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WAYLAND
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??а??? ??а???????? Activities overview. ?????? ?????
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?????????? ?????? ??а??????? ???????? ???? ???-?????? ?а????? ??????.
????а???? ?????????????, ?????? ???????? ??????. ?????? ??????а? VMware
vSphere, ??? ?а?????? ??????????? ?????? web-?????????? ?????????? ????
?а??а?? л????????╗ ??????????? ??????????? ??-??????. ?а???????? ???????
Linux ??????????? ?????. ?????? ????? ??????? ???????? ???????, ??а??? ????????? л??а????╗. ??????? ?????а? ????!
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info@linuxformat.ru
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??? ??????? ????а? ??? KDE. ?а??? ???? ????????
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????а? ???????? Konsole, ????????? tmux... ?а??????
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www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
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?????? ??? ??????????: letters@linuxformat.ru
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??????????? ?????????: answers@linuxformat.ru
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????: www.linuxformat.ru, ?????? л?????????╗: vk.com/linuxform
> ????? ????????: ??????, ?????-?????????, ??. ???????, 5, ????. 7
> ??????? ????????: (812) 309-0686. ?????????????? ?????????? ?? ?.?112
???? 2018? LXF238? |?1
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shop.linuxformat.ru
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linuxformat.ru/avtoram.phtml
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????? ???????? ? ??????? ???????? ?? PDF-?????? Linux Format...
...? ????? ???? ? ??????? ??????? ? 2005 ????
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??????????? ?????? Visa/MasterCard
????????? ? ????? л???/????????????╗
??????????? (??? ??????????? ???)
л???/???????????╗
?????-?????????,
??. ???????, 5, ????. 7
(????? л?????????????╗)
(812) 309-0686
www.linuxformat.ru
??????????
??????
Gallium OS 2.1 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 14
?? ???а?? ?? ????????? ??а????? ?????????
??а?????, ???? ??? ????? ??????????? Linux.
Bliss OS 7.2 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 15
?? ??а????????? ?????????? Android??? ??????
?????????? ??а???? ????? ???????????.
Samsung 970 Evo SSD ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 16
????????? ????? ????? ?а??????????????????,
SSD-???? M.2. ??????? ?а???? ??? ???? ???????
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??а?????????, ??а?.а34!
AMD Ryzen 7 2700X ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 17
??? ??? ??аRyzen ???????? ??? ????????? ???????
?????????, ?????????????? ??????? ????????
?????????????????? AMD.
Intel SSD DC P4510 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 18
??? ????????? ??????? ????????? ??????, ????????? ????! ?а?????? ???????? ???? SSD U.2 ??аIntel:
??а?а??????? ????????, ?а?????.
Netgear ReadyNAS 422 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 20
Netgear ??????? ???????? ?????? ??????????????
NASа? ?????, ??? ??? ????????????? ??????????
???? ???????.
?????????
????????
OnePlus 6 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 21
??????? ?????? ????а? ???а???????? ????????, ??????? ????? ???????! ??????, ??????
?????????. ??? ???? ??а??????? ??а?????? 5T.
Rise ofаtheаTomb Raider ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 22
????а? ??????????????? ??????? ??????? ?????
???? ????????????, ?а???????? ??????.
Pillars ofаEternity 2: Deadfire ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 24
????????? ??????????? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 28
????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ????,
?а??????? ??????? ?а???????? ?а?????? ?????????? ????????.
?????? ??????? л??????? ?????╗, ????????????
???? ?????????? ??? ??????? ?????-??а???????
???????????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????.
4? |? LXF238? ???? 2018
???????? ???????, ??? Linux ???????? ????????
???, ???????? ???? ??а????????? ???????????
?????????????? Linux Foundation? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 42
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
??????????
????????????? RASPBERRY PI
??????? Pi ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 89
???????????? ?? ?а??????? ??аGoogle, ?????
??????????? ??????????, ?а?????? ???????
????а?а???.
PiJuice HAT ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 90
?????? ??, ?????? ???????, ????? ????????,
???а??? Raspberry Pi ?????? ??????.
???????????? ??аMaker Life ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 91
?????????? ?????? ?????????? ????????,
??а?а?????? ????? ?????? ??? ?а????????...
???????
8н?? DVD??аDVD
?????!
DVDн?????????? ? ??????? Linux Format ? 7 (238). ???? 2018
??????????
??????? 1
????????????
Fedora 28 (64-??????)
??????????????, ??????? ? ????????????? ???????????? ??????? ??? ????????? ? ?????????? ???????????,
? ?????? ??????? ???????????? ??? ?????????????
? ????? ??????????????. ???????? ????? ??????
?????? ??????????.
Ubuntu 18.04 Remix (64-??????)
??????????? ?? Linux ??? ?????????? ???????????,
???????? ????????? ?а?????????? ??????????
?а?????????????? ?а?????????? ??????? ?????????
???????? ?????????????. ??????? ?а????? ????????
???????: Gnome, Cinnamon ?аBudgie.
HOTPICKS
Bombermaaan 1.9.3.1905 ????-????????
https://github.com/bjaraujo/Bombermaaan
CMake 3.11 ???????? ?????? ????????
www.cmake.org
F3 7.0 ?????? ????-??????
https://github.com/AltraMayor/f3
Peek 1.3.1 ?????????? ?????? GIF
https://github.com/phw/peek
PIP 10 ???????? ??????? Python
https://github.com/pypa/pip
Pragha 1.3.91.1 ??????????? ??????
https://github.com/pragha-music-player/pragha
Quantum Game (Git) ??????? ???????????
https://github.com/stared/quantum-game
Smilla Enlarger (GIT Beta) ??????? ???????????????
???????????
https://github.com/lupoDharkael/smilla-enlarger
XDM 7.2.7 ???????? ????????
https://sourceforge.net/projects/xdman
????????
Vega
WordPress
??????
??????????? ???????
??????
Rute ?????????? ??????????
UBUNTU 18.04
?????? ?????
? ???????????????
??????? ??????
??????? ????? ?? ?????
? 3????????????
? ????? ??????????????????
? ????? ? ??????!
?
??????????
Ubuntuа18.04 LTS,
Fedora
28...
?C???? ???????
? ?? ??????
?. 106
???????!
Fedora 28
???????
Grub
Memtest86+
????????? ??????????
???????????, ???????
?????? ?????????!
????????? ?? ??????? ╗
64н??????
64н??????
???????? ?а???????? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 92
Raspberry Pi ????? ??????????? ??? ???????????? ??????н???? ??????????????!
????????
TensorFlow ??аGoogle ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 94
????????: ????????? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 60
???????????? ???? ????????? ????????, ???????
TensorFlow ??аGoogle ?а?????????????? ?????????
?????а? ??? ??? ????????? ??аRaspberry Pi.
?? ??? ??????? ????????, ??? ??? ??????!
????? ??????? ?а??????? ?а????????? ?а???
????а??н???????.
????????: Byzanz ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 64
??????? ?????????? ???????? ????? ?????
??а????????? ??????а? ?????? ???? ??????????.
???????? ???????
??????? ?аVega Lite ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 80
????????: Grep ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 66
????????? Vega ?аVega Lite ??? ???????? ??а?????? ???????? ?а???????!
??????????, ??? ?а??????? grep ?????? ??????
?а?????? ??? ?а?????? ??а?а???? ?????????
??????.
WordPress ????????????? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 84
LIBREOFFICE: Impress? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 68
????????? ??????????? ???????? ?????? ?????
??аWordPress ??а???? ???? ??????? ???????.
??????? ??? ??а??????? ???????????, ??????
???-??? ??????? ??а????? ??????? LibreOffce.
???????????: Wayland ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 72
?????????? ???????
??????? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 6
??????? ????????? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 54
SD-????? ??????????? ??а128а??, ?аAMDа?
??а12а??, ???????????? Ubuntu ?????? ??а????????, GPU-???????????? ???????? ?????? ???
?аTop-500, ?а????? ??????? ????????? ?а??,
л???????╗ ??????? ???? ???????????, Compulab
????????? ????-??, ?аIntelа? ??????-????-??.
?-? ???????? ??????? ???? ?????? ??????, ???
???????? ????????????? ?????????? ?????????
??????? ?аLinux. ???а?? ??а???а???? ???????
????? ????????? ?? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 26
????????? ???????? ??????? ??????,
5G-??????? ???????? ????????????? ?а?????????????, ?а?а4G ????????? ??? SIM-????? ?????.
????????? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 28
??? ????????? ???? ???????? ?а???????? ???????
?а??????? ??????????: Darktable, DigiKam, Fotoxx,
Lightzone, Photivo.
???????? LXF ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 42
???????? ??????? ?а??? ????? ????????????, ???
???? ??????? ?? ????????????? ???????????
???????н??? ?????? ??????.
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
?????? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 98
?????? ???????? Dropbox ?аDebian, ????????
?аUbuntu, ??????? ??а????? ??????? ???????
?а??????? ????????? ?а??????????? Arch
??а????.
??? ???? ???? ??а??????: ????? ???????? ??????
????????? ????????? ?а??????? ??????? ????????? ???????????.
IPFS: ??????? ?????????? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 76
???????????? ???????? ??????? ????????
????????, ????????????? ?а?????????? ???????
?а??????.
??????????...
HotPicks ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 100
????????? WINE 3.7 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 46
????????? ????????????! ?????? ?а????
??????? ?????????? ??: Bombermaaan, CMake,
F3, GIMPа2.10, Peek, PIP, Pragha, Quantum Game,
ReactOS, Smilla Enlarger, XDM.
?????? ?????????? ???????? ?а??а???? ?а????????... ?????? WINE ???????? ???????? ?????????
???? ?а????????? Windows ??аLinux (??????, ????
??? ??а???).
???? Linux Format ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 106
????? Systemd ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 50
?????????? ?????? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 108
????? ????? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 112
??????? ???????? ???а????? PID 1 ?а?????????
???, ??? ?а1983??, ????? ?аSysV. ??????????
????????????, ??? ??? ???????, ?а???????????
?аSystemdа?????.
???? 2018? LXF238? |?5
???????
? ???? ??????: ???-??а?а??????? ╗ ???????? ??? ╗ ?????а? ??????? ╗ AMD
?а?????? ???? ╗ ?? ?а????? ╗ ?? ??? ???????? ╗аMint ??а????-?? ╗ ?? ??????-????
????-??????
??????? ????? ?????????
????????? ????????? ???? SD ??????? ?????????????????? SSD ?а????? 128а??.
??????? ????????? ???? ?????? ??????????н
н???? ??????????? SD Association ???????????
????????? ???????? ??????, ???????????? SD Express ?аSD Ultra Capacity, ?а????????????
???????? 128а??. SD Express ???????? PCI Express ???
PCIeа?аNon-Volatile Memory express ??? NVMe, ??????????? ??????????? ????????? ??? PCIe SSD. ??????????
PCIe ????????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ??????
985 ??/?, ?а?????? ?аNVMe ???????? ????????? ????? SD
??? ??????? ????????????? ??????????. ????? SD Ultra
Capacity (SDUC) ?????а?? ???????? ??????? ??а???????? ??????? ???? SD ?а2а??. SD Express ?аSDUC??????
????? ???????????? SD 7.0, ?????????????? ?а?????
???? ??аMobile World Congress Shanghai. SD Express
?????? ????? ?????????? ??а?????? ?????? SDUC, SDXC
?
?аSDHC. ??????? ????????? ???????? ????? ?????? ???????????? ??????? ?а?????? ??????????, ?????? ?а??????????????? ????? 8K, VR, ????????? ????? ?а???????
???н????????. ????? ????? ????? ????? ????? ????????аSD ?а???????? ??н???????
SD UHS-I ???
????????? ?????? SD. ??????
??? ???????????? ????????
???????? ?????? ????, ????? ????? ?а???? ????????????
SD Express, ?а??а???????? ?а?????? ????????? ??? ?????
???? ?????? ????????? 985 ??/?. ???? ?а?????? UHS-II
??? USH-III ?а?????? SD Express ????????? ??а104 ??/?.
????? SDUC ????? ?? ???????? ??????? ?? ????????
??????? ???? SD.
????? UBUNTU
??? ???????? ??????...
?????? ????? ????, ??? ??????????? Ubuntu
18.04 LTS ????? ??????????? ???????? ?а?????????? ???????, Canonical ???????? ?????
??????????? ?????????????. 67?% ??????, ??? Canonical
????? ???????? ???? ??????, ?а??а????? ?????????
????? ???????? ?????????? (???? ?????? ?а??????????
??????). ????????, ??? Linux ???????? ????, ??????
????????? ?????????????? ???? ??????? ??????????????????, ???????? ????????????, ??? ????????????
Ubuntu ???????? Canonical ??????, ??? ????????????
Windows ???????? Microsoft. Canonical ??а??? ????????,
??? ?????? ?????????? ????????????? ??? ????????????? ?????? ????????, ?а??а??? ??а???????, ????????????? ??? ??????????? ??? ??????? ??????? ?а?.??.
?
6? |? LXF238? ???? 2018
???????????????? ??? ??а??? ?????????? ??????,
?????? ??? ????????, ??? ?а??????????? ?????????????
Ubuntu ?????????? ?а????? ??????????? ?а???? ???????
(?а???????????, ???? ?????, 1080p), 4???8 ?? ???, ?а?????? /home ???а????????? ??????? ????? 5?%; ?????????
?а??????? ???????????? 18а?????, ?а????? ??????? ?????? ????? 8а?????. ?????????? ?????? ???????????????, ??? ?є????? ????? ????????????? Ubuntu ?????????
?а???, ?????? ??а????? ????????? ????? ???????? ???????????? (?а??а??????!), ??????? ???а????????? ??а?????? ???????????? ??а????????? ??????? ???? (-08:00).
????? ????????????? ????????????? ?????????н
н??н???????? ????? ??????, Canonical ????????????
??аGitHub ???? ???, ??????????? ?а????? ??????.
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
??н? ??н? ?н? ?: www.zdnet.com; www.theinquirer.net
??? ????? ????????????? Ubuntu 18.04 ??????????? ??а???? ?????? ????????? Canonical.
???????
???????????????
? ??????а? ???????н???? ????!
????? ?????? ?аGPU-?????????????? ???????? ?????? ??? ?аTop-500.
??????? 51?? ???????? Top-500, ???????
?а??????? ?????? ????? ?????? ?????????
?а??????? ??аGPU, ?а??а??аCPU. 56?% ?????????? ?????? ????? ??????????? ????????????? ?а????? ???????????????? GPU NVIDIA Tesla. ??????????
??????? ?????????????????? ?????????? ??? ????????? Top-500: Summit (1?? ?????), Sierra (3-? ?????)
?аAI Bridging Cloud Infrastructure (ABCI) (5-?а?????).
????? ????? Top-500, ??????? Summit ??аIBM (???????????? ??????????? ???-????, ???), ????????
?а????? Linpack 122,3 ????????, ???????? ??а2-? ?????
??????????? ??????, Sunway TaihuLight (93 ????н????)
??а????????????? ?????????????????? ?????? ???.
Summit ????????????? ????????? IBM, ?а??????
??а??????? ??? CPU Power9 ?а????? GPU V100. 95?%
??????? ?????????????????? Summit (187,7 ????????)
???????? ??а27?686а????????????? ?а??????? GPU. ??????? Sierra ??аIBM (???????????? ??????????? ???????????? ?????????? ??? ?а?????????) ?????? ??а3-?
?????, ?????? ?аLinpack 71,6а????????. ??а?????????
?
?????? ??аSummit, ??а?а?????? ???????????? ????
Power9 ??????????? ??а?????? (?а??а?????) GPU V100.
??????? ???? ?????????????????? Sierra ???????????? 17280 ??аGPU. ?? 4-? ????? ????????? ???????
Tianhe-2A. ?а??????? ???, ?а???????????????????
?а33,9 ????????, ??? ???? ??????; ??а?????????
??????? Tianhe-2A ???????????????, ?????? ??а?????????????????? 61 ????????. ?? 5-? ?????а? ABCI, ????? ??????? ???? ?????????????? ??????. ??????
??а??? ???????? ?????????? ??? CPU Intel Xeon Gold
?а???????? GPU V100. ????? ??????н???? V100???4352,
????????? ?? ?аLinpack ???????? 19,9 ????????.
????????? ??а?????? ??, Lomonosov 2а? ??а72??
????? (???? 63??); ????? ?????? ????????????а?
??а172??; Lomonosovа? ??а326?? (227); Tornaнdoа?
??а458?? (412). ????? ?????? ?? ??а??????? ???????
?а3 ??а4, ??? ???? ????? ???? 5, ?а2012а?.а? 12.
? ?????? ??????? ??????, ?.??. ??? ???, ??а???? 500
?????? ???????????????? ???? ???????????? ????????? ???????????? ???????????? ??а? GNU/Linux.
????? Tensor Cores ?аGPU Tesla V100,
?а??а??????????????????? 16??????????? ?????????? ??????????н?????
?????????????, ???????????? ?????
???????? ???????? ????????? ?а????????? ????????.
GPU
????????? ???????
????????????? ??а??????????? 12 ?? ???????н???? ?????????? AMD Polaris 30
?????а????????? ??? ?а????? 2018а?.
???? ???????н???? ??????????? AMD
??а?????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????, ?????????? ???????? Polarisа30,
????? ?????????? ??? ?а???????? ????. Polaris 30
????? ??????????????? ?а?????????????? 12???
???????????н????? ???????? finFET ?а??а20% ???????
?????????????????? ??а????????? ?а???????н?????
???????????? ??а???? ??????????? Polaris 20, ?????????????? ?а2017а?. ????? ????????? ??????????,
??? ???????н???? ?????????? ??а???? ???????????
Navi, ??????????????? ??а????????? ???????н????
?????, ?????? ??а????? ?????? ????? ??????
????????? ?а??????? HBM2. Navi, ?????????? ??а7???
??????????, ?????? ????? ????????????? ??а???????
??????? ?????? ?????????, ????? ??? PlayStation 5,
?, ??а?????? ?????????????, ???????? ?????????
????? ??????????? Vega. ?а??????? ??а????????
Nvidia, ??????? ?????????????? ????????? ????? ????
??????????? ???????????, ???????????????? ??а????
?????? ????????? GPU, ??????? AMD ??????? ???????
??? ?????????.
??н? ??н? ?н? ?: www.top500.org; www.theinquirer.net
?
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
??????????????, ??? Vega ?????? ????????????
Polaris, ??а?????? ?????????????? ?а????? ????????????? ???????н???? ???? ?а??????? HBM2 ?а?????????? ?аAPU (accelerated processing unit) AMD Ryzen,
??? ??????? ????????? ????????? ?а????????? ?????
?????????? ??? ????????? ?????????? ?????????
??а???? Vega. ????? ???? ???????, ??? Navi ??????н
??? ???? ??????; ?????? ???? Navi ????????????? ???
????????? ????, AMD ????????? ???-??а?????????
??????? ?????????????? GPU. ???????? ??????????? ?а???, ??? Polaris 30, ?????? ?????, ????? ??????
???????????????? Polaris 20, ???а?????????????
HBM2. ?а?????????? ????? AMD ?а???????, ?а???
?а??????? ????? ???????????? GPU ??а???? ??????????? NvidiaаTuring.
???????? ??????? ?????????????????? ?????н
??н???? ???? AMD ??? ?????????? ??, ????????? ?????,
????н????? ??????????????? ??а???????? GPU Navi
?а??????? HBM2, ??? 7??? GPU Vega 20, ????? ?аHBM2.
?а??????????? ???? ??аAMD ??????????? ???????
?а???????????.
? ???????? ?????????????? GPU AMD
??а????? ????, ?а????? ??????, ?????
????????? 7??? ?????????? Vega
???а????????.
???? 2018? LXF238? |?7
???????
????????????? ?????????
???????????????? ??-????????
Baidu ??????? ????????? Kunlun ??? ????? ?????????????? ??????????.
???????? ????????? ?????? Baidu ???????????
??????????????? ??а?????? ?а?? ?????????
Kunlun, ???????, ??а?????? ????????, ??????
?????????? ??? ?а???????? ??????? ????????? ??????,
??? ?а??? ???????????? ??????????. Kunlun ????? ???????? ??а????? 818?300 (?????? ????????) ?а818?100
(????? ??????). ???????? ????????? ????????, Kunlun
????? ?а30 ??? ??????? ??????????????? ????????????? ?????????? ??????? (FPGA), ??????????????? ???
????????? ????????? ?а?? ?????, ??????? Baidu ??????
????????????? ??? ?а2011а?. ???? Kunlun ????????????
??а14??? ??????????? Samsung, ????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? 512 ??/?, ?????????????????? 260 TOPS
?аTDP 100а??. л[Kunlun] ?????????? ?????????? ?? Baidu,
??????? ???????? ???????? ??, ????? ??? ????????????
??????, ?а?????????? ?????????? ????????, ????? ???
PaddlePaddle,а? ????????? ?а?????-?????? ????????.а?
??????????? ???? Baidu ??а??????????? ?????????????????? ???????? ?а?????????????? ?? ???????? ???????? ???????? ?????, ??????????? ??? ???????? ???? ??
???????? ??????. ?????? ????? ?????????? ??????????
???????? ?а???????? ???????? ?????, Kunlun ????????
?
???????????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ??,
??????? ????????????? ??????, ???????????? ??????,
????????? ????????????? ?????, ?????????? ????????
?а???????????????? ????????????╗.
???????? ??????? ????? ?????? ????? ???? ?????????, ????? ??? ????? ?????????? ?????? (??????? ?а???????? ????? ??? ??????? ??????????? ??? ?????????
???????) ??а???? ???????????? ??????????? ?????????
ZTE, ??????????? ???а?????? ??? ???? ?????????????
???? ????????, ????? ????????? ?????????? ???????????? ????? ??????????? ???????????. ?а????? ???
?????????? ?аCEO ???????? Tencent ???? ?? [Pony Ma]
??????, ??? ??????? ?????? ZTE ???????? ?????????????????, ??? ????? ????? ??а??????? ???????? ??????????,
????? ??? ??????????? ?????????? ?а????????????
???????, ?аTencent ????????? ?????????? ???????? ?а????? ????????? ??а???????????? ???????????. ????????
????? ????????????? ????? ?Made inаChina?, ?а2025а?.а?????????? ???????????? ???????????? ???????? 40?% ???????????? ??????. ????? Intel ????????, ??? Baidu ?????
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????????? ???????? Xeye.
л???????????? ?????????
???????? ??????????? ??а????????? ???????????? ????????
?а??а????? ????? ??????????а??.
?а????? ??а??? ???????????
??а??????????? ??? Kunlun,
?????????? ??????????????? ???
???????????????? ??-?????╗,
????????? ?а????????? Baidu.
????????????? ??
?? ????? ?????? ????...
???? ????????? ?а???? ??????????? л???????? ????????? ???????????? ??????╗
?????????? ??????????? ???????????? ??
????, ???????????????? ??? ?????? ??а?????н????????
??????????? ?а???????????? л???????╗. ??????????
??????? ?а?????? ??????????н???? ???ал???????а???╗
?а?? л????╗ ?а??? л???????? ??????????? ?????н
?????? ????? ??.а?.??.??????╗ (?????? ?а???????
л??????????╗ ????????????? ??????). ??????????? ???????? ?? ?а????? ?????????? ???????? ??? ????????
?а??? ??????? ???????. ??? ?? ??????????? ????????
?а???????? ????? л???????╗. ??? ???????????? ?????
??????? ?????????????????? ??а????????? ?а???????
??????????, ??????? ????????? ????????? ?????????,
????????? ???а?????????? x86. ??????????? ??????????? ??? ?????? ??а???????? л???????-4.4╗ ?а???????????? ??????????? л???н????-401╗ ?ал???????-801╗
??а?????????а?????.
?????? ?????????? ? ?????н???????? ??????????? Sisyphus, ?????????????? ?????? ?????????
?
8? |? LXF238? ???? 2018
???? ?????????????, ??????? ????????? ??а??? ????.
??????а??????????? ???????, ??а???????? ???????????? ?????????????? ?????? ?а???????????
???????????. ??? ??????? ??а???? ???????????????
???? л?? ????╗???л???н????╗ ?????????? ???????????
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?а???????а???????.
л???????, ??? ????????? ?????????, ???????н??н
????н????? ??????? ??а????????? ???? ??????? ??н?????,
?а?????? ??????? ????? ?????????????? ?а????????????? ??????????? ????????????? ??? ?????? ?а????????????? x86/x86_64, ARM, MIPS╗, ???????? ???????
???????, ??????????? л??????? ???╗.
л?????? ?? ????а? ???????????? ??? ??а????
?????????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????????
??? ????????? ?????????. ??а????????? ?а??????
???????????? ???????? ????????? ????????????
?????? ??? ????????? ?????????╗, ?????? ?????????
???, ??????????? ???????? ?? л????╗ ?а??? л?????
??.а?.??.??????╗.
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????? ???? ??????????? ???????? Compulab ?????????аMintBoxаMini 2а? ?????
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?? ?а????????????????? ????????????? LinuxаMint.
???????? ???????? ??????? ??а?????????????аMini
???? ??????? ??а4???????? ????????? Intel Celeron
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???? ???? ?????? ??????????? ???????????? ????,
???а???? ??????? ???????????? ?????????? $299
????????????? 4 ?? ???, SSD ??а64 ?? ?аCPU ?????????
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29 ????. ??а?????? ???????????? ZDNet ????? ??????????? [Steven J.аVaughan-Nichols], Mint ????????
?????? ???????????????? ??????????? ??а??????
????-??
MintBox Miniа2
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?
?????? Debian ???????
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Compuнlab ??? ????????? ?????? ??аMintBoxаMini 2;
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???????? ???????, ??? ?а??????? ????? ?? ?аLinux ?????
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?????? 4 ???? ????? ??????
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???н????????? ?а???????????????.
????????: www.linuxfoundation.org
╗
????? ?????? ??????????
????? ????????????аOracle
Linux 7 ??? 64?????????? ????н???н
???? ARMv8 (aarch64).
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??аWi-Fi Alliance ?????????
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?????????????? ??
? ???? ????????????
????-????????
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LTS ??? ????-?? Intel NUC.
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╗
?
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???а?????
????????,
??????????
????-???????
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????? ?аCPU
Coffee Lake U)
??а????????
??????? ??.
????н??????? ????? (NUC8i3BEB ?аNUC8i5нBEB), ???
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NUC ?????? ???????????? ?а??????? ???н?н?????, ??а??н
????? ????н????????-????н??н???? ?????? ???? ????
??????? SSD, ??????, ???????????? ????? ?а??.
NUC ??? ?Next Unit ofаComputing? ??????? ??? ??????????? Intel ?а2012а?.а|
Airbus ?аIBM ??????????? ???
??? ?????????? ????????
???????????????? ????????
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CompanioN) ??аUbuntu ?а?а??.
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Mail.ru ????????? ??????н
???????? л????????╗ PaaS?????? ????????? ??????? ??????
?а??????????? ????????????.
????????: www.cnews.ru
╗
??????? ?????? ???н????
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???? ???????? ??-1866 ??????????
??а500а???. ???. ?? л???????? 1?+╗.
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Intel ???????? ???? ??????-????-?? ???????????? Coffee Lake U.
?????? ????? ???????????????? ????-??
NUCа? 117?╫?112?╫?36а??, ??? ?????????? ???
?????????? ???????????? ???????? ?????
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??????? ?????? ???????? CPU Intel Core i3?8109U
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i7?8559U (4а????, 8 ???????, 8 ?? ??? 3??? ??????, ??????
?а2,7а??? ??а4,5а???). ? ???? ???? ??????????? ??????????
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???????? ??????? ?????
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?????? ?а???????????? ?????????.
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╗
??????? ???????????? ? ??????????? ??????????? ? ???????? ????? ?????????
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??а?????????,
???????? ?? ?????.
╗╗CINTU BIONI???????
?? ???? ??????? ?а??????? ???????,
??????? ???? Cintu ??а????? Ubuntu
18.04 LTS, ??а?? Bionic Beaver, ????????????? ?????????? ????????????,
?????????? ?а?????????? ????? ?????????????? ????????????. ?????? ??? ????????? ????????????. ?а????? ????, ??????? ?????????
????????????? ???????????.
????? Cinnamon ???????? ??? ????
Gnomeа3 ?а???????? ??а??????????? GTK3.
?аGnome-, ?аGTK-?????????? ???????? ?а???
??? л??????╗. ?а??? ?????????? ??а????
Qt/KDE ??????? ?????? л??????╗. ???? ????
?????????? ????? ?аKDE, ??????а? ??а?????
???, ??? ??а???? GTK. ??а???? ??????? ?????
?????? ?????????? ??а????? (?а??? ?????
?а??а???????), ??а??????????а? ?????? ??а???????, ??а???? ????????????????. ?а??????
????????? ???????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ????? ?а???????? ??????????????? ?а????? ??????? ????????????, ??? ??????????? ??а??а?????????????
?ал???????????а??????╗.
??????? ??????? ?????? л???????????╗
??????????? ????????а? ????????, ??????????? Maui, ??????? ????????? ??а???? ?????????. ??? л???????╗а? ?????????? ?а????? KDE
?????????? ??а???? GTK, ??????? ???????????
л??????╗ ???????. ?а?????? ?????????????
?????: ?????????? ????? ??????? ?????????? Qt ?аKDE ?а????? Cinnamon. ?а?????????? ???????????? ??? ????? ???????? Cintu
18.04а? Small Edition (?а????????? Qt/KDE
??????????, ????? ???????????? Nomacs
?а?????????? ????????? Kate), ?аBig Edition,
?????????? ?????? ????? ?????????? GISGPS. ??? ???????? ??? ?????????? ??а???????
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Netgear ReadyNAS 422 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 20
??????????? ??????????? Linux ??? ?????????
???????? ??????? ???????????????? ?????
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????????н???? ?????? ????????????
?????????? NAS: ????? ?????????? ???
?????? ?а????????? ?????????, ???????????????? ????? ??а???????? ???????.
Bliss OS 7.2 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 15
???? ??????????? Android-??????, ??а???????? ??? ???????, ????? ???????? ??а??????????? ?? Intel/x86, ????????? ?а?????????.
Samsung 970 Evo SSD ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 16
??????????? ??? ?????? ????? ??????
???а?????? ?а???????? ???????, ?а?????????
??а?? ????? ????? ?????? ?????? SATA.
AMD Ryzen 7 2700X ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 17
????????? ??а?????: ????? ?????н?? ?є?????
?????????????????? ??а??????? ?????? ?????.
?а???а?? ??? ??????? ?????????.
Intel SSD DC P4510 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 18
???? ???? ??а??? ????а? ??????, ??? ?????????????? ??????????, ???? ???????? ????????.
GALLIUMOS 2.1
OnePlus 6 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 21
?????????? ???????-???????? ?а???????? ???????? ?????? ??а???????? ?????? ????????????? ??а???? ????????
????????? ???????????.
Rise ofаtheаTomb Raider ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 22
????-?????? ?????????? ?????? ??????
?????????, ?а??а?а??????? ?????????????
??????????? ??а???????????? ??????????
?????? ?а?????.
Pillars ofаEternity 2: Deadfire ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 24
???? ???????, ?а???? ????? ????????????
???????? ?????? ????????, ??????????,
?????????? ?а????, ????? ?????? ?а??????
?а???????.
RISE OFаTHEаTOMB RAIDER
???? ?? ??????? ? ????, ???????????? ?????
???????? ???? ?????????????.
?????? ? ?????????? ???? ?????? ????? ????????? л?? ????╗.
╗╗?????????: ?????????????? ?.?28
DARKTABLE
DIGIKAM
LIGHTZONE
PHOTIVO
FOTOXX
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??? ???????? ??????????,
??? ????? ????????? ???????
????????? ???!
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?????? ??????????? Linux
GalliumOS 2.1
????? ??а????? ?????????? ????????? ?а?????????????? ?????, ???? ????
????????? ??????????? ??? Chromebook ?а???????? ??? ?????????.
???????
GalliumOSа? ?????????? ??????????? ??? ?????????,
?а??????? ????????????? ???????????? ?а????????
??? ?????????
?????????????????? ?а????? ??????
???????. ????????? ?????????? (2016???2017),
?а??????? ????а?
???????????
Xfce. ?????????????? ??????
??????????аx86.
???????? Linux ??а????????,
?а?????? ??а?????? ??????????, ??? ????????? ???????????? ????????. ???-??а??????????н???
??а????????а? ??????????, ???????н????
?????????? ???, ???? ?????, ??????.
GalliumOSа? ??? ???????????, ??? ???????
??? ??????????? ?????????, ?а??? ???????? ?а?????? ??????.
GalliumOSа? ??????????? ????????н
??? Linux, ????????????? ??? ?????????,
?????????? ???????????????? ??? ???н
????????? ?????????????????? ?а??????????? ????????. ??а??????? ??а??????
Xubuntu, ??? ?а??а????? ???????????,
???? ?а?????? ?????? ?????????? ??????
GalliumOSа? ?????-???????, ??????????? ??????????? ??? ????????? ?а????????? ????а?????? 2017а?. ?????????? ??? ???????
?????????? ???????????????? ?????. ??а??? ????????, ??? ?????? ?????? ?????????
????????, ?аXfce 4.1.2 ?а????? Linux 4.8.17
(??? 4.9.4 ??? ??????? ??????????? Braswell).
????? ?????????, ?????? ?а???????? ????????????????. ????????? ?????? ???????? ????????, ???? ???? ??????????н
??? ??а????? ?????????? ??????????????? ????? ??????? ?а????????? ??? ???????????? ?????? x86 CPU (??. ?????? ??????????
???????? ???? ?аHD (??????? ????? Matroska ????????????????
????????????? [Hardware Compatibility List] ??а?????, ?????
??????????????). ?а??? ??а??????????? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ??????); ??? ???????? ???????????? ZRAM; ????. ???? ??????, LibreOffice ??????????? ????? ????-???? ??????!
????? ?????????????? ???????????? ????; ???????? ???????
????????????? ??а?????????? ??а?????? ?????????
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3D-?????????. ?????????????????? ?аglxgears ?аPlanet Tux ????
????????? ????? ?????? ???????. ?а?????????а? ??а??а??а?????????????? ????????????; ??а??????? ?????? ?а???????????
???а? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? Compton, ????????Steam. ??? ??а???? Steam ??????? ??????????? ????? ?а??????????? ????????????? ??????????????? ????? ?а????????? ????
????, ??а??? ??? ????? ??????, ????? ??????????? 3D-????. ????
?а??????? ?????? ???а????????? ????? ??а??????????????????.
??????????? ????? ???????? ?а???????? ????? ?????, ??а??а?а????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ????????????! ??????
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????????? ????? ????? ???????????.
???? ??а???? ????????? GalliumOS ?????????? ??????а? ????
? ????? ??? ???? ?????? ????????? ???????????, ???????????а????????????? Ubuntu ???аMint, ??????? ?????????? ?а???а?
??? ??????? ?????-????? (??????? Acer C710) ?а?????????????
??а?????????? ?????????? ????? ???? ????? ???????. ????н
???????? ?????????, ?а??????? ??????? ????????. ???? ???
???? ?????? ????????????? ?а?????????????? ??? ?????? ??????
???????? ????????? ?????? ?аGalliumOS ?а?????????? ?????,
?аChrome OS, ??? ??? ?????? ???????????, ??? ??? ????????
??а???????, ??? ??? ???????????? ????? ?????????. ?а??а???а????????????? ?а?????????. ??? ????????? ??????????? ???????
????: ??? ??????????н???? ??????. |
???????, ????????? ?????? ??? ?а???? ????????; ??а?а?????
?????? ??? ?????? ??а??? ????????.
???а??????? GalliumOS ??????, ???????? ?а??????????, ?а????
??????????? ??????, ???????-??, ????????! ????? ???????? ??н
????? ????????, ?аXfce ???????? ??? ?????????, ????????? ???
???????????: GalliumOS Team
????????????? Windows 9x ?а????.
????: www.galliumos.org
??????? ?а??????????? ?????????????а? ??? ??????????;
????????: ??????
?а???? ???????????? ??????? ?????????, ???????а?? ??а????
?а????? ??????????? ??? ???, ????? ??? ??????, ????????
????????????????
7/10
??аSoftware Centre ?аUbuntu, ?а??????, ??? ??????????? ?????
??????????????????
10/10
??????????? Synaptic. ????? ????, ?????? ??а???????????
???????? ?а??????
7/10
??????????н???а? ??? ???? ?????? ??????? ?а?????????? ??????.
????????????
8/10
??? ??? ??? ???????? ????? ????????? ?????? ???????. ?а?????
??а?????????? ?а????????? ?????????, ??????? ??а???????????,
??????? ????????????? ?а???????. ?????????
??? ??????? ??????? apt-get, ??????? ?????? ??????? ????????н
?а??????????, ??а????????? ????????? ????,
??? Ubuntu, ????? ??а???????????????.
???а???????? ???????? ?аLinux ??а????????.
????, ?????а?? ???? ??а??? ???????????? ??????????. Galliumн
OS ????? ??? ?????? ?а?????? ?????? ?????? ??а?????? ?????????????. ??а????? ????, ????????? ????????, ??? ??а???????????
?
???????
╗ ???????8/10
14? |? LXF238? ???? 2018
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
??????????? Linux ??????
Bliss OS 7.2
????????? ?????????? ??????? Remix OS ?а2017а?., ?
??? ???????????, ???? ???
??????????? Android ????? ?????????? ??????...
???????
??????????
??аAndroid Nougat,
Bliss OS ????????????? ???
?????? ??а?????
?????? ??????????, ??????????
?а?? ?а???????
????????????????
???????????: Pixel
??? ?????????
?а????????? ???
?????? ????? ???
?? ?а?????????.
?????? ????? ???????????? ???????? ??????? ????,
??????? ??????
???? ????є?
?????????????
??. ?????????
????????? ?????н
???????? ?????????? ???????
??????????,
????????? ??????
?????????? ????
??? Pine64.
liss OSа? ???????????
Android-?????? ?а????? л???????? ?????????? Open Source
????н???????? ??, ????????? ????????
???????????, ???????????????? ????
??????????, ????????? ?а??????????????
??а???? ?????????? ?аBliss╗. ??????? Bliss
?????, ??? ??? ?? ????? ???????? ??а??????????? ?? Intel/x86, ????????? ?а?????????, ??а??????????? ????????? ?аAndroid
?а??????????? ????????? ?аAndroid.
????????? ?????? ???????? ??? ??????????? ?????????? ????? ?а???????
???????? ???????. ??а?????????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????? 64?????????? ?????? x86 ??? ?? ?а????????? ??а????
Bliss ????????????? Android ?????? ????? ?а????? ?? ?а???? л????╗. ???????, ??? ????
Android 7.1.2 Nougat.
??????????????а? ?а??????? ??а?а??а????????!
??????? ????????? ??????? ??а????
??????: ????????? ???????? ????? ?а??????????? ????????????
(???????, ????????? ??????-???? ?????????? ??????? ???????
Android. ????????? ???????? ????? ??????????? ?а???????????
?а??? ???????н???? ?????????).
????????? ????????? ?а???????????н???? ???????????, ??а??а???
???? Android ?????????? ??а????????? ??? x86, ??? ?аARM,
???????, ??а????????? ???????? ??????-??????? ?????????. ??????????? ?????????? ???? ???????? ?????? ??? ARM
??? ????????? ??а??????? ??? ??????????? ??????????? ???????
?а?????? ??а???????????. ????? ????, ????? ??? ??? Bliss/
????????? Android.
Android ???????н??? ???????? ??а????? ????????????, ??????
????? ??а?????????? ????????? ?????? ??а?????????
??а???????.
??????. ??????????, ?????? ??? ??? ????? ?????? ??а??????. ???
? ???? ??? ??а?????? ??? ???? ????????????? Android, Bliss ???????????? ????????? ??а????? ???????? ??????????? ???є?
???????? ?????????? ?????? ?????? Grub. ???? ??а???????????
Bliss OS ?а??????? ???? ????, ???????? ??????, ??? л???????╗
??????? ???????? ?аLinux, ??????????? ????????????, ????????,
??????????, ??? ???????, ??? ??? ????????.
??а????????? Bliss ?а??а??????????? ??? ?а???? ????????, ???????? ??? ??? ?????? ???????. ????????.
???????? ???? ?????????
??? ??а?????, ???? ??а?????? ????????????, ????????? ????? Bliss ??? ????? ????????????? ??а????? Pixel, ??????? ???????? ???????? ??????????? Android ?аLinuxа? ??? ????? ????????
???????? ??????? ????????? Android ??а???????? ????????
????, ??????? ??????? ?? ????? ?????? ????????????????.
?????, ??? Taskbar [?????? ?????]. ?????? ????? ??а???????? ???
?????а?? ???? ???? ??????????????, ??????? ??а????, ???????а??
??, ????????? ??? ???????????? ????? ??????? ??а?????? ?????
??а????? ??????? ?????? Bliss, ???????? ??????????? ???????а????? Windows, ??а??????? ?????????? ???? ?????????? ?а????- ??? ?а?????. ????? ????????? ?????? Bliss OS ??а?? ??????
??? ????. ??? ?????????? ???????????? ??????? Bliss, Bliss OS
???????????? ???????? ????. |
????? ???????????? ?а?????????? ??? ????? ??а???????, ???а????
??????????????, ????????? ?????????? Substratum.
????? ?????????? ?????????? ????? ????????? ??а??????
?????, ??? ???? ??? ???????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ?а?????
??????? ???????????. ????? ???? ?????????? ?а????????
???????????: ??????? Bliss
?????????? ??? ?????????? ?а??????????? ?????? ??????????: www.blissroms.com
??????? Android ?а????н???? ???????? ?????, ?а??а??????????
????????: Apache License v2.0, GPL 3.0
??-?????????? ???????????????.
?????????????????? ??а????? ?????? ???????? ???? ?????????????????????
7/10
???, VideoLAN ???? ????????????? ????? HD Matroska ??????
??????????????????
7/10
?а???а????????. ?а??????? ??аRemix OS, ?????????? ????????
???????? ?а??????
5/10
???????? ???????. ?а??? ?????? ???????????? ????????? ??????????????????
5/10
??? ??а???????, ???????? Google Play ???? ????????, ???????
????????? ????? ?????????? ?а??????.
??????????? ?а??????????? ????????, ??а???????
?????? ?????????? Androidа? ?, ?????????????, Bliss OSа?
??????? ?а????????, ????? ??? ?????????????.
??-???????? ???????????? ??? ?????? ??а??????? ?а???????.
??????? ?????? ?????? ?????????.
?????? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ????????????? ?????
?а???????????? ??????????, ???? Bliss ????? ??????? ????????
????? ?а??????? ????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ?????????
B
???????
╗ ???????6/10
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
???? 2018? LXF238? |?15
?????? ????????????? ??????????
Samsung 970 Evo SSD
???????????? ?????????? ??????????? PCI Expressа? ???????? ????
????????а???????.
????????????
??
??
??
??
??
??
??
??????? 1а??
????????? M.2
???? NVMe 1.3
PCIe 3.0?╫?4
?????? Phoenix
??? 64????????
3D TLC
??? 42 ??
???????н
?????????
3400/2500а??/?
(??????/??????)
IOPS 500K/450K
(??????/??????)
????????
6а??/30а???
(?а??????/?а???????)
?????????????
600а??
???????? 5 ???
??
??
??
??
amsungа? ??? ??а?????????? ??????? ??а????? SSD,
????????? ????? ???????????? ??????????. ?а????н
??? ??а?????? ???????????, Samsung ??????????
???н???????? NAND, ??????????, ???????? ?а?????. ??? ???? ???
???????????? ??? ?а???????????????, ??? ?а?а??????????????????, ?аSamsung ????????? ??а??????? ????? NVMe [????????????????? ??????] ??? ????? ?а??? ?а??????? ??????? 950 Pro
?а?????а2015а?.
960 Pro ?аEvo ???????? ???????: Pro ????????? ????? ??????? ??????????????????, ?аEvo ?????????????????? ??а?????????? ???????, ??а???? ????? ?????? ?????????????????? ??а?????
??????? ????. ???????????? ??????? ?????? Samsung 970 Pro
?аEvo ????????? ??? ???????. ??? ?????????????? ?а??????????
?????? ??????? 960.
S
970 EVO ?????????????
?????????? ?????????????? ??а?????????
?а ????????????????.
???????, ???????????
? 970 Evo ???? ????????? ?????????????? ?????????. ??-??????,
????? ?ал??????????╗ ?????????? Phoenix ????? ???? ????, ???
?а?????????? ?????????? Polaris; ???? ??а???? ?????????????
??? ????? ????? ????-???????? ?а????????????. Phoenix ???????? ???????, ???? Samsung ??а????????? ?????? ???????? ???????.
???????????? ??????? ?а????????????? ??????????? ???????????, ?а?????? ???????? ?????? 2а??: ????????????? ??????
??????????????? ??????? ??а150а?? ?????? ??а250 ??. ??? ??а50?%
????? ??а????????? ?а???????? 960 Evo.
????????? ?а??????????? ?аV-NAND ?????? ??а????????????
?????????????????? ??????/?????? ?а??????????? ??а???????.
IOPS ?????????????, ???????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????; ???????? ?????? ?????????? ???? ???, ?а?????
???? ??????.
??? ??? ????? ???????????, ??а?????? ?????????????????? ????????? ??????, ??? ??????????? ????????????? ????а??
??????? ???????????? ?????????. ??а???????? ???????????
??????????? NVMe SSD ???а??????????? SATA SSD ?????
?????? ???а?????? ?а???????? ???????. ???а???????????????? ???????????? ????? ??????, ??? ?????????? ????????????
╗╗??? ???????????? ???????????
??????????? ?а?????????? ??????? ???????? ??? ??????
?????????? ??????????? ????? ??а??????? ??????? ????? ?????
???????? ???????????? ??????????? NVMe.
? ????? ?????? 970 Evo ????????? ????? ??????, ?а??????
Optane 900P ??аIntel ????? ????????? ??а?????? ?????? NVMe.
????? ?????? M.2, ??????? ??а???????????, 970 Evo 1а?? ????н
???? ?????? ?????, ?????? ??а500 ??а? ?????????, ?а512 ?? 960
Pro ?а950 Pro ????????? ????? ????. ??а????????? ?а960 Evo
500а??, ?а????? ????? ?????????????????? 970 Evo 500а?? ??????????? ??а17?%.
????????? ?а???????????? NVMe ??????????? ?а???, ???
???а??????? SSD ????????? ??а?? ????? ???????? ???????? ????????, ?а????? SATA ??-???????? ????? ????? ????????????.
??? ??????? SATA SSD ??????а? ??? 1а?? Crucial MX500, ?????????? 20 ?????? ??а??; Samsung 970 Evo 1а?? ????? 38 ??????а?
??? ??а90?% ??????.
???-??? ??? ????????? ??а??, ??? ??а?????? ?????? ?а????????? ???? PCIe ???????????? x4 Gen3, ???????? ??? ???????????????? ???????. Samsung 970 Pro ????? ????????????
?????? ??????? ?????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????????,
????????, ??????, ??? ????? x4 ??а????????? ??а????????. ?????
PCIe Gen4. |
???????
????
970 Evo
1 ??
WD Black
1 ??
960 Evo
1 ??
Intel 760p
512 ??
????????????????
?????? (??/?)
3562
3484
3394
3056
2511
2853
1949
1606
390 IOPS
362 IOPS
391 IOPS
384 IOPS
354 IOPS
271 IOPS
338 IOPS
322 IOPS
10-?? ??????????? (?)
7,40
7,47
11,68
8,76
???? ????? ??? ???????? ?????????, Samsung 970
??а??????????? ?а???????? ????????????.
10-?? ???????? (?)
12,64
12,74
25,2
23,9
╗ ???????8/10
????????????????
?????? (??/?)
?????? ? ????????????
???????? (??/?)
?????? ? ????????????
???????? (??/?)
16? |? LXF238? ???? 2018
?????????????: Samsung
????: www.samsung.com/ssd
????: г?376 1а?? (250 ?? г?100, 500 ?? г?199)
????????????????
??????????????????
???????? ?а??????
????????????? ????
9/10
8/10
9/10
8/10
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
????????? ??????
AMD Ryzen 7 2700X
??????????, ??а?????а?? ??? ?????? ??????????а? ?????? ?
?????? ?????...
????????????
??
??
??
??
??
??
?????? AM4
??? 64???????
??????????
14 ??
???? ??????
?????? 16
???????? ???н
???? 3,7а???
(4,3а??? ?????)
??? 16 ??аL3,
4а?? L2,
768а??аL1
?????? DDR4,
??? ??????, ????????? ECC
PCIe v3.0, 24
(16?+?4?+?4)
??????????????
105а??
??
??
??
??
MD Ryzen ????? ????? ?????. ????????? ?????, ???
????????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????????
?а???, ??????????а?? ???????? AMD, ????? ?????? ??????? ??? ??а?????. ??аAMD ??????????, ?а??? ???а? ???? ??????
???? ??????, ????????. ??? ???????? ???????? ????????? ??????????? Ryzen ?????? ???????? ?????? ????????????? ?а?????????????? ???????? ????? ??-???????????. ?а?????? ?а??? ????
????????? AMD ??????? ????????? Ryzen. AMD ?????????, ?а???
?а???????, ???? ???? ??а??а????????? ????????? AMD. ???????????а? ??? ?????? ??????.
????????, ??????????????? ??? Ryzen 7?2700X ??? ????????????? ?????? ????????? ????а?? ????????. ??а????? ???????????, ?а???????? ??? Zen+, ?а?????????? Ryzen ???? Zen. ??а???
??а????????? ?а???????????, ??а????? ???????, ??а?????????????? ????, ??а????????? ????? PCI Express, ??а????????? ?????????... ??????. ??? ????????? ?а???? ???? ????????? ?а????????????????? ???????? ?а?????????? ?????????? ????????.
????? ???????, ?????????? ????????????а? ??? ???????
??а????????? 14??? ?????????? ????????????????? ????????
Global Foundries ??а??? ????????? 12???. ????? ??а????????
?????? ?а????? ???????????????????? ?????????, ??а???????
????, ??а????? ????????? ?а??а??????? ??? ???а???????????
?????????. GloFo ??????????, ??? ????????? ?а??? 14??? ?????????? ???? ????????? ??????н???? ?????????? ?, ?а???? ???????,
?????????? ?????????????? ????????? ??а15?%.
????????, ????? ?????а? ?а???????? ????????? ??????, ????
?а?????????а? ????????? GloFo ?а10?% ?????????? ?????????н
????????? ???????? 12??? ??а????????? ??а?????? 14???.
??а?????? AMD ???????, ??? ??? ?????????? ?а????? ???? ?????
250а???, ??а4,35а???, ?а????????????? ???????? ??????????
?а???????? ???? ???? ??а4,2а???. ????? ?????????, ??? ??????
????????????? 16?????????? ?????? 2700X ?????????? ??? ???????? ??????? ??????? 3,7а??? ?а???????????? ?????? ??а4,3а???.
A
??????? ????????
?????????? 3,6а??? ?а4,0а???, ??????????????, ?а????? ???????
????????????? ????? ????????? Ryzen ??????? ????????? 1800X.
??? ???????: ?????????? 2800X ??а?????. ??а???а?? ?????, ???
????????, ???? AMD ??а????????? ?????? 2800X ?а???????.
??а????????? ????? ????? 2700X? ??а????? ????, ??а????? ???
????? ????? ??? ?????, ??? ?а??????????, ??????? ??а??????
??? ????????.
???????? 2700X ?а??????? ??? ?а???а?? ?????????, ??? ??????
??? ??????? ????? ?????? 1800X. ??а?? ??????????? ?????, ??а??
??????, ??а?? ??????????. ????? ????????????? ?????. 1800X
???????? 1640 ????? ?аCinebench. ???????? ??? ??а10?% ?????????
??????????????????, ??а??????? ????????? ????? ???????, ?а????????? ???????? 1804 ?????. ??????????? 1814. ?а??? ????????
????????н??? ?????. ??а??????? ????, ???, ??? ?????????????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ????????.
?????????????, ????????? 10?% ????????? ???? ?а???????.
1800X, ????????????? ??а????? ????????????? ??????, ????????? 3,9а??? ??а???? ?????. ???????? 10?%, ?а??а?????? ???????
4,2а??? ??а????? 2700X, ?????? ??? ?а????.
??????????? ???? ??????????????? ??????????????????
???????? ??, ??? ??а???? ????? 2700X ?????????? ??????
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
????????? AMD ?????? ?????????,
??а????????? ????????? ?????????
?а2700X.
1800X, ?а??? ??????, ??? ??а?????????? ??????? ?????????
??????????? ??????? ?а?????????????? ??????? ??????????? ?а???а???????????? ?????? ?????????. ??а4,2а??? 2700X
???????? ?аCinebench 1888 ??????. ??? ????а?? ???????, ???
??а??????? ????????.
??? ??? ????????, ??? ????? ????????? Ryzen ??????? ????????? ??а???????? ??????????? ????? ??????. ??? ???? ??а???????
?а????? ?????? ?????? ????????????? ???аRyzen ??????? ?????????. ???????????? ??????????? ???????? ?????? ????? ?????????
??????. ????а?? ??а????? ????? ????? ?????? ?????? ?????н?????
??????, ??а??? ??? ????? ????а?? ???????????? ?????????.
??? ??а????? 2700X ????????????? ??????? ??а???? ????
??????????-????????? Ryzen. ??а???????????? ??????? ?є?????
?????????????????? ??а??????? ?????? ?????. ??? ??а????????????????? ??? ???, ??а??а?????????? ????? ???? ??????????, ???
??? ??? ????? ???????. |
???????
?????????????: AMD
????: www.amd.com
????: г?280
????????????????
??????????????????
???????? ?а??????
????????????? ????
9/10
9/10
9/10
8/10
?????? ????????? ?а???????? ???????????????????
?а????? ?а???????? ????????????? ??????? ???????? Ryzen 7 2700X.
╗ ???????9/10
???? 2018? LXF238? |?17
?????? ????????????? ??????????
Intel SSD DC P4510
??????? ?????????????, ?????? ???а? ?????? ?а??????? ????-????? ??а2а??.
????????????
??
??
??
??
??
??
??????? 2а??
????????? U.2
???? NVMe PCIe
3.0?╫?4
?????? Intel
??? 64????????
3D TLC
???????н
?????????
3200/2000а??/?
(??????/??????)
IOPS 637K/81,5K
(??????/??????)
????????
18/77а???
(??????/??????)
????????
12/5а??
(?а??????/?а???????)
?????????????
2,61 ????????
??а??????
???????? 5а???
??
??
??
??
??
? ????????? ???-??? Intel ????????? ????? ????????????? ??????????, ?????????? ?а??????? ????? PCI
Express ?а??????? SATA, ?а????? ????????, ???? M.2,
?а?????????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????? NVMe ?а????????? ?????, ?а???? ????????? ??????????? ?а?????????? ?????????? NAND ?а?????? ??????????? ????? ?????????? 3D Xpoint.
??? ?????? ??? ???????????. Intel SSD ??? ???????? ??? ?????
????????????. ?а???а?? ???? ??? ???-???, ?а?????? ? ????? ????? Intel SSD DC P4510. ??? ???????? ?а????????????? ?а???????
?????? 8а??, ??а?а????? ?????? ?а2а??. ??????????? ??????????
??а????????????? ??????????. ?????????????, ????? ?????????
??а????? P4510а? ??а???а1а??.
?
??? ???а????????
?? ?????? ?????????? P4510 ???????? ???????. ???????? ?????????? ?????????? 2,5 ?????, ?а???а??????? ????????? 3D-TLC
????-?????? (??. ???? ?????? ?аLXF232/235). ??а??????????
??а?????а? ??????? ?????. ?????? ??????, ??а???????????? ???
?????????????? ??????????, ???? ???????? ???????? (??????
??????????? ?DC?а? Data Center), ??а???а?? ??? ???????????
?????????? ??? ??????? ????????. ??а???????????? ????? ?????
????????? ????????? U.2, ?????????????? Intel, ???????, ??н
????, ?????????????? ??а?????? SATA, ??а????? ??а?????????.
????? ????????? ???????? ?????????????? U.2. ????? ????????? ??? SFF-8639, U.2 ???????????? ?????? ????? PCIe
gen-3 ?а???????? NVMe, ?.??., ????????????? ????? ????????? M.2.
?????????????, ?????????? ????????, ????????????? ?????
M.2а?а????? U.2. ??????? ??????????? ?а????????? ??????????
U.2, ???а???? ????? ?????? ??а??????? ?????????? ????? ?????
??а?????? ?????????? SAS, ?а??а??????? ??????????? ?????а? ??а??????? ???? SATA. ?????? NANDа? 512 ?? 64???????? 3D-TLC Intel, ?а????????? NVMe ????????? ??а?????? 1.2.
?а??????? ????????????? ?????? Intel P4510 ???????? ?а?????
??????? ??????? ?а??????? ?????????????? ?а????????? ??????, ??? ??? ?????? ???????????. ??? ??а????? ?а???????????
??????? ??а??-???????? ????? ?????. ?????? 2а?? ??????????
??а3200а??/?а??а?????? ?а2000а??/?а??а??????. IOPS ?????? ?????????? 637K, ?аIOPS ?н ?????а? ?????? 81,5K.
??? ???????? ????? ???????? ???????? ????? ???? ???????
?????????????. Intel ????????? ??? ??а0,7 ??????????? ?а????
(DWPD). ????? ??????? ????? NAND Intel ??????????? ????????
????
Intel DC P4510
2 ??
Intel 760p
512 ??
Intel 800p
1182 ??
Samsung 960 Evo
250 ??
???????????
30а??а(?)
32
66
76
89
3158
2811
1372
1682
2032
1593
627
1475
?????? 4K (??/?)
35
75
229
64
?????? 4K (??/?)
207
218
176
191
????????????????
?????? (??/?)
????????????????
?????? (??/?)
18? |? LXF238? ???? 2018
? ????????????? ?????????? Intel P4510 ????????????
??????аU.2, ?????????? ???????? PCIe ?а??????? ???????????
??????аSATA.
?а3DWPD, ?а??????????н???? Optane P4800X ??а3D Xpoint, ?????
??? 30DWPD. ??? ????????: ??? 15?????????????? ??????????
U.2 ?, ?????????????, ???????? ????? ????? 2,5??????????
?????????? SATA.
?? ?????????? ?а????????????? ???????????; ??а??? ????????????? P4510? ??? ????????????? ?????? ?а????? ??????
??????? ??? ?????? ??? ????? ????? ???????????, ??а??? ??????????? ????? ????? ?????? ??????. ??????? ?????????????????? ????????????????? ??????? ????????????? ?????????? Intel,
?а???????????? ?????? ???????? ??????, ???? ?а???????? ????????. ?а??? ?????????? ??????????? ????? ???????? P4510 ???
????? ?????????: 32 ???????а? ??? ???????? ???????? ???????,
?????????????? ???????? ???????? M.2, ?а??????, ????? ??????.
???????, ???? 2??? SSD ????а?? ???????? ????? ???????????
???????? ?????????????? ?????????? ???????. ????? ????????? ???? ???????? ???????. ??а????? ????????? ?а??????????
?????????? U.2, ?а???? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????????
?а???????????? P4510 ????????????? ???????? ???????? ??????
??????????, ??? ??? ????? ????? ????? ?????. ???? ??аг?801. |
???????
?????????????: Intel
????: www.intel.com/ssd
????: г?801 2а?? (г?383 1а??, г?1470 4а??)
????????????????
??????????????????
???????? ?а??????
????????????? ????
9/10
9/10
8/10
7/10
????????????? ??????????, ??а???????????? ???
?????????? ??, ??а???????????? ???????? ?????????????????? ?а?????????????.
╗ ???????8/10
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
?????? ????????? NAS
Netgear ReadyNAS 422
???? ?????????????????, ??? Netgear ??????? ????? ?????? ?????????????? NAS!
????????????
??
??
??
??
??
??
????????? Intel
Atom C3338
??? 2 ?? DDR4
?????? 2
???????? 24а??
???????? ????
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3?╫?USB 3.0
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???????? 5а???
???????? 13,46?╫?
23,88?╫?19,3 ??
??? 3,5а??
??
??
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??? ?????????? ???а???????????? ??????, ??а?а???????
????? ?????? ????? ???????????? ??????????? ???
?????? ?????. ????????а?? Synology ??? ????? ????? ???????????? ReadyNAS ?а??? ???????? ?????, ??? ??? ????????
RN422 ????????? ?????????? ???????н????? ?????????,
??? ??н?????? ??????? ???? ??а????????? ??????? ??????.
????????? ????? ????? ReadyNAS ??аNetgear ??????????????
?а????????н???? ????????????????. ???????? ?????? ?????????
????? ?а????????? ?????? ?а???? ?????????? ??????? ??? ??????,
??????????? ?????? ??????????? ?а2,5?, ?а3,5????????? ?????.
?є????? ????? ??а??????? ???????????? ??? ?????????, ??а???
2,5????????? ??????? ?????? ??? ????????????? ???????????
??????????? ????????. ??? ??????????? ??????? ????????? ????
USB-???? ????????? ??????? ???а???????, ?а?????а? ?????? USB,
3.0, ?а????? ???? ???? eSATA. ?????? ????? ??а??????? ???????
???????????? ???????????? ???????, ??а?? ?а????; ??н????
?а???? ?????????????? ?а??????? ???? ?????? ?а??????????а?
????? ??????? ?а???????????н???? ?а????????? ?????????.
??? ???, ??? ??????? ????????? ?а?????????? Synology NAS,
???????? ????? ????? ???????? ????? ??????????. ?аNetgear
??????? ????? ??????? ????????? ?а???? ????? ???????????
ReadyNAS. ????????? ?????????? ??а63 ????????????
??а???н???????? ?????, ???????????? Synology, ??а????????
??????? ????? ???а?? ???????????????? ?а???? ??????????????? ???н???????. Drupal, IDrive, GLPI, Joomla, LimeSurvey,
Logitech Media Server, PHP, Python ?аSugarCRM ???? ??а?????
???????н???, ?а???????????????? ?????? ?????? ??????????
????????н??? ?????????. ??? ????????? ???????????? ??????
??????????? Docker, ????????? ??? ????????? DNS-?????? ???
??????????н???? ???????-??????. ?????????? ????? ??? ?????
????? ???????????? ???????, ?а??? ?????????????? ?а??????
?аDebian ??????????? RN422 ????????н??? ??а??????????.
?
? ??????
????????? ???????? ???????? ??аNetgear ???? ????? ??????,
?а10?? ??????????????? ???????????? ??? ?????? ?аReadyн
CLOUD, ReadyNAS Vault, ReadyNAS Replicate, Google ??????, Amaн
zon Drive, Amazon S3, Dropbox, Microsoft Azure, OneDrive ?аWasabi.
???? ?????????? ???? ???????????? ??????а? ??, ??? ?а??????
???? ??? ???н?????? ???????, ?? ?аWordPress ?????? ???а?????.
???? ??а??????? ???????? ?????????????? ????а? ????????
?????????? ????????? ????????????: ??? ????????? ?????????
??????? ?????????????? ???? ?????? ??????????? ???????
?а?????? ???????? ????????? ?а??а????????????. ????? ?????н
???? ????????? ??????????? ??аNFS, FTP ?а????? ????????
???н???? ?а?????????? Rsync (??? ???а???). ????????? ??????????
??????????? ????? ????????? ????? ??а?????????? ?????????,
??????? ????????? ??? ????????? ???????. ?а?????, ?а????н????
???????????? Synology, QNAP, Asustor ??? ?????? ??а?????? ??????? ??????? NAS, Netgear ReadyNAS 422 ???????? ??????????????????? ?????????, ?а?????? ??а?????? ?????????????.
? ?????????? ??????????? Atom, ????????????? ?????
???????????? ?????????? NAS, ?????????????? ????????
????? ???????? ??а?????????, ?????? ??? ???? ???????? ????н????
?????; ??? ????? Gigabit LAN. ?аNetgear ??????? ??? ????? Gigabit,
20? |? LXF238? ???? 2018
???????????? ???????,
??????????а?а?????? ??????????, ?????
?????????? ???????????н???? ?????????.
?а??а?????? ???????????? ??а??? ???????? ?????????? ??????????? ????? ?????????? ??????? ??? ?????? ??????? ?????????????. ? ????? ???????????? Ethernet-?????? ?а???????, ???????????? ?а?????????? ??????, ??????? ???????????? ?????????
???????? ?????? 118,5 ??/?а?а?????? 117,8 ??/?. ???а????????????? ????? ?????? LAN ???????? ??????????? ??а????????????
200 ??/?а?а185 ??/?.
?????? ???????, ??а?????? ???????????? Netgear EDA500а?
?????????? ????? ReadyNAS ?а????? ????????, ????????????
????? ???? eSATAа? ??? ?????????? ?а????????? ??????????????
????????; ??а????а?? ?????????н??? ??????? ?а?????? ??????
?????? ??????? ?а?є????? ??????н????? ???????. |
???????
?????????????: Netgear
????: http://bit.ly/readynas422
????: г?339 (?а????? ????????)
????????????????
??????????????????
???????? ?а??????
????????????? ????
8/10
9/10
7/10
8/10
Netgear ???????? ReadyNAS OS 6, ?а????????????
?????? ?????????? ??????, ????? ???????????? ???
????????? ??а?????????.
╗ ???????8/10
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
???????? ??????
OnePlus 6
?????? ????? ?????????? ??????? ??????
?????а???-???????????? ????? ????????...
????????????
??
??
?? Android 8.1
Oreo
??????
Qualcomm
Snapdragon 845
CPU 8?н???????
4?╫?2,8а???,
4?╫?1,7а???
????? 6,28 ?????, 1080?╫?2280
??? 6 ??
(н?????а? 8 ??)
???? 64 ??
(?????а?
128а??/256 ??)
?????? 16аMP
+ 20 MP dual-н
LED ?????
2160p@60fps,
??????? 16 MP
1080p video
???????? 155,7?╫?
75,4?╫?7,8а??
??? 177а?
??
??
??
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nePlus 6а? ????? ?????????? ???????-????????,
??????? ????? ?????????? ??а???????? ????? ??????
?????????????. ??а???????? ????????? ?а??????,
????????? ???? ?????? ?а???? ????? ?а?????? ???????????
??????????, ??? Samsung Galaxy S9 ?аiPhone X, ?????????? ??????? 6,28????????? ??????? ?а?????? ???????, ??????? ??????
?а??????? ??????? ?а??????????? ????????????? ??? ??????????
??????, ???а?а?????????????? ????, ??а???а???? ??? ?а????????
?????????? ?? 256а??.
???????а? ??????а??????? ???????? ????????. ???????н???,
??? ????? ??????? ??????? ??а??? ??????? ?????, 6,28????????? ?????? Full Optical AMOLED, ????????? 6,1????????? ??????????? ??а5T. ?????????? ???????? ??????????а? л??????╗
Full HD. ??а???? 2280?╫?1080, ????? ???? ??????, ?а??? ???????????
?????????? ????????? 402 ???????? ??а???? ??а???????????
???????? OnePlus.
??? ??а?????, ?а????, ??? ??а??????? ?????????? ????? Quad
HD ?????? ?????????? ??????, ??????????а? ???????? ???????, ?а????? ????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ???? ?а????????
??????? ???????.
??? ??а???? ????? ???????? ???? ?а?????? ?а????????????
????????? ??????? ???????????. ??а???????? ??? ??? ?а???
?аGalaxyаS9, ??а???????, ??? ????? OnePlus 6 ???а?? ??а??? ?????а? ????? ??????????? ????????? HDR.
O
????????? ???????
????? ?????????? ????? ?????? ?а?????, ????? ????? ???????????? 84?% ???????????? ??????????????, ??? ???? ????????
??????? ?????????? ???????. ?????? ????? ???????? ?????
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???????? ??????а? ??? ??????????? ?????? 5? ?а????? ?????????, ?????????????? ??аSony, ??а?а??????????????
??????н???? ????????????? ???????????
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????????? ?????? ??????????? ??????
????? 480 ?????? ?а??????? [fps] ???а?????????? 720p ??? 240 fps ???а?????????? 1080p.
???? ?????? ??????? ????????
??????? ??? ????????. ??а??????? ??а3300???╖? ????? ??????
???? ??н????. ??, ??а??????? ????,
??? ?????????????? ??????????
??????? ???????.
?????? Geekbench 4 ??????
???????????? ????????????? ????????? 9100, ??? ?????, ??? ?аSony
Xperia XZ2, Galaxy Note 8 ?аGoogle
Pixel 2 XL. ?????? iPhone X ?????????? ???????? ??а??????
????? 10?000.
?? ??????? OnePlus 6а? ???
????? ?????? ??????? ??????, ?а?????
?аiPhone X, Samsung Galaxy S9, Sony XperiaаXZ2
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
????????? ??????????
?????? OnePlus6 ??????
???????? ??????????
???????.
?аLG G7 ThinQ ????? ??а???????? ?а??а????????? ???? ???н????н
???. ???? ?????, OnePlus 6а?а??а????? ??????????? ????????,
??? Galaxy S9, ?а??а???????? ????????????????? iPhone X,
??а?а?????? ??? ??????? ???? ?????? ???????? ???????????
?а?????? ???????????. |
???????
?????????????: OnePlus
????: www.oneplus.com
????: г?469 64 ?? (г?519 128 ??, г?569 256 ??)
????????????????
??????????????????
???????? ?а??????
????????????? ????
9/10
9/10
9/10
9/10
OnePlus 6 ????????? ??????, ?а????? ??а????????
?а??а????????? ???? ????????? ????? ?а???????
???????? ?????? ?? Apple, Samsung ?аSony.
╗ ???????9/10
???? 2018? LXF238? |?21
?????? ????-?????
Rise ofаthe TombаRaider
??? ????????????? ??а????? ?????? ??????, ??? ?????? ????????? ??????а?
??а???, ??????? Linux Format ?????? ??????? ??а??????????.
???????? ?????? ????????
Rise ofаtheаTomb Raider [??????????
???????? ???????????????
?? Ubuntu 17.10
???????] ??? ???????????. ???? ????????
64???????
?????? ??а?????; ???????????? ???????н
CPU Intel Core i3
??? ?а???а? ???????? W, ????? ????
4130T ??? ????????? ???? ??а????. ???????? ?????????
??? ??аAMD
???????????? ?а???????????? Tomb Raider
??? 8 ??
2013а?. ?а??? ???????????? ?а???????? ????? 28 ??
??? ????????. ?а?????-?? ?????? ?????
GPU Nvidia AMD
????????????, ???????? ??????????????,
R9 285 (GCN
??а???????? ?????????, ?????? ?а???3-?? ?????????),
????. ???????????? ??? ?????, ????????
Nvidia GTX 680,
?????????, ?????????? ??а???? ????? ?????????? ??? ???? ??? ??? ????????
2а?? Vram
?? ?а????????? ?????? ????????????, ???
????????? ???????.
NB: ??????? Vulkan,
???? ??????а? ??а??а????а?? ???. ?????
??????? Nvidia
??а??????? ??а???...
396.18+, AMD Mesa
?????? ??????????????, ??а?а???????,
???????, ??а???а?????????? ???? ??? ??????? ??????? ????
17.3.5+. ???????
?а???????? ??????. ????? ???? Rise ofаtheаTomb Raider ?а????????
??????? ?????????? ?????. ???????, ????? ?????? ???????.
Intel ?? ?????????????????????? ????????????????? ?????? ???????????????.
????????? ??? ???? ????-???? ??? ?ал???????╗: ???? ??????????
??????. CPU ??????? ??-???????? ??????? ???????? ????, ??а???, ???? ?а?????????
??а?????, ?????????? Remnant [???????], ?,а???????? ??а??а????
SSE2
????????, ????????? ??? ???????? ?а????? ????????? ???????????? ?а????????? ????? ??????? ???????????, ????? ??????? ????????? ?а???????????, ???????? ?????????? ????. ?а????
?????? ???? ????????????? ?а????? ?а???????????? ?а??????????
?????????????
???????? ???? ????? ?????????????, ??а??? ????????? ?а??????
????? ?????.
CPU i7 3770K
???????? ??????????????. ??? ?а????????????? RotTR ?а?????.
??? 12 ??
?????? ???????, ??? ?????? Tomb Raider ??????????, ??а??а?????
????, ??а??????... ??а??? ?????
GPU Nvidia GTX
??????????? ???????????. ?????? ?????????? ????????, ?????? ?????? ????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ?????. ??? ??-????????
980Ti
??????? ??????????, ?????? ???? л????-??????╗.
?а???? ????, ??а???? ???? ????????????? ?????? ??? ??а??????? ????? 28 ??
????????? ??????????? ???? ???????? ?а??????, ??а???
???? ??а???????, ???, ??а??????? ????, ?????? ?????????? ?а????
?а????????, ????? ??? ??а????? ?????????? ?а?????. ???? ????????
?????. ????? ??????? ?????? ??а????, ?а??????, ???? ???????
??а???????????? ??????????а? ??????????, ??????? ??а????
?????????????? ????? ???????? ???????, ?????????????? ????????? ????? ???????. ?????? ???? RotTR ?а??а???????????????
??? ??????????, ?а????????? ??а?????????? ??????, ??????? ?????????????? ???????????: ????? ???? ??????? ???? ????? ????.
??? ??????. ??? ?а??????, ?????? ??? ????? ???????? ????????.
????????? ??????? ????? ??????? ??-???а????????, ???????? ??Rise ofаtheаTomb Raiderа? ??? ?а??? ??????????????а? ???????
??? ????????? ?????? ???????????? ??????, ??? ??????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ?а????????. ??????????? ?????? ??а?????????????? ??????????.
??????? ?а??????????? ????, ????? ??? ??????????? ??????????
????? ??, ??? ??? ???? ?????????? ????. ?аTomb Raider ??а???????? ????? ?а???? ???а??????????. ???? ????????, ?????
??? ????, ??????? ?а????????а? ?а??? ???? ???а?????????? ???????????? ?а???????? ??????????? ??а??????????? ?????????
??? ????. ?аRotTR ???? ????? ??????????? ?а????? ???????????
????????. ????? ??????? ???????? ???? ?????? ????????, ?а?????
??????? ???????????.
???? ??????????????? ????????? ????? ????? ?????? (??л?????????╗ ?????? ???? ????? ??????
??????,
???????? ?а????????) ?а?????????? ?а?????? ?????????.
??????. ??? ???? ???? ???? ?????.
??????????? ???????? ??????; ???? ???????? ??????????а?
?????????? ?????? ?????????? ??????????н???? ????????.
????????? ????????? ??????? ?а???????????, ?а????????
????????а? ????????? ?а????????????? ???????. ??а???а?
????? ?????? ?????????. ??????????? ?а???????? ?????? ?????
??????? ????, ???????? ?а????????? ?а????????, ???????????
???а????????? ?????? ????.
????? ?а???? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ???? ?????????
?????? ??????????? л??а????╗. ?????? ?а??????????? ?????????? ?а????? ?????? ????? ???????, ?а????? ?????????? ????????, ????????? ?????? ????????? ???????. ??????? ???????????? ?а???????? ????????; ?????? ?????а? ?а???. ???????????
???????? ???????, ??а??????? ??а???????? ?????????, ?????
??а??а?????? ????????? ????????? ?а???? ??????.
????????????
??
??
?
??
??
??
??
??
??
??
22? |? LXF238? ???? 2018
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
????-????? ??????
╗╗?????????????????? ? LINUX
? Feral ???????? ??????????? ?? ?????? Linux. ??? ???????? ?? ?????????????
Vulkan, ? ??????? ??????? ??????? ??????????? ? ??????????? ????????? Nvidia
??? AMD; ?? ??????? ????????. ???? ???? ????????? ?????????? Nvidia GeForce
GTX 750 ????????? ??????? ???? ?? ?????????? 1080p ?? ????????? 30 ??????
? ??????? [fps], ???? ? ? ????????? ???????????? ?? ?????????. ??? ?? н???????
?? ??????????? ? ???????????? (??? ?? ?????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ???
Windows), ??? ???????? ??????????? ????.
?? ????, ???? ?????? ?????
??а???????? ???????????.
????????? ????????
????? ??а??а???????? ??а?????а? ???? ??? ?????? ?????? ??????
??? ????????? ???? ??а???????? ?????а? ??а?????????? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ?????????. ????????? ???????????,
???????????, ?а?а??????????? ??а??? ????? ????????????? ???????. ????????? ?????? ????????? ?????, ??????? ??? ???????
?????, ??????? ???? ????? ?а????? ?????????? ?????????????.
?? ???? ???????? ???? ??? ????????, ?а?????????????? ??а????????? ????????????? ???????? ????? ?????? ???????????
?а??? ???????. ??????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ???????
?а???????? ??????? ???????? ????? ??а???? ??????, ?а????????
??а???????????. ?????????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ???????????? ??????? ??а??????, ?????????? ??????????????? ??????
?а???????? ??а?????. ???????? ?????????? ?????, ?а??????? ?????????? ?????? ??????. ?а?????? ?????? ??а??????? ?????????
?а?????????? ????????, ????????? ???????????? ????? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ?а????.
???? ?а???? ????? ?а????????????, ??? ??? ??, ??? ????????
?????????????????? ????????? ???????? ?????, ?а??а????????
???????. ???? ????? ?????????? ???????? ???????, ????????
?????? ??а?????????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ??аSurvival Instinct
[????????? ?????????]. ??? ?????????????? ????? ?????????,
??????? ????????? ???? ????????? ????, ????? ??????????
??????? ???????????, ?а????? ????? ??????? ??? ???????? ???
????????? ????.
??? ???????? ??а??????? Expeditions: ????? ?????????????? ??????? ????? ?а???????, ??????? ????????? ?????????
?????????????? ????? ??? ????????? ???????????. ?????
??????? ???? ?????????? ??а??????, ??????????? ?а????????,
?а?????? ????? ?????????? ??а?????, ?????????? ???а????
?а?????? Expeditions. ???? ????? ???????? ?????????, ???????
???? ???? ???????????? ?????? ?аRotTR,
??а??? ???????? ??? ????.
? ??????? (fps)
?? ???? (fps)
????? (fps)
?????? (fps)
Windows 10
48
53,7
44,8
45
Ubuntu 18.04
38
52,7
28,6
31,9
*?
?????? ???????????, 1080p ? FXAA: Nvidia GTX 950 2 ??, 16 ?? ???,
IntelаCoreаi5а2500K
????? ???????????, ???????? ??????????? ?????? ????????????. ????? ????? ?????? ?а?????????????? ??????, ?????????
??????? ????????. ????? Feral ????? ???????? ???? ???????????
?????????????? ???????.
?? ??????, Rise ofаtheаTomb Raiderа? ??? ??????? ???????:
???????????? ??????? ???? ?а??????? ??????????? ?а????? ??????. ??аRotTR ????? ??? ?а??????, ??? ????? ???????? ??????
???????, ?????????????? ?а????? ?????????. ??? ??????????
????????? ???????????? ???? ????? ??????????. |
??????? ?????
??? ?а??????
??????.
???????
???????????: Feral Interactive
????: www.feralinteractive.com
????: г?40
????? ??????? ??????????????? ????????????? ???? 9/10
9/10
8/10
9/10
??????? ???????? ????????????, ??а?????? ???????
??? ????????? ?????? ???????????????.
╗ ???????9/10
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
???? 2018? LXF238? |?23
?????? ??????? ????
Pillars ofаEternity 2:
Deadfire
? ????????? ????????? ?????? ???? ??а?????-???? ????????? ??а???????,
????а???????????? ??? ??а?????? ????? Linux Format ?????...
????????????
???????
??
??
?? Ubuntu 14.04
LTS 64????
CPU Intel
Core i3?2100T
(2,50а???) ???
AMD Phenom II
X3 B73
??? 8 ??
?? ????? 45 ??
??????? ATI
Radeon HD 4850
??? NVIDIA GeForce 9600 GT
??
??
??
?????????????
??
CPU Intel Core
i5?2400 (3,10а???)
??? AMD Phenom
II X6 1100T
??? 8 ??
?? ????? 45 ??
??????? Radeon
HD 7700 ???
NVIDIA GeForce
GTX 570
??
??
??
?????? ????????
??а?????, ?????
????????? ????????? ??????.
24? |? LXF238? ???? 2018
? ? ????????? [Watcher], ?????,
??? ?????????, ??? ?а??????????????а? ?а???????????
??а????, ???? ??а???????? [???.:а? ??????
???????]а? ?а???????????? ?????????
?а???? ??????? ?а?????????? ?а????. ????? ??????? ?????? ???? ??а?????? ???????? ??а????? ???? ??? ?а??? ?а??????????
?а???????? ????-??? [Caed Nua]. ??а?????
?????????? ??????????? ??????, ???????
???а??????, ????????? ???а?????? ????
?????? [Eothas], ?????????? ??-???а?????,
????????? ??? ??? ?а????????? ??? ???????. ??, ???????????, ?????????, ????????? ????????????? ????????? ???????????, ?а???????, ???? ?????? ??? ???????
????????? ??а?????????? ???????? ???? [Deadfire Archipelago].
?а??а???????? ??а??? ??а????? ??????? л????????? [Defiant]╗,
??????? ?а???????? ???????.
???? ??а?????? ?????? ?а??????? [RPG] ??а??, ??а?????? ????? ??? ???????. ??а?????????????, ?????? ?а??????
??а??????????н???? ?????, ?????????????? ?а??????, ??????????
?а????????? ?а??????? ??????????. ???? ??????, ????? ?а???????, ?а??? ????? ???????????, ?????????? ???????, ??????????
?????????? ?а??????? ????????? ??????, ??? ????? ????????
??????. ??? ???????? ???????? ??? ????????? ?????? Infinity
Engine RPG.
?? ??????, ????? ?????? CRPG ???? ?????? ??????????
?????? ????????? ?а????????????. ????????? ??????????
?????, ?а??? ??????????? ????? ????????? ????????? ???????.
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????? ???? ???????????? ?а???? ?????? ??????? ??????, ??? ???????? ????? ??а?????? ?????? Obsidian ??? ????????????? RPG.
?????? [Dyrwood] ??? ??????? ???????????? ?????? ????????,
?????????? ????????? ?а????????, ??а????????? ???????? ????
??? ????? ??????????? ?а?????????. ??????????? ????? ???:
?????-??а???????? ?????? ?а???????, ??????????, ?а?????
????, ??????? ??????? ??????? ?а???????????? ??????????
?а??????????.
????????? ???????? ????а? ??? ??а?????? ?????????? ??????? ?а???????? ????????. ???????? [Neketaka], ??? ????? ???????
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?????, ???????? ??????? ???????????? ??????? [Athkatla]
??аBaldur?s Gate II ??? Torment?s Sigil: ?????????, ?????????????
????????? ????? ?????????? ???????, ?????? ???????, ?????
?а??????????? ????????. ??? ????? ????? ?????????? ???????? ???????????, ??????? ????????? ????? Obsidian. ??????,
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?а???????? ???????, ????????? ???? ??а????? ??????? ?????????? ?а?????. ??? ??-???????? ???????? ????????? Infinity Engine,
??а??? ????????? ????? ??????????? ?а?????????.
???? ???? ???????? ????а? ????? ??а??????, Deadfire ??а?????? ???? ??? ??????? ?а???? ??? ?????? ???? ??????????? ????
????? ?????????. ????? ???????? ????? ?????, ?а??? ???? ?????
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????? ????????? ?????? ????? ????? ?а???? CRPG, ?а?????
???????? ????????? ??а???? ????, ???? ??? ????? ??????? ???
??????? ?????.
????????????? ????н???? Obsidianа? ???????? ??????????
??? ?????? ??? ????, ??????? ??а??????, ?аDeadfireа? ???????, ????? ??????????? ?????????? ???? ???? ??а???????????
????. ?а????????? ????? ???? ????????, ??? ???????????? Path
ofаtheаDamned [???? ?????????], ????? ????????????? ??????????? ?а????? ??????, ????? ???????????? ????????????, ?????????? ??а??? ???????? ??????.
?????? ??????????? ??????????, ??????? ???????????? ???????-??????? ????? [Edщr], ??????? ????? ???????????
?????????? ????? [Aloth] ?а??????????? ?????? ????????? [Pallegina], ???? ????? ????, ??????? ?а????????????. ???? ??? [Maia
Rua]а? ?????????? ?а????????????? ?????? ????? ?а???????
??????? ??а????? ????? [Ishiza], ??а???????? ??а???????? ???????. ????? [Xoti]а? ????, ????????????? ????? [Gaun], ?????
??а????????? ?????? [Eothas], ??а?????????? ???????? ?????????
?????? ??? ??????? ?????????? ???. ?а??????? [Serafen]а?
???????, ?????? ?????? ?????? [Orlan], ????????? ?????????
????????? ?????????? ????
?????????????????? ????.
??????????? ???а????????? л??????? ???-??????? [Prэncipi Sen
Patrena]╗. ??? ?????????? ????????, ?а??????? ?????????, ???
??а???????? ??????????? ??а?????????, ??? ?а??????????, ???
?а???? ?а??????.
????? ??????? ?????????????? ?а????? ???????, ??а????????? ???????????? ?????? ???????, ????? ???????? ??а?????
??????????????. ??а??????? ?а????? ???а????????? ??????????? [Fort Deadlight], ?а??? ??? ?а???? ????? ???? ??а??????
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????, ??а??????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ?а?????????
?а??????? ????????. ???????? ?а???? ???? ????????? ?а?????????? ??? ????? ????, ??? ?????????, ?а???????? ??а???????
??а?????? Hitman.
Pillars ofаEternity IIа? ????????? ?????????? ???????, ????????
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??????н????? ????? ????, ????? ??а????????? ?????????.
???? ??? ??????????? RPG, ??????????? ?????????? ??????????, ????????????? ???????, ??????? ??? ?????, ?а????????
???????? ??? ??? ????????, ??а????????? ???????? ???? ???? ???
??? ?а???? ??????. ?????? ??а?????? ?????????? ??????? RPG
???, ??? ?а2015а?., ??? ??? Deadfire ??????? ????? ????, ??? ??????
???? Pillars. ??а??? ?????? ????????, ?а??а????? ???? ??? ???
???? ??????? ????? ??а?????? ?????? ?а???????, ??а????? ?????
????н???????? ??????? ????. |
?????? ????????? ??а???
???????. ?а???
????????
??а????.
???????
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????: https://eternity.obsidian.net
????: г?33 (Deluxe г?47, Obsidian г?58)
?????
???????
???????????????
????????????? ????
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?????????
???????
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??????? ??????а? ?а?????!
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??????? ?????? ???????? ?а????????? ??????????.
????? ????????? Qualcomm ????? ??????
????? Snapdragon ???????? ?????????н?????
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Snapнdragon 632, 439 ?а429 ????? ????? ???????
?????????????????? ?а???????????????????, ?а?????
????????? ????? ???????. ??????, ??????????????
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???? 2018? LXF238? |?27
?????? ????? ?? ?????????? ????? ???????? ? ? ?? ?????? ????????!
?????????
Darktable ╗ DigiKam ╗ Fotoxx
╗ Lightzone ╗ Photivo
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Ubuntuа17.10.
????????? ??????????? ?????
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28? |? LXF238? ???? 2018
???????, ??-??а????????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ????? ????? ???????????? ???????????? ?а?????????
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??а???????? ??????????????? ??, ??? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????????, ???? Kdenlive. ??а??????????? Photivo, ??????? ??а????????? ????????????? ????????, ??? ????????? ??????????? ???????? ?????????????
????? ??а???????? ?а???? ?а????????? ?????????????? ?????. ?а????? ???
?????????? ??????????? ?а???????? ?????? ??а??? ????? ??????????????
exif ?а?????? ??????????.
???????, ??а??????? darktable ???? ??????? ??????? ?а?????? ??????????
???????????, ??????????? ?а???, ??? ??? ????????????а? ??????? ????????? ?а???????? ????? ????????, ?а???????? ???????????? ???????????? ???а?????????????? ???????????. ??? ?????? darktable ?????????
?
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?????, ????? ??????? ????? ???. darktable ???? ????????? ????????? ?????
????? ?а??????????? ??????? ?????? Flickr ??? ????????? web-??????? ???
?????? ?????.
???? ??? ??????? ??а???? ???????????? ?????? ??????, ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??а8 ?? ???, ???? ??а?????????? ???????? ?а????????????? ????? ????? 100 ?? ??? ?????? ??а??????? ????? ?????? ??????????
?????? ???????????.
???????
DARKTABLE
DIGIKAM
FOTOXX
10/10
10/10
9/10
10/10
8/10
LIGHTZONE
PHOTIVO
???????????????? Photivo ?????? ??????, ?? ??? ?? ????? ??????????? ? ????.
?????????
?????????
????????а?? ??? ??а?????? ???????????
? ??????????? Fotoxx, ??????? ??????????????? ?????? ?аLinux,
?????? ??????? ????????????? ??????????????? ????????? ???
Windows, ?а????? Mac OS X.а??а??а???? ??а????? ???????? ??а???????? ??? ????????? ?????????, ????? ??? ???????? ??? ????????.
?? ???? ????????????, ?????????????? ?а????? ?????????, darktable
???????????? ?????????? ??????н???? ????????. ??а??????? ??? ?а???????????? ???????? ????? ?????????? ?????????????а? Ubuntu, Fedora, Gentoo,
Arch Linux, Debian ?аopenSUSE. ??????, ?????? Windows ?аMac, ???????????? ??? Solaris ?аBSD. ??а????? ??????? ?????? ???????????? ?а??????????
??а??? ????????? ??а?????????, ???? ??? ??????????? ??а??????????????.
?????? ?аGIMP, DigiKam ???????? ????? ??а????????? ???????? ?а??????
?????????? KDE, ??а???????? ??????????? ?а????? ??????? ?????, ????а??
??????????? ??????????? ??????????. DigiKam ???????? ?а????????????
???????? ??????????? ?????????????. ???????? GitHub ???????а? ????
???????? ??????, ???????? ?????????? ??? ????????????? ?????????н????
??????, ??????? ??а???????? DigiKam ?а????? ????????????. ??? ????? ?????? ??????? 380?M? ????? Appimage, ??????? ??а??????? ????????? ?а????????????? ??????? ????????? DigiKam ???а???????.
? ??????? ??а?????? ????????????, ??????????????? ???????????
?????? ??? ?????? ??а???????????, LightZone ????????????? ???????
?
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
PPA ??? Photivo, ????????? л?????? ????????????? [Highly explosive]!╗,
???????? ?н ????? ???????????, ?????????? ?а?????????? ?а??????????,
?а??а?????? ??а????а???????????.
??а????????????? ???????????????? ??????? ?????? ??а?????, ?а???? ??а?????
??а????????, ??а???? ?????????? ?а????????. ??а??а????????????, ??????н
????? ????????? ?а?????? ??а??????, ????? ????? ???????????? ?а??????
??????????? ?????.
?????? ?а????????????? ??? Debian ?аopenSUSE, Photivo ????? ?????? ????????????а? ?????? ???, ???? ?????? ?????????? ??? ??а?????????.
???????
DARKTABLE
DIGIKAM
FOTOXX
10/10
10/10
9/10
10/10
8/10
LIGHTZONE
PHOTIVO
Fotoxx ????????????? ?????? RPM ? Deb ??? ?????? ??????
?????????????.
???? 2018? LXF238? |?29
????????? ????????? ???????????
???? ????????????
?????????а?? ?а????
?????????
???????? ??????????? ?????? ????????????? ??? ?????? ??, ??? ??а???????
?????? ??????????????? ??????????
?а???. ???? ?а???, ??? ?????? ??а???? ???????????? ????? ?????????, ?а??а????????????? ??????
????? ?????????. ?а?????? ??а????????????,
??????????? ?а????? ?????????, ??а??????? ?????? ????, ???????, ??????? ?????? ?а?????? ???
??а??????????, ???????????? ??а??????????.
????????, ??? ?????-???? ????? ??? ???????
??? ??????????? ??????, ????а?? ????????????? ??а????????? ?а?????? ????????????,
???? ?а??????? ??а??? ???????? ??????????
?????????????, ??????? ???????????? ??????
????? ?????????.
?????????? ????? ???????, ??? ????а??
??а?????? ?????? ?а????? ??а???? ????????????,
???? ??а????????? ????????? ????? ??а????????????, ?????????? ??? ?а???????????.
?
Darktable 10/10 DigiKam ??????? ????? ?а?????? ??а?????????? darktable
????????????? ??????????? ??????????
?а?????????.
????????, ??а??????? darktable, ???? ??а????????? ??а?????????, ??? ???? ??????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?а???????? ????,
?а?а????? ??????? ??а?????? ?????????????
?????? ???????????, ????????? ????????? ??????????? ?а?.??. ?а?????? ??????? ???????????
????????, ??????? ????? ????????? ???а?????????????, ????????, ?????????? ?????.
????? ??а????? ?????? ??????? ??????????? ?а???? ??а???????? ??????? ??? ?????????
??а????. ?????????? ??????????? ?????????
?а????? ????? ????????????? ???а?????? ?а?????????? ???????????. ????? ???????????????
???????????, ??????? ??????? ?????? ???????
?а?????? ??????? ???? ??????, ?а??????? ??????
?????? ???.
??????, ??????, ??? darktable ??а????????
????????????? ?а???а?????????????? ?????????????? ????????? ????? ??????????а? ??? ???
?????????????? ???????? ?????.
10/10
? DigiKam ???????? ????????????? ??? ???????.
????? ??а?????????? ????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ???????? ?а???????????? ????????, DigiKam
??????????н??? ??????????? ??? ?????????? ?а??????????????? ??????. ????????? ????? ????
?а?????? ?????? ??????. ??а???????? ??? ?????
?????? ?????? ????? ?а??????. ??????? ??????
Albums [???????] ?????, ????? ???????? ??????
??а???? ????? ????????, ?а????? ?????? Labels
[??????] ??? Tags [????] ??? ???????? ?а??????? ?а?????????? ??????? ?а???????? ??????????????. ?????? ???????????? ?????? ??????
????????????? ??????????, ??????????? ???
?????????? ???????????, ????? ??? Properties
[????????] ?аMetadata [??????????]. ??а??????
????????????? ???????????, ??????? ??а?а?????
?????? Image Editor [???????? ???????????].
? ??????? ?????? ???? ???????????? ????????? ????????????? ????????? ??? ?????????????, ????? ??? Color [????], Enhance [?????????]
?аDecorate [?????????]. ??а?????? ????????????
???????? ??????????? ??? ????????? ?????????
?а????? ?????.
??????? ?а??????????
????????а?? ??? ??а????????
? ??????????? darktable ?аFotoxx, ??а???? ??а????? ???????????? ??а???????????? ??? ??а???????????? ?????????? ?????
???????????????? ?????????.
???????????? LightZone ??? ????? ??????? ????????? ??????????
??а??????? ??????? ??а?????????, ??а???, ??????, ????а?? ??????????
?а????????? ?????, ???? ?????? ??????????. ??? ??а?????, ??? LightZone,
??? ?аPhotivo ????? ????????? ?а???????? ???????? ??? GIMP. ??? ????????,
??? ??а?????? ???????? ?????? ?аLightZone ??? Photivo ??а??????????????,
??????? ??а?????? ????????????? ?аGIMP.
Wiki darktable ???????? ???????? ?а?????????? ????????, ??а??? ???????,
??????? ?аdarktable ??? ?????? ????????. ?а??????? ???????????? ????????????? ?????????? ???? Lua, ????????? ??? ?????????? darktable ?????????. ?а??????????? darktable ???? ????? ?????, ??????????? ????????? ???????? ??аLua. ??а??????? ??????????? ??????? ??а???????? GitHub. ?аLinux
??а?????? ??????????? ???? ??????????? ?а??????? ~/.config/darktable/lua.
??? ???????? ??????? ???????? ???????, ?????????????? ???? ~/.config/
darktable/luarc. ??? ??????? ????? ???????? ??? ?????????? ????????????
?
30? |? LXF238? ???? 2018
???????? ?????? ???, ????? ?????????? ???????? ???????: ?????????? ?????, ???????? darktable ?а?.??. ??????????? ???????????? ?а??????? ??????????? ???????????? ???????????? ??аAPI Lua, ??????? ?????????? ?????????,
???? ??а?????????? ????????? ??????????? ???????.
Fotoxx ??а????????? ???????????? ?а????? ?????????, ????????? ??а??????? Edit > Plugins [????????????? > ???????] ??а??????? ??????. ??? GIMP,
??????? ????? ????? ?а??????????н???? ?????. ??а???? ??. ?а???????????
????????????. ?????????? ? ???? ???????, ???? ????????????? ?????????
????? ???????? ?????????????? ????????????, ???? GIMP ??? darktable.
???????
DARKTABLE DIGIKAM FOTOXX 9/10
N/A
7/10
LIGHTZONE PHOTIVO N/A
N/A
?????????? ???????? ? ???? ?????????, ????????? ??? ??????????? ???
?????????????? ??????????? ? ??? ?????????? ??????????????????.
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
????????? ??????????? ?????????
Fotoxx 7/10 Lightzone ? ??????? ??а?????? ????? ????????????, ?аFotoxx
??? ?????? ???? ??? ?????? ??????. ?????? ?????
??? ????????? ????? ?????? ?????? ??а???????
?????? ?????. ????????????? ??????а? Tools [???????????]. ??а?????? ???????? ??а???, ???????
Index [??????], ?а????? ?????? ???????, ??? ???????? ???? ???????????, ?аFotoxx ??а??????????????.
????? ?????????????? ??????????, ??????? Tools
> User Settings [??????????? > ????????? ????????????] ?а???????? ????? Startup Display [??????
???а????????].
??? ??а????? ?????????? ???????? ??????,
??а?????? ??а?????? ????????????? ????, ?а????????? ??????? ??а?????? ??а?????? ????????
????????? ???????? ?????????, ??????? ????????? ????????? ????????, ?????????? ??????
?????? ??????.
?????? ??а?????? ?????????, ????? ??а?????
???????????????? ??????????? ???а??????
??????????. ?????? ?????? ??а??????????????? ?????????, ?а??? ??????? ??а???? ???????
??а?????? ?????? ????????? ??????? Fotoxx
?а????????????????? ????.
9/10 Photivo ????????? LightZone ????? ???????? ????????
??а????? ??????? ??????, ?а??????? ????? ???????? ???????, ??? ???????? ???? ??????????.
????? ?а???????? ???? ???????????? ???????
???????????. ??? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? LightZone ?????????? ??? ??????????
??а??????? ?????? ??????. ???????? ??????????
?а??????? ?????? Edit [????????], ????? ??????
????-?????????.
?? ????? ??????? ?????? ??а??????? ???
??????, ????? ??? ????????? ???????????,
???????? ???? ?а????????????. ?????? ??????
????? ????????? ???????????? ????? ?????????? ?????????. ??? ?а?????? ???? ??????????, LightZone ????? ????????? ??????? ????
???????? ?а?????????, ??????? ??а??????? ???
????? ??????????. ????????? ??а??????? History
[???????] ?а?????? ????? ????, ????? ???????????
?????? ?????, ??????? ???н??? ???? ??????.
? ??????? ?????? ???? ????? ???????????
????????? ????? ?а??????????? ??????????????,
????? ??? ?????????? ???? ?а??????? ???????
???? ???а????????.
6/10
????????? Photivo ???????? ???????? ??????????? ????? ???? ????????????, ??????????????
?а????????? ????? ??????.
?????? ?????, ?????????? ?????????????
????????, ????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????
?а????? ???????????? ??а???. ?а????? ???????
????, ??а?????? ???????? ??а????????? ??????
????? ??а?????? Open file [??????? ????]. ?а??а??
????? ????????????? ??? Open settings [???????
?????????] ?а?.??.
??? ???????, ????????????? ????????
?????????? ???? ????? > ????? ?а????, ????
???????? ???? ??? ???? ???????? ??????????
???а????????? ????????? ????. ???? ??а??а????????????? ????? ?????????, ??????, ???? ????
??????? ??а???а??? ?????????, ??а???????? ????
????? ???????.
Photivo ????? ???????????? ?????? ???????
????? ??а????, ??????? ?????? ?а??? ?????? ?????
?????? ????? ????. ???????????, ??а?????? ?????
????????????? ?а????????? ?а???????? ?а????н
??н????? ??а????, ????? ??????? ??а???????
??а?????? ?????.
?????? ?а?????????
???????а?? ??? ??а??? ???????-???????
?? ??????? ????????? ?а????????? ???????????? ????? ?????н
???? ???????н???? ????????? ??? ???????????? ??????????????
????? ????. ????????, ????? ????????? ?????? ????????, ??н
????? ????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????????? ??? ?????н?????
?а????? ???????????? ??????? ???щ. ??а????? ?????? ???????, ??а????, ???
???????????? ??? ???????, ???, ??? ??? ????, ??а????? ??а?а??????????.
?????? ????? ?????????? ????????, darktable ????? ????????????? PDF
??????????? ???????????? ??а?????????? ??????, ??????? ?????????? ?а?????????. ?????????? ????? ??????? ?????????? ?а????.
?????? ?а??????????? DigiKam ????? ???????? ?????? ??? ????????? PDF
??? ??????????? ??????. ?????????? ????????????? ???а????, ??а?????????????? ???????? ??а???????????? ????????????? ???????????. ?????????? ??а???????????, ??????? ??а?????? ????????????, ????????? ?????????
????? ??а???????????, ????? ???????? ????????????? ?а???? ??????????
???????????. ????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ???????; ?????? ?а??????? ???, ?а?????? ???? ???? ?????? ???????? ??? ?????????????? ?а??????? ??????????.
?
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
???????? ???????, ??а??????? LightZone ?????????? ??а??????????? ???н
??? ????????????? ??а?????, ?????? ??? ????????? ???????? ?????????а?
??????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????????, ??????????? ?а???????. ???? ??????????? ????? ????? ?????????????, ?????? ??????????
???????, ?а??? ??????? ?????? ??? ?????????? ?а?????? ?а?????????????
?а?а?????? ??????. ??????? Help > LightZone ??????? ????????????? ???????.
????? ??????????? ??а???????? ??????, Photivo ????????????? ?????н
????? ?а????????? ???????????? ??????? ???????, ??а??? ???????? ?????????? ?а???? ??а?????, ?а????а?? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ????????.
???????
DARKTABLE DIGIKAM FOTOXX 10/10
10/10
9/10
LIGHTZONE PHOTIVO 9/10
6/10
Fotoxx ???????? ????????? ??????????? ????????????, ?а??????????? ??????? ? ??????; ?????? ? ???? ????? ????????, ????? F1.
???? 2018? LXF238? |?31
????????? ????????? ???????????
?????????
?а?????????
?? ???????????? ?????????!
darktable ????????????? ????????? ????????? ??а?????? ????????. ??а?????? ???????? ??????? ??? darktable, ???????? ??????
??????? ???????, ??а??????? GUI options. ???????? ??????? ?????????? ????????, ???????? ??а?????? ???????, ????? ??? ????? ??????, ?????????? ???а??????. ?????????? ??а?????? ????????? ?????? ???? ??а?????????? ??????, ???????? ?а??????? ?????????? ???????. ???????????
???????????? ?????????? ??? ????????? ??? ?????? ???????.
??? ?а?аdarktable, ?????? ????????? DigiKam ??????????? ??а?????????.
??? ???????? ?????? ??????????, ????? ??? ?????????? ?а?????? ???????????, ??а????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???? ?????? SQLite, ??а??а?????? ??????????? MySQL: ?а???????????? ??????? ????????? ????????
?????? ??а?????? ?а??????. ????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ?????????, ????????, ?????? ??????????? ??????????????, ?а???? ?????????? ?????????
??????? ??? ????? ?????????, ????? ??? ??????-???????? [DSLR].
? ??????? ??аdarktable ?аDigiKam, ?????????? ??????????? Fotoxx ???????????? ?????????????. ??а?????? ?????? ?????? Tools ??а??????? ??????,
?а????? ???????? ??аUser Settings [????????? ????????????] ??? ?????????
?????????? ???????????, ?????????????? ????? ?????? ?а?.??.
????? ????????? ?????? ???????? LightZone, ??????? Edit > Preferences
[????????????? > ?????????]. ???? ??а?????? ?????????? ??а???? ?????
?
????????? ???????? ?аDigiKam ?аdarktable ??????? ???????, ??? ??????????
??а?????????? ?????, ??? ?аFotoxx.
????????????????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????? ??а????????? ??????,
?????? ?????? ??а??а??????? ?????????? ?????, ?а????? ???????? ?а?????????? ???????????, ??? ??????? ??а?????? ??а????????????, ??а????? ??
????????. ?????????? ????? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ??????????
??????, ????? ??? ?????? ?????? ?а???????? ???????.
???????
DARKTABLE DIGIKAM FOTOXX 10/10
10/10
5/10
LIGHTZONE PHOTIVO 6/10
N/A
? ??????? ??а?????? ????????????, ????????? ?????, Photivo ??а????????????? ?а??а????????? ???????? ?????-???? ??????? ???????.
???????? ???????
??? ???????? ??? ?????.
??? ??а??????? ??? ?????????, ????? ??????? ??????????? ????????????, ?????????????? ?а????? ?????????, ?????? ??????,
????? ??а??? ?????? ????? ???????? ???, ???? ??а??а?????????
?а??? ????????? ?????. ?????? ???? ???????? ?а?????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ?а????????? ???????????, ??? ???????????? ???????????? ???????? ?а????? ????????????, ??а?а??????????? ??а????? ??????????
??????? ????????????? ??а??????.
????? ??????? ??а?????????? ?а??????????????? ??а???? ???? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????, ?а??? ?????????? ??????? ?????????. ???????? ??????? ??????? ????? ????????? ????: ??????
??а??????????? > ?????? > ???????????? > ????????? > ?????. ??? ??????????? ?а????? ????????? ????????????? ??? ????????? ???????? ????????.
?????? ??а???? ?????? ??а???????? ???? ????? ???????????. ????????,
??????? ???? ???????????? ????? ??а????? ???????, ??? ?????????????
??а??????; ??а??? ??????? ?а??????????? ??? ??????. ??а???????????
Photivo, ??? ??????????? ???????????? ???????????????? ???????????
?а?????????????? ??????????.
? darktable ???????? ???? ????? ?а????????? ???????????, ???????????? ????, ????????, ??????? ????? ?а?????? ??????.
?????? ????? ??????? ???????? ?а????? ???????????? ??а????????? ??????????? ?а???????? ????-?????????, ????? ??? ????????????, ??????????
????, ?????????? ????????, ???????? ??????? ??????? ???? ?а?.??.
? ??а????? ??? ?????? ??????????? ??????????? ??? ??????? ??а?????
??????????, ????????? Photivo ????????????? ????? ????????????????
??????? ???????. ???????? ??????????, ????????????? ?а????????? ??а????? ??????? ??????, ????????????? ??? ?????? ?????? ??????. ??а???????? ?????? ???? ???????, ??????? ?????? ??????????? ?а?????? ???????.
?
32? |? LXF238? ???? 2018
? ??????? ?????????? ??????? DigiKam ????? ????????? ?а???????????
????????? ????????, ????? ??? ???????? ?а????????? ??????? ??????.
???а?????? ??????? Geometry [?????????], ??? ??????????? ??????? ????????? ?????????, ????????, ??????????????? [pincushion], ????????????
??????? Lab sharpen and noise [???????? ??????, ???????? ?а???].
?? ??????????? Photivo, ??? ??????????? ????? ???????????? ????????
????????? ???????????. ?????? ??? ??????????? ??? ???????? ?????? ??????? ????????, ????? ??? ????????????? ????? ?????? ??? ??????????? ????
?????? ?а????н????. ??аFotoxx ???????????? ?а????? ???????? ??????? ?а?????, ????????, ?????????? ??????????? ?а????????? ???? ?а??????? ???????.
???????
DARKTABLE DIGIKAM FOTOXX 10/10
10/10
10/10
LIGHTZONE PHOTIVO 10/10
8/10
????? ??? ??????????? ???? ?????? ? ??????, ? ? ??? ?????????
????????????.
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
????????? ??????????? ?????????
????????? ???????????
???????
? ??а???, ??? ??????? ?а??????????? ??????????? ??????, ??а?????
????? ???????, ??????????????? ?а???????? ??????????, ?????????????? ?а????? ?????????. ??а???? ??а???????, ?????? ???
???????? ?а?????????? ??? ??????????? ?а?????????????, ??а??? ?????
????????? ???????? ????????????.
??? ?????? ??? ????? ????????????. ???????, ???????? ????? ????
?а???????? ??? ????????? ?а?????? ?????????? ?????????? ?а???????????, ??а??? ????????? ??????????? ??????????? ??? ????????? ??а????????
?????????? ???? ????????. ??? ????? ????? ??????, ????? ?а???а??????
?????? ??????????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????????. ????
??? ?????????? ????????? Photivo ?а???????. ???? ????, ??? ?????? ??а?????????? ????????? ???, ??а????? ??а???????????? ?а???????????? ??????????
?????????????, ????? ??? Fedora ?аMandriva, ?а??? ???? ?????????? ??????
??а?????? ?????????? ????? pkgs.org. ??? ??????? ????????? ?а????????
???????????? ??а????????? ?а?????? ?????????????, ??? darktable ?аDigiKam,
????????? ???????.
Fotoxx ??? ????????, ??а???????? ?????, ?????? ????????? ????????
(????????, Voodoo), ?а??? ???????????????? ?????? ?????? ?????а? ??????
???????? ?????????? ????????????? ?а??????????? ????????.
???? ???????????? ??????????? LightZone ??????? ???????? ?а??????????
?????????? ?а????? ?????????? ?а???????? ???????? ?????, ???? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?а???????? ??? ???????. ??? ????????????, ???? ?а?????????, ?????????? ?а????????, ??а??????????? ?????????, ??? ?а?????? ????????????, ?а??????, ??а????? ???????????? ?????? ??а?????? ?????.
? darktable, ?аDigiKam ??? ???????? ?????? ???? ??а???? ??????;
???????????? ??????????а? ???????, ????????? DigiKam ??а???????????. ??? ??а??? ?????????, ??? ????а?? ????? ????????, ?а?????? ???????
???????????????? ???? ????????????. ????????? ????????? ????????
darktable ?а???????? ???? ????????????? ??????, ??? ??? ???? ???? ???
??????????? ??а????? ?а????? ???????????? ????????? ??????, ????? ???
??а???????????? ??? ????????? ???? ?а????? ????????????????????
???????н????? ?????????. |
?
1? ?????
darktable10/10
??????: 2.4.0 ????: www.darktable.org ????????: GPLv3
Da ???? ?????? Di, ????? DigiKam, ??????????, ????а?? ???????????.
2? ?????
DigiKam9/10
??????: 5.9.0 ????: www.digikam.org ????????: GPL
???????? ?????а? ??а??а?????????, ?????? DigiKam: ???????? ?а??? ???????.
3? ?????
LightZone8/10
??????: 4.1.81 ????: www.lightzoneproject.org ????????: BSD
????? ?а???????, ??а???? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????????.
4? ?????
Fotoxx8/10
??????: 18.01.1 ????: www.kornelix.net/fotoxx/fotoxx.html ????????: GPLv3
??????????? ????????? ???? ????????? ??????? ??????????.
5? ?????
Photivo6/10
??????: 20160525 ????: www.photivo.org ????????: GPLv3
???????? ?а???????????, ??а??а?а???а?? ????, ??? ??????.
╗╗??????????? ?????
???? ??? ????? ???????, ??? ??а??а?????????, ?????? GIMP, ???? ???
?????????? ?????? ?а??????????????????? ???????? ???????????.
??а?????????? ??? ????? ??? ?а????? ???????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????????. ?????? ????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????????? ?а???????? ????? ?????????? ????, ?а????? ??а?????? ????? ????????
?а?????????? ?а?????????.
Kritaа? ???? ???????? ???????, ??а?????? ?????????? ??????????
??????????. ???? ????????? ??????????????? ?а???????? ??? ?????????
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
?а????????, ??а??? ????? ?????? ????????? ?а??? ????????? ???????
?????? ???????????.
???? ??а????? ????????? ?а????????????? ??????? Raw, ??а???????
RawTherapee. ??????????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ?а???????? ????????? ????????? ??? ???????????? ????? ?????????н
?????. UFRaw, ???? ?а????????? ??? ??а?????????????а? ???? ???????,
???????? ??? ??????? ????????? ??????, ??? ??? ??? ???????? ?????????
????? ?????????? ????? ??а?????????.
???? 2018? LXF238? |?33
??????? ????:
???????!
????? ????????????,
???а???? ????????????
???а????????? ?????????!
???????? ?а????????
???? ??????? ???? Linux
??а?????????!
? ? ???? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ????????????. ????,
??????????? ??а?????? ???????
?????? ???????? ?а?????????
?а?????????????? ???????????? ???????, ???????? ?????н???? ???????. ??а???а????, ????????
??а??а?????? ????????? ???????, ??????????
???????, ????? ????????????? ??????? ?????
?????????????, ?????????????? ????????н???
??а????? ?????????????? ?а??а??????????????
???? ????????? ?????? ???????.
? ??????? ??а????????????? ???????????? ??????, ?а????????????? Linux ???????
?є????? ??????? ???????? ???а?????? ???????????, ?а???а??а??????? ??????????????
?
34? |? LXF238? ???? 2018
????? ??а?????????. ??????, ??? ??, ????????,
??????? ????? ?????????а? ????????? ?????????? ??а????????? ????, ??????? ??? ??????
??????????. ?????? ??а????? ?????а?? ??????? ?????? ???????? ?а????? ???????? ?????,
??а???????????? ?????? ??????????? Linux. ??????
?????????? ?????????????? ???????? ??????
??????? ?а???????? ????????? ??? ??????? ????
??а?????? ???????????.
????? ??????? ??????а? ?????? ???? ??????
???????? ??????? ??? ????? ?????????. ???
?????????? ??????? ?????а? ????? ???? ????????, ???????????? ???????? ???????????,
??????? ???????????? ????? ?????????. ??????
????? ?????????? ?а??????? ??????а? ????????
????????? ?????????? ??? ???? ??????? ??а????? ??????? ????.
? ???? ?????? ??а?????????? ??? ?а?????????? ????????????? ????????? ??????????
??????? ?????? ?а??а??????????? ??? ?????????????? ????? ????????? Linux. ??а????? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ???????????? ???????
?????, ??????? ??? ??????? ???, ??????? ?????
??????????????? ????? ??????? ????????????,
?а???????????? ??????? ??? ????????.
? ???? ???? ???????????? ??????? ??????
??а????????? ??а????????? ??????? ???????????, ??а??????? ??? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ?а??????? ??а?????? ??? ???????? ??????
???????????? ??????????????? ???????? ?????.
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
????????? ??????? ????
????????? ??а??????
???????? ??????? ???? ???????????? ??а????????? ????? ??а???? ???????????.
???? ?а??????? ????? ??? ?а???-??а????????? ??а???????????? ??????? ????????? ????? ???????????
??????? ?????????????, ??????? ???????? ?аWindows ??? Mac OS. ??а??? ????? ???? ??? ???? ?????? ????????
??????????? Linux.
????? ???????? ?????а? ??? ?????? ??? ???? ?????????, ????
?а???????. ??а?????? ?????????? ??а??? ????? ?????? ?????????. ????? ????, ?????? ???????????? ????? ???? ????????????
??????????? ????? ??????? ??а???????? ?а??? ??????? ????н
???????. ?????? ????? ??????????, ??? Gnome, KDE, Cinnamon,
Mate, Xfce ?аLXDE, ??????? ?????????? ??? ??а?????? ???, ???
????????? ??????????, ?а??????? ??, ????????, ??а???????...
????????
???????????
??аextensions.
gnome.org, ?????
?????????? ?????? ??? ????????,
?а????? ????????? ??????????? ?а?????а?
????? ??а???????
??????????
??????????.
?
Budgie
Enlightenment
????????????? ?а???????????? ????????????? Solus, Budgie ???????
?а???? ?а??????? ??????????? ??а????? Gnome. ??а?????????? ??????????????? ????? ??????????? ?а????????? ???а????????? Raven, ???????
????? ???? ??? ??????? ?????? ?а?????????, ?????????? ?????-????????, ?????????? ??????? ?а?????? ???????. ????? ????, ??????? ????
????? ??????????? ?а????????????? ?а?????????? ?????? ???????? ???а?????????? ??????????? ????????.
???? ??а??а?????????? ?????? ???????? ????????, ??? ???????? ??????? ????? ????? Gnome, ?????? ?????????? ???????????, ?а????????????
?????????? ????? ?а?????????? ??????????????, ???
??????? ???????? ???????
????????? Raven. ???????
????? Ubuntu ?аManjaro, ?????????? ??аBudgie, ?а???????????? Fedora ?????
??????? ??? ?аCOPR.
??? ???? ??а????? ?????? ???? ???????? ????? Linux, ????????? ????
??????? ?????????????????, ?а?а?????? Enlightenment ?????? ???? ????
??? ??????????? ??????? ????, ??????? ??? ??а????? ????????????
????? ??????????????? ?????????????? ?а???????? ?????????????.
?а???????н???? ????? ?????? Enlightenmentа? ????? ???? ???????? ????,
??а?????? ?аEnlightenment Foundation Libraries ?а??????????? ???????
?????????? ??а????? ????????? ?????? ???????? ?????.
Enlightenment ??????? ??????? ?а???, ??? ??? ???????? ?????????
????????? ????? ??а??, ????? ????????? ??? ??а?????? ?????. ?????????
???????? ????? ???????
???????? ?а??????????
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?а????????, ??? ??????
?????? ??а???. ??а??????? ??? ?а??????????? ???????????? ????
???????? ?????????????.
DeepinDE
Pantheon
??????? ???? Deepinа? ????? ???????????? Deepin. ??а??????? ??аHTML5
?аWebKit ?а?????????? ??? ????? ??????????? ????????? QML ?аGo.
?????? ???????????? ???????? ?????, ????? ????? ??????????????
?????????? ??????????? Deepinа? ????????? ??????? ??????????, ???
?а????? ??????????. ??????? ???? Deepin ???????? ????????????? Mac OS
X ?а????? ?????? ?а???????????????? ?????????, ??? ???? ?????? ???
????? ??????.
? Deepin ??????? ????????????? ??????? ????, ??????? ??а????????? ????????? ???????? ?????? ?а???? ?????????? ?а?????? ??????????. ?????? ????? ????????? ????? ????????? ???????? ?????, ???????
???????? ????????.
??????? ?????????????? Deepinа???? ???
?????????? ??а??????????????, ??а??а?????
?????? ??????? ??? ???
?????? ???????????? ?????
????????? ???????????.
Pantheon ??аElementary OSа? ??? ???? ???????????????, ??а????????
??????? ????, ??????? ????????? ?????????? ?а??????????? ?а????????????. ??????? ???? ?????????? ??????????? ???????? ???? ??а??????
Mutter ???а????????? Gala ?а?????? ?аMac OS X ??????????? ?????????
?????????????? ?а?????????????.
??????? ???? ??????????? ????????? ????????, ????? ??? ??? Plank,
??????? ?????? (???а????????? Wingpanel) ?а????????? ??????? ?????????? Slingshot. ????? ??? ???????? ???????? ????? ???????????,
?????? ??? ??????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ????? ?????? ?а?????????????????. ??? ????????? ???????? ????? ??а?????? ????????????
??????????? ??????????
Elementary Tweaks.
??? ?аDeepin, Pantheon
??а?????????????? ???????
??????????????, ??а???
????? ?????????? ??????
Arch, Ubuntu, openSUSE
?аFedora.
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
???? 2018? LXF238? |?35
????????? ??????? ????
????????? Gnome
???? ????? ??????????? ????, ???? ??? ??а???? ???? ??а???????.
????? Unity, Gnome ??????????? ??????? ????? ???????
?????? GTK. ????? ??????????????? ???????? ?????
GTK ????? ????????? ??а?????, ??а??? ???????????
??? ???????? ?а???????. ???? ??а??????? ????????? ?а??????
???????? ????? Gnome ??????????? ?а?????????? ????? ?????????. ?а???? Gnome ????? ?????, ??? KDE, ???а?? ?а?????????????
Gnome ?а???? ??? ??????????? ????????????.
???? ??а????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ????? Gnomeа?
нActivities Overview, ?а??????????????? ???????, ???????
???? ?????????? ????????? ????????????? ??????????
?а???????н????????? ???????????? ?а???????????, ?а?????
?
????????????
?а??????-?????????
л?????????????? Gnome, ?????? ????????? Online Accounts, ??? ???????
?а?????? ??а??????-??????????.╗
??????? ???????? ????? ???????????? ????????? ??а???????? ?????
?а??????????.
??????? ?а???????. ??а?????? ????????? ?????, ??????? ?аSystem Settings > Search [????????? ????????? > ?????] ?а???????
Personal. ????? ???????? ?????, ??? ??а???????????? ?????,
??????? ??а?????? ?а???????????. ???????? ????, ??? ????? ????????????? ????????? ?????? ???? ??????, ???????? ???????????? ?а??????? ?????.
Activities Overview ???????? ??????? ??а????????? ???????
?????? Favourites [?????????], ??????? ????? ?????????????
?????????, ????????? ?а??? ????? ???????????? ?????????.
?????? ????????? ???? ??????, ??????? ????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ?а?????????? ?а?????????? ??а?????????
??????????, ?а????? ?а??????-????????. ???????????? Gnome,
?????? ????????? Gnome Online Accounts, ??? ??????? ?а??????
??а?????? ??????-?????????? ?а???????-??????? ???????? ?????. ?????????????? ??? ?????????? ????????, ??????? Google,
Nextcloud, Flickr, Facebook ?а?.??.
?????? ??? ???????
Gnome ???????????? ?а???????????? System Settings, ???????
???? ?а??а??????????? ????? ?????????????, ??? ??? ????????,
???а?? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ?????. ????? ??????????????? ??????? ???????? ?????а? ??????????? ??????????
????????? ?????? ?а????? ?????? ?а?????? ????? ????????.
????????? ?аSystem Settings > Sharing [????????? ????????? >
????? ??????] ?а???????? ????????? ?а??????? ????????????? ??????. ????? ??????? ??а????? File Sharing [????? ??????
?а??????], ???????, ?????? ??????????, ???? ???????????
?????? ????????????? ??????????? ????? Public ?????? ?????
???????? ?????????? ????? ???????? WebDAV. ?а??? ????? ????
????? ?????????? ??????? ?а??????? ??????. ??????????, ?????
Media Sharing [?????????????? ?????? ?а?????] ??????????? ???
?????????? ????? Music, Videos ?аPictures. ?????? ?????, ???а????????? Remote Logging [????????? ???? ?а???????], ???????
?????? ?а???????? ????? ????? SSH.
??? ???? ?????? ??????????????, ????????? ???????? ??????????????????а? ??????????? ????????????? ???????? ??а?????????????? ???????. ??? ????? ????????? Gnome Software, ?????н
???? ??а??????? Installed [?????????????] ?а??????? ??а??????
?а????????, ??????? ???????? ????? ???????????? ????-??????.
????? ???????? ??????????, ??????? ?????? ?????????????,
?а??????? ??а??????аAdd toаFolder [???????? ?а?????]. ?????
??а?????? ?????? ??а?????? + ??? ???????? ????? ?????, ???
??????? ????????????. ?????? ?????????? ????? ???????????????? ?а???? ????? ?аActivities Overview.
?????? ??????????????????
???? ?????????, ??????? ??????? ?????????????????? ????????
?????, ?????? ?а??????????? Gnome Disks. ????????? ??? ?а????????? ?аSettings > Drive Settings [????????? > ????????? ?????],
????????? ??а??????? Write Cache [?????? ????] ?а????????
?????????. ?????? ??? ??????? ???? ????? ?????????? ??????
?а?????????? ??а??а???? ?а????????????? ?????????. ????????? ??? ????????? ?????? ??а????????, ????? ??а?????????
??????, ???? ??? ??а?????? ?????????? ??а???? ???а?????????
?????????? ?????????н????.
????? ??????????? Gnome, ????????? ??аwww.gnome-look.
org ?а??????????? ???? Gnome Shell, ?????????? GTK3 ?а?.??.
????? ????????????? ????, ????????? ?а?????? Files [?????],
?????? ??а??????? ??????? ??????? ???? ?а???? ??????? ?????
?а??????????? ??? ?а????? ~/.themes. ?а????н???? ????????????
??????????? ????? OCS-Install, ????? ???????????????? ????
???????, ???? ???? ????????? Linux ????? ???????? ?аOCS URL
(https://github.com/opendesktop/ocs-url/wiki/Howto-install). ?????
???? ????? ???????????, ?????? ????????????? ??а??? ?а???????
Appearance [??????? ???] ?????????? Gnome Tweaks (??. ??????
?????? ??а???.а37).
36? |? LXF238? ???? 2018
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
????????? ??????? ????
??? Gnome, ??????????!
????????? ??????? ???????? ????? ?????? ??????????а?
н????????, ?????????? ?????? ??????????? ?а?????????? ???????
??а??????? ?????. ????? ?????? ??????? ??а??????? ?????,
??а???????? ??а????? ???????? ????? ??? ???????, ?а??????????? ???????? ??? ?а????????? ???? Settings.
?????????? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ?аGnome 3а? ?н ????
?????????? ????????. ????? ????? ?????, ???? ??а???????
?????????? ??а?а?????? ????? Gnome Extensions (http://extensions.
gnome.org), ??? ???????? ????? ??а????????? ???????. ??а????
????? ??????? ??????????. ????????? ??а????????а? Dash
toаPanel, ??????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ?аdash ????? ??????? ????? ??????; ???? ????? Clipboard Indicator, ???????????
??????? ?????????? ??????? ??а??????? ?????, ?аShellTile ???
??????????? ???? ??????? ?????????. ?а????????? ??????????
????? ???? ????????????? ?????????, ???????? ??а???????
???????? ????? ????????? ??????????. ?????? ?????????????
??а??????? Installed Extensions [????????????? ??????????]
??а????? ?а??????? ??а?????? ?а??????? ?????? ????? ?а???????????, ??????? ??а?????? ?????????.
?????? Gnome-?
? ??????? ?????? ??????? ???? Gnome ?????????? dconf, ????
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??????????? dconf-editor ??? ?а??????? ??????????? ?????????
?????? gsettings. ??? ??????? ??????, ?а?????????, ??? ??? ????????, ??????? ??а???????????? ????? ????????? ?????????
??? ??????????? tweak.
???, ????????, ??а?????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ???????
??а??????? System Settings > Devices > Keyboard [????????? ????????? > ?????????? > ??????????]. ??а????????? ??????? ???????, ????????, Alt+` ??? ??????????? ??а???????? ?????, ??а????? ??????????? ??а???????н???? ???????. ?????? ??????????
?????? ????? ???????????? ??? ???а?? ???? ?а????????? emacs.
????? ???????????? ??а?аemacs, ??а?????? ???????? ???????
??? ???????????? ???? ?аGnome ????? ???????? dconf. ?????н
???? ???????? ?а????????? ?а/org/gnome/desktop/wm/keybindings/
switch-group. ????? ????????? ????????????? Use default value
[???????????? ???????? ??а?????????] ?а??????? ????? ?????????? ?????? ?а???? Custom value [?????????????? ????????].
???? ??а???????? ????????? ??а????????? dconf ???????, ?????? ???????? ??????? ??аCLI. ????????, gsettings set org.gnome.
desktop.lockdown disablelock-screen true ???????? ????? ??????????. ??????????, ???? ??а?????? ????????? 60??????????
???????? ??а????????? ???а?????? ??а???????, ??????? gsettings
set org.gnome.SessionManager logout-prompt false.
?? ????????? Gnome 3 ????????? ???????? ??????? ??????
????. ??а??а????? ???????? ???????? gsettings set org.gnome.
settings-daemon.peripherals.mouse middlebutton-enabled true.
???? ??а??????????, ??а??????? ??????? ?аGnome ??????????? ?а???, ??? ????? ????? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ??????????, ??????? ???????? ?????? ???а??????? Ctrl?+?Alt?+?Shift?+?R.
?а??????????? ????????????? Gnome ??? ??????? ????? ?????????? ????? ?а??????? 30а??????. ????? ???????? ??? ?а??а????????????? ??????, ???? ??а????? ??а???????? ?????, ??? ?????
?????? gsettings set org.gnome.settings-daemon.plugins.media-keys
max-screencast-length 0. 0 ????? ?????????? ??????????????
?????????????????. ????? ??а?????? ???????????? ??а?? ?????????? ?????? ??? ?????? ?а????????? ??????. ??а?????????
?????????? ??????????? ?а????? Videos. ?а?????-???? ??а??????
???????????? gsettings, ????? ???????? ?????. ??????? gsettings set org.gnome.gnome-screenshot auto-save-directory file:///
home/bodhi/recordings ???????? ?????????? ?а????? /home/bodhi/
recordings.
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
??????? gsettings ?????????? ?????? ?а????? ???????
????????????. ???? ??а??а?????????? ??????????а? ?????? ?а????????? ?????? ?????????. ?????? ???????? ??? ????
????????? gsettings ?а?????? ?а????? ????????? ??? ?а??????
????????? Gnome.
????? ?????????
Gnome ?а?????
????????,
???????? ????
????????????
?а??????? ??????? Alt.
╗╗????????? ??????????
?????????? ???? Gnome System Settings ??а?????????? ?????? ????????????. ????
??а???????? ????????? ?а????????????? Gnome, ??? ??????????? ??????????
Gnome Tweaks. ???? ??? ??а???????? ??????????? ??????????? Gnome, ??????
???????????? ?аGnome ?????????? ??? ??а?????????, ??? ???, ????????, ?а???
??? ??? ???????????. ???? ??? ??а???, ??????? ??? ?а??????? ????????? ???????
?????? ????????????, ????????? ???а??????? ?а??????????? ????????????
????????н??? ???? ?????????? ?????????????.
?????? ?а???????????? ?????? ??????. ????????? ????????? ???????????
???а?????????? ????????? ???????????, ????????, Appearance [??????? ???],
Desktop [??????? ????], Top Bar [??????? ??????] ?аWorkspaces [??????? ???????].
??а?????? ?????????????? ????????? ???????? ???? ???????? ?????, ???????
??а??????, ????????? ??????? ??????, ???????? ????????? Windows [????]
?аWorkspaces, ?а?.??.
?? ??????? Appearance ??а?????? ????????????? ??а????? ???????? ??? ????
??????????, ??????? ??а??????? ?аgnome-look.org. ?????? Desktop ????????? ?????????? ?????? ?а????????? ????? ????????????, ????????, ????? Home, ?????
Trash [???????], Mounted Shares [?????????????? ???????] ?аNetwork Servers
[??????? ???????] ??а??????? ?????. ????? ????????? ???? ????????? ??ан?????
??????? ????????? ????????? ?а????? ??а??????? ?????. ??а????? ??????
????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ?а??????? Gnome Tweaks. ??а??н
?????? ???????? ?????? Windows, ????? ??????? ????? ??????аminimise [????????]
?аmaximiseа[??????????].
????? ????????
??????? ???
???????? ?а??????? ????, ???
???????? ???????
?????????? ?????????? User
Themes.
???? 2018? LXF238? |?37
????????? ??????? ????
????????? KDE Plasma
????? ???????????? ?????? (??? ?????? ??? ???????? ??????? ???????).
DE ? ???? ??а???????? ????????????? ??????? ??????,
?а??а?????????? ??????? ????? ??????????, ?????
??а????? ???????????? ??? ???а???? ???????????. KDE
????? ???????? ???????? ???? ????????????? ??????, ????????
??аLinux ???????????? ??????. ??????? ??? ?а????????? ???????? ????? ?а????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????
????????????? ??????????? ???? ??? ????.
KDE Plasma 5а? ???????? ????????? ????? ???????? ?????,
??????? ?????????? ????????? ????? ?????????. ???????н???,
?а??????? ??а?????? ??????? ??????, ??????? ??????????
??????? ???, ??а????????? ?????? ????????? ???????????? KDE,
?????? ?????????? ???????? ???? ??а?????.
K
??????? ??? ??а????
KDE ?????????? ?????? ??????????, ??? Views [????]. ??? ???????????, ????? ???? ??? ?????? ??а???????????? ????????
╗╗??????? ???? ?? ?????????
??????? ????? ??????? ???????????? ?????????????????? ????? ???? ????????
??????? ??? ?????????? ?????????????, ?????? ??? ??а???? ???????????. ???
??????, ??? ?аGnome, KDE ????? ??????????? ???? Online Accounts ?а???????????? ????????????? ????? ?????? ?????? ????????, ??????? ????? ??????????,
??? Google, Skype, Telegram, Twitter ?а?.??.
?????, ?аKDE ??????? Connect, ??????? ?????????? ???? ?????????? Android
?а??????? ???? KDE. ????? ????????? ??а??????? ?????????? ????? ????
????? ?а?????? ??а??????? ????? ??????????? ?а?????????? Android. ??а?????
??????? ?????????? ?а???????? ????????? ????????? ??аKDE, ???? ??а??????
?????? ?????? ????????. ??? ???? ?????????? ?????????? KDE Connect ??аGoogle
Playstore ??а???? ?????????? ?а????? ????????? ??? ?а??? ???????? ??а???????
?????. ????? ??????????? ??а??????? ????????? ???????? ???? ??а???????
?????а? ?а???? ???????? ??а????? ??????????а? ?а????????.
????????? ?????? ??? ????, ??? ??? ?????? ????????? ????? ????????? ???????? ????? KDE ????????????? ????????. ????????? ??а??????? Shortcuts ?аSystem Settings, ????? ??????????? ?????????????? ???????? ??????? ????????
??????? ??? ?????? ???????? ???????? ????? ?а??? ?????? ??????????. ???????,
Web shortcutsа? ????? ??????? ???????, ?????????? ????????? ?аKRunner.
???а? ???????? ?????, ?а??????? ??????? ????? ????? ??а?????? ????????
????? ?????? ??????? ?а?????? ??????? ????????. ????????, wp:linux ???????
???????? Linux Format ?аWikipedia.
????? ??????? KRunner, ???????? ?а????? ????? ?????? ?а??????? ????????. KRunner ??????????? ??а??????? ????? ?????? ?а????????????????
???????????.
38? |? LXF238? ???? 2018
????? ??? ???????????? ??????????? ?а????????, ?а??а????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ????-??а??????. ?????
??????????? Views, ???????? ?????? ??????? ??а???????? ?????
?а?а??????????? ???? ???????? ????? Default Desktop Settings
[????????? ???????? ????? ??а?????????]. ?а??????????? ????
???????? ??????? View [???] ?а?????????? ??а?????? ???? ?а?????????? ?????? Layout [?????????]. ?аFolder View [??? ?????]
??а?????? ????????? ????? ?а????? ??а??????? ?????. ???
??а?????????а? Desktop View [??? ???????? ?????], ??????? ????????? ??? ????????? ??а??????? ????? ???????.
??????? ?????? ?????? ???? ??а??????? ????? KDE. ???????
???? KDE ?????????? ??????? ????????, ?а????? ??????? ???
?а??????????????. ?????? ???????????? ??а????????? ????????? ??а??????? ????? ?????? Folder View. ???? ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ????? ?а?????????? ????????? ????, ???????
??а?????? ????????? ?а????? ????? ??а??????.
??????? ???????? ?????? ????????? ????????? ????????
????? KDE. ???????? ?????? ??????? ??а???????? ????? ?а????н
???? ?????аAdd Widgets [???????? ???????], ????? ??????? ?????? ????????? ????????. ?а???????? ????? Plasma ??а????? ?????
????????, ????????, ?????????? ????, ???????, ???????, ???????? ???????? ??аCPU, ?а?.??. ??????????? ?????? Get new widgets
[????? ????? ???????], ????? ??????? ?? ??а?????????. ??а??н
???? ?????????? ?????? ??а??????? ???? Plasma ??? ??а??????.
??????????? ???????? ?????????? ??? ??????? ?????????
????? ?????????. ????? ??а??? ?????????, ???????? ??????
??а??????? ??а??????? ?????. ???????? ??????? ?а???????????
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????? ????????? ??????????? ???????. ?????а????? ??????
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?а???????? ????? Lock Widgets [????????? ???????] ??а????????? ????????? ????????? ?а????????.
???????? ?а???????
???? ??а?????????? ??а??????? ?????, ??а?????? ????? ????????????? ??а?????? ????????? ???????. ?аKDE ???? ?????????
???????, ??????? ??????????? ??? ????????? ?а??????????
??????? ?????? ????, ????? ?????????? ??а??а??????????. ?????
???????? ????????? ???????, ???????? ?????? ??????? ??а?????? ????????? ??????? ?а???????? ????? Alternatives..., ?????
KDE ????????? ??????? ???????????????? ???? ??? ??????????
????????? ??????? ??? ?????? ???????????.
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
????????? ??????? ????
???????? ?????? ??????? ??а???? Applications [??????????]
?а???????? ????? Edit Applications [????????????? ??????????],
????? ????????? ?????? ?а???? ??????????.
??????? ????????? ?????. ?а???? ???????? ??????? ????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????, ?????? ?а??????? ????? ????????
????? ????? Application Launcher Settings [????????? ?????????
??????? ??????????]....
??? ???? ??????????? ?а??????? ????? ?????????а? ??????????? ???????? ??? ??????? ?????. ?а???????? ????? KDE ??????
??????? ?????, ??????? ????? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ?????
?????? ??????????????? ????????. ????????? ?аSystem Settings > Desktop Behavior > Screen Edges [????????? ????????? >
????????? ???????? ????? > ???? ??????], ?а????? ???????? ????
??а??????? ?????. ?а??? ???????? ?????? ????????? ????????,
?а??а???????? ???? ??а???, ????? ????????? ??? ??????? ?????.
?????? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ??? ????? ???????? ??аExposщ ?????? ???? ???????? ???? ?а??????? ???????
??????? ??? ??а???? ??????? ????????. ???? ??а??????????? KDE
??а?????????? ?а??????????, ??? ??? ???? ??? ???? ???????????
??????, ????? ?????????? ???????? ??? ??????? ?????. ?????
????????? ???????????? ????????, ???? ???????? ??????? ??а???????????????? ???? ?а?????? ??????.
???????? ?????? KDE Dolphin ?????????? ???? ??????
???????, ??? ??? ??????????? ?а?????? ??????? ??????. ?????
???????? ??? ?????????, ????????? Dolphin ?а????????? ?аSettings
> Configure Dolphin [????????? > ????????? Dolphin]. ??а????????
??а??????? Startup [?????? ??????], ??? ????? ???????? ????????? ????????? ????? ?а???????? ????????????? ?????? ???????????? ?а?????? ???????, ????? ????? ?????????? ?????????????? ????????. ????? ????????? ??а??????? View Modes [?????
?????], ??? ????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ???? ?????? ?????.
???? ??а????? ??????? ??????? Dolphinа? ?????????
??а?????? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ????, ?а???????? ???????
Actions [????????]. ??? ?????????? ????? ?????????? ??????,
?????????????? ???????, ?????? ?????? ??а??????н???? ????????
?а?.??. ?????? ???? ?????, KDE ????? ????????? ????????? ?а????
Actions ????? ????????. ????????? ??а??????? Services [???????]
?а???? ????????? Dolphin ?а???????? ?????? ????????, ???????
?????? ????????. ??а????? ?????? ?????? ??а?????? Download
New Services [??????? ????? ???????], ????? ????? ????? ???????? ???????? ?а?????????.
? ???????? ?????? ????? ???????? ????????. ?????????
?аViews > Panel [???? > ??????] ?а???????? ????? Panel [??????].
??? ???? ???????? ???????а? ??????????? ??????????? ?а?????
?а???????? ??????н???? ???????, ???????????? ?а???. ?????????
?аView >аAdditional Information [??? > ?????????????? ??????????] ?а???????? ????? Size [??????].
????? ??? ?а???????? ??????????????????. ????????, ?а?????????? ?а?????????????? ????????? ???? ?а???????? ?????, ????н
????? ??????? ????? KDE ???????? ????????? ??????? ?а????н
???????? ??????, ?????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ????
?а???? ???????? ?????????????????? ???????? ?????. ?????????
?аSystem Settings > Desktop Behavior > Desktop Effects [?????????
????????? > ????????? ???????? ????? > ??????? ???????? ?????], ????? ??????? ?????? ????????????????? ????????. ?а?????? ??а???? ???????? ????? ??????? ????????????? ?????????.
??? ???? ?????? ???????? ?????, ??????? ????? ?????????,
????? ??????? ??? ????????? ???????????????, ??а?а????????
??????????????????, ???????? ???? ??а????????? ?????????????? ????? ??????????? ??????а? ??? ????????????? ?????.
KDE ???????? ????????? ????? ????????????? ????? Alt?+?Tab.
????????? ?аSystem Settings > Window Management > Task Switcher
[????????? ????????? > ?????????? ?????? > ????????????? ?????], ????? ???????? ??? ????????? ??а?????????.
??? ????? ???????????? ?????? ?????, ??????????????
??а????????? ????????????? ?????. ??а??????? Main [???????]
??????????? ?????????? ???? ?а??????? Visualisation [????????????], ????? ???????? ????????. ??????? Alternate [????????????] ????? ???????? ?????, ???????????? ??? ???????????
????????? ??????????????? ?????? ?????? ?????? Alt?+?Tab.
????? ???
? KDEа? ????? ??????????? ?????? ????????? ???????? ?????
??? ?????????. ?????? ?а??а??? ?????????? ????????? ???????,
???????? ??? ?????????? ?????????????, ??????? ????????
???а???? ??? ????????? ?????? ??????????. ??а???? KDE ???????? ???? ???????н??? ?????? ?????????, ??????? ?????? ???????? ????? ?а???????? ?????????.
?????? ????, ????? ??????? ?????????? ?а????????????
??????, ??????? ??а?????, ????? ???????????? ???? ??????
??????? ???? System Settings. ??? ?????? ??а??????? ?????, ??????
????????? ?????? ?????, ?????????? ??????, ??????? ????????????? ?????????? ??????.
? ????????? System Settings ????? ????????? ????????? ?????, ????????? KCMs (KConfigModules), ??????? ????????
????????? ??? ????????. ?а???????????? ?????? ????????????
??????? ????????? ??????? KCM, ????????, kcm_systemd, ??????? ??????? ??? ????????? ????? ???????? systemd init.
?????? ????????? KDE ????????? ??? ????? [???.:а?
??а???], ?а??? ??а???????? ????????????? ?а???????????
?????? ????? ????? ?????????????? ???????? ?????. ???????? ????????? KDE ????????? ?????????????? ?????????,
?а??а??????????? ?????????.
???? ???? ??????
????????????
?????????? ??????? ??????н? ????
????, ???????????
KDE Window Rules
??? ?????????
??а???????, ????????? ?а????????
????.
???, ?????, ???????
???? ?а??? ???? ?????? ???????, ?????? ???????? ?????????
??????? ???????? ?????, ??????? ???а?????????? ????????????
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
???? 2018? LXF238? |?39
????????? ??????? ????
???????? ???????????
??????а?? ??а???? ??а?????????? ?а??а??????? ???? ??????? ?????
????? ????? ??? ???????? ?а????????? ?????????
???????? ????? ??, ??? ??? ????? ????????? ?а???????
??????. ???? ??а?????? ?????????? ??????? ????
?а????????? ???????? ????? л?????????╗ ?????? (??????? ??н
??? ????????? ???а???? ??????? ???????????), ???а?? ??????н???
?????? ???? ??а??????????а? ??????? ???? ???????????.
????? ???????? ?????а? ??? ??????????? ?????????? ????????? ???????????, ??????? ??????????? ???????????????
?а???????? ?а?????? ??? ??????????? ?????? ????????, ???????
??а??????. ??????????? ?а?????????????? ??????? ?????
?????? ??????, ?????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????
??????? ??????????????.
?
?????? ??? ????????
л?????? ????? ??? ????????
?ан????????? ????????? ????????
н????? ??,а??? ??? ????? ?????????
?а??????? ??????.╗
??????? ??????
???? ?????????? ??аOpenbox
?????????????? ???????
???? ??????????
Cairo-Dock
?а???? ?????????
??аgdesklets.
40? |? LXF238? ???? 2018
??????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????, ??????????? ??? ???
??????????????? ???????? ?????. ????? ?????? ?????????
?а??????? ?????а? ???????? ????, ??????? ????????? ????????????? ?а??????? ????? ???? ?????? ???????н????? ??????????.
???? ??а????? ??????????а? Openbox, ??????? ?????????????? ?????????, ??? ??а?????? ????а?? ???????? ???
???????????. ???, ??? ?а??? ????а? ??? ??? ???а?????? ?????
?а??????. ???? ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ?а???????????
????, ?????????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ??а???????? ?????.
???? ????? ????????? ??? ??????? ??????????, ??????????
?????? ????, ?а??????? ???????????, ???????? ????? ???????
??а?????? ???????? ?????. ??а?????? ????????? ???????? ????
????? ????????? ??????? obconf.
????????? Openbox ??????. ??? ??????? ?а????????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????. ??? ???? autostart, ???????
???????? ?????? ?????? ???????????, ??????????н??? ??????????? ??????? ?????? ???а??? ???????. ?????а? menu.xml, ?а????????? ???????? ???????????? ?????? ??????? ???? ?????????? ???????? ?????. ??????? ???? ????????? Openbox, ???????
???????? ???????? ??????, ????????? ???????????? ????????
????? ?а?.??.а? rc.xml.
????? ?????? ???? ?????? ?????????? ?а?????????? /etc/xdg/
openbox. ?????? ????, ????? ??????????? ????? ????? ???, ???
???? ??????????? ??а?а???? ??????? ???????????????? ?????????? ???????? cp -R /etc/xdg/openbox ~/.config/. ??а?????? ??????????????? ??? ????? ???????, ??а??????????? ????? ????????? ????????? Openbox ?а??????? ???????н???? ????????????.
??????????? ???????? ?????
?????????? ??а????, ??? ??а??????????? ???? ????????? ?а?????????, ???????????? ??? ??????? ???????, ???а?????? ?????????? ??? ??а????????: ??? ???????? ???????? ??????.
?????а??, ?а????? ???????????? ??????? ????????? ??????????????????? ?????. ???? ??, ????????, ??????? ?аKDE Dolphin,
Gnome Files (?????. Nautilus) ?аXfce Thunar, ???? ?????? ?а??????,
????? ??? PCManFM, Xfe ?аEmelFM2.
??? ???????а? PCManFM, ??????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????, ????????, ?????????? ?????, ?а????? ????????
??????? ?а????? ??????????? ????. ?аPCManFM ????????
?а??????????????? ?????????, ?а??а???????????? ?а????н???? ????????? ?????? ??а????????? ??? ???????? ????? LXDE. ?а????
???? ??????? ?????? ?а?????? ?????????, ??????? ???????????
????? ??????, ?а??а?????????? ???, ???? ????? ??????? ??а????????? ??????, ????????, ??????? ??????????????. ??????????? ???????? ?????? ???????????? ????????? ???????,
?а?а??? ????? ???????? ?а????????????? ??????, ??? ?а????????????? ??????????? ??????. ??? ???? ????????????? ???????
????????? ?????? ?а???, ??? ??а????? ????????? ????? ?а????
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??аOpenboxа? ???????? ??? ??????? ??? ??а?????????. ?????
???????????? ???????????? ??????? obconf, ????? ?????????
????. ??а?????? ????????????? ??????? ????? openbox-themes,
??? ???? ???????? ??? Openbox ??? ???????? ?????. ??а??????
????? ??????? ?????? ?а??????? Openbox themes ??а????? www.
box-look.org.
?? ????????? Openbox ??а?????????? ?????. ??а??? ????????? ?????, ??? ???????? ?????? PCManFM ????? ????????? ?а?а???? ????????? ??????, ??????? ??а?????????? ???
?????????? ??????. ??а???? ??а?????????? ???????????? ??????
???????? ??????, ??? ??? ????? ?????? ??????? ?а????????
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?????. ??? ??????????а? Feh ?аNitrogen. Fehа? ??????? ?а??????
??????????? ??????????? ??а????????? ??????, ??????? ?????
????? ??????????? ????. ?а????????????????? ???, Nitrogenа?
???????н???? ???????, ??????????? ????????????? ???? ?????
??а??????????.
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
????????? ??????? ????
???????????? ?????????? ??????. ???? ??? ????? ???????????
????? ??????, ??а??а?????? ?а????? ???????.
??? ???? ????, ??????? ??? ?аOpenboxа? ??? ??????. ??? ??????, ????????? ?????? ??а????? ?????????? ?а?????? ??а????????? ???????????? ????????????? ?? ?????????. ????????
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????, ????????? ?а??????? ??????.
???? ??а?????????? ?????а? Docky, ??????? ??????????н???
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?а????. ??????????? ????????????а? Plank, ?????? ???????
??а???? ?а???????? Docky, ?????? ???????? ?????????? ???????.
?аPlank ????? ???????????? ????, ?а??а???????? ??????????
?????? Preferences ??а?????????? ?????????????? ????????. ?????? ?????, ??????? ????? tint2, ?????????? ????? ??? ????????
?????????????? ??????? ??????.
??? ?аOpenbox, tint2 ???????? ?????????? ?????????, ??????????? ???????? ??а????????? ?????? ????? ??????? ?????
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????????, ?????????, ??? ???????????? ??а?а??????? ?????????
GTK, ?????? ??? volti, ??? ?????????? ??????????.
??????????
??????, ?????? ??а??????? ???????????? ?????, ??????? ?????????? ??, ????? ??????? ?????????????? ??????? ????. ???????????
???????? ??????? ?????? ????????????, ????? ??????? ????????
???? (openbox), ???????? ?????? (pcmanfm), ?????? (cairo-dock)
?а???????? ???????????? (xcompmgr).
????????? ??? ??????????, ???? ??????????? ????? ?????
????????? Openbox ?????? ????? ???????? ?????????? ?а?????
??????????????? ???? ???????, ????? ??а???????? ???:
$ nano ~/.config/openbox/autostart
pcmanfm --desktop &
sleep 2s
pcmanfm --set-wallpaper=/home/bodhi/Pictures/wallpaper.jpg
--wallpaper-mode=crop cairo-dock -o &
xcompmgr -c -f &
? ???? ????? ??а?????? ???????? PCManFM ?а????н????
????????? ???????? ?????. ??а????????? PCManFM ??????????
?????? ??? ???? ?????? ?а????? ?а????? ~/Desktop. ???? ??? ??н
??? ?????? ??? ?????????? ??а??????? ?????, ???? ???????????
????? .desktop ??а/usr/share/applications ?а???? ????? ~/Desktop.
?????? & ?а????? ????????? ????? ????? ???????????? ?????????
????????? ?а???? ?а?????????? ?а?????????? ??????. ???а?????
??????? ??????????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ?а????? ?????, ????
????????? ??????????, ??а???????? ?а????????? ??????, ???
??а???????? ???????? ????? ???????????.
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
????? ??а????????????? ?????? ??а???? ??????, ?????
PCManFM ??? ?????????, ?????? ??? ??а??????? ??? ????? ???
?????? ?а??????. ???? ??а??а??????????? PCManFM ?а????н????
????????? ???????? ?????, ?????? ?????????? ???? ????? feh,
????????, feh --bg-fill ~/wallpaper.jpg. ????? ??а?????????? ?????
-o, ????? ????????? Cairo-Dock ???????????? ?????? OpenGL
?а?????????? ??????????. ????????? ?????? ???????? xcompmgr
?????? ?а?????????? ?????? ????? ?а????????????. ??? ?????
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?а???????????????? ????.
??? ?а???. ?????? ??????? ??а??????? ?а????? ???????, ??а?????????, ??? ??а???????? ????? ???????? ????? ??аOpenbox ?а????????? ???????????. ??????? ?????????????????? ??????????, ?а??а??????? ?а???? ?????????????? ??????????? Openbox
??????? ????.
????? ?? ?????? ??????? ????? ????????? ????????? ????????, ????????, Cairo-Dock ??? ???? ?????? Openbox. ???????????? ????????? ?????????????? ??????? ?????, ??а???????
??????? ?????????? ?а???????? ??а???????????????. ??????????
?????? ????, ?????????? ??????? ??а??????? ????? ?а???????
gdesklets, Conky ??? GkrellM, ???, ????????, ???? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ???? Synapse. ???????? ???????????? ????????
?????а? ????? ??????? ???????, ??? ????????? ?????????????????? ???????? ????? ??? ???? ??????? ??а?????, ??а???а? ?????? ?????? ??????? ???? ???????? ??????? ?????. |
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???? ??? ?????????? ??????? ????????????????? ?а??а????? ??????? ???????? ????????, ?????? ???????????? Cairo-Dock. ??а????? ???????????? ????????? ????
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???????????. ?????? ?а???? ????? ???????????, ?а??а?????? ??????? ?а????????? ???????? ?а?????? ??????? ????.
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????????? ????????????. ???????? ???????????? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ?а???????? ????, ????????? ???????????? ???????????? ???????н?????
????????????. Compiz ??? ?????? ?????????? ????, ????????? ?а???? ???
????????? ?????????? ????? OpenGL, ?аKDE KWin ?аGnome Mutterа? ?????????????? ????????? ????.
?? ??а???????, ??? ????, ?????????? ???? ?а???????? ???????????? ???????? ?????? ?а???????????? ?????? ???????? ?????. ???? ????????? ????????????, ??????? ?????????? ?а?????????? ??????????? ????. ??? ??????????
?????а? Xcompmgr ?аCompton, ?а??а??????? ??? ?а??????????? ????????????
?????????? ?????????????.
??????? ?????? ????????? Cairo-Dock ??а?????????, ?????????? ?аAdvanced
Mode [??????????? ?????], ??? ??? ?????? ??????????.
???? 2018? LXF238? |?41
???????? ???????? ??????? ? ??? ?????
???????????
??? ??аLINUX
?????? ????????????? ??????????,
??? Linux ?????? ???. ???????? ???????
???????? ??????? ?а??? ????? ????????н???
??????????? ??? ???????...
42? |? LXF238? ???? 2018
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
???????? ??????? ? ??? ????? ????????
??????? ???? ? ???? ???аCIP
?????? ????? ?????а?
??????, ????????????????
? ?????????? ???????????.
????? Civil Infrastructure Platform
(CIP) [????????? ???????????
??????????????] ???????? ?????н
?????? Linux Foundation. ??а????н
??? ??а???????? ???????? ???? ?????????????
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?????????? ?????? ???? ??? (??????? ????????? ???? LTS-?????????????) ????????? ??,
??????????? ??? ???????, ?а?а?????? ??а???? ?????? ????????? ????????????????? ????? 50а???.
????? ???????, CIP ???????????? ???? ????
??а??????????????????? ?????????? (SLTS).
? ??????? 2017а?.а?а????? ?????? ???????
??аLinux Format ????????? ??а??????? Open Source
Linux Foundation ?а???????? ??????? [Yoshitake
Kobayashi] ??аToshiba ?а????? ??????? [Urs Gleim],
????????????? ?????? Central Smart Embedded
Systems ?аSiemens AG. ??? ??а??????? ??????
?????????? ?а???, ??? CIP ???????? ??????????
???? ???? ?а??????? ???? ??ал????????????
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?
Linux Format: Linux ???????? ???????????,
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л???? ??????????? ???????? ??аLinux╗, ?а???
??а?????????????. ????? ????, ??? ??????????????? ??????????????, ??????????????? ?а???????????? ?????????????, ??? ??? ????? ???????????? ???????. ??а???????, ??а10 ??а40а???,
?а????? ???? ?а??????.
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?????????? ???????????? ??????????? ??).
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????? ?????? ?а???????????? ????? ???????. ??????? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????????? ?а????????? ??????????.
??? CIP ???? ??????? ?а???, ????? ?????????????? ????? ?????? ???? Linux ?а???????????? ??
??????? ??? ????????. ???? CIP ??????? ??????
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??????? ?????????
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www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
??? ???????? ???? ?а??????? 2017а?., ??? ???
??? ??????? ???????? ????????? ???????, ???н
????????? ?а??? ???...
? ?????? ?аCIP ?????????????? ?????
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?????????? ???????? ARM ?аIntel, ?а????? ?????????? ?????????? ??. ??????? ??????????????? ???????? ?????????? ?а???? CIP SLTS.
????? ????????? ????????? ??????? ??????
??а??????? Kernel Self-Protection.
???? ????? ????????? ???????? ???? CIP.
?а?????? ??? ???????? [Ben Hutchings] ???????? ????????? ??????: 4.4.126?cip22. ????
4.4 ???? ???????? ?а?????? 2016а?.а?а????????????? ?????????? ??а????????????
????????? ??а??????? 2018а?.а?а????????
2017а?.а????????? ???????? ??а???????
2022а?.а????????, ???-??а??? ????? ???????????? ??? ????? ????? ??????? (??? ?????????
?а??????????? ?????????? ???? 3.2 ??а????
?????????, ??????? ????? ????? ??? ??????????? ?а???). ??? ?????????а?? ????? ???????
CIP, ??а??? ?????? ??а?????????.
?? ????????? ??????? ??аLinux Civil
Infrastructure Platform ??????? ??а????? www.
cip-project.org.
???? 2018? LXF238? |?43
???????? ???????? ??????? ? ??? ?????
??????. ??а????? ???????, ??? ????, ????? ???
?????? ??????????? ????????? ?а????????????
????????????, ?а??а????????.
LXF: ????? ??????? ?????? ?а??? ??а???????????н
??? ?????? ??? ??????????
??: ?????? CIP ??????? ?а?????? 2016а?., ?а??????? ??? ?????????? Hitachi, Siemens ?аToshiba.
?а??? ??? ????????????? ??? ?????? ?????????: Renesas Electronics, Codethink ?аPlat?Home.
??? ???????????? CIP, ????? ???? ?????
??????????????? ?а??????????? ???????, ?а??????????? ??????, ????????? ?а?????? CIP.
L?F: ??? ??а????????? ???????????? ?а?????????н
??? ????????? ????? ??? ???????? ??? ???????н
??? ????...
??: ??? ??????? ???????? ??а?????? ??????????
??????????, ?а?????? ??а??? ?????? ???? ?????????????? ?а???????????????. ??а?а??????, ??????? ?????????? ????????? ??а?????? ?????, ????
????? ??????. ??????, ??а?????? ????? ??????
????????????? ??????? ??????, ???? ?а????????? ?а??????, ??? ??? ?????????? ??????
??????????? ??????? ?????? CIP.
╗╗BOARD AT DESK (B AT D)
LXF: ?????????? ??? ???????? ???аBoard
atаDesk.
??: B at Dа? ??? ??????????? ?????? ??? ?????????????, ?????????????? ?????? ??????
???????????? ???? Linux ??а????? ?????????
??????? ???????. ??? ????? ??????? ??а??а??????? ??????. ?а??? ???????????? Kernel CI
?аLAVA; ???а? ??????? ?а???????? ????????
?????, ???????????? Linaro ?а???????????
????. ??? ???????? ???????? ?????????????? ??а??а?????????? ??а???? ???????????
?????? Debian.
Kernel CIа? ??? ?????????????????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ???? Linux, ?????????
?а???????? ??????? ????. ??? ????????? ?????? ???????? ???????????? ????? ????????
????? (??? ????? ??????????? ????? ?а????????
?????), ?а??? ??? ??? ????? ??????. ??а?????
???????????? ???? ?а??а?? ???????? ???????,
?а????? ???????? ???????????? ??? ???? CIP.
??????????? ?а?????????? ????????????а?
?????? ????? ????? ?????????. ??а?а????
44? |? LXF238? ???? 2018
???? ?????? ??а???? ??????, ?а??? ?????н
???? ?????? ??а??????? ?????????????????
?????????? kernelci.org. ????? ????, Kernel
CI ?аLAVAа? ???? ????????? ????????????,
??а??? ?а??????. ????????, ??? B at D ???????? ??????? ????? ???? ???? ????????.
B at D ?????? 1.0 ????? ??? ??? ?????
????????????. ???????? ????????? ?а???, ???
??а???????? ??????????? ?????? ??аDebian
Jessie ??аStretch. ?????? ?а??? ???? ??????
??аDebian Testing, ??? ????????? ?а?????????
??????????????? ?а???????????????. ?????
?а??? ????? ???? ????? ?????? LAVA: 2017.7.
??? ??? ?????? ??????????? ???????
???????????? CIP ??аCodethink. ??а????? ???????????? Windows ??? ????-???????, ??а???
??а????? ???????? ????????! ????? ??, ???
??а?????? initramfs ????????. ??? ??????????? ???????? ??а???????? Linaro, ?а??????,
??а??а????? ??????????? ???а???????????
?а?????????. ?а?????? ?????, ?а????? ??????
??? ???????.
???? ?????????????? ????, ?а???? ????? ???? ??,
??????? ????????? ??? ?????. ?а??, ??а??????
????????? ??? ????????????? ??????????, ??а????????? ??????? ????? ?????? ??????? ????????
?????????.
??: ????? ???? CIP ??????????? ?а???????? ????
?????????????? ????????????, ??????? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????????,
?????????? ????????????? ????????????. ?????
??????????? ??? ??? ???????? ??????????????,
?????? ??? ???а??а??????? ????? ?????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????????????? ?????.
??? ???? ????????? ????????, ???? ??а???????? ?????????? Board at Desk [B at Dа? ??. ?????? ?????],
??а????????? ????? ?????????? ????? ??????????
??а????????? ??????? ???????, ??????? ??????????? ?а?????? ????? ???????????????? ????. B at D
????? ?????????????? ??а????? ???????????????? ?????: Beaglebone Black ?аRenesas RZ/G1M.
L?F: ????????, ??? ??? ????? ?????? ???????
????????? ???????? ????????????. ??? ?? ????н
??????? ??????????? ?а?????
??: ??а????? ??????? ??? ???????? ????????????
??а?????????? ???? Linux ?а???? ???? CIP ?а??????????? ??а??а?????????? ????????????а? ???????, ??? ??а??????? ??????????????.
?????? ???????? ???????? ????????????
????????????, ?????? ?????? ????. ?а??? ????
?.??. ??????? ???? CIP, ??? ??? ????? ???? ??.
??а?????, ????? ???? ???? ??? ????? ??? ?????
????????????. ????? ?????? ??????? ?????????
?????? ??? ????? ???????, ??????? ????? ?????
????? ??????????н???? ?а?????????????? Linux
?а??????? ?????????.
??: ?а????? ?????? ???????????? ??????? ?????
?????? ??????????? ?а??????? ???????. ????????? ??????????? ????? ???????? Google ?а??????
??????? ????????. ?а???? ??????? ?????????
????????, ????????, Core Infrastructure Initiative
(CII, ??. www.coreinfrastructure.org) ?аKernel Self
Protection Project (??. https://kernsec.org/wiki/index.
php/Kernel_Self_Protection_Project). ??а?????
??а??? ??? ?а????????? ??????? ?а???? CIP. ????
CIP ???????? ??а???? 4.4, ?а??а????????? ?а????
?????????? ???????????? ?а??????? ??а?????
????? ????.
LXF: ????? ???????? ??????????? ?а???? ??????н
????????? ??????, ???????? ?аDebian. ?????а??
??? ??????????? ?аCIP? ????? ??????????????
??????????? ?а???????????? ????????????
??: ??????????????? ??????а? ???? ????н????
??? ??????? CIP. ??а??? ??а?????? ???????? ???
????, ??а????????? ?а????????? ?????. ?а?????н
???? ????? ??а???????????? ??а????????????
Debian ?а???????????? ?????????. ?а?????????
???? ??а??????? ?????? ??????????н???? ?а????????? ?аDebian ?а?????? ??? ????? ?????: ??????
?а????????? CIP ?/??? ????????? ?????? Debian
??а????? ??????.
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
???????? ??????? ? ??? ????? ????????
LXF: ?????? CIP Core ??? ?????? ??? ????????
??а???? ??????????? [?а??????? 2017а?.]. ??????а??
??? ??а??????????? ?а?????? ???????? ??а?????
??: ?????? ????? ??а????????????? ??а????. CIP
Core ????????????? ?????? ?а???????????? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ???????. ??????????,
??? ??а??????????? ???????????, ??? ??? ??а????????????. ?а??? ???? ?????? ??????? ??????, ????????, ????????? ????????? (???????????????
OpenSSL), ?????????, glibc, busybox, binutils ?а???????????. ??? ???? ?а???, ??? ??? ??? ??а????????
?аUbuntu ??? ???-??а????????.
??а?????????? ??а????? ????а?? ????????н
??? ???? CIP ?а?????? ????????? ???????
??а????????
??: ??, ?а??? ???? ???????? ?а???????? ???????
??аhttps://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/
wagi/linux-cip-rt.git. ????????? ???? CIP ????н
???? ??аKernel 4.4, ?а?????????? ?????? ????????
PREEMPT_RT, ?????????????? ??? 4.4, ??????????? ???????? ????? ?????? ???????? 4.4 stable-rt
???????? ???а??????? ??????? ????????.
????? ???????? CIP ??? ????????? ??????? ?????
?????????????? ??????? ???????? stable-rt 4.4
??????????? ???????? ???????
л??, ??? ?? ?????????? ??????????? ??????? ? ?? ?????? ????????? ????, ?????н
???????? ???????? ????????? ????????
?????? ??????????????? ? ?????????.╗
???? CIP ???????? ?????????? ?????
???????; ?????????????? ??????? ??????? ???
??а?????. ????? ???????? ?????? ????? ??? ???????? ?????? ???????????? ?????. ??? ???? ???
???? ???? ?а?????????? ??? ????????????????
???????. ??а??????? ??а???????? ???? Debian
?а???????? ??????. ??а?????? ????????????
?а??????????? Debian, ?????? ??? ??? ??? ????н
???????? ???????????? ?????????.
???????? ????????, ??? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ?а??????? ???? ??? (???????????
?????? Debian LTS), ????? ??? CIP ??????????
???????????? ??а????? ?????? ???. ??? ????
???????? ?а???????????, ????? ?????????? ????
?????? ?а?????????. ??? ?????? ??а??????? ????
????? ?????????????? ?????????, ?а???????
???? ????? ????? ??? ??????? ???? ?????????.
CIP ???????? ????????? ????????? Debian LTS
??а?????????? ??????.
??? ????? ????? ?????. ????? ???????? stable-rt
??а??????? ????? ??????? (????? ??? ?????????
hrtimer, ??????????? cpu hotplug ?а???????????
no_hz), ????????? ???????? ???????????? ?????
??????? ???? ????? ?????????? rt. ????? ????н
???, ?????????????? ???? stable-rt ?????????
?а?????? cip-rt, ??? ????????? ??? ?????????
???????? ???????? ?а???????? ???????.
LXF: ????, ??а???? ????????????? Toshiba ?аSieн
mens, ??? ???????? ????????. ??? ??? ?а?????
??: ?а??? ???? Hitachi, Codetshink (?????????????
????????, ????? ???????? ?а?????????? Linux)
?аPlat?Home (???????? ???????? IoT). ????????? ????????а? Renesas, ??? ?????? ?????????
???????, ?????????? ?а???????, ??? ??? ??? ?????
?????? ??? ??? CIP. ??, ??? ??а?????????? ??????????? ????? ?а??а?????? ????????? ????,
????????????? ???????? ????????? ????????
?????? ??????????????? ?а?????????.
LXF: ????? Renesas ????? ????? ???????
?аAutomotive Grade Linux (AGL). ???? ???????
?а???, ????? ?????????? ???????? Linux ???
?????????? ?а???????????, ???? ??? ?а????????
?а????????????? ?????????????-????????????н
??? ???????? (IVI). ???????????а?? ????????, ???
CIP ???????? ??????? ??????????? ????, ?????
????????????????? ????????? ??? ???????? ????
???????????????
??: ?а????????? ?????? ??. ???????? ????????
??????????? ?а???, ??? AGL ???????? ??? ?????
?????? ??????? ??????? ???? ??а?а??????????
??.а??? ??а????????? ????????????? ??а????????????, ??? ??. ??а????? ??? ????? ??????
?????? ???????????? ????????? CIP ?а??????????
?????????, ??????? ??? ???? ???????????????
??а?????????? ?а????????????. ?????-???????????? ?????????а? ????? ?????????? ?????, ?а???
????? ??? ?????? ????????. |
LXF: ?????? ?????? ????????? ????? ????н
??? ?а?????????? ????????? ??????????,
?а??а?а??????. ??????а?? ??а???????, ??????а??
???? ?????? ?аCIP Core?
??: ?а?????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ???? ?????
???? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ???? CIP,
?а??а?????? ??а????? ????????????? ??а????.
??а?????? ????????????? IoT ?а?????????? ???????/???????? ?а????? ?????, ??????? ??а?????
??????????? ???-??а???????? ?а???????.
??: ??, ??? ????? ??????? ??? ???????? ?????.
?????? ????? ????????, ????????, ???? ??????
??????? ?а??????????? ??а????????: ?????????
??а??? ???????? ??а???????, ????????? ??а???????? ??????????? ?аbindiff ?а?.??.
LXF: ??аhttp://bit.ly/cip-kernal-patchset ???????н
???? ???????? ????????? ???????. ??????а??
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
??? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ??????
????? ?а???????, ????? ??????? ????
???????? ????????????.
???? 2018? LXF238? |?45
?????????? ?????? ???????? ? WINE
C??????
WINDOWS??????????
?????? WINE
?????? ???????? ? ?а??а??????? ????-????
??а???????????? ?????, ??а???? WINE ????????? ???
????????? ????????? ?????? ???????.
inuxа? ?????????? ?????????? ??????
Windows. ??а?? ???? ????? ??? ?????? ?а???????, ??? ??а?????? ?а?????????????. ??а????????? ???? ??????
?????? ????????? ????????? ?????????? Windows.
???????? ????? ???? ??, ??? ????? ??а???????????
???????? ???????? ?аWord, ?????? ???????? ?а??????
?а??????? ??а????????? ??????????, ??????? ?а????? ??? ???? ??????? ?????? ?а?????????????????
TPS-????????. ?а????????? ??????? ???????? ?а????,
??????????? ?аLinux, ???? ??а????? ??????? ????????
??? AAA-??????, ??????? ???????? ??????? ??а??н
????? ??а??????? ?????????.
? ?????? ??????? ??????? ?а??????? ?????????
??? ????????? ????????? ?аWindows, ??а????????????
??? ??????? ?а?????? ??????? ????????. WINE ?????
????? ?????? ????? ??????? ??аLinux, ????????
??а??????????? ??????????? Windows, ???? ???
??а????????? ?а??а???????????? ?аLinux.
L
46? |? LXF238? ???? 2018
??? ????? 25а??? WINE ????????????? ????????????? Linux ??????????? ????????? ?????????
Windows ??а????? ??????? ???????????? ???????.
?????????? ??а???н??? ???? ???????????, ??а????
??а????????? ?а??? ??????? ??а???????????, ??а??????
??????? ????????.
??????? ???а???????? ???????? ????? ????
????????? ?????????????, ??а?а????????? ????? ????
????????????? ???????? FLOSS ?????????? ?????
?????????? (?????????? ??? ??а????????????, ???
?а??а??????? ??????).
??????? ????????????? ???? ??????? WINE ????????, ??? ??а?????? ??????????? ??????; ??а?????
?а??, ???, ????????, ??? ??????????? ??а??? ??а?????????. ??а??????? ???, ??? ???????? ????? ?????????
?????? ??? ???? ??????????? ????????? ?????????????? ????????. ?а??а???????? ??? ??а?????????
DXVK, ????? ??а????? ????????????? ???? Vulkan ???
??????? ??? DirectX 11.
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
?????? ???????? ? WINE ??????????
? ??? ???? ??????? ???? [wineа? ????. ????] ?????????????? ?а????н???? ???????? ??? ?????????
??????? ???????. ???? ????? ??????? ?а?????????????,
????????? ?????? ?а???????????. ??? ????? ?а???? ??????н
???? ?? ??а?????? ?????: ??а????????? ??????????? ?????????
????????? Windows, ??а????? ??????? ?а?????, ??????? ???
?????????а?? ??а????????, ?а????????? ??????????? ?а????????,
??????? ??? ?????????а?? ??а??????.
WINE ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ??? Wine
Isn?t aN Emulator, ??а??? ????? ??а????. ?????? ???????, ???
WINE ??????????? ????? ???? ??? ????????, ???? ??а????? ????
??а????????? ?????? API win32а?аLinux; ??????? ???????? ????????? ?????? ??а????????????. ??? ?????? ??а?????????? WINE
(??. ?????? ????? ??????), ??а??????а? ?а??????а? ?????????
????????? Windows ?????? ????????
$ wine ?????????.exe
?????? ??? ?????????? ??????????? ???????, ??а?????? ????????? ???, ??? ???????? WINE. WINE ???????? ?????
??????????? ??????????? ?????????? Windows (??????? ?????????? ????????? WINE [Wine prefix] ??? ???????? WINE [Wine
bottle], ??? ??? ?????? ????? ?????? ???? ?????? ???????) ?а?????????? ~/.wine. ?а???????? WINE ??????? ??????????? ????????????? drive_c/, ??????????? ????????? ???????????? Program
Files/ ?аwindows/, ?а?а????????? ??а??????? ??? ????????? .DLL.
??? ??а???? ?????? ??а????????? Windows (??? ?????а?? ???????? ?а????????? ????); ?????? ????? ????? ?????????? ?????????
????????? ????????? ??????????? ??? ???? ????????????????? ??а?????? ???????????? API, ????? ??????????????? ???
????? ????? ?а?????????? ??аWindows. ?????? ??? ??а??????
???????, ?а????????? ??????????? ??? ?????????? ?????? ??????????? ?????? DLL Windows.
?????? DLL ????? ??????? ??????????? ??а????????????
????????? Windows ?а?????????? windows/system32, ???? ????????? ??а??? ??????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ?а?.??. (??а????? ???? WINE ?????? ??????????? ????????? ?а????? ??????, ??? ?а????????? Windows, ??????? ????? ??????????? ?а??????? ???а??
RegEdit). ??????????? ???????? ??????????н??? ?????????????
??? ??????????? ??аDLL, ?а??? ???, ??????? ????? ??а??????,
?????? ???????? ???????????. ????????, ????? ?????, ??? ?????
Visual C, ????? ????? ??????????????? ??????????? ???????
(????? WINE) ????????????, ????????? ??а????? Microsoft. ??????? ????? ???????????????? ?а??????? ?????????? ???????
Winetricks (??. ?????).
????? ???????????? ?????? DLL, ??????? ??а??????????,
?а??а??, ??????? ???????? ?аWINE, ??а????? ????????????
?
Winecfg, ??????? ????????? GUI WINE, ??? ????????? Winetricks
??????? ??? ??а???. ?????? ???????? DLL, Winecfg ????? ????????? ?????? ?????? ????? (??????? ?????, ????? ?а???????????
?????) ??а???????? ??????????? ????, ???????? ??аWindows.
????? ????? ????? ???????, ????? ?????? Windows ???????????. ??а????????? ???????? ??????? root ????????????
??а??????????? ????? Z Windows: ?а????? ?????????, ???????
??а?????????? ????? WINE, ????? ???????? ?????? ??а?????,
?а???? ????? ???????? ?????? ??? ????????????. ?????????????,
???? ???? ???????????? ?а???, ??? ??а?????????. ???????????? ??????????? ???? ?а??????????? ??а????? ???????????
??? ???? ??????? ???, ?а???? ?а?????? ???????????? ???? ??????
??а??????. ???? ???? ??а???????? ????????? ???????????? ?????,
WINE ?а?????? ??а????????? ?????? ?????? ????????, ??? ??????????? ??????, ??? ??? ??а????? ???????????? ??? ??? ???????
????-?? ?а?????????????? ??????????????.
?????? WINE
????? ??а??????? ?????????? WINE, ?а??????????? ??а?????? ????????????, ??? ????????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????????
Mono ?аGecko. ??? ???????????? ??? ??????? ?????????? .NET
?а?????????? HTML ??????????????. Ubuntu ?????? ?????????
??? ????? ??????????? ?????? (???а????????? wine-mono ?аwinegecko), ?а?????? ???????????? ?????? ??? ??а??? ???. ???? ???
??????????? ?????????? ????? ??????, ??????????? ??, ?а????
???а? ????? WINE ????????? ??а??а???. ???? ?????? ?????????? ??,
??? ????? ???????? ?а?????? ?????? ??а????????? ?????.
?? ????????? WINE ??????????? 64??????? ???????,
??? ?????? ????????? (WINE ????????? ?????????? Windows
WoW64), ???? ??а??а?????????? ??а32??????? ??????????,
╗╗????????? WINE
???? ??а??????????? Ubuntu 18.04, ??а?а?????????? Software ??а??????? ???
?????? WINE: ??????????? ?а?????? ??? ?????????????. ??? ????????? ?а???????
wine-stable ?аwine-development, ???? ??а????????????? ????????????? ??а?а??????? apt install. ???? ??а??????????? ????? ?????? ?????? Ubuntu, ??? ?????
??????? ??????, ??а????? ????? ?????? ???????? ?аPPA winehq.org, ?а??а???????
?????????? ??? ??????? ??аhttps://wiki.winehq.org/Download. ??? ?????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ?????: winehq-stable, winehq-devel ?аwinehq-staging (?а???????
???????? ????????????).
????? ??????? ?????? Winetricks ???????? ?а??????????? ????????????,
??а???????????? Debian ?а????? ?????? ?????? Ubuntu, ????????, ??????? ???????
??? ???????? ?аhttps://github.com/Winetricks/winetricks.
? WINE ??????? ???? ??????? ?а????? ??????? ?????? ??? ??????. ????? ????????, ??? ?????? ??аWineHQ ??а????? ???????????? ?????а?? ??????? ????????????, ??? ??????????? ?????? ?????????????; ??а?????? ???? ????? ??а?????????.
? ???? ???
?аWinetricks
??????? ????
???????????
GUI. ??????
????????? ???
??а????????? ??????
???а??????????.
Steam ?????, ??? ??а??????? ???аWINE, ??, ??????, ??а?????????.
????????? ????????а? ????????? ???????? ????? ????.
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
???? 2018? LXF238? |?47
?????????? ?????? ???????? ? WINE
??????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ??????????. ?????????
?????????? ????????? 64??????? ????? ?а??????? ???????
????????? ?????????? ??а??????? ??????? ??????н????? ?????,
??? ??а????? ????????. ??а?????? ??? ???????? ?а??????? ??????? GoG Galaxy (???????? ??аhttps://bugs.winehq.org/show_bug.
cgi?id=43095). ???????? ????? ???????????? 32??????? ??????? WINE ??? ????????? GoG, ??? ???? ????? ???????? wine
???????? WINEARCH=win32. ?а????? ????????? ?????? GoG Galaxy
??а????? ??????????? ?а?????? ?????????. ???????? ?????
????????? ????? ?????? ?????? (???????? ??а?аhttps://cdn.gog.com/
open/galaxy/client/setup_galaxy_1.2.17.9.exe) ?а??????????.
???????????? ?? WINE
? ????????????? Linux ???? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ??а????,
??? ?а???????? ???. ??а???? ??а???????? ?????? ?????????????
WINEа? ??? ???, ??????? ??? ???аLinux, ??? ??? ??????? ?????????, ??? ??? ????????? Steam ?аWINE ?а??????? Winetricks. ???
????? ???? ?????? ???????
$ winetricks steam
?????, ????? ??? ????????? (???а??????? ??????? ??а??????????? ????? ?????? ??????), ???? ??????? ?????????:
$ cd ~/.wine/drive_c/Program\ Files\ \(x86\)/Steam/
$ wine Steam.exe -no-cef-sandbox
????????? ???????? ??????? ????? ???????????? ??????,
?????????????? ???????? Store ?а?????? ?????? ??????????
Steam. ?????? ???? ????? ???????? ???а??????????? ?????????????, ??а???? ???-??а?????? ??а???, ????? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ????? AppDB WINE (https://appdb.winehq.org).
?????-????????????? ???????н???? API Vulkan (??. LXF211)
????? ?????? ???????? ?аLinux ??? ?????? ??????????? ???,
???, ??? ???????, ?????? ??????????? ??????, ????? ??? ????????. ??????? ????? ??????, ?????????? ?????? ??????????,
??? Aspyr Media ?аFeral, ??????? ?а????????? ??????? DirectX
?аOpenGL. ??а??? ??? ????????? ?????? ???????, ???? ???? ???
???????? ??а????????? ??????? Vulkan, ?????? ????? ?????
??????????? ??????????. ??????, ??? ??????? ??а?????????????
????????? (?????? ???????? ???????????? ????? ????? ???????
?????????? DirectX 12 ??аMicrosoft), ?а?а????? ???????? ??????
??????? ??а??????? ??а???????? ???????? ??а????? ????????
????????? Linux.
?????? ???? ??? ??? ????????? ??а?????????, WINE ????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ????. ?????? ????? WINE ????? ??????
?????????? ?????? DirectX 9 (?а????), ??а?а?????? 2018а?. ?????????? ????????? ??? ???????????? ?????? 3.0. ??????? ?????
??? ????????, ??????????????? ??? ??????????? ?????????,
??????? ????????? ????? DirectX ??????????? ????? Vulkan. ????
VK9 (https://github.com/disks86/VK9) ??? ??????? DirectX 9. ????
?????? ???? ??? ????????? ??а?????? ?????? ????????, ??а????
?????????, ??а?????? ???????? ???????????? ??? ?????????
?????? ???.
??? WINE
????? ??а?????? Linux GOG Galaxy ????? ?????. ????? ?????????, ??? ????? ??а????????,
??а??а????? ???????? ??а???????? ?????????н???? ???????.
╗╗?? WINE ????? ???????
CrossOverа? ????????н???? ?????? WINE, ???????????? CodeWeavers, ?????????
??? macOS ?аLinux. ???? ????? ????-??????, ????????? ??? ChromeOS (??????
??? ????????? ??аIntel), ??????? ?????????? ?????????? Android. ?а??? ???????
??????????? ?????????? ??? ?????????? Windows ??а????? ??????????? ?а???????? DLL ??? ??????????? ?????? ??????. ????????? ????????? ????????????? ???????????, CrossOver ????? ????????? ??, ??? ??а??а????? ????????????
WINEа? ?а?????????, Office 2016, ??а????? ?а?????? ????.
?????? ?????, ?аCodeWeavers ????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????????
?????????? ?????????? ??аCrossOver, ??? ????????, ??? ????? ????????? ???????? ?а??? ????? ?????? CrossOver ??а?????? ?????????. ?а??? ????? ???????????? ????????????. ????????? ??аCrossOver ???????????? ?а?????????? WINE,
?а??? ?????????? ?????? ????????????? WINE. CodeWeavers ????? ????????????
?????????????? ??? winehq.org. ??? ??? ??? ?????? ????? ?????? ????????????????? ?????? ?????? ?????????, ?????????? ??????? ??а????????? FLOSS
?а?????? ??а???????? ??????. ??? ???? ??а??? ???????, ????? ??а?????? ??а??????
?????????????? ??.
?? ?????? ??????? ??????????????????? 14???????? ?????????? ???????
??????, ?аCrossOver Linux ????? ??аг?32 (??а????????? ??????). CodeWeavers ??????????? ????????? ?????????????? ???? ????????? ?а??????? ?????? ?????
???, ??? ??????????? ??????. ??? ??????? ???????, ??а??а???а?? ??а???????.
48? |? LXF238? ???? 2018
???? ????? DXVK, ??????? ?????? ??а?? ????? ??? ???????
DirectX 11. ??? ?????? ????? ?????????, ??? ??????, ???????
??????? ????? ??? ????. ??а??????? ??? ???? ????????? ??????? WINE, ????? ??а???????? ??? ??, ??? ?а??? ???? ??а????????? ?а~/.wine. ??? ?????, ????? WINE 3.5 ??? ??????? ?????
???????????? DXVK (??????? ?????? wine-development ?аUbuntu
18.04 ?????? ????????), ?а??а????? ?????? ???????? ?аWine Staging. ??? ??? ??????????? ???????????? ?а?????????? Vulkan
?а???????? ?а?????????? DXVK (?????????? ??. ??аhttps://github.
com/doitsujin/dxvk/wiki/Driversupport).
????????? ???????? ??аGitHub ??????? (https://github.com/
doitsujin/dxvk), ??а??????? ??а?а??????? Releases, ??? ??? ????????
????? ????????? tar-????? (0.50 ??а?????? ?????????) ?а?????????? ???:
$ tar xvzf dxvk-0.50.tar.gz
$ cd dxvk-0.50/x32
$ WINEPREFIX=~/.winedxvk bash setup_dxvk.sh
$ cd ../x64
$ WINEPREFIX=~/.winedxvk bash setup_dxvk.sh
??? ??? ??????????? SDK Vulkan (??а????? ????а? ??????
????? ?а??????????? ICD, ?????? ????? ?????????? ??? ?????????), ????? ??????????????? ???? ??????. ?а????????? (?????
??????, ??? ??, ??????? ????????? ?а??????????? Arch) ??????
Winetricks ??? ????? ??????? ?а???????:
$ WINEPREFIX=~/.winedxvk winetricks vulkansdk
? ???? ?????? ????? ????????? ????????? ????????? ? https://
vulkan.lunarg.com/sdk/home#windows ???????, ? ???????
$ WINEPREFIX=~/.winedxvk wine VulkanSDK-1.1.73.0-Installer.exe
????? ???? ??????? ???? ?а????? ???????? WINE, ???????
????????? ??? ?а????? Installable Client Driver (ICD). ???????? ???
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
?????? ???????? ? WINE ??????????
?а??????? nano ~/.winedxvk/windows/winevulkan.json ?а?????????
?????????:
{
?file_format_version?: ?1.0.0?, ?ICD?: {
?library_path?: ?c:\\windows\\system32\\winevulkan.dll?,
?api_version?: ?1.0.51?
}
}
?????? ???? ??????? ?аRegistry ?а???????? ????????? ??????,
????? ????????? ???? ????. ????????? WINEPREFIX=~/.winedxvk
regedit. ????? ????????? ?аHKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\
Khronos\Vulkan ??? ???????? ?????? ????? ???а????????? Drivers. ?????? ????? ????? ???????? ????? DWORD (?????? ???????
??а?????? ??????) C:\Windows\winevulkan.json ?а???????? ???
???????? 0. ???????? ??? ???? ???? Drivers ?аHKEY_LOCAL_MAн
CHINE\SOFTWARE\Wow6432Node\Khronos\Vulkan ?а????? ????????
DWORD C:\Windows\winevulkan.json ??а????????? 0.
???????? Regedit ?а????????? ?????????? VulkanInfo,
?а???????
$ cd ~/.winedxvk/drive_c
$ WINEPREFIX=~/.winedxvk/ wine ./Program\Files\ \(x86\)/
VulkanRT/1.0.68.0/vulkaninfo.exe
? ???? ???????, ????? ??а?????? ??? ??????, ????? ?????????
????? ????? Vulkan; ?а????? ?????? ??? ??????????? ?є?????
??????. ????? ????, ??????? ?????? DXVK ???????? ??аhttps://
haagch.frickel.club/files/dxvk. ??? ?а???????? ????? ????????
???????????? ??, ????? ?????? ?????? d3d11.dll not found, ??,
????????, ?а???? ???????, ????? ??а?????? ??? ??????, ???
????? ??????????.
??а?????? ???????????? wget, ????? ??????? ??? ?????
?????:
$ wget --recursive -np -R ?index.html*? -nH --cutdirs=3 https://
haagch.frickel.club/files/dxvk/r1093.c7d2957/
????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ?????????, ????? ?????????? WINEPREFIX, ??? ??????? ????. ???? ???-?? ?????? ??а???,
????? ????????? ????????????? DLL ?а????????????? ???, ??????? ?а??????? reset.
?????? ?????? WINE
Wine PBA, ??? ???? ????? ?????? ??а?????? Wine Staging,
??????? ???? ???????? ????????? ????? ????????? [Andrew
Comminos], ??????????? ?????? ?аWorld ofаWarcraft (?аWINE).
?????? ????? ??????????????? ??аhttps://comminos.com/
posts/2018?02?21?wined3d-profiling.html. ?а???????? ????? ??а?????????, ??? ??а????? ???? ????? WINE Direct3D 9а?????? ??????
??????? ??а???????? ??????, ??а??? ??? ????? ????????? ?????
Persistent Buffer Allocation [?????????? ??????????? ??????].
???? Dragon Age ??? ???????? ?????, ?????? ???????????
??????????? ?????????? ????? ?а??????? ?????????? ??????
??????? ??а??????? ?????????????????.
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
Ori and theаBlind Forest ??аMicrosoftа? ?????????? ????, ??а??а?????-??а???????? ????????????? ?????? ??? Windows. ?а??? ??? ??????? ????? ?аDXVK.
CodeWeavers ????? ??а???? ??????????? ?????? ????????
?????? ???????? Direct3D 12а?аVulkan ?а????? VKD3D. ???? ????????? ????? ???????????? WINE, ??? ??????????? ??????,
?а??а????? ???????? ???, ??? ????? ??????????? ???? ?а??????
?????????? ?а???????. ????????? ???? ??? ??????????? ?а??????? ??????????????? ??????? WINE, ??а???? ?????? ???????
??а????. ?аVKD3D ????? ???? ????? ????? ?????????? ??? ??????
? ???? ? ??? ?????? ????????...
л?????? ????????? ??а???????
?????? ????????????, ??а??????
?????????????? ???? ?????? WINE
?а???????? ????? ????????????????? ??????.╗
?а?????? ?????, ????????? ??? Direct 3D, ?а??????? ?????????????
?????????? WINE ?а??? ??а??????????.
?????? ????????? ??а??????? ?????? ????????????, ??а?????? ?????????????? ???? ?????? Wine ?а???????? ????? ????????????????? ??????; ??аWINEа? ???????? ??????, ?а??а???
?????????? ??????????? ????? ?а????, ??? ??? ?????? ??????а? ??а??? ??????????.
????? ???? ??????????? ?????? (Stable ?аDevelopment), ???????? ?????? Staging. ??? ?????? ??????? ?а(???? ????????????) ?????? Pipelight, ??????? ????????? ??????? ???????? Silverlight ?аLinux, ??????? ??? ????? ???????????? ??????????
??? ????????? Netflix ?а??? ????????. ??? Pipelight ?????????
??????????? ?????? WINE ?а?????????, ??а??????? ??????????
?а???????? ?????? WINE. ?а???? ???? ?????? ??а????? ????????
Netflix ??а?????????, ??? ????? ???? ????? ??а????????????????? ?????? WINE, ?????? ?а?????? Staging. ??а??? ?????????
?аWINE 3.5 ??? ??? ????? ??????? ?????? ????????? ??????
CommandStream Multithreading (CSMT), ??????? ?а?????????
??????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????????????? ???????.
??а??? ??-???????? ???????? ?????? ??? ???, ??? ????? ???????
??????? ???????.
????????, ??а??????, ??? ?а???????? ??????? WINE Staging
??? ?????????, ??а??а??????????. ??? ??? ??????? ?а????????
????, ?а??????? ????????? ???????????, ??? ??? ??а??? ?а?а???
??? ??????. |
???? 2018? LXF238? |?49
?????????? ??????? ?????????????
?????????????
?а????? SYSV
?????? ???????????????? ???? ?? Devuan,
??????а???????????? ???????????? ????????
?а???????? init ?а???????а???????.
??? ??а??????? ?????????? ???????????? ?а???????????? GNU/Linux, ?????
?а???????? ??????? Linux [RMS:а?
??а?????? ?а???? GNU/Linux?] ??а????
????? ??????? ?а??????????????, ??? Systemd.
Systemd, ?????? ????? ???????, ???????? ???????
?????? ??????? init ?а????? SysV. ??? ?????? ??????????? ???? Linux, ??????????? ???????? ?а??????
init (??? ??????? ?аID 1), ?а??? ????????? ????????
????? ??? ???????? ????????? ??. ?аSysV ?????????? ????????? ???????? init, ?а??а???????? ???????,
??????????? ??? ???????????????? ???????, ?????
????? ????????, ????????????? System V (??????
?а????????) ??аUNIX, ?а?а?????? ???????????? ??????? ??????? ??-???????.
Systemd ???? ???????????? ?а??????? ???????
Linux. ??а?????? ?????? ????? ??????? ?а?????
?????????????, ??а???????????? ??????? ??? ???????? ???????? ???????, ?а??????? ???? ????????
??а?????? ????. ???????? ??????????? ??а?а?????
Systemdа? ?а????? ??????, ????????? ?????????
?
50? |? LXF238? ???? 2018
????? ???????? ??????а? ?, ??????, ?а??? ????????????? ????????? ????????? ??????????????.
??????? ?а2012а?., ??????????? ???????????? ?????????? ??а???? ??????????, ????????? ?????? ?????????? ??а?????? init. ????????? ????????? ????????
????????? (????????? ????????? UNIX, ??????????
????????), ?а????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????
?????????? ??????? ?а?????? ???????????????? Red
Hat ????????.
Systemdа? ??а?????? ???????? ????????, ???
??????????? ????? ?????????? ????????. ??а?????????? ?????? ?а???????, ??????????? ????????????,
??????????? ???????? ?а?????? ??????. ????? ????,
??? ???????? ??а????, ??а?аLinux ???????а? ?????,
?а?????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????? ???аSystemd. Devuan, ??????????? ??а???? Debian, ?а??????????,
????????? ??а?Init Freedom? ??? ??а????? ?????? ?????????????. ???? ????? ?а??а?аSysV; ????? ???????
?????????а? OpenRC, runit, sinit, s6а? ??? ??? ???????
??????, ?а????????????? ??а??а??????? ???????????
?????? init.
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
??????? ????????????? ??????????
????, 12 ??????? 2014а?.а? ????, ??????? ?????? ?????????? ?а???????. ?????? ?????????? ???, ??????????????? ?а???????? (?а??????????? ?????????? ????? Corvette), ???????? ?????? ???????? ?а???, ??? ???????н????
??????? Debian ????? ??????????????? ??????????? ??????
??????? ???????? Systemd.
? ???? ??????? Fedora, openSUSE ?аArch ??? ??????? ???? ???,
?аUbuntu ???????? ??????????? init-???????, Upstart. ????????? ???????? Debian ?????? ?????????????? SysV, ?????????
?????? ???????? ????? ??????? ??аUbuntu, ??а?????????? ?????
?????? (???? ????? ??????? ????????? ?а????????? ????) ????????
Systemd. ????? Debian ??????? ?????????? ???????????, Ubuntu
??????? (???? ?а?? ??????? ??а?а????????? ?????? ??? ??-??????,
???????? Mir ?аUnity), ??? ?а???? ??а???????? ????? ??????, ?????
??? ?????????? ??аUpstart ?а???????? Systemd.
? ????? ??????????? ??????????. ???? ??????? ????????
Ubuntu ?????????? ???????, ?а??а??? ????????????? Linux, ?а??????? ??????? ???, ??а???????????? Systemd ??а????????? ??????
Slackware, Knoppix ?аPCLinuxOS. ???????, ???? ?а????? ?????????
??????? ?????? (AntiX, MX Linux, Obarun, Puppy Linux), ?а?????
????????????, ?????????? ??а??????????, ????? Gentoo ?аLinux
From Scratch, ??????? ?????????? ????????????? ?????. Gentoo
??????????? ??????????? (??а??????????? ??а????????????) ??????? OpenRC init ?а2007а?., ?а????? ???????? Systemd ?а????????
udev, ??а??????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ??????, eudev. ??????? ?????????? ???????? ????????????? ?а????????, ??а????????????? Systemd. ???? ??????????? ????????????? ???????
?????? ?????????????, ??а???????????? Systemd (??а??????
??????? ?????? ??аhttps://sysdfree.wordpress.com/2018/05/09/135),
?а???? ??а???????? ?????????а? Devuan.
?
?????? ????? ??????
? ????? ?????? sysvinit ????? ????????? ??????? ??????? [runlevel]. ??????? ?????? ??????? ????????????? ????? ??а0 ??а6,
?а??а?????????? ????? ????????, ??????? ????? ????????? ?????
init. ????????? Unixа? ??????? ???????, ???????????? ??а???
?????? ???????, ?а?????? 2 ?а5 ???????????? ?а?????? ????????????? ??-???????. ??????? ????????? ??????:
>>0 Halt [?????????]
>>1 Single user mode, no network [????????????????????
?????, ??? ????]
>>2 Not used [?? ????????????]
>>3 Multi user mode, networking [?????????????????????
?????, ????]
>>4 Not used [?? ????????????]
Initа? ???????? ???? ?????????, ?а??а???? ??????? ???????????? ????? ???????????????? ??????? л???? ???????, ?????
???????а?????╗.
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
sysv-rc-conf ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ???????, ?а????? -p
????????? ????? ???????? ????????????.
>>5 Multi user mode with networking and X-based graphical login
[????????????????????? ????? ? ????? ? ???????????
?????? ? ??????? ?? ?????? ?]
>>6 Reboot [????????????]
? ????????? ????????????? ????? ????????????? ?????????
?????????????? ?????? ???????, ????????, ??? ??????? web???????? ??? ???????????? ??????? ???????? ??????. ??????,
╗╗OPENRC ? ?????? ????? GENTOO
OpenRC ?аGentooа? ??? ??????? ????????????? ?а?????? ????????????. ??? ??????????? ?аGentoo ??а????????? ?а2011а?., ?а???????????? ????? ?аAlpine, Parabola,
Calculate ?аTrueOS. OpenRC ???????? ?????? ??????? SysVInit, ??????? ?а???? ???
??????????? ???????? /sbin/init (???? ??????? ?????? openrc-init), ?????????????? ????? ??????????? л??????????? [soft]╗ ?????? ???????, ?????? ??????
???????????? ??? ?????????????? ?????????, ??? ???????????? SysV. ?????
??????????????, ??? ?????? ??????? ????? ?????????? ?а????, ???????? ????????????. OpenRC ???????????? cgroups (??? ?????????? ?????????), ?а?????
????????????????? ????????.
Systemd ???????? ??? ???????? ?????? ??????? init ?а????????? ????????,
?а???????? ??????. Udev ????????? ??а?????? ?????????, ??????? ??? ?????????
?????????, ??а???????????? Systemd, Gentoo ?????? ???????????, eudev. Eudev
????? ?????????????? ?аDevuan 2.0 (?????? 1.0 ???? ???????? ??аDebian Jessie,
??????? ??????????? SysVInit ?а??? ??а??????????? udev). Devuan ??????????
????????? OpenRC, ?а????? ?????????????? init ????
runit (????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????? ??????? ??а??????? ??. ??????????
[Daniel J Bernstein], ??. ?????? UPSTART
??а???.а53), ????? ???????? ?????????
s6 ?аsinit. Sinitа? ??? ???????????
??????? ????????????? ?suckless [??а??????????]?, ??. https://
suckless.org, ??? ??а??????? ?????
????????? Suckless ?а??????
?????????????? ???????????.
Gentoo ?аLinux from Scratch ?????? ?????????
????????????? Systemd ??? OpenRC, ??а??????
???? ??а?????? ???????????.
???? 2018? LXF238? |?51
?????????? ??????? ?????????????
???????? SysV init
??а???????????
???? ????????,
?а??а?????????
???????????? ???
??????? ????????? ?????????а?
?????!
?аDevuan ?????? ??????? 2???5а??а?? (?????????????????????
????? ?аX), ?а?аGentoo (??? ???????????? ??????????? ?аinit
???????? ???????? OpenRC, ??. ?????) ??????? 2 ??????????
????????????????????? ??????? ??????? ???а????. ??, ?????
??????? ??????? ???????????, ???????????? ?а?????? ?????
/etc/inittab. ????????, ????? ???????????? ??????? ??????? 5
??а?????????а?
id:5:initdefault:
????? ????? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ?а????
????????? ???? ????? ?????????. ????? ???????? ??а??????
??????????? ?????? ??????? ???????? telinit. ???? /etc/inittab
???????? ???????, ??? ?????? ???а???????? ?а??????????,
?а????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????? (?????? ?а???????
???????? ??????? OSS...
л????? Debian ??????? ??????????
???????????, Ubuntu ???????, ???
?а???? ??а???????? ????? ??????,
????? ??? ?????????? ??аUpstart
?а???????? Systemd.╗
?????????????? ?а??????? Ctrl?+?Alt ?а?????????????? ??????)
??????? getty. ???? ????? ????????? ??????????? ?а???????
???????, ??а?є????? ????? ?????? ???????????? ???????? ?а??????????? /etc/rc.d/ ??? /etc/init.d/. Devuan, ????????, ????? ????
?????? /etc/init.d/rc, ??????? ???а?????? ?а???????????? ???????
??????? ???????? ?а????????? ????????? ???????. ??????? ??????????? ????????? ?а/etc/init.d/, ???????????? ???????? ???
???????, ????????? ?а????????????? ??????? (????????, ?????????? ?а????). ????????, ??? ???????? ??а/etc/init.d/ssh:
...
case ?$1? in
start)
log_daemon_msg ?Starting OpenBSD Secure Shell server?
?sshd? || true
if start-stop-daemon --start --quiet --oknodo --pidfile /var/run/
sshd.pid --exec /usr/sbin/sshd ? $SSHD_OPTS; then
log_end_msg 0 || true
else
log_end_msg 1 || true
fi
;;
stop)
log_daemon_msg ?Stopping OpenBSD Secure Shell server?
?sshd? || true
52? |? LXF238? ???? 2018
if start-stop-daemon --stop --quiet --oknodo --pidfile /var/run/
sshd.pid; then
...
?????? ?????????? ??????? start-stop-daemon ??? ??????? (???
?????????) ????????? sshd. ???а??????? ??? ?????????, ????????а?? sshd, ???????? ?а?????????? /var/run ??а??????? ??????
????? ???????????????? PID. ?????????? SSHD_OPTS ????????
??а????? /etc/default/ssh ????? ?а???????. ??а????? ?????????
?????? ??????? ?а??????? /etc/init.d/ssh.
?????????? /etc/rc*.d ???????? ?????????? ?????????
?????????н???? ?????? [symlink] ??а????? ???????? ?а/etc/init.d,
????????, ????? ??????? ????? ????????? ?а????????????? ?а?а????? ??????? ??? ??????? ?????? ???????. ?????????н???? ??????,
???????????? ?аS (????????, S02ssh), ?????????, ????? ???????
?????????, ?а???????????? ?аK ?????????, ????? ??????????.
??а?????? ????? init ???????? ??? ??????? ?а??????? start ???
stop ??????????????. ????????? ??????? ??????? 6 ?????????????
????????????, ??? ?????????н???? ?????? ????? ?????????? ?аK.
??? ??а?????????, ???????? ???? ????????? ??????? ?????
?????? ?????? ?????????, ????????? ???? ??? ?????? ??? ???????? ??? ????????????????, ????? ???????? ????? ??????. ??а?????
???????, ?а????? ??????? ????????? ??? ????????????? ???????.
????? ????, ??а????????? ??????? ???????? ???????????????
?????? K ?а??????? ???????, ??? ?????? ??а?????????.
? ???????, ????????? ????? ????????? ?а??????? ???????
update-rc.d, ??????? ??????????? ??а??? ???а???? K ?аS, ??? ?а?а???????. ??? ??????? ??? ??а??а??????????, ?а?а??????? ?????????
INIT INFO ?а????? ???????. ??? ?????? ????? ??????? SSH:
# Provides: sshd
# Required-Start: $remote_fs $syslog
# Required-Stop: $remote_fs $syslog
# Default-Start: 2 3 4 5
# Default-Stop:
# ??????? ????????: OpenBSD Secure Shell server
### END INIT INFO
??? SSH ??? ????????? ?????? ???а?????? ???????????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ?а??????? ?????????? ????.
???а?? ????? ???????? ?????????? SSH ??а????, ??? ???????????
??? ???????. ??а??????? ????????? Devuan 1.0 ????? ?????????
openssh-server ??а?????????? (????? ???????) ?????? /etc/rc3.d/
S02ssh ?а/etc/rc3.d/S01rsyslog, ?????????? ??? ????, ??? SSH?????? ?????? ??????????? ????? ??????? Syslog. ??а??а????????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ???????, ??? ??? ????? ??а????
??????? ???????????. ??????, $remote_fs ?а$syslogа? ??а??????????, ?а??????, ????????? ????? ???????, ???????????? ?????
?????????? Linux. ????? ???????? ???? ??????????? ?????? ???
???????? ????????????, ????? ??а??????? ??аSSH, ??а?? ??????
???????? ??? ??? ??????? (sshd, ??? ?????????? ?а???? Provides:
?а?????????) ?а???? Required-Start. ?????????? ?аupdate-rc.d,
????? ????????? SSH-?????? ??а???? ??????? ???????? (Devuan
??а????????? ????????? ??? ?а2,3,4 ?а5), ?????? ?????????
$ sudo update-rc.d ssh disable
???а????????????? ????? ???????? ???????????? ?????? ??????? ?а????? ???? ???????. ??????? ?????????? ?????? ??а??????? SSH ????? ??????? rsync (??а?????? S02rsync), ??а?????
?????????? ??????????? Slim (S03slim). ??а??????????? /etc/
init.d/ssh ??? ????????? rsyncd ?аRequired-Start, ?а???????????
/etc/init.d/slim ??? ??????а?? ????????? sshd. ??????, ???????
??????, ??а????? ????? ?????? ?а??????? S03ssh ?аS04slim,
update-rc.d ?????????? ??? ??? ??? ??????, ?а???? ???? ????????
?а?????? ???????.
? ????? ??? SysVInit ??????????? ????? ???????? ???
?????????? ????. ????? ???? ????????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ?а???????????????? ????, ????? ????????, ??? ?????
???????? ??? ??? ??а?????????. ??????? ??????????? ?????????
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
??????? ????????????? ??????????
?????????????. ????? ?????????, ??? ??????? start-stop-daemon,
??????? LSB ?а??????? insserv (???????????? ??а?????? ?аupdaterc.d) ??а????????? ??????? ????????? ??? ??? ???????????????, ?а????, ??????????? ??а????????? ?????? Startpar, ?????
??????? ?????? ????? ?????? ???????? ????????. ??а?а????????
?????, ??? ???а? ??????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ??????????
??а1989а?. ??а??? ??????? ????? ?????????? ?а??????????, ??? ???
??а??? ??????? ????? ???????????? ?а????? ??????? ???????.
????????, ?а??????? ????????? Udev (?аKernel 2.6) ?????
????????н??? ?????????? ??? ????????? ????????????, ?а??????? ?????? ????? ??????????? ??а????? ?????????. ????? ????,
??а??????? ??? ??а?????????? ???????? ??? ?а??а????? ???????
????????, ??а??? ?????????? ?? ????? ?????? ?????. ??????
??а????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????????, ???????
?????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????? ???? ??????? ???????
(??? ????????) ??????. ?????? ?????? ?а???, ????? ??? ???????
???????????? ?????? ????? ???????????, ??? ????????? ????-??
????? ??????????? ??? ???? ????. ???????? ?????????? Upstart
?аDebian wiki (https://wiki.debian.org/Debate/initsystem/upstart) ??????????? ??? ?????? ????????????: л????, ??? ??????? Debian
?????????? ???????? ??а????????????? ??????????? ??аsysvinit,
??? ????????? ??????????╗.
???? ??а??????????? Systemdа? ??? л??????????? ????????н
????????? ???????? ????????╗, ??????? ???а?? ????????, ???
SysVInit ?????? ??? ???????????????а? ?а???????? ?????????????а???н??? ????? ????????? ??? ?????????, ???? ??, ??? ??а????
??а???????. ??????? ??? ?а????, ?а??? ??-???????? ???, ????
??а(??? ??? ???????????) ????????? ???? ??????? init ???????????а? ????? ?????? ?????? ?а?????????? ?????? ???????
??????????? ?а??????????????н???? ???????.
?? ??? ?? ?????? ???????? ??????? ?????????????????,
????????? ???????? ?а?????????? ??????? ????????. ?????
??????? ???а? ?shell?, ??????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ?а?????????? ??????????? ????????????. ??? ??????, ??а??а??????
???? ???????????? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ?????????.
??????? Startpar ????????? ????????? ??????? ??????????? ?а????? ???????? ??????. ??????? Startpar ???????????? ?????? ?а??????????????? ?а????? ?makefile?, ??????? ?????????? ?????????
??????????? ????? /etc/init.d/.depend.*, ???? ?????????????
??????????? ????????.
??????? Systemd
????? ????????, ??? ?аSystemd ????????? ?????????, ??а???????
???? ?а????? ??????а? ??????? ????? 60 ????????? ??????????,
?а??????? ??а????? ????????а? ?а??а?????? ??????? (??????,
?аArch Linux) ????? ???????????? udev ??аSystemd, ??а????????
Systemd ?а????н???? ??????? ?????????????.
?????? ??????? ?????? ?а???, ??? ????? ???????????? ?????????? Systemd ?????? ???? ????????????? ??а????????????,
?а??а???? ??а???????? ?????? ?????, ????? ??? ?????? ??????????
?????????. ??????, ???? ?а?????? ?????? udev. ???? ??????????? mdev, ????????? ??? ???????????? ??????, ??а??????????
??а???? ???????, ????? ??а????? ??????????? ????? ????????
?????. ???? ????? vdev ??а????? ???????? [Jude Nelson] (??.
https://git.devuan.org/unsystemd/vdev), ?????????? ??? ??????
udev, ??а???? ?????? ??? ????????? ????? ?????????. ??????
udev, ?????????????? ??? logind ??аSystemd, ????????? ??а???
??? ??????????? ?а?????????? ?????????? ??????? ???????
Gnome ??? KDE Plasma ?аWayland. ?а???????, ????? ?????? ??????
???????? ?а???? elogind, ??????? ???????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ?????????? Systemd.
?? ??а????????? Slackware, ??????? ?????????? ?????????
??а??????? ??????? ??????? init ?а????? BSD. ?????? ????????????? ????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ?а??? ??????, ????? ????????????? ???????? ???????? ?а????? ?а????????? ?????????????
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
???? ?????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? Startpar, ??????????? ???? ??????? ???????????, ??? ??? ???? ?? ???????????
?????? ??а????.
????????????? ?а?????? 5 ??а3. ?а?????????? ??????? ???????
??????? ??????????/??????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ?а/etc/rc.d ?а??????? ?а??????????? ?????????. ??? ??????,
?а??? ???????? ?а???????????? ?а?????????? Slack. Slackware
??а???????? Gnome ?а2005а?., ?а??????? ??а??????? PAM (????
????????? ??????? ??? ??????????). ??????? ????????, ???????? ???????????? ????????? init, ?а???? Slack ??????????
??а?????????. |
╗╗UPSTART
?????? Ubuntu ??? ?????? ??-?????? ????????? ???????????? ???????: ?????????,
??? Mir ????????? ???????? ????????????? ??аWayland ??? ?????? ?????????????? ????????. ?а?????? ???????????? LinuxаMint ?????-?? ???? ??????????????
Ubuntu, ?????????? ?а???? ???а????????? Unity. ??аUpstart, ???????????, ?????????? ??а???????? ??????? init ??аCanonical ?????? ???????? ??????? ??????,
?а?????? ????????????. ?????? Ubuntu (??а14.10), Fedora (?а9 ??а14) ?аRHEL6,
Upstart ??????????? ?аNokia Maemo ?аPalm webOS (??????? ?????????? ???????????? ??а??????????? LG) ?а??-???????? ???????????? ?аChrome OS ?аChromium OS.
??? ??????????? ?а????? ???????? ????????????? ??а????????? sysvinit, ????????
?а????????.
??????? ????? ???????????????? ?а??????? ??????????? ?аSysV ??????,
????????, sudo service sshd start, ?а????????? ??? ????????? ?????? ??????? ???
???????. Upstart ??????????? ??? ?????????? ???????????? ????????? (????????, waiting pre-start, spawned, killed), ??????? ?????? ??????????? ????? ???????
???????? ?а?????? ??а???????? ??????????, ??????????? ????????. ?а???????
??аSystemd, ??а??а??????? ??а??????????? ??? ???? Linux ???????, ??? ????а??
???????? ??? Debian (??????? ????????? ????? ?а?????????????? GNU Hurd
?а???? FreeBSD) ?, ????????, ?????? Unix-???????? ??.
??????? ??????????????? init ???? ?а??????. ?аLXF72 initng ??????? ????
??????? Hottest Pick, ??а?????? ??? ???? ???? ?????? ???? [???.:а? ??? ???? ?????].
???? ????? runit, ?а?а????? ??????? ??? ??? ???? ??а???? ????? ???????, ??а??а???????????? ?аVoid Linux (??. ?? LXFDVD) ?а?????????? ??????????? ?а???????????? ?а???????н???? ????? ?????? ????? ??????????? ?????????.
???а? ????а?? ??а????????? ??????????? (????? ??? ????????)а? ??????а??
??????? ????????? ?????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????? Ubuntu.
???? 2018? LXF238? |?53
??????? ??????? ????????
??????????
???????????? ?аWeb
? ???????? ??????
???а???? web-????????? ?
??????? ??????????????? ?????????????, ?а?????
??????????, ??? ???????а? ??? ????? ????????? ???? ????????????.
? ????????? 20а??? ??а????? ?????????? ????? ???????????? ????????. ?????????? ?????? ?????? ??а?????????. ?а??а???? ????? ??????????? ????????? ?а??????? ?????? ????????????? ?а?????????? ????? ?????????.
??????? ?аNetscape ??????????? ???????? ???а?????????аSecure Sockets Layer (SSL). ???? ??????????? ?а?????????? ?????????? ??а???????????? ??????, ????? ???????? ?????? ??????????, ???? ??аHTTP, ??????????? ????? (POP3/IMAP/SMTP), ?а??????
?аDNS (??. https://bit.ly/2JQzxRC), ????? ????? ??? ????????????.
??????????? SSL ??? ????????????? ??????????, ??аIETF
???????? ????? ????? ??????, ??????? ???????????. ?????????
??? SSL 3.0, ?а?????????? ????????? ????????? ????? ?????????? TLS (Transport LayerаSecurity). TLS 1.0а? ??? ??, ??? ??а??
??????? SSL 3.1. ??а???????? ?а?аSSL ?а?аTLS ??? ?????????
??? ???????????. ????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????,
?????? ????? ?а?????????????? ????????? ??? ?????????
????????????? ??????.
? ??????????? ???? TLS ??а????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????. ?????????????????? ?????? ?????, ????????,
?
???
???????
?-? ???????? ????н
???а? ??????
??????????? KDE.
н????? ?????????
?????? Linux
?ан?????? ??????.
╗╗MOZILLA ???????? 20
????????, ??а?????????, ?????, ??? ?а????????? Netscape ?а1997а?. ??-?????, ?????? ??????? ?а??? ?а??????? ??????? ???? 3.x, ??а??а??????. ?а??????? ?аNetscape,
????? ??а???????? Microsoft ????? ??а????. ???? ???? ?????? ?????????? ??аInternet Explorer 4, ?а????????? Mozilla.
???? ?????????, ??? ???? ???????? ???? ???? ????????? ??а???????????? ???????????? Netscape Navigator 5. ???? ?а2000?? ??а??? ???????? ???????? ?а?а????????, ?а???а?? ????????: ??????????? ???? ????????? ?а??????? ????? ??а??????????? ?????? ?а???? ????? ?????????? ??????. ?а??? ??? ???? л?а???????????
??????╗, ???????????? web-??????????, ????? ??? ???? ??а???????????? XUL,
RDF ?аJavaScriptа? ??а????? ??? ??а????????????? ??????????????? Electron...
? ?????, ??? ??????? Phoenix (???? Firefox)а? ?а??????? ??????? Mozilla ?????
??????????? ?а?????????. ??????? ?????? ??а??? (??????? ????) ?????????????? ????????. ??? ??? Mozilla ?????? ???????????? ???????????? (??? ?а?????
?????? ??а????!) ?а????????????? ???????? ????? New York Times. ?а??а??? ???
????? ???? ??????!
????????, ??а???????????, ????? ?а??? ??? ??? ???????????. ??а??????, ???
?а?????? (???????, ???) ??? ???????????????. ??, ???? ?а???? ??? ??????, Mozilla
??? ??? ??????????? 20. ??? ???? ??????, ??? ???? ???, ????? ?а??????? ????????? Netscape ??а???? ?? ?а1998а?.а??????, ?а2018??, ?а???? ??? ?аweb-?????????
?а???????? ?????, ?????????? ?????? Firefox 59. ??????? ??? ?????????, ????????????? ??? ??????????? HTML-???????!
54? |? LXF238? ???? 2018
??????? ?????? ?а??? ???? ?а?????????. ?, ???????, TLS ??-?????
???????? ????????? HTTP/2: ??а?????? ????????? ??а?????? ??????????, ??а?а??????????.
????, TLS ????? ??а??????? ???????????. ????????? ?????????? ???? ?а????? ?а???? TLS 1.3. ???????? ?????????????
28ал??????????╗, ?а?а?????????? ????? ???????? ??? ?????????
???????????. TLS 1.3 ??? ?????????????? ???????????? web?????????? (Firefox 49, Chrome 63 ?а?.а?.), ?аOpenSSL ?????????
??? ?а1.1.1 (???? ?????????, ??? ?а???? ???????, ??? ??а??????
???а??????).
TLS 1.3 ????????? ??а???????? ??????????, ??????? ????????? ????????????, ????????, RC4, MD5 ?аSHA-224 ?а???????
?????, ????????, ????????? ???? ChaCha2020 ?а??? ?????????????? ????????? Poly1305. ??а????? ???????? ???????????????? ??? ???????????? ???????: ??????, ?????????, ???????????
л???????????╗ RSA ?а?.??.а? ????????? ??а??? ?а??????? ????
????????? ?????.
??? ???? ??????? ?????????????? ?????????а? Perfect ForwardаSecrecy (PFS): TLS 1.3 ?????????? ???????? ?????? ???????
Ephemeral, ???????????? ????? [Diffie] ?а????????? [Hellman],
??? ??? ????????????? ??а????? ????????? ?????????? ????
??? ?????????? ????? ?????????? ??????. ??а??? ????????
????????? ???????? ????????, ????? ??? ????????? ??????????.
? ?????????, ??а??а??а??????????: TLS 1.3 ???????? ??????????, ????????? ?????????? ??????, ??? ????? ???????? ????н
????????? ?а???????????? ???????? ??????? ????? ????????
?а????????.
Firefoxа? ????????, ???????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ????
??????????????? ??????? Mozillaа? ??? ?????????? ?????????
TLS 1.3.
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
??????? ??????? ????????
??????????? ??????: ??? ???????
?????????? ??????? ? Linux ? ??? ?? ????? ?? ?????? ?????, ? ?????? ?????
????????? ??? ????????? ?? ????? ????.
???????? ??а?????, ????? ??? ????????? ?????????????
??аweb-??????. ?а???? ?????????? ???? (??????, ????)
??а???????????? ??а?????? ?а??????????, ??? ???
?????? ???????? ??????????. ??а???????? ????? SSH ?а?????
???????? ???????: web-??????? ??а?????????? ???. ??? ??а?????, ?????????? ??????? Apache/Nginx/??????, ??а??а??н????
??????? ????????? ??????. ??????? ?????? ?????! ????????
???-??а????????.
???? ????? ?????-???? ???????? ?а????, ????????? ?аdmesg.
???? ???????????, ??? ??а??????? ??????????, ????????????
????????? OOM. ??? ???????????? ???????? Out OfаMemory
[??????????? ??????], ?а??? ????????? ????????? ????????,
??????? ???? ?????????, ????? ???????? ????? ????? ??????
???а??????? ?????????????. ?????? ?????, ??? web-?????? ???
??а????????????, ?а???????. ?????? Linux ????? ??а????????????, ?а??? ??а?????? ???????, ????? ??? ?????? ??а?????? ?????
????????? ????????? ??а???? ????? ??а??????????? ?а?????????? ??????? ?аLinux ?а???????, ??а????? ?????? ????????, ?????
????????? ???? ?????????.
?
???????? ?а???????????? ????????????
??????? ???? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ?а????, ???????
???????? ??а????? ??????? ?????? ?а????. ?а???????, ??? ??????? ???? ????? ????? ??????? ??а???????. ????, ??????????
???????, ??????? ??????? 16а?? ??????:
char *buf = (char *)malloc(16 * 1024 * 1024);
if (!buf) /* ???? ?? ?????????? */
?????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ??а????? ??????? ????? ????????????????, ???? ??? ??а???????? C. ?а?????
??????, ?а???????? ????? ??а????????? ???а????? ?????? ??????
??????, ?а??? ???????? ?????????? ?а???? ?а????????? ?????????
??????? (?????? 4K ??????, ????? ??а?????????). ??? ???? ????
???? ??? ???????? ????????? ??????: brk() ?аmmap(). ????? ??????? ??а??????? ????????? ?????? ?а??????????? ??????. brk()
?????????? ???? ??????????????????? ?????????: ?????? 99а??
??а????? ?а100а??, ???? ??? ?????? ??а?????, ??????????? ?????
??????. mmap() ????? ??????????? ?а?????? ???????, ?а???????
???????????????? ???а????????? ??????? ??????? ??????.
?аglibc ??а????????? ????? mallopt(3), ??? ?????? ??????????
???а?????? л???????╗, ?а??? ????? ???? ????? 128?.
????, ???? 16 ?? ????? ????????? ?????? ??аmmap(). ??????
?а????? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ????????????? ??????????
?а????. brk() ???? ?????; ??а????, ???? ???????, ??? ??? л?????????? do_mmap(), ?????????????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????????╗. ????, ????? ????? ??? ?????????, ???????????,
??? ??а?????? M_MAP_THRESHOLD ???, ??? ???? ???????????
?????????? 16 ??. ????? ?????? ??????? ????? ???????????
?а??????? ???? do_brk(), ?а????????? ??????????????? ????????
???????? ????:
struct mm_struct *mm = current->mm;
if (mm->map_count > sysctl_max_map_count)
return -ENOMEM;
if (security_vm_enough_memory_mm(mm, len >> PAGE_SHIFT))
return -ENOMEM;
mm ????????? ??а?.??. ?????????? ?????? ???????? ????????.
?????? ??? ????????? ?????? ?а???????? ??а??????, ???? ??????
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
????????? ????????. ??-??????, ???????????, ????? ?а????????
??а???? ?????? ???????? ????? ??????, ??? ????????? ?????????? vm.max_map_count sysctl. ??а????????? ??? ???????? ?????
65535, ?а?а?????????? ??????????????? ??? ??????? ??а????????
??? ??????. ????? ??????, ??????? ???? ??????? ?а?????????
????????, ????????? ?а/proc/$PID/maps ??? ??????????? ???????
pmap. ???? ???????????? ??????? ???????????? ?????? ????????? ??????. ??? ??????? ???????, ??? ???????, ?а??а???????
??????????? ????? ???????.
pmap ??????????,
????? ????? ?????????? ???????
?????? ?а??а????????? ?а????????????. [anon]а?
??? ???? ???????????? malloc().
╗╗??? ?? ???????
???? ?????? ?????????? ??????? sysctls, /proc ? ?????? ?????, ??????? ?????
???????????? ??? ????????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????. ???? ??????? ?????????? ??? ?? ???????:
╗╗ vm.max_map_count ???????????? ?????????? ???? ??????, ??????? ?????
????? ???????. 64? ?????? ??????? ??????.
╗╗ vm.admin_reserve_kbytes ?????? ? ??????????, ????????? ?????????????????, ????? ??? ?????? ??? ????????? ?????-?????? ???????.
╗╗ vm.user_reserve_kbytes ?? ?? ?????, ?? ??? ??????? ?????????????. ??? ????????? ?? ????? ????????? ?????? ?? ?????? ????????.
╗╗ vm.overcommit_memory ????? ?? Linux ?????????, ??????? ?? ?????????
??????, ??? ?? ?????? ???????? ???????? ? ?????????, ????????? ?? ???
?а??????????.
╗╗ vm.overcommit_kbytes ????? ??? ? ??????????, ?????????? ?????????. ????
?? ?????? ????????, ??????? ???????? ??????.
╗╗ vm.overcommit_ratio ?? ?? ?????, ?? ?????????? ??? ??????? ?? ??????
?????? ???.
╗╗ vm.panic_on_oom ? ???????? ?????? ????? ?? ???????, ?? ?? ?????? ?????????
?????? Linux, ???? ??????????? OOM.
╗╗ vm.oom_kill_allocating_task ????????? ???????? ??????, ????? ??????????
??????? ? ?????? ????????? ?? ??????, ?? ?? ???? ?????. ???????, ??а??а??????
??????????, ????????? ??????? ????? ? ?? ????????? ????? ??????.
╗╗ /proc/$PID/oom_score_adj ?????? ????????????? ???????? OOM. ????????
-1000 ?????? ??????? ?????????? ??? л????????╗.
???? 2018? LXF238? |?55
??????? ??????? ????????
????? ???? л????????╗ ??? ??????? ??????. ???? ??а??????
?????, ?????? ??? ????? ????? ?а???????, ????????? ??а???:
struct vm_area_struct *vma, *prev;
vma->vm_start = addr;
vma->vm_end = addr + len;
vma_link(mm, vma, prev, rb_link, rb_parent);
mm->total_vm += len >> PAGE_SHIFT;
mm->data_vm += len >> PAGE_SHIFT;
?? ????? ????????? ??????, Linuxа? ??????? ??????. ??а????? ???? ??а?????? ??а??????? ??? ??????? ????????, ?а??????
??????, ??? ???? ??а??????????? ????? ?????аaddr ?аaddr?+?len,
??а??? ?????????. ??а????? ????????? ??? ?????? ?а????? ?????? ??????????? ?????? ?а??????? ???????? ?????? ??? ????????.
Top, htop ?аps ????? ?????????? ??? ??? ??? ???????? ??а????????.
?а???? ??а?????? ??????? ???????? ?а???????? VIRT ??? DATA
?????? htop, ??? ????? ??а????????, ??? ??????? ?а??????? ??????н
???? ??????? ??????; ??? ??????? ?????? ?а???, ??? ????????? ???
?????????. ??? ??????? ??? ??а??? ???? ?????????? ????...
??????????? ??а??????
Htopа? ??? ???
???????????
?а???????? ?????? ???????????
?а??????? ??????????? ????????????. ??а????????, ??? PlasmaShell ????????
8а??, ??а???????
??????????
?????? 217 ???
56? |? LXF238? ???? 2018
???? ????????? ????а?? ?????????? ??? ??????????? ??????,
??????а?? ??а????????? ??а????????? ?????? ??????, ??? ??????? ?а???????? ??? ???????? ???? ???????????? ??а?????? [memory
overcommit]. ??? ??а??а??, ??? ???????? [swapping], ??? ??а??????? ????? ??????? ??а??????? ????? ??????, ????????? ?????
???????????? ???????? ???? ??а????, ?а??а?а???. ??????????а?
??? ??? ????? ?а?????: ??? ????? ???? ????? ???? ??????, ???
???? ?????????? ??а?????? ??????, ??а??а?????????, ??? ????
????????? ??а???????? ?а??? ??? ?????.
???? ????????? ???????? ???????????? ?а??????? __vm_
enough_memory(). ??????? ????????????? ?????????? ??а???????????, ?а?а????н???? ???????? ?????? ?????????аsecurity_
vm_enough_memory_mm(). ????????? ???????? LinuxаSecurity
Modules (LSM), ????? ??????, ???????а?? ?????????? ?????????
?????????? ??? ?????????????????.
??????? Linux ?????? ????????????? ?а???? ?????? ???????
??а????????? vm.overcommit_memory sysctl. ???????? ??а?????????а? 0. ??? ??ал????????? [disable]╗, ??? ??а?????? ????????,
?ал??????? [guess]╗, ??? ????????? ??????? ?а?????. ?а???? ?????? ???? ?????????, ??????? ??????? ??? ????? ???????????
???а?????????????. ???? ?????? ????????? ??а?????? ??????
????????, ??? ????????, ??????? ???а????????????? ????????? ??????, ?а??? ????, ???? ?????????? ??? ????????? ???
?????????????. ?????? ?а????? ???????? ?а?????????????????
???????? ???????????, ?а??? ???????? ??а??а?????????????????
vm.admin_reserve_kbytes ?????? (?????? 8 ??) ???? ????????????? ?а???????а? ????? ????? ????? ????? ?????????, ????
??????? ????????? ??????, ????? ?????????????? ????? ??а????????? ???????? ??? ???????. ???? ?????????? ?а?????????? ?????
?????? ??????????????, Linux ???????, ??? ?????? ?????????
??????, ????? ?????? ?????.
????????? vm.overcommit_memory = 2 (?never?а? ???????)
????????? ????????????. ?а???? ?????? ???? ?????????
?????? ??а???????н????? ??????, ???????????????? ?????
vm.overcommit_kbytes ?а???? ??????????? ???????? ??? ?????
vm.overcommit_ratio ?а???? ???????? ??а?????? ?????? ???.
??а????????? ??? 50?%. ??????? ???????? ????? ????????
???а???????????. ???? ????????? ?аvm.admins_reserve_kbytes,
??а????? ??????????? ??? ??????? ????????????? 3?% ?????
??????????? ?????? ???????? ???? vm.user_reserve_kbytes
(128а??), ?а??????????? ??а????, ??? ??????.
????????? ?????, vm.overcommit_memory = 1, ????? ???????.
??? ???????? л?????? [always]╗, ?а?а?????? ?????? ?????? ??????
???????????. ??? ?????? ??????????, ??а?????? ???????, ????
???? ????????? ????????????, ??? ??????? ??????? ?????? ????? ???? ?а????????? ???????????. ????? ????????? ???а???????
?????????????? ????? ???????? ??????, ????????, ????? ???
???????? ?а???????????? ?????????.
????? ????????? ??а?????????????а? ??? ?????? ??а?????????? ??????????. ???а?????? ?guess? ????????? ?????? ?????
?????? ?????????, ???? ???????? ????? ???? л?????╗, ?????
??а?????? ????? ????? ?????. ?а?never? OOM ?????????? ?????,
?а??????? ????? ???? ????? ????????????, ??а??? ?????????
?????? ???? ?????? ?а????, ??? ??аmalloc() ?????? ?????, ?а???н
??? ???????? ?а??? ?????????.
????????? ??????? ??? ???
???а?? ?????????? ???а??????? ????? ?????? ?а?????????, ??????? ??а?????? ??? ???????? ?аmalloc()? ?а??????????? ????????
?а???? ???? ??? ?????????? ??а????? ?????? ???а????????? ???????????? ????????, ??????? CPU ???????? ?????? ????????
??????. ??? ?????????? ??????, ???????? ??????? ??а????; ???
??????????, ??? ??а????????? ??????, ?а??????? ?а??? ??? ???????.
????? ?а???? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ??????
?а????.
?????????? ?????? ???????? ??????а? ??? ??????? ???????,
??????? ?????????? ?а??????? do_page_fault(). Linux ??????
?????????, ?????????????а?? ??????? ?????? ?а????????? ???
???????????? ???????. ????????? VMA, ??????? ??а?????? ????,
???????? ??а???????? ??????. ???? ??? ???, ??????? ???????? ?????????? SIGSEGV. ???? ???, ???????? ??????????? ?а???????? ???
?а??????????, ??а???? ??а?????????? ???????. ????? ???????,
???? ???? ????????? ???? ???????? ?а???????? ??а???.
?????????????? ?????? ???? [kernel memory allocator]а?
??? ???? ??????? ????. ??а????? ?????? ?????? ??а?????????
????????, ????????? ??? ?buddy system?, ??????? ???????????
????? alloc_pages() ?а?.??. ?а????? ?????? ??а??????????? ?????
alloc_page_vma(), ??????? ?????? ?????? ??, ??? ????????: ???????????? ??а???????? ??а?????? VMA. ?а???????? ????? ??? ?????? ????? ?а__alloc_pages_nodemask(), л?????????? ????????????? ??????????????╗, ??? ???????? ???? ?а????????????.
??? ??????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ?????? ??а??????
?????? ????????? ??????, ??а?????? ??? malloc() ?????? ?а???????????? ????????????. ?????? ????????? ?????? ???????????
??????? ?????????????? ????????, ?а????? ????? ????????
????????? ????? ???, ??? ??а????. ???? ???, ??????????????
?????н???? ???? ?????? ????????? ????????, ??????? ??? ??????
???????. ??а??а????? ????? ??а?????????, ???? ?????? ?????????.
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
??????? ??????? ????????
OOM killer ?????? ??? ?????, ??? ?????? ??а?????, ????? Plasma
Shell ???????? ??а??????? ????? Kubuntu. ?????? ?а?????...
????? ?????????????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ???????. ???
?????? ??????? ???????? ??????????, ??????? ??а??????????
?а?????? ??????, ?а?????????? ????? ???????, ??? ?????? ?????
Linux ????????? ???????????????? ???????? ??а????.
??????????? ????, ??? ??? ???? ??? ???????, ??а???а???? ????????????? ?????? ??а????????? ??а?????????. Linux ??? ???????????? ??? ????????, ??????? ??а????????? ?????????? ???????
??? ?а???????? ??????? out_of_memory().
OOM killer
?? ????? ????, Linux ????? ??????? ???? ??????? ??????. ?????? ???????????? ????????????? ???????, OOM killer ??????????, ???? ??????? ?аcgroup ?????? (??. LXF236) ?????? ???????.
??? ??а?????? ????????? ??а??????? ?а??????? Alt?+?SysRq?+?F:
?????? ??? ?а??????? ???????????? ?????? ????????.
? ????? ??????, Linux ????? ???????, ???? л?????╗. ??? ??????????, ???? ????????? vm.oom_kill_allocating_task sysctl: ?????
?????????? ?????????? ????? ?а???????. ?????? ??? ??а?????????, ???? ????????? ????????????? ???????? init ??? ????? ????,
???? ??а??????????? ?????? cgroup, ??а????? ?????? ??а??????
???? ??? ???????? ??аOOM (????????? ??а???? ????? ???????). ??????? ??? ?????? л???????╗ ???????? ???? ????? ?????
?????????н???? ?????????.
???????, ??? ???? ?????????? ???????? ?????? ???????
??а???, ??? ???????? ??????? ????? ??????. Linux ?????????
??? ?а???????? ???????? ???а????????? ?OOM score [???? OOM]?.
??????? ?а???????????? ?????? ?????????? (????, ???????,
????????? ??? ?????????) ?а?????????? ?а??????. ???????
? Linux ???? ????????? ???????????? ???????????? ?????????, ??????? ??????????? ??? ??????. ????? ???????? ???????а? ps, top ??? vmstat. ??? ???
?????? ?????? ???????? ????????? ???????.
RSS, ????????, ?????? ?????. ??? ?????????? ???????? Resident Set Size [????? ??????????? ?????????], ?.??. ??????н???? ??????, ??????? ????????? ??????
?а???. ???????????, ??? ??а??а?? ?????, ??? VSIZE, ??? Virtual Size, ?.??. ?????
??????????? ???????? ??????? ????????. VSIZE ?????????????, ????? ?????????
?????????? ???? ??? ????????? ????????, RSS ??????, ????? ??????? ??????
???????? ?а??????, ?а???????????, ????? ???????? ?????????????? ??? ??????
?а????????. VSIZE ?а???? ??????? ?????? ??а??????????.
? ????? ???????н???? ????? ?????? RSS ???????? ?????? ??????? ????????
??????, ????????? ??????? ?а?????? ?а?????????????? ????????. ?????? ?????? ??? ????????, ??? ???? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?а????, ??а??а?????? ???????
??????? ?а????? ?????? ????. ?а?????? ???????, ?аRSS ??????? ???????? ??????????? ???????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ???????; ?????? ???????
?а?????? ???????? ?????? ???? ????? ???? ??????????.
????? ??????? ????????? ???а???????, RSS ???????? ??? ????? ??????.
??а??? ??а????, ????? ??????? ???? ???? RSS ????, ??? WSS, ??? Working Set
Size [????? ???????? ??????]. ??? ????? ??????, ??????????? ??? ??????????
??????. ??а??????, ??? ??? ??а??????? ???????????, ?а??а????? ???? ?????????
???????? WSS ??????? ???????. ???? ??? ??? ??????????, ???????? ?????????
?????? ?????? ?????????? ??аhttp://bit.ly/wss-est1.
??????а? ??? ??????н???? ???????, ??????? ????? ??????? ?а?????
RSS ?а???????? ?????? ?а???, ????????? ?????? ??? ???????
??????? ????????????. ????????? ????????????????? ???? ????
???????? ??а3?%, ??????? ??????????? ??а??????? ??????.
?????, ??? ??а?????? ?????????? ???? OOM ??????? ?????
/proc/$PID/oom_score_adj. ???? ???? ?????? ???????? ??а-1000
??а1000, ?а?????? ????? ????? ????????? ??? ????а?? ????????
???? ???????? 0,1?% ??а???? ????????? ???????. ??? ????????? ?а????????????? ???????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????
????????, ?а-1000 ?????? ????????? Linux ?????????? ???? ?????????. ??? ??? ??а?????????? ?????? ????????? ?????????
???????????? ??а??????????? ??????? OOM killer.
?????????? ??????? ?аLinuxа? ??а????? ?????? ?????, ??а???????????? ?а???, ????? ??????????? ????????? ??? ????????
?????? ???, ??? ??? ????. ?а?????? ??а????? ??? ?????? ??????
??-??а????? ?а???а?? ???????, ??????? |
? ??????? Elixir
????? ??????????? ????????? ????
Linux ??а??????
???????? web????????. ???????
??? ???????
????????.
╗╗??????????? ?? ?????? LINUX FORMAT?? www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe!
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
???? 2018? LXF238? |?57
1) http://www.brendangregg.com/wss.html
╗╗RSS, WSS ?а???? ?????
??а????а????
???? ???????? ??????? ??? ? ????? ??????????? LINUX!
????????
??????? ??????
???????н??????
???? ?????н??н?????
?????.
╗╗???????
????????? ???????
? ???? ?????? ??а?????????...
????????
???????? ??????? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 60
?? ??????, ??? ???????? ?а???????? ???????? ?а??????? ??????! ??а???????? ???? ???????? ???????? ??????, ??????? ????? ???????????? ??? ????.
????????
????????? ?????????? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 64
??? ??????а? ?????????!
?? ????????
???? ????? [Geoff Boeing], ??????? ??а??????????? ??????????
???????????? ???????????????
???????????? ?а??????, ????????? ???????
????? ???????????? ????????? ???? ?а???????
??????????? ?????????? ??????????. ?а????????? ?????? ?????? ??а??????? ?????????
?????????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ????? ??а??????.
???? ???а????????????? ?????? ???????????? ???? ??????? ?????? ??а????????
???????, ??а????????? ????????? ???? ???????????? ????? ??????????????? ????????????? ???????. ??а????????? ??? ???????? ???
?????, ?а?????? ????? ???? ?????????. ??????
?а?????? ???????? ??? ?????? ????? ???????????????? ??а????? ?????-???? ??????????
?????????, ?а??а????????? ?????? ??а????
???а?????????? ???????????.
????????????? ??????? ???????? ???
??? ???????? ?????? ???? ???????? ??аGitHub
???а????????? MIT ?а???? ?????? Jupyter Notebook (????????????? ????? ?аIDE ??? Python).
??? ????????? ?????????? ??а?????? ?а??а???????????? ?????????????? ????? ?????????? ??????? OpenStreetMap.
?????? ??? ?????????? ??-??????, ???????? ????????????? ?????????????. ??а?????
??????? ? ??, ??? ???????? ??? ????? ?????
???????????? ??????????????????? ?а???????????????? ??????? (Jupyter Notebook
????????????? ?????? ??? ????????) ?а????????? ???????? ??? ?????? ??????. ???, ?а?????????, ????????????????? ???????????? ??????
л??????╗ ????? Meduza ?????? ??????????,
?????????????? ????????? ??????????
?????????? ???????.
E.m.Baldin@inp.nsk.su
?
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
????? ???? ??? ????????, ??? ??? ??? ????????? ??а??????, ??????????? ??????????
?????? ?????, ?а??? ???????? ??????? ????????? ????????????????.
????????
??????????? ????? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 66
????? ????????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????????, ??а?????? ?????
?а?????, ??? ???????? ?а???? ????????????? ???? ????????? ?????.
LIBREOFFICE
?????? ??????????? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 68
?? ???????????? ????? ????? ??????? ????? ?????????? ??а??????????: ??а???????
?а??? ???????????? ??????? (????????, ???????, ?????????? ????).
WAYLAND
?????????? ??????? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 72
???????????? ?а?????? ??????????? ????, ?????? ??????? ????????? ?а?c?????????
??????? ??????????? X.org ??а?????????? Wayland.
IPFS
???????????????? ???????? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 76
????-???? ?????????? ????? ?????? ???????? ?а????? ???????? ???? ???? ???а?????????? ?а????????? ?????? ?????????: ????? ???????????? ???????? ???????!
???????? ???????
? ????????, ?а????! ?????? ??????? ????? ???????
????? ?????? ?????????...
VEGA
???????????? ?????? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 80
??????? ??????? ??????? ??????????? ??????? ?а?????? ???????????? ????????,
??а??????????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ??????????.
WORDPRESS
??????????? CMS ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 84
?????а?? ??????? ??а????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ???а?????? ?????, ??????
?а?????? ??????? ???? ?????? ???????? ??????????????????.
???? 2018? LXF238? |?59
??????? ??????? ??? ??????????
????????
??????? ???????
?? ???????? ? ???? ???? ???????! ? ?????????? ?????? ?????, ???????? ????????
?а????????? ???????? ??????????.
???? ?аLinux ??? ??а?????????? ??????? ?????????????
?а?а???? ????? ??а?????????? ????????, ??? ???????
(???а??а? ????????). ??а???????? ?????? ???????????, ?а???? ??????? ???? ????? ???????????? ??а????????
???????? ??а???????????, ??а????? ??????????? ??????????
????? ?а???????? ?????????????????? ?????.
??? ?????? ???а???? ???? ???????; ???????а? ?????????, ???
????? ?а???????? ????????? ?????? ???????????? Linux. ?аUbuntu
??? ?????????? ?????? Ctrl?+?Alt?+?T, ?а?????? ?????????????а? F12
??? ??????. ???????? ????????? ??? ???????н???? ????? ??????
????? ????? ?а???? ??????? ??? ????? ?а????? ???-??а?????
term, konsole, yakuake ?а?.??.
?
???
???????
?????? ?????а?
?????????, ?????
Linux, Python junior.
??????? ???????????а? Manjaro,
????????? ?????
???????? ?????а?
KDE. ??????????
??????? ????????
?а???????????????? ZX-Spectrum.
????? ????
???аLinux ?а???а???,
??? ?????? ?а???
??????????
??????.
??? ????? ??а????????!
??? ??????? ????????? ??????? ??????? ??? ??????? ????: ??? ?????? ??а??? ???????, ??? ??? ????? ??????????.
????? ??????????????? ????? ??а??????????, ??? ??а????
??????? ???? ??????????????? Bash ??? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ??а?????? ??????. ??? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ????????????? ?а???????? ????? ????????????? ???????? ?а??????????? ?????? ??а???? ?????????????. ???????? ?????????
??????????? ????????? ?а?????????????? ???? ?????? ?????,
?а?????????? ????????? ??????н???? ????????? ????????? ????
??????, ??????? ?????? ?????? ??а?????????? Ctrl?+?R ??? ????????? ????????? ??????? ?????-????. ????? ???????, ????????
????? ???????????? ??????? ?????? ?а??? ???а????? ??а????????? ??????? ??????. ?а??а???а????? ????? ??????? ??а???????
??????, ??????? ???????? ?а????? ~/.bash_hist.
? ??? ??? ???????
???а?? ????? ?????? ?а??????? ??а?????????? ??????????????
??? ????????????, ?а???????? ???????????? ??????? ????????
?? ??????? ?а???????? ????? ?????????? ??????, ???:
???????? ???а???????? ??????
????????? ??????????? ?а??????????? ?????????? ???????
??а???? ??????????
??????? ???????? ????? ?а??????? ???????? ??????
????????? QR-???? (????????, ????? ?????????? ????????
??а????? ???????? ??????)
???????????
?????????? ????? ?аYoutube ??? ??????-???????? ???а???????? ????????? ????????????? smplayer
??????????? ???????? (UPPERCASE <> lowercase) ??????
?а?????? ??????
?????? ISO-?????? ??а??????
?????????? ???????????????? ???????????? Clementine
??????? ?????? ?а????????????????? ??????? ?а?????? tmux
+ ????????? ????????
???????????? ?????????? ?? ?а???????? ?????
??? ???? ???????? ?????? ??????. ?а??????????? ??а????? ????, ?????? ?????? ????? ?а?????? ?????????. ???????
??
??
??
??
??
??
??
??
??
??
??
60? |? LXF238? ???? 2018
??????? ?????????? ?????? ???????а? л??а????? ????????
????????????? ???????? ?а???????н???? ?????. ?????? ??? ????
???????╗. ??? ?????? ??? ?????? ??а???? ?а???????? ????????
?????, ????? ???? ??? ??????, ??? ??? ???????? ?????????
?а????????? ?а?????? ???????????? ?а?????????? ?????? ????? ?а?????????? ???????? ??????????. ?????? ????? ??????
??н???? ?????????? ?а???????????? ???????, ????? ????? ?????????? ??а?????? ?????? ???????. ??а??? ??? ????? ????????
?????????? ?????????? ??а?????? ??????????????? ???????
?????, ??? ?????????? ?????????????. ?а??, ?????? ??? ?????, ?????? ????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????? ??????? ???а????????????? ??????? ??а?????? ??? ??а??????. ???, ??????,
????? ??а?????? ??а?????? ?а????? ???????????? ??????.
????, ??а????????.
???????? ???а??????? ??????
??????, ????? ????? ??? ????? ???????? ??а1 ?? ?а???????
???????? ?а??а???? ?????????, ????????? ?а?????? ??????? ?а??????? ?а???? ??????:
find . -type f -size +1G -exec ls -lh {} \; | awk ?{ print $9 ? ? $10 ?: ?
$5}?
??????? find ???????????? ????? ?????? ?а?????????? ?????? ??????? ???а??????????. ????? . ????? ???????а? ???? ?????? ??????, -type f -size +1G ?????????, ??? ?????? ??????? ????
????, ???????? ??а????????? ?а???? (???????? ????? ??????????? ???а???? ?????а? ????????, ?а??????????: 900M). ?????
-exec ???? ??????? ??? ????? ????????, ??? ??? ?а?????? ??????
awk ??????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ?????? ls.
????? ?????????? LibreOffice, ????????? ????? ?????:
find . -type f -atime 30 -name ?*.odt? -exec ls -s {} \;
????????? ????? ?? ?????? ???????? ?? ????????, ?? ? ???????. ????????, ??????? ????????? ????? ????????? ??????:
find . -type f -name ?*.back? -exec rm -f {} \;
????????! ??????? ?????????? ?а???? ???????? ?????? ?????????, ????? ??а???????? ?????? ??????! ????????, ??????
?????? ??????? ??? ????? ???????? ???????? ?????, ??????????, ??? ?????? ????? ??? ???, ???????? ????? -exec ????? (ls)
??а???????? (rm), ??? ?а??????? ????.
?????? ?а?????????????
????? ??? ?????????? ?а????????? ????? ????? ?????? ?а?????????? ??????? ??????? ??????????, ??а?????? ????????
????? ImageMagick. ????????? ??? ??????????? JPG ?а???????
???????? ??а1300?╫?1300 ???????? ????? ???:
time mogrify -path resized -filter Triangle -define filter:support=2
-thumbnail ?1300x1300>? -dither None -quality 75 -define
jpeg:fancy-upsampling=off -interlace None *.jpg
??????? time ?а?????? ??а???????????а? ??? ????????????
?????, ??????????? ??а?????????? ??????????? ????? ??? (??????
??? ?????? ???????). ?????? ????????? ?????????? ?а???????
???? ????? ???? ?а??????, ?а????? ?????? ????????????.
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
??????? ??? ?????????? ???????
???????? ?????????:
-filter Triangle ?????????? ????????????.
-define filter:support=2 ?????? ??????? ???????? ????????.
-thumbnail 1400 ?????? ????????.
-dither None ???????? [dithering]а? ???????, ??????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????н???? ??????, ????????
???? ?а???????? ??????, ????? ??????? ??????? ????????
??????н???? ??????.
-quality 82 ????????? ????н???? JPG. ?а????? ?а??????? ??а75.
-define jpeg:fancy-upsampling=off ??? ????????? convert ??????????, ?а??а??? ????????? mogrify! onа? ???????? ????н????,
??а??????????? ???.
-interlace none ????????????? ???????????????,
??а????????????!
????????? ?????, ??????????? ?а???????? ????, ??а???????????? ??????????? ??????????????? ???????? ????????
?????????? ?аEXIF. ?а????? ????? ??????????-????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??а???. ?????????? ?????????? ??? ???????,
??? ???????? ???????? ????? ??????? ??а????????? > ??????? >
??????????. ?а??????? ??? ???????????? ??????????? (?????????????? ?????????? ?а??????? ??????? jhead):
jhead -autorot *.jpg
??
??
??
??
??
??
??
???????? ???????? ??????
?? ?????? ??а???????, ????? ???????? ?????? ?а???? ????. ???
????? ?????? ??????? curl, ??????? ?а????н???? ????????? ??????????? ??????????????? ??? ?????????? web-??????. ????????, ?????? ?????? ?а?????-???? ??????:
curl wttr.in/SPb
curl wttr.in/Msk
?????? ??????? ???? ????:
curl wttr.in/moon
????? ??а??????? ?????? ??? ???????? ??????, ????? ???????? ?а~/.bashrc ????? ??? ????: alias wttr=?curl wttr.in/CITY_NAME?,
?а???????? ?????? wttr.
? ??? ?а??????? ???? ??????? ????? ?????? ???? ???????
IP-?????:
curl ipinfo.io
????????? QR-????
QR-???а? ??? ????? ???????? ??а?????-????? ???????????, ???
???????? ???????????? ??????????. ????? ??????????? ????????? ????????? ????? ??? ?????? ??а????? ????????, ?????
??????? QR-??? ?а??????? ?а?????????? ??? ??????????? ??а????? ??????????. ??? ???????? ???:
curl qrenco.de/???? ??????
? ??????? ????? ??????? QR-??? ??а???????? ?????????????.
??? ???????? QR-????? ?????? qrenco.de ?????????? ??????????
libqrencode. ????????? ??? ??????????, ????? ????? ????????????? QR-??? ????????, ??а??????? ????????? ?????????? ?а????:
echo ???? ????????? ?????? | qrencode -t UTF8
???????????
????????а??, ????? ??????????? ?а???????, ????? ????
???????н???? ???????????? ?а?????? ????????, ?а??а?а??????
??а????? ????????? ???????????? ??а??а??????? ??????? ??а??????????, ????? ?????? ??????????? ????? ??????????, ????????
???? ???????? ???????, ????????, ??а?????? ??? ?а?????а? ?????????? ??????????? ??а?а????? ?????? ?а?????????? ??????????? ??????????, ??а???????? ??????? ?а?????? ??а??????.
????? ??????? ??????а? ???????????? ????????????? ?????
??????????????? Python, ????????????? ??а????????? ?а?????
Linux-????????????. ?????? ??????? python ?а??????????, ????????? ??????? ????????? +-*/ ?а??????. ??? ?????? ?????? Ctrl?+?D.
????? ???????, ??а?????????? ???????:
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
??
??????????? ?аBash ???а??????? ?????? (??а??а???????? ??????? ?????):
echo $((15+25))
???????? ???????? ?а?????? ???????????аbc:
echo ?3.14+(12.56/2)? |аbc -l -q
?? ?? ?????, c ????????? ?аPython:
echo ?print(3.14+(12.56/3))? | python3
Python-??????? ???а?????????:
python3 -c ?print(3.14+(12.56/3))?
????????? ?аPython, ????? ??????????? ?а????? ???????
??????????а? ????????, ??????? ????? ? ??а15?? ????? ?????
?????:
echo ?import math;print(math.pi)? | python3
??
??
??
??????? ?????????, ?????а??
?????? ?а??а???
???????, ??????
??а????.
?????????? ?????
??? ??????-???????? ??? ????????
????????, ???????? ?а??? ??????? ??????? ????? ?аYoutube,
????? ??????????? ??????? ??? ??????? ??а????????. ??? ?????
?????? ???? ??а?????-???? ??????-?????? ??? ?????? ??????
?а???????а? ????????, savefrom.net. ??а???? ?а?????? Linux?????а? ???? ?а??? ?????? ??а?????? ???????, ??а??а????? ????
???????, ??? ??? ??а???????? ?????? ???????. ????????? youtubedl ??????????? ?а???????? ???????????? ?а???? ???????????
??а??а?????????? ???????????.
????????? ??? Ubuntu ??????? ??????????? ???????????
(?а???? ??????):
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:nilarimogard/webupd8
????????? ???? ? ?????????????:
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install youtube-dl
? Arch ?аManjaro Linux ??а????? ????????? ???????? ????????????, ????????? ??? ???? ?а????? ???????????????? ??????????? AUR. ??????? ????????? ??? ?????:
sudo pacman -S youtube-dl
?????? ?????????????: ? ??????? ????? ????? ?????????
????? ?? ?????? ?
youtube-dl https://youtu.be/TuXjea8Q5wc
??? ??? ??? ??????.
??? ??? ?????? ????????. ??а?????? ??????????? ?????
?а????? (???????, ?????? ?????? ?а????? ?????? ??????, ?????
???????? ?????? ?а?????? ?????) ??а?а????????, ?а?а???????
????????????, ???? ??а???????????? ??????-????????. ??????, ????????, mpv ??? smplayer, ??????? ????????????
??н???????? ?????????? ?а?????????? ?????????. ??????????
?а??????? ??????
smplayer https://youtu.be/TuXjea8Q5wc
???? 2018? LXF238? |?61
??????? ??????? ??? ??????????
???? ??????. ??????, ?????????? ??? ??????? ? ??????????,
???? ???? ? ??? ?? ?????????? adblock. ???? ? ???????!
??????????? ???????? ??????
???????? ????????: ??а?????? ?????????, ????? ??а??????????,
?а??а?????????, ??? ?????? CapsLock. ?????????? ????? ??????н
?????? ??? ???????? ???????? л??, ???? ???????? ?????????╗.
Punto Switcher ?аLinux ???, ??а??а?????? ????????????? ?????
?а?????? ?а???????? ??? ????????? (lowercase <> UPPERCASE),
????????? ????? ????????, ??? tr, awk, sed, sh, perl, python, ruby.
????? ??а??????????? ??? ?????? ???????????????, ??а?????????? ??????? ?????? ??аPython. ?а??????? ??????? ?????????? ??????, ??? ????????? ???????? ?????? ?а?????? ??????
?а????????? ??? ???????? ?????. ??????? ????? ??????:
A=$(xclip -o);echo ?print(?$A?.upper())? | python3 | xclip -sel clip
????? (!) ??а??????????? ?????????? ?а????? ??????
??аCtrl?+?C ?????-???? ????? ?????????? ??????? ?а????? ?????
????????? ???????. ?????????? ???????? ????????????? ?????
??а?????? ?????? ??аCtrl?+?Vа? ???? ???????? ??????? ???????
??а????????? ?????! ?????? ??? ?????, ????????, ?????????, ??????? upper ??аlower:
A=$(xclip -o);echo ?print(?$A?.lower())? | python3 | xclip -sel clip
??, xclip ?????????? ?????????????? ??????????:
sudo apt-get install xclip pastebinit # Ubuntu
sudo pacman -S xclip pastebinit # Manjaro, Arch
?????? ???а????????????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ??????
?????????? ??? ?а????? ?а??????? ?а??????? ??????? ???? ??а????
?????? ??аCtrl?+?R ??а???????? ?????? upper ?аlower. ??? ???????? ?????? ????? ???????!
???????????? ????? ?????? ????? ??а???????????, ?н ???
?а????? ??????. ??а?? ????? ??????, ????? ????? ?а???????:
echo ?print(???????????.lower())? | python3
echo ?print(??????????.upper())? | python3
??????, ?а??а??? ??а???????????? ?а???, ??? ??? ?????? ?????? ??????? ????????? ??а????? ??????????????? Python?
?????? ISO-?????? ??а??????
????????? ?а??? ????????? ??????????? ??????? ???????????
?????? ??аISO-??????. ??????? ??? ?а??????? ??????, ??а?????
????????? ????????????, ????? ??а???????? ????? ???? ??????, ??????? ?????? ??????????. ?????? ?????? ?????????а? ?????? ??????????, ??а????? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ?а???????.
???? ??? ??????? ??? ?????: lsblk ??? sudo blkid. ???? ??? ???
??? ??????????, ??а????????? ??? ??????? ??а??????? ??????,
?а????? ?????. ????? ????? ???????, ??? ??а??????????. ????, ????????, ??? ?????? ????????? ??а/dev/sdf.
??? ???????? ????????? ?а????? ?а???????, ????????? ??????? cd ???_????????. ??????, ?????????? ??????? ?????? ??????
????? ????? ???????? ?а???????? ??????? Tab ??? ??????????????, ????? ??а??????? ??? ???????. ??? ???? ???? ???????.
??????? ?аUbuntu image.iso ??а?????? sdf, ????????? ???????
pv ??? ??????????? ?????????:
sudo pv image.iso | sudo dd oflag=direct of=/dev/sdf bs=1M; sync
? Manjaro ???????? ???????????? ??????????? ?????????? dd:
sudo dd bs=4M if=image.iso of=/dev/sdf status=progress && sync
???????, ?????????????, ???? ?а??? ????????? of=, ?а??? ????? ??!
?????? ?аClementine
?????????? ???????????????? ?????????????????? Clementine
??????, ????? ?????-?????? ??? ?а??????? ??????? ???????, ???
??????? ??а??????? ?а??????????????. ??? ?????????? ?????,
???? ??а?????? ????????? ?????-???? ??????? ??? ??????????
?а???????н???? ????? ??а?????????? ?????? ???????. ??? ?????
???????, ???? ?????? ???????? ?????? ????????, ???а??????????? ?а?????? ??аSSH-?????????. Clementine ???? ??? ???????,
62? |? LXF238? ???? 2018
??? ???? ??а????? ??????? ?????????????? ??????, ??, ?????,
?????? ???? ????? ???? ?????????? ???????.
???????????? ??????? ????? ?????:
clementine --play
clementine --pause
clementine --stop
clementine --prev
clementine --next
??? ?а?????? ??????????? ????? ??????? ????? ???????????
????????? qdbus. ??? ?????? ????????? ?а????? ??а?????? ???????????????а? Play, Pause, Pause, Stop, Next, Prev:
qdbus org.mpris.clementine /Player org.freedesktop.MediaPlayer.
Pause
??? ??????? ??????? ?????????, ??? ??????? ??????? ?????? Clementine, ?а?а?????? ??а?????? ??? ???????. ???? Pause ????? ?????? ??а?????? ?????? ??а?????, ??а?а??????? ?а???, ?а???????
??а?????? Clementine.
qdbus ????????? ????? ????????? ?????????? ????? ???????????????. ????????, ?????? 50?% ?а100?% ?????????:
qdbus org.mpris.clementine /Player org.freedesktop.MediaPlayer.
VolumeSet 50
qdbus org.mpris.clementine /Player org.freedesktop.MediaPlayer.
VolumeSet 100
????? ?а??????? ????? ?????? ?????????? ???а??????? ????????????????? ???? (ID3-???? ?а???????????? ?????):
qdbus org.mpris.clementine /Player org.freedesktop.MediaPlayer.
GetMetadata
?????? tmux + ????????
??? ????????? ??? ??????? ?????? ?а????????????????? ???????. ?????? ????????? ???? ???? ????????? ?????????. ????, ?????? ????????? ???? ?????? ??????, ??а???????? ???????? ????
?????????? ????-??, ???????????? ?????????? ???????? ?а??????? ??????? Gedit, Medit, Kate ??? ?????? ?а???????? ????????
???????? ?????? ?а????????? ?????????, ??а??????? ?????????.
???????, ????? ??????? ??????? ????? mcedit ??а?????? mc
(Midnight Commander), ????? nano, ?а????? ???????, ??а?а?????
??????????а? ??? Vim, ??????? ??? ????? ?????? ??а???? ??????????? ????????? ???????????????.
???? ??а???????? ???????????, ?????????? ????????? ??????????? habr.com/post/331600, ??? ???????? ??????? ????????
?????? ?????? ?аVim ?аnano.
?????а?? ?????? ?????? ??а????? ?????????? ?????? ?аGoogle
??аVim. ????? ??а????????? ?????????????? ??????? :q! (????????? ?а????? ?q? ?а?????????????? ?????? ?а???????? ??аEnter).
????? ?????????, ??? Vim ????? ??? ??????: ???????? ?а???
??????? ????????? ?а?????????. ?а?????? ???????? ???????,
??а?????? ???????? ?????. ???? ?а????????? ?????а? ??аa, i. ????? ?????? ?????? ????????? Esc, ????? ????????? ?а?????????
?????. ????? ??аVim ?а??????????? ?????????????? ??а?????????? ?????? (??а???????? ???а????????? ?аEnter!) :wq?+?Enter.
??? ?? ??? ???????? Vim:
? Vim ??????? ???????? ?????????, ??а??а?????? ???????????? ??? ?????? ??? ????????? ????????.
? ?????????, Vim ????? ?????????????? ??? ???????????
??????????????? ????? ?????????? (IDE).
????????????? ?????, ??????? ?а?????????? ????????? ???????? ???????????????? ????? ??????.
???? ??а??а?????? ?аVimа? ??а????????????, ??????????? ?????? ?????????? ??????????, ???? ??? ?а?????? ??????? ???????
?????? ??? ?????????? ??? ??????? ?????.
?а??????, ?????? ????????, ???????? ?а????????????? ?????????????? tmux: ??? ??? ????? ?а????? ??а?????.
???? ????????? ????? ???????? ??????????????? ??а????????? ????, ?а?????? ??а??????? ????? ???????? ???? ??????,
??
??
??
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
??????? ??? ?????????? ???????
??? ????а?? ??а????????? ????????? ????? ????????? ?????????
?а???????. ?????????? ???????, ????? ??? ?????? ?????:
1 ?????? ?????? ?????? ????? ??а???????? ?а?????? ????? ??н
???? ?а????????? ???????? ??? ??????? ???????? ??а?????????
SSH ?аSCP. ????? ??? ????????? ???????, ??????а? ?????????.
2 ???????? ???????????????, ????? ????? ?а??? ??? ?а?????????,
?а??????а? ????????? ??? ??????????.
3 ???????? ?????? ????????? ??а??а???????????. ????????, ?????а? man find, ?а?????? ???????? find ??а????????. ???????, ???
??????? ??? ??????? ????? ???????????? tmux.
?????????:
sudo apt-get install tmux # Ubuntu
yaourt -S tmux # Manjaro
????? ??????? ????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ?а??????
??????, ??????????? ??а??, ??? tmux ???????. ???????????
????????? ??????? ??????? ??? ??????????:
Ctrl?+?b %а? ????????? ???? ??а?????????
Ctrl?+?b "а? ????????? ???? ??а???????????
Ctrl?+?b ?а??????а? ??????????? ????? ?????????.
Ctrl?+?b dа? ??????????? ?а????? ?а??????? ????????. ?????
????? ??а??????? tmux attach ????? ????????? ??а???? ?????
???????? ?????.
?????????? ????????? ??а???????? ??????????? ???? ???????. ????????, ?????????? ????????? ??????????? ????????
?????? ??аPython3. ???? ??а??? ??????? ?????? ???? ???? ???????????????, ??а???а???
????????? tmux ?а???? ????? ??а????????? ?????????:
Ctrl?+?bа%. ?а????? ???? ??????? ???? ?а????????? Vim:
vim test.py
???????? a ??? ????? ? ????????? ????? ? ?????? ????
?????????:
#!/usr/bin/python3
# coding: utf-8
a=?????????? ??????
print(a.lower())
???????? Esc ??? ???????? ?а????????? ????? ?????????,
?а????????? ????????? ?а???? ?? :w ?аEnter; ???????? Ctrl?+?b
?а??????? ?????? ??? ??????????? ?а?????? ????; ????????? ???
???а? python3 test.py; ???????????? ??????????? (??. ???????)!
?????? ????? ??????? ???, ????? ??? ?????????? ????????н
??н??? ???а?????????? ????????? ?а???? ????????? ?????.
????????????? ??????????? ?????:
sudo apt-get install inotify-tools # Ubuntu
yaourt -S inotify-tools # Manjaro
????? ????? ?а?????? ???? ????????? ????????? ??????
?а???? (!) ??????:
n=?test.py?; while true; do inotifywait -qqe close_write $n; pkill -f
?python3 $n?; clear; python3 $n; done
???????????? ?а????? ???? ??аCtrl?+?b ?а??????? ?????. ???
??? ???????? ?а????????? Vim c ????? ??????????, ????? ????????? ??а?? :w + Enter. ?а?????? ???? ????????? ??????????
???????????????. ?а??? ???а?????? ??????????.
?????? ?????? ???????? ?????????, ????? ????? ??????????
??????? ?а??????? ??? ??????? .upper ??а.lower; ????????????,
?????????? ??а?????????.
???????? ??????????? ?????????? ???? ?а?????? ???? ?????
??аCtrl?+?C.
??????????, ??а??????? ??????? ??? ???????????????
?а?????? ?а?????????????? ?????????! ??????????????? ??????
?????????????? ?а???????? ??? ???????? ??? ??????, ?????????
?????????? ??????????? ??а??????? man. ????????, man vim.
??
??
??
??
?????????? ?? ??а??????????
???? ??? ?????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ??а?????????? ?а?????
??????? л??? ?????????╗ ???????? ????? ????, ??а?????????? ???
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
?????, ??????,
??? н? ??????
????????,
??а??а??????.
??а?????? ???? ??????? ??????, ??а???? ??????? ????? ?????н
??????????? ??????????. ????? ????????? ?????? ?????????
??????? ??а???.
?????????? ?? ????? ?????????? ??????? ?а????????????:
sudo shutdown -h +15. ????????? ????? ???????? ????? 15 ?????.
?????????? ?а???????? ?????: sudo shutdown -h 23:00
?????????? ????? ??????: sudo shutdown now
?? ???? ??? ?????? ?????, ?????????????? ????????????
????????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ?а???? ???????????:
Ctrl?+?Alt?+?Print?+?O (O ?????????).
??
??
??
??????????
T???????а? ????????????? ?а?????? ?????????? ??????
?аLinux. ??а?????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ?????: commandlinefu.com. ?а??аexplainshell.com ????? ????????? ???????
?????? ??а????????????, ????? ?????? ??а??????. ??а????????
?а???? ????! |
╗╗??? ????? ?????????????
???????? ??? ????????? ????? ?????? ????????, ????????? ??? ???????????.
???????? ???????
╗╗ ???? ??? ????????, ????? ?????? ??? ?????, ??? ????? ??????????? ??а??????а53 ?а??????? ???????: clear;tput cup 53 0.
╗╗ ????????? ?????? ?а10 ????????: strings /dev/urandom | grep -o ?[[:alnum:]]? | head
-n 10 | tr -d ?\n?; echo, ??? ???: tr -dc a-zA-Z0?9 </dev/urandom | fold -w 10 | head -1.
╗╗ ????? ??????????? ??: echo $(($(cat /sys/class/thermal/thermal_zone0/
temp)/1000)).
╗╗ ????? ??????? ??? ????????????????? ???????? # ?????: sed ?/^[^#]/!d? /etc/
ssh/ sshd_config.
╗╗ ??????????? ?????? ??????????? ???? ?????? ??а?????, ???????? ?????
л????╗ ??ал?????╗: sed -iа?s/????/?????/g? `find . -name ?*.txt?`.
╗╗ ??????????, ?????? ?а????: echo ??;zero=`date + %s`; echo -n 0; while sleep 1; do
echo -ne \\r; expr `date +?%s`а? $zero | tr -d \\n; done.
??????????????? ???????
╗╗ ???????? л???????? ?????╗ ?а?????????: telnet towel.blinkenlights.nl.
╗╗ ????????????? ??????? л?????????? ??а???????? ?а??????╗. ?????? ?? ?а??????; ???а? ????? ?????????? ?аhtop ???аtmux: cp /dev/urandom /dev/null.
╗╗ ??? ?????????????? ??????????? ????? ?а???? ?????????? ?????????? ?аfile
????????? ??????? ??а/dev/urandom: cat /dev/urandom > file &.
╗╗ ????????? ???????? ??а????????? ????????: tr -dc a-zA-Z0?9 </dev/urandom |
fold -w 60 | head -30.
╗╗ ????????? ??????? N ???: for n inа{1..5}; do echo ??а??а???? ????????
??а?????? ?а??????????; done.
╗╗ ????? ??????? ???????, ??а???? ??? ???????? ?????????: kill $PPID.
╗╗ ??????? ??????? ?а?????????: [$[$RANDOM % 6] == 0] && echo dead || echoаlive!.
╗╗ ???????? ???????? ??????? (??????? ????????? ???????????? ??????): cmatrix.
???? 2018? LXF238? |?63
??????? ????????
BYZANZ
??????? ??????????
???? ??????????? ????? ?????? ????, ?? ?????????? ???????????, ??????, ? ????
??????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?
????? ?????.
???????????? ?а???????н???? ????????? ???? ????????
??? ?а?????????, ??? ??? ??а????? ????????? ????????
VPN ?аOpera. ??????????? ?а?????????? ????????????? ???????? ????? ????????. ?а???????, Byzanz ????????? ??????? ???????а? ???????? ?????????? ?а??????? GIF, ????????????? ?????? ???? ??а????????????? VPN ?аOpera.
? Byzanz ??а?????? ????????? ?????????? ????? ????????
????? ???? ???????????? ???????. ??а???? ?????? ?????? ???????????? ?????????? ?а????????? ??????? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ??? GIF-???????????, ??? OGG Theora,
??? ???? FLV ??? Flash, ???? ??а?????? ???????? ?????? ??а??????????? ????? ?а?????.
??? ???? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ??????????? ????????????? ???????? ????? ?а????н???? ?????????? ???????????
?а???, ??? ????????? ??????? ???????, ????? ??? ????????????
?????????? ??а?????? ???????????? ????????????. ?а??? ????????? ????? ???????????? ?а????? ?????. ??? ?????? ??, ???
???н??????? ????????????? ???????? ????? ????? ??????? ??????
?
???
???????
?????? ?????
??????????????
??????, ??? ??????? ????? ?????/
??????? ?а??????????? ??а??????.
╗╗??????? BYZANZ ?????????
????? ????????? ???????????????? Byzanz, ??а???????? ?а???????н????? ??????????, ????????? ??аhttp://bit.ly/byzanz-scripts ?а???????? ZIP-?????. ???????
?????? (byzanz-region.sh ?аbyzanz-window.sh) ???????? ??а???, ??????? ??????????? Rob W ??а??????? Ubuntu.
?????? byzanz-region.sh ??????? ??????????? xrectselа? ??а???????????? ???
??????????? ???????? ????????????? ???????, ??????? ??а?????? ????????. ????
?????????? ?????????? ?а??????????? ???????????? ?????????????, ?а??? ????
????????????? ??а??? Git-???????????. ????? ?????????? xrectsel ????????????
??а????????? ???? ????????????а? autogen, autoconf, libx11 ?аlibx11?dev. ?а???????,
??? ??? ???????????? ???????????? ????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????????. ????? ??а??????? ?????????? xrectsel, ???????? ?????????
???????:
$ git clone https://github.com/lolilolicon/xrectsel.git
$ cd xrectsel/
$ ./bootstrap
$ ./configure
$ sudo make install
????? ????????? xrectsel ????? ????????? ?????? byzanz-region.sh ?а???????
./byzanz-region.sh. ??а????????? ?????? ????????? ???????? ????????? ?а???? GIF????? ?а?????????? ~/Pictures.
?? ?????? ????????? ??? ?????????, ??????? ?????? ??а?????? ??????????. ????????, ???? ??а?????? ???????? ????????? FLV ?а?????, ??????????????
?а??????? ?????? byzanz-record --cursor --verbose --delay=0 --duration=$D ${ARGUMENTS} ?$FOLDER/GIFrecord_$TIME.gif? ?а???????? ?а??????? ???????? -a.
64? |? LXF238? ???? 2018
???????? xwininfo ????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ????, ????
??а??а?????? ?????? ????????? ???????? ????? ???????.
???????????, ????? ??? 60?????????? GIF-?????????, ?????????
?а??????? Byzanz, ????? ???? ??????? ????????? ??.
????????? ?а??????
?? ??????? Byzanz ?а??????????? ???????????? ???????????
?????????????, ????????, openSUSE, Fedora, Ubuntu ?а??????.
?а???? ??? ???????? ?????? ????????????, ?а?????а??, ??????????? ??????????? ????????? ????????? ??????????????
??????н???? ???????.
????? ????????? ??а?????? ???????????? ??? ????????
?????????? ??????? byzanz-record. ??? ??????? ?????????? ????
??????? ??? ??????????? ?а?????????? ?????, ?а????? ???????????? ?????????? ?а????????. ????? ??????? 60??????????
????????? ????? ???????? ?????, ????????? byzanz-record -d 60 filename.gif. ?????????? ?а?????????? ????? ??а????????? ????????
?а??????? ??????? ??????????. ??а?????? ???? ????????????
?????????? ???? ?а??? ?????, ???? ??а?????? ??????? ?? ????????? ???, ???? ??????? ????? ???????? ??????? byzanz-record
?а??????????????? ??????????.
?? ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ???? ?????????, ??а????? ?????????? ?????? ???????????? ?????? ??????.
???? ??а????????? ?????? ?????, ??? ??а???????? ???а?????? ???? ?а?????? ??? ????????? ??????? ??????, ???????
??а?????? ????????.
??????????? ???? Byzanz ????? ?????????? ???? ???? ?????,
???? ??? ????????????? ?????. ??????? ?????????????? ?????
??????? ?а??????? ????? ??????? --height ?а--width. ??а?? ?????
??а?????? ???????, ????????? -h ?а-w ?????????н?????: byzanzrecord -d 60 -x 70 -y 0 -w 850 -h 800 limited-size-screencast.gif.
????? ??а???????????? ?????? ????? ?????? ??? ???????????????? ???????? ????????? X ?аY ??????. ?????? ???????
?? ????? ??????? ????? ??????????????. ??а????? ??????
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
???????? ???????
??????? ??????? ?????????????? ??? ??????, ?а??? ????????
?а??????? ????? ??????? --width (-w) ??? --height (-h). ?а???
???? ????????? ??а??? ?????????? ???????, ???? ??а??а???????
????????? ??????? ?????? ??????????????.
?? ??????????? ???? =, ???????????? ???????? ???а??????
?????? ??????, ????? ??? -d, -x ?а-h. ????? ????, ?????????, ???
????? ?????? ??????? ?а????????? ????? ???? ??????, ?????
Byzanz ??????? ??а??????:
$ byzanz-record -d14 -x 170 -y 0 -w 850 -h 750 -a recorddesktopanother.flv
Wrong option: Cannot parse integer value ?-x? for -d
[???????? ?????: ?? ?????????? ????? ????? ?-x? ???
????????? d]
usage: byzanz-record [OPTIONS] filename
byzanz-record --help
$ byzanz-record -d=14 -x 170 -y 0 -w 850 -h 750 -a recorddesktop-another.flv
[???????? ?????: ?? ?????????? ????? ????? ?-x? ???
????????? d]
usage: byzanz-record [OPTIONS] filename
byzanz-record ?help
? ???? ???????? ??а??????, ??? ??? ????? -d14 ?а-d=14 ??????? ?а????????? ??а?????? Byzanz.
????? ?????????
??? ?а?а???????? ?????????????? ??? ??????, ??а?????? ?????н
??? ??????? ?????? ???????????? ??????????а? ?????а?? ??а?????????? ??????, ??????? ?????? ???? ???????? ?а??????????,
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?????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ???? ?а???????
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??????? ????.
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????????. ????? ?????????? ?????? ????? ??????????, ???
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???????????? ????????.
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??а????? ??????????? ?????? ??????? ??????.
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Byzanz ????? ???????????? ??? ?????? ????? ?????????? ????? ????? ??а?????????. ????????? OGV ????????? ???????? ?????, ??,
?а?????????, ???????? ??а??? ????????? ????????????? ??????,
OGV-????? ?????????? ????? ?????? ?а??????? ?????? ???? ??????. ?а?????????? ????? ????? ?а????? ?????????????? ??????
????? ??а????. ???? ?а???а?? ??????? ??а???????? ??? ????????? ????? ??аaudio-screencast.flv, Byzanz ??????? ????????? FLV,
?а??а??????????, ??? ????? ???????? ?аFLV ???а?????? ???????.
????????, ???????????? ?????? ????? ????????? ???????
?а?????? ??????. 10?????????? OGV-????? ????? 2 ??, ????? ???
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???? ??а??а?????? ????????? ??????? ??а?????????? ?????
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?? ?а??????????? ??а??????????? ?????? ?а????????????. ?????? ?????????? ??? ????? .byzanz ??? ????? ???????. ??а??????
????? ???????????? byzanz-playback, ????? ?????????????? ????? .byzanz ?а???? ??а?????????????? ????????, ??????? ?????
??? ??????. ??????, ?а??????? ??а???????? ?????? OGV ?аFLV,
??? ?????? ????? .byzanz ???????????? ??????:
$ byzanz-record -d 14 -a record-desktop.byzanz
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?????.]
$ byzanz-record -d 14 record-desktop.byzanz
$ byzanz-playback record-desktop.byzanz recorddesktop.flv
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?? ??? ??????????????? FLV-????? ?аGIF ??? OGV ?аFLV. ???????
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??? OGV, ??? ????? ??????? ??а????????? ???????.
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?????? ???? ?а????????? ????????? ?????????????? ????????,
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??????? Grep
????????: GREP
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?????, ????? ??? ???????? ??????????, ?????? ?а?????????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ??а???????????, ???????? ?а??????????????. ??а????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????
??????????? ?а????????н???? ???????????? ??? ?????????н????
?????, ????? ??? ?????? ?а?????? ??????, ???????? web-???????,
???????? ?????? ?а?.??.
?????????, ???????? grep, ????????? ????? ?????????????
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???? ????? ?а?????? LXF231.
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<??????????>.
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?????, ??? ???????????? ???????? ?????. ??а????????? grep ????? ?????? ???? ???????? ?????, ??? ??????, ??а???? ????? ???
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???, ???? ??а???????? ?а????н???? ????????? ?????, ?.??. ???????
??? ??????, ?????? ?????, grep ???????? ??????????? ??а??????
л???╗, ??а??? ? л?????╗, л?????????╗, л????????????????╗,
л?????????╗ ?а??.
???? ??? ????????? ?????? ?????????? ????? ?а????????
???н?????, ??????? ???????????? grep ?а?????????? -w. ???????
grep -w <??????> <????????> ??????????? ??а???? ????????,
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??????????? ????.
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?? ?????? ????????????? ????? -v ??? ???????? ??а[NOT]. ??? ??????? ??? ??????
?а?????, ??????? ??а???????? ????????? ???????? ?????.
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??????????а? ????????????? ????? ???????. ?????? ?????
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[19549.891460] sd 2:0:0:0: [sdb] Write Protect is off
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[19549.891670] sd 2:0:0:0: [sdb] Assuming drive cache: write
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???????2? ????????.txt. ??? ??????? ??????? ??????, ?????????? ????а?? ???? ??а???????? ????.
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Documents/temp/LXF-228-review-swagarch.txt
Documents/temp/LXF-231-review-knoppix.txt
Documents/temp/LXF-231-review-korora.txt
Documents/temp/LXF-232-review-archlabs.txt
Documents/temp/LXF-232-review-nethserver.txt
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[legacy clients]╗, ??? ??? ????????? ??а??????? Wayland). ?????
??????????? ?????? ????????????, ??? GTK ?аQt, ?????????
????????? ?????? ?????????? ?а?????? ???????, ??????? ??????????? ?????????? ????? ????????? ???????????? XWayland
??? Wayland, ??? ????? ????? ??????????. ????????, ?аGTK
??а????? ???????????? GDK_BACKEND=x11 firefox ??? ???????
Firefox ?аXWayland, ?а?аQt, ????????, kate-platform wayland ??? ??????? Kate ???аWayland.
???? ?????? ???????????? ??????? ???????????? ???а????????????? Wayland. X ??????? ?а?????? ?????, ????? ??????
??а????????? ?а??????, ??? ?????????? ???? ??????????? ????
??а?????. ????? ??а????????? ????????? ?????? ?????? ??????
?????????? ?а???????? ????? ??????? (??????? ??а???????
??? ??а?????? ????), ??? ???? ????????? ??? ?????? ???????. ?а?????????, ??? ????????, ??? ????????????? ?????????
?????, ????????, ???????? ??а?????? ?а?????????? ??? ???????
??????????? ??????? ??а???????. ????? ????????, ????? ?а?????????? ??? ?????? ?а??????????? ?????? ??????? ??????????
(?а????, ??? ??? ?????????? ?а????? ????), ??? ???? ????? ???
???????? ???????? ????.
? Wayland ?????????? ??????? ????? ?????????????. ????????, ??????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????? ??а???????? ????,
?а?????????? ??а????? ????? ?????? ?а???????? ???? ???????
??????????. ???, ????????, ???? ???????, ?????? ?????????
?????, ????? ???? ??????? ??а?????????? ??? ?????? ???????. ???????н???, ???а????? ???????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????? ????? ???????? ?????????? ?????
????????? ?????.
?????? ??? ???????
? ???????????? ????? ???????? ????? Linux ??????? ????????? ?????????? ?а???????? ????, ?????????? ?????? ???????
X.org. ?аWayland ??? ??? ?????????? ?????????????, ??? ???????
????? ??????? ???????????. ??? ??а???? Wayland ???????? ?????? ??????????. ????? ??а???? ??? ????, ??? ????? ??????????
?????????? ???? ??????????? (?????? ????????? ???????????? Wayland).
??????? ????????? ?????????? Wayland, ?????????? ??аWesн
ton (???? ????? ?а????? ??????). Westonа? ?????? ?????????
????? ??? ????????????? ?аWayland (??а????? ?а???? ??????????
Weston, ????????? ??????????н??? ??а?????? ?????????? ???
??????, ????а?? ?????????? ??? ??????????? Linux). ???? ????
??? ??????????? ???? ?а??????? Wayland, ??? ????? ?а??? ?????
??а???? Weston. ?????????? ??? ?а???????
$ sudo apt install weston
???, ?а?????? ?????????????, ????-???? ?????????. Weston
????? ???????? ?а?????? X, ?, ????????, ?????? ????? ??? ??????
?а?????????? ???????????? ???????? ?а???? ???????? ???
?????????? ?????????.
????????? ???????? ?а????????? weston. ??? ??????????????
???????? ????? ????????? ??? (????????, ???? ???????? ??????? ?????? ????????? ????, ??????? ????? X ??а?????????)
?а??????? ???? ??????а? ?, ??????????, ??а???? ???. ?????? ???
??а????????, ??? Westonа? ?????? ????? ???????. ??а?????? ????????? ???????? ?а??????? ?????? ?а??????? ????? ????, ?а?????? ??????? ??а????????? ??????. ??а??????? ????, ?аUbuntu
??? ?????? ?а?????????? ????????? Weston. ?????????
$ cd /usr/lib/weston
$ ./weston-smoke
????? ??????? ???? ??????? ????. ??????? ?????? ???? ??а?????????? ??????? ?а??????????. ???????? ?????? ?????????
?а??????? Ctrl?+?C, ????? ???????? ??? ???????. ????? ??????????
??????, ????????? ./weston-flower & ??? ??? ?????? ????. ????? ????? ???????????????? ?????????? ??????. ??а???????
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
??????? ?????? Sway. ??????? ??????? ??????? ?а?????????????? ??? ???? ?????????,
????? ??????? ???????? ??а????? ????? i3.
??? ?????? ????????? ????, ????? ./weston- ?а????? Tab.
??а??а????? ??????? ??? ??????? ??? ???????? ??? ?????????
????????? ??????.
??? ??а?????? ???? ???????????, ?????? ??????????? Wayland
?????? ?????? X (??? ???? Wayland)а? ??? ???а?? ??а???????
???????? ????? Linux, ??????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ????? ??????? ???????? ??? ?а?????? ???????. ??????? ??а????? ???????
?????? ???????? ????? ?а????????? ?аTTY ??аCtrl?+?Alt?+?F2. ???????
?а?????? ?????, ?а???? ??а????????????? ?????? ???? ?а???
???????????????, ?????????? ?????? ????????? ???????????,
????????, ?а??????? sudo systemctl stop gdm (???????? ??? ??????? ??????????????? ???????а? ???????????? ?аKDE Plasma,
????????, ?????????? sddm). ????? ????????? Weston ?а??????н
????, ??? ??? ????? ???????? ??а??? ???.
????????, ??? ??????????? ??????? ?????? Weston ?а??????
????????? ???????????, ??????? ??? ?????? ?????????????
╗╗????????? EGLSTREAMS
?? ????? 2016а?.а????????????? ??????? Nvidia ??а???? ????????? Wayland
(???, ??а????? ????, ????????? ??????? ???? [kernel modesetting], ??-??а????
???????????? ???? ????????? ????????? ??а????????? ????? ??????? ?а????????? ?????? ??????????). ?????? ????????? Wayland ???????, ??а??? ??????
??а????????????. ??? ???????? ?а???????? ????? ?????? ??? ??????? ?аWayland
???????????? ????? ???а????????? Generic Buffer Management (GBM), ?а???? ?????
?????????????? ????? ????????? ???????? ???????. ?????? Nvidia ??????????
???? ????? ???а????????? EGLStreams. ???????????, ??? ???? ???? ???????н????
???????, ??а??? ????????? ????? ?????????? (??. ???? ???????????? KDE
??????? ??????? [Martin FlЎser] ??аhttps://blog.martin-graesslin.com/blog/2017/10/
plasmawayland-and-nvidia-2017?edition).
?? ?????? ?????? EGLStreams ?????????????? ?????? ?аGnome (???????
?а3.24) ?аSway (???? ?????? ??????????), ?а??????? ?????????????а? ????? ????????????????? ????????. ??а?????????? ????????? ?????? Wayland ?аPlasma
?а????????? Nvidia (????????? ??????????? ????????? Arch Linux). ??????????
???? ??????: ?????? ?а?????????????? ??????????.
????? ????????, ??? Nvidia ??а???????????? ???????????? ?а???????????
?а??????? ??? ?????????? ??? ????????????? ?????? ??аhttps://github.com/cubanismo/allocator, ???, ???? ?????????, ??????? ??? ????????? ???????, ?????????
?а???????.
???? 2018? LXF238? |?73
??????? ???? ? Wayland
????-???????,
????????????
?а????????????
Weston, ??????
?????????, ????
?а??а???????????
??????? ??? ??????????????????.
????????????? ??. ?а????? ??????, ???а?????????? ?????????
Weston ?????????? ?а?????? ???????????, ??а???, ??? ?а??????
??????, ????? ???????? ????? ???? ~/.config/weston.ini. ??? ????? ????? ????? ??? ?????? ???????? ????? ???, ??? ??а??? ????????, ?а??? ????? ??????? ?а??????? ls /sys/class/drm. ??а?????
?????????? ??а???????? ????????? ?????????:
card0 card0-eDP-1 card0-VGA-1 renderD128 version
????? ????? ???????? eDP-1 and VGA-1, ??????? ?а?????
?????? (????????????? ????????? ?а????????? ???????) ????????? ?а???????? ?????????? ??????? ?а????? VGA ??????????????. ????? ????????? ??????????, ???????? ????? ??????
?аweston.ini:
[output]
name=eDP-1
mode=1920x1080
????? ????? ???????????? ??????????? ?????? ???????
(??????? ?????????? ????????? ??? ??а?????? ???????????
?а??????? mode = ????????). ???????????, ????????, cvt 1920
1080 ??? ????????? ????????????? ?????? ?????????, ?а?????
╗╗?????????? WAYLAND
?????? ?????? ?????????? Gnome (?а?????? ???????????? ?????????? GTK
??? Qt), ???? ????? ????????? ?????????? ??а?????????? ?????????? Wayland.
???? ???, ????????, ????? ??????????? ????????, ??аTerminology (??а????????
????? Enlightenment) ????? ??????? ???????, ???а??, ??? ?а?????????? Termite
(??????? ??? ???????? ????????????? ??????????????). ????? ??а?????? ???
????????? ?а?????????, ??? ???????? ??? ?????? ??????. ????????, ??а???????
??????? ?????? ?а??????? ncmpcpp, ???????? ?а???? ?а??????? Links ??? ????????? ??????? ?а??????? Midnight Commander. ?????? ??? ???????? ??а????, ???
??? ??????? ?????????.
????????? ?????-??а???? ???????? ????????? Wayland, ??а??? ??????????
????????? swaygrab (??????? ??????????????? ?а??????? sway). ??а???? ?????
?????????? ?????. ???? ??? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ?????, ??а????? ??????
???????? MPV (?????????? ???????? ??????????????? Mplayer). ???? ????? ???????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????????? ???а????????? Imvа? ???????
??? Sway. ?????????? SDL2 (??????? ???????? ????? ???) ???? ????????????
Wayland ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ????? SDL_VIDEODRIVER=wayland.
?????? Epiphany ??аGnome, ??? ????? ???????????? ????????????? ?????
(???????н????) web-???????, ??????? ???????? ?аWayland ??????????. Igalia ???
????????? ????? ???????? ???а???, ????? ????????? Chromium ???????? ?аWayland
?а?????????? ?????, ?а??? ????? ????????. ???? ??а?????? ??????????? ????????????? Firefox Nightly ?аflatpaks Development ??аFedora, ????????? ??аhttps://firefoxflatpak.mojefedora.cz.
74? |? LXF238? ???? 2018
???????? ?????? ????? ???????? ??????? ???????. ?а????? ?????? ??а????????
mode=173.00 1920 2048 2248 2576 1080 1083 1088 1120 -hsync
+vsync
???? ??а????? ??????? (??а????? ?????????? ?????????????) ??????? Westonа? ??????????? ???????????? ????. ????????? ?????? ??а?????? ?????????, ??????????? ??????? Super
?а??????? ???????? ????. ??????? ???????, ??а??????????. ?а?????????, ??? ??а???????? ???а??????? Weston ?а?????? Gnome,
????????? Gnome ??????????? ??????? Super. ????? ??? ??????,
????? ????????????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ?аweston.ini.
????????? ???????? ????? ???????????? ????? Ctrl ?????? Super ?а????н???? ??????? ????????????:
[shell]
binding-modifier=ctrl
??? ?? ?????? ?? Wayland
???? ??а??????????? Ubuntu 18.04, Fedora, ??? ???? ????????
?????????? Wayland ?а????????? ?????? Gnome, ??а?а??? ???н
??? ?????????? ????????? ?????? Wayland ????? ??а?????????
???????????. ????? ??? ??? ??????? ??????, ??????? ??а?????????? ????? ?а??????? Sign In ?а???????? ?????? Wayland (??.
???????? ?????? ??а???.а72). ????? ??????? ??????а? ?, ?????
?????????, ??? ?????????? ?????????. ????? ?????????, ???
??? ??а??? ?аGnome ??а??????????? ?аX.org, ????????? ????????
?а?????????
$ loginctl list-sessions
SESSION UID USER SEAT
TTY
2
1000 lxf seat0
tty2
c1
119 gdm seat0
tty1
41000 lxf seat0
tty2
?????? ?????? ????????? ??????????? (gdm) ???????????
?аWayland (????????? ????? ??? ???? ?????????? ??а?????????),
??а??? ?????????? ???????????????? ??????. ????????, ??а?а???
????????? (??? ???????? ????), ??? ?????? ????. ??????? ??н
????? ???????? ?????????? ??а(??? ??) ?а???????, ????????,
$ loginctl show-session 4
????????? ????? ????? ?????????? ? ??????, ?? ?? ????
??????
...
Type=wayland
...
??? ?????? ???????, ????????, ??????? ?аWayland, ?а???
??????? ??????????? ????? ??? ?????????????? Redshift
?а?????????? Wayland.
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
???? ? Wayland ???????
???? ??? ????? x11, ??а?????? Wayland ??а???? ???????????.
???? ??? tty, ??а??а???????????? ?????? ??а?????? ???????, ???
??? ???????? ?????? ?????. ????? ?????????, ?????? ??а??????
[???.:а? ??? ????? ???? ???????? ???????? LXF ?а???? ??????].
??? ?????????? ??а????????? Gnome ?а????????? ????? ?????????? Wayland, ??????? web-??????? Epiphany.
????, ???? ??а???????? ?а?????? ????? Wayland ?а??? ?????????? ????? ?????????? Gnome, ??а???? ????? ??? ?????????????.
?????? ?????? ?????????? ???? ???????????? Wayland, ????
?????? ??а???. ????? ?????? ?? ??????????, ??????? ??а???????
?????? ?аWayland, ???????????? ?а?????? XWayland. ??а?????
???????????? ???? ??а????????????? ??????? Gnome, ????? ????????, ???а?? ???.
??????? Alt?+?F2, ????? ??????? ?????????? ???? run, ???????
lg ?а??????? Enter, ????? ????????? Looking Glass, ????????
Gnome Shell. ??????? ??а????? Windows ?????? ??????. ??а??????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ?а???????? ????. ???????
??а????????? ????, ??????? ??? ?????????? (??а??????, ???????????? ?аwmclass ??? app) ?а????? ?а?????? ?????? MetaWindowWayland ??? MetaWindowXwayland. ??? ???? ??? ???????
?????. ??? ?????????? ??, ??? ?аWayland ??????? ??????? Libreн
Office. ???? ?аArch ???????? ?????? Firefox ?аChromium ??????
?????????? XWayland.
???????, ???? ??? ?????? ??а?????????? ??а????? ???????????? ?аWayland. ?а??? ????????? ???????? ?а???? ??а????? ??????? ??????????, ?????????? ???????? Guake. ??? ?а???????:
?????????? ???? ??а???????? ??????????? ???????? Gnome,
?а???????? ??????? ?????? ???? ??а????? ?а???? ?????. ??????
?????, ??? ???????? ??а????????? ??????, ?а??а?????? ???????н
???????? ?????? Guake ????? ?????????? (???? ?а????? ????????? ?????????) ??????????? Drop Down Terminal, ?????????
??аhttps://extensions.gnome.org/extension/442/drop-down-terminal.
?????? ?а??????а? ???? ??а??????? Wayland, ?а???????
???? ????? ????????, ??а??? ????????????? ?????? ???? ???.
??????????? ?????????? ????????? ?????? Gnome ?а???????
Alt?+?Shift?+?R, ??? ??????????? Green Recorder ??аhttps://github.
com/foss-project/green-recorder (??? ??а??????? ?????????? PPA).
?????? ???? Redshift (??? ???????? ??а??????? ???????? ?????
?а?????? ????) ???????? ?аWayland ??а??????? ??????. ???
??а???????, ???? ??а??????????? Gnome, ????????? ??? ????
??????????? ??????? Night Light; ?????? ???? ????????? ?а??????
???? ???????? ????????? ?аX, ???? ??? ????? ??????????? ????
??????. ?а????н???? ???????????? ??а?????? ???? ?????????????? Redshift ??аGit (??? ???????????? ????? Arch Linux AUR), ?????
????? ???????? ????????????????? ????? Wayland.
??? ??????, ????? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ??????????,
????????? ?аSway ??а???, ?а???????? ??????????? ????????????
??????????? Gnome, ???????????? Ubuntu. ????????? ??а?????? ????? ?????, ???? ??? ????? ?????? Wayland, ??? ????????
rxvt-unicode, ???? ??? ?????? ????? ??????????? ????????.
?????? ???, ????????? Sway ?а??????????? ??? ?????????????
?????. ?????? ????????? ???????? ?а??????? Super?+?Return.
Sway ????????????? ????? ???? /etc/sway/config, ??а?????
???????? ???????? ??? ?а????? ?а??????? ????????? ??? ???????
????????????:
$ mkdir ~/.config/sway
$ cp /etc/sway/config ~/.config/sway/
???????? ???????? Sway ??а????????? (???? ??а???????????
Ubuntu, ??? Gnome Terminal), ?????????????? ???? ????. ????????, ???????? ??????, ???????????? ?аset $term, ??аset $term
terminology, ????? ???????????? ???????? Terminology. ????????
???????????? ??аSway, ?????? ????? ?а??????? Super?+?Shift?+?E.
Sway 1.0 ??????? ?????? ????? ?а??????, ?а???? ??а????????
???? ??????а? ????????????? ?а????????? ???. ???? ??а???????? ??????? ????? ??? ?а0.15 ??аPPAа? ????? ??а??????????????? ?????????? wlc ?а??????? ?????а? wlroots. Wlc ?????????
????? ??????????????? ??????????????, ???????? ??????
Sway. ????? ?????????? wlroots ????????, ??? ??????? ???? Sway
?????? ??????????? ?а???? ??????? ??????? ??????, ??а?????
?а???н????? ??а???????. ??????????????, ??? ??? ????????
??а?????? Sway, ??а?а?????? ??????????? Waylandа? ?а?????????,
??????? ?а??а????????????? ???????? ??????? KDE Plasma (??.
https://sircmpwn.github.io/2018/04/28/KDE-Sprint-retrospective.
html). Wlroots ????? ???????????? ????????????? Way Cooler
?аWaymonad. ?а???? ????????? ????????? EGLStreams ??аNvidia
??????, ??а??? ?????? ?а???????: ????????? ????????????? ????,
?????????????? ?, ??а?????? ?????? ???????, л40?000 ????? ????,
??????? ??а??? ????? ????????а??╗. ??????? ????? ????????
??аhttps://sr.ht/jAFC.pdf.
???? ??а?????? ?????? ??????, ???? Arch Linux ????? ???????? ???????? ?аWayland (https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/
wayland), ?а??????? ?????????? ????? ?????? ??????? ?????????. ??? ???????, ???? ???? ??а??а??????????? Arch, ?????????
???????????? Arch, ????????, ??? ???????????? ?а??????????,
???????????? ????????????? ?????? ?????????????, ?а?????
????? ?????? ???????? ?а??а???????. |
??????
??????
????????,
?а???????
Vulkan ??????? ???????
?а??????? GBM
?????? EGLStreams. ?????? ???? ??????? ?аhttps://
github.com/
KhronosGroup/
Vulkan-Docs/issues/294 ?????????? ???????? ?????????
??????????,
???????????
?????? ??????????? Wayland,
???????????
??а??????????
(????а??
??????????
????????????
Wayland).
??, Sway
????????? ???????????? ????? ??????????? ?????? ?а???????? ?????, ?а??а??а??????? Gnome ?а??? ???????? ?????????
?а??????????????????? ??????? ??????????. ??а??? ??а??????,
??? ??а?????? ???????????? Wayland. Sway ??а??? ??????? [Drew
DeVault] (http://swaywm.org)а? ??? ???? ??? Wayland ????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????? ???? i3, ????????, ?а?????????,
??? ?а???????????? Ubuntu. ?????? ?????? ???????? ??аPPA ?????????? ????? [Sebastian Noack], ?а??а?????? ???????? ??? ?а?????
?????????? Sway ?а???????:
$ sudo add-apt-repository ppa:s.noack/ppa
$ sudo apt install sway
Sway ????? ????????? ??аTTY, ??? ??а??? ????? ??????
?аWeston, ??? ??а????????? ??????????? (??а??? ???????? ????????????? gdm, ????? ?????????? ??????, ?а?аSway ??? ??????????? ????????? ????????? ???? ???????). ?????? ?????? ???
????????? ????????? ?а??????? WAYLAND_DEBUG=1, ????? ??????? ????? ?????????
?????????? ??а?????????? ??????? Wayland.
╗╗??????????? ?? ?????? LINUX FORMAT?? www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe!
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
???? 2018? LXF238? |?75
??????? IPFS
???? ?????? ?????????
????????????а??:
?????????
???а???????!
?????? ?????????-?????? LXF, ????-???? ??????????, ??????? ???????
??а???????????? ???????? ???????а? ???????????????? web-??????????.
??????????? ???????? ??????? (IPFS) ????????????? ??а??? ??????????? ?????, ?, ??????, ??? ???????? ????? ????????? ?а???????? ??????? ??? ????.
??????-?? ??а???????????? ???????? IPFS ?????????? ?????.
??????? ???????? ?????? ??а???? ????????-??????????...
IP-???????? ???? ??? ?????????? ??? ?????? ???а???????????? ???????. ???????? ???????? ??? ???? ??????? ?????. ????
??????????? ?а???, ??? ????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ?а????
?а???????? ??????. ?????? ????? ????????: ??????????? ???????????? ???????? ????? ????? ??????н???? ????????, ????????
??????? ??????? ??????????. ?а???? ???? ??а???? ??? ??а???????? ????, ???а?? ??? ???????????? ????? ??????????? ????? ???????, ?а??? ??????? ????? ?????????????? ????????????????.
???????? ?????? ??а????? л???????? ?????╗. ?????????????
????????? ????????????? ??????????, ?а?а??????????? ????
????????? ???????? ?а???????????????? ???? ?а????????????
?????????. ?????????? ???? ????????? ??????, ??? ??? ???????????? ???????????? ???????, ????????, Twitter, ?а???
????????? ????????????? ?????????? ???????? ?а?????????????
?????. ????а?? ???????????? ?????? ???????????? IPFS ???
????? ?????????????????? ???????, ??? ?????а?? ??????????
???????????? Twitter.
IPFS ???????? ?а????? ???????? ????, ???? ???? ??? ?????????? ?а????????? ?????? ?????????. ?????????? ????????, ?????
?????? ?????, ?????????? ??????, ?????? ???????? ???????.
?
???
???????
????-????
н?????????? ???
??? ???????? ?????? ????????
??а???????????
????????????,
????????...
??????
??????
?????? ??????
???? ????????
?а?????? 4.14,
??а??а????????
??????? ??????? ?????? ???
????? ???????? ?????????
?????? ????????? IPFS, 4.15:
https://dist.ipfs.
io/#go-ipfs.
??? ???????????????? web-????????? ?а???????? ???????????
IPFS Station. ?????????? ?а?????????? Station ??????????,
??????? ?а??? ?????, ?а?????? ??????? ????????.
76? |? LXF238? ???? 2018
?а?????? ?????? ??а?????? ?????????? ???? ?????? ?а??????????? ?а????????? ??а????????????.
? ??????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????????? ????????а?? ??????? ????????? ?????? ????? ???????????. ?а??????? IPFS ?????? ?а??а?????????? ???? ?а???????? ?а???????????, ????? ??? ????????. ??? ????????? ????? ?????? ???????
?????? ?а????????? ??а????. ???? ?а???, ??? ???????????? ?????
?????? ??????? ?????????? ?а???? ???? ???а???????????.
???? ???????а? ???????? HTTP ??? ???????? ????????
???????? ??а????. ?????? ??????? ?а???, ??? HTTP ?????, ?????
web-???????? ????????? ??а????? ??????????. ???? ???? ???н
?????? ????????, ???????? ????????. ???????, ?????????? ??н
??????? ?????, ?а??????????? ????? ?а??????????? ?????????? ??. ??а????? ?????? ??а?????-???? ??????? ??????, ???????
?????? ????????.
?? ????? ????????? 404!
???? ????????? ??????? ???? ????????, ??а?а??????????????
???? ????? ???????. ????? ???????????? ????? ??????????н???
??????? ??а?????????, ??????? ????? ????? ?а???. ??? ???????? ????? ?????????? ???????????. ?????? ??????, ????????
??а?????? ??????????, ?????? ?????????? ???? ??????? ????? ????????? ????????а? ???? ???????н???? ???????. ?а??????????????
??????? ??????????? ????????? ????? ??????????.
IPFS ????????? ?????????? web-???????? ????? ??? ??а??????
??????. ?????? ??а??а????????, ????? ???????? ??а????, ??? ?????
?а??????? ??? ??????????. ???????????? ????? ????? ???????
???????????? ????? ??а??????????? ?????????? ?а?????????? ??а??????. IPFS ??????? ?????? ??? ????? ?а??????????
?????? ??а???????. ???? ??а?????????? ???????а? ?????,
web-????????, ???????? ?а?.??.а? ??? IPFS, ???????????????
??а????? ???????? ??а???????? ??????, ??? ?????????? ?а???????? web-??????????.
? ??????? ???? ????????? ????????, ?а???????? ??? ?????а?
IPLD (InterPlanetary Linked Data) ????????. ??а?????? ????????,
??????? ???????? ????. ????? ???????, ??? Git, ??? ??????????
???? ??? ???????????? ?????????. ??а????? ?????????, ?????
????? ????????? ??а???? ?????????. ??????? ????? ??????
???аIPFS ????????? ????, ????? ??????? ??? ??????????? ?а????? ?а??????? ????????? web-??????????.
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
IPFS ???????
????????? ???? ??????????? ?а??????????????? ???? ????,
IPFS ?????????? ????? ??????????, ??? Bitcoin, Git ?аEthereum.
??а????, ???????? IPLD ???????????? Ethereum ??? ?????
?????????? ?а????????? IPFS. ????? ??????, ??? ??? ????????, ???
?????????? ????? ?????? ?????? ??????????:
IPLD ????????, ??????? ??? ??? ?????????. ??а?????????, ???
???????????????? ?а???????????? ???? ??????. ?????? ?????
???????? ????????? ????????? ??? ?????? ??????. ????????????? ????? ?????????а? Bitcoin, Git ?аEthereum.
Libp2p ??????? ???????а? ??? ????????? ??????, ??????? ????? ???????????? ??????. ??а???????? ?аIPFS, ??а????? ???????????? ??????? ???????? ????????????? ?а??? ?а?а?????? ??????.
????? ??а???????? ???????? OpenBazaarа? ????? ??? ???????
??????? ?а?????.
IPNS ??? ????????????? ??????? ????. ??????????? ????????????? ??а????? ????????? ????. ?????? ???? ????? ??а?? ???????, ??? ?а?аIPа? ??а?????????? ??? ??? ??????????? ?а????. ???
??????? ????? ????????? ????????? ??а???? ????? ???????? ????
????? ??? ?????????. ????? ?????????? IPFS, ??????? ??а?????????, ???????? ????? ???, ??????? ???????? ????????????
?????? ??????. IPNS ???????????? ??????? ???? ????????.
Multihash ??????? ??????? ??? ???????? ?????. ????????
???? ??????? ?а???, ????? ??? ?????? ??? ????. ?а????????, ?а?????? ???? ??????? ??????, ??????? ?????????????? ????????.
????? ????????? ??? ????? ???????? ????????????????? ????.
??
??
??
??
????????? ?а??????? IPFS
?? ?????? ???????????? Filecoin, ????? ????????? ??????????
??? ???????? ???????? ?а???????? ??????. IPFS ????????? ????????, ??????? ?а????? ??????? ??а???????. ?????, ???????
??а??????? ?а???????????? ??? ??????, ??????????? ?а????? ??????????????. ?а?????, ??а??????? ?????? ??а?????????? ?????
??????, ?а??? ??????, ???? ??а??????? ????? ??? ??????.
????? ?????????? IPFS, ???, ??? ??? ???? ???????а? ??? ??????? ?????, ??????????? ??? ?а????????? ?????? ????????:
$ wget https://dist.ipfs.io/go-ipfs/v0.4.14/go-ipfs_v0.4.14_linuxamd64.tar.gz
$ tar -xvf go-ipfs_v0.4.14_linux-amd64.tar.gz
$ cd go-ipfs
$ sudo ./install.sh
????? ???????? ????????? ?а??????????????? ??????????
?а?????? ????. ?????? ?????????, ??? ?а???? ????? ???????.
??????? ???? IPFS ??а????????а? ??? ???? ????? ???????????????????? ?а???, ??? ????.
??????, ??? ???? ???????а? ??????? ??????????? ???? ?????? ?а???????? ????. ???????? ????а? ??? ??: ???, ??? ??а??????????, ??????? ??????????? ??а????? ??????.
Wikipedia, ???????? ??а?????????? ?????????? IPFS. ??????????
????? ?а??????? IPFS ???????? ?????; ???? ???-??а????? ?????
??? ?????????, ????? ??? ?????????.
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
???? ??а????????, ???????????? IPFSа? Alexandriaа? ?????
??? ??????????.
????? ??а??????
????????????
???? ??????а?
??????, ??????,
?а ?.??.
$ ipfs init
initializing ipfs node at [your hash].go-ipfs
generating 2048-bit RSA keypair...done
peer identity: [??? ???]
to get started, enter [????? ??????, ???????]:
ipfs cat /ipfs/QmYwAPJzv5CZsnA625s3Xf2nemtYgPpHdWEz79o
j|WnPbdG/readme
? ?????????? ??????? ??? ????. ?? ????? ?????? ?????????
???? ???????? ????? ???????:
$ ipfs id
?????????? ???????? ?а??? ??????? ????; ????????? ???
?а????????????. ??? ??????? ???? ????? ???????? ?а.ipfs/config.
????, ??а??????? ??? ????????? ??????, ????????? ?а????н
?????, ??? ??? ??????????:
$ ipfs cat /ipfs/QmYwAPJzv5CZsnA625s3Xf2nemtYgPpHdWEz79
ojWnPbdG/readme
????????, ??а???????????????, ??????? ????? ??а????? ???????? ???. ????? ??????????? ?а?????????????, ???????????
?????????? repo. ?????????, ??????? ????? ??а?????????:
$ ipfs repo stat --human
NumObjects: 1949
RepoSize (MiB): 51
StorageMax (MiB): 9536
RepoPath: /home/matstage/.ipfs
Version: fs-repo@6
??????
??????
??????????
Chromeа? IPFS
Station, IPFS
Gateway Redirect ?аIPFS
Companionа?
??????????? ?а?????
?????????
???? ??????
?а????????.
╗╗??????????? ? ALEXANDRIA
????????? Alexandria ??????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ????????. ?????????
????????? ??? ???? ??????? ?а????????????? ???? ??а???? ??????. ??? ?????
???? ??а????????? Bitcoin ?а?????? ???????. Alexandria ??? ??? ????????? ?а??????
????-????????????, ??а??????? ??аhttps://www.alexandria.io.
?? ?????? ????????? ????????? ?а???????? ?а???? ??а?????, ??? ???????????
IPFS. ???????? ?а?????????, ??а??????? ????? ???????????? ????????? ????,
?а????? ????????? ????. ??????? ??а????????? ?а?????? ?????? ????????
?а????????. ????? ????????? IPFS ??а?????? ?????а?? ?????? ?????????? ????? ?????. ????????? ?????? ????????? ????? ?аFlorincoin [???.:а? ?а??а?а???
??????!], ????? ??????????? ?????????, ??? ??а???????? ?аAlexandria. ????
?а????????? ??? Linux, ??????? ????? ???????. ???????? ??????? ??????? IPFS
?аFlorincoin. ????????? ???, ??а?????? ????????? ??? ????????, ???? ??а?????????
???? ?????? ?а??а???????? ??а????????. ???? ??а??а?????? ????????? ?????????
Florincoin, ??а????????? ???????????? ??????????? ??аAlexandria. ????????????
????? ??????????? ?аIPFS, ??? ??? ??а?????? ????????? ??????????? ???? ?а?????? ???, ??? ????????? ?а???, ???? ???? ??а????????, ???? ????? ???????????
??а??? ?????????.
???? 2018? LXF238? |?77
??????? IPFS
??????
??????
????? ??????????????????
?аFilecoin, ????????? ?????
??аhttps://filecoin.io. ?????
???????????,
??а??а???
????? ??????
????????????н
?????? ?а??н??н
н? ??? ???????.
?????????? ?? ?????? ? ??????? ???????? ?????? (?? ?????? ????? ????????? ????? ?????????):
$ ipfs repo gc
?????????, ??????? ????? ?? ??????????:
$ ipfs repo stat --human
NumObjects: 26
RepoSize (MiB): 33
StorageMax (MiB): 9536
RepoPath: /home/matstage/.ipfs
Version: fs-repo@6
?? ?????? ???????? ????????? ? ????? config. ???? ?? ??н
???? ?????? ??????? ????????, ?????????? ? ??????? ipfs:
$ ipfs config show
? ????? ?????? ????????, ??? ????????? ? ?????????.
????? ??????????????? ???? config, ????????? ?а~/.ipfs/
config. ?????? ???????а? ????????? ??а????? ??а??? ???????????
ipfs config. ??? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ???? ???????????????. ???? ????? ??????? ?а????? ?????????; ???????? ?????
???????? ????????? ????????? ????? ?????. ????? ??????????,
??????? ????? ??а?????? ????????? ????????, ????????? ????????
StorageMax:
$ ipfs config Datastore.StorageMax 25G
?????????, ??? ???????? ???????????:
$ ipfs config show | grep StoreageMax
?StorageMax?: ?25G?
???????? ??????, ???????? ???????? ? ????? ?????????
???????????:
$ ipfs repo stats
?????????? ?????????, ???????????? IPFS,
???????? Brave.
??а????? ?????
???????, ?а??????? ??а??????
?????????? ????
??????? ?????
?????????????.
╗╗???????? ????? ??????????
??? ???????????????? ?аIPFS ???? ?????????? JavaScript ??? ?????????? ?????????? ?????? Go. ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ??? ???????????????, ??а????
??? ??????????. ????????? ??? ?????????????? ????, ???????????? node.js ?а??????????? ????? ???????????????? ?????? ??????.
????????? ?????????? ??????? ???????? Brave, web-??????? ?а??????????
??????????? ???????. ??????? ???? ???????????? ??????? ?????????????,
??????? ????????? ??? ???????? ???? ??????? ????? ?а???????????? ??.
???????????, ?а??? ???????? ????????? IPFS.
??? ???? ??????а? libp2p-webrtc-star, ??? ????? ???????? ???????? ????????
?аwebrtc, ??????? ??а??? ?????? ?а???????????? ??? ????? ???????? ???? ?????.
??? ??? ???????????? ?????, ??? ????????, ??? ??? ??а??????????? ?а????????????? ?????????. ?аwebrtc ???? ?????????????? ?????? ?а?????????? ???? ?????. ????? ???? peerpad, ????????. ???? ???????? ??????????? ??аIPFS, ?а??? ?????
????????????? ??, ???? ??а??????????, ???? ???? ???????? ??????а? ??. ????
?????? ???????????? ??????? ?а??????? ????????? ????????? ??????????: ?а????
????? ???? ????? ??????, ???? ???? ???? ?а????? ?????????? ?????? ??а??????.
??????????? ???? ????? ??????? ????????????, ?а???? ??а??? ??????? ?а???
???????????, ??а???????? ?????????. ????а?? ??а??????
78? |? LXF238? ???? 2018
NumObjects: 929
RepoSize: 79427591
StorageMax: 25000000000
RepoPath: /home/matstage/.ipfs
Version: fs-repo@6
??? ???? ????? ???????, ?а??????? ??а?????? ????????. ????н
?????? ???? ??? ????????, ??????? ???????????? ??а??? ?????
??????????. ????? ??а?????? ??????? ???????? ???? ????????? ??а????????. ?а???????, ???????????? ?????????? ??????, ???
??? ????????? ??а???? ??????:
$ ipfs/QmXoypizjW3WknFiJnKLwHCnL72vedxjQkDDP1mXWo6uco/
wiki/
???? ??? ???????? ??????? ??????? ?????????, ? ???? ??? ???? ???????? ??? ???????? ??? ?????? ???????, ????????? ??:
$ ipfs pin add -r /ipfs/QmXoypizjW3WknFiJnKLwHCnL72vedxj
QkDDP1mXWo6uco/wiki/ --progress
??????? pin ????????? ?????? ???????????? ???? ????? ?????. ?а?а???? ??????? ???? ???????? ????????? ????? ???? ????????? ?????, ??? ???????? ???? IPFS. ????? ????????? ??????:
?????? ??? ?????, ??? ???? ????? ??????????? ?????-?? ?а?????????? ?????????????н???? ???а? ???? ??? ??????? ??а????????.
??а????? ??а??? MD5. ???????? ???-???? ?а?????????, ?а???
?????????? ???????????????. ????????? ??? ????????, ??? ?????
????????? ?????? ????? ????? ???, ???????????? ????????
???????? ?????? ?а????????.
???????? ?????????
??????????? ???? ???????а? ??? web-????????, ???????
?????????? ?а???????? IPFS, ?а??а???? ?????? ??? ???????.
??????? ??а????? ??????, ???????? ??а?????? ??????????. ???
????? ?????? ???? ??????? ???????, ????? ??а????? ??????,
??? ??? ???????? ?а?????????. ??а????? ?????? ???????????? ???? ???????????? web-????????. ????? ???? ???????
??а????????? ????????. ?а????????? ?????? ??? ????? ???? ?????
???? ?????????
$ipfs add MyPicture.png
????????, ? ??? ???? ????????? web-???????? ??? ??????????, ??????? ?? ?????? ???????????? ?
$ ipfs add -r MyWebpage
???????? ??????? -r ???????? ??????????? [recursive], ??????? ??а?????????? ??а??????????, ?аweb-??????? ????? ????? ???
???? index.html ?а???????????? ??? ?а????н???? web-????????.
?????????? ?????????? ??????? ???, ????????а?? ??а??????,
?а??????????? ??? ????? ?????. ?а????? ?????? ????????? ???
????????? ??а??????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?????. ???????????
???? ???, ????? ?????????? ??????????? ??а???? ????? ?????????? web-????????. ?????? ????? ???????????? ????? ???????,
?????????????а?? ???????? ???????? ??? ???????? ??а??а????
????. ???а????????? ???????? ??????? ??????????? ?а????.
Shiftа? ??? ??????, ??????????????? ?????????????? ??????????. ??? ?????????? IPFS ??? ?????? ?а??????????? ?а??????
????????? ?????? ??????????.
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
IPFS ???????
$ ipfs cat [????? ???] | firefox
????????? ???? ??????? ????????? ?а??????????? ?????, ???????
??? ????????? ??? ???? ????????? ??? ?а?????????.
IPFS ????? ??????? ??????? ?????, ??????????? ?????????????, ??а?????? ????? ????????? ?????????. ??????????? ???????? ?GCPeriod?, ????? ?????? ??????? ????????. ?????, ???????
??а?????? ????????? ?а????????? ??? ??????:
$ ipfs pin add [????? ???]
? ??? ???? web-???????? ??аIPFS, ??а??? ??а?????????
??а?????? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ?????. ??? ??????
??? ????????? ??-??????, ???? ???????????? ????????:
$ ipfs name publish [??? ???]
Published to [id ?????? ????]: /ipfs/[??? ???]
?????? ?id ?????? ????? ????? ????????? ??а??? ?????? ?????
web-????????. ??а??? ??? ????? ???????? ??????? ??? ???????
?????? ??? ????? ??? ??? ?????? ????? ????????. ????? ?????
http://localhost:8080/ipns/[Yourpeer id]/. ???????? ???????? ??а?n?
?аIPNSа? ??? Inter Planetary Naming Service, ??????? ????????????
????? ??а????? ??????? web-????????. ??????, ????? ??? ????????????, ??а?????? ????????? ??, ?а?????? ???????????? ??????
????? ?????? ????????? ??????. ?????????? ?????? ????????а?
???? ????? ??????, ?а????? ??????????? ???????????? ????.
????? ??????? ?????????? ?а????, ??? ????? ??? ????: ????
??????????? ????? ?а???? IPFS. ??а???????????? ?????????
?????? DNS ??аweb-?????? ?????? ??????????. ??????? ????а?
???????????? ????? gateway.ipfs.io. ????????? ?????? A ????? ??????? ??а???? IP-????? ?а???????? dnslink = /ipns/[id ?????? ????]
?а???? ?????? TXT.
????? ????? ????????????? ?а???, ??? ?????????? ??а?????
????????? ?????? ??????????, ???????????? ??????? ???????
??? Firefox ?аChrome. ??? ??а??? ????????? ??аGithub, ??? IPFS
Companion ?аIPFS Station. ???????? ????????, ??? Companion ????
?????? ?????? ??а?????????? ??????? ?а????? ?????? ?аIPFS.
??а????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ?а???? ??????? ????? web-UI.
Web-UIа? ??????? ?????????? ??? ?????? web-????????:
??а?????? ???????????? ??? ??? ???????? ????? ???????????
?????? ?а????????? ????? ?????. ???? ?а???? ??????????
?а??аIP-??????????? ?а??????????????? ?а????.
?????????? ?а???? ???????
????? ???????? ?????? IPFS ?а????н???? ???????, ???????????
???? ??????? systemd. ???? ??????? ????. ???, ??? ??а???н
????а? ??? ???????? ?а??????? Unit. ?а??????? Service ??а????????? ????????????, ?а????н???? ???????? ?????? ???????????
??????. ?????? ??? ?????? ?????? ???????????, ????????????
?????? ????????? ???????????, ???????? ipfs init:
[Unit]
Description=IPFS daemon
[Service]
ExecStart=/usr/local/bin/ipfs daemon
Restart=always
User=[username]
Group=[username]
[Install]
WantedBy=mutli-user.target
????????? ???? ?а/lib/systemd/system/ipfs.service. ??????
systemd ????? ??????????? ??????. ??????, ??? ??? ??а??а??????
????, ??? ??? ?????? ??????, ??????а?? ??а??? ????????????, ?????? ??? ??????? ??? ??????????.
????????? ?????? ? ?????????, ??? ?? ????????:
$ sudo systemctl start ipfs.service
$ systemctl status ipfs.service
??????????, ??? ???? ??????? ????????? ? ??? ?????, ??????????? ??????:
$ systemctl enable ipfs service
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
??????? ????? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ??????? IPFS
??а?????????? ??????????? ??????? (VPS)а? ???????? ???????,
?а?а??????? ?????????? ???????? ??а?????? ???????, ???????
?????? ?????????.
??????? Filecoin ???? ??? ??а?????? ?а??????????? ??????.
??????? ??а????????? ????? ???????????? ?а???????????, ???
??? ????? ??? ????. ????? Filecoin ????? ????? ?а?????????????
?а?????? live, ??а??????? ?????????? Filecoins, ????????? ??????????? ??????????? ??а???? ????????? ?а????????? ??????????? ????????? ?????? ?????????????. ??????, ??? ??????????? ?????, ????? ??????????????? ??????????? ?????????.
???? ?????????????? ?а??????????? ??а??????н???? ?а????????,
??? ??? ???????? ???????????? ??н??? ???????????? ?????? ????
???а????????? ??????. ???????? ?а?????????? ?????? ????????? ???? ??????????? ???а????????? ????.
??????
OpenBazaar,
??????????
??а??????????
??. ???? ??????
?????????? IPFS
??? ????????
?а????????????? ?????????
?а??????????.
??????? Bazaar
?????????? ????? ????????, ???????????? IPFS, ??а??????????? ??а??? ???? ?а??????????. ????? ????????? Shift (www.
shiftnrg.org), ?а??????? ???? ?????????? ??????? ?аappimage ???
Linux. ?а???? ??????? ????? ??а???? ?????????????? ?????????? ???а????????? Phantom, ??? ???????????????? ?????????
?????????? ???????.
?????? ?????????, ???????????? IPFS, ???????? Openbazaar. ??а?????? ????? ??? ???????? ??? Ubuntu ?а??? ????????
Github: www.openbazaar.org/download. OpenBazaarа? ??? ????????? ??????, ??????? ??аeBay, ??а???а???????????? ????????.
??а?????? ?????? ??????????, ??????? ??а????? ????????????
?????. ??а???? ????????? ??? ?????? ?????????. ?а????? ???????? ????????? ????????????? ?????? ????????, ??? ????????
????????? ?????? ??????, ??? ?????? ??? ?????????? ?????
????????? ??????????? ?а?????????? ??а?????? ????????????.
? ?????? ??????? ????? ?????????? IPFS, ??а????????????
????????. ?????? ???????????, ????????? ??а?????, ?????????? ????????? ?????. ??? ???????? ??????, ?а??? ????????
???? ??????. IPNS ????? ????? ?а????????? ?а???? ?????????,
??????? ???????? ????????? ?а???????? ????? ?????? ??????????. ?????????? ???????? ?????? ????? ???????? ?а?????????????????, ????????? ?????? ?????? ????? ??? ????.
??а??? ???????? ???????? ???????? ?а?????? ??????, ??? ??? ???
??а???????? ?????????.
?????? ????????, ?????????????? ???????? ??????? IPFS,
???????? ??? ?????????????? ??????? ?а???????, ???????????? IPFS, IPNS ?аIPLD. ????? ?????? ??? ???????? ?а?????????????? Filecoin ??????????? ?а?????? ???????, ?????? ????????
???????? л?????????╗ ?????. ??? ?????? ???????? ?а???????????? ?а????????? ?а??????????????, ????????? ?????????????? ?????. ?????????? ??а??? ?????????! |
???? 2018? LXF238? |?79
???????? ???????
VEGA ? VEGA LITE
?????????????
н?????? ?? ?????????? ????????
?? ?????????? ???? ?????? ? ?????? ??????????? ???????. ?
?????? ???????
??????????, ??? ????????? ?? ??? ???????????? ??????? ? ??????? Vega ? Vega Lite.
?????? ?????????? Vega ?а??а??????????? ?????? Vega
Lite. ?а??а?а??????а? ??????????, ???????????? ???
????? ????????????. ?????? ??????, Vega Liteа? ???
?????????? ??а?????? Vega, ????? ???а?? ??? LaTeX ??????? ??аTeX.
???????? ???????????? Vega Lite ??????? ?а???, ??? ??? ??? ????????? ?????? ?????? ???? ??а????????? ?аVega.
????????????? ????????? ??? ???????????? ????? ?а???н
?????????, ?а??????????. ????? ??????? ??????????а? ??,
???а??? ????????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ???????
?а??????????? ???? ??????????. ?а?????? ???????, ????? ???????? ?????????? ??а??????? ???????? ??????? ?а????????????,
???? ??? ???????? ???????? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????????? ???????? ??????????. ????? ????, ?????????????
?????????? ???????? ????????? ????, ????????? ?????????
????? ?????? ????? ???????? ??а??????? ??? ????? ??????????.
???????, ????????????? ?????????? ????????? ????? ????????
?????? ?а????.
????????? ??? ?????????? Vega Lite ????? ?????????, ?а??????????? ???????? ?а???? ??????????? ????? ??????????????
?????????? Vega Lite. ????? ??а????, ??????!
?
???
???????
??????? ????н
???а? ????? ????
л????????? ????????????????
??аGo╗ ?ал????????
Go╗. ?а??? ?????
????????? ?????
???? mtsoukalos.
eu ?аTwitterа?
@mactsouk.
??????????? ????? ???? ??????? ?а??????? ?????????? Vega, ??????????? ??????а?
?а??????? ?????????? Vega Lite. ??? Vega Lite ??????? ????? ?а??????????.
80? |? LXF238? ???? 2018
?? ??????????? Vega!
??? Vega, ??? ?аVega Lite ???????? ??аJavaScript, ?а??? ?????????
??????????, ??????????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ?а?????????. ??? ????? ????????, ??? ???а???????? ?????? Vega ????
????????? ???????????? ???????? ?а??????????? ????????????
???????? ?????. ??? ?????????? ????? ???????? ??? ???????н
????? ????????? ?????? ?а????? ?????????????? ?а????н????
??????? ????? ??? ???????? ?а??????????? ?????????????
?????? ?а????????????. ????? ????, ??? ?аVega, ??? ?а?аVega Lite
??? ???????? ???? ???????????? ?????? JSON, ??, ??? ??а??????
???????, ??? Vega ????? ????????? ?аHTML-????????.
????????? ??? HTML-????? barChart.html. ??? ????????, ???
??????? ??????????? ?а????? ????????? ?а?????? ?????????.
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
????????????? ?????? ???????? ???????
????????? ??? ????? gridLines.html, ??? ????????, ??? ???????? ????? ????? ??а?????? Vega Lite.
???????? ?а?????? ??а???? ????????? ????????? ????????
??????, ??? ????????? ???? ?????? ?а???а?????? ??????????? ?????????????? ??????. ????? ??а?????????? ??? ??????
?а????????????? ????? ??????? ?а???????? ???????????, ?.??.
????????? ??????. ?а???? ?????? ????? ??????? ?????, ?????,
??????? ?а?.??. ??? ????? ????????. ??????, ??? ??? ????? ???
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??? ???? ?????????.
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??аhttps://altair-viz.github.io.
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????? ??????? ?а??????? ????????? ????? formatType. ??????
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www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
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?height?: 600,
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?????? ?а?????????? Vega.
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?axis?: {
?grid?: true,
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axis.html.
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??????
??????
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https://vega.
github.io/
vegaeditor.
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Lite ????? ????? ??аhttps://
vega.github.io/
editor/#/. ???
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?а???????????? Vega ?аVega
Lite ??а????????? ??????
??????.
82? |? LXF238? ???? 2018
????????? ???
????? zoom.
html, ???????
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???????????
Vega Lite.
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??? Vega Lite ?????????? ?аHTML-?????
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?а??? ???????????? ??? ???????????? ???????, ?а????? ?????? ????????? ???????
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localhost/Wordpress-optimisation ????? ????????????? ??а600
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?а??????? Enter.
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???????? ?а???????? ?а??????? Inspect [???????????]) ?а????????
Sources [???????? ???]. ????? ?????????? ??а?????? ????? ????
Inspector ????? ?а╫ ?а??????? ??а??? ???????????? ?????. ???????? More tools > Coverage [?????? ??????????? > ????????].
?? ??????? ??? ????????????, ??????? ???????? ????????
?а????????? ???????? ????. ??а???а?????? ?????? ??????????,
????? ??? CSS ?аJavaScript ??а????????????.
??????а? ??????, ??????а? ???, ??а???? ?а??????? ???????,
??????? ??а?????? ??? ??????????, ???? ????? ??????? ????.
?????? ??? ??а????????, ??? ?????? ??? ??а???????????? ?а??????
??????????? ??? ????????, ????? ??? Woocommerce.
???????, ???? ???? ????а? ????? ???? ???????? ???? ???а?????????, ??а?????? ??????? ??а???? ??????? ?а??????? ??????
??а???? ??????. ?????????? ????????? ????? ?а??????, ??? ????
???????, ????? ????? ???? ???????.
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?????????? ????????? ????? ???????????? ?????? ????. ????????, ??????? ??а????? ??а?????? ??????, ??а??????? ??????
??а??????? ?????????????? ???. ????? ??а???????, ????? ?????????? ?????? ???? ???????, ?????? ??????? ???? ?а???????
?????????????? ?????.
????? ??????????? ?????? ????? ????????? ??а??????а?
????? ??????, л??????????????╗ ??. ??а????, ???а???? ?????????
???? ??? ?а????? ??а???? ???????? ????????. ??????????????
??? ????? ??????-????????????? ??? ????? ??????? WordPress.
???????????????? ????? ??????????? ???????, ??а??а??????? ?????????????. ?а???????????? ??а????? ?????????????,
???????? ???? ????? ????? ?????????? ?????????.
??????????? ???????
???????????? ?а???????? ??а???????? ??? ?????, ????? ?????
???????? ?????????? ??? ????? ????????? WordPress ??аwwwdata, ???? ???? ?????????? ??аlocalhost.
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
WP Total Cacheа? ?????????? ?????? ??? ???????????, ???????
??????????????? ??????? ???? ??????????н???. ???а?????????
?а????????????? ?????? ?????????? ???? ??????? ????:
?????? ??? ????????? ?а??????? ??? ????????? ???????. ?а???
??? ????????? ??аlocalhost ??????????? ????????? ?????????
???????? ???????.
?????? ?????, ???????? ?????? ?а?????????? ??? ?а????? wpcontent/plugins. ????? ????? ??????????? ??? ?а?????? ????????.
????? ????????? ????? ??????? ??а?????? ???????? ??????
?а????, ?????? Performance [??????????????????] ?а????
Dashboard [?????? ????????????]. ?????? ???????? ???????
????? ???????. ??? ???????????? ???????а? Page cache [???
???????] ?аBrowser cache [??? ????????]. ???? ??????? Browser
cache, ??а????? ?????????? ?????? Set expires header [?????????? ????????? л????????╗], Set cache control header [??????????
????????? ?????????? ?????], Enable HTTP (gzip) compression
[???????? ?????? HTTP (gzip)] ?а?????? ?????? Save all Settings
[????????? ??? ?????????].
???? ??а??а?????? ???????? ???? .htaccess, ??а??????????.
???????? Performance [??????????????????] ?а??????? ??????
View required changes [??????????? ??????????? ?????????].
???????, ??? ?а???? .htaccess ??? ???????? ???????? ?????.
????????, ??? ??????????? ???????? ????????? ???????????
?????????? ?????, ???????? ??? ?????? ???????????. ??? ??а?????, ????? ??????? ??а????????? ????? ????????: ???? ??а????????? ????? ???????????, ???????? ????? ??????, ???????????
????? ????? ?????? ?????, ???? ???? ???????? ??а???????.
??????
??????
???а??????????? ?????
??аlocalhost
??а???????
web-??????
??????? ???????? ????????? Wordpress
Address [?????
WordPress]
?аWeb Address
[Web-?????].
??? ????????? ?а???????
Settings >
General [????????? >
?????]. ????
?????? ?????
???????? ?а??????? ???????? ??????
?а??????.
╗╗????????? WORDPRESS
???????? WordPress ?а????? Wordpress.org ?а????????? ???? ?????? mySQL ?а?????? ???????????? ?а???????. ????? ?????????? ????? ????????? ??? ??а??????
?а???????????? ????? ??а??????? localhost ??а?????????? ?аLinux ??? ?а???????
?????? web-????????. ?????? ???????? ?????, ??? ??????? ??????????? ?????????, ????????, localhost/wordpress ??? http://example.com. ??????? ?????? Run
theаinstallation [????????? ?????????] ?а??????? ??? ???? ??????, ??? ???????????? ?а??????. ??а????????? ???????????? ??????? wp_, ??а??? ????? ????????
??а????? ??????.
?? ???????? ??????? ??????????? ???????? ???? wp-config-sample.php, ?????? ?а??? ??? ???? ??????, ??? ???????????? ?а?????? ?а????????? ??? ?а?????
wp-config.php, ???? ?????? ??а????? ???????? ???? ????.
? ????? ????????? ??а??????? ???????? ?????, ??? ???????????? ?а?????? ???
?????? ?????????????????. ??а??????? ??? ??? ???????????? ?а?????? ?а??????
???????????? ?а??????? ??? ???? ??????. ?а??????? ???? ????? ????????????
?а?????? ??а????? ????? ??а???? ?а????????? ??????????, ????? ?а???????
????????? ????? ?а????????. ????? ????? ???? ?????? ?а??????? ?????? Install
Wordpress [?????????? WordPress] ??????????? ???? ????? ?а?????? ??????????????, ??? ????? ?????? ??? ???????????? ?а?????? ??? ?????.
???? 2018? LXF238? |?85
???????? ??????? ??????????? CMS
??? ????? ??? ??а????? ??а????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????? WordPress (???? ??а????? ??а???? ????? ??????????)
?а????? ??? ????????? ????????.
??????????? ??????-????????
??????
??????
? WordPress
???????????
?????????
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?а??????????
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????? ?????
??????????????.
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????? ??????? ?????????????? ?аweb-???????????? ??? Linux,
??а????????? ??а???? ???????. ??а????, ??? ??????, ????? ???
Varnish (www.varnish-cache.org), ????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??а???????????? ????. ??????????? Varnish
????? ??????????? ??а????? ??? ??а??????. ???а???????????
???????? ?а??????? Varnish ??????? ?а???? ?????? ?а??????
web-??????? ??а???????????.
???? Varnish ??????? ??????????? ??а????? ???????, ???
?????? https ??а??а????????????. ????????? Google, ??????,
?????????? ?а??????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ??????????
?????, ??а??а????? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ??????,
???? ???, ???????, ???? ??а????? ???????????? ????????????
????????? ???.
??????????? KeepAlive
???? ??а??????????? ???????????? ??????????? ???????????
?а????????? ??? ??? ????????? ????????????? ?????. ??? ?????
????????? ???????? ???????? ???????????? ????????????;
??а?????? ??а????????? ????????? ?аLinux ?а?а???, ????? ????????? ????? ?????? ??а??????.
??????? ??а????????, ??? ??????? ????? KeepAlive. ????
Apache2 ?аUbuntu ????????? ??а?????????? ????: /etc/apache2/
apache2.conf. ?а??? ????? ????? ???????? KeepAlive, ????????
????? ??а????? ?Keep?. ???????????? Nginx ????? ????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??а?????? https://bit.ly/2EjUDDW ?а????????
???? ????????? ???, ??? ??? ??????????.
sudo -s
nano /etc/apache2/apache2.conf
???? ????????? ???????? ????????? ?? ?????????:
KeepAlive On
MaxKeepAliveRequests 100
KeepAliveTimeout 5
??? ??????? ???????? ???? ????????. KeepAlive ??? ?????????,
???????а?? ????????? ?????????? ???????????. ???? ??а?????????, ???? ????? ??????????? ??????? ???????. ??а?????
????, KeepAlive ???????? ???????? ?????????????????? ?????
??а??а40?%.
MaxKeepAliveRequests ???????? ??????????? ??????н????
????????, ?аKeepAliveTimeoutа? ????? ???????? ??????????
??????? ??а????а?? ??????? ?а????а?? ??????????? ?а????????.
???? ??????? ?а??? ???????? VPS ??? ?????????? ??????
???а??????????? Linux, ????????, CentOS, ??а?????? ?????? ??????????? ????????? ??? ????????? ??а????????? ??????. ????
????????? ??? ??????? ??? ?????? ????????? ????? ??а????????? ??????:
root# grep -R ?KeepAlive? /etc/apache2/
root# find /etc/apache2/ -type f -exec grep -H ?KeepAlive? {} +
????? ??????? ????????? ?аKeepAlive ?а????????, ????????
???? ???? ?аFirefox ?аGoogle Chrome ?а???????? Inspect [????????
????]. ????? ??????????? ?????????, ???????? Network [????],
???????? ????? ?????? ????? ?а??????????? ?????????.
???????? ????????
???? ???????? ???????? (CDN) ?????????? ??????-??????? ?а??????? ????????? ?????? ??? ?????????? ?????? ??????, ???????
????????? ?????? ????? ???????????? ?а????? web-???????????. ????? ????? ????????? ????????????? CDN ??а???????.
?а??????? ?????? ????? ????? ???? ????????? ?????? Jquery
?а???? ?????? ?????? ??а?????????, ??????? ????? ???????????, ????? ???????????? ??????? ??а???? ????????. ?а???????
????????????, ???? ???? ????? ??????? ?а???а?? ??????? ??аCDN
?а??????? ????? https://code.jquery.com/ ??? ?а??????? ??????
??аAPI Google
CDN ??????? ??????? ??а????????? ?а??????????????
?????????? ?????? ??а??????? ??????????. ????????, ??????
Wordpress Total Cache, ?а??????? ?????????? ?????, ?????????
????????? MaxCDN ??? ???????????? ??????, ????? ??????
????????????? ??????????? CDN, ????????? ?а???, ?а??а????????????? ??а?????? ????? ?????. ??? ???????? ????????.
?????? ?????????
????? ??а???????? ?аWP Total Cache ?????? Gzip. ??а???? ??????????? ????? ??? ????? .htaccess, ??????? ??????? ??????. ???
?????? ?а?а??????? ????? ??????????? ????? ???????? ?аUbuntu
???а?????????????? ?????????.
?????? ?????? ???????? web-???????? ??а??????? ??а??????,
??? ?а??? ????, ???? ???? ??а?????????. ?а??? ??? ??????? ???
???а?????????.
??? ????????????? ?????? Gzip ??а??????? Apache ?????????? ???????? ????? mod_deflate. ?????? ??????? ????????
????????. ????? ????????? ???, ?????????????? ????????
# apache2ctl -t -D DUMP_MODULES
??????, ????, ??? ?а??? ???? ??????, ?????????, ???????????а?? ?????? ??а????? ????????? ??????????. ??????? ????????? ???????, ?а??а??????? ?????? ?а?????????? Accept-Encoding:
deflate, gzip:
# curl -v --compressed http://localhost/Wordpress-optimise >
/dev/null
????? ???????????
?? ???? ????????? ???? ????????????, ???????????? ?????????. ?а??а??????? ?????
??????????? ????? ?????????, ??? ?????? gzip, ?????? ?а????????????? KeepAlive
???а??????????.
86? |? LXF238? ???? 2018
? ????????? ?????а? ?а???, ??? ????? ????????? ?????????????. ???, ??????, ?а???, ??? ?????? ????????? ??????????? ?а????н???? ????????? ??????? ??а?????? ?аWordPress,
??а?а???а???????? ?????? web-???????.
????????? ????? ???????????? ????? ???????????????
????? ?а?????, ??а??? ????????? ??????????????????
??????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ???????????,
?а?????????,а????????.
???а???????? ??????????? ??а????? ?????????????? ???
?????????, ????? ??? ????? ????????? ??? ?а???а???? ?????н????
??????. ????? ????, ????????????? ????? ??????????, ????
?????? ??????????? ??а??????????.
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
??????????? CMS ???????? ???????
╗╗????????? ????? ?????????
? ????? WordPress ???? ?????? Customize [?????????], ??? ????????? ????? ???????? ???????????, ?????, ???????? ?????, ????????? ???? ????? CSS ?а?????? ??????.
???а???????? ??????????? WordPress ??????????н??? ???????
????????? ???????? ???????, ??????? ????? ??????????? ?????,
????? ????? ???? ???????? ??????.
????? ???????? ????? ?????????????? ????? ???????????
??а???? ???????????; ?а??? ???????? ?а??????? ??????????,
??????? ??? ????? ??а????? ?????? ????? ????????? ??????????? ????? ImageMagick. ????? ?????????? ???? ??????????,
?????н???? ????????? ???????.
$ sudo apt-get update
$ sudo apt-get install imagemagick
????????? ImageMagick, ??а??????? ????? ???????? ????н????
?а?????? ???????????а? ?а?????? ??????. ??????????????
???????? ??. ??а?????? www.imagemagick.org ?аhttp://bit.ly/
image-magick.
??? ??????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ???
???????, ?????????? ????. ?????? ??????? ?????? ???????
?????? ??????????? ??а50?%.
# convert Wordpress-optimise-pingdom-webpagetest.png -quality
90 Wordpress-optimise-pingdomwebpagetest10.png
# convert Wordpress-optimise-pingdom-webpagetest.png -quality
90 -resize 50% Wordpress-optimisepingdom-webpagetest8.png
????? ??????????? ????? ?????, ????????? ?????????
???????. ?а??а??????? ??а??????? ??????????? ????? ?а?????
?а??а????? ?а??????? ?????.
# du -a -h --max-depth=1 | sort -hr
? ImageMagick ????? ???? ????? ???????, ??????? ???????
?????????? ????? ?а???????? ???????? ??????????.
?????? ???? ??????????? PNG:
# mogrify -verbose -format png -quality ?85%? *.png
?????????????? ???? ?????? PNG ? JPG:
# mogrify -format jpg *.png
????????? WordPress, ??а?????? ??????? ?????? ??а?????? http://bit.ly/w-pthemes. ??? ?????? ????? ??а????? ???? Hestia, ????????? ??? ?????? ?а?????????. ??а?????? ???????? ???? ????? ?????? ????????????????? ??? ??????? ????,
??????????? ??а?а??????????? ????? ?а????? ?а??????? wp-content/themes. ??????
???, ???????? ??а??? ???? ?????? ???? ?а??????????? ??. ???????? ??а???? ????
?а???????? (localhost/wordpress-optimise), ??а??????? ????? ????, ???? ??а???????? ???-??? ????????а? ????????, ???????????? ???????????.
?? ????????? ?? ?аUbuntu ?аWordPress ??а?????? ???????? ?????. ????????,
?????? ??? ???????? ???????????? ??????????? ?а?????? ??????, ??? ??????????? ??????? ????? ?а???????? wp-content/uploads, ?????????? ??? ??? ??????????
777 ?а?????? ??а??а???????? www-data. ??? ??????? ????.
username:/var/www/html/wordpress-optimise/wp-content$ mkdir uploads
username:/var/www/html/wordpress-optimise/wp-content$ chmod 777 uploads
username:/var/www/html/wordpress-optimise/wp-content$ chown wwwdata:www-data uploads
?????? ????? uploads, ?????? ?????????? ?а??????. ??????? ???? ?????????
??? ??????????? ???????? ????? ????????? ?а??????? Appearance > Customize
[??????? ??? >?????????]. ????????, ?а???????? ??????? Twenty Seventeen
????? ???????? ???????? ?а???????? Site Identity [????????????? ?????],
Header Media [??????????? ?????????] ?аHomepage Settings [????????? ???????
????????]. ??а?а????? Hestia ??а????????? ?а??????? Site Identity [?????????????
?????] ?а?????????? ?а?????????? Appearance [??????? ???], ?а????? ?а???????
FrontpageаSections > Big Title Selection [??????? ???????? ????????s > ?????а???????? ?????????].
????, ?а??? ???? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ?????
WordPress, ??????? ????? ?????? ????????? ?а?????? ???????????. ?а????? ??????, ???? ???????, ??????????а?? ??а???????? ?????? ????? ????? ?????????? ???????? ???? ??? ?????
????????? ??????????? Wi-Fi ??а?????? ????? ??????? ????.
??а??????? ???????? ??а???? ????????? ???а?????? ?аWordPress,
?????? ??? ?????? ???????????? ??а????? ????? ??? ???????,
???? ?????????? ????????! |
???????? ??????-???????????
?? ?????? ????? ?????????? ????? ????? ???????? ??????
?????? ??а??????-??????????. ?????? ??? ?????????? ????
?????? ??? ??????????? ????????? ????. ??? ????????? ???????а? https://tools.pingdom.com ?аwww.webpagetest.org. ?а????
???????? ??а???? ?????? ??? ???? ??????? ??????, ?а??а???????
???????? ???????? ??????? ?а???? ?а?????? ?????? ????. ???
????? ?????, ??? ??? ??а??????????? ????????? ????????????,
???а???????? ????? ??а????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????
???? ?????? ????????, ????? ???????????? ???????? ????
??а?????? ????. ?????? ?а??? ???? ?????? ???? ???? ??????????
??????? ???????????!
???а???????? ??а?????? Plugins ???????? ?????? ???? ????????????? ????????
WordPress. ??а?????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ?а???????, ??? ??????? ????
??????????.
╗╗??????????? ?? ?????? LINUX FORMAT?? www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe!
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
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?????? ??????????????? ??????? ???????????? ??? ???????? ?а??????????????,
@SparkPenketh, ?а?????? ??????????? ?а???????????? ??????? ?????????.
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?? ??????????? ???? Spark ????????н
???? Physical Computing ??? ??, ?????
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???), ??????????? RoboDojo, ??? ????
??а?????? ??????н???? ????????? ?????
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????????????? ???????!
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??????? ???? ????????????? ????????? ???????
??а???? ?????. ??????? ??????, ??? ?а??? ???????
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oogle ????????, ??? ???????, ???????? ???????????? ??????????????
?????????? (??? ????? ???????? ???
??????? ??аTensorFlow ??а???.а94) ?а???????????
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? 1966 ?. ???????? ?? ???????????? ??????.
??? ??????????? ?????? AIY, ??????? ??? ????????????? ??????? ?а2017а?.а??????????? ?????
???????????? ??а????, ??? ????????? ???????????
????????? ??.
?????? ????? ?????????? ???????? ????? ?а??????????? ????????? AIY Vision Kit,
?а????????? ?????????а? ?????? ??????????,
??????????? ??а???????????? ?????. ??????
?аRaspberry Pi Zero ???? ?????? Pi Camera ?аSD????? ?а???????????. ????? Vision Kit, ?????????? ?аPi, ???????? ????????? ??????????????????? ?????-??????, ???????? ????????????
???????а? ?а??????? Google, ???????. ????????
Linux Format ?а??? ??? ????? ?????? ??? ??????
??аTarget, ????? ??? ???????????? ????? ????????
??а?????????????? ?????? ??????? ???????????
????? ??.
????? ????????? ?????????? ?? ???????
??а????? ??????? Google AIY: https://aiyprojects.
withgoogle.com.
???а?? ??а?????! ?????????
Coolest Project ???????? ?а???.
????, ??????????? ??????????!
oolest Projectsа? ??? ???????, ???????
??????????? ?а??????????? ????? ????????? ???????? ???????, ?????????,
?????????? ????????? ?а????????????????.
?а???? ???? ??????? Coolest Projects ????????
?а??? ??? ?????????? ??????? ???????. 23 ???н
????? Coolest Projects North America ?????????
????? ?аDiscovery Cube Orange County ?а?.а???????? (??????????). ?????? ?????????а? ??аhttp://
coolestprojects.org/northamerica.
????? ???????? ?а??????????????
?????????? ?????, Raspberry Pi 3,
????????? ????????? ?аAndroid Things.
???????? ?????, ?а????? ??????????? ??????????? ?а?????-????????? AR, ????????????
???????, ???????? ???? ?а?????? ??????. ????????? ???????????н???? ???? ??????? ????????
??аAndroid Things ?а???????????? ???????????
?а???????. ????????? ??. ??аhttps://www.hackster.
io/nord-projects/android-things-lantern-9f0c28.
C
?
?????-н
???????,
???а???
?????, ?????, ?????! ? ?????: ????? ?????
?а?????????.
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
???? 2018? LXF238? |?89
?????? ??????????? ???? ???????
PiJuice ??аPi Supply
??? ????????????????? ??? ?а??? ??????? ??а??????????? ???????? Raspberry Pi.
??а???????, ??? ???? ??? ??????...
???????
??????????????
??????? ?????????? ????????,
???????????????
??? ??????? ????
??????? Raspberry
Pi. ??? ?????
??????????????
?а??????????,
????????? ?а??????? ??????????????? ???????????
???????, ?????????? ???????
?????????? ???????. ??а?????????? ??????
?аGPIO, ????????
??а????????????
?????? Pi. ??????? ?а????????
????? ????? ????
????????????????? ????????????? ?аPython
?а??????????????
???????????
??????????.
?????? PiJuice
?а????? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????
??????? ??? GPIO
?а????????? ?????????, ???????????? ?аHAT.
90? |? LXF238? ???? 2018
iа?????? ????????? ???????????; ?а??? ???????? Pi? ???
???????, ??? ???? ???????, ???????????? ?а???????????, ???? ????????? ??????н???? ????????, ????????
??????? ??????????. ?а2015а?.а?????????? ???????? Pi Supply ?????? ????????????????? ???????? PiJuice, ?а?а?????? ????? ????
PiJuice ????????? ?????? ??а????????? ?а?????????? ??а?????
???????? ??? ???????.
PiJuiceа? ??? ?????????????? ??????? ??????? ??? ???? ??????? Raspberry Pi, ??????? Pi 3 B+. PiJuice ???? ??????????? ???
?????, ??????????????? ?????????? HAT ?а?????????? ??????
????????? GPIO, ?а??????????? ??????? ?а????????? ??? ?????????? ???? ?а????????.
????? ??а???????????? ???? ?????? ????????????? ????????? ??, ??? ?????? ?а?????? ?????? (CSI) ?а??????? (DSI)
???????? ????????? ?а??????? ??????? ???????????? л???????╗
??? ????????? ?????????? ??????. PiJuice ????? ??????? ???????????? ?а?????? ?????а? ??? LiOn-???????????? ??а1820а??╖?,
??????? ?????????? ????? ???? ?????USB ??аPiJuice. ?аPiJuice
????? ?????????????? ??? ?????-?????? (LiOn), ??? ?а????????????????? (LiPo) ???????. ??????? ????? ???????? ?а???????
??????, ???? ???? ???????? ??????? ??? Raspberry Pi, ?а???а??????????? ??????? ????? PiJuice ??? ????? ?????? Raspberry Pi.
?????? ?а????????, PiJuice ????????? ?а???????? ????????????
??а4,2а?а??а10а?, ??????? ??а????????? ??????? л??? ????╗ ??????
????????? ????????? ?????? ??? ???????? ???????.
P
?????????? ??????? ?а??????? ?????
?? ??? PiJuice ???????????? ?а???? ?????????? Python 2
?а???????н????? ?????????? ????????????; ?а??, ?а?????? ????????? ?а??????????? Raspbian, ??? ??? apt installа? ?а??? ????.
GUI ????? ?а?????????????, ????????? ???????? ??????????
??а????, ??а??? ????? ???????????? ??? ????? ???????????
?????????????.
????? ??а???????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ??, ??? ????????? PiJuice ??????????? ??а????????? ???????. ????????,
????? ????????????? ????????? ??????? ??? ??????? ???????????????? ?????? ??? ???????? ?????????????? ??а???????? ??????. ??а?????? ??????? ?а???????н???? ?????????? ?????????
??????, ??????????? ????????? ??????? ???????????? ????????
????? ??а???? ????????????? ??????. ??????? ???????????
??а????? ?????, ????а?? ???? ???????????.
PiJuiceа?
??????? ?????,
??????? ?????
н???????? ?а40??????????? ???????
RaspberryаPi.
? ??????? Configure HAT ???????н????? ?????????? ??а?????
?????????? c ??????????? I2C, ???????????? PiJuice ??? ?????
?аPi, ???????? ????????? ??????, ???????? ????? ???????????LED ??? ????????? ??????? ?а????????? ???????? Cortex M0,
????????????? ?а????н???? ????? ?????.
??? ???? ????? ????????? PiJuice? ??, ?? ?????а?? ?????????? ?а??????? ??а??????? ???? ???????? Raspberry Pi: ??????
??? ?????? ????? ???????, ???? ?????? ?а?????????????? ???н
????? ?а????????????. ??а????? ???????????? PiJuice ??? ???
??? ????? ???????? ?????? Pi-??????????, ?а??? ???? ??а???
????? ??????? ??????. ???????????????? ?????????? ????????
??? Raspberry Pi ??а???????? ???-??а?????, ??а?аPiJuice ?а??? ????
?????? ??????????? ???????, ??????? ??????????? ??а?????????? ???? ??? ?а????????? ?????????????.
??? ???а?? PiJuice, ?????? ?????: ??, ???????? ????? ??????,
?а?а?????? ?????. ??? ???????? ????????????? ???, ??? ?????
????????????а? ??? ???????????? ?а?????, ???????? ???????
?а?????????? ??; ????????? ??????? ?????. ?а??? ???????????
????????????? ?????????? ????? ??????? ????????????, ??????? ????? ??????????? ??? ?????????????? ??а????????????.
???????? ??а??????? ????, PiJuice ????? ?????????????. |
???????
???????????: Pi Supply
????: http://bit.ly/pijuicehat
????: г?58
????????????????
??????????????????
???????? ?а??????
????????????? ????
9/10
9/10
9/10
8/10
????? ?а????????? ?а?а??????. ??????????? ???????????? ????? ?????????? ???? ????????? ????????н
???, ?а???????а? ?????? ???????????? ?а????????.
╗ ???????9/10
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
????????? ????? ??????
Weather Station
????????? ???????? ??аMaker Life ??? ? ????? ?????????????? ?????? ???????? ?????
????????? ??? Python ?????????????? ?????????? ??????.
???????
???????? ???????? Raspberry
Pi Zero W (?а?????????? ????????
?????????), 16???
????? MicroSD
(??????????????
NOOBS), ???????? ???????,
????????, ??????
???????????,
?????????, ?????????????????
?????????, ????????????? ??????
Micro USB, USB????????????,
?????? HDMI,
??????? HDMI
??аMini HDMI, ??????? USB ??аMicro
USB, ????????
????, 10а????????
л???????????╗,
???????? 4,7 ???.
????? ????????
?????????, ????
????? ???????
????????
?а ??н????н????????
???????.
???? ??? ??????????? ???????. ?а??????? ???????
[LXF237] ??а????????????? ????????? ???????? Pi
Zero ??аMaker Lifeа? ?????? ???????? ?а???? ?аGPIO
Raspberry Pi, ??а??а???????????? ??????? ??????н???? ???????????? ?????.
??? ??? ???????? ?????????????????: ????????, ???????
???????? ??????? ?????????????? ?а????????? ???? ?а?????????? ????? ????????н????. ??а??а?????? ????????? ???? ??? ????????? ??????, ??а???????? ????????????. ?а???? ??? ??? ?а???????
?а????? ?????? ??????????? (??????? ?а???????? ?????? ????????
?????? ???????? ?????????? ????????????????? ???????), Weaн
ther Station ??аMaker Lifeа? ??????? ????? ???????? ????, ??? ???
??????? ????.
?
??? ??а????????? ??а???? ???????
??? ??????? ???????, ?????????? ?????? ?????? ?????????.
??????? ??а??? (?????? Pi Zero W, SD-????? ??а16 ?? ?а????????????????? NOOBS ?а?????????????????? ???????)а? ???????.
???? ????????? (?????????? ???????? ?????), ???????? ?а??????
???????????. ?????? ???а? ??????? ??????????, ??????????
???????????? RJ11 ??? ??????????? ?а????? ??????????
???????. ????? ???????????? ??а?аPi, ??? ???? ????? ????????
?????????? ?а???????????? ??а?????.
????????? ?????????????? ????????????????? ??????? ?????
?????? ??а????????, ?аMaker Life ?????????? ?????????? ???????
??????-?????????? USB (?а?????????? ??? Pi ???????? ???????),
????? ???????? ??? ??а?????????, ????? ??? ??? ?а??? ??а?????.
??? ???? ???????? ???????, ??а??????? ???????? ?????????.
??????????? ??????????? ???????? ??а????????? ?а????н
???????? ???????? ?????????. ???????????? ???????, ?а???????? ???? ?а??а??????? ??а??? ????? ????? ????????-?????????, ??а???-???? ??????. ??????, ?????? ???????? ???????;
??????? ????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ???????, ?а????а? ?????
????. ??? ??а??? ?? ?????, ????????? ??? ????????н???? ??????,
?????????? ??????.
??? ?????? ????? ???????????? ??????? ?а???? ??а?????????
??а??????, ?????? ????????? ??? ??????? ????, ??? ????????,
??? ??? ????????, ??? ?????????? ??? ?????, ????? ????? ??????,
?????? ?????
??????????.
????,а?????!
??? ??? ??????????. ???а?? ??а??а???????, ?а??????????? ?????н
????? ?????? ??????????? ????, ?а????????????, ??? ??????
?????? ????? ?а??????.
??? ?а??? ??????? ????, Weather Station ??аMaker Life ????????? ??а????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????? ????, ??? ????????? ??? ??????. ??????????? ?аPi Zero W ????? SSH (?а???
?????? ??а???????? ?а????? ?????????? ??а???????? ???????,
??? ??? ???????????? ???????)а? ?????????? ?????? ???????
????? ????????? ??????? ???????, ??а??????? ?????? ??????,
????????, ??? ????????? ?????? ??а?????? ?????????????? ????
WeatherUnderground (www.wunderground.com) ???? ??а????????.
??? ??? ??а???????? ???????, ??а??? ??????????? ???????????? ???? ??????????? ??????????? ??? ??????????? ????
???????, ??? ?????а?? ??????????? ??????? ?????????????????
?????????. ???????? ??? ??? ???? ???????? ???? ???????????
???????, ??а????????? ???? ?????? ?а??????? ????????????????;
?а???? ???, ??а??а??????? ???? ???????, ?????? ????? ????. |
???????
???????????: Maker Life
????: www.makerlife.co.uk
????: г?85
????????????????
??????????????????
???????? ?а??????
????????????? ????
8/10
9/10
9/10
8/10
???????? ????????: ??????????, ?????? ?????????????? ?а?а??????? ???????????; ???????? ??????????, ????? ??????? ???????.
╗ ???????9/10
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
???? 2018? LXF238? |?91
??????? ????? ? ?????????? ??????
MATPLOTLIB
?????? ???????
? ???????????
??????????
??? ?????????????????, ??? Raspberry Pi ??????? ??? ????? ?????? ? ????????
??????? ? ???????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????.
? ?????-?????? ?????? ?а???????? ??????? ???? л???
??а???????? ????????╗? ??, ??????, ?а??????? ??????????? ????? ?а?а??????? ???????????? ?????
???????? ??????????? ??? ????? ?????????? ??а???????????
?а???????? ???????, ?а???? ?????????, ??? ??? ????????????
????????? ????н???? ????????????.
?? ?а?????????????: л?а??????а?? ??????? ????? ??аRaspberry Pi?╗ ???????????, ?????! ?а??а????? ????????? ????????
??????? ?а??????? ?????????? Python ???а????????? matplotlib.
????? ????, ???? ?????? ??????????? ?????; ??? ??а??????а?? ????
?
???
???????
??? ???????а?
??????-?????????, ?????????? ?а??????
?????????????,
??? Raspberry Pi
Foundation, ?????
?????????? ??????
????????. ??а????? ???? ??аwww.
bigl.es.
????????????
???????????? ??? ????? ??????? ??????? ??а???? ??????, ???????????? ?аGPIO ??а????????? 17, 27 ?а25. ????? ?????? ?????
?????? ???????????? ?а????? ????????? ????????? ?????????? [Ground] (GND) ??аGPIO. ?????????? ??а????? ?????? ??????
???.а93, ??? ??а??????? ???????????, ?а?а???????? ??? ???????
???а?? ??????? ?а??????? ??????????.
????????? ??? ??????????? ?аGPIO, ????? ?????????? ??????????, HDMI, ?, ???????, ???????? ??????? ???? ??аRaspberry Pi,
????????, ??? ??? Pi ????????? ?а?????????.
????? Python
???
?????
?? ????? Pi
?? ??????
Raspbian OS
?? 3 ??????
???а????????
?? 6 ?????????
л???????????╗
?? ????????
?????
?? ??? ??? ????н
?? ? http://bit.ly/
les-psurvey
92? |? LXF238? ???? 2018
?? ????? Raspberry Pi ??? ???????? ???????????? ???????
Raspbian, ??а?????? ??? ??????? ?????? ???, ???? ??????? ?????????, ??? ?а??? ???? ??? ??????????? ??? ?????? ??????? ???н
??????? Python 3. ?????? ??а???а? matplotlib, ??????? ??н?????
??????? ????????, ?????? ??? ???????? ????????? ?а???????
????? ????? ??????. ?а????????? ??????? ????????? ?а?????
??????? Enter:
sudo pip3 install matplotlib
?????? ???? ?????????, ??? ? ??? ????? ?????? ??????
numpy, ??????? ???????????? ??????????. ? ??? ?? ?????????
??????? ???????
sudo pip3 install numpy ?upgrade
????????? ??? ????? ????????? ??????? ??а???? ????????.
??????а? ??а????????????? ??????????? ??? ?????? ??а????н
???? ????????? ???????, ?а??????а? ??????????, ????????????
??? ?????? ???????????? ?????, ?а??а?????????? ???
???а????? ????????? ??????? ?????? ??? ????? ?????????
???????а????????????.
matplotlib ??? ?????????? ??????? ??а??????. ?а????????? ???н
???? ????????? ??????, ??????? Enter ?а????? ?????? ??????:
sudo apt install libatlas3-base
sudo apt-get install python3-gi-cairo
? ?????????? ??а????????? ?????????, ??? ??? ??????? ????????? ?а???????????.
??????????? ???????
??? ???? ??????? ??а????????????? ?????????? Python 3,
??????? ????????? ?а??????? Programming [????????????????]
???????? ????. ????? ?????????? ?????????, ??????? File > New
[???? > ?????], ?а????????? ????? ????. ?????а?? ??????? File
> Save [???? > ?????????] ?а???????? ???? customer-survey.py,
??а??а????????? ????????? ??? ??????.
?????? ??? ?а????? ???? Pythonа? ?????? ???????????
?????????. ??????а? ????? ?????????? ???????? matplotlib,
??????? ??а??????????? ?аplt, ????? ?????????? ??а????????? ??а?????. ????? ??а??????????? ?????????? numpy, ?????
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
????? ? ?????????? ?????? ???????
?????????? time ??? ???????? ????? ????. ?, ???????, ??????????? ????? Button ??аGPIOZero, ??? ????? ?????? ???????????:
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import numpy as np
import time
from gpiozero import Button
?????? ??????? ??????? Python, ??? ????????? ???? ??????.
?????? ?????? ?????????? ?а?????? ???????? GPIO ?а?аGND. ????
?????? ??а??????, ??????? GPIO ??????? (HIGH), ??а???а???????
??а?????? ?????????? ??????? GPIO ??????????? ?аGND, ??? ???????? ?а?????????? ???????? (LOW), ?а??? ???????? ?а????? ?????????, ??????? ????????? ???. ????? ??а??????? ??? ?????????? ??? ????? ??????а? yes [??], no [???] ?аstats [??????????].
yes = Button(17)
no = Button(27)
stats = Button(22)
???????? ??? ????????. ??? ???????????? ??? ??????????
???????????? ??????? ??а????????? [happy] ?а???????????
[unhappy] ????????. ????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ??а????????????? ???????? ?а????.
happy = 0
unhappy = 0
?????? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ????????????, ??? ???
?????? ?????? ??а??????. ?а?????????? ??? ????? ?????? ??а????????????, ?????? ??? ?а??? ????? ??????????? ??????????,
?????????? ?а??????????? ?????.
print(???? ??????????? ??????????? ???????????? ???????
??????? ??????, ???? ??, ? ???????, ???? ????)
???????? ????? ????а? ??????????? ????, ??????? ?????????
????? ??????. ?????? ????а? ???????, ??????а?? ?????? yes.
while True:
if yes.is_pressed:
???? ??? ??????? ???????, ??а??????????? ??а??????? ?????,
?????????? ?а?????????? happy. ????????? ????????, ??????????
?а?????????? happy, ??а????? ?????? ?????????? ??а????????,
?а????? ????????? ???????? ?а???????????????а? ???????, ???
????????? ?Happy [???????]?а? ???? ?????????????? ????????
?а????????? ?????????? ?а??????? str(). ?а????? ??а??????????
sleep, ????? ?????? ???????? ??а???? ???????, ??????? ??а????
?????? ??????????? ??а?????? ????????????? ???????.
happy += 1
print(?Happy?,str(happy))
time.sleep(1)
????? ??а?????????? ?????а?? ???????? ????, ????? ?????????, ????а?? ?????? ?????? no.
elif no.is_pressed:
unhappy += 1
print(?Unhappy?,str(unhappy))
time.sleep(1)
????????? ????а? ??????????, ??????????а?? ?????? stats.
???? ??? ???????, ??а??? ??????? ??????????? ??а?????? ????????? ???? ??????. ????, ???? ?????? stats ??????????, ??а??????? ?????? ??? ???????? ????????? ??????.
elif stats.is_pressed:
objects = (?Happy?, ?Unhappy?)
????? ?? ???????? ???????, ??????? ??????? ??? (???????,
?????????) ?
y_pos = np.arange(len(objects))
? ????????? ?????? ? ??????, ??????? ? ????????? ?? ??????:
satisfaction = [happy,unhappy]
plt.bar(y_pos, satisfaction, align=?center?, alpha=1)
plt.xticks(y_pos, objects)
??????? ????? ???????, ?а??? Y ?????????? ??????н????
????????, ?а???????? ???????а? ?????? л?????????????????
[Satisfaction]╗.
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
????? ??? ????? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ??????. ??а????? ???? ??а?????
???????????? ?????? ?а???????? ?????
?а????????? ????????????? ?а????????
???а???????? ?????.
plt.ylabel(?No. of people?)
plt.title(?Satisfaction?)
????? ????????? ????? ???????, ??а???? ??????????
matplotlib ????????? ?figure?, ??? ??? ???????? ????????????.
????? ??? ????? ???? ????????, ??а?????????? ????? ?а????
??а?????? ??????? ??а??????, ?а??????? ?а????? ??????????
????? ?.png?:
plt.savefig(str(time.ctime())+?.png?)
????????? ??? ?????? ???? ??????? ?????? ??а?????, ???
??? ??а?????? ??????? ??????????; ????? ??? ???????????
??а???? ??????? ????? ???, ??? ??????? ???? ???????? ???????
?????? ?????.
plt.show()
time.sleep(1)
??? ?а???. ????????? ???, ?а??????? Run > Run Module [????????? > ????????? ??????], ????? ????????? ???. ???????
??а??????, ????? ??? ???????? ??? ???????. ???????? ????????
?????? ?а????? ??????? ??а?????? stats, ????? ??????? ?????????.
?????? ??а????? ????????? ???????????а? ??????? LUG, Raspberry Jamа? ????????? ???? ?????????? ?а????????, ??????а??
?????? ??? ???????. |
??????
??????
????? ??????н
?????? ??а??н
???? ?????
?????????
figure (??????).
????? ??????
??а????????
??а??н????а?
н?????????
??????????,
??а?????
??????????.
╗╗???????????? ?????? ? PYTHON
???????? ?????? ????? ?????????? ?а??????????? ???????, ?а?а???? ??????? ??а????? ?????? ????????? ????????? ?????? ?а????? CSV (Comma
Separated Values) ?а???????????? ??????????? ??????? ??? ???????????? ??????; ??а????????? ???????????? Python ?а?????????? matplotlib
??а???????????????? ???????.
Matplotlibа? ?????????? ?????? ?а??????????????. ??а????? ????????? ???
???????? ??????????? ???? ???????? ?а????, ??????? ????? ??????? ?а???????? ?а???????? ??????? ?а????????? ??? ????????????? ?а???????? ?а??а??????????????. ??а????????????а?? ??? ??????????, ???????????? ???????? ???????
???????, ???. ??? ???? ?????????? ???????н???? ?????????? ?????????? plotly
(https://plot.ly), ?а??? ????? ????????? ??????????? ?аHTML ????? ?а????????????
????? ??а????, ?а???? ????????? ??а??а????? plot.ly.
??? ?а??? ??????? ?????? plotly ??а????????, ????????? ??а??? ?????????????
???????? ?????????, ??? ????? ????????? ????, ????? ????????????? ??????????? ?а???????????? ?а???????? plotly. ?????????? Python https://plot.ly/d3?js-forpython-and-pandas-charts/ ?????????, ?а??а??а????? ??????-??????? plotly, ???
??? ??? ???????? ???????????? ??? ???????? ?????? ?????? ??????????? plot.ly,
????????? ????????? ??? ??? ???????????? ???????????? ????? ??????.
???? 2018? LXF238? |?93
??????? ????????????? ???????
TENSORFLOW
?????????????
???????
??аRaspberryаPi
??? ????????????????? ????????? ????????? ???????? ? ??????? ????? TensorFlow
?? Google, ??????? ??????????? ????????? ???? ?? Raspberry Pi!
????? ??????? ????? ????? ?а??????? ?????????
???????? ?а???????? ????????? ????????????? ??????. ??а????? ???????????? Google TensorFlow ???
???????? ????????? ????, ????????? ???????????? ???????????
?аPiCamera. ??? ??а???? ?????? ????? ?а???????? ????????,
?а?а???????? ??а????????????? ?а?????????? ????????? ????????? ?а??????? ???????????, ??? ?????????? ???а???????. ??а????? ???????????? PiCamera, ??а??а??????? ????????? ???????
????? ????? ?????, ???? ???? ?а??? ??а???.
TensorFlowа? ??? ????? ????????? ???????? ??аGoogle, ?а???
??????????? ?????????? ??? ???????????? ?а???????? ???????????????? ??????. ??? ?????? ??????????, ?а??????????? ???
???????????? ?????????????.
????? ???????????? TensorFlow, ??? ????? ????????
??????н???? ?????? ?а???????? ?????????????? ???????; ??????,
?а??? ??? ??а????, ??а???????. ??????? ??а??????? ?а????????????? ??????? ?????, ??????? ????????? ??а??????? ??????н????
??????: ??????? ????????? ??????? ???? ?а?????? ??? ??а?????
??????????? ??????.
???? ???? ???????? ??????? ??аTensorFlow ??? ?????? (https://
tinyurl.com/tensorflowfp1), ????????? ?а??? ???? ??????? ???????
??а??????, ???? ?а??? ????????? ???????? ??? ??а???????? ?????
??????. ?????? ??а???????? ????? ?????? ???, ????? ??а????н
???? ????????????? ?а???, ??? ??????????.
?
???
???????
??? ???????????????? ???????
??а????????????
?а??????????
?аedtech, ?????
?а???????????? ???????????
?а????? ????
?а???????????
?а??????? ??аblog.
thebaseline.co.
?? ????? TensorFlow
??? ????????? TensorFlow ???? ???????? ????? ?а???????? ??????
??????:
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get upgrade
sudo pip3 install --upgrade pip
?? ?????? ????????? TensorFlow ??? ?а???? ?????? Raspbian,
??????? ??а????????? ??а?а??????? ??????????????????? ?????????. ??-??а????? ????????? ???????? ?а?????????? ??????,
??????? ??????????? ??????????? ?аGoogle ??а??????? ?install
tensorflow raspberry pi [????????? tensorflow raspberry pi]?.
??????? ??????? ?а????????? ????????:
1) https://codelabs.developers.google.com/codelabs/tensorflow-for-poets
94? |? LXF238? ???? 2018
?????? ???????????? ???????? ?а????????? ????????, ???????
??? ??????? ??????а? ??? ?????????, ??? ??????????.
wget https://github.com/samjabrahams/tensorflowon-raspberrypi/releases/download/v1.1.0/tensorflow-1.1.0-cp34-cp34m-linux_
armv7l.whl
sudo pip3 install tensorflow-1.1.0-cp34-cp34m-linux_armv7l.whl
sudo pip3 uninstall mock
????????? ???, ???????? ??????? ??????, ??? ????????, ???
TensorFlow ??????????? ?а???????????:
import tensorflow as tf
hello = tf.constant(?Hello, TensorFlow!?)
sess = tf.Session()
print(sess.run(hello))
????????? ??а?а??????? python3 test-tf.py, ??а??? ??а?????
Raspberry Pi 3 B ???? ????????? ??????. ?а????????????? TensorFlow ???????? ??а???????? ????????? ????????...
????? ?????
?? ????????? ?????????? ??????????? TensorFlow for Poetsа?
??? ???????? ????????? ?????, ??????????? ????????? ?а????????? ???????? ???????? ?а????? ?а???????. ??????? ??????????
???????????, ????????? ?а?????????? ?а???????? tar-?????
?????? ???????????, ?а??????? ??????? ??а????? ???????????
????. ??? ???????? ?а???????
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
????????????? ??????? ???????
git clone https://github.com/googlecodelabs/tensorflow-forpoets-2.git
cd tensorflow-for-poets-2
curl http://download.tensorflow.org/example_images/flower_
photos.tgz | tar xz -C tf_files
????? ??а????????? ?а???????????? ?а??????? ???????
??а????????? ????????, ??????? ????????? ???? mobilenet. ???
???????????? ???????? ??????, ??????? ????????? ??а???????
?????? ??????. ????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ????,
??????? ???????? ??????????? ?а??????????? ??? ?а???????
?????? ?аtf_files/flower_photos. ????????, ??? ??а?????? ????,
??????? ????? ???????????? ???????? ?????а? ????, ??????
?а??? ?????а? ?а??????????? ??а??? ???????? ????? ?????????
???????????, ????? ?????????? ?а?????????? ???? ????? ???????????? ?????:
python3 -m scripts.retrain \
--bottleneck_dir=tf_files/bottlenecks \
--how_many_training_steps=500 \
--model_dir=tf_files/models/ \
--summaries_dir=tf_files/training_summaries/mobilenet_1.0_224 \
--output_graph=tf_files/retrained_graph.pb \
--output_labels=tf_files/retrained_labels.txt \
--architecture=mobilenet_1.0_224 \
--image_dir=tf_files/flower_photos
??? ?????? ????????? ?????, ??а????? ??????? ??а???????
???????, ????????????, ??? ??????????? ????, ??? ?????????
?а????????????? ????? ?????. ????? ??? ????? ???????, ?а??? ????? ????? ????? ?аtf_files/:
$ ls -1 tf_files/
bottlenecks
flower_photos
models
retrained_graph.pb
retrained_labels.txt
training_summaries
Retrained_graph.pbа? ????? ????????? ????, ??????? ??а????? ?????????? ??? ??????????? ??????? ?а??????? ??а?????
?????????????? ??а??????? label_image:
python3 -m scripts.label_image --graph=tf_files/retrained_graph.
pb --image=..
?????? image ?????? ????????? ??а???????????, ?????????
??? ?????. ????????, ????????? ?аGoogle, ??????? ???????, ????????? ??? ??а??????? ???? ??? new-flower.jpg ?а?????????
$ python3 -m scripts.label_image --graph=tf_files/retrained_
graph.pb --image=/home/pi/Desktop/new-flower.jpg
Evaluation time [????? ??????] (1-image): 3.859s
tulips [????????] 0.99234116
roses [????] 0.0066660508
daisy [???????] 0.0008570712
dandelion [??????????] 7.7864344e-05
sunflowers [??????????] 5.789246e-05
??????? label_image ?????????? ????????????? ????,
????? ??????????, ????????? ??? ???????, ??? new-flower.jpg
??????н????? ?а??????????, ?а??????? ??????? ??а??а???????.
??????н?????, ?????????? ?а?????????? ????? ????? ?????????????; ???? ?а??????? ????? ????????, ??а???а?? ?????????????
???????? ??????; ?а???????? ???????????? ????? ?????, ?а???????????? 0,99. ??? ????? ?????????? ??а?????? ??? ?????????.
???????? ?а???????
??????? ???????? ?????????????? ??????????? ?а???????
PiCamera. ???? ?а??? ??а???, ??а?????? ?????? ????? ???????????
?а????, ??? ??? ??????.
?????????? ???? PiCamera ?а???????? ??????, ???????? sudo
raspi-config ?а??????? ?аcamera ?а?????? ????, ???? ?аinterfaces
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
?а?????а? camera. ???????? ?????? ?а??????? ??а????? ??????????? ?????????. ????????? ??, ???????? raspistill -o ~/Desktop/
image.jpg, ??????? ???????? ??????????? ??а??????? ?????. ???????? ???????????, ??? ????????, ??? ??? ????????.
??????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ?аcam.py:
from picamera import PiCamera as pc
from time import sleep
cam = pc()
image = ?/home/pi/Desktop/snap.jpg?
cam.capture(image)
print(?Captured in {}?.format(image))
????? ???????? ???? ??????, ??????????? python3 cam.py,
?а????????, ??? snap.jpg ???????? ????????? ???????
???????????.
????а?? ??????, ????а?? ?????? ?а??????? ?а??????? ????????????? ????? ???? ?????????? ?а???? ????????. ??? ???????
??? ???????! ??а????? ????? ??????? TensorFlow for Poets, ?????
??а????? ???????, ??? ???????? TensorFlow, ??а?????? ?а??????
?????????:
??????
??????
??????? л??????????
????????╗
?????????
?а?????????
?????? ??????, ???????
?????????
?????????????. ?а????? ???????
??а??????????
???????????
???????????
??а????? ??????, ???, ????? ?а?.??.
???? ?а??? ???а????? ??? ?????? ??? ???????? ??? ??????, ???????? ?????? ??а?????!
??? ???????? ???????? ????? RPi ??а????? ????????????? ???????????.
╗╗??????????????
???????????? ?а???????? ???????? ??????, ??а????????? ??????????? ??, ???
?????? ????????? ?а?????????????, ??? ????????? ??а??????????????????а?
н??????????? ????????? ??????н???? ??????? ?а???? ?а??????н???? ?????? ????????.
??? ?????????? ??????????????.
? ???????? ???????? ???? ????????? ?а??????????????. ?????????а? ???
??????, ??????? ?????? ?????????? ?а???????: ????????, ??????? ?а??????????? ?а????? ???а????????????? ??????. ?????????????? ?????? ??а??, ?????????
?????? ?????? ???????? ????? ????????.
????????, ??а????????????? ?how_many_training_steps [??????? ?????? ?а????????]? ?а500; ?????? ????? ?????????, ??? 1000 ?????? ???????? ????? ??????
??????, ?а????? ?а?????????, ??? 300 ????? ??????????. ????????? ?а????. ??????????? ????, ????????? ??????? ??????н???? ?????? ????????, ?а??????н????,
?????а?? ???????? ????????????? ??????????? ?????а??. ????? ???????н????а??
?а?є????? ??????н????? ?????? ?а???????? ??????????.
???? ??а??????????? ?а????, ??а??????? ??????? ??????????????????
????? ?????? ??а??????н???? ?????? ???????? ??? ??????????? ????????????
??????н????. ???? ??????? ?????????? л??????????? ???????????????╗.
???? 2018? LXF238? |?95
??????? ????????????? ???????
??????
??????
???? ??а?????? ??????,
?????????, ???
pip ?аPythonа?
????? ??????
?а??? ??????
TensorFlow ?????????????
????? ??????
Python.
from picamera import PiCamera as pc
from time import sleep, time
import numpy as np
import tensorflow as tf
from scripts.label_image import load_graph, read_tensor_from_
image_file, load_labels
cam = pc()
image = ?/home/pi/Desktop/snap.jpg? cam.capture(image)
print(?Captured in {}?.format(image))
graph = load_graph(?tf_files/retrained_graph.pb?)
t = read_tensor_from_image_file(image,
input_height=224,
input_width=224,
input_mean=128,
input_std=128)
input_operation = graph.get_operation_by_name(?import/input?)
output_operation = graph.get_operation_by_name(?import/
final_result?)
with tf.Session(graph=graph) as sess:
start = time()
results = sess.run(output_operation.outputs[0],
{input_operation.outputs[0]: t})
end = time()
results = np.squeeze(results)
top_k = results.argsort()[-5:][::-1]
labels = load_labels(?tf_files/retrained_labels.txt?)
for i in top_k:
print(labels[i], results[i])
????????? ??????, ????? ??????? ?????? ?а?????????? ???
?а??????? python3 cam2.py. ???????? ??????! ??а??????? ??????? ??? ???-???...
????????????
???? ??? ??а?????? ???????????? ??????? ????? ???????????.
??? ???????? ??????, ??а??????а? ??? ??, ????????? ???? ????н
???? ???????? ????????; ?а???? ??а??а??????, ??? ???????? ?????? ??????, ??а??а?????????? ??а????? ?а???а?? ?????? ????????.
????, ???? ????? ?????? ??????.
??? ????? ???? ??????? ????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????, ??? ??а??????? ???????????. ??????? ??а???????. ??????н
???? ?????????? Chromeа? Fatkun Batch Download Image (https://
tinyurl.com/fatkun), ??????? ?аGoogle Image Search ?а????????
????????? ????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????.
????????, ??а?????? ??????? ??????? 700а???????????
?????? ????? ??? ??? ???????????? ?????, ????????? ???????
??? ????? ???????????. ??????? ?????? ????????? ????????, ??????? ??а?????? Fatkun ??????? ?????? ?а???????? ???
??????????????? ??????????? (??? ???????? ????????????
????????? ??????????? ??а?????????? ?????, ??????? ????????
?а??????????? ??????).
????????? ??а?а????? ?????????? ?а?????? tf_files/retraining
?а????????????? ?а??????, ??????? ??а?????? ????????????.
????????:
./tf_files/retraining/trout
./tf_files/retraining/salmon
./tf_files/retraining/crab
./tf_files/retraining/...
[??????, ??????, ???...]
????????, ??????? ?????, ????????? ?а?????????? ?????????????, ?а????????? ?????? ????????????, ????????? ???????:
rm -fr tf_files/bottlenecks tf_files/flower_photos tf_files/models
tf_files/retrained_graph.pb tf_files/retrained_labels.txttf_files/
training_summaries
?? ????? ???? ??? ??а??????? ??а???????????, ?????? ????
????? ?????? ?а??????? ?????. ?????? ??????? ???????????? ????????? ???????:
python3 -m scripts.retrain \
--bottleneck_dir=tf_files/bottlenecks \
--how_many_training_steps=500 \
--model_dir=tf_files/models/ \
--summaries_dir=tf_files/training_summaries/mobilenet_1.0_224 \
--output_graph=tf_files/retrained_graph.pb \
--output_labels=tf_files/retrained_labels.txt \
--architecture=mobilenet_1.0_224 \
--image_dir=tf_files/retraining
?????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ????????????? ??????,
????? ????? ????:
pi@raspberrypi:~/tensorflow-for-poets-2 $ python3 cam2.py
Captured in /home/pi/Desktop/snap.jpg
trout 0.8864375
salmon 0.086706705
crab 0.013091834
????????? ???
?? ????? ????? ??а?????????? TensorFlow ?а???????????
???????????? ????????? ????, ????? ????????? ????????
TensorFlowа? ???
????? ?????????
????????, ?????????? Google.
??? ??а?????
??????? ???
?????? ??????,
??а????????????? ??????
?а????? ???????,
????????????
??а??а????????.
96? |? LXF238? ???? 2018
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
????????????? ??????? ???????
?????? Chrome
??????? ???
?????? ???????
????????? ???????????. ????н
??????, ???????? ??????????
?а???????!
??????
??????
????????? ????????? ????????. ????? ??а???????? ??????, ?а???
????????, ??? ??а?????? ?????? ???????????? ??????? ?а????????
????. ??? ???? ??? ????????? ???????
??, ??а?????? ??????? ???-?? ??? ????????????? ??? ?????,
?????? ??а????????, ??? ????? ??? ????????????? ????????
?а?????. ????????? Raspberry Pi ??а????? ?????? ?а?????????, ???
????? ???????????? ??? ??????????? ???????? ???а???????????? ???????????? ??????????.
???? ??а????????? ?????? ?????? ?аTensorFlow, ???????
??????? ?аTensorFlow for Poets, ??а?????????? ????? ??а??, ???
????? ????? ????????? ???????, ??????? ??а??????? ?????.
???? ????????? ?????????? ?а??????? TensorFlow, ???????
??????? ??? ?????? ??????? ???????? ????????. ????????
?а?????????????!
??? ???????
?????????? ?аTensorFlow ?а?????? ????????? ???????? ???????,
??а?????? ??????? ????? ????????. ??а?????? ????????????
????? ????? ??? ????? ?????? ??а????????? ???????? ??? ???
???????? ???????, ????????, ????? ?????? ?а???????? ??????
??????-??????.
?? ?????? ??????? ??? ???? ?????? Facebook ?а????????
?????? ??????????? ???, ????? ???????????? ???, ??? ????????
?а????? ?????. ???, ???? ??а?????? ??????????? ??а???????,
?????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????а? ????? ??? ???? ??????? ????????????? ??????? ?а????? ?а??????? ???? ???????????
????????? ?????.
????? ?????? ??а????????? ????????????, ?????????? www.
svds.com/tensorflow-image-recognition-raspberry-pi, ??? ??????
??????? ?????????? ??????????? ?а???????? ??????? ?а???????
???????, ?????????? ?а???? ??????.
????? ????????? ??а????? ?????, ??? kaggle.com ?аkdnuggets.
com. Kaggle ????????? ???????? ??а????????? ????????,
?а??? ????????, ??? ??? ???? ?????? ?а???????, ??????? ?????
н????????????
?????? ????? ??????
?????????
?????. ?????
???? ??????
?????????
??а???????????, ???????????
?screen?, ?????
???????? ??????. ????????
?????????????? ?а??????
?а???????
screenа-r.
????????????. ??аKdnuggets ???? ????? ??а????????? ????????
?а?????????? ?а????? ????? ?а???????.
???? distill.pub ???????????? ??? ????, ????? ??????? ??????н
???? ???????????? ??а????????? ????????, ?а??? ???? ???
??н??????, ???????? ?????? ??а????????????????? ??????? ????????? ????????. ?????????????! |
╗╗???????? ? ????????????
????????? ????????? ???? ????? ????????? ??????, ????????, ???????????,
???????? ??? ?????? ??а??????, ?а???????? ??????? ?а???, ??? ???????? ???
??????, ????????, ?????????? ??????, ???, ????? ??? ????-?? ???, ???? ???
?????????. ??????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ????????? ??????,
???????? ?а?????? ?????? ????? ??????????? ?а???????? ?а???, ??? ??а???, ?а??????????? ??? ???? ???? ??а?????? ????????????? ???? ???? ????????? ??????
?а????? ??????.
??? ???????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?а??????? ??????н????
??????????, ???????? ??а?????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ??? ?????? ????????.
?????? ???? ???? ????????? ?а????????, ??????? ??????????, ????? ???????
?а?????? ???????? ???????????? ??? ??????????? ?????????, ?а??????? ???????????????? ????????? ??????.
???????? ???? ??????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ?а?????????????? ????????,
??????? ??? ??аRaspberry Pi. ?????? ???????????, ??? ??а?????? ???????????
????, ???? ???????????? ????????? ????, ??? ??????? ???? ?????? ????????
?а??????.
???????????? ????????? ????? ??????? ????, ???????? ??????? ????? ????,
??а??????? ???????? ??????? ?????????????, ????? ??а?????????????? ?????
????? ?????? ???????? (???????????? ?а?????????). ?????? ??????? ??? ??????????? ?????? ????, ????????? ?????????? ?????, ?а??????? ????????? ??????,
??????? ?????????? ????????? ???????????, ?а?????????????? ???? ??????????? ??? ????????????? ????.
╗╗??????????? ?? ?????? LINUX FORMAT?? www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe!
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
???? 2018? LXF238? |?97
??????
??? ???? ??????? ?? ????????? ???? ??? ????? ????? ?? ?? ???
??? ???????, ?????????? ?? ?? lxf.answers@futurenet.com, ?????
???????? ??????? ? ??????????? ?? ??????????? ?-?? ????????.
?
Debian ?????? Dropbox
?
??????, ???, ?????? Dropbox ????????
????????н??? ???а??, ??? ?????? Steam.
?? ??? ????? ?а????????? Dropbox ??аDebiн
an. ?????? ?а???? ????????? ?а???, ??? ??а???????
?а??????? ??????????. ?????? Synaptic ????????
???, ??? ??? ?????????. ?а????????? ?а??????????н
?? Debian, ???????????? Dropbox (??аhttp://linux.
dropbox.com/debian), ??, ??????, Dropbox ??а????н
?? ??а????????????а? ??а??? ????? ???????????
?????? Ubuntu ?аFedora.
Synaptic ????? ?????????? dropbox_2015.10.28,
??????? ???????? ????? ??????????. ?а???????
?????????? ??а???????????? ???? ?????????
?????? ?????? (1.6.* ?а2.1.*), ??а?а??? ??????????
????, ??? ?????? ????????. ?а????????? Mate
??аDebianаJessie.
??? [Guy], ????? ??????
??? ????? ?????? ????????????? ???????????,
?а???, ?а???? ???????, ????????????? ?????????
?а??????????? ??а????????????.
? ?????? ?аDropbox ??? ????? ??????????????? ?а?????????? ~/dropbox-dist. ???? ?????????,
??а???????, ??? ?????? ????????? ????????
?а????????? ??????????, ?а???????? ????? ???????????? ?а???? ?????????? rm -rf. ??а???????,
??? ????????? ?????а? ??? ???????? ?а~/Dropbox
(??? ?а?а?????????????? Dropbox). ???а????????? ??????? ????? ????????? ??? ????????????? ?а??????? dropbox -i. ??а?????? ??????????
????? ?????? ??????, ??????? ??а?????? ????????? ???? ???????????? 47.4.74.
??? ??а?????? ??????????, ?????? ????????? ?а???????????? ????? ??а?????????.
?аUbuntu, ?аFedora ?????????? ?????? ???????????? _2015.10.28, ??????? ?а??а?????, ??? ?????
?????????? ??а?????? ??а????????. ??????, ????
╗╗??????? ZORIN??
?
??? ???????? ??????? ?а??????????н
???? ???????? HP OfficeJet Pro 6970
??аUbuntu 16.04. ???????? ????????????
????????? ????????, ???? ?а??а?????? ?sh
hplip-3.17.11.run?.
??? ?????????? ?????????? ????, ??????н
??? ??а???? ?????????? ???????. ???? ?а????н
??? ?????????, ??????? ????????? ????????
????? ?????? USB. ??а?а??а???? ????????
???????????? ??????, ???? ?а???????? ?????
????? ????. ?а???????, ??? ?а????? ????????
HP ?????? ???????? ?аLinux. ?????? ??? ??н
?????? ???????? ?а???, ??? ??????? ?????????
???????? ???а??????? ??????, ?а??????????
????? ?а????? ????????? ????????? hplip. ???
??а???????, ????? ?а???????? Zorin ?аLXF22
DVD, ??????? ???????????, ???????? ???????
?а??????????? ???? ??аLibreOffice Writer. ?а???
???а? ???а????????????? hplib.
?????? [Bryan], ??а??????????? ?????
?
?????? ?аLinux ?????? ???? ??????н
????, ??, ??????, ???????? ?????????? ????????????. ??а???????? ?а?????????????? ??????? ??а.deb ??аEpson, ???????
?????? ???????? ??а?????????? (?а?? ?а??????
98? |? LXF238? ???? 2018
??????????????) ?????? lsb. ??, ??????, hplip
?????????????? ????? ?????? ?а??? ???????
?аUbuntu 16.04 ?аZorin, ???? ??? ?????? ??????,
??? ?????????? ????. ?????? ????, ?????
?????? ??? ????????? ?а????????? ??????,
??а?????? ?????????? ????, ?????? ???????
GUI, ??????? ???????? ???, ????? ??? ??? ???
???????. ?????????? ????????? ??? ?а??????? ?hplip-gui?; ????????, ??????? ???
???????? ????????? ?apt install?, ?, ????????,
??????? ????????? hplip ?а?????????????? ???,
??? ????????? ?а????????????. ??? ?????
????????, ??????? ????? ????? ??????
(3.18.4), ????????? ??а????? HP; ??а?????
????? ???????? ??????????? ????????
?????? ????????.
? ????????? ?????? ???????? ?а?????????
???? ??????? Ubuntu ???? ??????? ??????
?????, ?, ????????, ????? ??????????? ?а???,
??? ????? ???? л???????????? ????????╗ ?????
?????? ?аZorin. ??а??, ????????, ??а????????
????????? ???? ?? ???? ????? ???????????.
??? ??????????н??? ????????? ??????????
??а18.04, ????? ?????? ?????? ????????????
??????, ?а?а???? ??????? ??? ??а?????? ????
?????????? ?????????.
??????
???????
???????? ???????
???? ????????
?а??????.
??а????? ??аhttp://bit.ly/dropbox-installers, ????????????? ???????????, ??? ????????? ??? Debian
????????, ?а??а????? ????????????, ??? ???? ??????????? ????? ?а???? ?????.
??? ??а????? ?????, ?????? ??? ??? ??????
??а?????????? Dropbox, ?????? ??а????? ?????????? ?а???? ??? (?а??а?????? ????? ???????
~/.dropbox-dist, ???? ??а??а????? ????? ??????). ????
????? ????? nautilus-dropbox, ??????????????
Debian, ?а??? ??-????????? ???????????. ??а????????????? ?????????? Nautilus Dropbox ?а????????? ?????? Dropbox. ???, ????????, ??????? ??????
??? ????????????? Nautilus (?.??., Gnome ??? Unity),
??а????? ????????? ?????? ?????? ????? ????????, ???? ????????? ??????????? ??аwww.dropbox.
com/install-linux.
??? ????????????? Mate ???? ??????????
????????? ?????? Caja. ??а??????? ?????????
??аhttps://github.com/matedesktop/caja-dropbox.
?а??? ??? ????????? ??? ??аUbuntu Mate 18.04,
?а??а????????? ???????, ????? ?а??????????
?а??????????? ??????? ???????? ????????????... ?а????? ?????????, ??? ??а????????????
?аSoftware Boutique. ?а?????????, ??? ?????
??а??????? ??аDebian Jessie, ????????? ???
???????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????? Mate.
??а???? ??а????? ???????? ????? ?аDebian Stretch,
??а?????? ????????? ????????????? Mate
??а??????????? backports.
?
?????? ???????
????????
? ????? ????????? ????? ??????? ??????????
??аUbuntu, ?а????? 60????????? ????????-????
??а?????? elementaryOS ?аLXF234. ??а???? ????
?????????? ??а?????????? ??????? ????????,
?????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????? Dropbox
??? Cajaа? ????? Software Boutique ?аMate.
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
??????
???????? ??а??????????? Ubuntu ?????????
??????????????? ?????? ?а??????? ??. ??????
?а???? ?????????? ?????, ?а??????? ??????????
18.04а?а??????????? ???????? ???? ???????????
????????.
? ???? ??????????? UEFI Windows ?а?????н
?????? ?????????? ??????? ????????, ?а?а?????
?????????? Ubuntu ??а????????? SSD-????. ?а??н
?????, ??? ??? ????? ???????? ?а??? ??а????????
???????????? ??а????????? ??????? ????????
????? ??? ??????????? ???????? Windows,
??а??а???-??а????.
? ?????? ?а????????? ????????? ?????
?Something else [??????]? ?а???????? ??????????
Grub ??а???? Windows (/dev/sda), ???????????, ???
??а????? ???????????? ??? ?????? EFI, ???????н
?? ?а????? ???????????? ????? ??????? (/dev/
sda2) ?а/boot/EFI. ????????? ????????????, ?,
?а???????, ??? ????????? Windows ????????
??????????, ??а????? ???????? Ubuntu ?а????
UEFIа??а?????????.
?????????? ??????????????, ??а??????????
??а?? ?????. ?а??а??? ??????, ??? ?а????? ??а???,
?а?????? ?????? ??а??? ????????. ?а????? ??????
?а????? ?????????? Grub ??а?????? ????, ?а???
????????? ??????????а? ??а???, ??? ??????
?????? ???, ????? ?а????????? ??????? ??,
?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????
?а?????????? UEFI.
? ?? ?а??? ???????????? Linux ??а???????н
??? ??????, ??, ?а?????????, ??????????? ????
?????????? ??а????????? ????? ???????, ?а?????
????, ??? ????? ?????? ????????? ???????? ?????
????????.
??????? ??? [Jameel Noor], ???????? ???????
?
???????? ?а??????? ????????? ??????
?????????, ?а?а???????, ??? ????? ????
л??? ?????? ????????? ????????╗ ????????
?????? ???? ?????????? (???? ??? ?а???????
??????). ?а??? ?????, ?????????, ???????, ?????
?????? ???????????????? ??а?????? ?????????
?? ???? ?? ??? ???????? ?????????а? ??а???, ?а????????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ?????
??а???а?????.
?а???????????? ??аLinux. ???? ?а???, ????????,
???а????а?? ?????????, ??а??????? ?а???, ???
???а??а???????? ??? ??????? ????????, ??а??????
??????н??? ??????.
???????? ?а???, ??? ???????????? ?а????
??????, ?а????? ????? ??????????? ????????
???????????? ????????? ???????? (?????? ??????
??? ??а???? ???? ??а?????), ?а??? ??????????
UEFI ???? ?????? (????????? ?????? ??????
????????).
??????, ?а????????? ????????? ??а??? ???н
???? ?????????, ??? ??? ?????????? ???????????
????? ????? ???????????? UEFI. ????????, ???
????????? ??????????? ????????. ?????? ?а???
?????? (????? ??? ???????? ?????) ??????????
╗╗????????? ARCH
?
??? ????????? ????? ???????????
?аArch ?аUbuntu 16.04 LTS, ???????
?а??а???? ????? ?????? ?????????, ??а???????
?????????? ?????... ??? ?????? ???????
?????????? ???? Ubuntu, ??? ????????? ?аGrub,
?а???? ????????, ?а???? ??????? ??????????
?????? (?а????? ?????? ?а???? 10 ??????
?????, ?а?а?????????? ??????? ?????????
??????? os-prober, ???????, ??????, ?????,
?????? 100?% ????????).
?? ????? ???? ??? ??а????? ??????
Arch ?а???? Ubuntu Grub, ????????? ?а????
(?а???????????) ???????? Arch ??а???? UEFI.
??а?????а?? ??а???????, ??? ??????? Ubuntu
??а??????????? ?????? ??????? ?а??????????
??а???? ????? ??????
???? ?.а?????? [JohnаT.аRipper], ??а??.а?????
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
?
??? ?????? ??? ????????? ?????
?????????. ?а?а???????? ?????
?а????????? ????? ??а???????? Grub
?аArchWiki.
???????????? ??? ???????а? ?????????? ?аArch ????? lsb-release, ?????? ??????
os-prober ?????? ???????: ????????? ?????????
??????, ??????? ????????????? ???
?а???н??н???????? Arch.
???? ???а?а?а????? ???? ??а?????????,
????? Ubuntu ????????? ?????? ??, ??????
??????? ??? ????????????????? ??????????
????? /grub.d/30_os-prober; ??а????????? ????
???? ????? ?????????? (??? ??? ?????????
??? ????????) ???а?????? ?????????? Grub,
????? ???????, ??? ??а?????????, ??????
??а???????.
??????????????? ????????? Windows ??а????
Ubuntu Grubа? ??а??????????? ????? ???????????
??а?????? ?????; ?а???? ???, ???, ????????, ???????? ??????? ???? ?????.
???????????? ?а????, ??? ???? ????? ???????? ???? ????? ?а???? ????????? /etc/grub.d/,
????? ??а??а??????? ?????? ???, ????? ??????
????????? ???? Grub. |
???????? ??????!
?? ???? ???????? ??а??? ??????? ??аLinux,
??????? ??а?????????? ??аlxf.answers@
futurenet.com, ?????????? ??а??а??????.
?а??? ?а???? ?????-??а???? ????????,
??? ??? ??а???????????. ?????? ??а?????
???? ???? (???? ?????? ???????????, ???
??????а? ?????), ?а????? ?????, ?????
??а????????? ???????? ??????????. ????
???-?? ???????? ??а????? ????????????,
?а??а??????а? ???, ???????? ???. ????
??а???????? ????????? ??а??????, ??????????, ???????? ??? ??? ?????? ?????
?а??-??а???? ??? ?????????.
???? ?а??? ????, ??? ??? ???????, ???
???? ???????? ?а?????????????, ?????????? ??? ?а???. ????????? ??а?????????
Hardinfo ??? lshw. ??? ????????? ?????????? ???????????? ??а????? ??????????.
???? ??а??а?????? ??? ??а?????? ?????????? ??? ?????????, ????????? ?????????
??????? ?а????????? root ?а???????? ???
????? ???? system.txt.
uname -a > system.txt
lspci >> system.txt
lspci -vv >> system.txt
???? 2018? LXF238? |?99
?????? ? ???? ????????? ? ???????? ?????
HotPicks
????????? ???????
???????? ??а????? ???????
?????? ??а?????? ???а?????????? ???????, ??? ??а??н???
??????????? ??а??? ??? ?????? ?????????? ?а????????
???????? ?????.
GIMP ╗ CMake ╗ Peek ╗ Pragha ╗ Smilla Enlarger
╗ ReactOS ╗ XDM ╗ F3 ╗ PIP ╗ Quantum Game
╗ Bombermaaan
???????? ???????????
GIMP
??????: 2.10 ????: https://github.com/
GNOME/gimp/releases
??????????? GIMP ??????? ??????????? ??????????
FOSS ?????? 2.10. ????????? ????? ??а????????, ??а??н
?? ????????, ??? ????? ????? ????? ????????????
?а???????. ???? ??? ??а????? ?? ???????, ???? ?????????, ???
?????? 2.8 ? ??? ?а2012а?. ??а????? ??? ????????? ????? ??????...
????? ????? ??????????? ?????????????? ????????, ??а?????
???????? ????? ????? ??????????. ??? ??????, ??а??????? ??н
???? ???????????? ?????? ???? ????? ????? ???????, ?а?????????
?????????????? ??????? ????? ???????? ????? ?????? ????????
GIMP. ???????? ????? ?????????а? ?????????? Warp, ?? ???н
?????? ????????? ?а????? ???????????? ??? ????????????
?????????, ???????? ???? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ?????.
??? ??, ????????, ??????, ??????????? ??????? GIMP ??????
????????? ????????????, ????????? ???? ??а?????????? ????н
????????? ??а??? ????. ?а??? ????????? ?а????? ???????? ?????
?????? ?????????? Dashboard, ??????? ????????, ??? ?????????
????????????? ?????????. ????????????? Dashboard ??????????????? ??? ?????????????, ??????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????????????? GEGL, ???????н???? ??????????, ??????????????
?????????????? ??????????? ?а????? ?????? ????????. ??а?????? ????? ????, ??? Dashboard ?????????? ????, ??? ????????????
?аGIMP ??????? ???????????. ??а??????? ????, ?????? ??а??н
???? ?????????, ??? ??а??а????????? ???, ??а???????? ?а??????н
???? ??????????? ??????????? ????????? ????????.
????? ????????? ?????? ????????? ??а?????? ?????????
????????? [Highlights] (?а???? [Shadows]). ?аGIMP ?а?????? ????
???????? ??????????? ??????????????, ??а??а???? ?????????
????????? ??? ???????? ??????? ????? ??? ??????? ??????
???????? ???????????. ??? ????????? ??а???? ???????????,
?????? ??а?????? ???а?????????? ????????? HDR. ?а???? ?а???
???? ??????????, ??????? ???? ??????? ?????? ?????, ??а??н
???? ??????????? ????????? ??а?а????????? ?????? GIMP.
? ?????????, ??а??а????? ??????а? ????? ???????, ????н
??? ???????? ???????????? ????? ???????? ????? ????? ????.
??а??а??????? ?????????????? ?????? 2.10, ?а??? ??????? ?а???
??а??н????; ??????? ??????????? ???? ??????? (?а??????? ?????)
???????????? ???????. ?а?а????????????? ??????????, ??? ?????????????? ???????н??? ????????? ????????? ????????? ??????!
?
100? |? LXF238? ???? 2018
?????????? л???? ?а?????????╗а? ???? ???? ??а?????? ????? ?????????? ?аGIMP.
??? ?????? ? ????????? ?????? GIMP?
1
2
4
3
5
????? ??????????? ?а????а??????
????? GIMP 2.8 ????????? ????? ???
????? ???????????? ??? ??????????????,
????????? ?а?????????? ??????н???? ??????? ?а????? ????????????.
1
????????? ????????
?????????????
GIMP ??????? ??а???????????????? ?????
??????? ?а16? ?а32??????? ????????????
?????. ??а????? ????? ?????...
2
??????? ??а?????? GEGL
GEGL ?????? ????? ??????? ?????н
??????? ?аGIMP, ?а?????? ??а????????
3
????????? ?????? ???????? ??а???? ?????? ???????н???? ??????????.
??????? Dashboard
????????? ????? ????? ???????,
?аDashboard, ????????, ???????? ????.
???а??????????, ??? GIMP ??????????
??? ?а???????????? ???????? ???а??????
?а?????????.
4
????????? ??????? ??????
??????? ?????? ????? ??????????
????????? ??а??????, ?а??????????????
?????? ??а???????. ??? ???? ?????
??????!
5
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
HOTPICKS
???????????
??????? CMake
?а?????? RGB ????????? ?а??????? ????????????
???????????
?????? ????????
????? Autotools.
???????? ?????? ????????
CMake
??????: 3.11 ????: www.cmake.org
????????, ??????? ??а?????????????, ??????????
??а?????? ????????? ???????? ?а???????? ????????
?????, ??а?????? ??а??? ????? ????? ??? ???? ?????
???????. ????? ??? ???????? ??????? ????? ?????? ?????????????????? ???????? ????? ??? ??????????? ????????? ??????
?а????????, ????? ????? ???????????? ????????? ?????????н
???? ???????? ??????????? ??????????? ??а??????????, ?а???
?????? ??? ??????????? ?????????????.
CMakeа? ??? ??????????, ??????? ???????? ??????????
????????? ????, ???? ??? ???????? ?аLinux. ??а??а????? ?????
?а??????????, ??????? ??????? ?????? ??????????? ???????????, ??а??? ?????? CMake 3.11 ??????? ??????????. ???????????? ????? ?????????? ??? ??? ???????? ?а???????????? ??????
????, ????? ??? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ??? ??? ????????
Makefile, ?а????? ??????????? ??? ?а??????? ?а????????????? ??.
??? ??а?????, ????а?? ??а?а?????? ?????? Hotpick ???????????
?????? ????????? ?а?????? CMakeLists.txt, ?а??????, ??? ??????????? ??????? $ cmake ??? ?????????? ????.
CMake ?????????? ????????? ?а???????????? ????????? ???????? ????????????? ????????? ????? ????????? ?????????.
????? ??????????? CMake ?????? ???????? ?а??????? ???
?
?????????? ???????, ??????? ????? ???????? ??? ?????????,
????????? ????????? ??????? cmake. ?а???????? ??????????
??? ????????, ??? ???? ??а??????????? ??????? ?????? ??? ?а?????
????? ??????? CMake ??? ????????, ??а??????? ????? ?????н
?????????, ??а???, ?????? ?????, ?????????????? ???а???????.
??? ???????? ?????? ??????? CMake, ????? ??а??????:
$ cmake -DCMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX:PATH=/usr -DCMAKE_
INSTALL_LIBDIR=/usr/lib64 ..
?? ???????? ????????, ????? ????????? CMake ??а????????????? ?????????????? ???????? /usr ?а????????? ?????
?????????? ?????? /usr/lib64. ??? ????? ?а????? ?????????, ???
??а???????? ?а??????????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ??????????.
??????????? ????????? ??????? CMake ???????? ??????? Makefile,
???????????? ??? ???????? ?????????. ????????? ??????
CMake ????????? ?????? ???????????? ??????? ???а?????????
?????????? ?, ????? ???????, ???????? ???????, ??? ????????? ??????.
Peekа? ????????? ??????????,
??????? ??????
???? ????,
??а???? ??????.
?????????? ?????? GIF
Peek
??????: 1.3.1
????: https://github.com/phw/peek
?? ????? ???????? ???????? ??а?????????, ????????
???? ??? ????????????? GIF-?????. ??а?????? ???????? ?? ??а?????? ?????????? ????? ??? ??????? ?????? ??а???, ??а??????а?? ??а?????????????? ?а???????, ??????
???-?? ??????
GIFа? ???, ??а????, ?????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????
??????????? ?а???? ??????, ??????? ???????????? ?а????????
??????? ?а?????, ??????? ????????? ?????. ???????????, ???
??????????? ??????????, ????????? ?????????? ???? ????????
??а?????? ?а???? ?????, ????? ????? ????????? ??а??? ?????????? GIF. Peek ??????? ?????????? ???, ??? ????????? ?????????? ??н????, ????????? GIF ???????? ??? ???????? ????????,
?а??а???????????????. ??? ?????????? ?????????, ??????????
??? ?????????? ????? ??????? ??????, ?, ??? ???????????, ?????
??????????? ?а??????? ?а?????????????.
Peek ???????????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ?????????????
???????? ?????? ???????? ????? (???? ????? ??а??а???????????), ?а??а?????? ????????? ??? ??? ???????????? ??????????,
??????? ??????? ?????? ??а?????????????. ???? Peek ?а????????
????????? ?а???????? ??? ????? ??а??????? ?????????, ???????,
?а???? ???????, ???????? ?????? ?????? Record as [????????
?
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
???]... ?а????????? ?????????????? ????. ?????????? ????????? ???????? ??а?????? ?????????????? ???????? ??????, ??????? ???????? MP4, WebM, ????????????? PNG (APNG) ??????
?аGIF (??? ???а?????????).
????, ???????? ??????? ???????а? ????????? ?а?????????
??????? ????? Peek, ?????? ?????? Record, ??????? ????????
???? ?а????????? ????????, ??????? ??а?????? ????????. ?????
??, ???????, ??????? Stop, ????????? ???? ??? ??????????? ??????? ??????? ???????, ???? ??а?????? ????????? ???? ??????.
?? ?????? ???????????? ???? GIF?? ??а???? ???????, ?????
???????? ???????? ????? ????. ????????, ????????? GIF-?????
???????? ????? ?????? ??а???? ????? ??????-??????????, ??а??????? ??а???? ????? ?????? ????? README.MD ??аGithub.
? ?????, ??а??????????, ??? Peek ???????? ????? ??????,
?а??а????? ??????? ??? ??????? ???????????, ??????? ??????
Ubuntu PPA, Flatpak ?аAppimage, ?а????? ????????? ??????????,
??????????? ????????? Peek.
???? 2018? LXF238? |?101
HOTPICKS
????????н??? ???
?????????????.
???? ??????
????????? ?????
???? ?????????.
??????????? ??????
Pragha
??????: 1.3.91.1 ????: https://github.com/
pragha-music-player/pragha
?????????? ???????? ??? Linux ?? ??????????,
?а?????????? ???????, ????? ??а??? ??????, ?????????
?а??????? ???? ????????????? ??а??????. ?? Pragha
?????????? ??а??????????? ??????, ?а??а???????, ??? ?? ????????
?????? ????????? ????????????? ?????????? ???????????.
?????? ??????? ??а?????????? GTK3, ??а??а??????? ??а??а??????
?????????? Gnome. Pragha ??????? ??????? ??????? Taglib ???
?????????? ???????? ?????, Sqlite3 ??? ????????? ????? ??????????? ?????????? ?аGstreamer ??? ???????н????? ??????????????? ????? ??????. ??? ????? ?а???, ??????? Pragha ????????
???????? ??? ??????? ???????? ????? ??аGTK, ??????? ?????
????, ????????, Xfce ??? Mate.
?????????? ???????? ??????? ?а?????? ?а????? ???????
????????? ?а????????н???? ????????????? ???????, ??? ???
??а????? ????????? ??? ?????????? ??????? ???????. ?а?????
????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ??????????, ?а??????а? ????????
????? ??????? ??????????????? ?а???????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ??????, ??????? ?????????? ?????????????? ????????????
?????? ??????? ?????.
???? Pragha ???????? ??????????????, ?а???? ???? ??? ???????, ???????? ???????????? ???????. ?а???????, ???? ???????
?
???????, ??????????, ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????????????? (????? ?????????????? ?а????????????? ????? M3U),
?????????? ??????, ?????? ???????? ????? ?а?????? ??????. ??????а??, ??? Pragha ??????? ??а?????? C, ??? ????????? ??? ???????
???? ?????? Sqlite3, ??а??а??????????, ??? ?????????? ??????
????????? ??а??????? ??????????? ?????????? ?а???????????
???????? ??????. Pragha ???????? ??а?????????? ?????? ?а????????? ?????????? ???? ????? ????? ???????? ???????? ?а?????
?а????????? ??????. ??? ??????? ????, ??????? ??а????????
??а?????? ??????????? ???????а? ??? ????????, ??? ??? ???????????? ????????? ?а????????????.
Pragha ?????? ?????????, ???, ??????, Rhythmbox,
??а???? ???????, ?а????? ?????? ????????? ?????????. ??????
?????? ????????? ??а?????? ????????? ????????, ?а???????
????? ???????, ??? ?а????????? ??????? ???????? ?????
?????????? ??????????.
?????????? ??????????????? ???????????
Smilla Enlarger
??????: GIT Beta
????: https://github.com/lupoDharkael/smilla-enlarger
?????? ??????? ??? ????, ??? ???????? ?а????????? ????????! ???? ??а?????-???? ???????????? ???а???, ???
????????? ????????? ????????? ???????????, ??а??????? ?а????? ???????? ????????-????????, ??аSmilla Enlargerа?
?????? ??, ??? ??? ?????.
????????, ??? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????? ??????????? ?а?????????? ????? ???????????????? ?????????, ??????
??????, ??? ???????? ???????? ??? ??????; ??, ??а??????? ????,
?????? ???? ?????? ???????? ????????? ????????? ??????????
?а??????? ??????????н???? ???????.
Smilla Enlarger ????????? ???????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????????, ?а??? ?????????? ??? ???????? ???????.
?????????? ?а???, ??? ?????? ?????????? ???а???????, ?а???
????, ?а??а??а?????, ?????????а?? Smilla Enlarger ??????????
????????? ???????, ??? Waifu2x, ??? Lanczos3????????? ??н
???, ??? GIMP; ??а??????????? ???????? Smilla, ??????????,
????? ??????.
????????? ????? ????? ??????? ???????н???? ?????????,
??? ???? ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? Smilla (???????????), ???????? ??????? ?????????? ?а?????? ?????? Enlarge
& Save. ?????????? ??????? ??????? ?_e? ?а????? ?????????
?
102? |? LXF238? ???? 2018
????? ?а???????? ????? ???? ?а???а?? ???????. ??? ?????????
???????????? ??????? ?а????????, ??а??????????? Smilla Enlarger
??? ?а?????????? ??????? ?????????? ?а?????????? ??? ?????
???? ?????????? ?а????? (??. ???? usage.md).
? Smilla Enlarger ???????????? ????????? ????????????,
????????, ????????, ??????????????, ???????????, ????????? ?а?????? ??????. ????? ????, ????????? ????? ??????????
??а????????? ?????? ?а??????? ???????? ???????? ??? ????????.
?????? ?а????????? ????н????? ??????????? ???????????, Smilla
Enlarger ???????????? ???????? ????????? ?????? ?а???????????? ????? ??а???????н????? ??????????.
??? ????? ?????а? ?????? ?????????? ????? ??а????????н
??? ?????? ?а????? ????? ??????????? ?а??????????? ????,
???а?????? ?а?????!
?????????
?????????,
???????????,
??????? ????
??? ???????????,
??? ??? ?????????????? ?????????? ????? ?????
??????.
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
HOTPICKS
???????????? ???????
ReactOS
??????: 0.4.8 ????: https://reactos.org
????? WINE ??а????????? ???а?????? ??? ????? ???,
??а???? ?????????? ReactOS, ???????????? ???????,
??????? ????? ????????? ????? ??????? ?аWINE,
??а?????????? ??а?а???? ??????????? ??. ????? ?????? ???????????? ???????? ?а????????????? ????????????? ReactOS, ????
?а???? ???? ??? ???????? 20?????? ?????? ???????. ?а?????????
????? ????? ??????? ????? ????? ReactOS ??а?????????????а?
????????? ????, ??? ????? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ??? ?а???
?????? (?а??а??? ?а???, ??? ??????).
????, ReactOSа? ?????? ????????????? ?а???????? ????
Windows NT. ?а???, ??? 20а??? ????? ??? ?????????? ????????,
????? ???????????? Microsoft Windows, ReactOS ??????? ??????
??????????. ????? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ???,
??? ??а??????????, ??????, ?аWindows 2000. ?????? ?????? ??????? Tango ?а???? ????????? ?аExplorer, ??? ???????? ???, ??? ?????
Microsoft ?????????? ????? ?а????????? ???? Windows.
???? ??а??а????????? ????????? ReactOS, ??????? ???? ????????. ??-??????, ??а??а????? ?а????????? ??а???????? ??, ?а??н
??? ??? ?????, ??а??а?????; ??? ??? ??? ?????????? ?????????
??????????? ???????? ??? ??а??????????? ??????. ??-??????,
ReactOS ????????? ???????? ?а???????????? MS Windows,
?
??а???? ??а??? ???????? ?????????. ??????? ???????? ???????? ??, ??? ??а????????? ?????? ????????? Firefox, LibreOffice,
Quicktime ?а??????? ?????? ????????. ?а??????? ?????????
??? ?????? 0.4.8 ???????, ??? ReactOS ?????? ???????????? API
NT6.0+, ?а??????, ????? ????? ????????? ????????? ??а?????????
???????? Windows.
???????, ??????? ??а????? ???????????????? ??????: л?????
??? ?????? ????? ReactOS?╗ ??, ??а????? ???????????????????, ???а????? ????? ?????? (???????? 73 ??), ?а???????? ???
????????? (??а?????????) ????????? Windows ???а?????. ??а?????? ????????? ???? ???????????????? ????????? ?а???? ????н
????? ????, ????????? DirectX. ???????, ??? ??????? ????????
??????????? ???? ????????? ????????? ????.
ReactOS ????
???????????
????????????
Windows ???а??????? Microsoft
Windows.
????????? ?????????????
?аWindows 10,
??а??? ??????? ???????
????????????...
???????? ????????
XDM
??????: 7.2.7 ????: https://sourceforge.net/
projects/xdman
??? ??а?????? ?а??????, ??? ????????? ????????
?а??????????? web-????????? ????? ??а????????
????? ???????????? ?а??? ????????? ????, ??????
???????? ????????а? ???, ????????, ????????, ??? ??а?????????? ????? ?????????? ??а????????? ?а?????????? ?а?????
??????? ??????????.
???????????, ??? ???????????? Linux ????????? ?????,
?а??????? ???????? ????????? ??а??? ????. ??? ?????? ?а???
???????? ?????? ??????????, ????? ??а??????, ??? eXtreme
Download Manager (XDM) ???????? ???????? ???????. ????????а??
???? ??а??????? ??????? ????????? ?а??????????, ??? XDM,
????, ??????????, ?а??а?????? ????? ?а????? ??????? Ethernet???????????, ??а??? ????? ????????? ????? ??????? ???????
?????? web-????????.
XDMа? ??? Java-????????? ?а???????? ???????? ?????,
?а??а?????? ???????? ?а??а???? ?а??????, ??? ?????? ??????????
???а???????. XDM ?????????? ??????? ???????? ????????н????
???????????, ?????? ?????? ?а????????? ????????????? ?????????? ??? ????????? ???????? ????????а? ?а??? ????? ???????.
???????? ??а??????? ????????? ???????????????? ?????????,
XDM ??-???????? ???????? ????? ???????? ??????? ??? ???,
?
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
??? ???????? ??а?????? ???????? ?/??? ????н???? ???????????
?а?????????.
?????? ??????? ???????? ????????, ?аXDM ???? ?а??????
???????, ????????????????? ?а??? ?????????????. ?а??? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ??? Chrome, Firefox, Vivaldi
?аOpera, ?????????? ????????? ????? ?а?????????? YouTube,
Vimeo ?аFacebook, ?????-?????????, ????????? ??????????
?а?????? ??????.
??? ?????? ??а?????????? ?????? ?????? ??а???? ?а??н?????
?????? +, XDM ??????? ?????? ??а??????????? ?????????? ????,
?а??? ????????? ?????? ?????? ??. XDM ????? ??????????? ????????? ?????, ?????????????? ?????????? ?а?????????? ??????
??? ?????, ????????? ???????? ??????? ??а?????????? ????
???????? ?а????????? ??? ?????? ??????? ?????. ??а???????
?????????? ??????????, ??? ?????????, ??????? ?????????
???? ????????.
???? 2018? LXF238? |?103
HOTPICKS ????
??????? ???????????
Quantum Game
??????: Git ????: https://github.com/stared/
quantum-game
??????? ???????? ??????? ???? ????????? ????????,
????????? ????. ??????? ?????, ?а???? ??а?????????
??????? ???????????? ?а????, ??????? ??????? ????
??а????????? ?????? ?а????????????????, ??? ??? ??а???? ?????????? ????????? ??????? Quantum Game, ??? ??????.
????????? ???????? ???????????? ?а???? ??? ????????????? ???????????, ?а??????? ??а??????????? ??? ????? ??????
???????, ?????????? ?????? ?а?????? ???? ?????????? ???????? ?а????????? ???????. ??а?????? ??????????? ??? ?а?????
???????? ??а????? http://play.quantumgame.io. ??????????? ???????? 34а?????? ?а???????????? ??????????; ????? ?????? ???
?????????? ????? ??????! ?а???????, ???????????? ?????????
?????????? ??????????? ?????? ?а????? ?????? ??????????????
???? ????, ????? ??а??а?????? ???????. ????? ????, ????? ?????
??а????? ???????, ??а??????? ??????????.
?? ????????? ?а??????? ????????????, ??? ??? ???? ????н
???? ??????????? ??????? ?а????????? ??а?а?????? ?????????,
????? ??? ????? ?????????? ???????. ????? ?????? ????????
?????? ????????, ????? ??? ???????? 50/50, ?????????? ??????,
???????? ?????, ????? ?а??????. ???? ????? ??????? ???????,
?
???а?????????? ?????? ??????н???? ???????????, ????????, ???
??? ????? ????????????, ????????? ??? ?а?????, ?????????????
?а??????? ??????, ???????? ???????? ?а??? ?????. ?????? ??а????
???? ????? ?????????? ???????, ??????? ?????? ???????????
??? ????? ??а?????? ??????????? ??????, ??????, ????? ??а????????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ?а??????? ????????? ???????? ????????, ????? ???????? ??????.
?? Github ????? ?????????? ??????????? ????, ?????????
???????? ??? ?а?????? ?????? ??а??????? ??? ????? ????. Quantum
Gameа? ?????? ???? ????. ??а????????? ?а??? ??а???? ???, ??????? ?????? ??? ??????.
??? ??а?????
??????? ???????
??а?????????
????????, ?????
??????????? ????
?????.
????-????????
Bombermaaan
??????: 1.9.3.1905 ????: https://github.com/
bjaraujo/Bombermaaan
??? ????????? ???? Bombermaaanа? ?????????
??????? ??а??????? ????, ????????? ????? ??????.
???? ???????????? ?????? ?????????????????????
?????, ??? ???? ??? ???? ??????, ??????а?? ?????? ???? ??
??? ?а????????. ??а???? ????? ???? ??а???? ???????а? ??????
??а??? ??????????? ????????, ??????????? ??? ??????????.
Bombermaaan ????????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ??? ???????
?????????? ?????, ?а??а????? ????????, ???? ???? ?а??? ??????
???? ??????н???? ??????????; ??????? ??а?????? ?????? ??а????? ?????????? ??а????? ?????? (??а?? ?а????).
? ???? 24 ??????? ?????? ?а??а174 ?????????????? ??????? ?а???????? Extended. ?????? ??????? ???????? ?????????
??????, ????????? ??????? ??? ????????, ??????? ??? ?????????? ??? ????????? ???????? ???? ????? ????. ????? ????,
????????? ????? ???????? ?????????, ?а??? ?????? ??а????????
???? ?????, ??? ??????????? ?а????????? ???????????а? ?????
??????? ??а??????? л????????╗ ??????? ?а????? ??????.
??а????????? ???? Bombermaaan ??????? ??а???? ???, ?а?????? ?????? ????? ??????, ??а?а???????? ????? ????????? ?????
???, ??????? ????? ??????? ????? ?а???? ??????????????
л?????? [Hurry up]!╗. ????? ???????, ?????? ????а? ??????н
?????? ???????? ???? ??????, ??? ??? ???? ?????? ????? ??????
?
104? |? LXF238? ???? 2018
?????? ???????, ??? ?????? ???????, ???????? ?а???????
?а?????? ????.
??????, ????? ?а??????? ????? ?????????????, ??? ??????
Bombermaaan ????????? ??? ?????????. ???? ?????? ??????????? ?а??? ????? ?????????? ??а??а?????? ?а??????? ??аRaspberry Pi.
??? ??????????????? ?а???????? ?а??? ?????????????? ??а??????
??????????, ??????? ?????-??.
?????? ??????
???????? ?а????а?
???????? ?????
????? ???????;
??а??? ????????.
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
HOTPICKS
??? Flash??????????
?а????? Lego
???????? ?????????, ??,
??а??????? ????,
??а?????? ??????
????? ???????.
?????? ????-??????
F3
??????: 7.0
????: https://github.com/AltraMayor/f3
???????? ?? ????????? ??? ????? ????????? ??????????????, ??????? ??????? ??????? ??????????
??????? ??????? ????? ?аUSB-?????????? ?а???????
???????? ?а????????? ??????/??????, ??? ???????????????.
???????? ????? ??????а? ??????? ?а?????????? 500??? ?????
Samsung, ????????? ???-??а?а?????. ??????????, ???????????
??????????? ???????????? ?а500???????????? ????????, ????????? 128???????????? ??????????? ????-??????, ??? ????
?????????? ????? ???????? ???????. ?????????? ????????????
??а?????? ????????, ??????? ??а???? ??????????? ?аF3.
???? ?????????? ??????????, ??? ???а? ?????????? ??аFight
Flash Fraud [?????? ?а????????? ??????], ?????????? ???????????? ??? ??????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ??????????
????-??????. ??а????? ????? ???????? ??? ????????????
???????????? ???????? ????? ????????? ?а??????? ???, ??????,
?????????а?? ??? ????? USB-?????????? USB 3.0 ?????, ??? ???????? ???????. ?????????? ??а??????? ???????? ??? ??????????? ?????? ?????, ??а?????? ?????? ???????????? ?????????
??????? (???а???????, ??? ??? ????а? sde):
$ sudo f3probe --destructive --time-ops /dev/sd#
?
??????? f3probe ????????? ????? ??а??????????, ?????????
??а(????????) ??????? ?????? ?????, ?а???? ??а???????? ?????
??? ?????? ??а?????????, ???а?? ????????????? ?????????н
???? ????????? ????? ????? ??????. ????? ????????? ?????
??а???????? ???????? ???????????? ????????? ?????, ?а?????
????????? ?????????? ??????. ???? ??а????? ?????? ???? ???????
??????, ??????? ????? ???????????? ?а?а???? ??????????, F3
?????????? ?????? ?????. ??????????? f3write ?аf3read, ????????
???? ?а????????????? ?????, ????? ?????????, ?????????а??
????????? ????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ??а??????
???????, ?а????? ?????????, ??? ?????? ??????????? ?????????,
???а?????? ??? ????????.
????? ???????, ????????? ?????????? F3 ??????? ??????
??а????? ??????????? ?????????н????. ??? ????????? ?????????? ????? ??а??????????? ????????????? ????????????.
???????? ??????? PYTHON
PIP
??????: 10 ????: https://github.com/pypa/pip
IP ???????? ?????? ???????????? ??? ????, ??? ????????? ??????????? ??? ??????????? Python. ??а????
???? ??а??а???????????, ??а??? ????? ?????? ?????н
???? PIP ?а???????????? ???????а? ????????, ???а?????????
???????????? ??? ??????????, ??????????? ??аPython. ??а????,
PIPа? ????? ???? ???? ??а?????? ?????????? ???????, ???????
?????? ???????? ???? ?а????? ???????????, ????? ??? NPM ???
Node.js ??? Maven ??? Java. PIP ?????? ??? Python, ?????? ??а????? ?????? ?а??????? ??? ?????????? ?????? ????????????????. Python ????? ???????? ?????? ??????????? ?????? ?а?????
??? 130?000 ?????????????? ???????, ??????????? ?а?????????.
????? ?????? PIP 10а????? ??????? ????????? ?????????
??????? ?а????? pypi.python.org ??аpypi.org. ??а?????? ?????? ?????????? Python ?а????? web-???????? ??? ????????? ??? ??а????????? ?????? ?а??????? PIP. ????? ?????? ??????????? Linux
??? ????? ??? ?а???????????, ??? ??? ?????? PIP ?а??? ??????
????. ???? ???, ??? ??? ???????? ??а??а????????? ?????? 10:
$ sudo pip install --upgrade pip
????? ????? ??а?????? ????????? ???????? Python ?а???????
????? ??????? ?а???????? ?????? (??. $ pip --help), ??а??????,
??? ??? ????????? ??????? ????????? ?????????? root, ????
??а?????? ?????????? ?????? ?а????????? ????????. ???????
P
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
????а? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ????????? ?а?????????
?????? ?????? ?????? ???????? $HOME. ?а???? ????? ????????????? ???????? ?а????? ???????? ????? -user, ????????:
$ pip install --user ZombieAdventure
????? ?????? PIPа? ??? ??????? ?????????? ?а???????
??????н????? ?????????, ????????? ??а????? ?????? ?????????? web-???????? ????? Python ?а??????? ??????????? ??????.
PIPа10, ???????, ???? ????????? ??????????? Python 2.6 ?а????
????? ??????? $ pip config, ??? ?????????? ?????????? ?а??????????? ??????????????. ?а?????? ??????? ????????? ???????
Python ??? ???? ????????????а? ??????? ????; ??? ??????????
????? PIP ?а?????????. |
???? ???????
????? ???????
??? ??? ?????????????, ???
?а??? ???????
????????.
???? 2018? LXF238? |?105
?? ?????
8н?? DVD ?????!
DVDн?????????? ? ??????? Linux Format ? 7 (238). ???? 2018
??????????
??????? 1
????????????
Fedora 28 (64-??????)
??????????????, ??????? ? ????????????? ???????????? ??????? ??? ????????? ? ?????????? ???????????,
? ?????? ??????? ???????????? ??? ?????????????
? ????? ??????????????. ???????? ????? ??????
?????? ??????????.
Ubuntu 18.04 Remix (64-??????)
??????????? ?? Linux ??? ?????????? ???????????,
???????? ????????? ?а?????????? ??????????
?а?????????????? ?а?????????? ??????? ?????????
???????? ?????????????. ??????? ?а????? ????????
???????: Gnome, Cinnamon ?аBudgie.
HOTPICKS
Bombermaaan 1.9.3.1905 ????-????????
https://github.com/bjaraujo/Bombermaaan
CMake 3.11 ???????? ?????? ????????
www.cmake.org
F3 7.0 ?????? ????-??????
https://github.com/AltraMayor/f3
Peek 1.3.1 ?????????? ?????? GIF
https://github.com/phw/peek
PIP 10 ???????? ??????? Python
https://github.com/pypa/pip
Pragha 1.3.91.1 ??????????? ??????
https://github.com/pragha-music-player/pragha
Quantum Game (Git) ??????? ???????????
https://github.com/stared/quantum-game
Smilla Enlarger (GIT Beta) ??????? ???????????????
???????????
https://github.com/lupoDharkael/smilla-enlarger
XDM 7.2.7 ???????? ????????
https://sourceforge.net/projects/xdman
????????
Vega
WordPress
??????
??????????? ???????
??????
Rute ?????????? ??????????
UBUNTU 18.04
?????? ?????
? ???????????????
??????? ??????
??????? ????? ?? ?????
? 3????????????
? ????? ??????????????????
? ????? ? ??????!
?
???????!
Fedora 28
???????
Grub
Memtest86+
??н??н??н?? н??н??, ???н??н??н???, ??н??, ???н?? ? ???н???-???н???...
?C???? ???????
????????? ??????????
???????????, ???????
?????? ?????????!
????????? ?? ??????? ╗
64н??????
64н??????
??????????? ???????
Ubuntu 18.04 LTS
????
??????
?? ?а?? ?????, ????? ?а??????н
??? ??? ?а??? ??аLXFDVDа????
????? ??? ????????????, ??а?а????
?????? ????? ?????????. ??????????, DVD ??а???????а? ???
???????????? ???? ?????.
?????????? ?????? ???????
??а???? ????????а? ??а???? ??а??????? ??????, ??а?????????, ??????????, ?????? ???????. Ubuntu
18.04 ??а300 ??а??????, ??? ????????? ????? LTS,а16.04. ??а?????? ??????, ??? ??? ??-??а???????? ?аUnity ??аGnome, ??аUnity-??
???????? ??аGnome Shell.
?????, Fedora ????? ??а????
?????? ??????? ??а???а?? ?????,
?а??? ???????????? Gnome. ??,
??а?????а?? ????? ????? ???
???????? ????????????, ????????? ??а??????? Ubuntu, ??а?????????? ??????? ?????????,
?а?а????? ?????? ??? ?????????????? ??????? ?????. ?????????? ??????? ????? ???????? KDE, ??????? ??? ??а????
???????, ????????? ?????????
??? ????? ????????? ??????
???????н???? ??????????????.
????, ???????????? ??????
Gnome (?а?????? ??????)а? ?,
??? ??????????, ???????. ??????,
??????? ??а?????? ?????? ????,
?????: ?????а?? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ??а????а?????? ???????? ?????? ??,
?????????? ????????? ??????
Gnome ?а?????, ?????а?? ???
????? ??????? ?а????????а??
??? ????? ??а??????? ?????.
?а????????а?? ???? ???????
????? ????? ?????? ?а???????,
??? ?????-????; ????а?? ??????
?а100 ?? ??а????
106? |? LXF238? ???? 2018
??????? ?????? Linux Format ????? ??????? ???? ??? ????????? ?????? ??????
Ubuntu 18.04, ??? ??? ??а?????????? ????
??????а?????. ??а??а?????? ????? ???????? LTS Ubuntu,
??а?а??????? ??? ??? ???? ??а????? ?????????? ????????. ?????? ???????????? ???????? ????? Gnome,
??а?????? ??????? Budgie ??? Cinnamon. ?????????????
????? ???????? ??????? ?????, ????? ??а???????, ?????? ???????????? live ??а?????? ????? ?а???????, ?а?????
????? ?????? ?????????? ????? ?а??????? ?????, ?????
??????? ?????? ??????? ????. ????? ????, ??а?????? ??????? ??????? ???? ???а???????? ?аDVD.
??? ??????? ????? ????? ???????????? ??????????
?????????а? ???? ?????? ??а???????? ??????. ??????
?аUbuntu, ?аFedora ??????? ??а??????? ??а??????????
????????, ??? ????????? ??? ????? ??а????? ????
??а???-?????????. ?????? ??а???????? ???? ???? ??????? ?????, ??? ??? ??? ??????? ???? ??а?????????? ????????????. ??? ??а?????, ?аUbuntu, ?аFedora ?????????
????? ????? ?????????, ?а??а??а????? ??а???????? ??.
??-??а?????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ???????
(???????? ???????????? ??а??????????????? Ubuntu),
?????????? Ubuntu ?а???????? ??????. ??? ????? ??????????, ????????? ??????? ????? ??а?????, ?????? ???
???????. ??а??а???????, ??а??? ????? ?????? ??????????
Ubuntu ?аDVD-????? Linux Format, ?????? ?????? ?????
?а???? ???????? Ubuntu. ??? ???? ??? ??????????? ??????? ???? Gnome, ????? ???? ????? ?????????? ?????????
64-??????
?
??????????? ??? ?????????????? ??а???? ????? ?а????.
????????? ?а????????, ?????? ?????, ?????? ??а??? ??????, ????? ??? ???????? ???????????? ???????????.
??????? Synaptic, ???????? ?а???? ????????? ???????????
universe ?аmultiverse, ?а????? ?????????? ???? ubuntubudgie-desktop, ???? cinnamon-desktop-environment (???
???)а? ?а??а???????? ??????????????? ??????? ????
?а??? ??? ???????????.
? ???-??а????????? ????? ??аDVD ???????????
(?а???????, ????? 4,7а?? ????????? ??????? ????????),
??а??? ??????? ???? ????? ??????????? ??????, ??????? ??а?????? ??????????? ????????? ?????? ???????
????? ????? ?????????. ??? ?????????????? ????????
???? ??а????????, ????? ?а?????? ???, ??? ??? Mate ?????
??а???????; ??а???????? ??? ??????, ????????? matedesktop-environment. ??????????? ??????? ??а?????? ?????????? kubuntu-desktop,
lubuntu-desktop ??? xubuntu-desktop,
????? ??????????? ???? ??а????
????????? ???а?????? ?????????
????????? ????????????.
?????? ?????: ??? ????????????
ubuntu, ???а??????.
????????, ??? ??????? ???????
???? ?????? Bionic Budgie,
????????? ????? ??а????????? ????? ???????? ???????
????аBudgie.
╗╗ ????????! ??? ?????!
???????? ?????: ? ????????????? ?????? ??????-???? ??????? ?????? LXFDVD ???????????, ??????????,
?? ?????? disks@linuxformat.ru ??? ???????? +7 (812) 309-0686.
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
╗╗ ? ???!
????????? ???????????
Fedora Workstation 28
??????? ??а?????? Ubuntu ?а??????? ??????,
Fedora ?????????? ???? ?а????????. ??а?????
??а???? ??а???????????? DVD, ??? ??? ?????
??????? ???????, ????? ????????? ??? ?аDVD ?а?????????,
??? ??? ????????а? ??а?? ??а??????, ??? ??а???????
????????? ?????? ??????? ISO-????? ??аDVD, ????????????, ??? ??а?????????, ???????
? ?????????? ?а??????? ??????????? ???????????? ??а??а????? ??????? ??????, Fedora 28 ????????????
?а????? ?????????. ?????? ???? ???????? ????? ????????? ???? DVD ??????? ??а??????????? ??????, ?????
???????????. ??? ??а????????, ????????? ?а???????????
????????????? ??? ??????????????? ?????????, ?а???
?????????? ??????? VESA ???а3D-?????????. Fedoraа28
???????? ????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ??????????
VirtualBox, ?а???? ?аVirtualBox ????? ??????? ?????
?а????, ??? ??а?????? ???а??????? live-????????????
??а???????? ????????????.
?????? ????????? ???????? ????????? ??????????
????????, ????????? ????????? ???? ?????? ???????
??а30?%. ??? ????????? ????? ????????? ?а?а?????????? ???????, ?а?а?????? ?????????????, ??а?аFedora
??????, ??? ????? ??а???? ??а?????????, ?, ????????,
??? ?????????. ????????? ????????: ???????????
??????н???? ?????????? ????????.
Fedora ????? ????????????? ??а?????? ????????????????? Ubuntu, ???а?????? root ?а??????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????????? ??? ?????? ????????????
64-??????
?
UNDERSTANDING OPEN
SOURCE AND FREE
SOFTWARE LICENSING
??? ?????????????
????????
?а????????? ??
?????
??????
?????? ???? ?????????? Linux, ??? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ????;
??а??????а?? ????????,
??? ??? ??????? ????? ????????
???????? ?????? ??????????
?а???????? ???????? ????????,
????? ??????: ???? ???-??а??а???,
???? ??? ???? ???????, ??? ??
?????? ??????. ??? ????? ?а??н
???н??н??н????? ??? ??????????
??? ??????? ???????? ?а?????н
???? ???????? ????? ????.
????????? ??а???? ?????: ????????? ?а?????????
Fedora ????? ??????? ?????.
????? sudo. ????????? ??????? ????? ?????? ???????,
??а??а??????????. ?а????? ????????? ????? ??а???????????? ??? ?????? ?????? root, ???? ??а?????????
?а??????? ?????? ????????.
????? ????? ???????? ????????? ???????????.
??а????????? ???????????? ?????? ????????? ??, ?а????? ?????? ????????? ?????????? ?а????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????, ????? ??? ???????н???? ????????.
?????? ?????: ??? ????????????а? liveuser,
???а??????.
? Fedora ?????
?????????? ??,
??а???а??????? ?????
????????
???????????
?????????.
??????? ?????
??
??????????? ???????????
??а???????? Bash ??????? ????????? ???????? ??? ?????.
??
??????????? ??аBash ??? ????н
?????? ?????????? ?????????
???????? Bash.
??
??????????? ??а????????
???????? Bourne Shell ?????????
????????? ??????? ????????.
??
TheаCathedral and the Bazaar
[????? ?а?????]а????????н????
????? ????? ?.а????????а[Eric S
Raymond], ?????????? ??????н
??????а???????? ??????????.
??
?????????? ??????????????
Debian ??????? ??????????? ???
????????? ???????????????.
??
??
??????? ?аPython ???, ??? ???
???? ?????.
???????? ?аLinux ??????? ??????????? ?а?????? ????????? ???
???????? ?аLinux.
??
??
??????? Linux Linux ??а?а??а?.
???? Linux ?а???? ?????? ???????? ?а???? ??а???????? ????????
???? ????? ????-???????? [Greg
Kroah-Hartman].
??
??
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https://github.com/stared/quantum-game
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???_?????????-1.0.1.tar.bz2а? ??? ?? ????, ?? ??????
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https://github.com/bjaraujo/Bombermaaan
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www.cmake.org
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https://github.com/AltraMayor/f3
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https://github.com/phw/peek
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110? |? LXF238? ???? 2018
??????????, ????? ??????????????
??????? ????? ????????????
? ???????????, ??????????????
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Advanced Bash Scripting Guide ????????? ???????????
??а???????????????? ??аBash
Bash Guide for Beginners ??????????? ??аBash
???а??????????
Bourne Shell Scripting ????????? ???????????
??а???????????????? ??аBash
TheаCathedral and theаBazaar ???????????? ?????
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TheаDebianаAdministrator?s Handbook ???????????
??????????????, ?????????? ?????????????? Debian
Dive Into Python ??????? ??а????????????????
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Intro toаLinux ????????? ??????????? ??аLinux
Linux Dictionary ??????? Linux, ???????????
????????????? ????????????
Linux Kernel inаaаNutshell ???????? ???? Linux,
????????? ????? ??а??? ?????????? ?????????????а?
??????а????-????????? [Greg Kroah-Hartman]
Producing OSS ??? ??????????? ???
????????????: 12 ???? ? Linux
(?? ?????????? ?????)
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????????? ????? ? ????????????? ?????? ??????????? ????????
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Programming Ground Up ????????????????
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SystemаAdministrators Guide ??????????? ??а????????
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GNU Tools Summary ??????????? ??а?????? ?а?????????
?????? ?а????? ???????? ?????? GNU
Understanding Open Source And Free Software Licensing
??? ????????????? ???????? ?а????????? ??
DVDн?????????? ? ??????? Linux Format ? 7 (238). ???? 2018
Void OS Xfce (64-??????)
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www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
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????? ??-0000
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?????? ???? ?????? ?? ??????? ? ??????? ??? ????!
???????? ???????????? ??????
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???????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??????? [Jonni Bidwell]
jonni.bidwell@futurenet.com
?????????????? ???????? ?????? ????????-???????
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clifford.hope@futurenet.com
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??????? ?????????????? ???????? ??? ???????? [Jo Gulliver]
?????????? ??????????
????-???? ?????????? [Mats Tage Axelsson], ?????? ???????
[Jonni Bidwell], ???? ?????? [Neil Bothwick], ????? ???? [Alex Cox],
???? ?????? [Kent Elchuk], ??? ????? [Dan Frost], ???????? ???
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????? ???? [Bobby Moss], ???? ???????? [Mark Pickavance],
??? ??????? [Les Pounder], ??? ?????? [Phil Savage], ????? ?????
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[Valentine Sinitsyn], ????????? ??????? [Alexander Tolstoy],
??????? ??????? [Mihalis Tsoukalos], ??????? ?????? [Jarred Walton],
??????? ??????, ?????? ???????????, ??????? ????????,
?????? ?????
??????????? ???? ???????? [Shane Collinge]
??????????? ? ??????? magictorch.com
????? ??а???? ???
Linux ?а??????? ??????????а? ?аA-ha ?????? ?а?????? ?????????
1980?? ??????? ???????? ??а?????? ??????.
?????? ??????????? ?????
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?????????????? Dell XPS
?????? ?а????????? ??аDell, ??? ???????? ????????? ????????? Linux
??а????? ?????? XPS.
??????? ?аLibreOffice
???????? ????????????? ??а????? ???????, ????????? ??????
?????????????? ??????????? ??а???????? ??аBASIC ??? LibreOffice.
?????????? ??????????
UK: Linux Format, 30 Monнmouth Street, Bath BA1 2BW
Te?. +44 (0) 344 848 2852, email: linuxformat@myfavouritemagazines.co.uk
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???????? ?????????????? ??? ????????????? Future Publishing Ltd (Future plc group
company). ??? ????? ????????????????. ??????? ????? ??????? ??????? ??а????? ????
???????? ???????????? ??? ??????????? ?????????? ????????.
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?????????? ?????? ? ?????? ?????????. ???????? Linux Format ???????? ?????????????? ????? ??а?????????? ?а?????????????? ???? ?????????? ??????????, ???? ??а????
????????? ????. Linux Format ????????? ????????? ??????????? ?? ????????? ??????
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???????????? ???? ??????????, ?а?? ??????????? ????????? ??? ??????. ????????
Linux Format ??а????? ??????????????? ?? ????????.
??????????????? ?? ?????????? ?????? ????? ?? ?????. ?????? ??????? ?????
??а????????? ?а??????? ????????.
??? ?????????? ????????? ????? ???? ???????? ?? ?????а? CD ??? DVD,
???????????? ?????? ?а????????, ???? ?? ???? ????????? ????.
??????????? ???????????????: ??????????? ??? ?????? ?? ???? ????? ? ????. ?? ???
????? ???????? ???????? Linux Format ?? ????? ??????????????? ?? ??????????? ???
?????, ????н? ????? ?????? ?????????? ? ????????? ?????????? ????????????? ???
??? ???? ???????.
Linux ? ?????????????????? ???????? ???? ?????? ?????????? [Linus Torvalds].
?GNU/Linux? ?????????? ?? ?Linux? ?а????? ??????????. ??? ????????? ????????
????? ???????? ?????????????? ?? ???????? ??????????. ???? ???, ??????????????
?а???????, ???????????? ?? ???????? GPL v3. ??. www.gnu.org/copyleft/gpl.html
?? ??????????? ? ????????, ?????????? Future plc group company, ???????????
??а???? www.futureplc.com.
16+
?????????? ??????? ???????? ????? ???????? ? ????? ?? ???????? ?? ??????-9...
й Linux Format 2005
й Future Publishing Ltd 2005
112? |? LXF238? ???? 2018
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
SAY HEI
????????????? ?????????? ??? ????????? ???????? ????????а? ?а??? ????? ???????.
???????? ??а??????? ????????? ???????????????? ?????????,
XDM ??-???????? ???????? ????? ???????? ??????? ??? ???,
?
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
??? ???????? ??а?????? ???????? ?/??? ????н???? ???????????
?а?????????.
?????? ??????? ???????? ????????, ?аXDM ???? ?а??????
???????, ????????????????? ?а??? ?????????????. ?а??? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ??? Chrome, Firefox, Vivaldi
?аOpera, ?????????? ????????? ????? ?а?????????? YouTube,
Vimeo ?аFacebook, ?????-?????????, ????????? ??????????
?а?????? ??????.
??? ?????? ??а?????????? ?????? ?????? ??а???? ?а??н?????
?????? +, XDM ??????? ?????? ??а??????????? ?????????? ????,
?а??? ????????? ?????? ?????? ??. XDM ????? ??????????? ????????? ?????, ?????????????? ?????????? ?а?????????? ??????
??? ?????, ????????? ???????? ??????? ??а?????????? ????
???????? ?а????????? ??? ?????? ??????? ?????. ??а???????
?????????? ??????????, ??? ?????????, ??????? ?????????
???? ????????.
???? 2018? LXF238? |?103
HOTPICKS ????
??????? ???????????
Quantum Game
??????: Git ????: https://github.com/stared/
quantum-game
??????? ???????? ??????? ???? ????????? ????????,
????????? ????. ??????? ?????, ?а???? ??а?????????
??????? ???????????? ?а????, ??????? ??????? ????
??а????????? ?????? ?а????????????????, ??? ??? ??а???? ?????????? ????????? ??????? Quantum Game, ??? ??????.
????????? ???????? ???????????? ?а???? ??? ????????????? ???????????, ?а??????? ??а??????????? ??? ????? ??????
???????, ?????????? ?????? ?а?????? ???? ?????????? ???????? ?а????????? ???????. ??а?????? ??????????? ??? ?а?????
???????? ??а????? http://play.quantumgame.io. ??????????? ???????? 34а?????? ?а???????????? ??????????; ????? ?????? ???
?????????? ????? ??????! ?а???????, ???????????? ?????????
?????????? ??????????? ?????? ?а????? ?????? ??????????????
???? ????, ????? ??а??а?????? ???????. ????? ????, ????? ?????
??а????? ???????, ??а??????? ??????????.
?? ????????? ?а??????? ????????????, ??? ??? ???? ????н
???? ??????????? ??????? ?а????????? ??а?а?????? ?????????,
????? ??? ????? ?????????? ???????. ????? ?????? ????????
?????? ????????, ????? ??? ???????? 50/50, ?????????? ??????,
???????? ?????, ????? ?а??????. ???? ????? ??????? ???????,
?
???а?????????? ?????? ??????н???? ???????????, ????????, ???
??? ????? ????????????, ????????? ??? ?а?????, ?????????????
?а??????? ??????, ???????? ???????? ?а??? ?????. ?????? ??а????
???? ????? ?????????? ???????, ??????? ?????? ???????????
??? ????? ??а?????? ??????????? ??????, ??????, ????? ??а????????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ?а??????? ????????? ???????? ????????, ????? ???????? ??????.
?? Github ????? ?????????? ??????????? ????, ?????????
???????? ??? ?а?????? ?????? ??а??????? ??? ????? ????. Quantum
Gameа? ?????? ???? ????. ??а????????? ?а??? ??а???? ???, ??????? ?????? ??? ??????.
??? ??а?????
??????? ???????
??а?????????
????????, ?????
??????????? ????
?????.
????-????????
Bombermaaan
??????: 1.9.3.1905 ????: https://github.com/
bjaraujo/Bombermaaan
??? ????????? ???? Bombermaaanа? ?????????
??????? ??а??????? ????, ????????? ????? ??????.
???? ???????????? ?????? ?????????????????????
?????, ??? ???? ??? ???? ??????, ??????а?? ?????? ???? ??
??? ?а????????. ??а???? ????? ???? ??а???? ???????а? ??????
??а??? ??????????? ????????, ??????????? ??? ??????????.
Bombermaaan ????????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ??? ???????
?????????? ?????, ?а??а????? ????????, ???? ???? ?а??? ??????
???? ??????н???? ??????????; ??????? ??а?????? ?????? ??а????? ?????????? ??а????? ?????? (??а?? ?а????).
? ???? 24 ??????? ?????? ?а??а174 ?????????????? ??????? ?а???????? Extended. ?????? ??????? ???????? ?????????
??????, ????????? ??????? ??? ????????, ??????? ??? ?????????? ??? ????????? ???????? ???? ????? ????. ????? ????,
????????? ????? ???????? ?????????, ?а??? ?????? ??а????????
???? ?????, ??? ??????????? ?а????????? ???????????а? ?????
??????? ??а??????? л????????╗ ??????? ?а????? ??????.
??а????????? ???? Bombermaaan ??????? ??а???? ???, ?а?????? ?????? ????? ??????, ??а?а???????? ????? ????????? ?????
???, ??????? ????? ??????? ????? ?а???? ??????????????
л?????? [Hurry up]!╗. ????? ???????, ?????? ????а? ??????н
?????? ???????? ???? ??????, ??? ??? ???? ?????? ????? ??????
?
104? |? LXF238? ???? 2018
?????? ???????, ??? ?????? ???????, ???????? ?а???????
?а?????? ????.
??????, ????? ?а??????? ????? ?????????????, ??? ??????
Bombermaaan ????????? ??? ?????????. ???? ?????? ??????????? ?а??? ????? ?????????? ??а??а?????? ?а??????? ??аRaspberry Pi.
??? ??????????????? ?а???????? ?а??? ?????????????? ??а??????
??????????, ??????? ?????-??.
?????? ??????
???????? ?а????а?
???????? ?????
????? ???????;
??а??? ????????.
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
HOTPICKS
??? Flash??????????
?а????? Lego
???????? ?????????, ??,
??а??????? ????,
??а?????? ??????
????? ???????.
?????? ????-??????
F3
??????: 7.0
????: https://github.com/AltraMayor/f3
???????? ?? ????????? ??? ????? ????????? ??????????????, ??????? ??????? ??????? ??????????
??????? ??????? ????? ?аUSB-?????????? ?а???????
???????? ?а????????? ??????/??????, ??? ???????????????.
???????? ????? ??????а? ??????? ?а?????????? 500??? ?????
Samsung, ????????? ???-??а?а?????. ??????????, ???????????
??????????? ???????????? ?а500???????????? ????????, ????????? 128???????????? ??????????? ????-??????, ??? ????
?????????? ????? ???????? ???????. ?????????? ????????????
??а?????? ????????, ??????? ??а???? ??????????? ?аF3.
???? ?????????? ??????????, ??? ???а? ?????????? ??аFight
Flash Fraud [?????? ?а????????? ??????], ?????????? ???????????? ??? ??????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ??????????
????-??????. ??а????? ????? ???????? ??? ????????????
???????????? ???????? ????? ????????? ?а??????? ???, ??????,
?????????а?? ??? ????? USB-?????????? USB 3.0 ?????, ??? ???????? ???????. ?????????? ??а??????? ???????? ??? ??????????? ?????? ?????, ??а?????? ?????? ???????????? ?????????
??????? (???а???????, ??? ??? ????а? sde):
$ sudo f3probe --destructive --time-ops /dev/sd#
?
??????? f3probe ????????? ????? ??а??????????, ?????????
??а(????????) ??????? ?????? ?????, ?а???? ??а???????? ?????
??? ?????? ??а?????????, ???а?? ????????????? ?????????н
???? ????????? ????? ????? ??????. ????? ????????? ?????
??а???????? ???????? ???????????? ????????? ?????, ?а?????
????????? ?????????? ??????. ???? ??а????? ?????? ???? ???????
??????, ??????? ????? ???????????? ?а?а???? ??????????, F3
?????????? ?????? ?????. ??????????? f3write ?аf3read, ????????
???? ?а????????????? ?????, ????? ?????????, ?????????а??
????????? ????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ??а??????
???????, ?а????? ?????????, ??? ?????? ??????????? ?????????,
???а?????? ??? ????????.
????? ???????, ????????? ?????????? F3 ??????? ??????
??а????? ??????????? ?????????н????. ??? ????????? ?????????? ????? ??а??????????? ????????????? ????????????.
???????? ??????? PYTHON
PIP
??????: 10 ????: https://github.com/pypa/pip
IP ???????? ?????? ???????????? ??? ????, ??? ????????? ??????????? ??? ??????????? Python. ??а????
???? ??а??а???????????, ??а??? ????? ?????? ?????н
???? PIP ?а???????????? ???????а? ????????, ???а?????????
???????????? ??? ??????????, ??????????? ??аPython. ??а????,
PIPа? ????? ???? ???? ??а?????? ?????????? ???????, ???????
?????? ???????? ???? ?а????? ???????????, ????? ??? NPM ???
Node.js ??? Maven ??? Java. PIP ?????? ??? Python, ?????? ??а????? ?????? ?а??????? ??? ?????????? ?????? ????????????????. Python ????? ???????? ?????? ??????????? ?????? ?а?????
??? 130?000 ?????????????? ???????, ??????????? ?а?????????.
????? ?????? PIP 10а????? ??????? ????????? ?????????
??????? ?а????? pypi.python.org ??аpypi.org. ??а?????? ?????? ?????????? Python ?а????? web-???????? ??? ????????? ??? ??а????????? ?????? ?а??????? PIP. ????? ?????? ??????????? Linux
??? ????? ??? ?а???????????, ??? ??? ?????? PIP ?а??? ??????
????. ???? ???, ??? ??? ???????? ??а??а????????? ?????? 10:
$ sudo pip install --upgrade pip
????? ????? ??а?????? ????????? ???????? Python ?а???????
????? ??????? ?а???????? ?????? (??. $ pip --help), ??а??????,
??? ??? ????????? ??????? ????????? ?????????? root, ????
??а?????? ?????????? ?????? ?а????????? ????????. ???????
P
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
????а? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ????????? ?а?????????
?????? ?????? ?????? ???????? $HOME. ?а???? ????? ????????????? ???????? ?а????? ???????? ????? -user, ????????:
$ pip install --user ZombieAdventure
????? ?????? PIPа? ??? ??????? ?????????? ?а???????
??????н????? ?????????, ????????? ??а????? ?????? ?????????? web-???????? ????? Python ?а??????? ??????????? ??????.
PIPа10, ???????, ???? ????????? ??????????? Python 2.6 ?а????
????? ??????? $ pip config, ??? ?????????? ?????????? ?а??????????? ??????????????. ?а?????? ??????? ????????? ???????
Python ??? ???? ????????????а? ??????? ????; ??? ??????????
????? PIP ?а?????????. |
???? ???????
????? ???????
??? ??? ?????????????, ???
?а??? ???????
????????.
???? 2018? LXF238? |?105
?? ?????
8н?? DVD ?????!
DVDн?????????? ? ??????? Linux Format ? 7 (238). ???? 2018
??????????
??????? 1
????????????
Fedora 28 (64-??????)
??????????????, ??????? ? ????????????? ???????????? ??????? ??? ????????? ? ?????????? ???????????,
? ?????? ??????? ???????????? ??? ?????????????
? ????? ??????????????. ???????? ????? ??????
?????? ??????????.
Ubuntu 18.04 Remix (64-??????)
??????????? ?? Linux ??? ?????????? ???????????,
???????? ????????? ?а?????????? ??????????
?а?????????????? ?а?????????? ??????? ?????????
???????? ?????????????. ??????? ?а????? ????????
???????: Gnome, Cinnamon ?аBudgie.
HOTPICKS
Bombermaaan 1.9.3.1905 ????-????????
https://github.com/bjaraujo/Bombermaaan
CMake 3.11 ???????? ?????? ????????
www.cmake.org
F3 7.0 ?????? ????-??????
https://github.com/AltraMayor/f3
Peek 1.3.1 ?????????? ?????? GIF
https://github.com/phw/peek
PIP 10 ???????? ??????? Python
https://github.com/pypa/pip
Pragha 1.3.91.1 ??????????? ??????
https://github.com/pragha-music-player/pragha
Quantum Game (Git) ??????? ???????????
https://github.com/stared/quantum-game
Smilla Enlarger (GIT Beta) ??????? ???????????????
???????????
https://github.com/lupoDharkael/smilla-enlarger
XDM 7.2.7 ???????? ????????
https://sourceforge.net/projects/xdman
????????
Vega
WordPress
??????
??????????? ???????
??????
Rute ?????????? ??????????
UBUNTU 18.04
?????? ?????
? ???????????????
??????? ??????
??????? ????? ?? ?????
? 3????????????
? ????? ??????????????????
? ????? ? ??????!
?
???????!
Fedora 28
???????
Grub
Memtest86+
??н??н??н?? н??н??, ???н??н??н???, ??н??, ???н?? ? ???н???-???н???...
?C???? ???????
????????? ??????????
???????????, ???????
?????? ?????????!
????????? ?? ??????? ╗
64н??????
64н??????
??????????? ???????
Ubuntu 18.04 LTS
????
??????
?? ?а?? ?????, ????? ?а??????н
??? ??? ?а??? ??аLXFDVDа????
????? ??? ????????????, ??а?а????
?????? ????? ?????????. ??????????, DVD ??а???????а? ???
???????????? ???? ?????.
?????????? ?????? ???????
??а???? ????????а? ??а???? ??а??????? ??????, ??а?????????, ??????????, ?????? ???????. Ubuntu
18.04 ??а300 ??а??????, ??? ????????? ????? LTS,а16.04. ??а?????? ??????, ??? ??? ??-??а???????? ?аUnity ??аGnome, ??аUnity-??
???????? ??аGnome Shell.
?????, Fedora ????? ??а????
?????? ??????? ??а???а?? ?????,
?а??? ???????????? Gnome. ??,
??а?????а?? ????? ????? ???
???????? ????????????, ????????? ??а??????? Ubuntu, ??а?????????? ??????? ?????????,
?а?а????? ?????? ??? ?????????????? ??????? ?????. ?????????? ??????? ????? ???????? KDE, ??????? ??? ??а????
???????, ????????? ?????????
??? ????? ????????? ??????
???????н???? ??????????????.
????, ???????????? ??????
Gnome (?а?????? ??????)а? ?,
??? ??????????, ???????. ??????,
??????? ??а?????? ?????? ????,
?????: ?????а?? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ??а????а?????? ???????? ?????? ??,
?????????? ????????? ??????
Gnome ?а?????, ?????а?? ???
????? ??????? ?а????????а??
??? ????? ??а??????? ?????.
?а????????а?? ???? ???????
????? ????? ?????? ?а???????,
??? ?????-????; ????а?? ??????
?а100 ?? ??а????
106? |? LXF238? ???? 2018
??????? ?????? Linux Format ????? ??????? ???? ??? ????????? ?????? ??????
Ubuntu 18.04, ??? ??? ??а?????????? ????
??????а?????. ??а??а?????? ????? ???????? LTS Ubuntu,
??а?а??????? ??? ??? ???? ??а????? ?????????? ????????. ?????? ???????????? ???????? ????? Gnome,
??а?????? ??????? Budgie ??? Cinnamon. ?????????????
????? ???????? ??????? ?????, ????? ??а???????, ?????? ???????????? live ??а?????? ????? ?а???????, ?а?????
????? ?????? ?????????? ????? ?а??????? ?????, ?????
??????? ?????? ??????? ????. ????? ????, ??а?????? ??????? ??????? ???? ???а???????? ?аDVD.
??? ??????? ????? ????? ???????????? ??????????
?????????а? ???? ?????? ??а???????? ??????. ??????
?аUbuntu, ?аFedora ??????? ??а??????? ??а??????????
????????, ??? ????????? ??? ????? ??а????? ????
??а???-?????????. ?????? ??а???????? ???? ???? ??????? ?????, ??? ??? ??? ??????? ???? ??а?????????? ????????????. ??? ??а?????, ?аUbuntu, ?аFedora ?????????
????? ????? ?????????, ?а??а??а????? ??а???????? ??.
??-??а?????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ???????
(???????? ???????????? ??а??????????????? Ubuntu),
?????????? Ubuntu ?а???????? ??????. ??? ????? ??????????, ????????? ??????? ????? ??а?????, ?????? ???
???????. ??а??а???????, ??а??? ????? ?????? ??????????
Ubuntu ?аDVD-????? Linux Format, ?????? ?????? ?????
?а???? ???????? Ubuntu. ??? ???? ??? ??????????? ??????? ???? Gnome, ????? ???? ????? ?????????? ?????????
64-??????
?
??????????? ??? ?????????????? ??а???? ????? ?а????.
????????? ?а????????, ?????? ?????, ?????? ??а??? ??????, ????? ??? ???????? ???????????? ???????????.
??????? Synaptic, ???????? ?а???? ????????? ???????????
universe ?аmultiverse, ?а????? ?????????? ???? ubuntubudgie-desktop, ???? cinnamon-desktop-environment (???
???)а? ?а??а???????? ??????????????? ??????? ????
?а??? ??? ???????????.
? ???-??а????????? ????? ??аDVD ???????????
(?а???????, ????? 4,7а?? ????????? ??????? ????????),
??а??? ??????? ???? ????? ??????????? ??????, ??????? ??а?????? ??????????? ????????? ?????? ???????
????? ????? ?????????. ??? ?????????????? ????????
???? ??а????????, ????? ?а?????? ???, ??? ??? Mate ?????
??а???????; ??а???????? ??? ??????, ????????? matedesktop-environment. ??????????? ??????? ??а?????? ?????????? kubuntu-desktop,
lubuntu-desktop ??? xubuntu-desktop,
????? ??????????? ???? ??а????
????????? ???а?????? ?????????
????????? ????????????.
?????? ?????: ??? ????????????
ubuntu, ???а??????.
????????, ??? ??????? ???????
???? ?????? Bionic Budgie,
????????? ????? ??а????????? ????? ???????? ???????
????аBudgie.
╗╗ ????????! ??? ?????!
???????? ?????: ? ????????????? ?????? ??????-???? ??????? ?????? LXFDVD ???????????, ??????????,
?? ?????? disks@linuxformat.ru ??? ???????? +7 (812) 309-0686.
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
╗╗ ? ???!
????????? ???????????
Fedora Workstation 28
??????? ??а?????? Ubuntu ?а??????? ??????,
Fedora ?????????? ???? ?а????????. ??а?????
??а???? ??а???????????? DVD, ??? ??? ?????
??????? ???????, ????? ????????? ??? ?аDVD ?а?????????,
??? ??? ????????а? ??а?? ??а??????, ??? ??а???????
????????? ?????? ??????? ISO-????? ??аDVD, ????????????, ??? ??а?????????, ???????
? ?????????? ?а??????? ??????????? ???????????? ??а??а????? ??????? ??????, Fedora 28 ????????????
?а????? ?????????. ?????? ???? ???????? ????? ????????? ???? DVD ??????? ??а??????????? ??????, ?????
???????????. ??? ??а????????, ????????? ?а???????????
????????????? ??? ??????????????? ?????????, ?а???
?????????? ??????? VESA ???а3D-?????????. Fedoraа28
???????? ????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ??????????
VirtualBox, ?а???? ?аVirtualBox ????? ??????? ?????
?а????, ??? ??а?????? ???а??????? live-????????????
??а???????? ????????????.
?????? ????????? ???????? ????????? ??????????
????????, ????????? ????????? ???? ?????? ???????
??а30?%. ??? ????????? ????? ????????? ?а?а?????????? ???????, ?а?а?????? ?????????????, ??а?аFedora
??????, ??? ????? ??а???? ??а?????????, ?, ????????,
??? ?????????. ????????? ????????: ???????????
??????н???? ?????????? ????????.
Fedora ????? ????????????? ??а?????? ????????????????? Ubuntu, ???а?????? root ?а??????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????????? ??? ?????? ????????????
64-??????
?
UNDERSTANDING OPEN
SOURCE AND FREE
SOFTWARE LICENSING
??? ?????????????
????????
?а????????? ??
?????
??????
?????? ???? ?????????? Linux, ??? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ????;
??а??????а?? ????????,
??? ??? ??????? ????? ????????
???????? ?????? ??????????
?а???????? ???????? ????????,
????? ??????: ???? ???-??а??а???,
???? ??? ???? ???????, ??? ??
?????? ??????. ??? ????? ?а??н
???н??н??н????? ??? ??????????
??? ??????? ???????? ?а?????н
???? ???????? ????? ????.
????????? ??а???? ?????: ????????? ?а?????????
Fedora ????? ??????? ?????.
????? sudo. ????????? ??????? ????? ?????? ???????,
??а??а??????????. ?а????? ????????? ????? ??а???????????? ??? ?????? ?????? root, ???? ??а?????????
?а??????? ?????? ????????.
????? ????? ???????? ????????? ???????????.
??а????????? ???????????? ?????? ????????? ??, ?а????? ?????? ????????? ?????????? ?а????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????, ????? ??? ???????н???? ????????.
?????? ?????: ??? ????????????а? liveuser,
???а??????.
? Fedora ?????
?????????? ??,
??а???а??????? ?????
????????
???????????
?????????.
??????? ?????
??
??????????? ???????????
??а???????? Bash ??????? ????????? ???????? ??? ?????.
??
??????????? ??аBash ??? ????н
?????? ?????????? ?????????
???????? Bash.
??
??????????? ??а????????
???????? Bourne Shell ?????????
????????? ??????? ????????.
??
TheаCathedral and the Bazaar
[????? ?а???
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