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In this article I will try to explain what paradoxes are inherent in astrophysics of the 20th century and how they are solved by quantum physics in the hyper - Euclidean + Poincare space, that is, in the space of full dimension. Unexpected, but expe
Raf Ibragimovic GREAT ASSOCIATION PHYSICAL THEORIES Preamble Virtual Astrophysical Observatory motleys mountains Alma-Ata 2018 Introduction. The beginning of any thought is generated by the operator Æ the analysis of observation data, which is authentic to the observer and correlates with the IQ of his intellect. Here is a simple example: Æ * ☼ ≡ 13.13, where is the time device (clock), the number is 13.13 the result of observation. We conclude there is no observer, no time! The same operator is applicable as a search engine, in the presence of an observer. And time is essentially a derivative of the pulsations of various forms of the energies of the universe, the main of which is electromagnetic radiation and therefore, time is a relative concept due to the wide frequency spectrum of photons. But this is not so bad - as it seems! In fact, everything is much worse! The inertness of our thoughts is the trouble! And in this article I will try to explain what paradoxes are inherent in astrophysics of the 20th century and how they are solved by quantum physics in the hyperspace of Euclid Poincaré, that is, in the space of full dimension. And our way in the knowledge of the Universe is the discussion and analysis of the Great Physicist Association. In the present preamble, its logical foundation is laid, where there is little mathematics, but the consistency of the basic concepts and data is created! And the main version of the theory of the Great Unification will be published later, as soon as it is ready [mail:]. Tags: universe, galaxy, star, big bang, elementary particles, neutrino, photons, gravitational radiation, hyperspace, quantization of space, time, metric, observer, gravity detector, black hole, quantum theory of vacuum, vacuum constant, black star 1. We begin with the discovery of the key constant Ω MeeV in Astrophysics. Statement. The key constant is the minimum element vacuum energy MeeV Ω ≡ (h*H0) & (Ho). From analyzing the data on Sn1a, that is - if the energy loss by photons over the distance R is divided by the total number of pulsations of the electromagnetic radiation, this will lead to the constant Ω = 1.5629E-33 eV and it turned out that a coincidence Ω ≡ (h*H0) which binds the fundamental vacuum constant - Ω (Rafæl), the micro world - h (Planck) and the macro world - H (Hubble). And the red extragalactic shift of the energy of the electromagnetic radiation is the sum of the energy losses - Ω for each pulsation by the photons, and the magnitude of the loss does not depend on its initial energy or on the distance. We come to the conclusion that Ω is the minimum energy element and if we represent it as a wave, then comparing with the formula for the photon energy e=h* we have the value of its frequency H0 = 2.3 · 10−18 Hz! And the time value T = 1,336E + 10 ly is equal to the age of the Universe, from the moment of its birth on the path L0 = 1.264E + 35 nm. Mysteriously, but interesting because you can’t call these numbers an accident! Indeed, it can be assumed that the fundamental element of energy Ω was born in the era of the hot birth of the universe together with the photons of electromagnetic radiation is a kind of string from the event in space and time. And as shown by in-depth reviews of the Hubble telescope in the outer space, myriads of young galaxies are observed, but there are no single stars! These facts allow us to state that the birth of the Universe was a three-dimensional explosion in a multitude of centers, which is more acceptable from the standpoint of the redistribution of energy and momentum. Energy has the property of discreteness, that is - is the sum of the elements of energy. This property follows from the quantum nature of all processes in the Universe, as a result of the discreteness of space - time, and the zero value of energy does not exist due to the presence of vacuum fluctuations MeeV Ω, which indicate the absence of active processes. 2. The fundamental property of phantoms! The wave constant ≡c*h, where c=ν* which leads to the identity h*ν ≡ and, if we take into account the corpuscular - wave dualism, we have the value of the total energy of electromagnetic radiation as the sum of the wave energy or corpuscle for photons: e = h * ν ± i * (k) (1) The minimum element of vacuum energy (MeeV) Ω is calculated from the data on supernovae and quasars! These calculations led to an amazing conclusion: it turned out that Ω ≡ h * Ho & Ho, and the EMP photons with each pulsation lose exactly 1 MeeV of energy and so on before dissolving in vacuum! The above fact allows us to formulate a rule that is valid for all processes of pulsation of electromagnetic energy, including elementary particles having energy mass equivalence frequencies - the Law of Dissipative Loss MeeV: “with each pulsation of EMR, there is an energy loss of 1 Ω MeeV, for photons there is a red dissipative energy shift, then for material bodies the requirement of stability leads to the process of filling up the loss of energy by the flow of energy from a vacuum, which is already a source of the field of MT . ” And if you imagine MeeV Ω as a phantom or quantum of energy of a gravitational field and call it a graviton, then it turns out that gravitons form the force of attraction. Moreover, physicists purely theoretically assume that gravitational waves also consist of gravitons. Therefore, suppose that MeeV Ω is a graviton! 3.0 Hyperspace . The important coordinate of the space-time - S = i*c*t is proposed by Poincaré, which allows us to represent the observed values by vectors in the complex space of Euclidean geometry. A Hyperspace is a 4-dimensional Euclidean space, which is characterized by the square of the interval in the form s 2 = r2 + (c*t)2, and it can be represented as the scalar product of the vectors s2 = (r+ i*c*t) * (r –i*c*t), where the vector r is the real part and its imaginary part i*c*t = r0 - determines the vector that drives the radiation source and the detector of the observer at the same time and place! Of interest is ort rv = V*t, where V is the velocity vector of the material body, and R = r ± i*V*t is the complex coordinate. But in GR, the interval s2 = r2 - (c*t)2 is used, which limits the range of applicability! Henri suspected something, but did not manage to translate his ideas into the physics of full dimension - as a competitor of the Einstein GTR! And the postulate of constancy of the speed of light of GTR is a necessary measure, which follows from the metrics of the pseudo-Euclidean space of Minkowski, and this choice did not allow us to work out a symbiosis of GTR with quantum theory. 3.1. Time. All the pictures of the Universe that we see are from the past, and the impact can only be sent to the future, which in no way affects the past. It is this prohibition that determines the gap or a particular point of the space-time scale, in which observer N. is located. For this reason, the representation of the interval in the form was effective: S = R ± i*c*t - Euclidean-Poincaré spaces, where R - from the past, and c*t is the signal from the future. And the flow of world time is correlated with an increase in entropy, that is, the path of the universe from complete symmetry to deep chaos. But in the theory of chaos there is a lemma - “every chance is an undisclosed pattern”, therefore, not all will be lost at the end of time. 4.0. Formalization. As the experience of the “practice” history shows, the most productive is the presentation of world events in hyperspace, where each event has its own complex vector . Dual vectors are a pair of process parameters having an unambiguous mutual relationship, but excluding the possibility of their synchronous measurement. Complex dual vectors (there are only four pairs): 1. The space of the observer R and the space of the object of observation S, so, the interval Sc = R ± i*c*t for photons and Sv = R ± i*v*t for MT; 2. The corpuscle vector in frequency h* and the wave vector k*(h*C), so, the total photon energy is a complex vector: e = h* ± i*(k); 3. For MT, kinetic energy Ek and potential energy Ep, so, the total energy complex vector U = Ek ± i*Ep. The true scalar or invariant is the work - the value of which determines all other variable parameters of the processes, therefore: A = (Sc*e)= n*h*(ν*λ)*(1+(s/s`=)). Quantum electrodynamics of electromagnetic; A = (Sv*e) =R*h* ± S*(k)=A; (k)*R ± S*h* Electrodynamics. A = (Sv*U) = Hyperdynamics for material bodies ; A = (Sc*U) = R*Ek ± c*t*Ep = A; R*Ep ± Ek*c*t = 0. Hypermechanics; 5.0. Physical Vacuum is “nothing”, from which “something” arises, moreover, in such a diversity that we ask the question, does “nothing” exist? And our world is entering an era of confusion, as a result of the fragmentation of our previously established knowledge! Actually, modern physics consists of fragments, patches, segments, each of which seems to be self-sufficient, but as soon as we proceed to the construction of a unified field theory, then immediately there is a mutual discrepancy. That's about it, and about many other things will be discussed in a series of publications about the quantum nature of the full dimension of Hyperphysics or the Great Physicist Association, the version of which is presented to your attention! 6.0. Newton's paradoxes of mechanics and the secrets of gravity - without it in any way. There is a myth that Newton discovered the law of the fall of one ripe apple on his head, but this is ½ truth, and a perfect theory will be true if we answer the question - why did others not, the apples did not fall on it? Well, the fact that a ripe apple fell was correctly described by Newton's theory, and that’s why they didn’t fall - this is the work of the forces of counteracting the Earth! What kind of power? But if we put an apple tree in weightlessness, then the apples will stop falling - from the word in general! That is - the root cause in the field of earth, because the force of Newton's body for an apple is small and therefore insufficient by definition. 7.0. The nature of gravity and fields is a mysterious theme of its simplicity, the key to understanding the world and therefore relevant in the construction of a unified field theory. But it is not there, and in the absence of a foundation, the construction of a unified dual theory is not foreseen! Why dual, and because the radiation of gravity and the field of aggression - are two sides of the same coin, and they are inseparable, but have a different nature, and their definition is exactly different ! 7.1. The flow of binding energy, which determines the structure, and, consequently, the properties of the material body, performs continuous work to ensure its stability. In the absence of a binding energy flow, the material body loses stability and disintegrates into stable components during its life! This property is confirmed in the lifetime of elementary particles! And stability assumes replenishment of its loss, which forms the flow of binding energy, and replenishment of loss of binding energy occurs with flows of elements of Vacuum energy, in the direction of the center of mass, which create a potential, the gradient of which forms a force vector that acts on material bodies. The modeling of this mechanism in full space leads to the vector force ~ grad (U), and moreover, its tangential component arises. This vector force provides the planetary structure of the sun, as well as the spiral shape of galaxies, in a certain plane. 7.2. Obviously, the stated concept of the nature of the field of aggravation of a hinge and the emission of gravitational radiation . The key point of the theory of bond energy is the separation of these processes as complementary “two in one”, namely the bond energy, which determines the structure and properties of the material body (MT), makes continuous work to ensure its stability, which forms the flow of bond energy defining the upkeep. The key concept is the flow of binding energy, which leads to a shortage and surplus of the energy density of the vacuum wave. The speed of propagation of radiation is close to the speed of light, and the aggravation leads to acceleration - g! 8.0. Quantum dynamics of electromagnetic radiation and hyperspace. 8.1. The energy of photons and wave-particle dorsal EMR will be connected with a complex vector in the EP (1) hyperspace: e = h*ν ± i*(k), where the vector =1239.84 eV*nm, and k = 1/λ wave vector. In quantum mechanics, the wave vector k is the momentum of the wave p ≡ k! This relation determines the fundamental meaning of a pulse from the point of view of quantum mechanics and modern physics in general: the wave pulse is the wave vector. The constant allows experimental measurement, while in addition, when measuring Planck’s constant, it is necessary to measure the wavelength of X-rays and therefore as a result we have a connection: = hc = e*u*λ, (j*m). For this reason, (eV·nm) is a wave vector, a constant independent of the speed of light and which is the conjugate constant of Planck’s corpuscles h (j*s), and both together determine the energy of the EMP photons (1). 8.2. A true scalar or invariant is a job - the value of which determines all other variable parameters of the processes. And if the photon energy is e = h * ос oscillator energy)) then e = h * (C * k) is also energy, but the waves are equal to the scalar product of the wave vector k by the velocity vector C or so e = ( k), where the кон wave constant is a vector, and k is the wave momentum. And the transfer of total energy by photons by the hyperspace formalism, with an interval s = r ± i * c * t, takes the form for work A = (e * s) and their allowed real values : An = n*h*(ν*λ)*(1+(с/с`=))/2 ≡ n**(1+)/2. (2) where с` = (νλ) is the group velocity, and с is the initial velocity of the photon. Why work, everything is simple - measurements of such parameters as force, potential and further on the list, occurs by measuring the work done by them! Further, n is the quantum number of the distance, but another interpretation is possible which determines the state of the discrete package of electromagnetic radiation, namely: for n = 1, equation (1) describes a known quantum of energy - a photon; with n >> 2, 3 ... we have a more complex formation - a phantom, perhaps a neutrino. Experiments with a flat pendulum showed that there are low-frequency emissions, but very high energies, which, besides the frequency (energy), also have a pulsation frequency, and a propagation velocity of electromagnetic radiation. The existence of such phantom states predicts a quantum equation for An. 8.3. The dissipative photon life model allows the loss of the minimum energy element Ω = (h*H0) = 1.5629E-33 eV (Raf) - with each pulsation the photon energy decreases by a small element and therefore, this process represents quantum energy dissipation. And the lifetime of the universe is equal to the time of complete loss of energy by the primary photons, to microwave radiation, and the sum of their wavelengths is essentially the distance to the edge of the Universe. In the nodes (trons) the photons pulsate and the energy elements Ω accumulate and therefore, over the course of world time, the vacuum is pumped by latent energy. That is, the density of the hidden energy of the vacuum increases, which leads to an increase in the refractive index of the vacuum. 8.4. Now a bit of history. At the present time there is a lot of evidence that in the interpretation of the redshift with the Doppler effect, they got a little excited! Actually, E. Hubble himself did not assert the Doppler nature of redshifts, and the discoverer of the 'new' and supernova stars Fritz Zwicky in 1928 associated these shifts with the loss of energy by quanta of electromagnetic radiation at cosmogonic distances. Moreover, in 1936, on the basis of a study of the distribution of galaxies, E. Hubble concluded that it could not be explained by the Doppler effect, but the Zwicky hypothesis of 'light fatigue', which he put forward in 1928, is more likely. And yet we have what we have! One of the first and consistent opponents of the Doppler nature of Redshift was Halton C. Arp, a professional astronomer who, in his initial career, was an assistant to Edwin Hubble. So, Arp discovered an interesting fact: taking photographs from large telescopes that many quasars ('quasistellar objects') have extremely high redshift z (and are thought to move away from us very quickly, and thus should be located at a great distance from us) are physically associated with galaxies that have a low redshift and are known to be located relatively close to us. Because of Arp's photographs, the assumption that objects with high redshifts should be very far away, on which the Big Bang theory is based and the whole 'standard cosmology' loses its meaning, and the big theory of the Big Bang follows. 8.5. It should be! The quantum formalism of the EMR red shift states that it is permissible to represent an arbitrary distance r integer wavelength λ, that is: r → rn =n*λ, where n = e /Ω! The linear quantization of space is based on the mechanism of dissipative extragalactic redshift of a known wavelength. In this way, to solve the problem of identifying the distance to stellar objects, it is necessary to measure the displacements of both the wavelength and energy. Nonlinear quantization includes the mechanism for increasing the wavelength of electromagnetic radiation over a distance. And it turned out that the distances to remote quasars and supernovae increase the size of the universe by an order of magnitude! According to the proposed protocol, the size of the Universe is calculated and has the value D =/Ω = 2.57 E + 04 mpс, which is close to an estimate of the maximum possible distance of 28194.57497 mpс . 8.6. Radial velocities supernovae 1a. The asymmetry of the supernovae 1A explosion unambiguously leads to a rebound of this flash, from the center of mass, at a speed proportional to the explosion energy. Knowing the distance to Sn1a and measuring the energy displacement Z, we calculate the radial velocity of the rebound Zv using the superposition formula: (1 + Z) = (1 + Zv) * (1 + Z), (3) where Z is the measured offset. The diagram shows the distribution of the radial velocity bounce offsets of sn1a flashes over the log (R, mpc) distance, for more than 650 supernovae 1А. Analysis of the distribution of the Sn1a array of flares presented in the diagram leads to the conclusion that their absolute magnitude increases with distance to the past . Correction of the connection between visual absolute magnitudes and distance leads to a nonlinear increase in distance, and to the most distant Sn1a more than three times and the Universe has become much longer than is considered up to now. Radial velosities (v/c) rebound flares Supernovae 0,4 0,3 0,2 0,1 0 0,5 1 1,5 2 2,5 3 3,5 4 4,5 0 0,5 1 1,5 2 2,5 3 3,5 4 4,5 0 -0,1 -0,2 -0,3 The established fact of an increase in the absolute magnitude of Sn1a leads to the elimination of a long-standing inconsistency in cosmology known as the “horizon problem”. Pushing the border of the universe, we remove this difference, and with it the problem of the horizon. An analysis of the displacements and distances from the stars shows the dispersion of radial velocities relative to the observer v <± 100 km / s, with rare exceptions. For example: the StarCmi B at a distance of 3.49 pс has a speed of v = -1076.51 km/s, and the star L 725-32 at a distance of 2,83 pс and even more V = 2191.862 km/s. At such speeds, these stars will make their way for 1263,251504 light. years and for 3170,689117 light. years, respectively! It cannot be excluded that these are “remnants” after the supernovae explosion, otherwise such speeds are impossible for a star! But where did this cataclysm take place - a question for historical supernovae! 9. Elementary particles, vacuum. 9.1. The cluster axiom is a triad: Under the condition of the existence of both positively and negatively charged particles, the neutral particles of this cluster certainly exist. This rule holds for all clusters of elementary particles, with the exception of muon and electron. And the electron-positron pair annihilation reaction leads to the existence of a dipole 'electron-positron' pair eo - TRON, as an organizer of a liquid-crystalline structure of vacuum, a type of liquid glass. Very neutral muon 0. Muons are surprisingly similar to electrons and positrons: they have the same electric charge, spin, both of them participate only in weak and electromagnetic interactions, and in a similar way. The only visible difference between them is in the mass: the muon is 206.8 times heavier than an electron. Further, from the existence of muons -, +, (by the axiom) follows the hypothetical existence of a very neutral muon 0, which, for this reason, has not been identified until now! But, as a result, the neutral muon - 'manifests itself as superglue' in strong interactions 9.2. The hypothetically elusive neutrino particle is a phantom. In the concept of the theory of thrones, problems related to neutrinos are solved easily! The mass defect is the binding energy and in transformation reactions it is carried away with the emission of phantoms, which have ultralow frequencies and, moreover, the pulsation frequency during its capture, which occurs at the resonance of the source and target in the process of transferring n quantum’s of radiant energy. And the process of energy transfer takes place according to the pulse of pulsation, as in the children's counting point “back and forth ...”, and for the entire period between the source and the detector, a connection has been established with the Ariadne thread! And this connection can neither be shielded nor broken! Directly magic, some kind, but otherwise this process defies description. 9.3. The theory of resonances and the lifetime of elementary particles. Which of the existing experiments can confirm the above stated theory of the elementary parts? First of all, the experimental data on the lifetime of the resonances, their energy - the mass and energy of the neutrino correlate well with each other, as can be seen in the presented graph. Further, close to the truth is the study of muon jets behind the body of the proton collider, which will make it possible to identify the 'superglue' of strong interactions in the microcosm - a neutral muon. Next on availability registration and research of radiation of phantoms of ultralow frequencies and identification of their identity with neutrinos ! 9.4. So there is a throne or Tr ≡ e0 → e- + e+ - 2* To estimate the energy Tr, we use the approximation of the quantum harmonic oscillator: Em=±(m + ½)*h*. (throne oscillation frequency). From the solution for the energy Em, it follows that the energy of the quantum oscillator — the throne — has both positive and negative values and changes only in portions, and is quantized. Moreover, positive energy is bounded from below by the minimum value E0 = ½ *h*0 = Ω - vacuum fluctuations, white noise, the energy of zero-point oscillations is a direct consequence of the uncertainty relation. This means that the energy of the throne cannot be at the bottom of a potential well, but, in the case of its negative value, there is no “bottom” of such a potential well! It is in the throne that the vacuum energy is accumulated. Thus, we postulate that the energy of both thrones and vacuum can be both positive E and negative, while the rules of addition and subtraction of energy in hypermechanics are valid: ∑ = E + i* ≠ 0 and E – i * therefore, the identity of the vacuum energy density is E2 + Ω ≠ , where Ω is vacuum fluctuations, white noise. 9.5. Hypothesis: A stable elementary particle e-+ can be represented as a pulsating quantum that is “glued” by a charge q- +. With each pulsation, a “quantum” loses an element of energy Ω (the fundamental property of EMR) therefore, by its stability property, this loss is compensated for by the charge q + - which determines the electrical properties of an electron or positron. If the architecture of a particle resonance does not allow the replenishment of energy elements Ω, then it disintegrates into stable particles or into a phantom (neutrino) radiation in a time proportional ~ log (. Thus, in the theory of elementary particles, the addition of stable thrones - e0 and neutral muon - , to the already existing proton cluster - antiproton and neutrino residue, of all types! And the remaining particles receive resonance status with a lifetime as a function of the ratio of their binding energy to particle mass. 9.6. What is the material body and the movement in a vacuum liquid glass! The material body is a clot of energy of a certain architecture, the structure of which is determined by the physical properties of the elements of a vacuum, and its stability is ensured by the flow of binding energy. Moving the MT in a vacuum environment occurs precisely the energy structure, and not the carriers of the vacuum, the thrones. It is obvious that the speed of movement, in this case, is less than the speed of propagation of the binding energy, and the geometrical configuration is determined by the scattering of the photons of electromagnetic radiation by MT. Here, in general, we determined the liquid-crystal structure of a vacuum or its type - “liquid glass”! Moving the MT with speeds close to the speed of light is irrelevant due to the disintegration into phantoms, as well as the absence of sufficient field gradients. 10.0. Quantum Hypermechanics. Let us consider in more detail the real scalar work, which in the classical representation is the scalar product of the applied force on the body, on the path it has traveled in hyperspace. Having introduced a force in the hyperspace, F = f ± i * p, where the inertial part f = m*a and P=–k * grad (U) is the force determined by the weight of the body in the field of a star. Further, the interval in the hyperspace is set in the following form - S = R ± i*s, where s = V*t is the distance traveled and as a result, for the work A = (F*S), we obtained a system of vector equations : (r*f) – (t*V*P) = A; (t*V*f) + (r*P) = zero. (4) This system of vector equations establishes a connection between the trajectories of material bodies in the total field of U, and the transformations of the kinetic and potential energies and the work done during these processes! The interval S determines the true position of the material body in the observer's system, taking into account the distance, its speed and the speed of the signal! In this case, the first equation determines the rule - the transformation of the energy of motion into the energy of the potential, or in the opposite direction, is accompanied (determined) by the performance of work! The second equation determines the laws of conservation of energy, momentum, moment during the transformation of energy for a closed system. Note that the vector equations of hypermechanics do not limit the movement of a material body at a speed close to the speed of light, only the magnitude of the work performed is A, and it increases exorbitantly and therefore, relativism can be considered an irrelevant version of the discussions. All problems of relativism are “protected” in the system and solutions of this system reveal them! Here, for example, the solution of the hyper mechanical system of equations, in the approximation of circular orbits for the planets of the solar system, yields the results: first, the orbits and the planets are connected chaotically, that is, they are not dependent on their mass (on what orbit the planet jumped there and lives); And secondly - the periods of circulation are also not dependent on the mass of the planets! These results lead to the conclusion: the structure of the field of the Sun has a complex configuration, which determines its planetary, discrete or quantum system. But what is interesting is that if work is being done to hold the planets and move along the trajectory in the orbit of the Sun, then there is also a waste of energy! This is the main question that needs to be answered - from which source does energy derive over a billion light-years ? 11. Quantum astronomy. The discrete nature of star objects. An important parameter of a star is its compactness coefficient, which is equal to the ratio of the Schwarzschild radius to the star radius and for a large array of quasars and galactic nuclei, compactness coefficients k were calculated and it turned out that these objects were distributed among discrete groups! Received a discrete series in which all stellar objects were distributed, and moreover, all the physical parameters of the star are determined by one quantum number n! For a star of the Sun, n = 47, and for the planets of the solar system there are also their quantum numbers. And it was for the planets that the adequacy of the quantum sequence was tested - a great coincidence . On the other hand, with the striving n → 0, a problem arose which manifested itself in inverse correlation with the density of the star and the compactness factor: as k → 1, the density p → 0 is a paradox, but it should not be so! The latent vacuum energy is the main component of the energy of stellar objects for small n = 0.1, 2 ...! And its transformation into the bosonic form of matter is the source of the enormous energy of quasars and as a result of these processes myriads of stars are born in the nuclei of galaxies. A model of these processes can be proposed: when n = 0, there is a quasar with a Schwarzschild radius presumably parsecs, and the conversion of latent energy into a bosonic form occurs in the near-surface layer and as the intensity of this process increases, a powerful explosive process occurs as a result of which the shapeless mass is extruded into the surrounding space. bunches of boson and latent energy that over the course of time and turn into stars with ball symmetry! The different ratio of these energies determines the subsequent history of the star - the lifetime, density and the probability of the formation of a supernova when it explodes! Small fragments gradually cooling down turn into planets - satellites of the stars that captured them. It is also obvious that in the process of converting the latent energy of the vacuum, the whole spectrum of elements is formed, and not just elementary particles and EMR radiation. In this way, the main mystery of the birth of a bosonic form of matter is sent to the infernal generator of the Universe - a quasar! The main regularity has been established: a decrease in both the mass and radius of a star leads to an increase in its density in a discrete manner, that is, an array of stars is quantized. But the process itself is implemented by extrusion of electromagnetic radiation outwardly together with the fadness of the outer shell and is recorded by the observer as some explosion supernovae! 12. Spatially - temporal splitting of the spectrum sn1a. Yes, in the first approximation, the speed of light is constant, but for different frequencies this speed is different by a small amount, but sufficient for fixing! In numbers, this effect is at 10 decimal places of the speed of light! What is not available for direct measurement, but all-wave astronomy makes observations of some stellar objects on various instruments, from X-ray and to microwave telescopes. When combining such images, interesting images are obtained that can be interpreted as follows: radiation from supernovae comes to observers' telescopes in this order - radio waves, microwaves, infrared radiation, visible light, ultraviolet and X-rays. And therefore, there is an effect of the space-time splitting of the EMR spectrum from supernovae, which is due to the effect of increasing speed as the photon wavelength increases. The speed shift of microwave radiation has the value Zc≈ +.016, relative to the radio wave of the observer, and the partial value of the speed is C = 304.56 km / s . 12.1. An interesting fact! In the vicinity of the Sun are more than 700 stars whose spectrum shift has a purple color. And if according to the Hubble law, then we have as a result the movement of this array of stars in the direction of the Sun with increasing speed at a = 7.8E+6 km/s/mpc! In the area of the same distances a.e. Acceleration acquires the value of the Hubble constant, but with the opposite sign. But during the life of our star, they should be already here, but they are not there, and therefore we conclude that this movement is virtual! Such a high value of the acceleration a on the outer gravitational boundary of the star of the Sun does not have a significant effect on the final result because the radiation of the source loses the same part of the energy and is therefore compensated. 12.2. The existence of the outer boundary of the star of the Sun R0 = ~ 4.77pc is confirmed in space experiments, which established the following: “Scientists from NASA believe that the New Horizons spacecraft will determine the presence of a hydrogen wall at the edge of the solar system. The “wall” in question is on the outer edge of our star system. NASA is confident that the New Horizons probe, which crossed the orbit of Pluto in 2015, will be able to see this border. Researchers wrote about this in a report published August 7 in the journal Geophysical Research Letters. They argue that the probe will see excess ultraviolet light: according to scientists, this is the radiation that will emanate from the wall of galactic hydrogen. This signal was registered by two Voyager devices already in the distant 1992. However, the researchers noted: the signal does not mean that the New Horizons examined the hydrogen wall or that it was seen by Voyager devices. In fact, all three probes could register ultraviolet radiation from some other source located much farther in the Galaxy”, approximately at a distance of R0 = ~ 4.77 pc (author)!? At this boundary, the EMP photons from the stars are accelerated by a = 7.8E+6 km/s/mpc, which leads to an increase in their energy and a shift of the spectrum to the violet region, which is observed by the New Horizons probe detectors. Another confirmation of the reality of violet bias is the “deceleration” of the pioneer 10, 11 spacecraft, which is erroneously interpreted by the violet frequency shift of the control signal of the apparatus, which occurs when photons enter the field of the Sun star . And the distance from the gravitational edge of the star light overcomes for 3.25 Julian year and therefore, despite the weak field value, its long-term effect on photons from distant star objects have a noticeable effect on the trajectory. The effect of lensing confirms the real assertions, but this effect is the result of the total effect of the “input-output” field. But we are interested in the lensing of light rays from stellar objects inside the field of our stars! 12.3. Gravitational lens of a star. The G2V field of the star forms a gravitational sphere, the outer radius R0 = ~ 4.77 pc, which has all the properties of amplification and increase as a non-linear thick lens and therefore, the observer is able to see the cosmos in all its beauty and splendor. But, the result of our observation depends on the magnification factor of such a lens: one cannot exclude such a fantastic variant that the stars are atoms and the galaxies are molecules! In this case, our star is lonely, and our civilization is unique! And all this that surrounds us, and we also, perhaps, are recreated by an artificially different mind!? 12.4. Deep surveys of the Hubble telescope showed that there are no separate stars at the edge of the Universe, but there are young galaxies that already contain a myriad of stars. This fact indicates the birth of stars and planets in the galactic nuclei, as well as the volume distribution of the centers of origin of the universe. Such a model is more dynamic than the accepted one, but the problem is what the “signal” to the detonation of the nuclei of galaxies is! Here, the radiation MeeV Ω is emitted by photons at each pulsation - one cannot exclude their leading role in the chain reaction of a galaxy's volume explosion! 13.0 Volumetric explosion of the Black Stars array and the birth of the Universe! The question is how the detonation occurred, that is, the one-time formation of galaxies, which are observed in a deep survey of the Hubble telescope. There are two possible answers: just the time has come for Black Stars to explode or a signal has passed and the Black Stars array has detonated, but the signal requires a hyperlight propagation speed! Here is the Ω MeeV radiation of one source-target wavelength and can be a detonator! 13.1. Distance from the birth of the universe. We will analyze the intergalactic distances on the basis of the already measured shifts of the wavelength Zλ and energy (frequency) Ze=e/e = First of all, the number of pulsations to the star ne/Ω (linear approximation). Next, the distance to the star dn (also a linear approximation). But the wavelength changes as a result of the redshift and therefore dn– distance correction, because Zd = d/d - the offset does not depend on the distance. And in the end we get the value of the total distance D = d + d equal to max = Ω = 2.57E + 04 mpc. But the visibility limits of radiation in the observable universe has a close value of 28194.57497 mpc! And this is an established fact. Therefore, at a distance of 2.57E + 04 mpc, a primary flash occurred with EMR radiation and the sea MeeV Ω, and this process is the formation of quasars from the Black Stars pre-stellar object, known as the big bang, but not the central one - but in many centers! The proposed distance calculation protocol is used on (Zspec + Zphot)/2 data for quasars and galactic nuclei. As predicted, the distance to the edge of the Universe increased by an order of magnitude, but the previously calculated one suggested the lower limit - this is equilibrium microwave radiation. But there is radiation of longer wavelengths and therefore this distance data for quasar`s does not contradict the general concept. Therefore, we push the outer boundary of the Universe up to D ≈ 1.27E + 05 mpc. 13.1. Distance from the birth of the universe. We will analyze the intergalactic distances on the basis of the already measured shifts of the wavelength Zλand energy (frequency) Ze=e/e = First of all, the number of pulsations to the star ne/Ω (linear approximation). Next, the distance to the star dn (also a linear approximation). But the wavelength changes as a result of the redshift and therefore dn– distance correction, because Zd = d/d - the offset does not depend on the distance. And in the end we get the value of the total distance D = d + d equal to max = Ω = 2.57E + 04 mpc. But the visibility limits of radiation in the observable universe has a close value of 28194.57497 mpс! And this is an established fact. Therefore, at a distance of 2.57E + 04 mpc, a primary flash occurred with EMR radiation and the sea MeeV Ω, and this process is the formation of quasars from the Black Stars pre-stellar object, known as the big bang, but not the central one - but in many centers! The proposed distance calculation protocol is used on (Zspec + Zphot)/2 data for quasars and galactic nuclei. As predicted, the distance to the edge of the Universe increased by an order of magnitude, but the previously calculated one suggested the lower limit - this is equilibrium microwave radiation. But there is radiation of longer wavelengths and therefore this distance data for quasar`s does not contradict the general concept. Therefore, we push the outer boundary of the Universe up to D ≈ 1.27E + 05 mpc! The diagram of quasar "redshift - distance" 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0,00E+00 2,00E+04 4,00E+04 6,00E+04 8,00E+04 1,00E+05 1,20E+05 1,40E+05 Distance: The quantization algorithm for the distance wavelength n allows you to calculate the distance to a stellar object with precise accuracy, namely: D = ⅀n = ⅀ 0(1 + n*Ho*= 0[1+ Ho* n*(1+n)/2], (6) где n = (0n)/Ho. For this purpose, it is enough to set the wavelength - the frequency and measure the final frequency. 14.0. Ultra cold photons. From the experiment ≡ h*c = e*u*λ (j * m) . And if с = λ*νλ ≡ h*ν, and this leads to the complex form of representation of the vector of energy of photons of electromagnetic radiation. For these reasons, (eV · m) is a wave vector - a constant that is the conjugate constant of the Planck corpuscles h(j * s), and both together, through &, determine the energy of the photons of electromagnetic radiation. And the complex vector of energy EMI e = (h*ν ± i * (k)) determines the energy density in the form E2 = (e * e`)/2 and therefore the factor √2*| e | probably takes place as an average statistical parameter. And wave-particle duality is realized in the following way: with an increase in frequency, a quantum acquires properties to a greater extent as a particle and, with a larger increase, turns into resonances or elementary particles in cosmic rays; and with an increase in the wavelength, the quantum acquires more properties of the wave and, with its further increase, “dissolves” in vacuum! The speed of the quantum of energy of electromagnetic radiation varies from the rest of elementary particles, the speed of light → 299 792 km / s, followed by equilibrium microwave radiation → 304 760 km / s, followed by the effect of spatial - temporal splitting of the spectrum from supernovae, with acceleration in the radio wave region, and in conclusion, the little-studied area of ultra cold photons is uncertainty. From these fragmentary, but reliably established data, we can expect surprises in the properties of photons of ultra-cold frequencies with energy n * Ω, with n = 1,2,3, ... the propagation speed of which is perhaps much higher than the speed of light! 14.1. The propagation velocity of the radiation Ω MeeV. The wavelength Ω from the birth of the universe is max = Ω = 2.57E + 04 mpc. But if we assume an increase in the wave velocity with an increase in its length, then the propagation velocity Ω is equal to c o >> c, because max = co, where ! And the fact that co >> с can explain a lot about quantum effects and white spots of the thin world of Hyperspace Vacuum! It is completely different, not similar to ours and parallels with our world are unlikely to help him understand! 15.0. The entanglement of photons! There are no random number generators in nature because there is a lemma (we will offer it) in chaos theory: “every chance is an undisclosed pattern”, which saves the determinism of the Universe! On the other hand, the radiation MeeV Ω has a high density in a vacuum and is emitted by photons at each pulsation - this is a poorly studied area of vacuum and it is possible that this fact is the root cause of entanglement. Indeed, from the definition of MeeV (graviton) Ω ≡ h*Ho & Ho, we assume that there is a graviton with opposite properties, a pair of which is born simultaneously with a pair of photons and does not lose its connection with the Ariadne string. And the gravitons Ω and ℧ determine two possible polarizations of the photon and, as a result, we have an exhaustive explanation of quantum entanglement. Above item 9.2, when establishing the nature of the phantom pulsations when transmitting energy from a radiation source to a flat pendulum, the definition of “Ariadne thread” was already used in the sequence of transmitting energy quanta. It is possible that in the process of “pulsation” the phantom changes its polarization with the Ω and ℧ gravitons, otherwise it is impossible to explain all these processes. 16.0. The generation of gravitational momentum. It has been established  that the source of gravitational radiation of phantoms are processes leading to an excess or to a deficit of the binding energy of both elementary particles and atoms, and the molecules forming the material body. Actually, during the deformation of the elastic plate in the field of the force of the earth, it was experimentally established that a body of mass m deforms the elastic plate by h during t =, 0425 seconds, while h is a function of m, but time t, in the first approximation, constant. But if we assume that this period of time is necessary for the response of the entire mass of MT with the speed of light, then we have the outer boundary of this sphere D = 12741.179 km, which is the diameter of the Earth. On the other hand, measuring the alpha rhythm of the planet with a flat pendulum  leads to a frequency value of ~ 11 hertz and which leads to such a full period value (here and there), 09 s close to t =, 0425 s in one direction! 16.1. The flat pendulum allows you to register alpha resonance of the Planets, and, consequently, the radiation of gravity of space. The main findings of the observation of radiation phantoms. Each planet of the solar system has its own alpha resonance frequency - which is fixed by the detector; In case of powerful cataclysms on the Sun, a response of the planets occurs, which is fixed by a sensor on the planet earth; With more powerful cataclysms in remote space, the detector captures the line of all the planets of the solar system. Unidentifiable resonance lines are also observed - presumably the planets of Nibiru and Phaeton ! A resonance of neutron stars of 24 Hz, followed by the generation of alpha resonances of the planetary system of the sun, turned out to be a forced flash of merging GW170817! 17.0. The pulsating model of the material body - pulsar M. Imagine a stable elementary particle as a pulsating quanta which is “glued” by a charge q. According to the basic property of the EMP, with each pulsation, the quanta loses an element of energy - Ω = 1.5629E-33 eV. But on the other hand, the stability of the particle is provided by the binding energy and, therefore, this loss is compensated by the charge q from the vacuum environment. As a result, there is a flow of elements of energy Ω, now gravitons, in the direction of the particle, which creates its field of aggression. For example: a particle with a wavelength λ = 2.43 nm and a frequency = 1.23E+20 Hz, therefore, the rest energy has the value E=m*c2 = 510223.05 ev, which is 99.7% of the mass of an electron (positron) . According to this model, the total flow of energy “runoff – inflow” e ± is equal to P = ± 1.92243E-13 ev/s. It is for these reasons that an identity holds: E = h*≡M*c2, which will be used in the future. 17.1. The algorithm for calculating the field of the Sun - g = 279.9586 m/s2. We will “imagine” the Sun to be a star with a uniform mass of mass M, radius R, filled with hydrogen - 75% and helium - 25%. The calculated number of atoms is equal to: H = 8.74E + 56 and He = 7.39E + 55, which leads to the power of the “sinkinflow” energy Ω (gravitons) 4.96E + 28 watts and 1.68E + 28 watts, respectively. As a result: the star Sun consumes power P ≈ 6.64E+28 Watt, according to the proposed model (as a gas) or as a single mass P = 6.75578E+28 Watt. On the other hand, the energy of the gravitational field of the sun, calculated by the formula for a homogeneous ball is U = -3GM2/(5*R) = 1.79E+47 j (kg*m2/s2), and now if we assume that the frequency of the gravitational field equal to 2.78E-19 Hz, we obtain the power P ≈ 6.64E+28 watts and the coincidence with the previous calculations is complete. 17.2. Conclusion of the law for MT. If the total power of the Sun is divided by the area of the sphere surrounding it, then we get the formula for the flow of energy of gravitons: P = W / (4*R2) (J/m2/s). (7) In deriving this equation, we used the connection of the mass of the body M and its equivalence of the radiation energy M = h*c2! The calculations lead to the result P = 1.09E+10 J/m2/s - on the surface of the sun. The largest nebula in this research algorithm is introduced by the parameter the frequency of gravitons, which was previously allowed a primary value ≈ 2.78E-19 Hz! 17.3. The field of the planet Earth - g = 9,801 m/s2 The mass of the earth consists of a set of elements and it is almost impossible to determine their specific contribution to the formation of the flow of energy of gravitons with good accuracy, therefore, the total power has the form W = Ω*(M=⅀ Mi)*c2/h (watt), where the total mass is the sum of the elements, including nucleons and electrons. For the planet Earth, the total power of the graviton flux is W=2.03E+23Watt (j/s). Power of graviton energy flux to the Earth: P=W/(4* R2) (W/m2 =j/s/m2), as a result, the power of graviton energy flow per 1 m2 of the Earth’s surface is equal to such a fantastic value P = 397680737.4 J/s/m2! But if we fit body mass m on a surface of 1 m2, we end up with a well-known version of classical mechanics, because, this energy passes m as through glass. But nevertheless, a body of mass m consumes some energy from this stream! For example: if a body with a mass of m = 1 kg is placed on an area of 1 m2, then we obtain such a value of power consumption energy W = 3.40E-02 W or radiant energy flux P = 0.0027029 J/s/m2, which is ultimately leads already to the weight of the body on the surface of the Earth, as well as to the acceleration of free fall g = 9.801 m/s2. 17.4. Gravity and antigravity. Hypothesis: Graviton Ω must have its own thesis, antigraviton ℧, so the superposition Ω + ℧ → x, which follows from the annihilation reaction: e - + e+ → 2Tr. Note that the total electron energy is E = mc 2 = 1.50E-10 j, and according to the dissipative model, the energy loss is E = 5.68E-29 (watt) and in a second the ratio of loss to E / mc2 = 3.78E-19 ! Negligible, but sufficient for the stability of the electron (positron) and moreover MeeV is the source of the fields of both the electric field and possibly electric fields, because the charges q ± are the sources of gravitons Ω and ℧. And the Tron is Tr → q++ q- and therefore it accumulates MeeV (Ω, ℧) and returns them in further processes of redistribution of vacuum energy. That is why, for neutral in charge bodies, the described processes are the source of the fields of gravity, and the flows of gravitons Ω and ℧ are not equivalent, to one or another side! This mechanism can explain information about the absence of attraction of small bodies, as well as the facts of the movement of massive bodies by man since ancient times or levitation, flying in a dream and a lot of other facts inexplicable by science. For intrigue: the positive, vital energy of Qi arises as a result of the interaction of Yin energy and Yang energy. Harmony of Qi energy lies in the balance between Yin energy and Yang energy. These energies are constantly striving to overwhelm each other. Both are in close relationship with each other and are able to turn into one another, because Yang is Yin, and Yin is Yang. What are the gravitons Ω and ℧ and why - when leaving the field of photon, the energy of the photon disappears (redshift), and when it enters the field, it increases (violet displacement)? Interesting questions, but no answer, not yet! 17.5. Annihilation of an electron - positron pair of leptons. When trying to calculate the bond energy defect “sum of masses minus two photons”, the problem arises - there is no binding energy! With the annihilation of an electron - positron pair, there must be a binding energy because - as a result of mutual transformations of elementary particles, as a rule, the binding energy is released or absorbed - photons or neutrinos. If all energy is emitted in the form of two photons, what then remains in the rest? Nothing, but then the triad axiom about clusters is violated: “under the condition of the existence of both positively and negatively charged particles, the neutral particles of this cluster certainly exist”. This rule holds for all clusters of elementary particles, with the exception of electron and muon! And what is a stable elementary particle electron and positron? It can be represented as a symbiosis of charge ± q and pulsation - quantum. Moreover, the latter is in a bound state by an elementary electric charge. And if the electron charge is q=1.6E−19 C, and its mass is me = 9.11E−31 kg, then the Coulomb repulsion or attraction force of electrons (positrons) is greater than the force of their gravitational attraction in k ≅ 4×1042 just that indicates the possibility of such a symbiosis! Moreover, the details of such a structure can be omitted due to the nebula of our ideas, but only assume that when a pair of leptons encounter a mutual compensation of charges occurs, and the photons released from captivity fly away in opposite directions! Well, in the rest we have a pulsating pair of charges of opposite signs, which do not disappear due to the law of their conservation: e+ + e- = eo + 2, where eo = q- + q+ = Tr (throne). (8) As a result, Vacuum is a medium consisting of eo (thrones), real candidates for intermediaries in the propagation of an electromagnetic wave due to re-radiation and, moreover, such a medium can have a fairly decent density, which follows from the wavelength of high-frequency photons. It turns out that the ether (it’s also a physical vacuum) contains quite real eo-trons (not at all “virtual”), which has been confirmed experimentally. Moreover, during the photon pulsation the key role should be played by the throne - taking the quantum energy and then radiating it, but minus 1 Ω MeeV, which ensures its red extragalactic energy shift. The proposed process of pulsation with the transfer of a quantum of energy involves the electromagnetic properties of photons, as well as the throne, as a pulsating alternating elemental charge that accumulates and transmits the energy of a quantum! 17.6. Graviton. The proposed model of elementary particles allows the development, namely: the rule of dissipative energy loss by photons of electromagnetic radiation implies a loss of 1 Ω MeeV for each pulsation of quanta of leptons. But on the other hand, the particles are stable and therefore this loss of energy must be replenished from the vacuum, which forms the flow of energy, now gravitons Ω. The calculation of the ratio of the energy flow per second to the total energy is k = E/mc2 = 3.78E-19 times, which indicates the minimum contribution of the gravity process to the energy balance! And this means, again, that the annihilation energy is determined only by the Coulomb energy of separation (fusion) of charges and is in no way connected with the particle mass and its “rest energy” and, accordingly, has a purely electrodynamic origin. Further, the analysis of large arrays of EMP photon energy displacements from various classes of stellar objects led to a hypothesis: when the photon leaves the field, the photon energy is lost (redshift), and when it enters the field, it increases the existence of a graviton Ω admits the thesis anti-graviton ℧ just to maintain symmetry! 17.7. A lot of leptons. There is no contribution from the existence of a charge in the e-n mass, that is, electric charges exist and have a real interaction with magnetic and electric fields, but the elementary charges ± q do not participate in e-n movements, but pass the baton in the direction of a bunch of lepton energy - the polarization effect? And how is the electron mass measured? The classic way is to dissipate an electron with a potential difference, and its mass is calculated by the formula E = mv 2/2. More complex experiments allow using the quantum electrodynamics equation to obtain data on the electron mass compared to the proton mass. But in these experiments, the mass is equivalent to the energy of EMI quanta and therefore, there is no data on the mass - the energy of the elementary charge ± q! 18.0. Wave (k) and corpuscular (h* paradigms. From the accessible side, any information about the Universe can be obtained in the only correct way - this is by detecting and exploring EMR packets from observable material bodies. The main property of the corpuscle and the wave is in their quantum nature and therefore, time and space - is a consequence of the frequencies - energy, wavelength and radiation velocity of the waves of Cosmos. It was previously established that the propagation velocity is Ω MeeV c = max >> co, where аmax = /Ω = 2.57E + 04 mpc and therefore we will do some small calculations. If with each pulsation the energy - the photon frequency decreases according to the -Ω law, then the frequency after n pulsations will have the value: n = (0 - n*Ω/h), and the number of pulsations - n=n=h*(0n)/Ω. And the wavelength during n pulsations acquires the value n = 0 + n* where Ω/n, which results in its value after n pulsations: n = 0/(1 n*Ω/0). And finally, the partial speed of photons after n pulsations is: с = с0*(1– n*Ω / (h*0))/(1-n*Ω / 0), where с0 = *0 is the initial speed of the photon packet. It can be seen that the speed of light is constant when the identity is fulfilled - h*0 ≡ 0, and you can make sure of it in an experiment with an x-ray tube: when measuring the particle h, we measure 0, and when measuring the wave constant we measure 0 and as a result we have the speed - 0*0 = co for X rays! That is, we prove the truth in the identity h*c≡ c connects the equivalent EMP constants! But on the other hand, of interest is the process of dissolution of the photon at the end of its path after N pulsations and which leads to uncertainty | 0/0 | in the equation for the speed value! Opening this uncertainty according to the rule of L'Hôpital, we have as a result a finite value of the velocity for the 'remnant' of a photon с*с 0=1! But the speed of 3,336 mm/s for the 'remnant' of the photon proves that as a result of the dissolution of the photon, we do not have radiation a wave, but already a corpuscle! This is a kind of core that “sticks together” N MeeV Ω into quantum energy. 18.1. Consequences of hypermechanics. Corollary 1: A gas-dust cloud (or material bodies), in the field of a star, will never unite with a star, but will form “rings”, like in Saturn, or an asteroid belt, like in the Sun, or will become satellites of the planet. This fact results from the existence of a tangential component of the force field of a star, which will not allow a material body to approach a star closer than a certain radius of its orbit due to its mass and dynamic parameters. Corollary 2: A gas-dust cloud, in a free state, will never unite into a planet or, especially, a star of any class. This fact results from the absence of a central field of energy, as a source of the flow of energy elements, and the total field that forms a gas-dust cloud does not have a central symmetry, but chaotically and therefore does not condense dust. The above analysis of the available data unambiguously indicates the failure of the existing theory of theories, theories of formation and transformation, of both star objects and planets. 18.2. EMR photons do not have a rest mass, but have a boost! The macroscopic manifestation of the Lorentz force is the Ampere force. For the Lorentz force, as well as for the forces of inertia, Newton's third law is not satisfied. Only by reformulating this Newton's law as the law of conservation of momentum in a closed system of particles and an electromagnetic field, can it be restored to the Lorentz forces. And from the side of electric E and magnetic B fields, the force acting on the charge q is expressed as: F = q * (E + [vxB]). There are misinterpretations: the total energy released during the annihilation of an electron - positron pair, according to the accepted model, should be equal to E = 2*m*с2 = 1.022 MeV, which is exactly equal to the energy of two quanta during annihilation. And where is the contribution from elementary electric charges and binding energy?! 18.3. The vacuum energy can be either a positive E or a negative quantity , while the rules for the addition and subtraction of energy in hypermechanics are valid: ∑ = E + i * ≠ 0 and E– i (according to the accepted concept [TT]), therefore, for the density of zero vacuum energy the identity E2 + Ω ≠ is valid, where Ω is vacuum fluctuations, white noise! 19.0. EMR photons do not have a rest mass, but have a finite lifetime, slowing down the speed and dissolving in a vacuum environment! The dissipative model of the redshift of the photon energy leads to the fact of the finite time of their life due to the slowing down of speed and their decay. In determining C n, the following facts established above were used: 1. The minimum element of vacuum energy → Ω ≡ Ho*h & Ho1.5629E-33 ev. 2. Planck’s corpuscular constant and wave constant are related as follows: =h*c. 3. The dissipative redshift model, which states that with each pulsation, the photon loses the minimum vacuum energy (MeeV) Ω to occur, since it is based on large data arrays of Sn1A displacements. 4. The stability of elementary particles is ensured by the influx of gravitons (MeeV). 5. The dependence of the redshift on the distance is strictly linear Z = Ho * r, and quantization of the Hubble constant leads to the following connection: H o/c = Ho = 2.374E-19 Hz. 6. The distance from the data of the displacement of the wavelength Z is determined by quantization of the wavelength d = ⅀n. The summation takes into account the increase in wavelength. 7. The number of pulsations is determined by the energy shift: n = hn)/Ω. Further, the maximum sensitivity of light falls on 555 nm (540 THz), in the green part of the spectrum and therefore, these values will be used in the calculations. And the maximum of the CMB radiation falls at a frequency of 160.4 GHz, which corresponds to a wavelength of 1.9 mm and an energy E ≈ 3E-4 ev, which is just as important! The dissipative model of energy loss by photons leads to its frequency: n = (0 - n*Ho), with the number of pulsations - n = h*(0n)/Ω = (0n)/Ho. And accordingly, the wavelength has the following valuen = 0 + n* where Ω / after n pulsations and finally: n = 0 (1 + n*Ho*The values for the wavelength and frequency of photons allow you to calculate its partial velocity: Сn =n*n = (1+ n*Ho*c - n*H*. (8) Photon partial velocity km/s 350000 velosity km/s 300000 250000 200000 150000 100000 50000 0 0 5 10 15 20 distancy log n 25 30 35 40 The graph shows the relationship of the partial speed of photons, depending on the number of pulsations at a distance. The yellow color indicates the area of the CMB radiation, which indicates a slowing down of the speed of photons with their subsequent dissolution in vacuum. And despite the low energy of the relic photons E ≈ 3 · 10-4 ev, there is a release of 1.92E + 29 MeeV Ω, or gravitons, when the relic photon is dissolved (disintegrated)! Actually, both the wavelength and the frequency of electromagnetic radiation may differ significantly from the relic photons, and their lifetimes create an insurmountable barrier for distant stars! 19.1. This fact is a catastrophe for all cosmological theories since the big bang, and therefore, we push the outer boundary of the universe even beyond D≈1.27E+05 mpc! And perhaps it does not exist at all, because the finite lifetime of photons does not make it possible to be convinced of the presence or absence of this face! The density of the background radiation energy is 0.25 ev/cm3 (4E−14 J/m3) or 400500 f /cm3, which decaying to form the vacuum energy. In the whole space of the visible Universe, the arrival of the density Ω from relic radiation is fantastically high and to this it is necessary to add the contribution from the dissipative energy loss of other types of radiation. And if the density is constant, then the flow rate for maintaining the stability of material bodies is also stable! As a result, the flow of gravitons Ω in the direction of the center of mass MT M and form a stable field of aggression, because - the photons of electromagnetic radiation do not have a rest mass, but have a momentum, which is transmitted to the body m in this field! This is the way to solve the problems of the grand unification of physical theories - from the elements of the vacuum Ω ≡ Ho*h & Ho radiation of electromagnetic radiation and gravity, as well as quantization of the nature of stars and energy - the space of the Universe! 19.2. Slowing down the speed of photons. And what will happen to the photon radiation parameters - speed, wavelength and frequency at the end of the path? And the following will happen: at the end of the path, there is energy and other parameters of relic photons and “decay” into the constituent elements of vacuum energy. That is, relict radiation is a border after which there are no photons or more precisely, with these parameters EMR can exist, but with a time limit. For this reason, the CMB is the minimum age of the universe, and the real one is equal to the uncertainty. The following restriction is also true: if we construct a sphere with a radius of R ≈ 1.15E+07 mpc, then it is physically impossible to obtain information beyond this sphere - there are no photons of radiation from those star worlds! differential km/s 0 0,00E+00 -5E-29 Light speed differential (km/s) 5,00E+06 1,00E+07 1,50E+07 -1E-28 -1,5E-28 -2E-28 -2,5E-28 -3E-28 distance mpc The main reason for the decay of photons is apparently the slowing down of speed, which eventually leads to its defocusing, that is: (c - cn) = n * n ≠ s! During this process, it is “scattered” on MeeV in the amount of 1.92E + 29 Ω, or gravitons, when the relic photon decays E ≈ 3–10–4 ev! In this way, it was found that, together with the loss of energy Ω, with each pulsation, a slowing down of the photon propagation speed by a small quantum quantity cn occurs, and these two factors are enough to cause its defocusing and decay as a result 20. Resume. The transformation of vacuum energy in the hyperspace of Euclid + Poincaré determine the picture of our macrocosm! Thus, the sad story of birth, life and death of photons is a connecting factor from the birth of the Universe and the further transformation of various forms of energy, which is determined by the array of gravitons born from photons! First of all, the stability of the bosonic form of matter is ensured by the work of the flow of binding energy, which is carried by gravitons. The energy of their existence is directed to the performance of this work, and moreover, the Ω MeeV flows in the direction of the center of mass of the star form a force field. Yes, gravitons do not have a rest mass, but have a wave impulse, which is transmitted to body m upon absorption thereof, and the high flux density levels their meager energy Ω (h*H0) & (Ho) MeeV! Here, Ho and Ho are the Habla quantum constants, which determine both the time of existence and the distance to the edge of the Universe, and h and the particle and wave constants, the dimension of work. An interesting fact is that if MeeV Ω is presented as a wave, then its length is the distance of the edge of the universe, and the frequency determines the time of its existence. Therefore, the vacuum constant Ω is a kind of string from the birth of the Universe! The main properties of photons should include the dissipative loss mechanism of both MeeV Ω energy and their speed c with each pulsation, and at the end of the path - photons acquire the parameters of relic radiation with decay into an array of gravitons in density approximately equal to the number of pulsations before its death! But the birth of photons was accompanied by the processes of the birth of stars, planets and the whole diversity of the bosonic form of the Universe matter in hellish cauldrons - galactic nuclei - quasars. This fact is indicated by the quantization of all stars and planets and which leads to the conclusion that the beginning of all beginnings is the “Black Stars” stellar object with a quantum number 0 and with such parameters: M/Msun = 234797; R/Rsun = 10666; Rsh = 2GM/c2 = 7.425E+14; P(g/cm3) = 2.74E-07. There are two interesting points in these data: with the compactness factor k ≈ 1, the Schwarzschild radius puts the maximum dark energy density of a stellar object close to the density in the core, but on the other hand the density of the bosonic form of matter is minimal. That is why the transformation of the dark energy “Black Stars” into the bosonic form of matter leads to the birth of the whole variety of the star worlds of the Universe. And all these processes are accompanied by the birth of photon showers in a wide range of energies, wavelengths, and also gravitons! But the cherry in the picture of Cosmology introduces a finite lifetime of relic photons - ≈ 3,74176E + 13 l.y. and the way to their decay S ≈1,15E+07 mpc. So, the finite time is the minimum lifetime of the Universe, and if you build a sphere with radius S in the Universe, then information is physically absent from more distant star worlds - that is, relict photons will dissolve already! For these reasons, it makes sense to say only about the minimum time of peace and distance to the edge of our now compact or limited Universe! Title and content. 1.0. Let's start with the discovery of the key constant Ω MeeV, in Astrophysics. 2.0. The fundamental property of phantoms. 3.0 Hyperspace, Time. 4.0 Formalization. A true scalar or invariant is work. 5.0. Physical Vacuum. 6.0. Newton's paradoxes of mechanics and the secrets of gravity - without it in way. 7.0. Nature of gravity and fields of aggression 7.1. The flow of the binding energy that determines the structure 7.2. Obviously, the outlined concept of the nature of the field is 8.0. Quantum dynamics of electromagnetic radiation and hyperspace. 8.1. Energy of photons and corpuscular wave duality of EMR 8.2. True scalar or invariant is work 8.3. The dissipative photon life model allows 8.4. Now a bit of history. 8.5. It should be! 8. 6. Radial velocities supernovae 1a. 9.0. Elementary particles, vacuum. 9.1. Cluster Axiom - Triads: 9.2. Very neutral muon 0. 9.2. The hypothetically elusive neutrino particle is a phantom. 9.3. The theory of resonances and the lifetime of elementary particles. 9.3. So there is a throne or Tr ≡ e0 → e- + e+ - 2* 9.4. Hypothesis: Stable elementary particle e- + is representable 9.5. What is a material body and movement in vacuum liquid glass? 10.0. Quantum Hypermechanics. 11.0. Quantum astronomy. The discrete nature of star objects. 12.0. Spatio - temporal splitting of the spectrum sn1a. 12.1. An interesting fact! 12.2. Existence of the outer boundary of a star of the Sun R0 = ~ 4.77 pc 12.3. Gravitational lens of a star. 12.4. Hubble Telescope Reviews 13.0. Volumetric explosion of the Black Stars array as the birth of the Universe! 13.1. Distance from the birth of the universe. 14.0. Ultra-cold photons. 14.1. The propagation velocity of the radiation Ω MeeV. 15.0. The entanglement of photons! 16.0. The generation of gravitational momentum. 16.1. The flat pendulum allows you to register the alpha resonance of the Planets, 17.0. The pulsating model of the material body - pulsar M. 17.1. The algorithm for calculating the field of the Sun. 17.2. Conclusion of the law for MT. 17.3. The field of the planet Earth. 17.4. Gravity and antigravity. 17.5. Annihilation of an electron - positron pair of leptons. 17.6. Graviton. 17.7. A lot of leptons. 18.0. Wave (k) and corpuscular (h* paradigms. 19.0. Consequences of hypermechanics. 20.0. Resume and Problems of modern astrophysics and their solutions. P.S. I would be grateful for the correctness and in order to avoid reputational misinterpretations when using the important results of this work and accompany them with a reference to the author of this original! I will say this, there are no former physicists — theoreticians, while we are still alive! Thanks again for your sensitivity! Wine state farm, fort True 27.12.2018.