures,
machinery, and electrical devices, as well as with purely4 chemical
problems.
Besides the principal branches discussed below, engineering includes
many more specialties than can be described here, such as acoustical
engineering, architectural engineering automotive engineering, ceramic
engineering, transportation engineering, and textile engineering.
Vocabulary:
1) interrelated – взаимосвязанный
2) refining – очищение
3) ore – руда
4) purely – исключительно, вполне
1.3.2 Aeronautical and Aerospace Engineering
1. What does aeronautical and aerospace engineering deal with?
9
2. What supplementary information can you add to characterize this
field of engineering?
Aeronautics deals with the whole field of design, manufacture,
maintenance1, testing, and use of aircraft for both civilian2 and military
purposes3. It involves the knowledge of structural design, propulsion4
engines, navigation, communication, and other related areas.
Aerospace engineering is closely allied5 to aeronautics, but is
concerned6 with the flight of vehicles in space, beyond7 the earth's
atmosphere, and includes the study and development of rocket engines,
artificial satellites, and spacecraft for the exploration of outer space.
Vocabulary:
1) maintenance – техническое обслуживание, эксплуатация
2) civilian – гражданский
3) purpose – цель
4) propulsion – движение вперед
5) to ally – соединять
6) to be concerned – быть связанным
7) beyond – позади
1.3.1 Chemical Engineering
1. Are you fond of chemistry? Have you got this discipline in your
time-table?
2. Try to describe chemical field of engineering nowadays. What is
the main ecological trouble in its development? What should people do to
safe the environment? Is it really possible to stop the catastrophe?
This branch of engineering is concerned with the design,
construction and management1 of factories in which the essential2
processes consist of chemical reactions. Because of the diversity3 of the
materials dealt with4, the practice, for more than 50 years, has been to
analyze chemical engineering problems in terms of fundamental unit
operations or unit processes such as the grinding5 or pulverizing6 of
solids7. It is the task of the chemical engineer to select and specify the
design that will best meet the particular requirements of production and the
most appropriate8 equipment for the new applications.
Vocabulary:
1) management – управление
2) essential – насущный, неотъемлемый
3) diversity – разнообразие
4) to deal with – иметь дело
5) to grind – шлифовать
6) to pulverize – измельчать, распылять
10
7) solid – тело
8) ppropriate – подходящий, приемлемый
1.3.2 Civil Engineering
1. Try to prove that civil engineering is the broadcast of the
engineering fields.
2. In what way is civil engineering connected with environment
protection?
Civil engineering is perhaps the broadest of the engineering fields,
for it deals with the creation, improvement, and protection of the communal
environment, providing1 facilities for living, industry and transportation,
including large buildings, roads, bridges, canals, railroad lines, airports,
water-supply systems, dams, irrigation, harbors2, docks, aqueducts3,
tunnels, and other engineered constructions. The civil engineer must have a
thorough knowledge4 of all types of surveying5, of the properties and
mechanics of construction materials, the mechanics of structures and soils,
and of hydraulics and fluid6 mechanics. Among the important subdivisions
of the field are construction engineering, irrigation engineering,
transportation engineering, soils and foundation engineering, geodetic
engineering, hydraulic engineering, and coastal7 and ocean engineering.
Vocabulary:
1) to provide – предоставлять
2) harbor – порт, гавань
3) aqueduct – водопровод, канал
4) thorough knowledge – достаточные знания
5) survey – обследование, наблюдение
6) fluid – жидкая или газообразная среда
7) coastal – прибрежный
1.3.3 Electrical and Electronics Engineering
1. Get acquainted with the following text.
2. What additional information can you give to describe this field of
engineering?
3.What subject in the field of electrical and electronics engineering
does your speciality deal with?
Electrical and electronics engineering is the largest and most
diverse1 field of engineering. It is concerned with the development and
design, application, and manufacture of systems and devices that use
electric power and signals. Among the most important subjects in the field
in the late 1980s are electric power and machinery, electronic circuits,
control systems, computer design, superconductors, solid-state electronics,
11
medical imaging systems, robotics, lasers, radar, consumer2 electronics,
and fiber optics3. Despite4 its diversity, electrical engineering can be
divided into four main branches: electric power and machinery, electronics,
communications and control, and computers.
Vocabulary:
1) diverse – разнообразный, отличный
2) consumer – потребитель
3) fiber optics – оптическое стекловолокно
4) despite – не смотря на
1.3.4 Electric Power and Machinery
1. What are the distinctive features1 of this field of engineering?
2. Try to draw a difference between AC and DC motors.
The field of electric power is concerned with the design and
operation of systems for generating, transmitting, and distributing electric
power. Engineers in this field have brought about several important
developments since the late 1970s. One of these is the ability to transmit
power at extremely high voltages2 in both the direct current3 (DC) and
alternating current4 (AC) modes, reducing5 power losses6
proportionately. Another is the real-time control of power generation,
transmission, and distribution, using computers to analyze the data fed back
from the power system to a central station and thereby optimizing the
efficiency of the system while it is in operation.
A significant7 advance8 in the engineering of electric machinery has
been the introduction of electronic controls that enable AC motors to run at
variable speeds by adjusting9 the frequency of the current fed into them.
DC motors have also been made to run more efficiently this way.
Vocabulary:
1) distinctive features – отличительные черты
2) voltage – электрическое напряжение
3) direct current – постоянный ток
4) alternating current – переменный ток
5) to reduce – уменьшать
6) loss – потери
7) significant – выдающийся
8) advance – продвижение, опережение
9) adjusting – настройка
1.3.5 Electronics
1. What does electronics engineering deal with?
2. What are the modern trends in electronics research?
12
Electronic engineering deals with the research, design, integration,
and application of circuits1 and devices used in the transmission and
processing of information. Information is now generated, transmitted,
received, and stored electronically on a scale2 unprecedented in history, and
there is every indication that the explosive3 rate of growth in this field will
continue unabated4.
Electronic engineers design circuits to perform specific tasks, such as
amplifying electronic signals, adding binary numbers, and demodulating
radio signals to recover the information they carry. Circuits are also used to
generate waveforms useful for synchronization and timing, as in television,
and for correcting errors in digital information, as in telecommunications.
Prior to5 the 1960s, circuits consisted of separate electronic
devices—resistors, capacitors6, inductors, and vacuum tubes—
assembled7 on a chassis8 and connected by wires to form a bulky
package9. Since then, there has been a revolutionary trend toward
integrating electronic devices on a single tiny chip of silicon or some other
semiconductive material. The complex task of manufacturing these chips
uses the most advanced technology; including computers, electron-beam
lithography, micro-manipulators, ion-beam implantation, and ultra clean
environments. Much of the research in electronics is directed toward
creating even smaller chips, faster switching of components, and threedimensional integrated circuits.
Vocabulary:
1) circuit – схема, контур
2) scale – шкала, масштаб
3) explosive – взрывчатое вещество, взрывной
4) unabated – неослабленный
5) prior to – предшествующий, предварительный
6) capacitor – конденсатор
7) to assemble – собирать, монтировать
8) chassis – шасси, ходовая часть
9) bulky package – единый модуль
1.3.6 Communications and Control
1. What do you know about control systems?
2. In what spheres are control systems used?
3. Can you characterize digital systems advantages in the sphere of
modern technologies application?
Engineers in this field are concerned with all aspects of electrical
communications, from fundamental questions such as "What is
information?" to the highly practical, such as design of telephone systems.
13
In designing communication systems, engineers rely heavily on various
branches of advanced mathematics, such as Fourier analysis, linear systems
theory, linear algebra, complex variables, differential equations1, and
probability2 theory. Control systems are used extensively in aircraft and
ships, in military fire-control systems, in power transmission and
distribution3, in automated manufacturing, and in robotics.
Engineers have been working to bring about two revolutionary
changes in the field of communications and control. Digital systems are
replacing analog ones at the same time that fiber optics is superseding4
copper cables5. Digital systems offer far greater immunity6 to electrical
noise. Fiber optics is likewise7 immune to interference8; they also have
tremendous carrying capacity, and are extremely light and inexpensive to
manufacture.
Vocabulary:
1) equation – равенство
2) probability – вероятность
3) distribution – распределение
4) superseding – вытеснение, замена
5) copper cable – медный провод
6) immunity – иммунитет, привилегия
7) likewise – подобно
8) interference – вмешательство, влияние, помехи
1.3.7 Computers
1. What are the advantages in this sphere of engineering
development?
2. What does the abbreviation VLSI mean?
3. Can you describe current trends in computer engineering?
Virtually unknown just a few decades ago, computer engineering is
now among the most rapidly growing fields. The electronics of computers
involve engineers in design and manufacture of memory systems, of central
processing units, and of peripheral devices. Foremost1 among the avenues
now being pursued2 is the design of Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI)
and new computer architectures. The field of computer science is closely
related to computer engineering; however, the task of making computers
more "intelligent", through creation of sophisticated programs or
development of higher level machine languages or other means, is
generally regarded3 as being in the realm4 of computer science.
One current trend in computer engineering is microminiaturization.
Using VLSI, engineers continue to work to squeeze greater and greater
numbers of circuit elements onto smaller and smaller chips. Another trend
14
is toward increasing the speed of computer operations through use of
parallel processors, superconducting materials, and the like.
Vocabulary:
1) foremost – в первую очередь
2) pursue – следовать
3) to regard – рассматривать
4) realm – область
1.3.8 Geological and Mining Engineering
1. What activities does this branch of engineering include?
2. What special and professional knowledge does a mining engineer
have to require?
This branch of engineering includes activities related to the
discovery and exploration of mineral deposits and the financing,
construction, development, operation, recovery1, processing, purification2,
and marketing of crude3 minerals and mineral products. The mining
engineer is trained in historical geology, mineralogy, paleontology, and
geophysics, and employs such tools as the seismograph and the
magnetometer for the location of ore or petroleum deposits beneath4 the
surface of the earth. The surveying and drawing of geological maps and
sections is an important part of the work of the engineering geologist, who
is also responsible for determining whether the geological structure of a
given location is suitable for the building of such large structures as dams.
Vocabulary:
1) recovery – восстановление
2) purification – очищение
3) crude – необработанный
4) beneath – внизу, под
1.3.9 Industrial or Management Engineering
1. What does a modern engineer of this field deal with?
This field deals with the efficient use of machinery, labor, and raw
materials in industrial production. It is particularly important from the
viewpoint of costs and economics of production and safety of human
operators.
1.3.10 Mechanical Engineering
1. Read the following texts dealing with the problems of Military
Engineering, Naval or Marine Engineering and Nuclear Engineering.
2. Do these fields of engineering have any trends in common
15
Engineers in this field design, test, build, and operate machinery of
all types; they also work on a variety of manufactured goods and certain
kinds of structures. The field is divided into machinery, mechanisms,
materials, hydraulics, and pneumatics; and heat as applied to engines, work
and energy, heating, ventilating, and air conditioning. The mechanical
engineer, therefore, must be trained in mechanics, hydraulics, and
thermodynamics and must be fully grounded in such subjects as metallurgy
and machine design. Some mechanical engineers specialize in particular
types of machines such as pumps or steam turbines. A mechanical engineer
designs not only the machines that make products but the products
themselves, and must design for both economy and efficiency. A typical
example of the complexity of modern mechanical engineering is the design
of an automobile, which entails1 not only the design of the engine that
drives the car but also all its attendant2 accessories such as the steering3
and braking systems, the lighting system, the gearing4 by which the
engine's power is delivered to the wheels, the controls, and the body,
including such details as the door latches5 and the type of seat
upholstery6.
Vocabulary:
1) to entail – включать в себя, определять
2) attendant – дополнительный
3) steering – управление
4) gearing – зажигание
5) latch – замок
6) seat upholstery – обивка сидения
1.3.11 Military Engineering
1. Try to prove that military engineering is an increasingly
specialized science.
2. What other branches of engineering is military engineering
connected with?
This branch is concerned with the application of the engineering
sciences to military purposes. It is generally divided into permanent land
defense and field engineering. In war, army engineer battalions have been
used to construct ports, harbors, depots1, and airfields. Military engineers
also construct some public works, national monuments, and dams.
Military engineering has become an increasingly specialized science,
resulting in separate engineering subdisciplines such as ordnance2, which
applies mechanical engineering to the development of guns and chemical
engineering to the development of propellants, and electrical engineering to
all problems of telegraph, telephone, radio, and other communication.
16
Vocabulary:
1) depot – склад
2) ordnance – артиллерия
1.3.12 Naval or Marine Engineering
1. What engineers are called naval architects?
2. What specialized branch of knowledge must the marine engineer
take into consideration?
Engineers who have the overall responsibility for designing and
supervising1 construction of ships are called naval architects. The ships
they design range in size from ocean-going supertankers as much as 1300
feet long to small tugboats2 that operate in rivers and bays. Regardless of
size, ships must be designed and 'built so that they are safe, stable, strong,
and fast enough to perform the type of work intended3 for them. To
accomplish this, a naval architect must be familiar with the variety of
techniques of modern shipbuilding, and must have a thorough grounding4
in applied sciences and mechanics that bear directly on how ships move
through water.
Marine engineering is a specialized branch of mechanical
engineering devoted to the design and operation of systems, both
mechanical and electrical, needed to propel a ship. In helping the naval
architect design ships, the marine engineer must choose a propulsion unit,
such as a diesel engine or geared steam turbine, that provides enough
power to move the ship at the speed required, the engineer must take into
consideration5 how much the engine and fuel bunkers will weigh and how
much space they will occupy, as well as the projected costs of fuel and
maintenance.
Vocabulary:
1) to supervise – руководить, заведовать, наблюдать
2) tugboat – моторная лодка
3) indented – предназначенный
4) to ground – основываться
5) to take into consideration – принимать во внимание
1.3.13 Nuclear Engineering
1. What other branches of engineering is nuclear engineering
connected with?
2. What devices and methods do nuclear engineers develop?
This branch of engineering is concerned with the design and
construction of nuclear reactors and devices, and the in which nuclear
fission1 may find practical applications, such as the production of
17
commercial power from the energy generated by nuclear reactions and the
use of nuclear reactors for propulsion and of nuclear radiation to induce2
chemical and biological changes. In addition to designing nuclear reactors
to yield3 specified amounts of power, nuclear engineers develop the special
materials necessary to withstand4 the high temperatures and concentrated
bombardment of nuclear particles that accompany nuclear fission and
fusion5. Nuclear engineers also develop methods to shield people from the
harmful radiation produced by nuclear reactions and to ensure6 safe
storage and disposal7 of fissionable materials.
Vocabulary:
1. fission – расщепление
2. to induce - порождать
3. to yield – вырабатывать
4. to withstand – выдерживать
5. fusion – слияние
6. to ensure - гарантировать
7. disposal – контроль, право распоряжаться
1.3.14 Safety Engineering
1. Do you know what safety engineering deals with?
2. Is the branch of safety engineering connected with other fields of
engineering?
This field of engineering has as its object the prevention of accidents.
In recent years safety engineering has become a specialty adopted by
individuals trained in other branches of engineering. Safety engineers
develop methods and procedures to safeguard workers in hazardous1
occupations. They also assist in designing machinery, factories, ships, and
roads, suggesting alterations and improvements to reduce the amount of
accidents. In the design of machinery, for example, the safety engineer
seeks to cover all moving parts or keep them from accidental contact with
the operator, to put cutoff switches within reach of the operator, and to
eliminate2 dangerous projecting parts. In designing roads the safety
engineer seeks to avoid such hazards as sharp turns and blind intersections,
known to result in traffic accidents. Many large industrial and construction
firms, and insurance3 companies engaged in4 the field of workers
compensation, today maintain safety engineering departments.
Vocabulary:
1) hazardous – опасный
2) eliminate – устранять
3) insurance – страхование
4) to be engaged in – быть вовлеченным
18
1.3.15 Sanitary Engineering
1. Prove that the field of sanitary engineering deals with the
environment protection.
2. If you are given the right to develop the program of sewage and
other wastes recycling what ideas will your project contain?
This is a branch of civil engineering, but because of its great
importance for a healthy environment, especially in dense urban
population areas1, it has acquired the importance of a specialized field. It
chiefly deals with problems involving water supply, treatment, and
distribution; disposal of community wastes and reclamation2 of useful
components of such wastes; control of pollution of surface waterways,
groundwater's, and soils; milk and food sanitation3; housing and
institutional sanitation; rural4 sanitation; insect and vermin5 control;
control of atmospheric pollution; industrial hygiene, including control of
light, noise, vibration, and toxic materials in work areas; and other fields
concerned with the control of environmental factors affecting health. The
methods used for supplying communities with pure water and for the
disposal of sewage and other wastes are described separately.
Vocabulary:
1) dense urban population areas – густонаселенные городские
районы
2) reclamation – восстановление
3) sanitation – санитария
4) rural – сельский
5) vermin – вредители, паразиты
1.4 Are the following statements true or false?
1. Engineering is a term applied to the profession in which
knowledge of the mathematical and natural sciences, gained by study,
experience, and practice, is applied to the efficient use of the materials and
forces of nature.
2. Paraprofessionals apply medical skills to biological problems.
3. Military engineering involve such work as providing facilities for
living, irrigation and roads building.
4. The National Academy of Engineering was founded in 1959.
5. Civil engineering is connected with the environment protection.
6. Electronic engineering deals with the design of civil facilities and
research of soils structure.
1.5 Complete the following sentences with the appropriate
words: civil engineering, aeronautics, diverse, circuits, chips, copper
cable.
19
1. … is perhaps the broadest of the engineering fields, for it deals
with the creation, improvement, and protection of the communal
environment.
2. … deals with the whole field of design, manufacture, maintenance,
testing, and use of aircraft for both civilian and military purposes.
3. Electrical and electronics engineering is the largest and most …
field of engineering.
4. Much of the research in electronics is directed toward creating
even smaller …, faster switching of components, and three-dimensional
integrated circuits.
5. Digital systems are replacing analog ones at the same time that
fiber optics is superseding … .
Text 1.13.16
Automation
Pre-reading task:
1. What were the first robots originally designed for?
2. What industries use automation technologies?
3. What do the abbreviations CAM and CAD stand for?
4. Read the text “Automation” and discuss the following questions in
group:
a) How is the term automation defined in the text?
b) What is the most «familiar example» of automation given in the
text?
c) What was the first step in the development of automaton?
d) What was the first industry to adopt the new integrated system of
production?
e) What is feedback principle?
f) What is FMS?
Automation1 is the system of manufacture performing certain tasks,
previously2 done by people, by machines only. The sequences3 of
operations are controlled automatically. The most familiar example of a
highly automated system is an assembly plant4 for automobiles or other
complex products.
The term automation is also used to describe nonmanufacturing5
systems in which automatic devices6 can operate independently of human
control. Such devices as automatic pilots, automatic telephone equipment
and automated control systems are used to perform various operations
much faster and better than could be done by people.
Automated manufacturing had several steps in its development.
Mechanization was the first step necessary in the development of
automation. The simplification of work made it possible to design and
20
build machines that resembled7 the motions of the worker. These
specialized machines were motorized and they had better production
efficiency8.
Industrial robots, originally designed only to perform simple tasks in
environments dangerous to human workers, are now widely used to
transfer, manipulate, and position both light and heavy work pieces
performing all the functions of a transfer machine.
In the 1920s the automobile industry for the first time used an
integrated system of production. This method of production was adopted by
most car manufacturers and became known as Detroit automation.
The feedback principle is used in all automatic-control mechanisms
when machines have ability to correct themselves. The feedback principle
has been used for centuries. An outstanding early example is the flyball
governor9, invented in 1788 by James Watt to control the speed of the
steam engine10. The common household thermostat11 is another example
of a feedback device.
Using feedback devices, machines can start, stop, speed up, slow
down, count, inspect, test, compare, and measure. These operations are
commonly applied to a wide variety of production operations.
Computers have greatly facilitated12 the use of feedback in
manufacturing processes. Computers gave rise to the development of
numerically controlled machines. The motions of these machines are
controlled by punched13 paper or magnetic tapes. In numerically controlled
machining centres machine tools can perform several different machining
operations.
More recently, the introduction of microprocessors and computers
have made possible the development of computer-aided14 design and
computer-aided manufacture (CAD and CAM) technologies. When using
these systems a designer draws a part and indicates its dimensions15 with
the help of a mouse, light pen, or other input device. After the drawing has
been completed the computer automatically gives the instructions that
direct a machining centre to machine the part.
Another development using automation are the flexible
manufacturing systems (FMS). A computer in FMS can be used to monitor
and control the operation of the whole factory.
Automation has also had an influence on the areas of the economy
other than manufacturing. Small computers are used in systems called word
processors, which are rapidly becoming a standard part of the modern
office. They are used to edit texts, to type letters and so on.
Automation in Industry
21
Many industries are highly automated or use automation technology
in some part of their operation. In communications and especially in the
telephone industry dialing and transmission are all done automatically.
Railways are also controlled by automatic signaling devices, which have
sensors that detect carriages passing a particular point. In this way the
movement and location of trains can be monitored.
Not all industries require the same degree of automation. Sales,
agriculture, and some service industries are difficult to automate, though
agriculture industry may become more mechanized, especially in the
processing and packaging of foods.
The automation technology in manufacturing and assembly is widely
used in car and other consumer product industries.
Nevertheless, each industry has its own concept of automation that
answers its particular production needs.
Vocabulary:
1) automation — автоматизация
2) previously — ранее
3) sequence — последовательность
4) assembly plant — сборочный завод
5) nonmanufacturing — непроизводственный
6) device — устройство, прибор
7) resemble — походить
8) efficiency — эффективность
9) flyball governor — центробежный регулятор
10) steam engine — паровоз
11) household thermostat — бытовой термостат
12) facilitate — способствовать
13) punched — перфорированный
14) aid — помощь
15) dimension — измерение, размеры
1. Give English equivalents for the following Russian word
combinations:
1. автоматические устройства
2. автоматизированное производство
3. выполнять простые задачи
4. как легкие, так и тяжелые детали
5. интегрированная система производства
6. принцип обратной связи
7. механизм может разгоняться и тормозить
8. компьютер автоматически посылает команды
9. высокоавтоматизированная система
22
10. непроизводственная система
Text 1.13.17 Types of Automation
Pre-reading task:
1. What is the most important application of automation?
2. What are the types of automation used in manufacturing?
3. Read the text “Types of Automation” and discuss the following
questions in group:
4. What is fixed automation?
5. What are the limitations of hard automation?
6. What is the best example of programmable automation?
7. What are the limitations of programmable automation?
8. What are the advantages of flexible automation?
Manufacturing is one of the most important application areas for
automation technology. There are several types of automation in
manufacturing. The examples of automated systems used in manufacturing
are described below.
1. Fixed automation, sometimes called «hard automation» refers to
automated machines in which the equipment1 configuration allows fixed
sequence2 of processing operations. These machines are programmed by
their design to make only certain processing operations. They are not easily
changed over from one product style to another. This form of automation
needs high initial3 investments4 and high production rates5. That is why it
is suitable for products that are made in large volumes. Examples of fixed
automation are machining transfer lines found in the automobile industry,
automatic assembly machines6 and certain chemical processes.
2. Programmable automation is a form of automation for producing
products in large quantities7, ranging from several dozen to several
thousand units at a time. For each new product the production equipment
must be re-programmed and changed over. This reprogramming and
changeover take a period of non-productive8 time. Production rates in
programmable automation are generally lower than in fixed automation,
because the equipment is designed to facilitate9 product changeover10
rather than for product specialization. A numerical-control machine-tool is
a good example of programmable automation. The program is coded in
computer memory for each different product style and the machine-tool is
controlled by the computer program.
3. Flexible automation is a kind of programmable automation.
Programmable automation requires time to re-program and change over the
production equipment for each series of new product. This is lost
production time, which is expensive. In flexible automation the number of
23
products is limited so that the changeover of the equipment can be done
very quickly and automatically. The reprogramming of the equipment in
flexible automation is done at a computer terminal without using the
production equipment itself. Flexible automation allows a mixture of
different products to be produced one right after another.
Vocabulary:
1) equipment — оборудование
2) sequence — последовательность
3) initial — первоначальный, начальный
4) investment — инвестиция, вклад
5) rate — скорость, темп
6) assembly machines — сборочные машины
7) quantity — количество
8) non-productive — непроизводительный
9) to facilitate — способствовать
10) changeover — переход, переналадка
1. Give English equivalents for the following Russian phrases:
1. сфера применения
2. фиксированная последовательность операций
3. автоматические сборочные машины
4. определенные химические процессы
5. станок с числовым программным управлением
6. потерянное производственное время
7. разнообразная продукция
2. Give English definition for the following:
1. automation technology
2. fixed automation
3. assembly machines
4. non-productive time
5. programmable automation
6. computer terminal
7. numerical-control machine-tool
Text 1.13.18 Robots in Manufacturing
Pre-reading task:
1. What is the most common application of robots in automobile
manufacturing?
2. What operations could be done by robots in car manufacturing
industry?
3. Read the text “Robots in Manufacturing” and discuss the
following questions in group:
24
4. How are robots used in manufacturing?
5. What is «material handling»?
6. What does a robot need to be equipped with to do loading and
unloading operations?
7. What does robot manipulate in robotic processing operation?
8. What are the main reasons to use robots in production?
9. How can robots inspect the quality of production?
10. What operations could be done by robots in hazardous or
uncomfortable for the human workers conditions?
Today most robots are used in manufacturing operations. The
applications of robots can be divided into three categories:
- material handling1
- processing operations
- assembly and inspection.
Material-handling is the transfer2 of material and loading and
unloading of machines. Material-transfer applications require the robot to
move materials or work parts from one to another. Many of these tasks are
relatively simple: robots pick up3 parts from one conveyor and place them
on another. Other transfer operations are more complex, such as placing
parts in an arrangement4 that can be calculated by the robot. Machine
loading and unloading operations utilize5 a robot to load and unload parts.
This requires the robot to be equipped with a gripper6 that can grasp7
parts. Usually the gripper must be designed specifically for the particular
part geometry.
In robotic processing operations, the robot manipulates a tool to
perform a process on the work part. Examples of such applications include
spot welding8, continuous9 arc welding10 and spray painting11. Spot
welding of automobile bodies is one of the most common applications of
industrial robots. The robot positions a spot welder against the automobile
panels and frames12 to join them. Arc welding is a continuous process in
which robot moves the welding rod along the welding seam. Spray painting
is the manipulation of a spray-painting gun13 over the surface of the object
to be coated. Other operations in this category include grinding14 and
polishing15 in which a rotating spindle16 serves as the robot's tool.
The third application area of industrial robots is assembly and
inspection. The use of robots in assembly is expected to increase because of
the high cost of manual17 labor18. But the design of the product is an
important aspect of robotic assembly. Assembly methods that are
satisfactory for humans are not always suitable for robots. Screws and nuts
are widely used for fastening in manual assembly, but the same operations
are extremely difficult for a one-armed robot.
25
Inspection is another area of factory operations in which the
utilization of robots is growing. In a typical inspection job, the robot
positions a sensor with respect to the work part and determines whether the
part answers the quality specifications. In nearly all industrial robotic
applications, the robot provides a substitute for human labor. There are
certain characteristics of industrial jobs performed by humans that can be
done by robots:
- the operation is repetitive, involving the same basic work motions
every cycle,
- the operation is hazardous19 or uncomfortable for the human
worker (for example: spray painting, spot welding, arc welding, and certain
machine loading and unloading tasks),
- the work piece or tool are too heavy and difficult to handle,
- the operation allows the robot to be used on two or three shifts20.
Vocabulary:
1) handling — обращение
2) transfer — передача, перенос
3) pick up — брать, подбирать
4) arrangement — расположение
5) to utilize — утилизировать, находить применение
6) gripper — захват
7) to grasp — схватывать
8) spot welding — точечная сварка
9) continuous — непрерывный
10) arc welding — электродуговая сварка
11) spray painting — окраска распылением
12) frame — рама
13) spray-painting gun — распылитель краски
14) grinding — шлифование
15) polishing — полирование
16) spindle — шпиндель
17) manual — ручной
18) labor — труд
19) hazardous — опасный
20) shift — смена
Text 1.13.19 Computers
Pre-Reading Task:
1. What do you know about computer science and technology on the
contemporary level?
26
2. Who has a computer in your group? Ask them what do they use it
for?
3. What are the most important applications of computer? (Are
computer games just a «waste of time» or it is a nice hobby and a lot of
fun?)
4. Read the text “Computers”, do the task below and organize a
round - table discussion on the problem.
50 years ago, people hadn’t even heard of computers, and today we
cannot imagine life without them.
Computer technology is the fastest-growing industry in the world.
The first computer was the size of a minibus and weighed a ton. Today, its
job can be done by a chip the size of a pin head. And the revolution is still
going on.
Very soon we’ll have computers that we’ll wear on wrists or even in
our glasses and earnings. Such wearable computers are being developed
now.
Japan’s biggest mobiles-phone company has just released its
cleverest product - a mobile phone that allows you to stuff the Internet as
well as make calls. People are already using the phone to check the news
headlines, follow the stock market and download the latest jokes. Soon they
will be able to buy cinema tickets and manage their bank accounts.
The next generation of computers will be able to talk and even think
for themselves. They will contain electronic ‘neural networks’. Of course,
they’ll be still a lot simpler that human brains, but it will be a great step
forward. Such computers will help it diagnose illnesses, find materials,
understand and control the world’s money markets, identify criminals and
control space travel.
Computer revolution is changing our life and our language, too. We
are constantly making up new words or giving new meanings to old ones.
Most of computer terms are born in Silicon Valley, the world’s top
computer-science center.
1. Chose an answer – a or b.
1.
A mouse is
a) a small furry animal with a long tail
b) a small box used to operate a computer
2.
To surf is
a) to ride on a board of the waves of the sea
b) to move around the Internet
3.
A bug is
a) a small insect
b) an error in a computer program.
27
4.
A flame is
a) a red or yellow burning gas seen when something is on fire
b) an unfriendly or rude e-mail
5.
To boot is
a) to kick
b) to start a computer
6.
A geek is
a) someone who bites the heads off alive chickens as part of a show
b) a person who knows everything about computers
Text 1.13.20 What is a Computer?
Pre-reading task:
1. Is computer intelligent?
2. Why so many people are still «computer illiterate»?
3. Read the text “What is a Computer?” and discuss the following
questions in group:
4. What does the term «computer» describe?
5. What are five components of computer system?
6. What is connectivity?
7. What is software? What’s the difference between hardware and
software?
8. Why people are the most important component of a computer
system?
9. In what way terms «data» and «information» differ?
10. How does computer convert data into information?
The term “computer” is used to describe a device1 made up of a
combination of electronic and electromechanical (part electronic and part
mechanical) components. Computer has no intelligence2 by itself and is
referred to as3 hardware4. A computer system is a combination of five
elements:
- Hardware
- Software
- People
- Procedures5
- Data/information
When one computer system is set up to communicate with another
computer system, connectivity becomes the sixth system element. In other
words, the manner6 in which the various7 individual systems are
connected8 — for example, by phone lines, microwave9 transmission10,
or satellite — is an element of the total computer system.
28
Software is the term used to describe the instructions that tell the
hardware how to perform a task. Without software instructions11, the
hardware doesn’t know what to do. People, however, are the most
important component of the computer system: they create12 the computer
software instructions and respond13 to the procedures that those
instructions present.
The basic job of the computer is the processing of information.
Computers accept information in the form of instruction called a program
and characters14 called data15 to perform mathematical and logical
operations, and then give the results. The data is raw16 material while
information is organized, processed, refined17 and useful for decision18
making. Computer is used to convert19 data into information. Computer is
also used to store information in the digital form.
Vocabulary:
1) device — устройство
2) intelligence — разум
3) to refer to as — называть что-либо
4) hardware — оборудование
5) procedures — процедуры, операции
6) manner — манера, способ
7) various — различные
8) to connect — соединять
9) microwave — микроволновая
10) transmission — передача
11) instruction — команда
12) to create — создавать
13) to respond — отвечать
14) characters — символы
15) data — данные
16) raw — необработанный, сырой
17) to refine — очищать
18) decision — решение
19) to convert — превращать, преобразовывать
1. Are the following statements true or false?
1. Computer is made of electronic components so it is referred to as
electronic device.
2. Computer has no intelligence until software is loaded.
3. There are five elements of computer system: hardware, software,
people, diskettes and data.
4. The manner in which computers are connected is the connectivity.
5. Without software instructions hardware doesn’t know what to do.
29
6. The software is the most important component because it is made
by people.
7. The user inputs data into computer to get information as an output.
8. Computer is used to help people in decision making process.
2.
Complete the following sentences with the appropriate
words: program, information, processing of information, software,
connectivity, computer, people.
1. … doesn’t come to life until it is connected to other parts of a
system.
2. … is the term used to describe the instructions that tell the
hardware how to perform a task.
3. … create the computer software instructions and respond to the
procedures that those instructions present
4. Information in the form of instruction is called a…
5. The manner in which the various individual systems are connected
is…
6. … is organized, processed and useful for decision making
7. The basic job of the computer is the… .
Text 1.13.21 Hardware
Pre-Reading Task:
1. Without what parts computer is unable to work?
2. What is the most expensive part of the hardware?
3. What other hardware devices do you know? What are they for? Do
you know how to use them?
4. Read the text “Hardware” and discuss the following questions in
group:
5. What is the Webster's dictionary definition of hardware?
6. What groups of hardware could be defined?
7. What is input hardware? What are the examples of input
hardware?
8. What is a mouse designed for? What is a light pen?
9. What is processing hardware? What are the basic types of memory
used in a PC?
10. Can a PC-user change the ROM? Who records the information in
ROM?
11. What is storage hardware? What is CD-ROM used for? Can a
user record his or her data on a CD? What kind of storage hardware can
contain more information: CD-ROM, RAM or ROM?
12. What is modem used for? Can PC-user communicate with other
people without a modem?
30
13. What is hardware? Webster's dictionary gives us the following
definition of the hardware— the mechanical, magnetic, electronic, and
electrical devices composing a computer system.
Computer hardware can be divided into four categories:
- input hardware
- processing hardware1
- storage hardware
- output hardware
- Input hardware
The purpose of the input hardware2 is to collect data and convert3
it into a form suitable for computer processing. The most common input
device is a keyboard4. It looks very much like a typewriter. The mouse5 is
a hand held device connected6 to the computer by small cable. As the
mouse is rolled7 across the mouse pad, the cursor moves across the screen.
When the cursor reaches8 the desired location, the user usually pushes a
button on the mouse once or twice to signal a menu selection or a
command to the computer.
The light pen uses a light sensitive9 photoelectric cell to signal
screen position to the computer. Another type of input hardware is opticelectronic scanner10 that is used to input graphics as well as typeset
characters. Microphone and video camera can be also used to input data
into the computer. Electronic cameras are becoming very popular among
the consumers for their relatively low price and convenience.
Processing hardware
The purpose of processing hardware is retrieve11, interpret and
direct12 the execution13 of software instructions provided to the computer.
The most common components of processing hardware are the Central
Processing Unit and main memory.
The Central Processing Unit (CPU31) is the brain of the computer. It
reads and interprets14 software instructions and coordinates the processing
activities that must take place. The design of the CPU affects15 the
processing power and the speed of the computer, as well as the amount16
of main memory it can use effectively. With a well-designed CPU in your
computer, you can perform highly sophisticated17 tasks in a very short
time.
Memory is the system of component of the computer in which
information is stored. There are two types of computer memory: RAM and
ROM.
RAM18 (random access memory) is the volatile19 computer memory,
used for creating loading, and running programs and for manipulating and
temporarily20 storing data;
31
ROM21` (read only memory) is nonvolatile, nonmodifiable computer
memory, used to hold programmed instructions to the system.
The more memory you have in your computer, the more operations
you саn perform.
Storage hardware
The purpose of storage hardware22 is to store computer instructions
and data in a form that is relatively permanent and retrieve when needed for
processing. Storage hardware serves the same basic functions as do office
filing systems except that it stores data as electromagnetic signals. The
most common ways of storing data are Hard disk23, floppy disk and CDROM24.
Hard disk is a rigid disk coated with magnetic material, for storing
programs and relatively large amounts of data.
Floppy disk (diskette) — thin, usually flexible plastic disk coated
with magnetic material, for storing computer data and programs. There are
two formats for floppy disks: 5.25" and 3.5". 5.25" is not used in modern
computer systems because of it relatively large size, flexibility and small
capacity25. 3.5" disks are formatted 1.4 megabytes and are widely used.
CD-ROM (compact disc read only memory) is a compact disc on
which a large amount of digitized read-only data can be stored. CD-ROMs
are very popular now because of the growing speed which CD-ROM drives
can provide26 nowadays.
Output hardware
The purpose of output hardware27 is to provide the user with the
means to view information produced by the computer system. Information
is output in either hardcopy or softcopy form. Hardcopy output can be held
in your hand, such as paper with text (word or numbers) or graphics printed
on it. Softcopy output is displayed on a monitor.
Monitor is a component with a display screen for viewing computer
data, television programs, etc.
Printer28 is a computer output device that produces a paper copy of
data or graphics.
Modem29 is an example of communication hardware — an electronic
device that makes possible the transmission of data to or from computer via
telephone or other communication lines.
Hardware comes in many configurations, depending on what the
computer system is designed to do. Hardware can fill several floors of a
large office building or can fit on your lap30.
Vocabulary:
1) processing hardware — устройства обработки данных
2) input hardware — устройства ввода данных
32
3) to convert — преобразовать
4) keyboard — клавиатура
5) mouse — устройство для перемещения объектов на экране,
«мышь»
6) to connect — соединять
7) to roll — катать, перекатывать
8) to reach — достигать
9) sensitive — чувствительный
10) scanner — сканер
11) to retrieve — извлекать
12) to direct — управлять
13) to execute — выполнять
14) to interpret — переводить
15) to affect — влиять
16) amount — количество
17) sophisticated — сложный
18) RAM — ОЗУ (оперативное запоминающее устройство)
19)volatile — летучий, нестойкий, временный, энергозависимый
20) temporarily — временно
21) ROM — ПЗУ (постоянное запоминающее устройство)
22) storage hardware — устройства хранения данных
hard disk — жесткий диск, «винчестер»
23) CD-ROM — накопитель на компакт-дисках (CD)
24) capacity — вместительность
25) to provide — обеспечивать
26) output hardware — выходные устройства отображения
информации
27) printer — принтер
28) modem — модем
29) lap — колени
30) CPU, microprocessor — микропроцессор
1. Are the following statements true or false? Prove your
answers.
1. Computer is an electronic device therefore hardware is a system of
electronic devices.
2. The purpose of the input hardware is to collect data and convert it
into a form suitable for computer processing.
3. Scanner is used to input graphics only.
4. The purpose of processing hardware is to retrieve, interpret and
direct the execution of software instructions provided to the computer.
5. CPU reads and interprets software and prints the results on paper.
33
6. User is unable to change the contents of ROM.
7. 5.25" floppy disks are used more often because they are flexible
and have more capacity than 3.5" disks.
8. Printer is a processing hardware because its purpose is to show the
information produced by the system.
9. Modem is an electronic device that makes possible the
transmission of data from one computer to another via telephone or other
communication lines.
10. The purpose of storage hardware is to store computer instructions
and data in a form that is relatively permanent and retrieve them when
needed for processing.
2. Match the following words with the given definition:
processor, keyboard, mouse, floppy-disk, hard-disk, modem, monitor,
ROM, RAM.
1. nonvolatile, nonmodifiable computer memory, used to hold
programmed instructions to the system;
2. the part of a television or computer on which a picture is formed
or information is displayed;
3. rigid disk coated with magnetic material, for storing computer
programs and relatively large amounts of data;
4. an electronic device that makes possible the transmission of data
to or from computer via telephone or other communication lines;
5. a set of keys, usually arranged in tiers, for operating a typewriter,
typesetting machine, computer terminal, or the like;
6. volatile computer memory, used for creating, loading, and running
programs and for manipulating and temporarily storing data; main memory;
7. central processing unit: the key component of a computer system,
containing the circuitry necessary to interpret and execute program
instructions;
8. a palm-sized device equipped with one or more buttons, used to
point at and select items on a computer display screen and for controlling
the cursor by means of analogous movement on a nearby surface;
. a thin, usually flexible plastic disk coated withmagnetic material,
for storing computer data and program.
Text 11.13.22 Types of Software
Pre-Reading Task:
1. What do you think is more expensive — hardware or software?
2. Has anyone in your group ever purchased software? Why do you
think piracy (audio, video, computer software) still exists?
34
3. Read the text “Types of Software” and discuss the following
questions in group:
4. What is software?
5. In what two basic groups could software (programs) be divided?
6. What is system software for?
7. What is an operating system — a system software or application
software?
8. What is a «driver»?
9. What is application software?
10. What is application software used for?
11. What is the tendency in application software market in recent
years?
12. What is the application of communication software?
A computer to complete1 a job requires2 more than just the actual
equipment3 or hardware we see and touch. It requires Software —
programs for directing4 the operation of a computer or electronic data.
Software is the final computer system component. These computer
programs instruct the hardware how to conduct5 processing. The computer
is merely a general-purpose6 machine which requires specific7 software to
perform a given task. Computers can input, calculate, compare, and output
data as information. Software determines the order in which these
operations are performed.
Programs usually fall in one of two categories: system software and
applications software.
System software controls8 standard internal9 computer activities.
An operating system, for example, is a collection of system programs that
aid10 in the operation of a computer regardless11 of the application
software being used. When a computer is first turned on, one of the systems
programs is booted12 or loaded into the computers memory. This software
contains information about memory capacity13, the model of the
processor, the disk drives to be used and more. Once the system software is
loaded, the applications software can be brought in.
System programs are designed for the specific pieces of hardware.
These programs are called drivers and coordinate peripheral14 hardware
and computer activities. User needs to install15 a specific driver in order to
activate a peripheral device. For example, if you intend to buy a printer or a
scanner you need to worry in advance about the driver program which,
though, commonly goes along with your device. By installing the driver
you «teach» your mainboard16 to «understand» the newly attached17 part.
Applications software satisfies your specific need. The developers18
of application software rely mostly on marketing research strategies trying
35
to do their best to attract more users (buyers) to their software. As the
productivity of the hardware has increased greatly in recent years, the
programmers nowadays tend to include as much as possible in one program
to make software interface look more attractive to the user. These class of
programs is the most numerous and perspective from the marketing point
of view.
Data communication within and between computers systems is
handled19 by system software. Communications software transfers20 data
from one computer system to another. These programs usually provide21
users with data security22 and error checking23 along with physically
transferring data between the two computer's memories. During the past
five years the developing24 electronic network communication has
stimulated more and more companies to produce various communication
software, such as Web-Browsers25 for Internet.
Vocabulary:
1) to complete — совершать, завершать
2) to require— требовать
3) equipment — оборудование
4) to direct — управлять, руководить
5) to conduct — проводить
6) general-purpose — общего назначения
7) specific — конкретный, определенный
8) control — управление
9) internal — внутренний
10) aid — помощь
11) regardless — несмотря на, безотносительно
12) to boot — загружать
13) memory capacity — вместимость памяти
14) peripheral — периферийный
15) to install — устанавливать, встраивать, инсталлировать
16) mainboard — материнская плата
17) to attach — присоединять
18) developer — разработчик
19) to handle — управлять, обращаться с
20) to transfer — переводить, переносить
21) to provide with — обеспечивать чем-либо
22) security — безопасность
23) to check — проверять
24) to develop — развивать, проявлять
36
25) Web-browser — «браузер» (программа, позволяющая
пользователю искать и считывать информацию с глобальной
электронной сети Internet)
1. Are the following statements true or false? Prove your
answers.
1. Computer programs only instruct hardware how to handle data
storage.
2. System software controls internal computer activities.
3. System software is very dependable on the type of application
software being used.
4. The information about memory capacity, the model of the
processor and disk drives are unavailable for system software.
5. The driver is a special device usually used by car drivers for
Floppy-disk driving.
6. It is very reasonable to ask for a driver when you buy a new piece
of hardware.
7. Software developers tend to make their products very small and
with poor interface to save computer resources.
8. Communication software is in great demand now because of the
new advances in communication technologies.
9. Application software is merely a general-purpose instrument.
10. Web-browsers is the class of software for electronic
communication through the network.
Text 1.13.23 Operating Systems
Pre-reading task:
1. Why do you think Bill Gates, President of Microsoft Company is
one of the richest people on the Earth?
2. Judging from your experience tell if UNIX is used nowadays?
What about OS/2?
3. Ask the students in your group who have experience working with
Windows (2000 or XP) about the advantages and disadvantages of these
operational systems.
4. Read the text “Operating Systems” and discuss the following
questions in group:
5. What problems faced programmers in the 1940's and 1950's?
6. Why were the first programs «complex» and «time-consuming»?
7. What are the basic functions of operating system?
8. What does the abbreviation DOS mean?
37
9. What company developed the first version of DOS operating
system? For what purpose was it done? Was the new operational system
successful?
10. What is the difference between the PC-DOS and MS-DOS?
11. What does the abbreviation NT stand for? Is NT DOScompatible? What are the basic requirements for NT?
12. Who is the developer of OS/2?
13. What makes UNIX so different from the other operational
systems?
14. What are the special features of Windows 95, Windows 98,
Windows 2000, Windows XP?
When computers were first introduced in the 1940's and 50's, every
program written had to provide instructions that told the computer how to
use devices such as the printer, how to store information on a disk, as well
as how to perform several other tasks not necessarily related to the
program. The additional program instructions for working with hardware
devices were very complex1, and time-consuming2. Programmers soon
realized3 it would be smarter4 to develop one program that could control
the computer's hardware, which others programs could have used when
they needed it. With that, the first operating system was born.
Today, operating systems control and manage the use of hardware
devices such as the printer or mouse. They also provide disk management
by letting you store information in files. The operating system also lets you
run programs such as the basic word processor. Lastly, the operating
system provides several of its own commands that help you to use the
computer.
DOS is the most commonly used PC operating system. DOS is an
abbreviation for disk operating system. DOS was developed by a company
named Microsoft. MS-DOS is an abbreviation for «Microsoft DOS». When
IBM first released the IBM PC in 1981, IBM licensed DOS from Microsoft
for use on the PC and called it PC-DOS. From the user’s perspective, PCDOS and MS-DOS are the same, each providing the same capabilities and
commands.
The version of DOS release in 1981 was 1.0. Over the past decade5,
DOS has undergone several changes. Each time the DOS developers
release a new version6, they increase the version number.
Windows NT (new technology) is an operating system developed by
Microsoft. NT is an enhanced7 version of the popular Microsoft Windows
3.0, 3.1 programs. NT requires a 386 processor or greater and 8 Mb of
RAM. For the best NT performance, you have to use a 486 processor with
about 16 Mb or higher. Unlike the Windows, which runs on top of DOS8,
38
Windows NT is an operating system itself. However, NT is DOS
compatible9. The advantage of using NT over Windows is that NT makes
better use of the PC's memory management capabilities.
OS/2 is a PC operating system created by IBM. Like NT, OS/2 is
DOS compatible and provides a graphical user interface that lets you run
programs with a click of a mouse10. Also like NT, OS/2 performs best
when you are using a powerful system. Many IBM-based PCs are
shipped11 with OS/2 preinstalled.
UNIX is a multi-user operating system that allows12 multiple users13
to access14 the system. Traditionally, UNIX was run on larger mini
computers to which users accessed the systems using terminals and not
PC's. UNIX allowed each user to simultaneously15 run the programs they
desired16. Unlike NT and OS/2, UNIX is not DOS compatible. Most users
would not purchase UNIX for their own use.
Windows 2000 & XP are the most popular user-oriented operating
systems with a friendly interface and multitasking capabilities.
Vocabulary:
1) complex — сложный
2) to consume — потреблять
3) to realize — понять, осознать
4) smart — умный
5) decade — декада, десятилетие
6) version — версия
7) to enhance — увеличивать, расширять
8) on top of DOS — «сверху», на основе ДОС
9) compatible — совместимый
10) with a click of a mouse — одним щелчком кнопки мыши
11) are shipped — поставляются
12) to allow — позволять
13) multiple users — многочисленные пользователи
14) access — доступ
15) simultaneously — одновременно
16) to desire — желать
1. Match the following words with the given definition: UNIX,
DOS, NT, OS/2, Windows 95.
1. Like NT, ... is DOS compatible and provides a graphical user
interface that lets you run programs with a click of a mouse.
2. … is the most commonly used PC operating system
3. … is a multi-user operating system that allows multiple users to
access the system
39
4. … is an operating system developed by Microsoft, the enhanced
version of the popular Microsoft Windows Programs.
5. The usage of ... is so simple that even little kids learn how to use it
very quickly.
2. Are the following statements true or false? Prove your
answers.
1. When computers were first introduced in 40's and50's
programmers had to write programs to instruct CD-ROMs, laser printers
and scanners.
2. The operational system controls and manages the use of the
hardware and the memory.
3. There are no commands available in operating systems, they are
only in word processors.
4. Microsoft developed MS-DOS to compete with IBM's PC-DOS.
5. NT requires computers with 486 CPU and 16 M random access
memory.
6. OS/2 is DOS compatible because it was developed by Microsoft.
7. Traditionally, UNIX was run by many users simultaneously.
8. Windows 95 and Windows 98 are DOS compatible and have very
«friendly» and convenient interface.
2 What is the Internet?
Text 2.1 “What is the World Wide Web?”
Pre-reading task:
1. Are you a part of computer revolution?
2. You are going to read a set of texts about the World Wide Web.
Discuss in group why you really need the Internet. What factors influence
your decision?
3. Read the text “What is the Internet?” and discuss the following
questions:
4. Do you use Internet?
5. Why so many activities such as e-mail and business transactions
are possible through the Internet?
6. What is the World Wide Web?
7. What is Web browser?
8. What does a user need to have an access to the WWW?
9. What are hyperlinks?
10. What resources are available on the WWW?
11. What are the basic recreational applications of WWW?
40
12. What is this computer phenomenon called the Internet, or the
Net? Do you personally have need of it? Before you decide to get "on" the
Internet, you may want to know something about it.
Millions of people around the world use the Internet to search for and
retrieve1 information on all sorts of topics in a wide variety2 of areas
including the arts, business, government, humanities3, news, politics and
recreation4. People communicate through electronic mail (e-mail),
discussion groups, chat channels and other means of informational
exchange. They share5 information and make commercial and business
transactions6. All this activity is possible because tens of thousands of
networks7 are connected to the Internet and exchange information in the
same basic ways.
Using the Internet, David, a teacher in the United States, acquired
course materials. A Canadian father accessed8 it to stay in contact with his
daughter in Russia. A housewife used it to examine scientific research on
the early beginnings of the universe. A farmer turned to it to find
information about new planting methods that make use of satellites.
Corporations are drawn to it because of its power to advertise their
products and services to millions of potential customers. People around the
globe read the latest national and international news by means of its vast
reporting and information services.
The World Wide Web9 (WWW) is a part of the Internet. But it's not
a collection of networks. Rather, it is information that is connected or
linked10 together like a web. You access this information through one
interface or tool called a Web browser11. The number of resources and
services that are part of the World Wide Web is growing extremely fast. In
1996 there were more than 20 million users of the WWW, and more than
half the information that is transferred across the Internet is accessed
through the WWW. By using a computer terminal (hardware) connected to
a network that is a part of the Internet, and by using aprogram (software) to
browse12 or retrieve information that is a part of the World Wide Web, the
people connected to the Internet and World Wide Web through the local
providers13 have access to a variety of information. Each browser
provides14 a graphical interface. You move from place to place, from site15
to site on the Web by using a mouse to click on a portion of text, icon or
region of a map. These items are called hyperlinks16 or links. Each link
you select represents a document, an image, a video clip or an audio file
somewhere on the Internet. The user doesn't need to know where it is, the
browser follows the link.
All sorts of things are available on the WWW. One can use Internet
for recreational purposes. Many TV and radio stations broadcast live17 on
41
the WWW. Essentially, if something can be put into digital format and
stored in a computer, then it's available on the WWW. You can even visit
museums, gardens, cities throughout the world, learn foreign languages and
meet new friends. And, of course, you can play computer games through
WWW, competing18 with partners from other countries and continents.
Just a little bit of exploring the World Wide Web will show you what
a lot of use and fun it is.
Vocabulary:
1) to retrieve — извлекать
2) variety — разнообразие, спектр
3) humanities — гуманитарные науки
4) recreation — развлечение
5) to share — делить
6) business transactions — коммерческие операции
7) network — сеть
8) access — доступ
9) World Wide Web — «Всемирная Паутина»
10) to link — соединять
11) browser — браузер (программа поиска информации)
12) to browse — рассматривать, разглядывать
13) provider — провайдер (компания, предоставляющая доступ
к WWW через местные телефонные сети)
14) to provide — обеспечивать (чем-либо)
15) site — страница, сайт
16) hyperlink — гиперссылка
17) broadcast live — передавать в прямом эфире
18) to compete — соревноваться
1. Are the following statements true or false? Prove your
answers.
1. There are still not so many users of the Internet.
2. There is information on all sorts of topics on the Internet,
including education and weather forecasts.
3. People can communicate through e-mail and chat programs only.
4. Internet is tens of thousands of networks which exchange the
information in the same basic way.
5. You can access information available on the World Wide Web
through the Web browser.
6. You need a computer (hardware) and a special program (software)
to be a WWW user.
7. You move from site to site by clicking on a portion of text only.
42
8. Every time the user wants to move somewhere on the web he/she
needs to step by step enter links and addresses.
9. Films and pictures are not available on the Internet.
10. Radio and TV-broadcasting is a future of Internet. They're not
available yet.
3.
Complete the following sentences with the appropriate
words: web browser, providers, link, WWW.
1. You access the information through one interface or tool called a
... .
2. People connected to the WWW through the local ... have access to
a variety of information.
3. The user doesn't need to know where the site is, the... follows the
... .
4. In 1996 there were more than 20 million users of the ... .
5. Each ... provides a graphical interface.
3.6 Local ... charge money for their services to access... resources.
Text 2.2 What Is It?
Pre-Reading Task:
1. Some people think that the Internet is very harmful, especially for
young people, because it carries a lot of information about sex, drugs,
violence and terrorism. Do you think that some kind of censorship is
necessary on the WWW?
2. World famous authors and publishers say that the Internet violates
their copyright because Web-programmers put all kinds of books, pictures,
music, films and programs free on the Internet and this reduces their sales
and profits.
3. Has anyone in your group experience working on the Internet?
Ask them 1) about the difficulties they had; 2) useful information retrieved;
3) fun they got? Why so few people have experience working on the
Internet?
4. Read the text “What Is It?” and discuss the following questions in
group:
5. To what spheres of human’s activities does the Internet provide
access to?
6. What services and resources does the Internet offer?
Imagine a room filled with many spiders, each spinning its own web.
The webs are so interconnected that the spiders can travel freely within this
maze. You now have a simplified view of the Internet — a global
collection of many different types of computers and computer networks
43
that are linked together. Just as a telephone enables you to talk to someone
on the other side of the earth who also has a phone, the Internet enables a
person to sit at his computer and exchange information with other
computers and computer users any place in the world.
Some refer to the Internet as the information superhighway. Just as a
road allows travel through different areas of a country, so the Internet
allows information to flow through many different interconnected
computer networks. As messages travel, each network that is reached
contains information that assists in connecting to the adjacent network. The
final destination may be in a different city or country.
Each network can "speak" with its neighbor network by means of a
common set of rules created by the Internet designers. How many networks
are connected worldwide? Some estimates say over 30,000. According to
recent surveys, these networks connect over 10,000,000 computers and
some 30,000,000 users throughout the world. It is estimated that the
number of connected computers is doubling each year.
What can people locate on the Internet? It offers a rapidly growing
collection of information, with topics ranging from medicine to science and
technology. It features exhaustive material on the arts as well as research
material for students and coverage of recreation, entertainment, sports,
shopping, and employment opportunities. The Internet provides access to
almanacs, dictionaries, encyclopedias, and maps.
There are, however, some disturbing aspects to consider. Can
everything on the Internet be regarded as wholesome? What services and
resources does the Internet offer? What precautions are in order? The
following articles will discuss these questions.
Text 2.3 Services and Resources of the Internet
Pre-Reading Task:
1. Can you name common resource which is provided by Internet?
2. Do you have your own e-mail address?
3. Do you think that e-mail is better than ordinary post service
procedure?
A common resource provided by the Internet is a worldwide system
for sending and receiving electronic mail, known as e-mail. In fact, e-mail
represents a large portion of all Internet traffic and is for many the only
Internet resource they use. How does it work? To answer that question, let's
review the ordinary mail system first.
Imagine that you live in Canada and wish to send a letter to your
daughter living in Moscow. After properly addressing the envelope, you
mail it, starting the letter's journey. At a postal facility, the letter is routed
44
to the next location, perhaps a regional or national distribution center, and
then to a local post office near your daughter.
A similar process occurs with e-mail. After your letter is composed
on your computer, you must specify an e-mail address that identifies your
daughter. Once you send this electronic letter, it travels from your
computer, often through a device called a modem, which connects your
computer to the Internet via the telephone network. Off it goes, bound for
various computers that act like local and national postal routing facilities.
They have enough information to get the letter to a destination computer,
where your daughter can retrieve it. Unlike the regular mail, e-mail often
reaches its destination, even on other continents, in minutes or less unless
some part of the network is heavily congested or temporarily out of order.
When your daughter inspects her electronic mailbox, she will discover your
e-mail. The speed of e-mail and the ease with which it can be sent even to
multiple recipients all over the world make it a popular form of
communication.
1. Choose the correct answer – a, b or c.
1. What do you use a modem for?
a) to print a document
b) to play music
c) to send messages along a telephone line
2. What do you see when you want to look for sites on the World
Wide Web?
a) a browser
b) a CD-ROM
c) a printer
3. What can you use the Internet for?
a) to delete a file from your computer
b) to help you find information and communicate with people
c) to make your computer work faster
Text 2.4 Newsgroups
Pre-Reading Task:
1. What kind of service is called Usenet?
2. What does Usenet offer?
Another popular service is called Usenet. Usenet offers access to
newsgroups for group discussions on specific topics. Some newsgroups
focus on buying or selling various consumer items. There are thousands of
newsgroups, and once a user has gained access to Usenet, there is no cost
to subscribe to them.
45
Let's imagine that someone has joined a newsgroup involved in
stamp collecting. As new messages about this hobby are sent by others
subscribing to this group, the messages become available to this newcomer.
This person reviews not only what someone has sent to the newsgroup but
also what others have written in response. If, for example, someone
requests information about a particular stamp series, shortly afterward there
may be many responses from around the world, offering information that
would be immediately available to all who subscribe to this newsgroup.
A variation of this idea is the Bulletin Board System (BBS). BBS is
similar to Usenet, except that all files are located on a single computer,
usually maintained by one person or group. The content of news-groups
reflects the varied interests, viewpoints, and moral values of those who use
them, so discretion is needed.
Text 2.5 File Sharing and Topic Searching
Pre-Reading Task:
1. What is “one of the original Internet goals”?
2. What help is available when one does not know where a subject
may be located within the Internet?
One of the original Internet goals was global information sharing.
The teacher mentioned in the previous article located another educator on
the Internet who was willing to share already developed course materials.
Within minutes the files were transferred, despite a 2,000-mile distance.
Just as we locate a phone number by using a telephone directory, a
user may find locations of interest on the Internet by first gaining access to
what are known as search sites. The user supplies a word or a phrase; the
site then replies with a list of Internet locations where information can be
found. Generally, the search is free and takes only a few seconds!
The farmer mentioned earlier had heard of a new technique called
precision farming, which uses computers and satellite maps. By entering
that phrase at a search site, he found the names of farmers who were using
it as well as detailed information about the method.
Text 2.6 The World Wide Web
Pre-Reading Task:
1. Describe the advantages of the World Wide Web.
2. Read the text “The World Wide Web” and discuss the main idea
of the text:
The part of the Internet called World Wide Web (or Web) allows
authors to use an old-fashioned idea - that of footnotes - in a new way.
When an author of a magazine article or a book inserts a footnote symbol,
46
we scan the bottom of the page and are possibly directed to another page or
book. Authors of Internet computer documents can do essentially the same
thing using a technique that will underline or highlight a word, a phrase, or
an image in their document.
The highlighted word or image is a clue to the reader that an
associated Internet resource, often another document, exists. This Internet
document can be fetched and displayed immediately for the reader. The
document may even be on a different computer and located in another
country. David Peal, the author of “Access the Internet”, notes that this
technique "links you to actual documents, not just references to them."
The Web also supports the storage and retrieval, or playing, of
photographs, graphics, animations, videos, and sounds. Everyone can
obtain and play a short color movie of the current theories regarding the
universe and hear the narration through computer's audio system.
Text 2.7 Surfing the Net
Pre-Reading Task:
1. Have you got the Internet connection at home?
2. How often do you surf the net?
By using a Web browser, a person can easily and quickly view
information and colorful graphics that may be stored on computers in many
different countries. Using a Web browser can be similar in some ways to
actual travel, only easier. One can visit the Web exhibits of the Dead Sea
Scrolls or the Holocaust Memorial Museum. This ability to move nimbly
back and forth from one Internet Web site to another is commonly called
surfing the Net.
Businesses and other organizations have become interested in the
Web as a means to advertise their products or services as well as to offer
other kinds of information. They create a Web page, a sort of electronic
storefront window. Once an organization's Web page address is known,
potential customers can use a browser to go "shopping," or information
browsing. As in any marketplace, however, not all products, services, or
information provided on the Internet are wholesome.
Researchers are trying to make the Internet secure enough for
confidential and safeguarded transactions. We will talk more about security
later.
Text 2.8 What Is "Chat"?
Pre-reading task:
1. Do you have a “nickname”?
47
2. Do you think it is possible to find your second half through the
Internet dating offices?
3. Do you visit chats? How much time do you spend there?
Another common service of the Internet is the Internet Relay Chat, or
Chat. Chat allows a group of people, using aliases, to send messages to one
another immediately. While used by a variety of age groups, it is especially
popular among young people. Once connected, the user is brought into
contact with a large number of other users from all around the world.
So-called chat rooms, or chat channels, are created that feature a
particular theme, such as science fiction, movies, sports, or romance. All
the messages typed within a chat room appear almost simultaneously on the
computer screens of all participants for that chat room.
A chat room is much like a party of people mingling and talking at
the same general time, except that all are typing, short messages instead.
Chat rooms are usually active 24 hours a day.
1. Match the words or phrases (1-6) to the definitions (a-f).
1. chat room
2. e-commerce
3. joystick
4. cyberspace
5. desktop
6. multitasking
a. the ability of a computer to run several programmes at once;
b. the screen you see after you’ve switched your computer;
c. an area on the Internet where people can communicate with each
other in ‘real time’;
d. the business of buying and selling goods and services in the
Internet;
e. a sick which helps to move in computer games;
f. the imaginary place where electronic messages, information
pictures, etc. exist when they are sent from one computer to another.
Text 2.9 Security — Is Your Privacy Protected
Pre-Reading Task:
1. Is security protection important for keeping your privacy?
2. Read the text “Security — Is Your Privacy Protected?” and
discuss the following questions in group:
- do you think your information is protected when you use the Internet? Is
it safe to share confident information through the Internet? Share your
opinion with your group-mates.
48
- choose any topics you like on the given problem ”Internet” and discuss it
in group.
- write a composition giving your own opinion on the topic “The World
Wide Web”.
Another key concern is confidentiality. For example, your e-mail
message should be seen only by your intended recipient. While the letter is
in transit, however, a clever and possibly unscrupulous person or group
could intercept or monitor your correspondence. To protect messages, some
people use e-mail software products to scramble their letter's sensitive
contents before mailing it. At the other end, the receiving party may need
similar software for unscrambling the message.
Recently, much discussion has focused on the exchange of creditcard and other sensitive information for commercial use on the Internet.
Although substantial innovations are expected to strengthen security, the
noted American computer security analyst Dorothy Denning states:
"Completely secure systems are not possible, but the risk can be reduced
considerably, probably to a level commensurate with the value of the
information stored on the systems and the threat posed by both hackers and
insiders. Absolute security is not realizable in any computer system,
whether connected to the Internet or not.
3 Science
Text 3.1
Pre-Reading Task:
1. What can you say about modern science development?
2. Why is science so important in the modern world?
3. Read the text “Science” and discuss the following questions in
group:
-how does science help to keep peace in the world?
- how can science solve the energy program?
- what proves that the study of science is important to understand
natural world?
Science is important to most people living in the modern world for a
number of reasons. In particular, science is important to world peace and
understanding, to the understanding of technology, and to our
understanding of the world.
Science is important to world peace in many ways. On one
hand, scientists have helped to develop many of the modern tools of
war. On the other hand, they have also helped to keep the peace
49
through research which has improved life for people. Scientists have
helped us to understand the problem of supplying the world with enough
energy; they have begun to develop a number of solutions to the energy
problem - for example, using energy from the sun and from the atom.
Scientists have also analyzed the world's resources. We can begin learning
to share the resources with the knowledge provided to us by science.
Science studies the Universe and how to use its possibilities for the benefit
of men.
Science is also important to everyone who is affected by modern
technology. Many of the things that make our lives easier and better are the
results of advances in technology and, if the present patterns continue,
technology will affect us even more in the future than it does now. In some
cases, such as technology for taking salt out of ocean water, technology
may be essential for our lives on the Earth.
The study of science also provides people with an understanding of
natural world. Scientists are learning to predict earthquakes, are continuing
to study many other natural events such as storms. Scientists are also
studying various aspects of human biology and the origin and
developments of the human race. The study of the natural world may help
to improve life for many people, all over the world.
A basic knowledge of science is essential for everyone. It helps
people to find their way in the changing world.
Text 3.2 Science and Technology
Pre-Reading Task:
1. What role have scientific and technological developments played
in human's life?
2. What proves that science and technology are closely related
today?
3. Read the text “Science and Technology” and discuss the following
questions in group:
4. What does the term «technology» refer to?
5. What does the term «industrial technology» mean?
6. How is scientific activity in the 1970s estimated?
7 What facts prove that the scientific revolution in the 16th century
was the time that science and technology began to work together?
In recent years, scientific and technological developments have
drastically changed life on our planet as well as our views both of us as
individuals in society and of the Universe as a whole.
Today, science and technology are closely related. Many modem
technologies such as nuclear power and space flights depend on science
50
and the application of scientific knowledge and principles. Each advance in
pure science creates new opportunities for the development of new ways of
making things to be used in daily life. In turn, technology provides science
with new and more accurate instruments for its investigation and research.
Technology refers to the ways in which people use discoveries to
satisfy needs and desires, to alter the environment, to improve their lives.
Throughout human history, men and women have invented tools,
machines, materials and techniques, to make their lives easier. Of course,
when we speak of technology today, we are looking at it in a much
narrower sense. Generally, we mean industrial technology, or the
technology that began about 200 years ago with the development of powerdriven machines, growth of the factory system, and mass production of
goods that has created the basis for our modern society. Today we often say
that we live in an age of science and technology. According to one
estimate, 90 % of all the scientists who ever lived, were alive and active in
the 1970-s. This increased scientific activity has brought new ideas,
processes, and inventions in ever-growing amount.
The scientific revolution that started in the 16th century was the first
time that science and technology began to work together. Thus, Galileo
who made revolutionary discoveries in astronomy and physics also built an
improved telescope and patented a system of lifting water. However, it was
not until the 19th century that technology truly was based on science and
inventors began to build on the work of scientists. For example, Thomas
Edison built on the early experiments of Faraday and Henry in his
invention of the first practical system of electrical lighting. Edison carried
on his investigations until he found the carbon filament for the electric bulb
in a research laboratory. This was the first true modern technological
research.
In a sense, the history of science and technology is the history of all
humankind.
Text 3.3 Miniature Radios and computers. Pocket Radios.
Pre-Reading Task:
1. You are going to read four texts about pocket radios and miniature
computers. Divide into groups and discuss the main idea of the texts.
2. What other types of miniature computers and radios do you know?
3. Do you know what the word “wireless” means?
The transistor's compactness and low power requirements also
brought a new day in a host of simpler devices. Radio receivers hardly
larger than a package of cigarettes were on a reality.
51
In 1956-58 the transistor found one of the most spectacular
applications. It helped Russian and American specialists to launch the first
satellites and to open the space age. Only a few of the biggest satellites
have been able to carry vacuum-tube equipment. Most satellites have
appended on transistors not only for reporting back to the earth but for
operating the instruments with which the satellites explored the mysterious
regions around the earth.
But the most striking aspect of the transistor is not the host of
devices it made possible. More important was its effect on a new branch of
science and technology which may be called “solids-state electronics”.
Pocket-size TV Camera
The ultra-miniature TV camera was made possible by a new design
approach, which combines transistors, specially developed transistor
circuitry and a new half-inch vidicon camera tube.
The pocket-size TV camera (JTV-1) weighs less than, pound and
measures only 1 7/8 ths by 2 3/8 ths by 4 1/2 inches. It can be operated in
the palm of the hand, used with an attachable pistol-grip handle, bolted to
wall or floor, or mounted on a tripod.
It is the first TV camera of its type to incorporate a photoelectric
control, which enables the camera to accommodate changes in the order of
100 to 1 in scene lighting. Made rugged for military airborne, mobile, and
field requirements the pocket-size camera has high resistance to shock and
vibration.
Simple in design and operation, the camera can be operated by nontechnical personnel.
Molecular Computer
A small computer with molecular blocks as its "brain" is being
developed.
The new device, called a Mol-E-Com, will weigh 14 pounds and
occupy less than one-third of a cubic foot. A solid semiconductor crystal
with its internal structure rearranged as a functional electronic block
replaces the tubes, transistors, and resistors in conventional miniaturized
circuitry.
Mol-E-Com is expected to have the same capabilities as a
transistorized computer ten times its size and weight, making it useful for
rockets
Miniature Computer is size of Bread Loaf.
A compact electronic computer about the size of a loaf of bread, yet
capable of working as fast as a room size computer, has been demonstrated
successfully.
52
The baby computer, is called Maddam, a name derived from MacroModule and Digital Differential Analyzer Machine.
The scientists indicate that the Maddam is a special purpose
computer to be used only for military requirements as they develop. The
working model was built to show that existing electronic components can
be used in shrinking a commercial computer from a room size to size of a
desk, and that military electronic equipment can be compressed to a
convenient size for aircraft, spacecraft, and missiles.
The computer has 5,500 components housed in a space measuring
three inches by six inches by 11 inches, and a component density of 69,000
components per cubic foot. It weighs 12 pound and can perform 33,000
mathematical calculations per second.
Text 3.4 What is a Microprocessor?
Pre-reading task:
1. Read the first part of the text ‘What is a Microprocessor”?
2. Study the definition of terms given below the text.
3. Discuss the following questions in group:
4. What is a microprocessor? Try to give your own definition of this
term.
5. What is a microcomputer based on?
Part I
A microprocessor1 is a programmable logic device. That is, the
function of logical operation that the device accomplishes may be altered
by applying instructional "words" at its input.
The above definition, although correct, is somewhat broad.
Technically, the term microprocessor has come to mean the central
processing unit (CPU)2 of a small computer system. By itself, the
microprocessor cannot function; but when it is combined with a relatively
small number of support circuits, it has most of the characteristics included
in the classic definition of a computer. The microprocessor has traded the
greater speed and word length of a computer for compact size and low cost.
A microcomputer is a fully operational system based upon a
microprocessor chip3 which in itself contains a large percentage of the
computer capability. The system possesses all of the minimum
requirements of a computer:
It can input and output data4, usually in digital form. This data can
be exchanged between the microcomputer5 and several common
input/output devices such as teletype, CRT displays, paper tape reader,
floppy disk6 memories, magnetic tapes7, cassette8 tapes and laboratory
instruments.
53
It contains an ALU (arithmetic logic unit) which performs arithmetic
and/or logical operations such as add, subtract, compare, rotate left or right,
AND, OR, NEGATE, EXCLUSIVE, OR.
It contains memory9 which is directly addressable and may contain
both data and instructional words.
It is programmable. That is, the data and programmed instructions
may be arranged in any desired order, in contrast to a pocket calculator,
which is usually fixed in its capabilities and requires a precise keyboard
sequence that cannot be altered.
Vocabulary:
1) Microprocessor - a realization of the central processing part of a
computer on one or more LSI10 circuits. Characteristics of a
microprocessor include small size and low cost.
2) Central processing unit (CPU)- центральный процессор, ЦП
3) Chip - a small piece of silicon on which an integrated circuit is
fabricated. More commonly used to describe a complete encapsulated
device.
4) Data - a collection of numeric, alphabetic or special characters
denoting facts and information.
5) Microcomputer - a class of computers having all the major
central processor functions contained on a single printed circuit board or
single integrated circuit. A microcomputer contains a microprocessor plus
additional circuitry needed to complete the system such as memory, input
and output ports, and a clock generator.
6) Floppy disk - a low cost magnetic disk constructed of coated
plastic.
7) Magnetic tape - a tape with a magnetic surface on which data can
be stored by selective magnetization of portions of the surface.
8) Cassette - a container holding magnetic tape for insertion into
tape transport equipment.
9) Memory - a general term which refers to any storage media for
data. Basic memory functional types include read/write and read-only.
10) Large-scale integration (LSI)-большая интегральная схема,
БИС
Text 3.5 What is a Microprocessor?
Pre-reading task:
1. Read the second part of the text ‘What is a Microprocessor’?
2. Study the definition of terms given below the text.
3. Discuss the following questions in group:
54
4. Find in the text the definition of a microprocessor. What kind of
new information has been added to its content?
5. What is the history of the invention of this logic device?
6. What is the function of the microprocessor?
7. What does a typical microprocessor consist of?
8. What is the feature of bit-sliced chips made by the bipolar
technology?
9. How are modern microprocessors differentiated?
Part II
A microprocessor is the central arithmetic and logic unit of a
computer, together with its associated circuitry, scaled down so that it fits
on a single silicon chip (sometimes several chips) holding tens of thousands
of transistors, resistors and similar circuit elements. It is a member of the
family of large-scale integrated circuits that reflect the present state of
evolution of a miniaturization process that began with the development of
the transistor in the late 1940's. A typical microprocessor chip measures
half a centimeter on a side. By adding anywhere from 10 to 80 chips to
provide timing, program memory, random-access memory1, interfaces for
input and output signals and other ancillary functions, one can assemble a
complete computer system on a board whose area does not exceed the size
of this page. Such an assembly is a microcomputer, in which the
microprocessor serves as the master component. The number of
applications for microprocessors is proliferating daily in industry, in
banking, in power generation and distribution, in telecommunications and
in scores of consumer products, ranging from automobiles to electronic
games.
As in the central processing unit, or CPU, of a larger computer, the
task of the microprocessor is to receive data in the form of strings of binary
digits (O's and 1's), to store the data for later processing, to perform
arithmetic and logic operations on the data in accordance with previously
stored instructions and to deliver the results to the user through an output
mechanism such as an electric typewriter, a cathode-ray-tube2 display or a
two-dimensional plotter. A typical microprocessor would consist of the
following units: a decode and control unit3 (to interpret instructions from
the stored program), the arithmetic and logic unit5, or ALL) (to perform
arithmetic and logic operations), registers (to serve as an easily accessible
memory for data frequently manipulated), an accumulator5 (a special
register closely associated with the ALL)), address6 buffers (to supply the
control memory with the address from which to fetch7 the next instruction)
and input-output buffers (to read instructions or data into the
microprocessor or to send them out).
55
Present microprocessors vary in their detailed architecture depending
on their manufacture and in some cases on the particular semiconductor
technology adopted. One of the major distinctions is whether all the
elements of the microprocessor are divided among several identical
modular chips that can be linked in parallel, the total number of chips
depending on the length of the "word" the user wants to process: four bits
(binary digits), eight bits, 16 bits or more. Such a multichip arrangement is
known as a bit-sliced organization. A feature of bit-sliced chips made by
the bipolar technology is that they are "microprogrammable": they allow
the user to create specific sets of instructions, a definite advantage for many
applications.
Vocabulary:
1) Random-access memory - strictly a computer memory,
structured, so that the time required to access any data item stored in the
memory is the same as for any other item. Now more often used to describe
a semiconductor memory that can be used for reading and writing data.
2) Cathode-ray-tube - a device used to generate pictures as found in
a television or visual display.
3) Control unit - the part of the computer which directs the sequence
of operations, interprets the instructions, and provides the requisite signals
to execute those instructions.
4) Arithmetic and logic unit - a device which executes arithmetic
and/or logic operations according to the instructions in a program.
5) Accumulator - a register in which numbers are totaled,
manipulated, or temporarily stored for transfers to and from memory or
external devices.
6) Address - a unique label, name, or number that identifies a
memory location or a device register for access by a computer. To send an
address to a memory or a device in order that a particular location in
memory or the device may be identified.
7) Fetch - the action of reading data or instructions from memory.
1. Give the Russian equivalents to the following:
silicon chip, microprocessor chip, modular chips, multi-chip
arrangement, arithmetic and logic unit, central processing unit, a cathoderay-tube display, a two-dimensional plotter, address buffer, a bit-sliced
organization, strings of binary digits, interface, program memory, randomaccess memory
2. Give the abbreviations of the following:
large-scale integrated circuits, random-access memory, input-output,
central processing unit, arithmetic and logic unit
3. Give the English equivalents to the following:
56
процессор, кристалл, синхронизация, адресный буфер,
входной/выходной сигнал, собирать по одной плате, хранить данные,
двоичный знак, логические и арифметические операции.
Text 3.6 Classification of Microprocessors
Pre-Reading Task:
1. Read the text “Classification of Microprocessors”.
2. Study the definition of terms given below the text.
3. Discuss the following questions in group:
4. How are modern microprocessors classified?
5. What are the levels in hardware classification?
6. What are the characteristic features of the second level of the
microprocessors' classification?
7. What are the advantages of the small computer system level?
8. What is the FDS intended for?
The flood of microprocessors and microcomputers reaching the
market, combined with the rapid rate of innovation, guarantees that any
attempt to catalogue them will be instantly obsolete. A more fruitful
introduction to the "micro" marketplace is to classify systems hierarchically
according to their capability and function. Along these two dimensions
there is a well-defined upward progression in both hardware1 and
software. In hardware the levels are chips, modules2, "breadboard"
systems, small computer systems, full-development systems and
multiprocessor systems. This hierarchy is not absolute because the evolving
technology creates ever more powerful chips, some of which can bridge
two or three hierarchic levels. Chips are used to construct a module,
modules to construct a small computer system (SCS) and small computers
to construct a full-development system (FDS). Multiprocessor systems can
incorporate modules, SCS's or FDS's, depending on the application and
complexity.
At the first level of the hierarchy are the microprocessor chips,
representing the large-scale integration of tens of thousands of individual
electronic devices: transistors, diodes, resistors and capacitors. At this level
there are also more specialized chips: random-access memories (RAM's),
read-only memories (ROM's)3, programmable read-only memories
(PROM's), input-output (I/O) interfaces and others. The cutting edge of the
technology works most directly at the chip level, providing, for example,
RAM's of ever-higher storage capacity4.
Generally the various kinds of chips are grouped into families that
are compatible with particular microprocessors. The families will include a
series of RAM, ROM and PROM chips to create a memory system, a series
57
of interface chips capable of handling both parallel and serial input-output
functions and miscellaneous chips to enhance system capabilities, such as
high-speed arithmetic operations. Master-control chips are needed to
establish priorities5 and to keep signals flowing smoothly through the
complex maze of interconnections. The compatibility of chips and chip
families made by different manufacturers varies widely.
Vocabulary:
1) Hardware - the mechanical, magnetic, electronic and electrical
devices or components of a computer.
2) Module - an assembled printed circuit performing a distinct
function, or a self-contained program section.
3) Read-only memory (ROM) - a device or medium used to store
Information and which may be read, but not written into, by the central
processor.
4) Capacity of a memory store - the number of bits or words or bytes
that can be stored.
5) Priority – the sequence in which various entries and tasks are
processed or peripheral devices are serviced.
1. Give the full names of the following abbreviations:
RAM, ROM, PROM, SCS, FDS, I/O
2. Give the Russian equivalents to the following:
capability, dimension, hardware, software, module, breadboard
system, small computer system, full-development system, multiprocessor
system, family, master-control chip, priority, compatibility, storage
capacity.
3. Complete the following sentences:
1. Chips are used to construct... .
2. Modules are used ... .
3. Small computer systems are used ... .
4. Multiprocessor systems can include....
5. At the first level of the hierarchy are....
6. At the first level of the hierarchy are more specialized chips:..
Text 3.7 Uses and Applications of Microprocessors
Pre-reading task:
1. Read the text “Uses and Applications of Microprocessors” and
discuss the main idea of it in group.
2. Draw a diagram of microprocessors applications.
3. Make a list of the microprocessor’s applications you have read
about or you have seen by yourself.
4. Find additional information of microsystems application.
58
The uses and applications of microcomputers appear, at present, to
fall somewhere between discrete logic, on the one hand, and
minicomputers, on the other. The microprocessor fills the large gap
between discrete circuits and the relatively sophisticated minicomputer.
The microprocessor also fills the cost gap between discrete circuits.
Because of its relatively low cost and flexibility, the microsystem has
an abundance of applications at home and small business environment. It
fills the needs of small manufacturers who cannot afford, or do not need,
large computer systems.
Some of the present applications which have already found their way
into the market place are:
—
Video TV games;
— Intelligent computer terminals;
Process controllers;
Telephone switching controls;
Programmable household appliances;
Computerized automotive electronic systems.
Computers are being used as part of the educational process, and
guidance. Controlled computers have made possible space exploration and
automated factories.
Microprocessors can also be expanded to serve specialized control
functions in the area of industrial tools and machinery. Because they are
programmable logic systems, they can be adapted to serve a variety of job
functions each of which previously required individually designed circuits.
The low cost of production makes them extremely attractive.
It is perhaps this hardware1/software2 trade that makes the impact
of the microprocessor so great. Entirely different circuit functions can now
be accomplished with the same hardware by means of a different set of
program instructions. The microprocessor is recognized as the device
which finally unites two previously separate areas: that of the hardware
designer and the programmer.
Vocabulary:
1) Hardware - the mechanical, magnetic, electronic and electrical
devices or components of a computer.
2) Software - programs which control the operation of computer
hardware and the associated documentation, etc., needed to do so.
Text 3.8 The Types of Memory
Pre-Reading Task:
1. Describe the recent level of technology development.
2. What types of memory do you know?
59
3. Read the text “The Types of Memory” and make a list of different
types of a microcomputer memory.
In all types of computer systems, from a small dedicated
microprocessor system to the largest full size computer, memory plays a
very essential part. The memory section of the microcomputer system
serves the purpose of holding either information, that the computer will
need, or information, that the computer has already generated, which will
be utilized in the future. In other words, the memory of a microcomputer is
used for storing the program and the data. There are two basic types of
memory, namely read/write memory whose contents can be altered by
writing new information into it and read-only memory (ROM) whose
contents are fixed. Read/write memory is usually exclusively referred to as
random-access memory (RAM) for historical reasons, although strictly
speaking most modern read-only memories can also be accessed in a
random order and therefore qualify for such a description. Random means
that any one of the different memory locations can be written into or read
from with equal ease and that it takes the same amount of time to address
any one of the different memory locations within the same device.
The semiconductor RAM memory is of the volatile type. That is,
when power is removed, all information previously written in memory is
lost.
A problem develops because memory needs to have both nonvolatility and read/write capability. At the time of this writing, there is not
one RAM chip that has both of these desirable functions. The memory
chips are either of the RAM family and have the read/write capability but
are volatile or of the ROM family and have only the read capability but are
non-volatile. So the read/write feature of the RAM makes it a very versatile
memory device. However, its volatility presents a special problem.
Recently, technology has advanced to the stage where nonvolatile
RAM's can be made. These do not lose their information when the power in
them is interrupted.
The next generation of semiconductor RAM memories has advanced
to higher density (more memory cells/chip) and higher operating
frequencies.
The essential difference as far as the user is concerned is that ROM
retains the information in it even without power, even if a program error or
other fault causes the system to try and overwrite the contents of the ROM.
It is therefore used mainly for storing fixed programs and constants.
As the term ROM implies, this type of memory can only be read
from and not written into by the user.
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Since the ROM has the feature of nonvolatility, it lends it self to
applications such as dedicated subroutines including mathematical
packages, monitor1 programs, debug2 programs and any program that has
a fixed structure where there is no need to make changes to the program
that resides in the ROM.
Vocabulary:
1) Monitor - a program which observes, supervises, controls or
verifies the operation of a computer system.
2) Debug - to isolate and remove malfunctions from a computer or
mistakes from a program.
Text 3.9 The Storage Medium
Pre-reading task:
1. What is the capacity of floppy disks and Winchester disks?
2. What are the advantages of floppy disks and Winchester disks?
3. Read the text “The Storage Medium” and discuss the following
questions in group:
4. What are the common secondary-storage mediums?
5. Which storage medium does she/he use for program storage?
6. Which storage medium would she/he use if she/he had a personal
computer and why?
7. Compare the capacity of the storage medium you are using with
the capacity of the described mediums.
The term "memory" is usually reserved for describing the internal
storage of a computer. In its strictest sense it refers to the storage locations
that can be immediately addressed by the program counter. They are often
referred to as the primary storage while magnetic tape1, magnetic disk2 or
diskette, magnetic drum3 are referred to as the secondary storage.
One of the standard mediums for the secondary storage is the floppy
disk: a flexible disk of plastic, coated on one side or both sides with a
magnetic material. Information is stored in concentric tracks of minute
magnetized regions; changes in the direction of magnetization represent
binary O's and 1's. The information is written onto the disk and retrieved
from it by a recording head that is moved radically across the spinning disk
to a particular track. The track in turn is divided into a number of sectors,
and as a rule information is written or read one sector at a time.
A 'more expensive alternative to the floppy disk is the Winchester
4
disk , in which the magnetic coating is applied to a rigid aluminum
platter5. For example, a personal computer Winchester disk unit can have
such a capacity that it can transfer data faster than a floppy disk. On the
other hand, the Winchester disk is permanently sealed in the drive unit,
61
where as a floppy disk can be removed from the drive and replaced by a
fresh disk.
A simpler, less expensive secondary memory medium is the audio
magnetic-tape cassette. One cassette can store about as much information
as a relatively low-capacity floppy disk. The access time to a particular
address, or storage location, much longer for tape than it is for a disk
because the speed of the tape is much lower than that of a disk and because
the information is arrayed in a single linear sequence. An important feature,
of all the magnetic secondary-storage mediums is that information is
maintained even when the computer turned off.
Vocabulary:
1) Magnetic tape - a tape with a magnetic surface on which data can
be stored by selective magnetization of portions of the surface.
2) Magnetic disk - a flat circular plate with a magnetic surface on
which data can be stored by selective magnetization of portions of the flat
surface. The information is recorded on a series of concentric tracks.
3) Magnetic drum - a circular cylinder with a magnetic surface on
which data can be stored by selective magnetization of portions of the
curved surface.
4) Winchester disk – жёсткий магнитный диск
5) A rigid aluminum platter – жёсткий алюминиевый диск
(пластина).
Text 3.10 Disk Buffers
Pre-reading task:
1. Read the text “Disk Buffers” and discuss the following problems
in group:
2. In what way can a change in disk buffer size affect disk I/O times?
3. What factors can interact to cause disk delays?
Microcomputer systems that process large and complicated files
often spend considerable time reading from, and writing, mass-storage
devices. This operation creates long processing pauses that annoy end
users. By simply enlarging the PC-DOS/MS-DOS disk-buffer setting from
its normal default value of 2, you can dramatically reduce disk I/O delays.
A disk buffer is a block of main memory in which the DOS holds
data that is being read from or written to a disk. Each time DOS is
requested to read or write a record, it first looks to see whether the sector
containing that record is already in a buffer. By increasing the size of the
disk buffer, the more likely it is that sought-after data will be in main
memory. If it is, then DOS simply transfers the record to the application
62
without the need to read the data from the disk which, of course, saves
time.
The logical solution would seem to be to move all the data used, by
an application into the disk-buffer area. Unfortunately, microcomputer
systems are not blessed with huge blocks of main memory and a
compromise must be made between the amount of memory used for disk
buffering and the main memory required for other system operations.
Many factors interact to cause disk delays (including facets of the
specific hardware configuration and operating system), they cannot be
derived theoretically. Instead, they must be measured empirically using the
actual system configuration, operating system and "typical" disk
transactions made in actual applications.
Measuring something as complicated as the timing of Disk I/O in a
microcomputer system requires a system model.
Text 3.11 Static Memory Devices: Organization and
Characteristics
Pre-Reading Task:
1. What is the term memory is usually reserved for?
2. What types of a microcomputer memory can you name?
3. Read the text and draw a classification scheme of different
memory types.
4. State the most important characteristics for memories.
One can divide memories into two major types: static memories and
dynamic memories. Static memories are those that retain the information,
without the need to refresh that information at frequent time intervals.
Static memories are simpler than dynamic memories in their operating
characteristics. As long as DC power is applied to the device, a static
memory will retain all of the information stored in it. No other input signals
are required. However, when the power is turned off, this information is
lost. These memories are called volatile1 memories. Other memories that
retain their information after the power is turned off are called non-volatile.
Static memories in spite of their higher cost per bit of storage are favoured
for small memory systems because they call for a minimum of external
support circuitry. At a further premium in cost the power consumption of
static memories can be reduced to such a negligible value that small
batteries will power them for days or weeks. Such memories exploit the
"complementary" MOS (CMOS) technology: they are found in some
pocket calculators that hold their data or their program even when the
power switch is in the "off position.
Vocabulary:
63
1) Volatile memories - the temporal information in the store can be
destroyed when the computer is switched off.
4 Supplementary Reading Section
Text 4.1 A Will to Learn
Pre-Reading Task:
1. Read the text “A Will to Learn” and discuss the following
questions in group:
- what made you choose University rather than another higher
educational institution? Give your reasons.
- what is to be a Bachelor student?
- what subjects are included in the first-year curriculum at your
faculty? What subject is the most interesting; the least interesting; the one
you think the most important; the one you find the most difficult?
- was it easy for you to get accustomed to the University system of
lectures and seminars after the school system of classes and home tasks?
Which are more useful in your opinion — lectures or seminars? Do you
have to work much after your lectures and seminars are over? Do you often
work at the University library? What are the advantages and disadvantages
of working at the library, at home, at a hostel?
2. Share your own opinion on the following problems:
- what is learning power?
- what qualities are necessary in order to become educated? What
modern conditions exist which make it possible for a person to become
educated and cultured? Can you think of other factors? What is the role of
a teacher in this process? Why is the greatest teaching sometimes only of
partial value? Do you agree that a student cannot be lifted beyond the limits
of his ability?
- why is one's pre-university level of knowledge important? Were
you a student of the preparatory department of the university? Did you
take preparatory courses in English/Russian history of science?
- do you agree that learning power is the primary need among
universities?
- what is more important for good education - learning power or
good teaching? Why? What do you thing about will to learn? Is it great
enough?
A will to Learn
a) No human activity, be it work or study, can be performed without
will power. You may do everything possible to carry out what you've
planned, to finish what you've started, to complete what you've aimed at. It
seems so easy, yet how many things are left unfinished - books that we
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haven't read to the end, academic subjects that we haven't studied
thoroughly, promises that we haven't kept, things that have been left
undone, not thought over, goals that haven't been reached. There are a lot
of people who tend to justify (находить оправдание) this by thinking:
"This is insignificant, it isn't worth the trouble, so why worry?" Some say:
"I’ll set myself a goal and I'll reach it by all means”. But if you do not
accustom yourself to carrying out the small things and bear your aim in
mind from the moment of its conception (зарождение) to its complete
realization, you'll never achieve any great goal.
There are a lot of legends about absent-minded scientists, how they
forget to put on their coats and some such things. But is it a matter of
absent mindedness or just deep concentration on other things? It was not
the apple that had fallen on Newton's head that gave rise to the law of
gravity but his great concentration on the problem about which he had kept
thinking day and night. And another thing is you should know a lot to be
able to formulate and keep in focus great humane ([hju΄meın] –
человечный, гуманный) aims. (By Academician R.V. Petrov)
1. Discuss the following questions in group:
- do you always try to carry out what you've planned, to finish what
you've started?
- do you leave many things unfinished? What are they? Do you
always keep your promises?
- do you try to find excuses for not doing things?
- are you absent-minded? Do you forget things? Is it because you are
concentrating on something important or you simply don't pay attention to
such things?
- do you agree with Academician Petrov about the importance of will
power? What other things are necessary if you want to succeed in some
field of human activity?
- in what ways did school influence you? Was it a formative
influence in your life? Which of the teachers influenced you most? What
subject did he/she teach?
- was there a friend who influenced you or did you influence
him/her?
- looking back to your school experience, can you say what factors in
school life influenced you most: teachers, friends, extracurricular activities,
etc.? Give enough evidence to prove your point.
- are you easily influenced by people with greater life experience than
yours?
- what books influenced you most in your school years?
65
- what evidence is there which suggests that school plays a great part
as a formative influence today?
Text 4.2 Argument
Pre-Reading Task:
1. What is an argument?
2. Can we state that an argument is an important element of any
scientific discussion?
3. Do you know the proverb: “It’s funny how the strongest words
show up in the weakest arguments”? Try to find out the Russian equivalent.
4. Read the text “Argument” and discuss this problem in group.
An argument is not a quarrel. Originally to argue meant to make
clear, and thus to show, to prove, to give evidence. An argument is a
presentation of reasons for or reasons against something; it means that the
person who states an argument has tried to understand the matter in
question and that he is using his powers of reasoning to show how the
evidence supports his position.
In an argument one person may win, if he wins, he wins because his
evidence is greater in quantity or superior in importance to the evidence of
the other persons or because he reasons better, shows more clearly the
logical conclusions that must be drawn from the material. Even the
opponent may be completely convinced by the winning argument particularly if he had not thought very much or very deeply about the
subject before. To win an argument properly, then, one should have both
knowledge that gives evidence and good powers of reasoning.
One must remember that mere assertion has no value in argument.
There is any number of assertions which people make, and their statements
may represent very strong belief, yet such statements, without evidence,
will not convince another person that they are true. People disagree on a
great many questions, but often they disagree because they have not
thought enough about these questions, because they have not gathered
evidence or have not analyzed the evidence (From “A Writing
Apprenticeship” by Norman Brittin).
1. Discuss the following questions in group:
1.1 Do you agree with the first statement? Is it positive and
emphatic?
1.2 What did "to argue" originally mean? What is an argument?
What does it mean?
1.3 How many people may win an argument? What are the ways to
win an argument? What does the victory depend on: on the strength of the
evidence or the personality of the speaker?
66
1.4 Are opponents easy to convince? Why? Why not?
1.5 Has mere assertion any value in an argument? Will it convince
another person without evidence? Why not?
1.6 Give 3 possible reasons why people may disagree on some
questions. Can you think of any other possibility?
1.7 Look back at what kind of evidence does Leacock use to
convince the reader. Is there enough evidence to convince the audience?
What assertions does he make that are not based on any evidence?
1.8 Does it matter which pieces of evidence are presented first and
presented last? Give your reasons.
Text 4.3 Preparation for a Discussion
Pre-Reading Task:
1. Is it necessary to prepare for a group discussion by thinking,
talking and reading about the problem under consideration?
2. Read the text ”Preparation for a Discussion” and give your opinion
on the subject.
3. Many discussions fail because the participants haven't done
enough preparation. Everyone must think, talk and read about the topic
before the discussion takes place. When the topic is announced:
4. Think about it. What is your opinion? On what evidence is it
based?
5. Talk to others about it. Discuss it with your friends and parents. If
you know someone who is an authority on the subject, discuss it with him.
Be ready to change your previous opinion in the light of new evidence.
6. Consult reference books, recent publications and magazine
articles. Inform yourself as thoroughly as you can about the topic. Keep an
open mind while you are learning.
Duties of participants in a group discussion
The chairman should:
- know the subject thoroughly.
- make a brief introductory statement.
- introduce the speakers to the audience.
- ask questions to stimulate discussion.
- see that everyone has a chance to speak.
- summarize the discussion.
- thank the audience and the speakers.
A speaker in a group discussion should:
-know the subject thoroughly.
67
-listen intelligently. When you agree with another speaker, listen to
increase your information on the subject. When you disagree, listen to
accept a different viewpoint if it is supported by sufficient evidence.
-speak so that everyone can hear.
-recognize and acknowledge the truth of what others say.
-always be polite. Sarcasm is out of place. Self-control is a mark of
maturity (зрелость). Disagree reasonably - and with factual evidence.
A member of the audience should:
-know the subject thoroughly.
-listen attentively. Ask yourself: what evidence is offered in support
of each important argument? Take notes as you listen.
-join in when the chairman invites the audience to participate. A
discussion in which there is general participation is more stimulating and
interesting than one in which only a few take part.
-focus on the main issues.
-speak audibly and distinctly (so that all may hear).
Text 4.4 Round-table Discussion
Pre-Reading Task:
1. What is the way to organize a round table discussion?
2. Formulas for Scientific Communication (p.85) will help you to
organize a discussion. Study them and use in the process of group
discussion, composing reports and writing abstracts on the given problem.
3. Study the following information and take part in a round-table
discussion.
The round table is a form of group discussion in which the
participants exchange views around the table (not necessarily round!) under
the leadership of a chairman. The number of participants usually does not
exceed a dozen.
Problems for discussion:
-the role of science in modern society.
-new trends in university education.
-university students of the 21st century, qualities and qualifications.
-an ideal university student; an ideal university teacher.
computer is the modern wonder of the world.
1. Answer the following questions:
1. What is your research problem?
2. What is of special interest in the problem of your research?
3. What is the subject of your research?
4. Why has the interest in this problem increased considerably in
recent years?
68
5. Do you follow/stick to any theory/hypothesis/concept? What is it?
6. What concept is your research based on?
7. How does your research differ from other studies on the same
problem?
8. Has your research problem attracted much attention in recent
years? Has it been widely studied?
9. What aspects of the problem have been considered over the last
few years?
10. Who was the first to recognize/point out the problem?
11. What aspects of the problem did researchers concentrate on at
that time?
Text 4.5 How to Read in English
Pre-Reading Task:
1. Read the text “How to Read in English”.
2. Write down things that were new to you and that you never used
to do before when reading in English.
3. In future try to follow this competent advice.
When you begin to read silently and you come to words and phrases
that are new to you, use the following techniques: 1) Read the passage
through for general sense first, without stopping to puzzle over unfamiliar
words or constructions; then go back for a second, more careful reading.
When you come to an unknown word read on at least to the next
punctuation mark before you look it up. Try to get the meaning from the
sentence without having to look for it in the dictionary. 2) When you decide
that you must look up a word, (a) underline the word with your pencil, (b)
take a good look at the phrase that contains it, and pronounce the phrase
aloud, (c) repeat the phrase over and over, aloud if possible, concentrating all
your attention on its sound and spelling while you are looking for a key
word in the vocabulary or dictionary, (d) when you find it, put a dot
(точка) before the word in its column, (e) turn back to your page, find the
last underlined word, and go on reading. Never write the translation into your
language on the page. Doing so puts the emphasis on the native language
equivalent and not on the English word, which is the word that you must
learn. When you finish your assignment, reread it and see how many of the
phrases containing underlined words you still understand. Look up the words
you haven’t yet learned and put another dot in front of them in the vocabulary
list; look through the vocabulary once a week and make a special effort to
learn the words with several dots. These are your “hard” words. Lear them
now, or you will be spending hours looking them up month after month, year
69
after year. And go back over your reading material to check your
understanding of the sentences that have underlined words and phrases.
If you want to learn English well, the skills that you acquire will be
helpful in foreign language learning whenever and wherever you learn it.
You may then have to work with inadequate materials or with no materials
at all and with a person who has had little or no training as a teacher. But if,
in learning English, you have also learned how to stuffy languages in
general, you will be able to apply this skill to study other languages at any
time or place.
5 Phrases for Scientific Communication
This section contains recommendations on writing and presentation a
research paper and a scientific report.
5.1 Thinking about your Presentation
1. Answer the questions:
1. What is the topic of the paper you are going to presents?
2. Why are you interested in this particular topic? Do you always
prepare for presentations?
3. What recommendations for making oral presentations do you find
most helpful?
4. Which ones do you always follow?
State your purpose – be specific.
Identify the central idea of your presentation.
List the main points of your presentation.
Think of supporting material for each main point.
Decide what kinds of visual aids you will use.
Read and practice some useful paper speech patterns.
5.2 Introductory Paper Speech Patterns:
Mr. Chairman, ladies and gentlemen.
I am greatly honored to be invited to this conference.
In this paper I would like to talk about the concept of ...
The object of this paper is to show ...
To begin with, let us imagine that ...
As many of you know ...
First of all I would like to ...
I am sure I don't have to remind you that ...
I am very pleased to have this opportunity to ...
In my paper I want to highlight ...
In the introduction to my paper I would like to ...
I tell this story because ...
I want to begin my presentation with ...
70
Let me begin with ...
The first thing I want to talk about is ...
The subject that I will discuss is ...
5.3 List of Phrases to Write an Introduction.
Formulate the problem and identify the methods of research.
Give the historical background of the investigation:
During the past decade there has been increasing research into ...
In some theoretical studies ...
... were able to provide a fully generalized, compact simultaneous
solution to ... .
In particular, they employed ... for ...
... is an important and common problem.
It has become a canonical problem in the study of ... providing a
valuable test for simulation methods or theoretical models.
In the previous paper ... we used a specific model for ...
The paper examines a method for ...
Earlier descriptions of the ... assumed that ...
However, detailed experimental studies of ... indicate that ...
The most treatments available are restricted to the …
Accordingly, we suggest that ...
To date a number of different interpolation techniques have been
used in ...
In Section 2 paper continues with a discussion of ... Section 3
overviews ... Section 4 then proposes ... and this matter is discussed in
Section 5. Finally in Section 6 we discuss ...
Several techniques have been used to investigate …
Make a brief review of related literature:
There is a wide body of literature which suggests that ...
... effects have received much attention.
There were the limited number of studies conducted on ...
The listings of the program may be found in ...
Examples are given in ...
Extensive field studies were undertaken by the scientists at...
Justify the need for your investigation:
Thus heat transfer regime has received little attention ...
It is therefore important to establish the ...
Studies on the ... process have been and still are of the interest
because of the ...
In spite of significant recent advancement in the fundamental
understanding of... several important aspects of the ... still remain
controversial.
71
... investigations have been proved very valuable in ... but they do
not give a complete picture of ... since they eliminate ...
Most of the above investigations concentrated on the general
effects of... and did not look carefully at the ...
There is still lack of knowledge of ... Much further research is
needed to understand ...
There is still no complete knowledge of ...
There are still many gaps in our knowledge of the problems of ...
We still know very little about the origin of ...
5.4 Speech Patterns for the Body of the Paper
According to this theory...
After this, I need/it remains only to say that ...
Again, I want to emphasize that...
It should be emphasized that ...
It should be pointed out that...
Let me give you my explanation of ...
Let me now turn to ...
Let us consider what happens if ...
Let us have a closer look at ...
Let us imagine that ...
Let us suppose that ...
Now I come to ...
On the contrary ...
On the one hand ..., on the other hand ...
Primarily ...
This is indeed the case when ...
This in turn implies ...
This is particularly true for ...
5.5 Closing Paper Speech Patterns
Since I am running out of time ...
As my time is running out...
Before I close I would like to emphasize the importance of ...
Finally I want to say a few words about ...
I end this paper with a description of ...
I leave it to you to judge ...
In closing I want to mention very briefly …
In conclusion, let me say ...
In conclusion, may I repeat... .
Summing up, I would like to ...
The last part of my talk will be devoted to ...
To all this must be added that...
72
5.6 Formulas for Scientific Communication.
Practice the following phrases in scientific problem discussion.
Establishing
I’m glad you’ve asked
Contacts
me that question.
Agreeing
Yes, indeed.
I think you are entirely
right.
It appears to me to be
true.
I agree that...
That's just what I think.
Disagreeing
I am arguing against...
I would object just a
little...
I object to...
I wish I could agree with
you but...
Expressing
It is rather surprising...
surprise
It is unbelievable...
I am puzzled by...
I wonder about...
I find it hard to believe
that...
Expressing
It seems unlikely that...
uncertainly
I have doubts about...
I am not at all sure
about...
I am not yet certain...
I am doubtful whether...
I have been rather
puzzled by...
I doubt it.
Making
In connection with ... I
contribution
would like to add
Let me add that...
In addition I would like
to mention...
I would add that...
73
Calling
attention
I want to point out that...
I would like to note...
I would like to stress the
importance of...
It is worth pointing out
that...
I would like to draw your
attention to...
I would like to call
attention to...
Making
assessment
The paper/report raises
an important question ...
This
method
is
particularly
important
because...
The
paper/report
demonstrates how important it
is to...
These results/data are of
particular interest.
Would you agree with...?
There seems to be some
contradiction between your
points of view. Does that mean
you think...?
Provoking
arguments
Asking
for
Could you be more
details/classification specific about...?
I am not clear about...
Could you give us/me
some more facts to back that
up, please?
Introducing
opinions/attitudes
Well, I'd like to say
that...
What I think is...
Delaying
answer
an
Well, let me see...
Well, now...
That's
a
good
74
question...
Oh, let me think for a
moment...
6 Supplementary Terminology Section
This section consists of two parts.
The first part contains definition and explanation of terms you will
need to undertake a research process. The appropriate translation and
explanation of the terms like examination, research, reproduction, précis,
composition, essay, translation, making notes, etc. are worth studying at the
educational level for Bachelor students.
The second part is aimed at acquaintance with translation of names
of specialities, faculties, departments, terms and abbreviations connected
with academic studies. The given stock of vocabulary is essential for radioengineering students.
6.1 Definition and Explanation of Terms
Диплом
(First) degree is usually the most appropriate translation, since
диплом is awarded after five - years’ specialized study at an institution of
higher education. The use of Diplоmа implies а shorter course, from one of
а lower academic standard.
First should be included only when it is necessary to distinguish this
degree (=диплом) from а higher degree (=ученая степень).
e.g. - I've only got а first degree.
Дипломная работа is difficult to translate into English, because
there is nothing of this kind in most higher educational establishments in
England. In order to graduate, students only have to pass the necessary
examinations. In some institutions, however, mainly newer ones, students
also have to write а dissertation, that is, а sort of extended essay based on
some independent study or investigation, and this practice seems to be
spreading. Dissertation could therefore be used as а translation of
дипломная работа, bearing in mind that it exists only in some English
institutions. In American English dissertation is а work submitted for а
higheг degree (BrE thesis). This fact and the possible confusion with the
Russian диссертация make dissertation а far from ideal translation of
дипломная работа.
The only other solution seems to be some descriptive expression with
graduation, for ехаmple, graduation essay/paper/dissertation.
Дипломный проект can be translated as graduation project.
Remember, however, that this is not а set expression and that project has а
wider use in modern English.
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Защита дипломной работы/дипломного проекта
Even in those institutions where students write а dissertation there is
no occasion corresponding to the Russian защита. The dissertation is
simply marked by the examiner(s) together with the student's examination
papers.
One possibility is to use the expression oral (examination) or viva, as
in the case of theses but this has various disadvantages. Firstly, an оrаl
examination (оr viva) is not conducted like а защита. Secondly, it is not
сlеаr how to specify the idea of а first degree. Graduation/final oral
(examination) оr viva is possiblе, but this does not suggest the discussion
of а dissertation ог рарег. Moreover, it would be better to keep the
expression graduation/final oral (examination) as а translation of the oral
part of the государственный экзамен.
There seems to be no good alternative to the literal translation
defense of оnе's dissertation or graduation paper/project. Remember,
however, that this will not be сlеаr to English реорlе without an
explanation. It is better to translate this like passing or presenting the
Diploma project.
Исследование - research
The most detailed definition of this word is given by Webster:
"studious inquiry or examination, esp. investigation or experimentation
aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted
theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such
new or revised, theories or laws."
In higher educational establishments research is often contrasted with
teaching:
e.g. а). The job combines teaching and research.
b). He spent so much time on teaching that there was not much left
for research.
Research can be translated as исследование (научноисследовательская работа, научная работа) or наука, depending on
the context.
The word research is usually uncountable, as in the examples given
above. А particular investigation is not called a research but а piece of
research (or an investigation/study). Sometimes, however, research is used
countably in the plural.
e.g. а). His researches produced some interesting results. Research
may also be used as а verb:
e.g. b). He is researching into the origin of language, problem of air
pollution.
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More often, however, the expressions to do research or to be engaged
in research are used in this sense.
The prepositions on, in and into are used with the noun research, as
follows.
On is used with а more or less specific subject.
e.g. с). I'm doing research on security protection development.
In is used with the field of investigation.
e.g. d). He is famous for his research in computer graphics.
It occurs less often, mainly with words such as problem, cause,
relation, origin.
Экзамен - examination
An examination, like а test, is designed to test someone's knowledge
or ability, but is usually conducted more formally and the results are more
important. The contraction exam is widely used by teachers and learners,
the full form being confined to formal style.
In England most examinations are written, in all types of educational
establishments. The examination paper is set beforehand (meaning that
the examiners choose and put together а series of questions to be
answered), and either duplicated ("размножены") or printed. At the
examination each pupil/student is given а сору, and they sit and answer the
questions in writing for а fixed period of time. Sometimes they have to
answer аll the questions, sometimes only а certain number, according to the
instructions printed on the paper. When the time is up, they give in their
papers and leave the room. The papers are marked later and the results
announced. In the case of internal examinations it may be a few days later,
but with public and degree examinations it is usually about two months.
In modern languages there is usually an oral examination too, often
called simply an oral in non-formal style, but there are no oral
examinations in other subjects. In such subjects as chemistry, physics,
biology, cookery, woodwork there are practical examinations, often called
simply practicals in non-formal situations.
The following expressions are used in connection with examinations.
Remember that most of them refer mainly to written examinations, as
described above.
Экзаменационная работа - examination paper
This term is used in three different senses:
(1) оf the content of the examination, the questions;
e.g. а). (One student to another) - What did you think of the paper? It was terrible.
(2) of the sheet on which the questions are printed or typed;
e.g. b). (Candidate to invigilator) - Excuse me I haven't got а paper.
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(3) of the sheet on which the answers are written;
e.g. с). (Invigilator to candidates) - Please give in your papers now.
The meaning is usually clear from the context, but if necessary the
following more explicit expressions can be used:
the questions - for the content
the question paper - for the sheet on which the questions are printed
the answer paper - for the sheet on which the answers are written.
Экзаменационный вопрос - examination question
А question in an examination is anything which the candidate has to
do, whether it is in the form of а question or not. Thus the following may
be called questions:
а). translate the following passage into English - а translation
question
b). describe the events which led up to the French Revolution - an
essay question
Проводить экзамен
a) to hold an examination - to arrange for it to take place (formal
style)
e.g. а). The university holds an entrance examination in May.
b). The fifth-form examination will be held in room 15.
b) to conduct an examination
This may mean:
(1) very much the same as to hold an examination
e.g. а). Institutes of education approve syllabuses and conduct
examinations.
(2) to make the necessary administrative and practical arrangements,
for example, provide а suitable room, give out question papers, and see that
examination regulations are observed.
e.g. b). The examination must be conducted in accordance with the
regulations.
(3) to examine (in the case of oral examinations)
e.g. с). The examination will be conducted in French. To conduct is
also formal style.
c) to set an examination (paper)
This means to choose the questions and put them together, with
appropriate instructions. It applies almost exclusively to written
examinations.
e.g. а). School examinations are set by the staff of the school
concerned.
b). (One teacher to another) - We must set the third year exam paper
this week.
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d) to examine, examiner, etc.
To examine may mean:
(1) in а written examination, to set and mark the papers.
e.g. а). Dr Evans is examining for Leeds (=Leeds University) this
year.
(2) to conduct an oral examination.
e.g. b). (One teacher to another) - Can you come and see mе
tomorrow?
- No, I'm afraid I can't. I'm examining.
Note that I've got an exam is also possible in conversation, but it is
ambiguous, since it may also mean that one is taking an exam. In most
cases, however, the context makes it clear.
An examiner is а person who sets and marks а written examination,
or conducts an oral.
An examining board is а group, or committee, of examiners.
Commission and committee are not used here.
An (examination) candidate is а person being examined. It is formal
style.
e.g. Candidates must be in the examination room by 10 a.m.
Examinee means the same as candidate but is rarely used.
Перевод - translation
The following expressions are used in connection with translation:
to do/write а translation;
to translate from Russian into English/English into Russian, etc.;
а Russian- English/ English- Russian translation, etc.
prose (translation) - translation from the native language into а
foreign language, that is, for Russian students, from Russian into English.
unseen (translation) or simply translation - translation from а
foreign language into the native language, that is, for Russian students,
from English into Russian.
These last two terms are widely used in the senior forms of schools
and in higher education. They originated in connection with the study of
Latin and Greek. Prose was used because а passage of English prose was
given for translation into Latin/Greek, unseen because а passage of
Latin/Greek, prose or verse, which the students had not seen before, was
given for translation into English. There is no reason why Russian teachers
should adopt these terms, since the terms Russian-English/EnglishRussian translation are clearer (although much longer), but they may
come across prose/unseen in an English situation.
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unprepared translation sometimes used in the sense of any translation
not prepared beforehand (as in an ехаminаtion), and sometimes in the same
sense as unseen, as defined above.
to translate smth. at sight or straight off - переводить с листа
(colloquial);
to translate literally/word
for word - nepeводить
буквальнo/дословно;
a literal /word-for-word translation – буквальный, дословный
перевод;
to translate freely - свoбодно переводить;
а free translation - вольный пеpeвод;
an exact/accurate translation - точный перевод;
а rough translation – приблизительный, неточный перевод
(approximate, capable of being improved on).
Render in one of its senses is а synonym of translate. It can be
defined as: "to reproduce or express in another language, to translate".
However, it rarely occurs in that sense now, except in such sentences as:
This idea is difficult to render in English/Russian.
Note that render does not imply а freer translation than translate
and that it is confined mainly to formal style.
Изложение (воспроизведение) - reproduction
Reproduction as used in language teaching generally means
reproducing a story in the foreign language without translating. For
example, the class listens to а story in French and then writes that story
from memory in French, although not necessarily in exactly the same
words and not necessarily including all the details. It is thus а test of
comprehension, memory, and of the ability to express oneself in а foreign
language, not of the ability to translate. А reproduction may be written or
oral.
The verbs dо and write are used with reproduction.
e.g. а). Today you're going to do/write а reproduction.
It should be mentioned, however, that reproduction is not а very
common type of work in England. Reproduce can also be used in such
sentences as:
b). - Now I'm going to read you а story (in French). Listen to it
carefully and then reproduce it (orally/ in writing).
In your own words could be added.
Retell (in one's own words) can be used for oral reproduction of a
story.
e.g. с). - You are to read lesson 8 at home, and next lesson I shall ask
you to (re) tell the story in your own words.
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Write in one's own words can be used to denote written
reproduction of a story.
Конспект, краткий план - precis
Precis ['preisi], of French origin, denotes а particular type of
summary written by schoolchildren or students as an exercise in picking
out the important points in a passage and expressing them clearly and
concisely. А precis is usually expected to be between, а sixth and а tenth of
the original in length, depending on how much is expressed in the passage.
It is usually done in the native language, but some teachers of English as а
foreign language use it too.
Precis is used with the verb to make or to write, as follows:
to make/write а precis of а passage/text/article.
It is also used as а verb.
e.g. Precis the following passage.
With reference to complete works (stories, novels, plays, etc.) precis
is not appropriate. Неге the general words summary, summarize, or the
more specific word synopsis [si'nopsis] are used.
e.g. а). - I'd like you to finish reading the story/novel and make а
summary/synopsis of the plot.
b). Summarize the events which led up to the quarrel.
Note that plan cannot be used in such sentences as (а). This word is
appropriate only when the novel, story, etc. is: (1) not yet written, (2) made
by the author.
Thus the author of а novel, story or play may make а plan of the
work he intends to write, or а student may make a plan for an essay, but
one cannot make а plan of а work already written by someone else. If
Russian teachers need а word to denote something less than а synopsis of
the plot, for example what is called in Russian nлан текста, the word
outline can be used.
e.g. You are to make an outline of the text/passage at home.
However, this type of work is not customary in England and the
suggested translation will therefore only give а very general idea of what is
meant.
Сочинение - composition and essay
Composition and essay are both translated into Russian as
сочинение but there is а distinction between them.
А composition is fairly short (usually 1-3 pages) and simple, usually
narrative or descriptive. Compositions are written by schoolchildren in
their own language up to the age of about 14, and in foreign languages as
long as they are capable of writing only on simple narrative or descriptive
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subjects. Compositions may be written by anyone in the early stages of
learning а foreign language.
Some examples of composition subjects are:
а) My Hobby;
b) Taking Part in a Scientific Conference;
c) Mу Favourite Television Programme.
These are examples of free composition ("сочинение на
свободную тему"). However, in the early stages of language learning,
many teachers prefer guided composition ("сочинение по заданному
плану"). The teacher gives the class а plan, either one he has made
himself or one taken from а book, and the class write their compositions
according to this plan, or outline. Another type of composition is the
picture composition, where the pupils/students write а story told in а
series of pictures.
Composition is also used uncountably to mean the art or technique of
putting ideas together, either orally or in writing.
e.g. (From а publisher's catalogue) This book can be used in teaching
both oral and written composition.
An essay is usually longer (up to about 20 pages). It expresses ideas,
as opposed to simply telling а story or describing something, or, if it is
narrative or descriptive, it should have some literary merit. Essays are
written by older schoolchildren and students in their own language, and, in
а foreign language, by those who have sufficiently mastered the language
to be able to express their ideas in it, or write literary prose.
Some examples of essay subjects are:
а). Classification of Microprocessors".
b). The Influence of Television on Society.
с). What is the Purpose of Learning Foreign Languages?
d). Computers in Medicine.
As essays are written not only in language work, one may speak of а
scientific essay, a history essay, and so on. University students regularly
write essays on various aspects of their subject, and examination questions
are often in the form of essays.
An essay should be planned, that is, the writer should make а plan
before starting to write. An essay plan usually consists of а list of points
which one intends to make, in logical order or in order of importance, with
reference to illustrations and quotations if necessary. An introduction and а
conclusion should also be mentioned. The point of making а plan is that it
should be made before, not after writing the essay. Teachers often say to
their pupils/students:
- You must make а plan of your essay before you start writing.
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or - You must plan your essay.
We also speak of а well/badly-planned essay.
The following expressions with composition/essay are widely
used:
an English/French/German composition/essay
This is more common than а composition/essay in
English/French/German in such sentences as:
- We've got to write an English composition for homework.
а composition/essay subject/topic
e.g. а). Here is а list of essay subjects/topics for the 3rd year.
b). - We've got an essay for homework.
- What on? - the usual form in conversation
- What's the subject?
- On what subject? - more formal
Theme is not used in the sense of а (composition/essay) subject or
topic.
to write а composition/essay on (some subject) or about
(smth/smb)
e.g. - For homework I want you to write а composition оn/about
computer security.
On is more specific than about here.
6.2 Giving а Talk/Paper
What is the difference between the verbs to “talk” and to “speak”?
What does a noun “talk” denote?
Talk (n & v), Speak
To give а talk means "to speak informally on some subject in
everyday, non-academic language". Students may be asked to give talks in
language classes, in order to practice expressing themselves at length in the
foreign language and sometimes also to introduce а discussion of the
subject by the whole group. For example, а teacher may say to one of his
students:
- Next week I'd like you to give а (short) talk about/on types of
Automation.
Talk may also be used as а verb.
e.g. Next week I'd like you to talk (for а few minutes) about/оn . . .
However, the verb speak is on the whole more common in this
situation, because it expresses more clearly that one person will speak and
the others listen.
The talk can begin as follows:
- I'd like to say а few words about ...
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tell you (something) about ..
- The subject of mу talk is . . .
- My subject is ...
Paper
This is more serious, more academic, than а talk. It is defined as: "а
written or printed essay, dissertation, or article on some particular topic;
now esp. а communication read to а learned society". The distinctive
characteristics of а paper are that it is: 1. academic; 2. written out in full,
usually for the purpose of being read aloud at а seminar, conference, or
meeting of а learned society. It may or may not be published afterwards.
Sometimes paper is used of something which is published in а journal
without being read first, in the sense оf а learned article. Paper as defined
above corresponds in most cases to (научный) доклад or, less often,
научная статья. The verb read or give is used with paper.
e.g. He read/gave а paper at the seminar/conference.
Report
In traditional British English this word is connected with practical or
administrative matters, not academic work. It is defined as а formal
statement of the results of an investigation, or of any matter on which
definite information is required, made by some person instructed or
required to dо so". For example, the secretary of а society makes an annual
report on the activities of the society and the treasurer gives а report on
how the society's money has been spent. Committees make, and often
publish reports on their findings (Official reports are often called by the
name of the chairman of the committee, for example, the Robbins Report
on higher education, 1963 (chairman Lord Robbins) and the James Report
on teacher training, 1972 (chairman Lord James)). In this sense report
corresponds to отчет.
Recently the word report has acquired а new use. It now also denotes
an account (written or oral) of the results of а study or investigation
carried out by one or-more pupils/ students as part of their work in some
subject. This use is mainly American, but is coming into British English,
especially in connection with project work. The verb to make is used with
report in such situations.
e.g. One of the students made а report on electronics engeneering
development.
Making Notes
One may say to make notes or to take notes, but the two verbs are
not interchangeable. When reading а book or article, for example, one
makes notes, when listening to someone speak one takes notes.
e.g. а). Read the book carefully and make some notes (on ...)
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b). Did you take notes at the lecture?
To make а note of smth. means "to write down some fact or other
piece of information", for example, someone's telephone number.
e.g. c). - I'll just make а note of your telephone number.
If someone has taken notes at а lecture, for example, and wants to
rewrite them more clearly and neatly for future reference, the expression to
copy up is used, not rewrite.
e.g. d). - I'll сору up the notes at home.
Сору (up) is also used when someone misses а lecture and wants to
have some notes.
e.g. е). - I missed Professor Brown's lecture but I copied up the notes.
f). - Can I сору your notes on Professor Brown's lecture?
Simply lecture cannot be used in the sense of lecture notes.
Notes is followed by the preposition on.
e.g. g). Will you lend те your notes on applied mathematics?
The subject can also be specified by such expressions as:
grammar/literature/philosophy notes
Курсовая работа
There is nothing equivalent to this in most English universities and
colleges. Arts students (i.e. students of the humanities) write essays
regularly throughout each year, and in some newer institutions they also do
projects, but none of these seem to occupy the specific place of курсовая
работа in their course of studies. Essay, or project, can be used to translate
работа. An essay may range in length from З-4 pages to about 20, and
may involve а lot of reading. and/or collecting of material.
Курсовая is difficult to translate in such а way as to make а good
combination with essay and project. The only possibilities seem to be
yearly or first/sеcond/third/fourth-year. This gives the following
possible translations:
yearly essay/project
or first/second/third/fourth-year essay/project
e.g. а). First-year essays must be given in by April 30th.
b). (Teacher to students) - You should be starting work on your
(yearly) projects soon.
с). (One student to another) - Have you finished your essay/project
yet?
Seminar
This is а still smaller and, more informal group. The number of
students usually ranges from five to ten. Seminars are often held weekly,
and as а rule one of the group reads а paper, which is then discussed by the
others. There is also а tendency now to use seminar in а wider sense, to
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denote any meeting for study and/or discussion of some question, not
necessarily academic.
The preposition on is used with seminar.
e.g. a seminar on fields of engeneering
The following verbs are used with seminar in the same way as with
lecture and class:
to arrange to attend
to hold
to go to
to give
to miss
to have
To take а seminar is used in the sense of "проводить" and to take
part in, in the sense of "участвовать".
Express your opinion on what is to be a Bachelor?
What other scientific degrees do you know?
Is there any difference between American and Russian Degrees:
High School Graduate, Bachelor of Science, Master of Science, Ph.
Doctor?
6.3 Study the following information and compare it with the
Russian system of training.
Student Training
Students in England are trained in one of the following ways:
(1) at a university, where they first take a degree in some subject(s)
and then a Postgraduate Diploma/Certificate in Education in the
faculty/department of education;
(2) at a college of education, where they take either a degree course
leading to the Bachelor of Education, or a shorter, less academic course
leading to the Student Certificate. Both courses combine the study of the
subject(s) to be taught with student training;
(3) at a college of higher education, where they take the Diploma
in Higher Education, and then a student training course leading either to
the Bachelor of Education or the Student Certificate.
Students with a degree are called graduate students (or simply
graduates) and those with a Teacher's Certificate - certificated teachers
or non-graduate teachers (or non-graduates).
The university institutes of education are establishments attached to а
university which supervise and coordinate the training of teachers in their
areas, approve syllabuses for the Teacher's Certificate examinations and
conduct these examinations. They also provide service training and carry
out research.
Teacher training, whether at а college of education, college of higher
education or in the education faculty/department of а university, includes:
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lectures on educational history, theory, psychology; classes and seminars
on teaching methods; teaching practice.
6.4 Read the text and try to explain what is to be a graduate
student.
A Graduate Student
In England а graduate is not а student but simply а person who has
graduated, that is, taken а first degree, either at university or other
institution providing higher education courses. It implies а contrast with
non-graduate, that is, а person with а qualification other than а degree.
e.g. а). These jobs are open to graduates.
b). Graduates earn more than non-graduates.
Graduate can also be used in the sense of "выпускник".
e.g. а). Many British prime ministers have been graduates of Oxford
(or Oxford graduates).
b). University graduates often have difficulty in finding jobs
nowadays.
In American English, however, graduate is used differently. When
attributive it generally corresponds to British English postgraduate, as in
graduate student and graduate work.
It denotes a person who has received а degree or diploma from any
educational institution, including high school and the expressions high
school graduate and college/university graduate occur frequently. It
follows from this that graduate cannot be used alone to denote а person
with а higher educational qualification, as in British English.
6.5 Compare the given difference of the verbs “to learn” and “to
study”.
What is the peculiar in their meaning and usage?
‘To learn’, ‘to study’ and alternatives
To learn means "to get knowledge of (some subject) or skill in
(some activity), either by reading, having lessons, or by experience";
Learn may have either an imperfective meaning (as in exam- or а
perfective meaning. It may mean to learn by heart", as in:
I want you to learn the scientific terms (by heart) for next lesson.
To study means "to give time and attention to gaining knowledge,
especially from books, to pursue some branch of knowledge". Unlike to
learn, it applies only to knowledge, not skill, or ability to dо something.
Thus one can learn to read, to type, to cook, to play the piano, etc. but not
study. (Study is used with to only in the sense of "in order to", as in He's
studying to be а programmer.)
With the names of subjects, for example, history/English/ physics,
etc. either learn or study are possible:
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In the second form many pupils study two foreign languages.
He studied history of Microsoft.
In practice, however, the two verbs are not interchangeable. Study is
restricted mainly to formal style. In non-formal style learn is preferred, at
least with reference to elementary or practical knowledge, such as one
acquires at school or at evening classes, for example. For instance we say:
Не learns/is learning English/history/physics at school.
If we meet а foreign visitor who speaks Russian we ask:
- Where did you learn Russian?
Study in such cases, besides being too formal for the situation,
would imply an advanced, theoretical course, for example, а degree course
at university.
Study (English/history/physics, etc.) is more widely used with
reference to advanced, theoretical knowledge, such as one acquires at
university or college.
He's studying English at university.
Even here, however, study sounds rather formal, and tends to be
replaced in conversation and informal writing by the more colloquial dо.
Learn here would imply а more practical, elementary course.
With the names of authors and their works, periods оf history,
subjects of investigation, etc. study, but never learn is used.
When there is no object, learn refers to the process of acquiring
knowledge:
Some students learn more quickly than others.
He doesn't want to learn.
Study with no object generally means "to be а student". He's
studying at Taganrog State University of Radio Engineering.
He published several articles while he was still studying.
Note that we dо not say: “He studies at school/in the first form”, but:
He's at school or He goes to school.
He's in the first form .
Neither learn nor study is appropriate here, nor in the translation of
such Russian sentences as: “Как он учится? Он хорошо/плохо учится”.
Here we say, for example:
- How's he getting on at school/college/university?
- Не's getting on (doing very well) at school/college/university.
To read is sometimes used in the sense of "to study" with reference
to universities, mainly of the humanities. - She is reading English. (=She's
studying English at university.)
- He reads history at Cambridge.
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This use of read can be explained by the fact that formerly students
spent most of their time reading books recommended by their tutor rather
than attending lectures and classes.
The following verbs are widely used in conversation and in formal
writing instead of learn or study:
e.g.
- he's doing English this year.
- they dо two foreign languages in the third form.
- I did French for five years at school, but I can't speak а word.
- mу son's doing engineering.
6.6 Study the following definition of the words profession,
occupation and job.
Try to give information about you future profession, future plans and
career.
Discuss the following problems in group:
- choosing а career is sometimes very difficult.
- teaching is а demanding career.
- should all careers be open to women?
- it is often difficult for women to combine а career and а family.
Career differs from profession, occupation and job in that it often
means more than simply а sphere of activity or а way of earning one's
living. It implies advancement, gradual promotion to more difficult and/or
responsible work, and is therefore used only of those occupations where
this is possible. Note that it does not generally have the derogatory
connotation sometimes present in the Russian word карьера.
Career is also used in the sense of professional/creative activity or
life.
e.g. Mendeleev began his career as a chemist.
Could you explain the difference between ‘a learner’ and ‘a student’?
What is to be a mature student?
Learner
This word is sometimes used in а collective sense. More often,
however, it is qualified, as in the following examples:
- Michael is а quick learner.
- this is а good method for slow learners.
- the Advanced Learner's Dictionary of Current English (title of а
dictionary by А. S. Hornby).
- young Teachers and Reluctant Learners.
Student
In traditional British English this word denotes а young person
studying at university or college (а university/college student). There is,
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however, а growing tendency, of American origin, to call anyone attending
an educational institution (including schools) а student.
e.g. At the age of 15-16 students take their first public examination.
There has been а Union of School Students in England for some
years. In England this use of student is still mainly confined to secondary
school pupils, but is gradually extending to the primary stage, too,
following American usage.
Note too that even in traditional British English student is а wider
term than the Russian студент in another respect, since it includes those
who already have a degree or diploma and are pursuing some further
course of study, either full-time or part-time. For example, those people
who give up their job and go back to university or college to improve their
qualifications become students again for the duration of their course.
Adults attending evening classes, even recreational ones, are also students
while they are at their classes. Those doing full-time research are students
too, although not simply students, but postgraduate students.
The term mature student is used in some institutions of а person
who starts а full-time course at university or college after some years in а
job, in contrast to the majority, who start immediately after leaving school.
Thus the word student may be applied to anyone who is studying,
regardless of age, qualifications and level of study.
6.7 Translation of terms and abbreviations connected with
academic studies and scientific research work
(перевод терминов, связанных с учебной и научной работой)
1. Студенты - students
Студент, не имеющий степени бакалавра или диплома
инженера - Undergraduate Student
Первокурсник - Freshman
Второкурсник – Sophomore
Третьекурсник - Junior
Старшекурсник, студент последнего курса - Senior
Магистрант - Graduate Student
Аспирант - Postgraduate Student, Doctoral Student
Докторант - Postdoctoral Student
Студент (магистрант, аспирант), ведущий педагогическую
работу - Student Teaching Assistant
Общее количество студентов - Total Enrollment.
Выпускник(и) - Graduate (s), Alumnus (Alumni)
Выпускница(ы) - Alumna (Alumnae)
Студенты, перешедшие из другого вуза, с другой
специальности) - Transfer Students
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Вечерники (заочники) - Evening (Correspondent) Students
Дневники - Full Time Students
2.Подразделения:
Ректорат - University's Administration
Факультет - College
Деканат - College's Administration, Dean's Office
Кафедра - Department
Выпускающая кафедра, факультет - Principal Education Units,
Program offering Department
Невыпускающая кафедра - Supporting Academic Department
Вспомогательные
учебные
службы
(библиотеки,
вычислительные центры и т.п.) -Institutional support units
Отдел - Department
Приемная комиссия - Office of Admissions
Филиал - Regional Branch
Представительство - Regional Office
Учебные лаборатории –laboratories
Учебная работа:
Набор студентов - Recruiting of Students
Прием - Enrollment, Admission
Курс по выбору - Elective
Курсы специализации - Core Courses
Обязательные курсы - Required Courses
Отчисление - Dismissal
Учебный план (планы) - Curriculum (Curricula)
Прoграмма (программы) дисциплины - Syllabus (Syllabi)
Реклама университета - University promotion
Академическая справка, приложение к диплому - Transcripts
Студенческая карточка - Student's records
Специализация - Major, Option, Subprogram
Опрос, коллоквиум - recitation
Собеседование - interview
Специапьность (учебная), направление (обучения) - Program
of Study, Program, Field of Study
Специализация (научная) - Area of Interests, Field of Interest
3. Степени:
Степень - Degree
Кандидат технических наук - Candidate of Engineering Science
Доктор технических наук - Doctor of Engineering Science
Бакалавр - Bachelor
Магистр - Master
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Степень (диплом) инженера - Diploma in Engineering
Терминология, связанная с аккредитацией в ABET
ABET (Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology
Inc.) - Аккредитационная комиссия США в области техники и
технологии
ЕАС
(Engineering
Accreditation
Commission)
Аккредитационная комиссия в области техники
ТАС
(Technology
Accreditation
Commission)
Аккредитационная комиссия в области технологии
RAC (Related Accreditation Commission) - Аккредитационная
комиссия для смежных областей
Mission Statement - Задачи Университета
Constituencies - заказчики, социальные группы, имеющие
законные интересы в результатах программы (студенты,
промышленность, выпускники, банки и т.п.)
Educational Objectives - образовательные цели программы
(описание того, что выпускники смогут делать в первые годы после
окончания программы)
Program Outcomes - ожидаемые результаты программы
(описание того, что студенты должны знать и уметь ко времени
завершения программы)
4. Сокращения:
Д.т.н., профессор - Dr. of Eng. Sc., Prof.
К.т.н., доцент - Cand. of Eng. Sc., Asc. Prof.
К.т.н., ассистент - Cand. of Eng. Sc., Ass. Prof.
К.т.н., с.н.с. - Cand. of Eng. Sc., Senior Research Assistant
Д.ф-м.н. - Dr. of Phys.-Math. Sc.
Д.ф.н. - Dr. of Phil. Sc.
Д.псих.н. - Dr. of Ps. Sc.
К.э.н. - Cand. of Ес. Sc.
FT - Full time
PT - Part time
FTЕ - Full Time Equivalent
CV - Curriculum Vitae
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Appendix
Test 1
Geometric Optics. Physics Optics
A. Reading
Read the text. From the list A–E choose the sentence which best
fits each gap in the text. There is one extra sentence which you do not
need to use.
The Visible Spectrum and Dispersion
The two most obvious properties of light are readily describable in
terms of the wave theory of light: intensity (or brightness) and colour. The
intensity of light is the energy it caries per unit time, and is related to the
square of the amplitude of the wave, just as for any wave (1;…). Visible
light – that to which our eyes are sensitive – falls in the wavelength range
of about 400 nm to 750 nm. This is known as the visible spectrum, and
within it lie the different colors from violet to red. Light with wavelength
shorter than 400 nm is called ultraviolet (UV), and light with wavelength
greater than 750 nm is called infrared (IR) (2;...).
A prism separates white light into a rainbow of colours. This
happens because the index of refraction of a material depends on the
wavelength. White light is a mixture of all visible wavelengths, and when
incident on a prism, the different wavelengths are bent to varying degrees.
Because the index of refraction is greater for the shorter wavelengths,
violet light is bent the most and red the least (3;…).
Rainbows are a spectacular example of dispersion – by drops of
water (4;…). Red and violet rays are bent by spherical water droplets and
are reflected off the back surface. Red is bent the least and so reaches the
observer’s eyes from droplets higher in the sky. Thus, the top of the
rainbow is red.
Diamonds achieve their brilliance from a combination of dispersion
and total internal reflection (5;…). Incident light therefore strikes many of
the internal surfaces before it strikes one at less than 25° and emerges.
After many such reflections, the light has traveled far enough that the
colours have become sufficiently separated to be seen individually and
brilliantly by the eye after leaving the crystal.
A. This spreading of white light into the full spectrum is called
dispersion.
B. You can see rainbows when you look at falling water droplets
with the Sun at your back.
C. White light passes through a slit and an interference pattern is
observed on a screen.
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D. The colour of the light is related to the wavelength or frequency
of the light.
E. Because diamonds have a very high index of refraction of about
2,3, the critical angle for total internal reflection is only 25°.
F. Although human eyes are not sensitive to UV or IR, some types of
photographic film do respond to them.
B. Choose the correct item to fill in the gaps
1. When a crest of one wave arrives at the same time as a crest of
another wave, the amplitudes of two waves add to form a larger amplitude.
This is … interference (positive, productive, constructive).
2. When light strikes a transparent medium, some light is reflected
and some is ... (transported, transmitted, carried through).
3. For angles greater than Qc, the light is reflected and none is
refracted. This phenomenon is called … internal reflection (absolute,
complete, total).
4. When light passes from air into a … medium as glass, the rays are
refracted or “bent” toward the normal (more condensed, denser, more
compressed).
5. A great deal of evidence suggests that light moves from the object
to our eyes in straight-line … (paths, routes, tracks).
6. Refraction of light may cause optical … (deceptions, illusions,
errors).
7. We know that … sound waves have wavelengths of centimeters to
meters (perceptible, distinct, audible).
C. Fill in the correct word derived from the words in brackets
Polarization
Light waves are transverse electromagnetic waves with the electric
and magnetic field vectors oscillating perpendicular to the direction of 1)
…(propagate). The atoms of a light source generally emit light waves that
are 2) … (random) oriented and a beam of light has transverse field vectors
in all 3) … (direct). Such light is said to be 4) … (polarize). Polarization
refers to the5) … (prefer) orientation of the field vectors. If there is some 6)
… (part) preferential orientation of the field vectors, the light is 7) … (part)
polarized. If the vectors are in a single plane, the light is 8) … (line)
polarized.
D. Choose the right words from the list to fill in the spaces:
White, incident, interference, parallel, red, light waves, sound waves,
away
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from, violet, toward, internal reflection, diffuse reflection,
dispersion.
1. Rays reflected from relatively rough surfaces are not …; this is
called diffuse reflection.
2. Because of … … in all directions, an ordinary object can be seen
from many different angles.
3. The angle of refraction depends on the speed of light in the two
media and on the … angle.
4. When light passes from one material into a second material where
the index of refraction is less (say, from water into air), the light bends …
the normal.
5. The ray bends … the normal when entering the water.
6. … light is electromagnetic radiation containing all wavelengths
visible to the human eyes.
7. … light has a shorter wavelength than … light.
8. A diamond is said to have “fire” because of colourful …, in
addition to having brilliance due to … …
9. We are well aware that … … bend around the corners while … …
do not.
10. The colourful display seen in oil films and soap bubbles can be
explained by …
E. Fill in the gaps with the verbs in brackets using the toinfinitive or the bare infinitive form
1. In working out lens problems we usually want … the image
distance (know).
2. He saw the magnetic field … the beam of electrons downward in
the discharge tube (deflect).
3. Diffraction can … rise to interference (give).
4. Polarizing sunglasses allow only the vertical component of the
light … (pass).
5. Let’s … certain terms to explain the action of all waves in this
figure (use).
6. You had better … polarizing sunglasses if you want to reduce the
glare. (wear).
7. The extra cargo made the ship … (sink).
8. The Sun will cause the temperature … (rise).
9. He was made … the results of his experiment on the diagram
(illustrate).
10. In the course of the upper-air observations with the help of the
radiosond we saw the carrier balloon … (burst).
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F. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct infinitive or the -ing
form
1. I can’t help … (wonder) how Andy managers to afford … (run)
such an expensive car.
2. I avoid … (travel) in the rush-hour if I can.
3. If you don’t stop … (waste) your time and at least try … (do)
something, the boss will be furious.
4. I’m looking forward to … (see) you again soon.
5. I meant … (get up) earlier but I forgot to set my alarm clock.
6. If you can’t sleep properly, try … (walk) before you go to bed.
7. I can’t get used to … (get up) early.
8. You’ll never regret … (do) a kind action.
9. As teenagers we used to … (understand) each other very well.
10. It’s no use … (complain). They won’t do anything about it.
G. Choose the correct answer
1. The world … the same since the first atomic bomb was exploded
above the New Mexico desert.
a) was never; b) has never been; c) had never been.
2. The objects in our environment … of matter.
a) are composed; b) were composed; c) will be composed.
3. The science of chemistry … with the composition, structure,
properties of matter and the transformation that this matter undergoes.
a) dealt; b) is dealing; c) deals.
4. By the time the scientific method was born in the sixteenth
century, much … about the properties of matter.
a) was discovered; b) has been discovered; c) had been discovered.
5. Einstein’s equation which related mass to energy … since 1905.
a) is known; b) has been known; c) was known.
6. Our modern listing of elements … to 109 with more expected.
a) has grown; b) has been; grown c) grew.
7. Alchemy… a mixture of magic and experimentation.
a) was; b) has been; c) had been.
8. Our knowledge of the universe …
a) grows; b) grew; c) is growing.
9. Since Berzelius’ time most elements … by the first one or two
letters of the English name (C for carbon, O for oxygen, H for hydrogen).
a) have symbolized; b) were symbolized; c) have been symbolized.
10. In the very earliest of civilization nine elements …: gold, silver,
lead, copper, tin, iron, carbon, sulfur and mercury.
a) had been isolated; b) were isolated; c) are isolated.
H. Translate the following text:
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Waves Versus Particles; Huygen’s Principle and diffraction
That light carries energy is obvious to anyone who has focused the
Sun’s rays with a magnifying glass on a piece of paper and burnt a hole in
it. But how does light travel, and in what form is this energy carried?
Historically, this question turned out to be a difficult one. For one
thing, light does not reveal itself in any obvious was as being made up of
tiny particles no do we see tiny light waves passing by as we do water
waves. The evidence seemed to favor first one side and then the other until
about 1830, when most physicists had accepted the wave theory. By the
end of the nineteenth century, light was considered to be an
electromagnetic wave. In the early twentieth century, light was shown to
have a particle nature as well. Nonetheless, the wave theory of light retains
valid and has proved very successful.
The Dutch scientist Christian Huygens (1629–1695), a contemporary
of Newton, proposed a wave theory of light that had much merit. Still
useful today is a technique he developed for predicting the future position
of a wave front when an earlier position is known. This is known as
Huygen’s principle and can be stated as follows: every point on a wave
front can be considered as a source of tiny wavelets that spread out in the
forward direction at the speed of the wave itself. The new wavelet is the
envelope of all the wavelets – that is, the tangent to all of them.
Huygen’s principle is particularly useful when waves impinge on an
obstacle and the wave fronts are partially interrupted. Huygen’s principle
predicts that waves bend in behind an obstacle. This is just what water
waves do. The bending of waves behind obstacles into the “shadow region”
is known as diffraction. Since diffraction occurs for waves, but not for
particles, it can serve as one means for distinguishing the nature of light.
Test 2
Special Theory of Relativity
A. Reading
Read the text and choose from the list A–F the sentence which
best fits each gap in the text. There is one extra sentence which you do
not need to use.
The Michelson-Morley Experiment
A. The Michelson-Morley Experiment was designed to measure the
speed of the ether – the medium in which light was assumed to travel –
with respect to the Earth.
B. The “null” result was one of the great puzzles of physics at the
end of the nineteenth century.
97
C. It is assumed that the “ether wind” is moving with speed v to the
right. Alternatively, the Earth is assumed to move to the left with respect to
the ether at speed v.
D. The medium for light waves could not be air, since light travels
from the Sun to the Earth through nearly empty space.
E. In a reference frame which was not at rest, extra terms would have
to be added to take into account the relative velocity.
F. Briefly, what they did was measure the difference in the speed of
light in different directions.
With the introduction of the theory of electromagnetism in the last
half of the nineteenth century it was assumed that light would have a
different speed in different frames of reference. Maxwell’s equations
predicted the speed of light to be c = 3 . 108 m/s. This seemed to imply
there must be some special reference frame where c would have this value
(1;…).
Waves travel on water and along ropes or strings, and sound waves
travel in air and other materials. It was natural for nineteenth-century
physicists to think that light must travel in some medium (2;…). Therefore,
another medium was postulated, the ether. The ether was not only
transparent, but because of difficulty in detecting it, was assumed to have
zero density.
Scientists soon set out to determine the speed of the Earth relative to
this absolute frame, whatever it might be. A number of clever experiments
were designed. The most direct were performed by A.A. Michelson and
E.W. Morley in the 1880s (3;…). The experiments thus hoped to find an
absolute reference frame, one that could be considered to be at rest.
One of the possibilities nineteenth-century scientists considered was
that the ether is fixed relative to the Sun, for even Newton had taken the
Sun as the centre of the universe. If this were the case (there was no
guarantee, of course), the Earth’s speed of about 3 . 104 m/s in its orbit
around the Sun would produce a change of 1 part in 104 in the speed of
light (3 . 108 m/s). Direct measurement of the speed of light to this
accuracy was not possible. But A.A. Michelson, later with the help of E.W.
Morley, was able to use his interferometer to measure the difference in the
speed of light to this accuracy (4;…). They expected to find a difference
depending on the orientation of their apparatus with respect to the ether.
For just as a boat has different speeds relative to the land when it moves
upstream, downstream, or across the stream, so too light would be expected
to have different speeds depending on the velocity of the ether past the
Earth.
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They detected no difference at all (5;…). One possibility to explain
the null result was to apply an idea put forth independently by G.F.
Fitzgerald and H.A. Lorentz (in the 1890s) in which they proposed that any
length (including the arm of interferometer) contracts by a factor in the
direction of motion through the ether. According to Lorentz, this could be
due to the ether affecting the forces between the molecules of a substance,
which were assumed to be electrical in nature. This theory was eventually
replaced by the far more comprehensive theory proposed by Albert
Einstein in 1905 – the special theory of relativity.
B. Choose the correct item to fill in the space
1. Within experimental … no contradictions have been found in the
theory (mistake, omission, error)
2. Relativity does not … classical mechanics (contradict, satisfy,
mind).
3. Matter can be … into energy (modified, remodeled, converted).
4. The time interval between two … even if they are simultaneous,
depends on the observer’s reference frame (incidents, events, episodes).
5. The laws of physics … the relativity principle (observe, follow,
obey).
6. To accelerate an object up to the speed of light would require …
energy (absolute, endless, infinite).
7. A general result of relativity is known as time … (dilation,
extension, increase).
8. Mass, another basic mechanical … is measured to increase as its
speed increases (magnitude, amount, quantity).
9. The length of an object is measured to be shorter when it is
moving relative to the … than when it is at rest (viewer, observer,
spectator).
10. Certain … assumptions make sense from everyday experience
(unprovable, unverifiable, unchecked).
C. Fill in the correct word derived from the words in brackets
1. Two events are said to occur … (simultaneous) if they occur at …
(exact) the same time.
2. Einstein concluded that the … (consistent) he found in
electromagnetic theory were due to the … (assume) that an absolute space
exists.
3. This … (propose) was embodied in two postulates.
4. … (long) contraction, like time … (dilate), is not noticeable in
everyday life.
5. Somehow we feel, just as physicists did before the advent of …
(relative), that space and time are … (complete) separate entities.
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6. Before Galileo, the vertical … (direct), that in which objects fall,
was considered to be … (distinct) different from the two horizontal
dimensions.
7. We have recognized the … (valid) of this principle in everyday
life.
8. In classical mechanics the … (measure) of space and time doesn’t
change from one reference frame to another.
9. We can conclude that … (simultaneous) is not an absolute
concept.
10. The effect is … (notice) only when the relative speed of the two
reference frames is very large.
D. Choose the right word from the list to fill in the spaces:
Mind, light, set of coordinates, at rest, relative, unaccelerated,
relativity, observer, spatial, absolute, definition, in motion, fixed, view.
The 20th century saw remarkable developments in the theory of a)
… These developments have been responsible for profound changes in the
way that physicists, astronomers and mathematicians b) … the world.
The special theory of relativity is best known as a description of how
objects behave when they travel with speeds near that of c) … It leads to an
understanding of time and space as d) … quantities that depend on
how a particular observer is moving, rather than absolute quantities
measured with respect to a e) … system of coordinates.
The problem of space and time is not a new one. The German
philosopher Nicolas of Cusa (1401–1464) argued that space and time are
merely products of the f) …, and therefore are inferior to the mind that
created them. Giordano Bruno (1548–1600), an Italian philosopher whose
ideas anticipated modern science, pointed out that such words as “above”,
“below”, “at rest” and g) … are meaningless in the universe of revolving
suns and planets, for which there is no fixed centre. In the 17th century, the
celebrated English physicist and mathematician, Isaac Newton, contrasted
the h) … time of the scientist with the less precise everyday notions of
space and time. He regarded the material world as a collection of particles,
each one of which could be i) … or moving, not merely in relation to the
others, but in relation to absolute space.
Relativity states that it is impossible to give a clear j) … of an
“absolute” space and time. Objects in the Universe cannot be measured
with respect to some single, fixed system of coordinates. Only relative
space and time exist, in which each k) … refers events to their own frame
of reference and to each other.
100
For example, you could choose to measure events in your house
relative to their position from your front door and their time according to
your kitchen clock.
Any l) … frame of reference is as good as any other for describing
events and for carrying out experiments to determine the laws of nature.
The system of coordinates needed to describe any frame of reference are
the three m) … dimensions, plus time. In other words, relativity is
concerned with a four dimensional n) … called space-time, and with how
events appear differently when viewed in different frames of reference.
E. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense
1. He will be late for the train if he … (not start) at once.
2. If you … (speak) more slowly, he might have understood you.
3. If Paul comes this evening, we … (talk) it over with him.
4. If you were going to travel to Tibet, when … (be) the best time to
go?
5. I wouldn’t drink that wine if I … (be) you.
6. If you … (not like) opera, why are you here?
7. If the salary … (be) good, I would have accepted the job.
8. If heat energy continuously … (not remove) from the core of the
fission reactor, the fuel rods may fuse.
9. If you hadn’t been in such a hurry, you not … (put) salt into the
coffee instead of sugar.
10. It … (be) easier if Leeds were on a direct link to Oxford.
11. If I … (listen) more carefully to his directions, I wouldn’t have
got lost.
12. What would you do, if you … (become) President.
13. If I were you, I … (not go) in this weather.
14. If enough strontium-90 … (ingest), it can destroy the bone
marrow or perhaps cause cancer.
15. If we get a lift, we … (be) in time.
F. Choose the correct answer:
1. The element hydrogen … in nature as three isotopes: protium,
hydrogen, deuterium.
a) is found; b) is being found; c) has found
2. There are lots of books about black holes. William Kaufman’s
“Black holes Warped Spacetime” is also worth …
a) to read; b) being read; c) reading.
3. R. Wald’s “Space, Time and Gravity” is an exposition of general
relativity for non-scientists. I … it myself, but I’ve heard good things about
it.
a) didn’t read; b) haven’t read; c) am not reading.
101
4. Human beings have long desired to control the weather. However,
little progress ... toward achieving this desire.
a) has been made; b) was made; c) is making.
5. If Madame Curie’s work on radium …successful, she wouldn’t
have been awarded the Nobel prize in chemistry in 1911.
a) wasn’t; b) couldn’t have been; c) hadn’t been.
6. Madame Curie died in 1934 from leukemia (cancer of the blood)
which may … by overexposure to radioactivity.
a) be caused; b) have been caused; c) have caused.
7. She died one year before the Curies’ daughter Irene Joliot Curie,
and her husband Fredefic Joliot … the Nobel prize in chemistry.
a) had been awarded; b) were being awarded; c) were awarded.
8. If he helps us, the job … us half an hour.
a) will take; b) would take; c) would have taken.
9. We expect all the alkali metals … similar properties.
a) to be having; b) have; c) to have.
10. The Sun’s temperature … to be about 15 million K at its centre.
a) is believed; b) was believed; c) believed.
11. The temperature at the visible surface of the Sun … at about
6000 K.
a) is being measured; b) had been measured; c) has been measured.
12. When chemists discovered gallium, scandium and germanium,
they found that they had the properties that Mendeleev …
a) predicted; b) has predicted; c) had predicted.
13. So far, we … compounds as being either ionic or covalent.
a) classified; b) have classified; c) had classified.
14. The National Weather Service … to getting the weather
information to the public by the fastest means available.
a) is dedicated; b) has dedicated; c) dedicated.
15. If the dew point … below 0ºC, the water vapour freezes on
condensing
a) will be; b) were; c) is.
G. Translate the following text
The second postulate of the special theory of relativity states that
light propagates through empty space with a definite speed c independent
of the speed of the source or observer. It may seem hard to accept, for it
violates commonsense notions. First of all, we have to think of light
traveling through empty space. Giving up the ether is not too hard,
however, for after all, it had never been detected. But the second postulate
also tells us that the speed of light in vacuum is always the same, 3 . 108
102
m/s, no matter what the speed of the observer or the source. Thus, a person
traveling toward or away from a source of light will measure the same
speed for that light as someone at rest with respect to the source. These
conflicts with our everyday notions, for we would expect to have to add in
the velocity of the observer. Part of the problem is that in our everyday
experience, we do not measure velocities anywhere near as large as the
speed of light. Thus we can’t expect our everyday experience to be helpful
when dealing with such a high velocity. On the other hand, the MichelsonMorley experiment is fully consistent with the second postulate.
Test 3
A. Reading
Choose the most suitable heading from the list A–G for each part
(1–7) of the text.
The 21st Century Engineer
A. Integration of disparate components into the whole that exceeds
the sum of its respective capabilities.
B. Creating microscopic devices.
C. Advances in modern science and technology that will shape the
future of engineering.
D. Skills and abilities that 21st century engineers need.
E. Revolution in the acquisition of knowledge.
F. The capability that facilitates computing.
G. “Chaotic engineering”.
(1;…) What does the 21st century engineer need to know? To
attempt an answer, let’s briefly examine some of the new capabilities that
are shaping the future of engineering – terascale, nanoscale, complexity,
cognition, and holism.
Because science and technology are transforming forces, it will be
these emerging fields, the unpredicted territories, that will change and
expand our capabilities as engineers and innovators.
(2;…) Terascale. This new capability takes us three orders of
magnitude beyond present general-purpose and generally accessible
computing capabilities.
In the past, our system architectures could handle hundreds of
processors. Now we are working with systems of 10 000 processors. In a
very short time, we’ll be connecting millions of systems and billions of
103
“information appliances” to the Internet. Crossing that boundary of one
trillion operations per second will launch us toward new frontiers.
(3;…) Nanoscale. This advance will take us three orders of
magnitude below the size of most of today’s human-made devices.
Nanostructuresare at the confluence of the smallest of human-made devices
and the large molecules of living systems, letting us imagine connecting
machines to living cells.
Nanotechnology lets us manipulate matter one atom or molecule at a
time. It could lead to amazing breakthroughs – for example, to molecular
computers that could store the equivalent of the U.S. Library of Congress
in a device we could wear.
(4;…) Complexity. Mitch Waldrop writes in his book “Complexity”
about a point “where the components of a system never quite lock into
place, and yet never quite dissolve into turbulence, either …”. It’s often
called the edge of chaos. If we look at science and engineering, we discern
this zone of transformation at many scales and in many disciplines. For
example, researchers are trying to wed polymers to silicon – a marriage of
opposites, because plastics are chaotic chains while silicon consists of
orderly crystals. The resulting electronic devices would have marvelous
flexibility, be less expensive to make, and, therefore, empower more
people. Again, it comes to managing order and disorder, all at once.
(5;…) Cognition. The dictionary defines cognition as “the mental
process or facility by which knowledge is acquired”. Because of new
knowledge, methods, and tools, I believe we are on the verge of a cognitive
revolution. We are poised for many exciting new discoveries in this area.
These breakthroughs will lay the foundation for progress in many areas of
national importance, from teaching children how to read to understanding
learning processes, from building humanlike computers and robots to
designing networks and systems capable of cognition.
(6;…) Holism. According to the dictionary, again, holism is “the
concept that any entity is greater than merely the sum of its parts”. It refers
to new capabilities to put things together – how to integrate seemingly
disparate things into a greater whole. This includes social as well as
physical and virtual engineering systems.
(7;…) All told, progress in these areas will lay out the capacity for
anintegrated design field far beyond what is imaginable with today’s
technology.
Taken together, this means that 21st century engineers will need to
be astute makers, trusted innovators, agents of change, master integrators,
enterprise enablers, technology stewards and knowledge handlers. They
will need to embrace complex systems and reach the right decisions about
104
how huge amounts of time, money, people, knowledge and technology are
tasked to a common end.
B. Fill in the gaps with an appropriate word from the list:
Spinning motion, conductors, commonsense, non-accelerating,
spontaneously, incidence, reverse, interference, charge, ferromagnetic.
1. When in thermal contact, heat flows … from a hotter object to a
colder one until they are at the same temperature.
2. Processes that are left to themselves tend to become more and
more disordered, never the …
3. Normally when objects are charged by rubbing. They hold their …
only for a limited time and eventually return to the neutral state.
4. Metals are generally good … whereas most other materials are
insulators.
5. Individual electrons in an atom have a magnetic field due to what
is best understood as a …
6. Materials that are highly magnetic are called …
7. The angle of reflection is equal to the angle of …
8. … effects are defined as change in wave motion produced by
phase and amplitude relations of two or more waves.
9. The special theory of relativity deals with inertial (…) reference
frames.
10. The concept of dilation may be hard to accept, for it violates our
… understanding.
C. Fill in the correct word derived from the words in brackets:
1. A beautiful … (atmosphere) phenomenon commonly seen after
rain is called the rainbow. The … (colour) arc of a rainbow is the result of
several … (optic) effects: refraction, internal … (reflect) and dispersion.
2. The universe can be extreme. There are realms that are tiny and
yet … (incredible) massive, therefore requiring that both quantum
mechanics and general relativity … (simultaneous) be brought to bear.
3. We use heat energy, either directly or … (direct), to do most of the
work that is done in everyday life. The ……. (operate) of heat engines is
based on the laws of thermodynamics.
4. The volt is the unit of … (volt) and is equal to one joule per
coulomb. … (volt) is caused by a … (separate) of charge.
5. Like poles repel and unlike poles attract. The … (strong) of the
attraction or … (repulse) depends on the … (strong) of the magnetic poles.
D. Correct the mistakes:
1. If you will not stop eating chocolates, you’ll put on weight.
2. You look exhausted. What did you do?
105
3. I don’t mind to lend you the money.
4. My salary is being deposited in my bank account every month.
5. He is late. He might miss the bus.
6. The flat hasn’t tidied yet.
7. Martin is saying to be a good sportsman.
8. He known to have several bank accounts.
9. I hope that the new sports centre is opening soon.
10. I heard him to call for help.
11. I am going to work by bus because my car is repaired at the
moment.
12. I usually have my house cleaning by my cleaner.
13. There is no point to worry until you get the results.
14. If I were not busy yesterday, I wouldn’t have helped you.
15. The bank has closed by the time they got there.
E. Translate one of the following texts into Russian or Kazakh:
Text A
What is a black hole?
A black hole is a region of space that has so much mass concentrated
in it that there is no way for a nearby object to escape its gravitational pull.
Let’s start by thinking about gravity under fairly simple circumstances.
Suppose that you are standing on the surface of a planet. You throw
a rock straight up into the air. Assuming you don’t throw it too hard, it will
rise for a while, but eventually the acceleration due to the planet’s gravity
will make it start to fall down again. If you threw the rock hard enough,
though, you would make it escape the planet’s gravity entirely. It would
keep on rising forever. The speed with which you need to throw the rock in
order that it just barely escapes the planet’s gravity is called escape
velocity.
Now imagine an object with such an enormous concentration of
mass in such a small radius that its escape velocity was greater than the
velocity of light.
Then, since nothing can go faster than light, nothing can escape the
object’s gravitational field. Even a beam of light would be pulled back by
gravity and would be unable to escape.
Massive objects distort space and time, so that the usual rules of
geometry don’t apply any more. Near a black hole, this distortion of space
is extremely severe and causes black holes to have some very strange
properties. In particular, a black hole has something called an event
horizon. This is a spherical surface that marks the boundary of the black
106
hole, the horizon has a very large velocity. In fact, it is moving outward at
the speed of light! That explains why it is easy to cross the horizon in the
inward direction, but impossible to get back out.
Text B
The Forces
The world around us is replete with means of exerting influence:
balls can be hit with bats, bungee enthusiasts can through themselves
earthward from high platforms, magnets can keep superfast trains suspend
just above metallic tracks, Geiger counters can tick in response to
radioactive material, nuclear bombs can explode. We can influence objects
by vigorously pushing, pulling, or shaking them; or by freezing, heating, or
burning them. During the past hundred years physicists have accumulated
mounting evidence that all of these interactions between various objects
and materials can be reduced to combinations of four fundamental forces.
One of these is the gravitational force. The other three are the
electromagnetic force, the weak force, and the strong force.
Gravity is the most familiar of the forces, being responsible for
keeping us in orbit around the Sun as well as keeping our feet firmly
planted on earth. The mass of an object measures how much gravitational
force it can exert as well as feel. The electromagnetic force is the next most
familiar of the four. It is the force driving all of the conveniences of
modern life – lights, computers, TVs, telephones. It underlies the awesome
might of lightning storms and the gentle touch of a human hand.
The strong and weak forces are less familiar because their strength
rapidly diminishes over all but subatomic distance scales; they are the
nuclear forces.
This is why these two forces were discovered much more recently.
The strong force is responsible for keeping quarks “glued” together inside
of protons and neutrons and keeping protons and neutrons tightly crammed
together inside atomic nuclei. The weak force is best known as the force
responsible for the radioactive decay of substances such as uranium and
cobalt.
Text C
Quantum Mechanics – A New Theory
The new theory, called quantum mechanics, unifies the wave –
particle duality into a single consistent theory. As a theory, quantum
mechanics has been extremely successful. It has successfully dealt with the
spectra emitted by complex atoms, even the fine details. It explains the
relative brightness of spectral lines and how atoms form molecules. It is
also a much more general theory that covers all quantum phenomena from
107
blackbody radiation to atoms and molecules. It has explained a wide range
of natural phenomena and from its predictions many new practical devices
have become possible. Indeed, it has been so successful that it is accepted
today by nearly all physicists as the fundamental theory underlying
physical processes.
Quantum mechanics deals mainly with microscopic world of atoms
and light.
But in our macroscopic world, we do perceive light and we accept
that ordinary objects are made up of atoms. This new theory must therefore
also account for the verified results of classical physics. That is, when it is
applied to macroscopic phenomena, quantum mechanics must be able to
produce the old classical laws.
This, the corresponding principle is met fully by quantum mechanics.
This doesn’t mean we throw away classical theories such as Newton’s
laws. In the everyday world, the latter are far easier to apply and they give
an accurate description. But when we deal with high speeds, close to the
speed of light, we must use the theory of relativity; and when we deal with
the tiny world of the atom, we use quantum mechanics.
108
Ключи к тестам (1-3)
Test 1
A. 1 – D; 2 – F; 3 – A; 4 – B; 5 – E.
B. 1) constructive; 5) paths;
2) transmitted; 6) illusions;
3) total;
7) audible.
4) denser;
C. 1) propagation;
2) randomly;
3) directions;
4) unpolarized;
5) preferential;
6) partial;
7) partially;
8) linearly.
D. 1) parallel;
6) white;
2) diffuse reflection; 7) violet; red;
3) incident;
8) dispersion; internal reflection;
4) away from;
9) sound waves; light waves;
5) toward;
10) interference.
E. 1) to know; 6) wear;
2) deflect; 7) sink;
3) give;
8) to rise;
4) to pass; 9) to illustrate;
5) use;
10) burst.
F. 1) wondering; to run; 6) walking;
2) traveling;
7) getting up;
3) wasting; to do; 8) doing;
4) seeing;
9) understand;
5) to get up;
10) complaining.
G. 1 – b; 2 – a; 3 – c; 4 – c; 5 – b; 6 – a; 7 – a; 8 – c; 9 – c; 10 – b.
Test 2
A. 1 – E; 2 – D; 3 – A; 4 – F; 5 – B.
B. 1) error;
6) infinite;
109
2) contradict; 7) dilation;
3) converted; 8) quantity;
4) events;
9) observer;
5) obey;
10) unprovable.
C. 1) simultaneously; exactly;
6) direction; distinctly;
2) inconsistencies; assumption; 7) validity;
3) proposal;
8) measurement;
4) length; dilation;
9) simultaneity;
5) relativity; completely;
10) noticeable.
D. a) relativity; h) absolute;
b) view;
i) at rest;
c) light;
j) definition;
d) relative; k) observer;
e) fixed;
l) unaccelerated;
f) mind;
m) spatial;
g) in motion; n) set of coordinates.
E. 1) doesn’t start; 9) wouldn’t have put;
2) had spoken; 10) would be;
3) ‘ll talk;
11) had listened;
4) would be; 12) became;
5) were;
13) wouldn’t go;
6) don’t like; 14) is ingested;
7) had been; 15) ‘ll be.
8) is not continuously removed;
F. 1) a;
2) c;
3) b;
4) a;
5) c;
6) b; 11) c;
7) c; 12) c;
8) a; 13) b;
9) d; 14) a;
10) a; 15) c.
Test 3
A. 1 – C; 2 – F; 3 – B; 4 – G; 5 – E; 6 – A; 7 – D.
B. 1) spontaneously;
2) reverse;
3) charge;
4) conductors;
6) ferromagnetic;
7) incidence;
8) interference;
9) non-accelerating;
110
5) spinning motion; 10) commonsense.
C. 1) atmosphere; colourful; optical; reflection;
2) incredibly; simultaneously;
3) indirectly; operation;
4) voltage (2); separation;
5) strength; repulsion; strength.
D. 1. If you don’t stop eating chocolates, you’ll put on weight.
2. You look exhausted. What have you been doing?
3. I don’t mind lending you the money.
4. My salary is deposited in my bank account every month.
5. He is late. He might have missed the bus.
6. The flat hasn’t been tidied yet.
7. Martin is said to be a good sportsman.
8. He is known to have several bank accounts.
9. I hope that the new sports centre will open soon.
10. I heard him call/calling for help.
11. I am going to work by bus because my car is being repaired at
the moment.
12. I usually have my house cleaned by my cleaner.
13. There is no point in worrying until you get the results.
14. If I hadn’t been busy yesterday, I wouldn’t have helped you.
15. The bank had closed by the time they got there.
111
Литература:
1. Dooley J. Grammarway 2/J. Dooley, V. Evans. – Newbury:
Express Publishing, 1998. – 152 p.
2. Dooley J. Grammarway 3/J. Dooley, V. Evans. – Newbury:
Express Publishing, 2000. – 216 p.Shipman J.T. An Introduction to
Physical Science / J.T. Shipman,
3. Giancoli D.C. Physics: Principles with Application/D.C. Giancoli.
– New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, 1998. – 1096 p.
4. Graver B.D. Advanced English Practice/B.D. Graver. – Oxford:
University Press, 1996. – 320 p.
5. Evans V. Round – Up. English Grammar Practice/V. Evans. –
England: Pearson Education Limited, 2000. – 176 p.
6. J.D. Wilson. – Massachusetts Toronto: D.C. Heath and company,
1990. – 630 p.
112
Contents
Предисловие……………………………………………………......3
1. Fields of Engineering……………………………………………..6
2. What is the Internet?……………………………………….........40
3. Science……………………………………………………..........49
4. Supplementary Reading Section………………………………...64
5. Phrases for Scientific Communication……………………..........70
6. Supplementary Terminology Section……………………………75
7. Appendix………………………………………………...............93
Литература………………………………………………….........112
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