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Single- and multi-cavity beam masers for microwave and ultramicrowave frequencies

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M cG inn, V in c e n t P a u l
BEAM STEER ABLE MICROWAVE ANTENNA FO R AUTOMOTIVE RADAR
APPLICATION
The Pennsylvania S ta te University
University
Microfilms
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Ph.D.
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Copyright 1985
by
McGinn, Vincent Paul
All Rights Reserved
1985
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University
Microfilms
International
The P e n n s y l v a n i a
State
The G r a d u a t e
Department
of
University
School
Electrical
Engineering
Beam S t e e r a b l e M i c r o w a v e A n t e n n a
f o r Automotive Radar A p p l i c a t i o n
A Thesis
Electrical
in
Engineering
by
Vincent
Paul
Mc Gi nn
Subm itted in P a r t i a l F u l f i l l m e n t
of t h e Requirements
f o r th e Degree of
Doctor of
Philosophy
May 1985
(c)
1985 by V i n c e n t
Paul
Mc Gi nn
I g r a n t Th e P e n n s y l v a n i a S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y t h e n o n e x ­
c l u s i v e r i g h t t o u s e t h i s wo r k f o r t h e U n i v e r s i t y ' s own
p u r p o s e s a n d t o ma k e s i n g l e c o p i e s o f t h e w o r k a v a i l a b l e
t o t h e p u b l i c on a n o t - f o r - p r o f i t b a s i s i f c o p i e s a r e n o t
otherwise av ailab le.
Vincent
Paul
Mc Gi nn
We a p p r o v e t h e t h e s i s
Dat e o f
of
Vincent
Paul
McGi nn.
Signature:
Da l e M. G r i m e s , P r o f e s s o r o f
E l e c t r i c a l E n g i n e e r i n g and Head
o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t , Co mmi t t e e
C h a i r m a n and T h e s i s A d v i s o r
7 n 'L ,J 8rc
Lynn A. C a r p e n t e r , A s s o c i a t e
P r o f e s s o r of E l e c t r i c a l
Engi n e e r i ng
L e s l i e E. C r o s s , P r o f e s s o r
E l e c tr ic a l Engineering
of
&
P e t e r D. U s h e r , A s s o c i a t e
P r o f e s s o r o f As t r o n omy
ra
i? <r
F r a n c i s T . S . Yu, P r o f e s s o r
Elec tr ic a l Engineering
of
ABSTRACT
Research
developed
for
(baseline)
radar
system.
vehicle.
caused
The s y s t e m
On-the-road
are
panoramic
real
in
public
views of
radar
system
collision
studied
testing
an
response.
through
use of
a be am s t e e r a b l e
avoidance
radar
application,
end,
of p e r f e c t i n g
system
cost
a new m i c r o w a v e d e v i c e
Cadmi um S e l e n i d e
material
suitable
o f a l ow p o w e r
a n t e n n a which
design
(CdSe)
is
is
completely.
situations
as
a nd
resolution)
Since
the
collision
consumer
are
To t h i s
suggested.
a photoconductive
Geometry M o d i f i c a t i o n
A primitive
photoconductive
Test
by
performance
a necessity.
proposed
and a n a l y z e d .
alarms"
dynamics
improved
and t e c h n i q u e
the
the
and
accompanied
antenna.
structure.
incorporates
expectations
and
be w i d e s p r e a d
for Apparent
radiating
been c o n s t r u c t e d
rate
effectiveness
to
of
production
suggests
an a u t o m o t i v e
should
traffic
vehicle
gathered
false
goal
respect
"false
situations
(lower
ultimate
a frequency
The p r o g r a m u t i l i z e s
representing
alarm
automotive
accomplished
television
driving
Data
at
with
and compl ex
enhancement
the
avoidance
been
broadcasting.
techniques
an e x p e r i m e n t a l
Specifically,
18-minute
data
of
operates
has
rails
actual
time te le m etr y
on t h e
performance
highlighted.
demonstrated
for
reports
a beam s t a t i o n a r y
by h i g h w a y g u a r d
suitable
the
looking
and e m i t s
deficiencies
herein
documenting
forward
36 G i g a h e r t z
are
described
results
(AGM)
microwave
device
has
have matched
iv
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
A B S T R A C T .....................................................................................................................
iii
LI ST OF C H A R T S ............................................................................................................ v i i i
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ................................................................................................
ix
CHAPTER
1.
INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................
1. 1
1.2
1.3
2.
Automotive Radar P o t e n t i a l
..........................
A u t o m o t i v e R a d a r P r a c t i c a l i t y ....................
O b j e c t i v e s o f t h i s W o r k ....................................
1
3
6
BACKGROUND.......................................................................................
11
2.1
2.2
3.
R e s e a r c h V e h i c l e s D e s c r i p t i o n .....................
2.1.1
W a r n i n g D e c i s i o n ......................................
2.1.2
Radar Sensor D e s c r i p t i o n . . . .
2.1.3
Radar Sensor T r a i t s
...........................
P e r f o r m a n c e Data D oc um e n t a t i o n
. . . .
2.2.1
T e l e m e t r y System C o n s i d e r a t i o n s
2.2.1.1
Telemetry Transm itter .
2.2.1.2
Telemetry Receiver
. .
2.2.1.3
T e l e m e t r y System
C a l i b r a t i o n ...........................
2.2.2
Completed T e l e v i s i o n P r o d u c t i o n
PROBLEM STATEMENT
3.1
3.2
3.3
4.
1
..................................................................
Beam S t e e r i n g T e c h n i q u e s ...............................
A p p a r e n t G e o m e t r y M o d i f i c a t i o n (AGM)
.
A p p a r e n t G e o m e t r y M o d i f i c a t i o n (AGM)
S t i m u l a t i o n ......................................................................
MICROWAVE PHOTOCONDUCTORS
4.1
4.2
4.3
11
12
14
17
18
19
22
27
29
30
37
37
42
44
............................................
49
Material C h aracteristics
...............................
4.1.1
R e s i s t a n c e ......................................................
4.1.2
L i g h t H i s t o r y ...........................................
4.1.3
S p e e d o f R e s p o n s e ................................
4.1.4
S p e c t r a l Response
................................
Device C o n f ig u r a tio n
..........................................
4.2.1
F a b r i c a t i o n ................................................
D e v i c e C h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n .....................................
49
52
53
55
58
59
63
64
V
Table
of C ontents,
continued
CHAPTER
Page
4.3.1
4.4
5.
RADIATING STRUCTURE DEMONSTRATION
5.1
5.2
5.3
6.
In tr in s ic Capacitance Determina­
t i o n ......................................................................
4.3.2 Inductance Determination . . . .
4 . 3 . 3 Tuning t o D e s i r e d Fr equency of
R e s p o n s e ...................................................
75
Test Fixture C h a r a c te r is tic s
.......................
79
........................
83
B i h o r n A r r a y ...................................................................
5 . 1 . 1 B i h o r n C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ........................
D e m o n s t r a t i o n E q u i p m e n t ....................... • . . .
System Pe rf or m a nc e
..................................................
5.3.1
Predicted Performance
.......................
5 . 3 . 2 O b s e r v e d P e r f o r m a n c e .............................
83
86
88
92
93
94
CONCLUSION
6.1
6.2
65
70
...................................................................................
99
Summar y R e m a r k s ............................................................
Recommendations f o r F u r t h e r R es ear ch
.
99
101
R E F E R E N C E S ................................................................................................................. 105
APPENDIX
I:
Phase
Plane with
War ni ng
APPENDIX
II:
Block
Diagram o f
Radar Se ns or
APPENDIX
III:
Range C a l i b r a t i o n
APPENDIX
I V:
Data
APPENDIX
V:
Telemetry
Signals
APPENDIX
VI :
Telemetry
T ran sm itte rSchematics
APPENDIX
VII:
Telemetry
Receiver
APPENDIX
VIII:
Telemetry
C a l i b r a t o r ............ ............................
APPENDIX
I X:
M i c r o s t r i p Fe d Ho r n A n t e n n a S u i t a b l e
f o r A G M ................................................................. 138
APPENDIX
X:
Unloaded
APPENDIX
XI :
L o a d e d H o r n ........................................................ 142
Documentation
f o r Ford
Boundary
.
.
.
114
.
116
Granada
Technique
.
118
.
.
.............................................
Schematics
122
.
.
.
120
125
.
H o r n ...................................................140
130
136
vi
Table
of
Contents,
continued
Page
APPENDIX
XII:
Semiconductor
APPENDIX
XIII:
T y p e 4 , Cd Se T y p i c a l R e s i s t a n c e v s .
Illumination C haracteristics
. . .
146
V a ria tio n of Conductance with Light
H i s t o r y ......................................................................
148
APPENDIX
XI V:
Energy
Diagram
.
.
.
144
APPENDIX
XV:
Mi ni mum S e a r c h Ti me D e t e r m i n a t i o n (RF
C o n s i d e r a t i o n s ) .................................................
150
APPENDIX
XVI :
T y p e 4 , CdSe P e a k S p e c t r a l R e s p o n s e
6 9 0 . 0 N a n o m e t e r s .................................................. 154
APPENDIX
XVII:
LED O p t i c a l
APPENDIX
XVIII:
LED T r a n s f e r
APPENDIX
XI X:
Equivalent
APPENDIX
XX:
Microwave
APPENDIX
XXI :
Microwave P h o t o c o n d u c t i v e El ement
M o d e l s ............................................................................. 164
APPENDIX
XXII:
G e o m e t r i c Mo d e l u s e d i n D e t e r m i n i n g
Total (Untuned) Device C apac itance
166
Total Device C apacitance
Calculations
......................................................
168
APPENDIX
XXIII:
Output
Characteristic
Characteristic
Microwave
156
. . . .
Circuits
Photoconductive
.
.
158
.
.
160
Element
.
162
APPENDIX
XXIV:
Microwave P h o t o c o n d u c t i v e El ement
w i t h T u n e r ...................................................................171
APPENDIX
XXV:
SMA T e s t
APPENDIX
XXVI:
Mi ni
APPENDIX
XXVI I :
Isotropic
APPENDIX
XXVIII:
Bihorn
APPENDIX
XXIX:
Antenna
APPENDIX
XXX:
S c h e m a t i c Diagram o f Microwave
T r a n s m i t t e r ...................................................................186
Fixture
Pharaoh
Performance
Radiation
Sources
Radiation
.
Pattern
Sp a c e d |^-
.
.
.
.
173
.
.
178
.
.
180
Pattern
........................
182
RF C o n f i g u r a t i o n
.......................
184
vi i
Table
of
Contents,
continued
Page
APPENDIX XXXI :
Bihorn Phasor C a l c u l a t i o n s
(Amplitude to Phase Coversion)
189
APPENDIX X X X I I :
I n d u c t a n c e Formula S e n s i t i v i t y
A n a l y s i s ........................................................................192
APPENDIX X X X I I :
Demonstration
Equipment
Photographs
199
vi i i
LI ST OF CHARTS
CHART
Page
1.
Information
Transmission
2.
Fourier
3.
Steering
4.
Ty p e 4 Cadmi um S e l e n i d e
5.
Observed
Methods
..................................
20
.......................................
25
.................................................................
42
Components A t t e n u a t i o n
Techniques
R e s p o n s e T i me s
. . . .
Beam S t e e r i n g ............................................................
56
96
ix
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
A fortunate
by c a r i n g
individual
parents
during
thankful
to
both
provided
to
expand
interests.
excellent
Gri mes
providing
early
for
and e n h a n c e
research
also
guidance
in
the
thesis
the
areas
automotive
Dr .
L.
Dr.
Usher,
the
expert
microwave
optics,
advice
providing
materials,
Harris
the
data
( NHTSA) ,
support
following
support:
U.S.
Corporation,
technological
mu R a t a E r i e
to
financial
Transportation
Inc.,
and
Veterans
a nd
radar
a nd
Lynn C a r p e n t e r ,
Francis
in the
areas
Yu f o r
of
and e l e c t r o ­
provided
North America
Inc.
various
recognize
the
personnel
project
phases.
o f Mr .
Administration,
appreciated.
dissertation
staff
efforts
of
is
also
with
Penn S t a t e
Department
Display
generosity
this
industries
by D a t a
Through t h e i r
theme o f
and
P r o c t o r and Gamble.
t o Mr .
during
and f o r
analysis,
U. S.
indebted
central
Dale
Dr .
agencies
I am e s p e c i a l l y
Inc.
Dr.
a truly
Dr.
topic
and
respectively.
I am g r a t e f u l
for
Peter
to
t h e y ma d e a v a i l a b l e
techniques,
thank
original
thankful
Cross,
talents
the
I am a l s o
I am
encouragement they
I wish t o
of
offered
development.
a c c o m p a n i e d me w i t h
electromagnetics.
Eric
of
my t e c h n i c a l
committee.
suggesting
from m o t i v a t i o n
stages
o f my p a r e n t s
Good f o r t u n e
for
prospers
The
Products
Nor man W o l f f a n d
photoconductors
was
RCA
and
Vactec
the
realized.
provided
much a s s i s t a n c e
I particularly
William Burkhard,
wish
Mr .
to
Anthony
X
Cingle,
Joseph
Mr .
Vernon
Stewart,
Nu me r o u s
and e f f o r t
is
due t o
William
and
a n d Mr .
fellow
in
to
Mr .
thank
recommendations
Mr.
Bot h o f
is
State.
to
must
Duckworth
undertake
support
be s a i d
is
a n d Mr .
that
support
outstanding
typed
Carroll,
Ru s s
Dr .
Taras.
for
his
Hi s
e m p a t h y a nd
c o mme n t s
drafting.
by M r s .
special
Debbie
The
Putt.
commendation.
Their
many t i m e s .
instilled
i n me t h e
advanced
initial
study
at
Pe nn
appreciated.
novel
research
mo r e t h a n
and d e d i c a t i o n .
helping
Ferraro
antennas.
merit
deeply
provided
for
Kenneth
a program of
Mar y Sue p r o v i d e d
you"
Much g r a t i t u d e
Mr .
time
appreciated.
provided
spouse.
"thank
dissertation.
Anthony
regarding
Mr .
devoted
was a p p r e c i a t e d
Richard
Hi s
It
Dr.
McClelland,
a nd c o l l e a g u e s
Juan Muci,
individuals
responsiveness
confidence
Jr.
was p r o f e s s i o n a l l y
these
Dr .
Volz,
of t h i s
continually
A1 V a l e s k i
manuscript
John
Thoma s B a g i n s k i ,
Fleming,
friendship
Carl
Mr.
students
support
Dr.
I wish
Eminhizer,
me p a s t
d e ma n d s
understanding.
She d e s e r v e s
the
much o f
trying
the
moments.
a
She
special
1
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
1 .1
Automotive
Ea c h y e a r
automotive
injury
thousands
mishaps.
ranging
December
Radar P o t e n t i a l
of
people
Ev e n m o r e p e o p l e
from d i s l o c a t i o n s
1984,
Columbia
to
program,
"Sixty
automotive
air
bags
in
savinglives
support
of
safety
In
statistics
are
lives
contribute
will
statistic
device
American
believe
or even
a multitude
of
safety
(and
serious
Yet,
not have
to
Further,
the
distance
for
injury)
there
exists
be as
violent
there
is
avoided.
unthinking
headlamps:
stalled
the
operator
second
panic
vehicle
does
the
air
time,
highway
could
and as i n j u r i o u s
is
not
of
let
safety
eradicate
which
as
they
are
which
may
situation
"over-driving"
If,
45,000
is
accidents
late-night
cover
serious
a single
options
of
fatality
accidents
the
virtues
over
a class of
a class
popular
bags),
entirely
stop.
on t h e
extolled
its
statistics
Consider
Illumination
a safe
yet
On 30
by way o f
that
in
debilitating
loss.
In a y e a r ' s
to
be e n t i r e l y
where
to
sustain
devices (lik e
quoted.
lives
and p r e v e n t i n g
Of c o u r s e ,
foolhardy.
[14].
Minutes,"
[8].
fatality
does
often
their
limb
Broadcasting,
television
injury.
lose
the
a sufficient
us
road w ithout
say,
there
warning
was
a
lights,
a
2
collision
the
is
weather
mishap
that
is
the
is
to
system.
as
for
dictate
severity
of
operator
responding
accident
operator
restraint
already
occupants
with
the
other
as
seat
investigations
of
have
warning
classes
avoidance
belts
air
bags)
and a t t e m p t
avoiding
suggested
Thus,
system
could
with
to
impact
the
the
passive
cruise
automotive
others.
a
timely
"smart"
radar
Other
safety
presume
the
accident
protect
the
vehicle's
In c o n t r a s t ,
the
by t h e
b e c o me a p p a r e n t :
from a l l
impact.
Ye t t h e
associated
however,
system
physical
providing
and
the
A
lessened
radar
is
a radar
impacts.
quicker.
control
system,
radar
be
possibilities
radar
avoidance
the
the
would
This
where
Besides
of
hazard.
of
could
a
sufficient
driver
such
if
a case
in
must o c c u r .
instant
or
driver
regard
separate
place
the
if
example,
sensitivity
taken
intent
an
entirely
collision
collisions
just
such
the
or
of
in
impending
all
for
automotive
during
an
curved
clear
to
a collision
As a s a f e t y
(like
is
is
conscientious
mitigation.
regarded
measures
has
of
It
however,
collision
system
controls.
m u s t be
not,
that
warning,
application
probability
looking
numerous
provide
the
most
avoiding
dynamics
looking
optimum,
of
may be p o s e d ,
forward
road
provided
warning
One s h o u l d
situation
is
Eve n t h e
a forward
a panacea
the
may be a v o i d e d
(target)
react.
for
than
If
increased.
accident
wel come a d v a n c e
basis
probable.
less
further
obstruction
time
highly
in
radar
is
advance.
possibility
of
an
deployed
Some
3
automatic
to
radar
imagine,
radar
however,
could
liability
controlled
create
is
experimental
brake
how t h i s
an a r e a
that
research
involved
automatic
antiskid
braking
limit
radar
if
a
during
limit
provided)
experimental
systems,
therefore,
Brakes."
the
At no t i m e ,
road with
a portion
of)
unexpected
difficult
this
control
and q u i t e
however,
that
be p r a c t i c a l
or even
desirable!
Automotive
such
phase
The
of the
capable
of
from t h e
warning
These
referred
[105],
vehicles
engaged.
operator
to
or
as:
"Radar
operated
To t a k e
may r e s u l t
It
an a u t o m a t i c
collision
of
a practical
avoidance
is
on
(even
in
indeed
brake
would
ever
t wo
were
immature
techniques
microwave components
processing
electronics.
nation
witnessed
consumer o r i e n t e d
radar
is
has
been
results.
This
reliable
ignore.
operator
Systems"
a g o was u n t h i n k a b l e .
needed
Product
by a s i g n a l
the
of
Radar P r a c t i c a l i t y
The d e v e l o p m e n t
automotive
have
away f r o m t h e
imagine
are
exceeded.
feature
deleterious
application
solves!
that
were t h e
to
1.2
is
not d i f f i c u l t
cannot
beyond
Radar Braking
automatic
is
initial
as p r o m p t e d
and t o n e
Avoidance
it
the
vehicles
(light
"Collision
than
technologists
wo r k c o n d u c t e d
looking
It
over-ambitious
mo r e p r o b l e m s
presented
forward
[50].
not
system j u s t
at
all
at
and t h e
However,
a phenomenal
in
surprising
that
time:
necessary
the
growth
20 y e a r s
past
in
since
low-cost,
signal
10 y e a r s ,
radio
this
frequency
4
( RF)
communications
products
processing
equipment.
statement,
c o n s id e r each
that
X-band
replacing
doors
at
indeed
(10.5
area
switches
supermarkets,
to
imagine
replacement
switch!
The RF c o m p o n e n t s
radar
are
system.
not
available
( 1 0 0 GHz)
[35].
Arsenide
meeting
for
the
Millimeter
modest
hand-held
approximately
Microprocessors
horizon.
b e c o me
o f a 32
under
seen
are
(and
bit
and
their
radar
are
wavelengths
especially
are
that
Gallium
capable
of
requirements
a basic
sold
The s a me
four-
for
instrument
dollars.
everywhere.
higher)
that
in a sp ectrum
five
currently
Microprocessors
so e c o no mi c a l
exploited
are
microcomputers
possibility
the
today
are
no me mor y
ago.
and
an a u t o m o t i v e
(20 m i l l i w a t t s )
15 y e a r s
just
of
millimeter
with
is
s i m p l e ma t
RF s o u r c e s
consider
calculator
for
It
miniaturization.
power
are
automatic
doppler
Gunn s o u r c e s
of t h i s
realize
effective
end"
wavelengths
Second,
$200 j u s t
can be had t o d a y
personal
output
of
the
"front
the
package
radar.
a cost
data
transceivers
and h o s p i t a l s .
available
up t h r o u g h
First,
radar
in t h e s e
the
electronic
profundity
activation
that
Indium P h o s p h i d e
automotive
function,
for
used
unlike
in t e r ms o f
and
doppler
b e e n ma de f o r
Commercially
presently
attractive
has
the
separately:
airports,
reliable
transceivers
small-scale
To e m p h a s i z e
Gigahertz)
d o o r ma t
difficult
and
Th e 8 a n d
in vogue,
machine
associated
strengths
are
of consumer p r o d u c t s
for
with
16 b i t
the
t h e home on
firmware
being
including
have
5
sewing m a ch in es ,
persons
blenders,
who h a v e w i t n e s s e d
experimental
to
food
learn
vehicles
that
the
the
studied
warning
impressive
in
8 bit
microprocessor
of
these
experimental
m i c r o w a v e be am s c a n n i n g
accomplished
only
with
of
the
storage
target
aid
techniques,
signature
microwave
(pattern)
State-of-the-art
random a c c e s s
Fujitsu
access
only
Ltd.
times
2.5
microns,
the
It
for
the
should
Gigahertz
methods
of
are
[64,
(like
applicable
components.
to
81].
masking
In f a c t ,
Thus,
is
spatial
being
However,
data
provide
represented
256 k i l o b i t s
chip
Wi t h
occupies
bits
RAM w i t h
lengths
an a r e a
on a s i n g l e
of
of
34.1
chip
[35].
that
solid
state
a n d RF d e v i c e s
microstrip
at
are
not
and f i n l i n e
device
explains
beyond
100
production
are
RF c i r c u i t r y
observation
technologies
frequencies
many d i g i t a l
of
by
per chip.
dynamic
gate
a nd p h o t o l i t h o g r a p h y )
single
could
a 256 k i l o b i t
feasible
the manufacture
This
with
year
digital
entirely
have
Since,
electronic
be am s c a n n i n g
One m i l l i o n
exclusive.
techniques
entire
be r e c o g n i z e d
production
mutually
(RAMs)
i t s .debut t h i s
performed
processing
inexpensive
the
surprised
calculations.
100 n a n o s e c o n d s .
square m illim eters.
s h o u l d ma ke
the
is
of
recognition.
demonstrated
below
are
NMOS).
do n o t
me mor y t e c h n o l o g y
memories
has
research
vehicles
Many
performance
( I NTEL 8 0 8 0 ,
kinematic
density,
machines.
computation
capability,
embraces
high
this
decision
by a b a s i c
course,
and w a s h i n g
directly
and
why p r o d u c t i o n
6
costs
to
in
both
areas
be d e r i v e d
possibility
This
are
plummeting.
for
automotive
radar
o f an
integrated
system
may a p p e a r
quite
ambitious
development.
However,
radar
would f o l l o w
sensors
technological
such
an
would
standpoint,
integrated
incorporate
and
interference),
unit
of the
high
outlook
also
poses
signal
position
no a m b i e n t
electronic
proposed
mirror
radar
presently
the
no
radar
beyond
and s p a r k
be no
electronics
Th e e n t i r e
rear
for
an
This
those
view
unobstructed
location
that
systems
other
(e.g.,
control)
larger
duplexer,
interunit
of th e
b e a m.
why
The s e n s o r
control
allows
Fr om a
reason
antenna,
eliminate
electronic
would
automotive
practical.
back
area
stresses
injection
sensor
endure.
than
the
The
rear
view
itself.
Objectives
This
looking
for
in
of
requirements.
planar
to
substrate.
stage
reliable
and d e t e c t i o n .
directly
automotive
fuel
is
not
coding
This
and
present
modulator,
amplification,
vehicle.
sophisticated
1.3
(source),
would be p l a c e d
mirror
there
is
the
benefit
on t h e
on a s i n g l e
volume
a be a m s c a n n e d
microwave g e n e r a t o r
(supervisory
from
assembly
capitalizes
at
economical
An a d d i t i o n a l
wo r k
of t h i s
is
collision
developmental
significant
Work
a contributory
avoidance
effort
automotive
stages
closer
to
research
phases
are
to
advance
radar
systems
a consumer p r o d u c t .
presented:
forward
First,
from
Three
the
7
technique
developed
experimental
braking
is
suitable
of
program are
actual
processor
automotive
described.
culmination
(panoramic
documenting
(baseline)
system
production
for
for
this
views)
signals
public
phase.
associated
reflecting
real
dynamics).
The t e l e v i s i o n
format)
is
by n a t u r e .
the
impressive
system u t i l i z i n g
technology
which
old.
The p r o g r a m a l s o
highlights
the
to
the
highway
beam w h i c h
vehicle.
guard
widespread
collision
of
spatially
false
deployment
avoidance
"false
and
(or
degradation
by t h e
the
second phase of t h i s
to
the
possibility
explore
reliable)
electronic
me a n s
almost
alarms"
a decade
caused
with
alarms
forward
by
are
would
such
possibilities
an e f f o r t
for
could
simply because
operator.
research
an
was
conceived
inexpensive
spatial
be a c h i e v e d ,
reducing the
false
hamper
looking
be am
scanning.
If
by
respect
caused
situations
systems
achieving
and
(interview
is
of d eveloping
of
response
an a u t o m o t i v e
vehicle
Therefore,
the
(radar
of
nuisance)
radar
telemetry
steered
acceptance of
automotive
within
deficiencies
and c o mp l e x t r a f f i c
These
confidence
not
Specifically,
rails
demonstrated.
is
the
adequately
performance
radar
an e m i t t e d
is
system
it
radar
situations
program
Yet,
an
television
time
electronic
of
avoidance
Depicted
driving
vehicle
demonstrates
collision
broadcasting
over-the-road
tutorial
performance
An 1 8 - m i n u t e
exploratory
with
the
alarm
numerous
rate
b e c o me
(but
8
practical.
steering
angle,
technique
target
This
Beam s t e e r i n g ,
signature
methods
which
steering
the
(10
to
Gigahertz
requirements
automotive
end,
their
most
consist
only
electrical
possible
apparent
the
form.
simulation
has
to
obviously
the
generally,
speeds
the
solution
the
was
it
of the
emitted
verifying
of
this
such
could
in
sought.
antennas
To
in
may
conductors
would
and
be
of the
would
be
structure
beam.
of a s u i t a b l e
which
The
i m p o s e d by
consequence
(AGM)
of
and c o s t
conductivity
success
device
frequencies
radiators
If
suitable
necessitated
electrical
of the
availability
a universal
was
conceptualize
electrical
been performed
to
hazards.
be a m
none were
environment
(dielectrics).
positioning
Crucial
for
processing
antenna
reliability,
t wo c o m p o n e n t s :
correct.
and
and t h e
techniques
geometry m o d i f i c a t i o n
attendant
allow
impending
that
Electromagnetic
electronic
would
100 G i g a h e r t z ) .
ambient
necessary
vary the
at
realized
A practical
insulators
to
structure
wa s
basic
of
previous
through
harsh
vehicles.
it
of
reproducibility,
in th e
of
storage
application
from e s t a b l i s h e d
meet
A mo r e p o w e r f u l
available.
wa s
radar
driver's
This
recognition
much e x a m i n a t i o n
it
the
mind.
scanning.
signal
already
automotive
departure
this
are
techniques,
interest
order
(pattern)
follows
c o me s t o
continuous
invoke d i g i t a l
After
for
immediately
entails
would
which
with
A computer
theory
a technique
material.
be a p p l i e d
is
is
More
to
most
9
any s t r u c t u r e
w o u l d be h i g h l y
(modulating)
signal
conductivity
material
connection.
This
total
decoupling
components
should
success
obvious
a frequency
at
the
of
of the
10.5
Eve n a t
reactance
masks p h o t o c o n d u c t i v i t y
through
topology
with
achieve
wideband
Conductivity
resonance
mi mi cs
yields
defined
(and
direct
conversion.
which
amplitude
Thus,
single
minimal
capacitive
application
feasible
to
and a r o u n d
resonance
provide
The p l a n a r
photoconductive
is
A clearly
exhibited.
variable
path.
to phase
of
resonance.
not multimodal.
signal
is
capacitance
electrical
configuration
variation
total
Success
entirely
microwave
be us ed t o
circuit
substrate
at
In t h i s
heretofore
performance.
is
a microstrip
is
device
fabricated
can a l s o
of e l e c t r i c a l
achieve
20)
current
a device
along
than
of the
repeatable)
These d e v i c e s
to
(Q l e s s
was
variations.
it
( RF)
Us e o f t h i s
By c a r e f u l
techniques,
of t h e
element
attenuation
tuning.
modulation
configuration
choice
( LE)
material.
was u s e d w i t h
(monolithic)
inductive
l u mp e d e l e m e n t
for
lower f r e q u e n c i e s ,
planar
frequency
for
A photoconductive
interest
unknown.
achieved
would a l l o w
Gigahertz.
of
variable
an e l e c t r i c a l
radio
input.
(CdSe)
the
to
a distance"
choice
frequencies
The c o n t r o l
to
resorting
controlling
Cadmi um S e l e n i d e
at
material
at
(isolation)
c o mp o u n d b e c a me t h e
research,
be s u p p l i e d
without
"action
from t h e
desirable.
By j u d i c i o u s
it
is
possible
variation
t h e microwave p h o t o c o n d u c t i v e
elements
10
may be a p p l i e d
the
need f o r
three
of
of
the
this
research
microwave
structure.
against
for
may e a s i l y
is
be o b s e r v e d .
are
used
command
signal
is
to
(GaAl As)
light
spectral
peaks
the
emitters
(660
of
the
supplied
patches
to
the
chips
diodes
illumination
optical
spectrum
application
is
operated
l ow f o r w a r d
o f beam s t e e r i n g
photoconductive
The
via
steering
G a l l i u m Al u mi n u m
(LEDs).
supplied
is extrem ely
in p h a s e
radiating
are
relatively
structure.
obviating
Beam s t e e r i n g
t wo m i c r o w a v e
emitting
nanometers)
Cadmi um S e l e n i d e
of
the
bihorn
10.0 degrees
On l y
feed
Arsenide
horn
In s p i t e
up t o
of
device.
monopole
fed
arrays
Embe dde d
a demonstration
a rudimentary
plane.
phased
development.
photoconductive
decibels),
devices
the
conformal
Bo t h m i c r o s t r i p
a ground
(17.0
existing
new s t r u c t u r e
accomplished
gain
to
by t h e s e
close
(690
The
to
the
optical
peak of
nanometers).
CHAPTER 2
BACKGROUND
2.1
Research
Vehicles'
The E l e c t r i c a l
Pennsylvania
loan
and
Department
of T r a n s p o rta tio n ,
many h u n d r e d s
impressions
$400,000.
Fury)
Although
both
subsystems,
with
the
forward
antenna
front
signal
end),
radar
consists
associated
the
radar
processor
a total
console
data
were
Laboratories
contract
antiskid
this
driving
a full-size
cost
(1977
in
of
Plymouth
sedan.
braking
concerns
itself
only
system.
of
three
RF m i c r o w a v e
(video)
systems.
vehicles
Research
herein
on
National
During
(1977 Ford Gr a na da )
described
and
1985.
Bo t h
incorporate
looking
system
at
represent
a mid-size
vehicles
The r a d a r
the
48076,
braking
over-the-road
Corporation
vehicles
research
of
have
independent
1980 t h r o u g h
hours
Bendix
and
for
accumulated.
Michigan,
The
sedan
of
to
t wo v e h i c l e s
radar
available
from
were
by t h e
Southfield,
avoidance
w e r e ma de
analysis
fortunate
Administration,
collision
vehicles
modified
The
U.S.
Safety
been
at
has
incorporating
time,
Department
University
Hi ghway T r a f f i c
engineering
Engineering
State
from t h e
These
Description
major
components
electronics
(computer,
subassemblies:
module,
control,
(the
and t h e
and d i s p l a y ) .
12
Th e r a d a r
range
to
to
sensor
provides
a target.
an 8 b i t
These e s t i m a t e s
microprocessor-based
computer c o n tin u o u s ly
other
and
inputs
various
as:
inhibit
operation).
angle,
decision
2.1.1
to
the
Warning
N u me r o u s
of
the
algorithms
driver
consider
the
physics
increases
with
moving).
as
respect
of
as
vehicle
in c l o s e
of
signals
presence,
along
follow,
be d i s c u s s e d
sensor
which
with
velocity,
commands,
a n d mode o f
which
inputs
The
vehicle
input
a nd
as
computer.
such
system
the
basic
first,
followed
supplies
critical
processor.
the
to
that
impending
the
which
proximity
osculation.
of
with
If
to
is
the
determine
Kinetic
velocity
point
(v)
distance
target
a relative
one ass ume s
of
(stationary
required
when
However,
square
The s t o p p i n g
distance
target)
mishap.
situation:
a reference
mass.
to
a typical
= (1/2)mv2
defined
time
an
K.E.
where m = v e h i c l e
the
of
is:
the
supplied
may be f o r m u l a t e d
That
contacting
rate
Decision
the
vehicle
radar
digital
alert
(K.E.)
these
braking,
will
closure
are
{driver
subsections
technique
by a d e s c r i p t i o n
to
driver
of
digital
signal
functions
In t h e
information
processes
representing
steering
warning
estimates
to
(x)
velocity
of
a constant
a
or
may be
bring
(without
energy
the
actually
zero
at
13
decelerating
force
(F)
on t h e
vehicle,
we n o t e :
( 1 / 2 ) mv2 = Fx
but,
F = ma
where
a is
a constant
deceleration.
Therefore:
( 1 / 2 ) m v 2 = max
or
( 1 / 2 ) v 2 = ax
or
x = kv
where
k is
p
a constant
based
upon d e c e l e r a t i o n ;
or
x = k(x)2
where x is
The
plane
the
versus
deceleration
developed.
it
is
of th e
derivative
implication
boundary.
plotted
first
Refer to
range
(here
If
0.7
plane
rate
0.7
analysis
Appendix
the
respect
results
I.
(x ) assuming
G) we n o t e
G is
recognized th a t
phase
of t h i s
of x with
that
If
the
boundary w ill
of the
result
time.
a phase
range
(x)
is
a constant
a parabolic
maxi mum a t t a i n a b l e
operation
in
to
vehicle
in
an
curve
is
deceleration,
to
the
impact.
right
Thus,
14
to
the
left
piecewise
of th e
linear
represents
boundary
(light)
to
the
vehicle
is
determined
2.1.1
(left
antiskid
stored
automatic
eight
is
Gigahertz.
linear
grille.
The h i g h
of
gain
system
If
radar
renders
the
system
system.
in t h e
to
a visual
second
sends
boundary
a command
The b o u n d a r i e s
computer.
these
Wh e r e t h e
boundaries
is
a radome,
electronics
elements.
mounted
achieves
of
about
in
antenna,
module.
is
horizontal
3.1
degrees.
employed with
"blinding"
with
The r a d o me
is
an
opening
of
is
and
36.0
Although
be a b e t t e r
equipped
levels
choice,1
cant
20 d e c i b e l s
from a s i m i l a r l y
l ow s i d e l o b e
at
vertical
a 45 d e g r e e
approximately
doppler
The a n t e n n a
a central
would u n d o u b t e d l y
provides
antenna
of
Frequency of o p e r a t i o n
The a n t e n n a
This
the
respect
dish
polarization
suppression
memor y
from t h e
parabolic
horizontal.
this
the
comprised
polarization
crosses
the o p e ra to r
processing.
power b e a mwi d t h s
circular
left
warning.
and a s e p a r a t e
vehicle's
extreme
Description
protection
inch
The o n e on t h e
braking
with
by d i g i t a l
d r a w n t wo
If
right),
operating
transceiver,
half
(beeper)
to
boundary are
right),
as p e r ma n en t
The s e n s o r
the
to
Radar S e n s o r
provides
limit.
left
and a u r a l
crossed
plane
boundaries:
a warning
(from
is
are
phase
also
O p e r a t i o n of a r a d a r a t high f r e q u e n c i e s ( l i k e
G i g a h e r t z ) i s a f f l i c t e d wi th b a c k s c a t t e r from r a i n .
C i r c u l a r p o l a r i z a t i o n can m in im i ze t h i s e f f e c t .
to
the
of
vehicle.
aids
36
in
15
significantly
reducing
the
probability
of
car-to-car
b 1 i nd i n g .
The d o p p l e r
approximately
the
25.0
Gunn e f f e c t
self-detection
See
transceiver
develops
milliwatts
variety
II
f o r a block
The e l e c t r o n i c s m o d u l e
with
necessary
modulation
results
Modulation
is
pulse modulation.
accomplished
2.
No RF o u t p u t
for
3.
RF o u t p u t
36 GHz - 4 1 0
4.
No RF o u t p u t
Within
samples
Cycle
the
36 GHz + 4 1 0
reflected
transmitted
doppler
signal
(video)
point,
difference
before
it
frequency
detected
frequency
doppler
nanoseconds
further
pulsed
however,
transceiver
pulse
cutoff
feature.
kHz f o r 730
ns.
kHz f o r 730
ns.
is
appropriate
as
modulating
of these
pulses
mixer.
is
to
to
are
in t h e
combined with
circulator.
The r e s u l t a n t
amplified
processing.
and s i m i l a r
pulses
echoes
RF e n e r g y
in the
is
the
radar
repeats.
occurs
of c o u r s e ,
the
1420 n s .
Homodyne d e t e c t i o n
preamplifier
of
1420 n s .
for
transceiver,
of the
is
follows:
RF o u t p u t
at
It
echo s i g n a l s .
ON-OFF
range
1.
5.
at
as
of
provides
power o f
and p r o v i d e s
reflected
diagram
in a p o s i t i v e
pulse
Gigahertz.
Arsenide)
of t h e
sensor.
the
36.0
(Gallium
(homodyning)
Appendix
at
a peak
the
The v i d e o
RF o u t p u t .
regard
At t h i s
high
the
lower
for
component.
Onl y
gated
output,
these
a "carrier"
is
in t h e
the
alternately
last
into
215
the
16
t wo
amplifier/lim iter
filtering
of
a nd f u r t h e r
continuous
channels.
The s a m p l e d d a t a
amplification
doppler t a r g e t
Ra n g e
rate
frequency
(doppler)
only
range
(the
chains.
rate
information
information
to
voltage
signals
information
(the
approach
recede,
is
accomplished
or
of
the
phase
(lead
The t h r e s h o l d
(amplitude),
and
range
current
is
channel
or at
outputs
voltage)
calibration
data
lag)
and
seldom
voltage
seen.
signals
rejects
from
sense
between
targets
are
desirable.
Ra n g e
rate
an a n a l o g
III
for
is
(direct
typical
range
between th e
in p r a c t i c e
( e Q)
electrical
t o o we a k
correlation
This,
Displacement e r ro r
of
comparison
channels.
are
radar
a linear
a
velocity,
the
the
which
See Appendi x
t wo
range
of
velocity.
Ideally,
is
phase
by n o t i n g
sensor
as
provides
The
of t h e
from one c h a n n e l
l ow r e l a t i v e
nature.
data.
channel
detector).
too
recovered
Electrical
between the
or
from each
is
a reconstruction
in each
conversion
detector).
range
becomes
after
of co urse,
therefore
d e f i ned [ 6 7 ] :
where v
v^
= actual
output
= voltage
voltage
which would o c c u r
for
a
linear
relationship
VpS = f u l l
For t h i s
linear
definition,
relationship
scale
it
(a
must
line)
(upper
be
limit)
realized
intersects
voltage.
that
the
the
end
ideal
points
of
17
the
actual
largest
ideal
curve.
vertical
Therefore,
departure
relationship.
displacement
vehicle
speed
and
rear
error
than
axle
is
2.1.3
the
radar
is
better
outputs
order
derived
combinations
of
for
exhibit
7.5%.
Actual
from magnetic
placed
the
the
of
from t h e
on t h e
vehicles.
direct
front
wheels
D'splacement
measurement
devices
sensor.
the
transmitter
is
separated
by 8 2 0 k i l o h e r t z ,
ambiguous
for
targets
transmitted
eliminates
This
sensor
curve
the
Radar S e n s o r T r a i t s
Since
the
actual
on t h e
differentials
slightly
for
errors
information
wheel
- v L ) max r e p r e s e n t s
of the
The r a d a r
typical
sensor/toothed
(v
has
pulses
responses
been
beyond
to
chirping
range
300
t wo f r e q u e n c i e s
determination
feet.
at
restricting
duration
ranges
theoretically
becomes
However,
730 n a n o s e c o n d s
from t a r g e t s
confirmed
at
beyond
25 0
feet.
a nd e x p e r i m e n t a l l y
[25].
This
resolution
each
of
channel,
producing
therefore,
to
radar
ma s k
vehicle.
the
it
system
separate
outputs
no i n h e r e n t
targets.
Because of
of
strongest
the
sensor
return
w o u l d be p o s s i b l e
a smaller
This
possesses
target
close-in
which
is
invisible
the
represent
signal.
for
range
In
a large
much
the
in
target
principle,
target
closer
target
limiters
to
far
a way
the
problem could
be
18
alleviated
by s p a t i a l l y
steering
the
emitted
be a m o f
RF
energy.
2.2
Performance
Data
Documentation
Nu me r o u s d r i v e r s
were e n l i s t e d
performance
meant
but
of the
a data
the
panaromic
documentation
highest
reliable,
the
performance
radar
system reduces
imparted
conditions
and d e v e l o p i n g
simultaneously
of
to the
recording
and o u t p u t
signals
to
numerical
to
mechanical
l ow p a s s
filter
which
inside
vehicle.
This
"filter"
board
compliant
the
rubber
straps.
aid of a telem etry
numerical
the
cushioned with
data
panaromic
channel.
on t h e
view
Thus,
at
is
is
data
easily
system which
mechanical
which
radar
the
control
by a
video
a
foam and s e c u r e d w i t h
problem
is
solved with
simultaneously
channel
of t h e
being
transcribed
on t h e
of
with
playback
camera
mo r e t h a n
audio
the time
operating
represents
nothing
polyurethane
The s e c o n d
of
collision
solved
mounts
is
to
me a n s o f
and f r om t h e
problem
considered
under normal
a convenient
conceived,
(VTR)
eliminating
The f i r s t
flat
recorders
TV c a m e r a
need
availability
an a u t o m a t i v e
computer.
the
current
well-
up t h e
initially
s c e n a r i o was
and
the
However,
pointed
As
Wi t h t h e
cameras
vibrations
input
driving
importance.
video
reports
technique.
view o f t h e
compact
documenting
avoidance
vehicles.
ambiguous q u a l i t a t i v e
for
be o f
experimental
to evaluate
records
vid eo system as
video
a videotape
19
player
(VTP),
decoding
a block
diagram
situations
of
are
a studio
data
top
driving
then
for
camera
Wi t h
the
(trained
generated.
data
the
On t h e
parameters.
is
view of
the
panoramic
composite driving
into
the
electronically,
should
the
format
modulation
be
variations
resolution
upon t h e
require
fact
format
on t h e
system o p e r a t i n g
sequences
final
the
are
production:
The
[10,
(e.g.,
t wo d e c i s i o n s
be d i g i t a l
linear
Angle m o d u l a t i o n
phase
would
aid
System C o n s i d e r a t i o n s
First,
or
with
range,
Qua d M a s t e r # 1 1 - 1 0 0 7 .
required
in an al o g
speed,
University,
(angle)?
Based
along
State
linear
channel
These
display
is
At t h e
driving
Revi ew and A n a l y s i s , "
should
the
display
IV f o r
and b e e p e r ) .
display
displayed
Appendix
technique.
vehicle
a television
screen
for
A Technical
Second,
frequency
(light
receiver
Radar,
recording
necessary:
a television
incorporation
Telemetry
In
Refer to
over-the-road
parameters:
below t h i s
Pennsylvania
2.2.1
as
a telemetry
documentation
actual
and
is
situation.
"Automotive
data.
data
a split
screen
edited
said
and w a r n i n g
switcher
Immediately
to
replayed
display),
of the
of the
decoded
rate,
routed
of
analysis,
following
closure
is
and d i s p l a y
time of data
the
audio
(amplitude)
and t h e
the
102,
Speed -
data
available
analog?
or
may b e a c c o m p l i s h e d
107].
t o be
of
non­
by
In t e r m s
1 km/hr),
a mi n i mum c a p a c i t y
that
or
are
each
7 bits
recorded
of
is
audio frequency
[57].
already
( AF)
20
voice
channel
varying
is
inherently
(amplitude)
quantification
advantage
AF c h a n n e l
information
required
[57].
m u s t be
taken
are
format
preferred
transmission.
While
phase
the
[10,
41,
107].
of
format/modulation
fail
choice
safe
inherently
locking
therefore
Analog
2.
Angle
system d e sig n
can
be a s e r i o u s
also
rules
out
This
is
a
1.
Modulations
2.
following
signal
Methods
Amplitude
talk
analog
1
1.
cross
in
See C h a r t
Digital
To m i n i m i z e
and c o s t
wideband.
Ana l og/ AM.
1.
Anal og/ AM
the
Ou r
Possible
Me t h o d S e l e c t e d ;
to
information
Transmission
Formats
regards
no
on t h e
complexity
"locking"
technique.
Information
with
system.
Chart
Possible
of
harmonic
is
limitations
may b e u s e d
safe
offers
considerations,
is
Improper
a fail
system
When s y s t e m
primary
continuously
l ow d i s t o r t i o n ,
account
( P LL)
or
handle
bandwidth
technique
loops
aliasing
possibility
narrowband,
as
with
Angle m o d u l a t i o n
locked
demodulation,
problem
added
to
a digital
into
frequency.
effectiveness
the
for
Furthermore,
maxi mum s a m p l i n g
is
designed
between
parameters
(AM)
(Frequency
telemetry
have
been
or
Phase)
channels,
accounted
the
for:
21
1.
The s i g n a l l i n g
related.
signals
2.
Th e
(See Appendix
and
interface
individual
distortion
3.
telemetry
isolation
filters
require
stability
in t h e
would
wise
(high
complexity
excellent
[30].
telemetry
[31].
revolves
manufactured
are
to
a nd
vibration.
are
for
of
to
with
choice
to
from t h e
for
decoding
the
filter
[65].
These
reproducible
these
for
the
observe
wa s
boards
chassis
filters
filters.
so c a l l e d
their
deficiency
out
piezoelectric
these
do w i t h
circuit
Co.
Narrow,
precaution
This
the
with
realized
l ow c o s t
has
isolating
attached
except
scheme
tines.
are
The o n l y
mechanical
capacitor)
an e l e c t r o m e c h a n i c a l
forks
Because of
mu s t be r u l e d
(switched
receiver
(dB)
Hi gh Q
stability.
filters
ma de t h e m an o b v i o u s
application
39 d e c i b e l s
achieved.
filtering
the
stability
filters
than
been
the
tuning
The h i g h
Microfork
sharp
mu R a t a M a n u f a c t u r i n g
characteristics
acoustically
skirts).
active
around
by E r i e
design.
low i n
Q with
long-term
A novel
bandpass
receiver
m u s t be
selective
has
within
attached
"Microforks"
output
m u s t be v e r y
Digital
miniature
transducers
telemetry
signals
better
channels
be a c c e p t a b l e
filters
filters
considerations,
receiver
V for
not harmonically
specifications.)
channel
system,
between
are
content.
The r e c e i v e r
frequency
In t h e
frequencies
with
telemetry
in
the
susceptibility
sidestepped
on w h i c h
vinyl
by
the
grommets.
to
22
The M i c r o f o r k s
proved
application.
and
the
system
to
Conditioning
operational
radar
offset
the
(DC)
processor
and
coupled
amplifier
the
receiver,
of
feeds
the
channel
audio
other
channels'
signal
lower
audio
is
and
Analog
introduced
Q1)
are
at
feed
an
(U1B).
(or
is
signals
this
(+0.4
U1A,
U2A,
channel.
rise)
rise
so t h a t
ma de a v a i l a b l e
and
to
the
most
Volts
U2B ( s p e e d ,
gain
if
the
lower),
then
amount.
combined w ith
a constant
the
so t h a t
from t h i s
by a n e q u a l
ultimately
voltage
+2.6
Thus,
(or
in
over
unity
The o u t p u t
and
point
to
from
(1.0
(X0.46)
inverting
U2B s h o u l d
Signal
DC s i g n a l s
operated
characteristic
of
of
o f two d u a l
kilohm p o t e n t i o m e t e r s
are
signal
Isolation
Attenuation
slave/alarm
U2A o r
U1B w i l l
slave
telemetry
range)
diagrams
impedance b u f f e r e d
The o u t p u t s
amplifier
o u t p u t on U1A o r
output
by 5 . 0
their
supply).
rate,
first
(transistors
of
consists
a n d U2B.
configurations)
collector
direct
describe
schematic
"Input
(LM 7 4 7 CN) .
are
U2A,
provided
portion
closure
our
is
transm itter,
complete
The
Amplifier"
amplifiers
modulators
linear
VI f o r
transmitter.
by U1A,
(as
divider
operation
subsections
the
for
Transmitter
Appendix
telemetry
me gohm)
three
components:
Telemetry
Refer
the
The n e x t
system
filters
calibrator.
2.2.1.1
the
be e x c e l l e n t
The t e l e m e t r y
straightforward.
telemetry
to
the
The
the
composite
television
23
camera's
audio
CC 007 u s e d
control
input.
in t h i s
( A6C) on
woul d t h e r e f o r e
a signal
variations
which
which
(not
waveforms,
the
interfering
derived
slave
with
of
Low p a s s
resistors
outputs
possible
their
portion
choice
however,
composite
U1B,
switching
The I n p u t
derive
AGC,
of
different
and
the
power s o u r c e s .
digital
volt
power
and
source
linear
Signal
benefit
are
the
need
transmitter!
of
10.0
inserted
to
kilohm
at
the
suppress
Conditioning
system.
This
external
oxide
is
the
only
This
to minimize d r i f t
shifts
1.5
[13,
volt
that
between
transmitter
semiconductors
configurations
six
Amplifiers
power.
The r e m a i n d e r o f t h e
of
peak
noise.
by r e l a t i v e
consisting
rate,
self­
consisting
requiring
complementary metal
both
A side
telemetry
DC a m p l i f i e r s
be c a u s e d
of
on e i t h e r
do w i t h
capacitors
radar
channel
t h e AGC f r o m
to
the
a nd
gain
composite
U2 A, a nd U2B i n o r d e r
transmitter
woul d o t h e r w i s e
utilizes
at
transients
was ma de f o r
of
process.
RC f i l t e r s
power from t h e
the
closure
waveform e l i m i n a t i n g
source
Isolation
slave
differential
depends
values
has
the
speed,
prevents
modulation
section
U1A,
on t h e
rectified
and 2 . 2 m i c r o f a r a d
of
that
a negative
channel
power
single
except
the
the
a regulated
is
an a u t o m a t i c
Amplitude modulation
S i n c e A6C a c t i o n
RMS!)
from t h e
regulation
channel.
are occurring
range c h a n n e ls .
or average
for
audio
incorporates
ineffective
reproduces
and
research
its
be
The RCA C o l o r V i d e o Came r a Mode l
63].
(CMOS)
A nine
primary
in
24
Alkaline
series
Magnanese-Dioxide
proves
to
The t r a n s m i t t e r
approximately
Alkaline
be e n t i r e l y
with
degradation
LeClanche
of
is
Specified
voltage
within
C i , a n d R2 ) .
stability
binary
the
The h i g h
signal
of only
signals
Hz.
are
suppressed
(LPF).
because of t h e i r
us e and
longer
Generation"
quartz
resistor
life
for
be d i s c u s s e d
V are
graceful
[24].
all
four
simultaneously.
crystal
and c a p a c i t o r
Q filters
o v e r t h e mo r e
employed
frequencies,
values
in the
(R ,
receiver
quartz
crystal
high
( U3A,
MC 14007 AL)
t o CMOS f r e q u e n c y
The c r y s t a l s
After
are
temperatures.
( 1 0 5 0 Hz)
channel).
the
selected
The
frequency
(Q1
14007AL) ,
with
voltage.
end,
is
this
frequency
( U4 ,
accurate
to
At t h e
division,
by a b i p o l a r
amplifiers
square wave’s higher order
by a t h r e e
Recognizing
that
stage
the
the
gain
+0.01% o v e r
AF
a variation
resultant
transistor
proportionment
(U3B a n d U3C,
MC
F o u r ie r harmonics
( R ^ C ^ ) l ow p a s s
square
MC 14040AL
highest
to
AF
high
dividers
Wi t h a p p r o p r i a t e
t h e AC c o u p l e d
provide
corresponds
amplitude modulated
embedded w i t h i n
stated
transmitter
s q u a r e wa v e
in each
the
draws
of t h e
operating
frequency
at
l a mp o n l y
in
application.
stability
counters).
0.1
the
"L 7 0 " )
frequency
oscillators
intended
for
s y s t e m wa s
and w i l l
ratios,
To t h i s
controlled
adequate
batteries
Appendix
excellent
signals.
(ANSI
AF S i g n a l
similar
divide
require
335
38 m i l l i a m p e r e s
The " P r e c i s i o n
channels
No.
a n LED p i l o t
Manganese-Dioxide
conventional
counter
cells,
filter
wa v e h a r m o n i c s
fall
off
25
at
a rate
filter
of
is
-6.0
dB/octave
providing
calculation
possible.
of
the
[42]
an a d d i t i o n a l
harmonic
See C h a r t
F5
F5
after
Relative
Octave
rolloff,
filtering
1 .585
- 3 8 dB
= 5f
2.322
- 5 5 . 7 dB
= 7f
2.807
- 6 7 .4 dB
etc.
etc.
seen
filter
is
that
these
However,
Q assures
levels
the
of
three
they
stage
have
swift
taper
ones
design.
the
networks
are
indeed
quite
l ow
The t h r e e
stage
RC l ow p a s s
At t h e
amplitude
is
response
time
U3B a m p l i f i e r
in
AF o p e r a t i n g
quite
t h e most d e s i r a b l e
transmission
factor
l ow ( 1 / 1 0 * ) .
feature
of
with
no r i n g i n g .
is
individually
l ow Q.
Low
Audio o u t p u t
adjustable
by
100 k i l o h m p o t e n t i o m e t e r .
signal
a n ON/ OFF n a t u r e .
provided
85].
frequencies,
The w a r n i n g
of
[42,
passive
from each
a linear
sinusoids
distortion
(fundamental)
for
is
Amplitude =
X ( - 2 4 dB)
= 3f
is
a
0 dB
= f
residual
is
dB/octave
Attenuation
F
g
Octave
etc.
It
l ow p a s s
2
Components
log
F3
the
2.
Fourier
F1
-18.0
components
Chart
requency
and t h a t
for
speed
provided
by t h e
A telemetry
range
and
overall
channel
rate
radar
similar
of closure
system
to
could
the
then
26
be u s e d f o r
warning
poor choice
since
have t o
the
dynamic
be r e d u c e d .
benefits
Appendix
VI ,
refer
of t h e
may s h i f t
its
a radar
A far
to
frequency
correspond
and t w i c e
channel
if
simply
accomplished
the
The o u t p u t
or
Hz)
signal
v i d e o camera
is
are
audio
s u mme r
is
twice
3 7 8 Hz
about
on t h e
767 Hz
closure
in t h e
overall
transmitted.
FSK i s
switching
Q2.
crystals
steering
bias
11 Hz o u t p u t
input.
channel
harmonics
alternate
a
resonant
that
m i x e d by a low p a s s
from t h e
since
t wo s i l i c o n
transistor
an
elementary
present
being
via
reverse
produces
signals
are
presence
readings
by e l e c t r o n i c a l l y
by s w i t c h i n g
transmitter
telemetry
the
Forward
achieved
of f a ls e
Since the
c o n s e q u e n c e we
its
Notice
exploits
absence or
slave
symmetrical
signal
is
would
Within
Summer . "
have
the
condition).
Hz a nd 3 9 8 , 3 3 6
(1N4148).
is
one of
nonlinearities
and a w a r n i n g
(387,072
with
here
(FSK).
on t h e
to
woul d be a
channels
used
little
Detection
possibility
system
of
depending
389 Hz ma ke f o r
the
is
this
other
method
keying
may be s e l e c t e d
(warning
eliminating
rate
shift
signal.
filter
frequencies
better
channel
frequency
Microfork
for the
"FSK a n d O u t p u t
slave
warning
However,
range
of frequency
frequency
of
signalling.
to
the
diodes
diodes
The FSK s e c t i o n
of
deviation.
AF
passive
injected
All
s u mme r .
directly
into
27
2.2.1.2
Telemetry
Receiver
Th e t e l e m e t r y
receiver
Refer
to
Appendix
receiver.
VI I
impedance,
the
of
U1
Microforks.
voltage
in each
"Channel
levels
of
accomplished
by a p a s s i v e
output
of
coupled
the
operational
closure
rate
function
Channel
Amplifier
Further
27.5
gain of
should
the
output
signal
doubling
that
system,
f o r mi n i mu m d r i f t
for
safe,
and o u t p u t
is
buffers
of
provided
of
operational
temperature
circuit
detected
has
a gain
by U2B w i t h
of
a
It
amplifiers
a half
incorporating
and
LM 747CN d u a l
variations
via
a nd
each
(MF1)
w h e t h e r DC o r AC c o u p l e d ,
due t o
the
Channel
range,
filter
buffer
at
(AC
the
input
section
impedance
are
network
speed,
At t h e
1/2
output
The M i c r o f o r k s
inputs
Microfork
( U2A,
all
f r o m U2B i s
rectifier
the
the
the
B o t h U2A and U2B a r e AC c o u p l e d .
be m e n t i o n e d
throughout
the
The
at
assures
impedance
at
at
the
distribution
residing
distribution
similar.
amplification
d B.
signal
These t e r m i n a t i o n s
and
of
a 6 0 0 ohm i n p u t
input
Amplifiers
appears
diagrams
Microforks.
signal
are
amplifier).
and
design.
impressed
provides
require
impedance b u f f e r
operational
dB.
the
amplifiers)
The C h a n n e l
associated
to
Amplifier
Amplifiers.
is
divider
300 k i l o h m s .
Input
signal
amplifier)
Amplifier"
terminations
schematic
gain,
A voltage
signal
straightforward
section
(LM 741CN o p e r a t i o n a l
acceptable
6.6
audio
This
adjustable
of
complete
The c o m p o s i t e
"Input Am plifier."
to
for
is
are
[66].
biased
The
wa v e v o l t a g e
germanium d i o d e s
28
(1N270).
proper
At t h i s
DC l e v e l s
amplification.
voltage
is
of
(*-2.0
channel,
is
fed
This
stage
speed
and
for
(
closure
respectively)
is
are
t
-
accomplished
rate
or
possible.
X-6.2).
Individual
DC g a i n s
and o f f s e t s .
and
AC g a i n
full
loss,
adjustment
scale)
do n o t
the meters
catching
limited
diodes.
by t h e
typical);
in o r d e r
are
stage
however,
This
the
interact.
protected
response
time
further
of th i s
are
rise
the
event of
(zero
signal
(1N270)
reverse
t i m e would
Microforks
(480 ms ec. )
be
(100 msec,
is
introduced
cause the
indicators
t o mi mi c
automotive
speedometer
behavior.
Actually,
critical
damping has
accomplished
and t h e
i m p o s e d on s p e e d o m e t e r s
instrumentation
time
is
one t h i r d
by SAE s t a n d a r d s
(microammeters)
was
[90].
selected
by
advantage
to
response
is
DC g a i n
t wo a d j u s t m e n t s
system
damping
signal
calibrated
offers
In t h e
the
stage
t wo d i s p l a y
by g e r m a n i u m
of
rate
or 30.0 m/sec,
channels
in t h a t
The o v e r a l l
ratio
gain
closure
adjustable
(X-1.2
over
For t h e
affords
This
adjusting
no v o l t a g e
U3A t h e
by U3B.
The o f f s e t
inverting
Following
amplified
to
the
Thus,
m/sec
a 10 k i l o h m
operational
division
(50.0
DC
rails.
produces
*-1.2).
restore
with
at
function).
voltage
2.0
signal
LM 747CN d u a l
actually
to
appropriate
± 1 2 VDC s u p p l y
range
a selectable
necessary
provide
detected
section
ma de a v a i l a b l e
ranges
the
only
and
from th e
U3A ( 1 / 2
for
is
(offset)
added t o
amplifier).
it
The f o r m e r
potentiometer
input
point
the
been
limit
Analog
over
"seven
29
segment"
trends
displays
with
The
the
no f u r t h e r
Channel
receiver
output
is
of
detected
signal
voltage
gain
through
a single
from t h e
-8.0
volts
positive
of
(1819)
and
insures
is
routed
2.15.
section
against
is
false
applied
negative
is
long
bulb
life
voltage
supply
controls
audible
by a
and
to
contained
powered
operated
from t h e
2.2.1.3
Telemetry
Two p o i n t
accomplished
signal
of
U5 ( LM
isb i a s e d
from
l a mp
SC 6 2 8 ) .
This
warning
is
internal
entirely
self-
power s u p p l y
System C a l i b r a t o r
of the
an a c c e s s o r y
telemetry
calibrator
at
no v i s i b l e
resistor.
receiver
Th e LPF
AC m a i n s .
calibration
via
input
fed
a
The s w i t c h e d
b e war m w i t h
f r o m an
(LPF).
(Sonalert
turn
U4
passed
incandescent
alarm
a crisp
The t e l e m e t r y
is
an
of
provides
U4 i s
input
rails.
Here,
input
The o u t p u t
divider
1.8 kilohm
characteristic.
and
filter
The i n v e r t i n g
biased
continuously
of
the noninverting
power
state
which
signal
triggering.
to
comparator
a solid
amplifier)
the
up t o t h e
rectifier.
inverting
RC l ow p a s s
comparator).
this
the
The o u t p u t
required.
Amplifiers
doubling
to
depicts
War ni ng Alarm w i t h i n
o t h e r Channel
operational
l a mp f i l a m e n t
emission
to
presentation
interpretation
for the
from a r e s i s t i v e
and
output
The
of
LPF
311N voltage
mental
h a l f wave v o l t a g e
single
a measure
an a n a l o g
Amplifier
identical
the
( LM 7 4 1CN,
is
because
system
which
uses
is
t wo
30
Alkaline
315
Manganese-Dioxide
(ANSI
"L40")
linearity
checks
jacks
of b e t t e r
with
than
for
entire
exciting
is
verified
made.
2.2.2
Completed
Television
The t e l e m e t r y
indeed
proved
documentation.
gathered
under
expended
in
might
possible,
both
to
be t h e
the
actual
of
vehicle
the
proper
portion
data
of
operation
VIII
The c a l i b r a t o r
gathering
telemetry
system
to e x tr a c t
in p r e v i o u s
successful
video
tape
operation.
recorded
much d u p l i c a t i o n
and a n o m a l o u s
(test
for
is
session
inputs.
Product
key t o
Many h o u r s
however,
normal
to
system d e s c rib e d
reviewing
expect,
it
each
system
Periodic
R e f e r to Appendix
calibrator.
No.
Additionally,
channel)
guarantees
and end o f
patching
potential.
FSK ( w a r n i n g
system.
beginning
voltmeter
cell
This
used
by e l e c t r i c a l l y
in a t e l e m e t r y
digital
diagram of the
the
designation
error.
the
telemetry
cell
1. 0% d i s p l a c e m e n t
a schematic
at
results
on c a l i b r a t o r )
transmitter
of the
This
a laboratory
provided
provision
the
[24].
batteries,
of
subsections
data
footage
Eve n mo r e t i m e was
information.
events
situations
events.
Nearly
were
was
As o n e
noted.
which
all
It
was
represented
of
the
documented
happenings
were
spontaneous
and u n a n t i c i p a t e d .
few s t a g e d
situations
were
recorded
demonstrate
system c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s
Eleven
into
individual
the
final
to
which m i g h t o t h e r w i s e
segments
television
were s e l e c t e d
production.
for
This
certain
go u n n o t i c e d .
incorporation
s how ( 1 8
A
31
minutes)
features
Frank Wilson.
Analysis"
itself
is
also
is
of
ai med
as
at
requiring
to
purposes:
Clip
This
to
no w a r n i n g
noted to
2.
The
vary
research
tractor
(70.0
into
11 s e g m e n t s
performs
vehicle
travelling.
45.0
meters.
rate
of
issued
9.0
as
truck
terms.
in
curves
at
Thus,
driving
to
fashion
rates
with c aptured
the
are
end
high
has
with
targets.
rear
a moderately
The t r u c k
the
traffic.
a normal
approaches
the
and t h e i r
on-coming
in which t h e
of
speed
pulled
radar equipped
a
out
car
is
The t a r g e t
is
acquired
at
a range
A warning
is
rendered
at
a closure
meters/second.
the
second warning
of clo su re
highlights
Range and c l o s u r e
kilometers/hour).
lane
it
The show
two-lane
The r o a d
continuously
trailer
the
rural
abound
provided.
interview
uninitiated.
unremarkable
system
The
since
by Mr.
Revi ew and
in q u a n t i t a t i v e
the
Guard r a i l s
The r a d a r
A Technical
for the
resolution
interviewed
audience.
oncoming t r a f f i c .
right.
as
technologists
depicts
with
Clip
a general
describe
intended
Gr i mes
Radar,
a tutorial
interest
possible
1.
D a l e M.
"Automotive
serves
problems
it
is
Dr .
driver
is
on t h e
passes
A second
in t h e
a consequence of
median g u a r d
warning
left
the
rail.
is
lane.
high
of
The
rate
32
Clip
3.
A five-lane,
going,
t wo
lane).
lanes
vehicle
lane
coming,
lane
into
vehicle.
path.
as
the
Clip
4.
This
segment
highway
and b l o c k s
vehicle
The t a r g e t
6.0
is
35.0
meters/second
now
research
is
research
is
travelling
is
at
a
vehicle's
acquired
at
at
55.0
a
rendered
changing
lanes
kilometers/hour).
changes
A target
The r a n g e
over the
the
A warning
from t h e
on a f o u r - l a n e
divider).
A second
vehicle
is
on t h e
at
a
meters/second.
(90.0
vehicle
lane
lane
second
demonstrates
speeds
research
right
the
turn
lane).
s a me d i r e c t i o n
18.0 m e t e r s .
of
turn
is
second
lanes
travelling
and
speed
rate
to
is
the
The r e s e a r c h
closure
vehicle
Of c o u r s e ,
of
(two
out
kilometers/hour.
range
depicted
from a bank c r o s s e s
in t h e
lower
is
and o n e c e n t e r
(adjacent
exiting
travelling
much
road
The r e s e a r c h
outermost
first
in-town
in th e
right
meters.
closure
Wi t h
rate,
The
left
highway
lane
(with
lane
at
to
the
center
is
acquired.
a 0.0
no w a r n i n g
is
elicited.
Clip
5.
The r e s e a r c h
high
speed
negotiating
acquires
vehicle
(70.0
travelling
kilometers/hour).
a turn
a metal
is
in t h e
guard
highway.
rail
as
at
a moderately
The d r i v e r
The r a d a r
a valid
target
is
33
(erroneously) at
angled
closure
rate
meters/second.
"nuisance"
most
noted to
The r a d a r
important
product:
6.
is
warning.
deployment of
Clip
a range of 30.0
clip
false
radar
Pulling
up t o o
(delayed
rear
a stopped
vehicle
quickly
from t h e
is
vehicle
radar
initially
system.
travelling
At a r a n g e o f
target
noted.
The w a r n i n g
rate
3.0
a closure
also
demonstrates
calibrated
slightly
zero
such
in f r o n t
"cushion"
pulls
zero.
away,
is
a dip
are
a consumer
is
demonstrated.
braking)
zero
at
20.0
11.0
meters,
is
possible.
in range
system
is
range
antenna.
That
As t h e
at
clip
for
is
is,
1.5
Of c o u r s e ,
vehicle
observed
1.5 m e t e r c u s h i o n ,
resumed.
This
antenna.
is
the
provided
approximately
radar
warning
The r e s e a r c h
point
radar
on t h e
a valid
alarm
radar
occurs
of the
Be y o n d t h e
calculations
the
of the
actually
as
meters/second.
how t h e
that
in f r o n t
range
meters
any
of
the
large-scale
renders
kilometers/hour.
is
a
alarm."
driving
response
15.0
demonstrates
Around t own s l o w - s p e e d
of
The
renders
hampering
automotive
"the
be
system
This
problem
meters.
ahead
back t o
normal
range
34
Clip
7.
The r e s e a r c h
at
an a b n o r m a l l y
Nu me r o u s
system
alarms
is
Vehicle
10.0
and 2 0 . 0
rates
5.0
are
with
the
be 2 . 0
to
to
Clip
9.
at
is
is
stopped
vehicle
5.0
3.0
at
meters.
away.
The
The
is
by t h e
is
vehicle
is
radar operating
is
the
has
range
is
to
too
l ow
The
bicyclist
captured
turns
as
the
into
the
a building
b e a m.
stopped
at
an
in a normal
bicycles,
front
radar
beam s y s t e m
as
from
observed
rate
fluctuates
cars,
The r a n g e f l u c t u a t e s
intersection.
The f i n a l
then
pedestrians,
of the
closure
rendered.
as
vehicle
radar
cut
between
approaches
stopped
clearly
range
radar
meters/second.
The c l o s u r e
radar
intersection.
intercepted
Typical
increases
The r e s e a r c h
vary
a four-way
No w a r n i n g
pulls
the
lot.
Ra n g e v a r i e s
cautiously
vehicle
a parking
l ow s p e e d
to
kilometers/hour.
dramatically
the
the
observed
10.0 m e t e r s .
range
with
above
3.0
being driven
because
kilometers/hour.
research
The r e s e a r c h
through
rendered
speed
be o b s e r v e d .
target.
speed
approximately
The r e s e a r c h
rear
deliberately
operated
and
A bicyclist
the
is
high
are
being
off.
between
Cl i p 8.
vehicle
intersection
fashion.
and t r u c k s
target
response
pass
is
interception
As
in
noted.
takes
35
Clip
10.
place.
The n a r r o w n e s s
of th e
clearly
observed
degrees).
The r e s e a r c h
parking
lot
(-3.1
vehicle
at
be
1 1.
path
system.
speed
of t r a v e l .
A warning
The e v e n t
closure
This
is
final
segment
complex t r a f f i c
a red
road
to
Vehicles
left
are
the
turn
signal.
is
observed
speed
to
range of
false
of 4 . 5
15.0 mete rs
alarm warning
negotiating
acceptable
"fooled"
reflected
a normal
fashion.
by t h e
the
left
a basic
is
lane.
The
intersection.
lane
awaiting
vehicle's
capture
at
turn
and
is
Yet,
the
radar
velocity
vehicles.
A
a closure
driver
in
system
The
At a
occurs.
braking
a
initial
vehicles.
The r e s e a r c h
parked
with
kilometers/hour.
rendered
tangential
from t h e
as
stopped
target
meters/second.
duration
right
research
the
is
to
before
be 2 5 . 0
r a d a r be a m i n t e r c e p t s
noted to
by t h e
The v e h i c l e
in t h e
The
is
rate.
in t h e
right
stopped
short
referred
light
a baby c a r r i a g e
rendered
of
situation.
approaching
curves
is
a
10.0
The r a n g e
is
l ow ( u n r e g i s t e r e d )
beam may be
through
of
A lady pushing
15.0 m e te r s .
radar
Clip
the
travelling
a nominal
kilometers/hour.
crosses
is
emitted
rate
is
an
is
component
36
In t h e
important
11 c l i p s
just
outlined,
an a r r a y
driving
encounters
is
could,
of c o u r s e ,
be e n v i s i o n e d .
situations
o f most
represented.
Other
However,
e x a m i n i n g many o t h e r e n c o u n t e r s ,
sim ilarities
The
inclusive.
11 c l i p s
represent
most
a fair
important
depicting
must
are
the
by no me a n s
depiction
result
false
False
Therefore,
embrace
a solution
problem
resides
The f a c t
to
the
alarms
that
this
that
false
is
beam s t e e r i n g
In o t h e r w o r d s ,
renders
performance
inputs.
Therefore,
research
focuses
s te e ri ng.
the
tape
the
integrity
reside
correct
operator
enhancement
The s o l u t i o n
in t h e
latter
resides
mo r e
the
advanced
most
of the
on an i n e x p e n s i v e me a n s
to
must
the
beam
produces
goal
footage
operator
improvement with
central
The
A consumer product
alarm.
dividends
statement
T h e y do
a n d / o r microwave
be p r o c e s s e d .
little
in vid eo
reduce
system
noted.
situations.
not d i s t r a c t
in p r o c e s s i n g
The h i g h e s t
observation
contained
The s y s t e m m u s t
unnecessarily.
steering.
o f many l i k e
al ar m phenomenon.
be b e l i e v a b l e .
confidence.
is
all
were
after
area.
in the
information
to
algorithm
sparse
system
presented
o f m i c r o w a v e be am
37
CHAPTER 3
PROBLEM STATEMENT
3.1
Beam S t e e r i n g
The m e t h o d s
Techniques
by w h i c h
beam may b e s t e e r e d
suitable
technique
mi n d c o s t
First,
and
the
system.
must
the
overall
characteristics
must
be
can
immediately.
tight
tolerance
physically
large
and
automotive
environment.
on n o n - m e c h a n i c a l
techniques.
mechanical
is
Phased
long-range
44,
48,
49,
individual
arrays
radar
52,
systems
radiators
in
entire
in
and p r e d i c t a b l e .
for
No
an e r r a t i c
antenna
is
It
out
because
of
woul d be
in the
therefore
A discussion
ruled
of
harsh
focused
each
only
non­
provided:
have
84,
the
w o u l d be c o s t l y
is
keep
critical.
of
unreliable
Interest
a
The a n t e n n a
requirements.
inherently
To s e l e c t
prominent
steered
It
( RF)
are
cost
compensate
of co n sid e ra tio n
met hod
most
reproducible
a mechanically
mechanical
the
frequency
one must
concerns
not d r i v e
is
radar,
system perform ance.
system component
Thus,
Bot h
antenna
radio
in C h a r t 3.
automotive
reliability.
Second,
antenna.
s hown
for
antenna
determining
other
are
an e m i t t e d
found w id e sp r e a d
and c o m m e r c i a l
92].
where
The t e c h n i q u e
the
application
for
communications
e m p l o y s many
phase/amplitude
of
the
[16,
38
electrical
relation
at
signal
to
other
electronic
technique,
drawbacks
Although
without
the
of
exploited
to
due t o
the
levels,
good
themselves
success
drawbacks:
[4,
electrically
the
bias
intricate
that
phase
have
Thus,
bias.
as
o f waves
are
Th e y c e r t a i n l y
low p o w e r
the
with
f r o m t wo
useful
(bias)
upper
is
itself.
concern
techniques
controllers
suffers
signal
c o mmo n l y
alterations.
For
signal
limits
been used
well
of
[37]
At
The l a t t e r
relative
to
isolating
path.
of waveguides
frequency
concern.
fabrication
the device
RF s i g n a l
relationship
altered.
to
A fairly
system
whe n t h e
control
a serious
prisms
beam s t e e r i n g .
monolithic
capacitance
and t h e
The o b v i o u s
and e x p e n s i v e .
used
the
a suitable
excitation
magnetic
of
may be f a b r i c a t e d
a major
The PIN d i o d e
connected
Synthetic
large
to
37].
from t h e
beam s t e e r i n g
and c o m p l e x i t y .
shifters
required
with
analysis
realizing
presents
have been
presents
for
elements
phase
large
Junction
limit
deficiency
the
quite
required
altered
understood.
problem of
ferrite
are
is
allows
easily
controller
PI N d i o d e s
frequency
the
achieve
These d e v i c e s
lend
are
system of r a d i a t i n g
levels
do n o t
This
system embrace c o s t
difficulty,
power
radiator
Fr om a p u r e g e o m e t r i c
effects
the
the
each
radiators.
speeds.
phase/amplitude
high
driving
the
electromagnetic
known m e t h o d
with
is
[61]
apertures
excitation
emitted
be am s t e e r i n g
for
is
from each
achieved
relies
on an
so a r r a n g e d
shifted
the
aperture
is
from f r e q u e n c y
to
39
phase
(time
lag)
be d i s c a r d e d
wide band
prism
constants
of
at
the
much c o m m e r c i a l
is
of
dielectric
field
along
high
quite
the m a te ria l
scattering
cost,
and
and d)
secondary
the
synthetic
radiation
a)
very
lossy
crystal's
at
c)
to
[15].
b)
linear
[17]
may
of
(a
the
focus
about
the
Modulation
material
of
of
the
may be
DC e l e c t r o s t a t i c
is
currently
static
field
required
polycrystalline
microwave
single
well
the
is
information
the
is
beam s t e e r i n g
sugjestion
The t e c h n i q u e
pitfalls:
It
forms
frequencies
crystals
environment causes
are
of
due t o
high
in
unwanted
steering.
to
possibility
with
the
o f one m a t e r i a l
an a p p l i e d
Anisotropy modification
utilized
inherent
frequency
of a f e r r o e l e c t r i c
absorption,
the
related
the
nature
(10 k i l o v o l t s / c m ) ,
are
its
of d i e l e c t r i c
Thus,
and mos t
crystal.
is
is
constant
latter
by c o n t r o l l i n g
by s e v e r a l
ratio
[80].
a proprietary
hampered
the
either
The
interest
the
to
monochromatic
materials
dielectric
constant
accomplished
of
indices
f e r r o e l e c t r i c ) [56].
subject
root
by m o d u l a t i n g
or
because of
immediately
a non-orthogona1 angle.
square
refractive
excitation
radar
from s h i n i n g
of d i f f e r e n t
be a c h i e v e d
s y s t e m must
A mo r e m o d e r n a p p r o a c h
a crystal
the
This
automotive
affected
known t h a t
ratio
for
nature.
is
through
conversion.
achieve
electromagnetic
of c o n stru c tin g
capability
in v a r i o u s
a single
o f be a m s t e e r i n g
f o r m s may be
beam s t e e r i n g .
radiator
is
indeed
(not
The
an a r r a y )
an e x c i t i n g
40
endeavor.
At
least
successfully
radiator.
magnetic
band.
are
one team of
integrated
ferrite
Beam s t e e r i n g
fields.
is
only
geometric
itself.
The t e c h n i q u e
promise
difficult
interference
This
to
with
particular
dielectrics
have
come
achieve
radar
a plasma
in
the
being.
this
is
specified
[26].
It
light.
ionization
should
levels
for
established
electromagnetic
used
in ground
of geometry
illuminated
at
the
95].
focus
of
to
as
local)
synthetic
a synthetic
then
that
could
For a u t o m o t i v e
the
this
plasma
periods
angular
technique
at
of time
conversion
beam s t e e r i n g
applications
of o p e r a t i o n
[92,
be
indeed.
well
aid
or
extended
be am p o s i t i o n i n g
aviation
the
may a l s o
be o b v i o u s
to envisage
Rectilinear
The b a s i s
strong
up t h r o u g h
may be v i e w e d
Maintenance
woul d be mos t d i f f i c u l t ,
radars.
radiator
suggests
steering.
however,
fields
embedde d c o n d u c t o r s )
(ensemble
wa ve
L
present
F o r many y e a r s ,
supporting
ion p o p u l a t i o n
in a p r a c t i c a l
however,
static
up t h r o u g h
magnetic
also
be a t t r a c t i v e
respect.
difficult,
by v a r y i n g
static
but
has
a biconical
electromagnetic
A plasma
electromagnetic
it
into
Anisotropy modification
(dielectrics
into
dielectric
altering
with
the
[71]
satisfactory
high
area,
millim eter wavelengths.
is
confine,
a n d may u l t i m a t e l y
accomplished
materials
accomplished
For X band and b e y o n d ,
not
investigators
for
height
and e m i t t e d
reflectors
rays
a
technique
may be e x p l a i n e d
Parabolic
is
finder
with
are
from t h e
the
normally
reflector
41
are
parallel.
off
focus
passes
However,
but
normal
through
directrix.
from t h e
If
the
while
separate
radiators
or o f f .
Suitable
to
presents
with
diodes
[37].
illuminated
respect
angle
through
respect
to
beam r e q u i r e s
in
is
reflected
a right
passes
switches
not
torus
mo v e d t o w a r d s
excitation
Switching
are
is
with
the
l ow j u n c t i o n
which
the
the
ray
to
or
a way
with
the
focus
may be
mo r e
times
u n c o mmo n .
ma ke
must
be t a k e n
20 a n d 6 0 0
Variability
manufacturing
on
high
reactance
between
than
switched
l ow p o w e r a p p l i c a t i o n s
capacitive
but
directrix.
nothing
At e x t r e m e l y
the
amongst
(selection
diodes
and
problem.
Apparent
considered
as
Geometry M o d i f i c a t i o n
the
electromagnetic
information
developments
preferred
on t h e
in m a t e r i a l s
in
research
presented
this
photoconductive
herein
are
is
about
Apparent
ultimately
achieve
radar.
available.
to
unnoticed
other
was
automotive
concerns
compounds,
plastics."
for
area
previously
studying
"conductive
subject
(AGM)
method t o
beam s t e e r i n g
interest
presently
with
angle
a significant
matching)
s ome a n g l e
still
steer
state
account.
nanoseconds
at
maintaining
new r a y
then,
into
the
illumination
Clearly,
frequencies,
directrix,
the
a different
solid
the
focus
achieves
use of
a parabolic
the
focus,
directrix,
to
if
cause
area.
itself
Yet,
Although
with
investigators
conductive
recent
considerable
(Japan)
Geometry M o d i f i c a t i o n
Certain
Sparse
are
via
plastics
exhibit
42
variable
applied
all
local
conductivity
mechanical
information
materials
is
stress.
on t h e
Geometry M o d i f i c a t i o n
is
It
is
is
[1].
Steering
Mechanical
2.
Phased
3.
Synthetic
Arrays
-
Prism
Anisotropy
5.
Rectilinear
C o n v e r s ion
6
3.2
.
Apparent
that
to
nearly
of
these
of Apparent
but e a s ily
in t h e
understood.
next
section.
3
Techniques
( F e r r i t e Phase S h i f t e r s
Commonl y E m p l o y e d )
- a)
Frequency
b)
4.
respect
application
separately
Chart
1.
and
The c o n c e p t
profound
described
with
understandable
fabrication
proprietary
The t e c h n i q u e
characteristics
Variation
Dielectric
Vari a t ion
Constant
Modification
Beam P o s i t i o n i n g
to Angular
Geometry M o d i f i c a t i o n
A p p a r e n t Geometry M o d i f i c a t i o n
Apparent
relatively
Geometry M o d i f i c a t i o n
u n e x p l o r e d met hod
for
electromagnetic
be am s t e e r i n g .
of
been
antennas
has
reported
a mechanica1 nature.
consists
would
appear
reasonable
a new a n d
While g e o me t r y m o d i f i c a t i o n
[7],
conductors,
that
is
accomplishing
Recognizing
of e l e c t r i c a l
(AGM)
the
alterations
were of
that
a radiating
structure
dielectrics,
beam p o s i t i o n
or
both,
and shape
it
could
43
be m o d i f i e d
by v a r y i n g
as
the
changing
materials
effect.
(CdS),
for
conductive
such
(ZnSe)
Photoconductors
frequencies.
are
have
Sun,
use of microwaves
mercury doped
This
destroys
to
bias
should
into
automotive
o r 20% mean
that
signal
to
return
signal.
regarded
situation
manner.
It
b)
For
return
remains
Apparent
which
should
photoconductors
have
reported
consisting
part
of
for
the
noise
vary
the
as
be r e c o g n i z e d ,
however,
s ome u n i q u e
l ow a s
system
is
of
the
should
1 0
40
a r e so
required.
The
strong
not
be
A l ow p o w e r
suitable
conductivity
However,
of only
virtue
only
structure
[51].
the
all that
a)
resistance
efficiencies
g o o d by
of
an a n t e n n a
into
sign als to
the
considered
receiving,
is
Zinc
t wo r e a s o n s :
beam p o s i t i o n i n g .
represents
do o f f e r
microwave
Geomet ry M o d i f i c a t i o n
for
can
at
has
produces
and
56].
date
introduced
(ZnS),
p o w e r s on t h e o r d e r
the
a panacea
of a m aterial
[21,
be s u r p r i s i n g
applications,
ratio
probably
Sulfide
[93]
as
h o mo d y n e d e t e c t i o n
noise
as
not
Also,
strong
a s Cadmi um S u l f i d e
a photoconductor
material
dissipating
milliwatts.
Zinc
a n d Wa l s h
structure
radar
such
No o n e t o
[44],
the
on a b u l k
category
resistance
efficiency
introduced
in
Cheng,
germanium.
For t r a n s m i t t i n g ,
would c a p i t a l i z e
been employed b e f o r e
a photoconductive
system.
Suitable
(CdSe),
in t h i s
may be r e g a r d e d
geometry.
materials
Cadmi um S e l e n i d e
This
m aterial's
application
Photoconductive
Selenide
using
conductivity.
application
in a c o n t i n u o u s
that
features.
Unlike
44
semiconductor
junctions
photoconductor
antenna's
can
area.
continuous
which
are
Continuous
be am s h a p i n g
is
therefore
confined,
and a c c u r a t e l y
focused,
Before
incorporates
is
reasonable
the
to
radiator's
State
perform
University
is
element
the
finite
grid
segment
are
kept
length
[1,
6
analyzed,
0.1
segments
a maxi mum l i m i t
in
radiated
used
in t h e
(FEM)
small
, 92]
[
were added
This
regarding
examined
for
at
is
has
analysis,
, 92].
an u p p e r
and d e l e t e d
length
limit
46 6 s e g m e n t s .
a practical
of
[3].
satisfactory
Recommendations
limit
if
for
of
selected
while
to
be
maintaining
were o b s e r v e d
confirms
satisfactory
(AMP)
element g rid .
No a l t e r a t i o n s
segment
predict
Program
entirely
technique
to
it
The P e n n s y l v a n i a
For g r i d s
size.
investigation
8
place
wavelength.
on c e l l
6
be
structure,
in o r d e r
a finite
is
a maxi mum c o m p u t a t i o n a l
structure
antenna
8
patterns.
recommendations
AMP h a s
mo d e l
cells
approximately
in th e
an A n t e n n a M o d e l l i n g
This
light
an a n t e n n a w h i c h
On f i l e
may b e m o d e l l e d w i t h
Also,
(AGM) S i m u l a t i o n
c o mp o u n d
Any s u r f a c e
with
can e a s i l y
a simulation
performance.
along
distributed.
constructing
a photoconductive
a
of the
possible.
signal
Geometry M o d i f i c a t i o n
actually
isolated,
portion
beam s t e e r i n g
controlling
Apparent
and
occupy a s i g n i f i c a n t
whi ch woul d be t h e
3.3
small
that
the
grid
and t h e
are
correct.
500
segments.
In s e l e c t i n g
but elementary
The
The
an
structure
45
is
desirable.
horn.
This
is
The s e l e c t e d
geometry
an e x c e l l e n t
candidate
practice,
microstrip
conformal
array
A 3-to-4
secure
integral
on w i r e
triangles
on a l l
56.31
developed
to
56.31
long.
sin
AMP h a s
this
feed
utilized.
at
is
X band.
the
wavelength
this
ground
reason
plane
is
feed
a
cell
was
perfect
that
is
use e q u i l a t e r a l
for
(67.38
the
mo d e l
degrees,
first
leading
is
2.0
1.5
edge
wavelengths
imaginary
pyramid
plane),
Y axis
it
long.
(with
is
In
the
necessary
by 4 1 . 8 1
to
degrees:
degrees
Single
experiments
simulation
point
will
was c a r r i e d
one m e t e r e q u a l s
Thus,
in terms
conductivity
specified,
Data
in o r d e r
is
capability.
that
grid
The t r i a n g l e
= 41.81
read
the
points.
severe
is
the
frequency.
were e a s i l y
Since
The
Ultimately,
The c o m p u t e r
tabulations
not
XY g r o u n d
rotational
at
fed
actual
was n e c e s s a r y
horns
degrees).
about
for
The d e p a r t u r e
is
(1/1.5)
Megahertz f o r
directly.
[72].
case
in t h e
ratio
This
pyramidal
a perfect
structure
arc
in
w o u l d be u s e d t o
connection
The h e i g h t
establish
the
I X.
XY p l a n e .
i ma g e r e f l e c t e d
rotate
fed
sides
in t h e
wavelengths
order
grid
equilateral
degrees,
103]
geometric
See Appendix
available
from t h e
38,
since
a wire
[70].
relative
established.
to
[36,
represents
all
voltage
be p e r f o r m e d
out
at
one
geometric
of wavelength
for
the
no i n c o n s i s t e n c y
in
grid
a nd
scaling
300
46
results
with
The d e v e l o p e d
a maxi mum g a i n o f
equal
is
[92].
to
In t h e
with
resistance
slot
is
"cut"
inserted.
following
the
feed
difference
to
leading
little
the
edge,
derivative
geometric
steering
set
to
angle
(without
be 55. 81
forming
at
-0.9331
Y axis.
of
Thus,
off
to
wavelengths
established.
slot
effect
hand,
if
the
If
cut
is
is
is
respect
to
a wa y f r o m a n d
segments
the
running
with
product
gain
cut
cut
ma de c l o s e
possible
formed.
derivative
distribution)
the
the
off-center
opt i mum g e o m e t r i c
horn,
to
large
This
of
cut,
and t h i s
The m a t h e m a t i c a l
with
be
(cut)
horn
gain."
angle
In t e r m s
the
will
A
The
on t h e
calculated.
current
loading
total
controls
product
the
wa ve
loaded
channel
and d i f f e r e n t i a l
center.
upper side of
The a c t u a l
is
the
t o ma ke t h e
Fr om t h e
steering
this
angle
See
material
place
control.
angle
regard
degrees
the
a wide
angle
segments were
"differential
other
(phi)
direction.
between the
little
angle
zero.
is
has
steering
The f i r s t
equal
horn
the
gain
this
where th e
feed,
On t h e
100% e f f i c i e n t
photoconductive m aterial.
used:
gains
but
differential
of geometric
is
be c a l l e d
gain
angle.
the
a suitable
a smaller
horn w i l l
vertical
structure
reasoning
ma d e c l o s e
the
the
in forward
differential
to
in
at
simulation,
simulating
point,
steering
next
To d e t e r m i n e
the
is
in t h e
is
an a z i m u t h a l
As e x p e c t e d ,
polarized
A p p e n d i x X.
smaller
1 3 . 3 3 dB a t
180 d e g r e e s .
linearly
structure
is
steering
is
found
to
flat
surface
should
be made
parallel
o ccu r between
to
-0.975
the
47
and
-0.9
wavelengths.
segments
"J"
is
are
labelled
inserted
through
values
S"
are
series
series
segment
element.
All
remain
for
can be a c h i e v e d
back
is
has
been
lobe.
that
geometric
previous
noted
radically
The
important
t h e maxi mum g a i n
1
2
.
1
with
the
to
desired
steering,
conformal
include
6
8
, 70,
array
gain,
could
a dielectric
99].
for
beamwidth,
lens
or
in t h e
is
The beam
be m a d e ,
area
size
of
to
which
also
inherent
center
research
of
achieve
47,
of
the
levels.
A
would
49,
a concern
design
a
however,
off
possibly
[18,
of
w o u l d b e mo r e
and s i d e l o b e
reflector
coupling
in
an o p t i m i z a t i o n
array
be d e v e l o p e d
Parasitic
must be a c c o u n t e d
versus
loaded
appearance
effect
development of
size
loss
steering
An i m p o r t a n t
radiator
this
attained
an a r r a y .
whi ch
Cadmi um
dB) i s
2
pronounced
individual
values
simulation.
the
on t h e
for
A slight
Of c o u r s e ,
would c e n t e r
resistances
typical
(185 d e g r e e s ) .
with
All
pattern
observation
(
parameters
manner w i t h
in t h e
altered
inserted.
a 90 0 ohm s e r i e s
represent
XI .
"K
W" h a v e
750 ohms
case.
reliable
segment
resistance
and e l e c t r i c a l
in Appendix
was
of
with
Segments
"T t h r o u g h
The r a d i a t i o n
(91.36%)
In s e r i e s
loaded with
in a most
displayed
efficiency
is
The a f f e c t e d
individual
values
simulation
Selenide m aterial.
is
Segments
from t h e
this
X. "
loaded with
"X"
I X.
resistance.
resistance
other
unchanged
selected
through
a 28 8 k i l o h m
The f i n a l
shape
"J
o f 240 k i l o h m s .
individual
horn
Se e A p p e n d i x
52,
53,
which
an a r r a y .
48
Classical
methods
73,
analysis
may be
98].
techniques
invoked
Travelling
candidates
application
for
of
for
coupled with
these
considerations
wa ve a n t e n n a s
Apparent
data
[101]
elements.
[27,
48,
may be e x c e l l e n t
Geometry M o d i f i c a t i o n
photoconductive
processing
and t h e
49,
49
CHAPTER 4
MICROWAVE PHOTOCONDUCTORS
4.1
Material
Characteristics
Photoconductivity
is
characterized
semiconductor
proper
been
is
because
since
known f o r
convenient
a bulk
by r e d u c e d
frequency.
direction
is
of
electrical
Electrical
many y e a r s
examine
phenomenon whi ch
resistivity
impinging o p t i c a l
current
no PN j u n c t i o n
to
material
is
[21].
radiation
may f l o w
involved.
of
the
its
has
origin
Law:
J = oE,
where £
= current
density
a = conductivity
£ = applied
The c o n d u c t i v i t y
electric
field
i n a s e m i c o n d u c t o r may be r e p r e s e n t e d
follows:
a = ( n u n + P v n )d
where
n
= electron
un = e l e c t r o n
p
= hole
concentration
mobility
concentration
Up = h o l e m o b i i t y
1
q
= particle
(electron)
charge
a
in e i t h e r
The e f f e c t
To u n d e r s t a n d
a f o r m o f Oh m' s
across
as
it
50
Conductivity
particle
case
of
may t h e r e f o r e
mobility
or
broken
covalent
an e n e r g y d i a g r a m
types
optical
with
EQ
excited
are
It
a photon
the
is
of
into
EA ,
is
achieved
convenient
to
refer
See
may be
band,
photons.
impurity
is
known
as
an
intrinsic
Electron-hole
pairs
are
Tp
will
exhibit
(mean).
carriers
(as
may now b e
This
in
produced
is
a transistor).
not
a donor e l e c t r o n
b)
a photon
state
may
with
a
pairs
may
t wo
The
excitation.
a rate
of
distributed
unlike
Steady
from
excitation.
at
a statistically
lifetime
secured
The f i r s t
as
to
XII.
electron-hole
to
carriers
Appendix
an a c c e p t o r
and c)
In t h e
mechanism
referred
transition
available.
may e x c i t e
conduction
electron
energy
latter
transitions
a)
into
this
material.
by h i g h e n e r g y
transitions
of
the
by e l e v a t i n g
carriers
bonds.
particle
a valence
be c r e a t e d
last
for
excitation:
energy
excite
final
of
increased
m a k i n g mo r e
photoconductivity,
through
Three
be
g L.
lifetime
current
state
The
carrier
injected
density
defined:
An = -rr g L
This
is
a special
continuity
equation
conductivity
holes
case
of
the
for excited
increases
due
to
and e l e c t r o n s :
Aa =
solution
( A n p n + A p n p )q
to
the
carriers.
the
increased
mo r e g e n e r a l
Thus,
number o f m o b i l e
51
Commercial
photoconductors
excursions
(for
what t h i s
a given
equation
"trapping"
[21].
recombination.
exhibit
optical
predicts.
Trapping
If
that
phenomenon c o n t r i b u t e s
equation
variations,
accounting
=
ao
where
Trapped
longer
terms
for
Tr .
o f an e f f e c t i v e
n u mb e r o f
connections
the
to
region.
photocurrents
the
commercial
( Cd S )
are
If
Cadmi um S e l e n i d e
such d e v i c e s .
research
candidate
the
indicates
During
Cadmi um S e l e n i d e
for
Recognizing
to
formulate
traps
rt
a new
which
Y [21].
This
much
is
passinq-through
than
absorbed
unity,
If
referred
as
a
external
the
the
Y is
to
in
in
greater
than
secondary.
For
a n d Cadmi um S u l f i d e
important
is
role
between
of
experimental
phases
was
as
selected
This
is
may be e x p r e s s e d
quantum y i e l d
investigation.
trapped,
electrons
lifetime
(CdSe)
the
the
band.
to
excess
primary.
are
easily
n^Upq
photon
less
known a s
photocurrents
This
of
of
per
Y is
photoconductors,
10,000.
+
electrons
device
normal
significantly
quantum y i e l d
measure of th e
beyond
electrons:
a mean
The e f f e c t s
is
possible
excess
exhibit
hinders
conduction
is
n^ = c o n c e n t r a t i o n
than
unity,
it
( A n u n + A p u p )q
carriers
sensitive
its
conductivity
a consequence of
carrier
type
conductivity
is
essentially
the o th er
this
in
larger
energy d e v iatio n )
This
one t y p e o f
remains
much
choice
100 a n d
trapping
of
in
this
t h e most p ro m i si ng
was
a consequence
52
of
l ow ON ( s a t u r a t e d )
resistance,
range,
l ow h y s t e r i s i s ,
4.1.1
Res i s t a n c e
and
Cadmi um S e l e n i d e
supplied
cells
(Vactec,
Electrical
sample
Inc.,
darkness,
b)
2
for
.
The e q u i v a l e n t
corresponds
3.0
x
10
5
approximately
ohms/square,
of
to
and 2 . 5
course
by t h e
is
dependent
c o mp o u n d
space
(the
equivalent
levels
of o p tic a l
channel
addition,
if
increased,
plotted
for
the
the
For exam pl e,
produces
total
upon t h e
devices.
of
Vactec's
performance
of
part
length
individual
geometry
of exposed
The c h a n n e l
but
ohmi c
it
is
noted
resistance.
Curve
contacts
is
" E"
Both o f
that
is
reduced.
of curves
typical
is
of the
represents
these
a
In
channel
A family
"D"
is
otherwise
may be f u r t h e r
Curve
number VT- 241.
for
of the
XIII.
VT - 2 4 1 H.
candles.
cases
between t h e
resistance
different
foot
0
total
ohms/square,
radiation,
Appendix
.
a)
ohms/square,
7
uniform
to
performance
4
0
these
l ow e l e c t r i c a l
electrical
refer
of
0
channel).
linear
63132).
resistance
for
Thus,
narrow
x 10
appears
Indium).
1
x 10
which
(normally
of photoconductive
c)
each
5.0
wa s
illumination:
and
for
project
w e r e ma de on
of
The a c c o m p a n y i n g
photoconductive
formed
candles,
resistance
response-
Missouri,
levels
resistivity
respectively.
devices
three
of
in t h i s
measurements
foot
0
used
Louis,
dynamic
speed
manufacturer
St.
resistance
devices
rapid
(CdSe)
by a c o m m e r c i a l
wide
the
devices
53
are
just
and
VT- 34L p e r f o r m a n c e
first
0.15
inches
device
diameter,
across
is
while
is
represented
diameter.
of 0.040
into
an a c t u a l
with
the
as
wa s
l ow ON r e s i s t i v i t y .
for the
devices
supplied
4.1.2
by t h e
Light
In a l l
" me mo r y " o r
inches
an a l u m i n a
Curve
"C"
in
of the
(curve
" C" )
them
antenna.
research
Although
Cadmi um
applications,
purposes
is
Cadmi um
because
experimental
of the
test
data
specifications
manufacturer.
History
discussion
4.1) suggests that
hysterisis
cases,
0.26
performance
in t h i s
trade.
research
widest
incorporating
microwave
The
the
devices
of
VT- 14L
"G. "
utilize
e x c e e d e d mi n i mu m p e r f o r m a n c e
The g e n e r a l
(section
These
industrial
for
at
thickness.
employed
" T y p e 4 " by t h e
specified
devices
intention
in
inches
equivalent
beam s t e e r a b l e
i s mo r e p o p u l a r
Selenide
inch
the
The Cadmi um S e l e n i d e
Sulfide
All
microwave d e v i c e s .
fabricated
to
is
Types
by c u r v e
approximately
second
represents
were
diameter.
the
2
referred
widest
0.35
( AL 0 3 ) s u b s t r a t e
experimental
the
approximately
the widest
Appendix X I I I
at
with
regard
"fatigue"
instantaneous
to
is
device's
in f a c t
duration
of t h a t
previous
exposure.
characteristics
photoconductors
conductance.
conductance
upon t h e
of m aterial
quite
should e x h ib it
This m a t e r i a l
observable.
of a photoconductive
exposure
to
light
The m a g n i t u d e
cell
The
depends
and t h e
of the
effect
is
54
dependent
light
upon s e v e r a l
level,
b)
illumination
present
the
from which
in time
"Light
this
instantaneous
the
cell
conductance
graph,
long"
illumination.
long"
time
under
"Sufficiently
orders
higher
In o t h e r
wa s
approached.
are
t wo
i n A p p e n d i x XIV [ 7 4 ] .
To
material
0.1
foot
darkness
exhibit
it
had b e e n
30.0
foot
refers
to
normal
time
seconds
and most o f t e n
T y p e 4 Cadmi um S e l e n i d e
history
even
effects.
lower
levels
is
material
less
than
exhibits
for
times
time.
this
as
usually
one m i n u t e .
l ow l i g h t
compounds
of th e
effect.
history
to
is
Many Cadmi um S u l f i d e
light
a
stored
relaxation
infinite
in
for
a
elapsed
"infinite"
measured
an
candle
refers
so c a l l e d
at
candles.
will
if
beyond
plotted
industry
This
levels
upon t h e
The p h o t o c o n d u c t o r m a n u f a c t u r i n g
time.
or
approached
in t o t a l
long"
of magnitude
is
Type 4 ,
than
and
for
device
greater
point
effects
stored
the
is
dependent
a specific
point:
time,
1.5 times
a "sufficiently
are
consider
operating
previous
illumination
value
material
wa s p r e v i o u s l y
"sufficiently
which
History"
present
on p r e v i o u s
previous
an e q u i l i b r i u m
the
and p r e s e n t
respectively).
conductivity
o f Cadmi um S e l e n i d e
understand
depends
conductivity
the
of
conductivity
sense)
a)
previous
durations
"remembers"
a present
asym ptotica1l y .
If
(the
material
Of c o u r s e ,
the
(lower or h igher,
by e x h i b i t i n g
types
and c)
conditions:
between
Whether t h e
expected
illumination
direction
difference
levels,
exposure.
lower tha n
words,
the
operating
exhibit
However,
55
notice
that
levels
of
levels
for
(1.0
regard
offers
to
r e g a r d e d mo r e
quoted
current
to
time
Similarly,
removed,
foot
exhibit
compounds.
than
a smaller
Speed o f
absolute
is
that
time
63.2% of
the
initially
exhibits
to
wa v e
that
reach
is
final
for
value
the
illumination
noted
to
the material
For f a s t
shape the
For example,
times
be
This
responds
is
conductive
envelope
of
final
sudden hi gh b r i l l i a n c y
for
utilized
at
in
this
4.
higher
photoconductive
it
is
optical
followed
the
current
in C h a r t
transitions,
the d riv in g
a specified
totally
dark
of
the
device
time
faster
typical
are
darkness.
is
be t h a t
depicted
Thus,
after
from t o t a l
36.8% o f t h e
response
illumination.
compounds.
time
history.
constant.
required
applied
specified
decay time
to
of a time
The Ty p e 4 Cadmi um S e l e n i d e m a t e r i a l
of
with
must
photoconductors
[75].
levels
Cadmi um
relaxation
light
current
Notice
be m o d e r a t e
response
device
research
high
illumination
candles),
of commercial
in te rms
when t h e
the
anticipated
at
The Ty pe 4 Cadmi um S e l e n i d e
speeds
is
reach
illumination
marked
Response
specified
rise
(100.0
known t o
The r e s p o n s e
normally
less
i m p r o v e m e n t o v e r Cadmi um S e l e n i d e
important
Speed of
the
is
p h o t o c o n d u c t o r woul d
history.
also
effect
Since
high
little
light
is
to
Cadmi um S u l f i d e
4.1.3
history
th e microwave
candle)
material
than
light
illumination.
foot
Sulfide
the
possible
signal:
by a l o w e r
56
quiescent
illumination
photoconductive
to
the
[97]
a laser
radar
compounds
nanosecond
has
level.
level.
successfully
be a m u s i n g
prove
and
adequate.
operating
antenna
capable
At
least
response
This
a)
algorithm
characteristics
beamwidth;
and c)
is
vehicle
from
automotive
Ca d mi um S e l e n i d e
supported
processing
( R OC ) ,
down
investigators
For
for
times
information
cell.
times
by t h r e e
time;
transmitted
b)
power,
dynamics.
4
T y p e 4 Cadmi um S e l e n i d e
R e s p o n s e Ti mes
Illumination
( f o o t - c a n d es )
R i s e Ti me
(milliseconds)
D e c a y Ti me
(mi
iseconds)
0.01
400.0
90.0
0.1
90.0
36.0
1.0
35.0
18.0
10.0
10.0
9.7
100.0
3.0
5.0
1
For t h e
must
limit
response
team of
statement
Chart
it
of
one
a photoconductive
system c o n s i d e r a t i o n s :
receiver
are
mo r e e x o t i c
demodulated microwave
a p p l ic a ti o n s , the
should
Other
be
(in
first
consideration
recognized
time)
Information
processing
frequencies
for
should
speed.
which
that
the
determining
not
1
(algorithm
digital
be s u p p l i e d
at
between
1.0
and
has
an
time)
upper
response.
a rate
Present microprocessors
range
processing
computer
an o u t p u t
1
exceeding
have
the
clock
10.0 M egahertz.
For
57
elementary
algorithms,
technique,
250 c l o c k
corresponds
to
such
cycles
processing
as
the
may be
times
respectively.
If
signature)
is
invoked,
times
t wo o r d e r s
of magnitude.
these
power,
to
and
beamwidth
i m p o s e d on t h e
(inverse
of
formulation
values
are
research.
receiver
( t $)
in Appendix
used
in t h i s
of
given
Bendix
based
XV.
the
a target
beamwidth
upon
research
for
as
rate
subject
(radar
(this
the
reasonable
numerical
o f much
cross
section),
includes
probability
(gain),
This
system
the
of
format
a false
(pulse
mi n i mu m s e a r c h
a ma xi mum r a n g e
vehicles)
targets,
scan
Actual
power and m o d u l a t i o n
and a n t e n n a
Calculations
still
versus
the
output
confidence
a maxi mum l i m i t .
charcteristics
detection
transmitter
are
upon
least
pertaining
specified
formulation
(target
by a t
factors
that
forth
operating
lower th an
detect
is
may be d e t e r m i n e d
as t h e
to
and 0 . 0 2 5
transmitter
Based
assumes
However,
duration),
rate.
time)
put
This
increase
salient
demonstrated
requirements
probability
alarm),
scan
boundary
recognition
will
search
not
performance
pattern
are
ability
may be a n a l y t i c a l l y
required.
characteristics,
a maxi mum p e r m i s s i b l e
limits
it
antenna
plane
between 0.25
milliseconds,
Receiver operating
phase
system
indicate
to
time
target.
requirements
(such
search
not
times
a few m i l l i s e c o n d s .
Vehicle
For e x a m p l e ,
dynamics
let
us
are e le g a n tly
say
that
simple
a vehicle
is
to
understand.
heading
for
an
58
impending mishap
( 1 0 0 MPH).
If
the
has
vehicle
It
is
response
for
moderate
to
4.1.4
the
should
material
at
a closure
target
only
is
Spectral
of
that,
peak
the
optical
spectral
690.0
optical
The p e a k
the
of
at
at
to
there
spectrum
exists
Th e s e l e c t i o n
this
of
Inglewood,
efficiency,
These d e v i c e s
prefocused
are
lenses.
specified
to
occurs
band.
a
between
em itter's
overlap.
See
G a l l i u m Al u mi n u m
California,
90302,
brightness
GaAl As
The t y p i c a l
be 0 . 5 0 0
at
Yet,
choice.
of the
of
( LEDs )
an o b v i o u s
high
noted
wavelength
a nd t h e
significant
of the
is
Gallium
diodes
nanometers.
optical
It
in c o l o r ) .
emitting
close
optical
a wavelength
660.0
supply, high
is
material.
occurs
light
quite
normalized
approximately
kind
diode
speed of
when o p e r a t e d
emitters
Products
each
of
these
Display
integral
inches).
Cadmi um S e l e n i d e
in terms
(red
e m i t t e r wa s t h e r e f o r e
emitters.
the
(17.6
for
Appendi x XVII.
to
meters
typical
nanometers
output
spectrum,
Arsenide
the
(GaAl As)
photoconductor's
optical
10 m i l l i s e c o n d s ,
levels.
response
outputs
optical
wavelength
in
Response
Al u mi n u m A r s e n i d e
exhibit
that
Ty p e 4 Cadmi um S e l e n i d e
approximately
160 k i l o m e t e r s / h o u r
r a d a r be am s c a n n i n g
A p p e n d i x XVI d e p i c t s
response
0.447
satisfactory
automotive
high
of
acquired
advanced
now be c l e a r
entirely
rate
Data
was v e r y
experimental
variety,
optical
candelas
but with
output
(0.490
for
59
candles)
of the
for
a forward
LED l u m i n o u s
(transfer
When t h e
experimental
inches
control
the
is
mi
on t h e
4.2
fabricated
XVIII.
was
positioned
milliamperes
unit's
within
Forward c u r r e n t
and
19.75
diodes.
was e s t a b l i s h e d
photoconductive
in t h r e e
layers:
photoconductive
(Indium).
plane
of
these
line
configuration
is
ohmic
lengths
The
at
9.75
contacts.
photoconductive
element
It
( LE)
for
a l ow d e v i c e
its
microwave
the
by
capacitor
contacts
in
photoconductive
path.
may be f a s h i o n e d
The
latter
"fingers"
of
long channel
linear
resistance.
Low d e v i c e
of
is
[2].
b)
contacts
o h mi c
long c h a n n e l s
appearance
(Alumina),
ohmi c
interdigitating
Upon e x a m i n a t i o n
cell
the
The c h a n n e l
provides
may b e a t t a i n e d
channels.
exposes
by
normally
substrate
a meandering
achieved
and e s t a b l i s h e s
resistance
width
as
the
are
between th e
radiation.
or
cells
and c)
formed
contacts
optical
in a s t r a i g h t
a)
compound,
The c h a n n e l
c o mp o u n d t o
the
current
were
bias
Device C o n f i g u r a t i o n
Commercial
the
antenna
surface.
demonstration
diode
forward
in Appendix
be am s t e e r a b l e
emitters
Variation
i amperes.
1 1
the
depicted
between 0.25
amperes.
applied
photoconductive
provided
midscale
of 0.020
with
is
specified
of the
milliamperes
nominal
intensity
characteristic)
constructed,
0.3
current
and/or
narrow
a commercial
not unlike
See F i g .
a l u mp e d
1 of
60
A p p e n d i x XI X.
to
fabricate
If
such
This
a "universal"
a universal
application
arrays
application
at
difficulties
(0.15
is
inch
quite
with
to
(-
however.
a reactance
ma s k
However,
equivalent
the
at
fingers
Capacitance
then
is
in
and c a p a c i t a n c e .
capacitor
shunt
is
device
X-band
"C . "
added
in
is
exhibit
It
a network
Fig.
parallel
This
of
a shunt
chip
channel
16 o h ms .
low
the
difficulty,
between
one mi g h t
inductive
to
evaluate
itself,
the
the
reactance.
adjacent
noted
that
refer
to
This
fingers.
this
of d i s t r i b u t e d
Cs .
the
this
inductance
this
3 o f A p p e n d i x XI X,
with
small
Gigahertz
capacitor
is
the
across
necessary
For c o n v e n i e n c e ,
In
for
for
Several
variations
inductive
distributed
fact
around
with
it
10.0
this
For t h e
2 o f A p p e n d i x XI X.
"capacitor"
as
of only
resistance
circuit.
interdigitated
Fig.
At
Notwithstanding
resonanting
even
in
commercial
candidates
capacitance
picofarad).
planar
Gigahertz).
First,
residual
1.0
photoconductor.
12.0
Geomet ry
photoconductors
diameter)
as
device.
be am s t e e r i n g
microwave
inch
goal:
its
commercial
(8.0
clearly
See
existing
X band
diameter)
is
In f a c t ,
considered
v a l u e would
true
the Apparent
were
to
element.
to
cells
corresponds
consider
limited
(0.15
arise,
high
realized,
Small
photoconductive
following
be
by i n c o r p o r a t i n g
structure.
the
could
technique.
be a c c o m p l i s h e d
antenna
the
antenna
prompted
microwave p h o t o c o n d u c t i v e
device
woul d n o t be
Modification
could
observation
an
combination
inductive
inductive
element
61
passes
directly
through
ma k e s
electrical
Leads
exiting
components
inductive
coupling
contact
the
shunt
achieved
interdigitated
are
interdigitated,
achieved
capacitor
the
the
of
crossed
to
Since
distributed
the
An a c c u r a t e
equivalent
configuration
is
Fig.
arrangement
swept
exhibits
frequency
in
a strong
laboratory
the
fingers
capacitive
circuit
multimodal
nature.
( ~ 2 dB i n a 50 ohm
from f u r t h e r
monolithic
A p p e n d i x XX.
three
planar
A cross
layers:
photoconductive
sheet
with
(Indium).
of
section
c o mp o u n d
all
three-dimensional
of
a microwave d e v i c e ,
must
(CdSe),
provides
be
this
substrate
The s t r a i g h t
two end h o l e s
capacitance
in
structure
the
Un d e r
device
study.
To a v o i d mu I t i p l e . m o d e s
symmetric,
This
Since the
were q u i t e
abandoned
C
this
interlaced
resonances
was
for
numerous
were o b s e r v e d .
the
of
coupling
mo d e l
a nd a n t i r e s o n a n c e s
configuration),
to
distributed
resonances
transmission
exhibits
4 o f A p p e n d i x XI X.
studies,
shallow
exhibit
(substrate)
progressive
capacitance.
also
Capacitive
dielectric
C .
and
The v e r t i c a l
shunt
characteristics.
fingers
given
of the
backside
"plates."
substrate
portion
through
in a d d i t i o n
from t h e
inductance.
through
and c a p a c i t i v e
is
both
exhibit
The h o r i z o n t a l
the
is
substrate
with
device
of t h e
inductance.
the
element
(Al
2
and t h e
channel
for
realized.
the
configurations.
0
a
Refer to
reveals
only
g),
the
top
conducting
which communicates
lowest
possible
Wi t h t h e
exception
of
62
this
channel,
surface.
formed
conducting
Thus,
t wo
coplanar
around
identical
capacitor.
c o m p o n e n t s may b e
coplanar
represents
the
in
depicted
inductors
value
A p p e n d i x XXI .
clearly
at
capacitive
since
negative,
reverts
Wi t h
this
"A"
and
point
inductive
reactances
are
reactance
a low
( R)
which
components
This
is
s h o wn a s
If
network
the
device
are
equal.
a
of
signs
the
(X^
device
by t h e
XXI .
inductive
capacitive
with
However,
opposite
impedance of
in
is
magnitudes
in Appendix
end
"B"
RLC c i r c u i t
the
(X)
is
The t wo e n d
f or m an e q u i v a l e n t
provided
"C"
(L),
to
total
as
four
XXI .
the
electrical
a resistor
All
top
are
shunt
inductors
a parallel
of the
the
four
imaginary with
the
See model
cancelled
is
holes
configuration.
reactances
photoconductor.
effectively
itself.
resonance,
resistance
inductive
and
frequency.
pure
the
(C),
This
of
XL p o s i t i v e ) ,
to
two end
combine
system
of the
entire
l o o p s which
in Appendix
L/2.
over the
geometry,
electrical
resonant
this
these
of
This
defined
operated
inductive
photoconductor
network
edges
flat
electrically
inductance
outer
capacitor
a parallel
as
the
identified:
inductance
appear
Indium e x t e n d s
In e s s e n c e ,
loops
reactance
of
has
the
coplanar capacitor.
Electrical
channel
connections
and d i r e c t l y
experimental
devices
connections
consisted
on t o
are
the
which were
of
silver
ma d e p e r p e n d i c u l a r
conducting
Indium.
fabricated,
these
epoxy bonds
to
flat
to
the
For t h e
copper
63
conductors
This
leading
facilitated
would,
of
with
its
for
dimensions
performance
for
tuning.
for
This
technique
production
integral
device
are
the
A special
units.
microstrip
described
element
are
experimental
test
fixture
performance.
of e l e c t r i c a l
photoconductive
and
SMA c o n n e c t o r s .
no b o n d .
testing
The p r e d i c t i o n
of ty pe
incorporate
i n A p p e n d i x XX.
fashioned
and
testing
would
The p h y s i c a l
given
pins
n o t be s u i t a b l e
units
connections
center
rapid
course,
Production
as
to
in a
described
for
in
fixture
section
the
are
was
The t e s t
later
parameters
units
(4.4).
microwave
subsections
4.3.1
and 4 . 3 . 2 .
4.2.1
F a b r i c a t ion
The c o m m e r c i a l
by t h e
manufacturer
(Vactec,
Inc.)
substrate.
The t a s k
of
(A^Og)
facilitated
T h i s wa s
Research
University.
inch
Pieces
diameter)
chamber e v a c u a t i o n ,
hole
on
individual
deposited
on a l l
underside
remained
using
deposited
of
these
for
"masks"
chip
masking.
blanks.
surfaces.
Indium f r e e .
laid
Also,
was
Indium m e t a l .
at
the
State
copper wire
were
photoconductive
exposed
ohmi c c o n t a c t s
o f The P e n n s y l v a n i a
utilized
supplied
on an a l u m i n a
VE- 10 s y s t e m
n u m b e r 30 r o u n d
were
was
conductive
a Varian
Laboratory
of
material
supplying
by v a c u u m d e p o s i t i o n
accomplished
Materials
0.01
Cadmi um S e l e n i d e
(AWG,
Prior
to
from h o le
to
Thus,
I n d i u m was
Of c o u r s e ,
the
Cadmi um S e l e n i d e
chip
64
directly
formed
u n d e r t h e ma s k r e m a i n e d
u n d e r t h e ma s k
confirmed
width
is
clearly
to
be 0 . 0 0 6
of overspraying
section.
edges
All
using
600 g r i t
holes
was
silicon
floss.
flat
copper
part
silver
epoxy
ribbon.
system.
configuration
of
was
fabricated
reduced width
a circular
chips
cloth.
The c h a n n e l
were
was
cross
cleaned
Indium w i t h i n
a nd u n w a x e d
the
silk
connections
to
the
chips
w e r e made
The b o n d
formed
using
a two-
3
is
Refer to
the
chip
Appendix
with
XX f o r
the
connections.
Device C h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n
The f a b r i c a t e d
RLC n e t w o r k s .
analysis.
XX,
This
n u m b e r 73 d r i l l s
Electrical
This
a ma s k w i t h
carbide
removed w i t h
with
4.3
of the
The c h a n n e l
examination.
inches.
a consequence
physical
defined.
by 4 0 0 p o w e r m i c r o s c o p i c
was n o t e d
dental
Indium f r e e .
For o p t i c a l
bandwidth
The n e x t
are
of
the
(4.3.2)
true
by s w e p t
16.85
as
l u mp e d e l e m e n t
frequency
given
Gigahertz
photoconductor,
o f 555 M e g a h e r t z
in good a g r e e m e n t
as
dimensions
around
t wo s u b s e c t i o n s
inductance
3
with
resonance
saturation
(BW)
behave
was c o n f i r m e d
For a d e v i c e
a natural
results
This
devices
is
with
noted.
observed.
a typical
Experimental
calculated
demonstrate
is
in Appendix
expectations.
capacitance
calculations.
E - S o l d e r 3021 C o n d u c t i v e A d h e s i v e s
Acme C h e m i c a l s a n d I n s u l a t i o n Co.
Division of A llied Products Corporation
New H a v e n , C o n n e c t i c u t
06505
(4.3.1)
and
65
4.3.1
Intrinsic
Capacitance
Determination
Two c o p l a n a r e l e c t r i c a l
electrical
capacitance.
physical
dimensions
invoking
a technique
is
necessary
plate
to
plate
Similarly,
are
The v a l u e
of the
because
conductors
of
families
equipotential
flux
of
lines
confocal
surfaces
to
based
may be c a l c u l a t e d
conformal
electric
rise
of c a p a c ita n c e
conductors
linear
give
are
mapping
[19].
extending
upon
by
This
from
ellipses.
families
of
confocal
hyperbolas.
Foci
appear
at
inner
plate
Christoffel
transformation
capacitance
calculation
configuration
capacitance
given
into
o f one
[46,
since
of
A Schwarz-
80,
is
this
a parallel
side
edges.
89]
ma ps
planes
a coplanar
the
suitable
for
coplanar
configuration.
capacitor
is
The
therefore
by:
r _ e r Eo
K ' ( m)
L
2
• K( m)
where:
C
•
= capacitance
e„
r
= relative
dielectric
eQ = d i e l e c t r i c
= 2.246
K' (m)
x 10
a n d K(m)
of
the
in f a r a d s
constant
~
of fre e
space
farads/inch
1 3
are
first
Ki
/[1
o
constant
complete
elliptic
kind:
2
K' ( m)
and
=
-
(1
- m)si n2e]"^de
integrals
66
/
= /[1
o
11
K(m)
The a r g u m e n t
edges
the
plates
m is
of the
IBM 3 7 0 / 3 0 3 3
offered
by t h e
International
Library
of Subprograms
electric
flux
lines
for
side
the
this
unity.
On t h e
substrate.
tangent of
relative
frequencies
of
subject
revealed
± 0.02.
loss
1.0
The
x 10“ 4 .
by t h e N . J .
the
be
been
edges
of
computed w i t h
Subroutines
first
are
and S t a t i s t i c a l
and
for
second
out
photoconductive
kind
are
into
dielectric
are
was
is
the
taken
capacitance
should
as
alumina
and t h e
constant
over the
frequencies,
dielectric
noted
values
exists
Therefore,
constant
At X - b a n d
a relative
space.
constant
however,
material
tangent
free
chip
loss
in-house
constant
of 8.61
to
be on t h e
o r d e r of
were
confirmed
independently
D a ma s k o s Compa ny o f C o n c o r d v i 1 l e , PA,
integrals
inner
identical)
Subroutines
dielectric
Both o f t h e s e
A direct
elliptic
have
[40].
of
side,
interest.
measurements
(assumed to
Mathematical
microwave
The r e l a t i v e
the
of o u ter
of
respectively.
extend
reverse
spacing
computer.
e l l i p t i c "integrals
of the
of- s p a c i n g
sections.
( I MSL)
na me d MMDELK a n d MMDELE,
ratio
integrals
aid
On o n e s i d e
to
plates
The c o m p l e t e e l l i p t i c
complete
the
cross
of
i/
e ] ~ de
- m sin
(gap w idt h)
a = length
the
p
2
calculation
using
n o t be a t t e m p t e d
the
for
19331.
complete
the
substrate
67
side
of the
coplanar
consequence of the
electric
exist
field
reasonable
full
are
in.
inner
width
hole
= .169
in.).
negligible,
however,
does
not
the
remain
channel
side of the
chip.
fact.
is
greater
than
altered
ratio
subtract
the
little
calculations
is
accounts
for
free
device.
For t h e
that
width
electric
depicted
which
field
mo d e l
since
the
that
in.
- 0.026
flats
in Appendix
flux
it
is
boundary
confinement w ithin
the
is
channel
of
the
on e i t h e r
will
ignore
width
width.
the
capacitance
for
hole
length
device
at
is
of each
the
channel
put fo rth
represents
be t a k e n
coplanar capacitor
the
the
integrals
side,
will
(0.195
analysis
space e l e c t r i c
opposite
Refer to
contribution
past
photoconductive
The g e o m e t r i c
model.
channel
edge
of
The d e v e l o p e d
from o v e r a l l
not
aid of
photoconductive
extends
of e l l i p t i c
the
diameter
Notice
appropriate
does
mu s t be a d d i t i o n a l
the
width
total
Accurate
with
This
the
a
Thus,
substrate
the
hole
holes.
total
the
of
is
thickness.
device.
there
than
statement
a suitable
inner
constant.
photoconductive
This
and
because
greater
Second,
the
length
to
the
finite
however,
Clearly,
across
significantly
the
edge
capacitance
width.
of
possible,
First,
This
within
approximations
A p p e n d i x XX.
from
substrate
confinement
for the
calculations
capacitor.
is
this
much
Thus,
device
the
edges
will
calculations.
capacitance
XXII.
Capacitance
on o n e s i d e o f
necessary
limits
for
substrate.
to
the
determine
total
It
is
68
reasonable
to
f
address
=
where:
Taking
(m
2
f
- n
2
in.
flux
region
with
in.
i n . ,the
Thus,
This
referred
to
and
inside
is
that
series
beyond th e
the
capacitor
of f r e e
Cg.
space
Total
flux
t wo
on e l e c t r i c
is
of
linking
is
2
and t h e
device
capacitance
(C3 ) are
in e l e c t r i c a l
Cg ,
capacitance
C , Cj,
are
capacitors
combination
electric
field
plate
based
these
total
model.
Therefore,
The c a p a c i t o r
device
contributions:
of
to
total
substrate
in p a r a l l e l
both
and t h i s
in t h e
1
geometrically.
depicted
seen
C
course,
both
is
determining
C
capacitance
Cg i s
2
of t o t a l
from t h e
complete
determined
elliptic
in t h e
a
of the
therefore
based
( C 3 , C g , C3 ) s e r i e s
combination.
Calculation
is
over a width
contribution
as
axis
electricfield
extends
inches.
exist
semimajor
total
Fr om c o n s i d e r a t i o n s
capacitors.
on t h r e e
distance
substrate
parallel
it
focus
n = 0.04
which
(C3 ) a r e
consequence
3
is
lines
in e l e c t r i c a l
C
the
0.08022
configurations.
series
and
be 0 . 0 4 0 1 1
approximately
networks,
to
length
capacitance
capacitors
) ’/ 2
n = semiminor axis
to
confinement
F o r an e l l i p s e :
length
confinement within
Electric
alone.
m = semimajor axis
ca lc u la te d to
device
2
= focus
f = 0.006
equivalent
geometry
begins
with
integrals.
following
fashion:
The
C'j
69
is
C'g
to
the
calculated
assuming the
capacitance
the
parallel
relative
omitted.
It
constant
is
plate
by t h e
u
(')
of t h e
1
of the
usual
configuration.
constant
may now be s e e n
r *
primes
found
dielectric
r
where
is
absence
indicate
substrate
procedure
Each
which
Once a g a i n ,
of th e
substrate
applies
however,
is
that:
C5 C °
2 C5 + C ' 3
_ ______ J
substrate.
' 3
*
that
is
the
relative
omitted.
dielectric
Rearranging
terms,
calculation
of
found:
C? C
- C tC ',
1
C5 = c ,;"
3 -"
- " 2T rm
+ Crrr
L,
The c a p a c i t a n c e
=
These
last
the
defined
e
ru 3
as
device
Cp.
<• _
CP =
The c a p a c i t a n c e
C
a n d Cp :
now d e t e r m i n e d
contribution
total
The t o t a l
is
3
t wo e q u a t i o n s
capacitance
to
C
1
facilitate
the
from th e
3
capacitance.
(C ,
This
,C ) c o m b i n a t i o n
3
contribution
is
Thus:
C5 C3
+ C
C
1
is
3
easily
determined:
« * rC 'l
device
capacitance
is
simply the
sum o f C , C2 ,
1
70
cT = c t + c2 + cp
Complete
calculations
in Appendix
device
XXIII.
depicted
for
total
Thus,
the
device
capacitance
intrinsic
i n A p p e n d i x XX i s
are
capacitance
determined
to
of
given
the
be 0 . 3 2 3 1
picofarads.
4.3.2
Inductance
Caulton
formula
turn
used
Determination
[12]
has quote d
in d e t e r m i n i n g
conducting
the
[20]
for
inductance
a suitable
of
flat
single
loops:
L = 5.08
where:
Du k e s
L
x 1 0 “ 3 £( I n
-
1.76),
is in n a n o h en r ies
i
=outer
c i r c u m f e r e n c e in
w
= width
of c o n d u cto r
t
=conductor
( 1
note:
mil
=
0
in m i l s
t h i c k n e s s in
.
0
0
mils
mils
inch)
1
5 . 0 8 x 1 0 “ 3 £ = MQr
uQ = p e r m e a b i l i t y o f f r e e s p a c e
_2
= 3 . 1 9 1 x 10
nanohenries/mil
r
The a b o v e
predicts
an
equivalent
= outer
formula
inductance
length
L = 5.08
of
radius
assumes
of
in mils
je >> 2 (w + t ) .
lower than
straight
inductor
the
flat
x 1 0 ” 3 £[ I n w *■ t
inductance
It
also
for
ribbon:
+ 1.19 + 0.22 w
an
71
where
This
is
z = ribbon
formula
has
been giv en
in n a n o h e n r ie s
flat
length
and a l l
that
the
straight
than
an e q u i v a l e n t
configuration
is
consideration
for
by Te r ma n
dimensions
ribbon
length
of
loop
are
exhibits
ribbon
a consequence
the
[96].
in
On c e a g a i n ,
in m i l s .
[12,
58,
The f a c t
higher
inductance
a flat
single
of th e mutual
L
loop
inductance
87]:
L = Ls - 2kM
where:
Ls = s e l f - i n d u c t a n c e
The e n d
k
= coefficient
M
= mutual
inductive
photoconductive
order
to
use the
conducting
used
for
width)?
within
loop
" z"
First,
the
a concern
hole
difficulty
of
assume
formula
for
and
(the
should
conductor
consistent
results
device
This
implies
0
.
0
2
1
inches
a fictitious
or
distance
edge:
- 0.026)/2
2
1
.
0
may
" w" :
or
w =
be
that,
of
In
turn
by o b s e r v i n g
smallest
and t h e
- 0.195
values
"w"
values
be t h e
geometry.
a single
what
resolved
varying
"p")
assume w = ( 0 . 2 6 3
involved
of accuracy,
"w" t o
(point
an
arises:
is
limits
over widely
edge
t h e microwave
circumference)
reasonable
be o b t a i n e d
of
consist
inductance
(the
This
inductance
loops
device
of coupling
mils
loop c i r c u m f e r e n c e
of:
between
72
= ,[
i
2
(
.
0
0
2
1
) + (0.026)]
or
s. = 0 . 2 1 3 6
These
values
are
for
a single
the
thickness
ca l e u l a t i o n
inches
then
turn
or 213.6
entered
conducting
"t"
is
into
mils
the
inductance
loop with
negligible
(t
the
= 0).
formula
assumption
that
The f o l l o w i n g
results:
L = 5.08
x
10
'
3
x 213.6LIn
-
1.76]
nanohenries
or
L = 0.6074
Second,
point
"p"
if
nanohenries
the
hole
in e i t h e r
an a t t e n d a n t
direction,
increase
analysis
is
therefore
selected
to
be t w i c e
calculated
"w"
is
traversed
is
noted
in c i r c u m f e r e n c e
performed.
the
inductance
w = 42.0
perimeter
It
initially
ri ses
by
to
(*).
is
than
increase
with
A sensitivity
noted
selected
less
from th e
that
if
"w"
is
value,
0.5
percent:
mils
and
je
= 345.57
mils
so,
L = 5.08
x 10
"
3
x 345.57[ln
or
L = 0.6101
nanohenries
3
-^ | -‘ q ?
-
1.76]
nanohenries
73
The w i d t h
change
"w" may b e
increased
in c a l c u l a t e d
Further,
to
verify
appropriate
inductance
in
inductance.
that
this
equivalent
to
the
flat
little
S e e A p p e n d i x XXXI I .
single
turn
loop formula
an a l t e r n a t e
is
scheme o f
was d e v i s e d :
a straight
=
i
the
application,
calculation
Consider
even f u r t h e r with
hole
flat
conducting
ribbon
of
length
circumference:
(0.026)
inches
or
£ = 26
As b e f o r e ,
consider
w =
Using
flat
is
the
mils
formula
which
ribbon,
calculated.
at
the
narrowest
point:
mils
2 1
conducting
"w"
predicts
inductance
the
inductance of
Onc e a g a i n
self
the
thickness
for
"t"
is
a straight
an end
taken
loop
as
zero:
Ls = 5 . 0 8
x 10
“
3
x 26k[In | y ^
+ 1.19 + 0.22 | ^ i ] n a n o h e n r i e s
or
l_s = ' 1 . 0 8 0 9 n a n o h e n r i e s
It
is
loop.
now n e c e s s a r y
to
Ramo, W h i n n e r y
selected
mutual
account
f o r mutual
a n d Van D u z e r [ 8 0 ]
inductance
for
such
_
M = p (2r
0
- w)[(1
inductance of
offer
t h e met hod of
a calculation:
2
- §-)K(m)
- E( m)]
the
74
where:
w =
0
.
0
2
inches
1
r = (0.021
= 0.034
+ 0.013)
inches
)
K(m)
of
a n d E( m)
the
first
See 4 . 3 . 1
defined
in
subsection
inches
(the
loop d i a m e t e r )
/2
are
and
for
as
]
complete
second
the
definition
*/ 2
?
- m sin
4.3.1,
the
integrals
370/3033
computer.
integrals
respectively.
o f K( m) .
IMSL s u b r o u t i n e s
e]
y,
K(m)
and
E( m)
E ( m) = 1 . 1 7 8 2
or
is
inductance
nanohenries
now p o s s i b l e
to
calculate
the
total
( L):
L = Ls - 2M
or
L = [1.0809
- 2(0.2643)]
or
L = 0.5523
are
MMDELK a n d MMDELE on t h e
K( m ) = 2 . 2 5 8 0
It
is
de
m = 0.8946 :
M = 0.2643
E( m)
follows:
= /[1
o
via
elliptic
kind,
E( m)
computed
Th u s , f o r
before)
[4r(r - w
2r
w------
m
As
(as
nanohenries
nanohenries
loop
IBM
75
This
value
close
to
of
the
inductance
value
nanohenries).
than
that
inductance
exact
ten
value
in t h e
[12,
of
have
plane,
configurations
for
predicting
with
accurate
dimensional
limits.
capacitance
accompanies
to
account
developing
for
an e x a c t
capacitance
4.3.3
Tuning
to
The f a b r i c a t e d
a natural
predicted
as
values
4.3.2).
of
which
of
hampers
inductance
is
single
Many f o r m u l a s
frequency
of
formulated
and
distributed
When o n e a t t e m p t s
the
for
task
of
predicting
anything
Frequency of
symmet ry
the
frequency
effects,
expression
the
difficulties
symmetry.
inductance.
and s k i n
to
Many r e s e a r c h e r s
calculation
specified
indicates
close
axial
but
trivial.
Resonance
microwave p h o t o c o n d u c t i v e
devices
resonance
w h i c h may be
follows:
f R = [ 2 * (ij C
The v a l u e s
the
Desired
lack
situations,
analytic
or
by a l i t t l e
have been e m p i r i c a l l y
In most
(0.6074
calculations
method.
higher
over
fringing
either
exhibit
even
extremely
formula
reasonably
the
similar
inductance
usually
is
solution
experienced
for
and a r e
It
are
is
disagree
these
of c o u rse,
an e x a c t
Du k e s
t wo v a l u e s
which
possible.
nanohenries)
by t h e
Ea c h o f
estimates
conduction
96]
the
percent.
are
development
predicted
In f a c t ,
less
(0.5523
)
]
"
capacitance
predicted
as
' /2
(C)
and
in p r e v i o u s
The e f f e c t i v e
inductance
subsections
inductance
(L/2)
(L)
are
(4.3.1
entered
those
and
into
the
76
well
known r e s o n a n c e
inductive
the
end
loops
fabricated
point
of
formula
shunting
chips
resonance
yielded
limits
nanohenries
C
= 0.3231
picofarads
16.85
Clearly,
preferred
This
tuned
the
accuracy.
device
point
All
of
for
afforded
devices
it
the
was d e s i r e d
which would
a method
of
inductance.
within
the
utilized
models
sought.
possible
By c h a n g i n g
to
the
If
alter
be s e l e c t e d
to
w o u l d be t h e
manufacturing.
to
the
a flat
investigation
produce
resonate
tuning
backside of the
the
would t h e n
experimental
placed
is
matching
commercial
was
it
batches
(Hewlett Packard
This
Indium d e p o s i t i o n
substrate
the
f r e q u e n c y may be s p e c i f i e d
dimensions
resonance.
Since
Gigahertz),
across
XX) ,
resonant
measurements
meters
resonant
suitable
described.
10.5
For
[22].
method
demonstration
higher
Two s e p a r a t e
frequencies
frequency
l u x u r y was n o t
being
(-
resonant
Th e g e o m e t r i c
this
t wo
capacitor.
in Appendix
a slightly
Gigahertz).
with
X530A a n d P53 2A)
the
Gigahertz
indicated
repeatable
mechanically
produce
given
= 0.6101
chips
a priori.
coplanar
L
(~
of
the
of
may b e c a l c u l a t e d :
measurements
frequency
a consequence
(dimensions
f R = 16.031
Actual
is
in t h e
X-band
devices
after
conducting
strip
is
microwave p h o t o c o n d u c t i v e
both
position
capacitance
of
this
and
conducting
77
strip
the
The f a c t
point
that
understood:
extend
out
fashion
strip
are
is
the
strip's
device
is
however,
supplied
with
desired
10.5
inches
x 0.060
on t h e
device
backside
from below 9 .0
frequency
(-
proximity
device
lower
device
or
16.0
capacitance
resonant
exhibits
local
could
It
is
circulating
be
are
clear
strip
device
point
of
currents
Yet,
such
the
the
laid
that
natural
The
of
induced
flat
any
untuned
lower
in
Since
a limit,
flat
of the
a brass
was b r o u g h t
to
may
resonance
inches)
a consequence
that
It
increased
end h o l e s .
increased
the
is
backside
be a c h i e v e d .
brass
of
value.
the
be p o s i t i o n e d
over the
may o n l y
plane
up t o
plates,
device
entire
x 0.020
plate
effect
frequency.
Gigahertz
frequencies
inductance.
inches
of the
device
the
lower the
This
side
parallel
previous
the
strip.
parallel
the
of
elliptical
other
increase
Gigahertz
when t h e
partially
if
to
Gigahertz)
occurred
to
original
could
frequency
frequencies
is
insufficient
easily
otherwise
Th e n e t
a conducting
down t o
(0.30
separating
that
is
the
connected
frequency
lowered from i t s
capacitance
strip
I n d i u m on t h e
presence
is
conducting
substrate.
The r e s o n a n t
be d e m o n s t r a t e d ,
altered
an a p p r o x i m a t e l y
series
device
continuously.
which would
under the
The d i e l e c t r i c
capacitance.
therefore
in
conducting
f o r m t wo
is
lines
space
now c o n f i n e d
capacitors.
conducting
flux
free
along with
may be v a r i e d
capacitance
Electric
into
course,
resonance
device
microwave c h i p
of
of
the
increased
tuning
by t h e
strip
magnetic
78
fields
of t h e
currents
produce
of bucking
loops.
This
a)
The f l a t
ribbon
turn
than
of e q u iv alent
of the
the
inductance
field
t wo p r e v i o u s l y
conducting
width,
calculation
device.
for
lengths
conducting
t e r m which
appears
device
lower
of f l a t
b)
capable
facts:
exhibit
and t h e r e f o r e :
each
is
of th e
stated
loops
These
which
contribution
equivalent
inductance
mutual
loops
inductance
confirms
single
inductance
end
an o p p o s i n g m a g n e t i c
th e mutual
end
total
inductive
conducting
The t o t a l
loop must
include
as
a negative
are
utilized
entry
(L = Ls - 2 k M) .
Two m i c r o w a v e
demonstration
to
operate
it
s a me r e s o n a n t
resonance
the
the
b e c a me
from 0.020
at
inch
to
frequency
thick
inches
sheet
a
was d e s i r e d
chips
to
10.5
the
the desired
a method f o r m a i n t a i n i n g
(tuners)
to
These t u n e r s
stock.
(length)
both
once
it
in
approximately
wa s n e c e s s a r y .
strips
XXIV.
of
tune
Further,
brass
Since
a frequency
were e s t a b l i s h e d ,
this
chips
antenna.
necessary
See Appendix
0.30
at
frequency.
by b o n d i n g
chips.
measured
antenna
points
devices
achieved
beam s t e e r a b l e
this
Gigahertz,
photoconductive
This
the
x 0.060
inches
backsides
were
The f i n i s h e d
was
fashioned
tuners
(width)
inches
x 0.020
(thickness).
A t w o - p a r t epoxy cement f a c i l i t a t e d
4
bonding.
Other kinds of glue proved unusable f o r s ev e ra l
reasons.
4
Cyanoacrylate
alters
apparent
E - P 0 X- E S t o c k No. EPX- 5
Ouro, Woodhill Chemical S a l e s
C l e v e l a n d , Ohi o 44128
of
dielectric
79
characteristics
after
and
application.
change
dielectric
exhibit
during
the
glue
achieved
the
tuning
periods.
cure
cycles
Megahertz
at
corresponds
Test
to
requires
interest.
were used
have q u i t e
connector
to
achieve
repositioned
returned
ceramic
the
bond
cure
to
and
afforded
Ea c h d e v i c e
resonance
frequency
matched
over
shifts
within
better
than
to
This
0.25%.
for
these
be ± 3 5 0 . 0 M e g a h e r t z .
the
25.0
accuracies
bandwidth
five
during
Gigahertz.
electrical
its
epoxy system
cycle.
proper
bonding
The
devices
This
15.0.
Characteristics
testing
of
a standard
In e a r l y
to
was
10.525
a "Q" o f
a back
large
tuner
time
Th e y a l s o
of
reproducible
in
plastic
The t wo p a r t
t wo d e v i c e s
found
Fixture
for
harden.
woul d be
corrective
tuning
a nd
the
for
bogey re s o n a n c e s
Successful
secure
to
monitored
saturated
they
glue.
throughout
Small
to
was m e a s u r e d
it
metal
produced
corresponds
optically
cycle
if
adjustment
suitable
as
is,
by t h e
adjustments
hour
to
That
desired
was c o n t i n u o u s l y
chips
properties
cure
position
no a d d i t i o n a l
Other glues
"memory."
original
4.4
affords
the
test
results
fixture.
at
experiments,
to
back
dimensions
connector
isolation
microwave p h o t o c o n d u c t i v e
at
type
N bulkhead
and t h e r e f o r e
necessary
of
connectors
These
afford
Shielding
expense of
is
frequencies
configuration.
isolation.
the
the
This
connectors
little
hoods were used
introducing
80
u n d e s i r a b l e mo d e s
to
devised
the
utilizing
The t e s t
ultimately
system.
the
fixture
smaller
used
incorporated
This
fixture
photoconductive
constructed
chips
t wo SMA b u l k h e a d
with
over
microwave
inches
the
photoconductive
centers
appearing
No a t t e m p t
would m a i n t a i n
1.125
isolation
inches
considerations
(conducting
were t e s t e d
for
(see
each
chip
chip
side
each
is
0.186
x 0.575
a total
of
in.)
four
are maintained
al umi num
w h i c h mount t h e
channel
is
formed
accepts
0.0135
inch
in t h e
the
clearance
fixture
fixture
Dispensing
necessary
on
to
the
absent).
test
a
achieve
4.3.3).
Mor e
of
frequencies
and h i g h
which
with
the maintenance
over
present)
of the
a test
subsection
with
transmittance
(conducting
fixture
apart.
fabricate
deal
in.
dimension
impedance.
tuning
are
diameter
isolated
r e q u i r e m e n t wa s
in c hi p
which
inch
with
reside
a constant
amplitude
interest
chips
was ma de t o
impedance
flexibility
uniform
Two c h i p s
screws
This
antenna
Th e t e s t
(for
inch
a 0.25
al uminum b l o c k s .
side.
important
Thus,
was
t wo m i c r o w a v e
The b l o c k s
0.19
was
connectors.
measurements
(1.6875
connectors
using
fixture
demonstration
surface
s ame m a c h i n e
on e a c h
constant
the
4-40 hardware.
connectors.
between t h e
into
Ea c h b l o c k
by 0 . 2 5
bulkhead
for all
f r o m t wo a l u m i n u m b l o c k s
mounts
spacers
SMA b u l k h e a d
simultaneously.
thick.
connectors)
A superior
accommodates
inches
apart
fixture.
of
electrical
T h e s e t wo p a r a m e t e r s
fixture
(NO DOT END
81
a n d DOT END) o v e r t h e
through
12.4
Gigahertz.
were f a s h i o n e d
substrate
fixture
with
permitted
decibel
the
to
variation
than
phenomenon
replacing
(0.0159
inch
also
blank
are
for
affected.
noted
for
test
transmission
by t h e
1 . 2 ohms
silver
epoxy
(NO DOT END a nd
Gigahertz,
decibels
removed)
of
for
less
than
both
sides
(total)
for either
For a l l
of
2.0
of
for
fixture
either
position
measurements, the
of the
interest,
as
crystal
small
the
it
either
chip
detector
center
with
is
line
sake of
influenced
conductor
Wi de a m p l i t u d e
that
the
of the
(10.7
by
chip)
this
By
conductors
transmission
test
excursions
shifts
(the
completeness,
cylindrical
noted
test
Amplitude
i n A p p e n d i x XXV.
position
frequency
and
system.
may b e a d v e r s e l y
demonstrated
chips
the
a unitary
For t h e
diameter),
characteristics
greatly
caused
the
account.
fixture.
the
the
11.0
3.0
characteristies
is
into
characteristic
alteration
test
bonded
chips
G i g a h e r t z maxi mum a m p l i t u d e
m u s t be c o n s i d e r e d
geometric
or the
12.4
frequencies
transmission
of
in t r a n s m i s s i o n
50 d e c i b e l s .
into
For t h e
fixture
Up t o
noted
(chip
amplitude/frequency
was t a k e n
Two b l a n k
side
ohms a n d
approximately
Isolation
better
is
Ou t t o
is
chips
be 0 . 4
respectively).
variation
is
These
Gigahertz
one
The r e s i s t a n c e s
noted
fixture.
side.
S e e A p p e n d i x XXV.
measurement of amplitude
characteristics.
DOT END,
range of 8.0
Indium c o v e r i n g
entirely.
bonds were
frequency
to
fixture
(5.5
11.0
are
decibels)
82
Gigahertz).
The e f f e c t
decibels)
higher
at
The f o r e g o i n g
interpretation
photoconductive
fixture
alone,
predictable
resonance
of
e v e n mo r e
frequencies
analysis
tests
chips.
ambiguity
performance
may o n l y
is
is
pronounced
(11.0
to
necessary
performed
on t h e
12.3
for
of
the
result.
test
be a t t r i b u t e d
to
8.0
Gigahertz).
proper
microwave
Without measurements
would
(-
Thus,
of
the
test
b a s e d upon t h e
fixture,
any o b s e r v e d
the
under t e s t .
chip
83
CHAPTER 5
RADIATING STRUCTURE DEMONSTRATION
5 .1
Bihorn Array
Development of
proved
to
to
t h e microwave
be e n t i r e l y
demonstrate
initially
the
In o r d e r t o
frequency
successful.
applicability
intended
function:
accomplish
( RF)
such
radiating
would be most
require
the
radiator/photoconductor.
are
an e a s i l y
constructed
technology
wide
could
array.
be e x p a n d e d
was b a s e d
reasonably
high
fabrication.
observation
gain
could
Existing
accept
(directivity).
regard
to
high
however,
for
such
fabricated
incorporated
latter
Selection
hand,
be
radiating
electromagnetic
on-hand
on t wo c r i t e r i a :
On t h e o t h e r
with
to
a radio
a single
facilities
This
versatility.
photoconductive elements.
structure
chips
in t h e i r
beam s t e e r i n g .
AGM w o u l d ,
Yet,
logical
mus t be e s t a b l i s h e d .
integrated
unavailable.
photoconductive
devices
(AGM) o f
Local
microwave
demonstrates
an
elements
therefore
a demonstration,
structure
of
is
of the
impressive.
fabrication
fabrication
It
electromagnetic
A p p a r e n t Geometry M o d i f i c a t i o n
element
photoconductive
into
suggestion
antenna
array
microwave
of a s u ita b le
simplicity
Simplicity
gain
be a m s t e e r i n g .
and
facilitates
permits
That
radiating
is,
ease
the
of
84
primary
lobe of
Because of th e
radiator,
This
is
on).
a l ow d i r e c t i v i t y
l ow a m p l i t u d e
m a i n beam s t e e r i n g
especially
Thus,
high
demonstration
true
gain
purposes
was ma de t o
automotive
radar.
expenditures
is
the
long
of
that
leading
1 3 . 3 3 dB a b o v e
phased
placed
odd m u l t i p l e s
the
to
leading
array
edge of
1.4 w a v el e n g th s
ratio),
t wo
wavelengths
apart,
establishing
back
first
developed
feed
point
in th e
gain
such
gain
(head
for
steering
effects.
of
unnecessary
half
a horn
horn
radiator.
2
.
0
could
forward
gain
to
be
Therefore,
be s h o r t e n e d
if
slightly
s a me a s p e c t
be p o s i t i o n e d
in the
it
a beam
radiators
wavelengths.
the
3.2,
wavelengths
However,
individual
maintaining
by s i d e
(
section
respectable
could
phased
preferred
back to
fed
a
observe.
requirements
be t h e
a very
radiators
side
Appendix
long.
is
wire
1.5
s a me p l a n e ,
structure.
comprehension
refer
wavelengths
to
of
(while
a Bihorn
To a s s i s t
to
requires
such
identical
highest
bulbous.
A m o d e s t t wo e l e m e n t
isotropic
steerable
at
of
of
to
are desirab le
Referring
achieves
an
gradient
require
cost.
described
edge)
angle
the
selected
candidate.
noted
the
would
demonstration
quite
may be d i f f i c u l t
secure
and
was
is
because of dramatic
This
in time
ultimately
at
angle
structures
No a t t e m p t
array
to
antenna
I X.
of
individual
Recall
XY p l a n e .
The d i s t a n c e
1.5 w a v e l e n g t h s .
that
The
the
the
elements,
depicted
leading
from t h e
If
array
edge
leading
leading
horn
is
2.0
edge t o
edge
is
is
the
85
shortened
edge to
to
the
original
(as
feed
point
aspect
before
41.81
1.4 w a v e le n g th s ,
in
A perfect
sin
3.3)
reflected
sides
which e x i s t
i ma g e a r e
image.
is
That
geometric
Egyptian
pyramid
in t h e
This
rotated
is,
the
edge of
Pyramid o f
horn
(
the
leading
the
leading
Thus,
shortened
about the
the
horn
Y axis
by
2
.
0
Gizeh
naturally
was
the
horm
of
( AMP) .
R ef er t o Appendix
forward
gain
of
of the
(1.4
wavelengths
the
of
antenna
XXVI.
to
and
or
its
to
with
The
and t h e
as
its
taken
mouth.
edge)
open
Great
refer
to
the
leading
edge)
Pharaoh.
1 2 . 6 4 dB a b o v e
i m p e d a n c e was n o t e d
the
radiator
radiators
leading
the
radiator
radiator
edge of th e
characteristics
aid
In f a c t ,
as t h e
these
with
p r o m p t e d my c o l l e a g u e s
n i c k n a m e d Mi n i
The r a d i a t i o n
established
plane.
edges
wavelengths
The s m a l l e r
with
thus
degrees
i ma g e f o r m a s q u a r e
between
Pharaoh.
determined
is
s ame d i m e n s i o n s
sim ilarity
large
= 41.81
XY g r o u n d
between
of the
leading
point
from t h e
1.05 w a v e l e n g t h s .
maintained.
(0.7/1.05)
imaginary
i ma g e
the
is
distance
degrees:
arc
the
becomes
ratio
section
the
t h e Mi n i
modelling
The m a i n
an
program
lobe e x h i b i t s
isotropic
be 8 4 . 2 6
P h a r a o h were
radiator.
+ j73.99
o h ms .
a
Feed
86
5.1.1
Bihorn
Characteristics
Consider
power P .
is
a single
The r a d i a t i o n
a circle.
with
apart
PQ , t h e
far
This
nomenclature
spaced
by
field
of
calculated
[92].
midpoint.
An a n g l e
plane.
Let
a
displacement
AF
If
t wo
1.5 w a v e l e n g t h s
array
along
a fictitious
be t h e
between
and e ac h
factor
line
is
( AF)
as
with
defined
between
this
the
(excitation)
are
unit
power
predicts
sources
crossing
any p l a n e
radiators
which
the
unit
a reference
fed
a plane
radiators.
in
intersecting
joining
electrical
with
results
isotropic
any p l a n e
Consider
(e)
which
fed
may be r e g a r d e d
0 . 0 dB.
intensity
radiator
pattern
circle
corresponding
midpoint
isotropic
the
the
is
easily
line
line
at
its
a nd t h e
phase
Then:
= 1e - j [ B ( | ^ ) c o s e + a ] + 1e j [ B ( | ^ ) c o s e + a ]
or
AF = 2 c o s ( e - ^
but
b
cose + a)
= |-5-
so
q
AF
If
a
is
taken
radiation
XXVI I .
= 2cOS
to
pattern
For t h e
cose + a)
be z e r o
which
(excitations
results
demonstration
is
in p h a s e ) ,
plotted
antenna
the
in Appendix
system,
the
isotropic
87
radiators
coupling
are
replaced
between
the
resulting
radiation
technique
of
radiation
pattern
multiplied
between
called
pattern
radiators
upon t o
predict
pattern
with
Results
are depicted
simulations
permitted
respect
for
= Z
2
z
1 2
= z
2 1
The e q u a t i o n
for
2
3
j-
radiators
Bihorn f a r
system with
of
the
the
is,
w o u l d be
AMP wa s a g a i n
angle
radiation
(horizontal
plane).
Two AMP
different
open c i r c u i t
the
interaction
field
feed points
from t h e
excitations
impedance
as
a t wo p o r t
network:
= 7 2 . 6 0 + j ' 8 3 . 7 2 ohms
=
for
4.89
the
accomplishing
configuration,
That
in Appendix XXVIII.
Treating
1 1
[44].
Since
to azimuthal
this
z
not e x i s t
known t o e x i s t ,
the
determination
parameters.
me a n s
pattern.
is
If mutual
c o u l d be s y n t h e s i z e d
individual
array
horns.
did
multiplication
of the
by t h e
Pharaoh
t wo r a d i a t o r s
pattern
the
by Mi n i
+
j 7.35
array
ohms
factor
be am s t e e r i n g .
( AF)
the
For t h i s
l o b e ma xi ma may b e p r e d i c t e d
cose + a =
suggests
as
follows:
0
or
p
e = arc
Thus,
for
right
angle with
cosC- 1^ ]
in p h a se
excitation
respect
to
(« = 0)
the
the
fictitious
m a i n be am i s
line
joining
at
a
88
point
source
quadrants
resides
5.2
radiators.
II
at
and
III
180.0
glass
epoxy
relative
Mi n i
The p h a s i n g
constant
surge
for
is
structure
constant
are
0.086
impedance
this
is
developed
in
t h e m a i n be a m p e a k
in-phase
of 0.060
radiators
line
XY p l a n e ,
for
radiating
substrate
Pharaoh
the
array
excitations.
Equipment
dielectric
effective
of
degrees
Demonstration
The B i h o r n
Because the
line
ZQ = 7 4 . 2 0
inch
(copper)
fashioned
thickness.
of t h i s
fed with
is
material
The n o m i n a l
is
2.5.
a common p h a s i n g
The
line.
inch wide m i c r o s t r i p .
The
and e f f e c t i v e
dielectric
are
obtained
relative
from t a b u l a t i o n s
[36]:
ohms
e ' r = 2.05
Refer to Appendix
excitation
at
microstrip
feed
surge
lines.
It
RF e n e r g y
5
Th e p h a s i n g
t wo p o i n t s
impedance
connections
XXIX.
are
lines
values
are
of
spaced
0.174
50.0
accomplished
may b e s e e n t h a t
to
a Wilkinson
on
is
inches
inches
ohms .
with
apart.
wide
All
Mo d e 1 F S - 1 3 7 1
Frequency Sources, Inc.
Chelmsford, Massachusetts
rigid
provided
and
other
The
achieve
RF s y s t e m
ohm c o a x i a l
5
a n X - b a n d Gunn s o u r c e
feeds
type
6 Model 8821
Norsal I n d u s t r i e s
C e n t r a l I s l i p , New Yo r k
0.3
line
50.0
power d i v i d e r
01824
117 2 2
.
6
The
89
commercial
Gunn s o u r c e
along
an
and
with
series
source
to
integrated
pass
accept
square
three
integrated
circuit
a
0
pass
.
1
transistor
noise
emitter
(aluminum)
was
microwave
source
continuous
(CW) o u t p u t
milliwatts
at
output
small
isolators
power f e e d
Thus,
as
at
for
feed
ports
is
7
3).
the
is
power
interaction
capacitor,
by r e m o v a l
the
of
series
a
15.0
sinking
GaAs Gunn e l e m e n t
module.
capable
of
supplying
approximately
60.0
Gigahertz.
signals
These
are
provided
signals
wa ve
varied
between
are
with
isolators
standing
is
the
heat
10.5
These
permit
The
increased
additional
(circulators
voltage
forward
from th e
applied
matched
prevent
ratios
to
50.0
ohm
reverse
(VSWR).
by t h e m i c r o w a v e
power d i v i d e r
output
avoided.
The m i c r o w a v e
the
ports.
port
high
photoconductor,
of
microwave
power d i v i d e r
ferrite
and
(MC 1 5 6 9 )
pulse
i m p r o v e d by r e m o v a l
power o f
a frequency
Two i n - p h a s e
terminations
for
to
were p e r f o r m e d :
suppression
capacitor,
provided
regulator
Hertz)
s p e e d was
was
facilities
In o r d e r
(1000.0
regulator
response
microfarad
The s u b j e c t
wa v e
tuning
voltage
(2N3997).
modifications
microfarad
varactor
circuit
transistor
modulation,
of
combines
outputs
of
the
photoconductive
isolators
elements
and t h e
P a r t No. 1 4 2 0 - 1 9 2 0
Trak Microwave C o r p o r a t i o n
T a mp a , F l o r i d a
33614
50.0
reside
between
ohm m i c r o s t r i p
90
feed
points
which
connect
to
the
phasing
line
of
the
Bihorn
array.
If the
of equal
t wo
in-phase
amplitude,
phasing
line
ahead
XXVIII.
However,
illuminated
provide
Bihorn
(180.0
with
unequal
excitation
if
point
been
This
shift
displacement
radiators.
with
the
of
necessary
but
which
the
( 1 N2 9 9 9 A)
varactor
of
the
of
arrive
at
the
XXX d e s c r i b e s
the
electrical
the
Bihorn
power s u p p l i e s ,
diodes
and t h e
which
square
Gunn m i c r o w a v e
establishes
within
the
array
radiating
excite
of
the
amplitude.
virtual
the
feed
phasing
phase
in
accordance
factor
(AF).
circuitry
structure
The s c h e m a t i c s
steering
as
a
indicate
control
for
t h e microwave
wa ve p u l s e m o d u l a t o r w h i c h
source.
regulated
achieved
current
t wo
individual
for
augment
are
the
line
single
midpoint
the
devices
unequal
specified
emitting
the
phasing
are
are
radiated
Thus,
is
photoconductors,
supplies
the
beam s t e e r i n g
regulated
light
the
at
elements
light,
line
in Appendix
an e l e c t r i c a l
c o m p l e t e microwave t r a n s m i t t e r .
three
of
that
from t h e
signals
equation
to
at
seen
phasing
exists
attenuation.
establishes
Thus,
Appendix
of
is
shifted
feed
as d e p i c t e d
levels
in-phase
it
the
photoconductive
appearing
remain
addition
line.
the
at
t h e m a i n be am i s
degrees)
amounts
By p h a s o r
virtual
Thus,
unequal
signals
array
has
a single
midpoint.
straight
excitations
An a v a l a n c h e d i o d e
voltage
Gunn m i c r o w a v e
for
source.
the
tuning
Frequency tuning
91
is
accomplished
potentiometer
voltage
the
via
(0.0
and t h e
are
Variation
affected
potentiometer.
equal
are
setting
current
the
while
range c u r r e n t
milliamperes
Provision
control
as
(self
astable
circuit
rheostat.
A square
a ten
(approximately)
taper
centered,
If
0.25
to
the
higher
diminished.
Full
19.75
analog
meters.
emitting
LED o f f
the
arms.
receives
light
for
circuitry.
diodes.
individual
In t h e
diodes
position,
regulated
the modulation
tuned
t h e microwave
timer
the
power
turn
1
0
to
Frequency of modulation
is
0
wa v e w i t h
.
0
This
kilohm
a 50.0
passband.
gain,
linear
percent
over the
frequency
frequency
1 7 . 0 dBi
( I C M7 5 5 5 )
transmitter
connected
may be a c h i e v e d
1555 H e r t z .
antenna with
the
spans
the
power t o
linear
physically
diode
off
of
operation.
via
receiver's
(LED)
one d i o d e
monitors
section
adjustable
that
turning
D. C.
1.0 kilohm
is
by t wo
circuit
resistance
current
each
taper
diagnostic).
a CMOS i n t e g r a t e d
635 t o
diode
for
volts
diode
is
changed,
voltage
The m o d u l a t o r
achieve
15.0
through
by a DPDT s w i t c h .
double
supplies
control
as m o n i t o r e d
i s ma de f o r
completely
meters
other
linear
Two i n t e g r a t e d
by a 10 t u r n
is
kilohm
0
series/shunt
established
potentiometer
.
emitting
via
When t h i s
currents
0
provide
light
steered
1
volts).
( LM317)
LED c u r r e n t s
is
turn
- 48.0
regulators
modulator
a ten
could
taper
duty
cycle
frequency
range of
r a n g e was e s t a b l i s h e d
be a d j u s t e d
(The r e c e i v e r
a crystal
uses
to
consists
rectifier,
so
the
of
a horn
and a t u n e d
92
AC c o u p l e d
detector
vacuum t u b e
exhibiting
The VTVM ( H e w l e t t
tuned
to
is
fed
transistors
5.3
by t h r e e
(all
a
characteristics.
of
1.0
transistors
is
kilohertz.)
amplifier
signal
is
The
consisting
( 2 N6 0 4 9
of
and
drive/predrive
2N2222).
to
predict
antenna,
optical
range
of
saturation
t wo d e v i c e s
was
Maxi mum LED o p t i c a l
levels
level
for
(0.0
the
the
be am s t e e r i n g
mi 1 1 i a m p e r e s , t h e
the
asymmetry
(> 1 5 0 . 0
to
output
is
is
foot
rises
RF v o l t a g e
the
to
of
candles)
for
1
at
to
reduced
falls
.
0
decibels.
to
of
9.75
0.25
-3.5
decibels.
1 9 . 7 5 mi 1 1 i a m p e r e s , t h e
+1.0
for
0
of
RF s i g n a l
to
decibel.
extreme
The o b s e r v e d
non-linear
LED a n d p h o t o c o n d u c t o r .
levels
on
darkness
either
an LED c u r r e n t
is
the
below s a t u r a t i o n
The r e f e r e n c e
RF s i g n a l
the
performed
for total
considerably
of
5 0 . 0 ohm s y s t e m .
be a p p r o x i m a t e l y
is
raised
indicative
of
secured
LED c u r r e n t
relative
RF s i g n a l
characteristics
relative
attenuation
noted
the
LED c u r r e n t
relative
in a matched
photoconductors.
If
capability
measurements were f i r s t
dB) was e s t a b l i s h e d
mi 1 1 i a m p e r e s .
If
by a p u l s e
small
rectifier
415B VSWR i n d i c a t o r )
frequency
microwave p h o t o c o n d u c t o r s
The r e l a t i v e
the
Mode l
Th e
System Performance
demonstration
to
(VTVM).
law t r a n s f e r
symmetry o u t p u t
In o r d e r
the
center
completed
complementary
2N3 054A)
square
Packard,
a nominal
modulator
voltmeter
the
three
test
Accompanying
conditions
are
93
calculated:
0.0
dB:
lo g ^ C ^ y )
Turiy) = ° * 6683
- 3 . 5 dB:
+ 1 . 0 dB:
5.3.1
Predicted
Recall
line
which
by 0 . 3
that
log^(±^2)
corresponds
= 1 .122
Performance
the
connects
inches.
= 1.0
excitation
individual
In t e r m s
of
feed
points
radiating
electrical
on t h e
elements
length
phasing
are
apart
( ?) , t h i s
to:
360° ( % ! )
= i
P
where:
vp = v e l o c i t y
x
At a f r e q u e n c y
= wavelength
of
space wavelength
obtained
factor
from t h e
10.525
is
Gigahertz,
1.1222
effective
inches.
relative
v p = '( e ' r ')~'k
or
Vp = ( 2 . 0 5 ) " ,/z
Thus ,
r = 360°(-Ti j ! 22- ) ( 2 . 0 5 ) y*
the
corresponding
free
The v e l o c i t y
factor
is
dielectric
constant:
94
or
j = 137.8
Therefore,
each
the midpoint
feed
of
the
■| = 6 8 . 9
This
information
permit
point
phasing
displacements
formula
to
along
with
to
be
away f r o m
s/2
line:
applicable
Phasor
impedance)
may t h e n
estimate
carried
electrical
be s u p p l i e d
the
RF v o l t a g e
addition
are
The c o r r e s p o n d i n g
to
the
maxi mum s t e e r i n g
levels
assuming
forth
matched
in
phase
array
angle
factor
achieved
by
array:
± e max = 9 0 ° '
arc
(since
± e m„„
llla X
5.3.2
= ±7.08
Observed
A testing
of
observed
degrees
(constant
A p p e n d i x XXXI.
the
is
phasor e stim atio n s.
conditions
the
degrees
platform
surface.
radius
= 270°)
degrees
enabled
radiating
laboratory
al uminum ar m.
( 77TT'}
(off
boresight)
Performance
demonstration
a small
cos
table
One d e g r e e
At t h e
end of
experimental
system.
with
The p l a t f o r m
a radial
increments
the
radial
observation
are
arm i s
of
consists
(U-channel)
m a r k e d on t h e
mounted
an
table
95
adjustable
stand
polarized
(E-field)
WR90 f l a n g e
cavity
off
of
which
provides
t o w e r which mount s
horn
this
horn mates
contains
"square
l a w"
the d etecto r
output
the
voltage.
RF i n p u t
The a u d i o
of
output
a tuned
P a c k a r d Model
decibels
gain.
a waveguide
detection
characteristics.
is
the
This
range
at
rectifier
That
is,
to
the
square
calibration
is
not
required.
is
impressed
vacuum t u b e
indicator
the
This
short
proportional
detector
frequency
The
end
rectifier.
Absolute
415B).
dynamic
with
1 7 . 0 d Bi
a crystal
voltage
of
single
antenna with
a vertically
the
voltmeter
is
passband
at
capable
input
(Hewlett
of
frequency
of
70.0
(
1
.
0
kilohertz).
The p i v o t
is
positioned
Bihorn
point
directly
transmitting
positioned
at
The d i s t a n c e
antenna
(10.525
the
at
s ame h e i g h t
6.0
Gigahertz)
the
platform 's
the leading
as
the
edge of
Th u s
measurements
horn
of the
is
the
antenna.
transmitting
receiving
at
of the
transmitting
edge
the
r a d i a l ar m
edge
The r e c e i v i n g
leading
inches.
all
testing
beneath
leading
j
the
antenna.
between
and t h e
established
for
antenna
operating
represent
far
is
frequency
field
characteri s t i e s .
To i n s u r e
provisions
the
are
proper frequency
included
photoconductors
varactor
bias
resonance,
within
a pronounced
LED t u r n
in c o n t r o l e l e c t r o n i c s .
darkened
the
of o p e r a t i o n ,
it
is
possible
Gunn m i c r o w a v e
"dip"
is
noted
to
Thus, with
adjust
source.
in
off
system
At
radiation.
96
Wi t h
this
emitting
accomplished,
diodes.
correspond
with
deflection.
sought
Modulation
the
LED c u r r e n t s
boresight
positioning
the
may b e r e t u r n e d
frequency
VTVM p a s s b a n d
by r e p o s i t i o n i n g
recording,
control
are
the
is
adjusted
by t u n i n g
varied
radial
to
Prior
on t h e
light
to
a n d beam ma xi ma
arm.
structure
the
maxi mum m e t e r
to
a l i g n m e n t was a c c o m p l i s h e d
radiating
to
are
data
by c a r e f u l l y
measurement
platform.
Wi t h e q u a l
characteristics
expected
varied,
plot
LED c u r r e n t s ,
forward
were
to
observed
(s e e Appendix
t h e m a i n be am was
The s t e e r i n g
arrangement
noted to
documented
Chart
Observed
LED 1 C u r r e n t
(milliamperes)
be
obtained
in C h a r t
emission
in accordance
XXVIII).
characteristics
are
be
antenna
with
the
As LED c u r r e n t s
were
repositioned
space.
for
the
in
experimental
5.
5
Beam S t e e r i n g
LED 2 C u r r e n t
(milliamperes)
S t e e r i n g Angle
(degrees off
boresight)
19.75
0.25
+3.0
17.00
2.75
+2.0
14.50
5 .00
+ 1.5
9.75
9.75
0.0
5.00
14.50
-1.5
2.75
17.00
-3.0
0.25
19.75
-4.5
97
Steering
of course
Measurements
increments
nature
of
at
are
the
angles
steered
photoconductor
and
steer
the
differences
in
imperfections
to
higher
It
the
the
LED and
XIII
a nd X V I I I ) .
between
steer
This
a
is
between fe e d
experimental
alone.
resulting
at
and
Suc h
models
Industrial
left
lines
between p h o to c o n d u c t o r s ,
in
feasibility
bulbous
steering
LED c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .
expected
degree
intended
manufacturing
in
significantly
symmetry.
should
= 14.16
recalling
be o b s e r v e d
secured
significantly
angle.
of
half
transfer
sensitivities.
occurring
manner.
or
Bot h
nonlinear
w o u l d b e much t i g h t e r ,
displacement
7.08
linear
experienced
mismatches
are
because
be e x p e c t e d .
is
individual
demonstrate
tolerances
s ke w
imbalances
transmitter,
single
back to Appendices
control
of
than
Also,
strong
(refer
right
consequence
not
exhibit
asymmetric
a continuous
however,
lobe.
should
characteristics
in
much f i n e r
difficult,
characteristics
A slight
occurs
lower than
degrees).
assumptions
First,
50.0
ohm s y s t e m .
feed
lines
the
the to ta l
= 7.5
angular
degrees)
beam
is
the
theoretical
prediction
This
discrepancy
is
led to
RF v o l t a g e
were o b t a i n e d
The a n t e n n a
present
to
+ 4.5
which
relative
photoconductors
impedance
(3.0
that
anything
the
explained
predicted
output
levels
from t h e
(input
phasing
and
but
photoconductive
a constant
elements.
50.0
by
steer
in a matched
line
(7.08 +
and o u t p u t )
associated
ohm
Second,
98
amplitude
to
phase
XXXI) w e r e b a s e d
addition
conversion
on c o n s t a n t
of voltage
impedance
is
phasors
maintained.
resistance
in
the
connection
direct
antenna
feed
impedance
on t h e
impedance
voltage
woul d
for
as
first
Appendix
the
microwave
associated
unit,
in
all
testi ng.
be
intent
provides
photoconductive
receiving
Su c h
vary
Thus,
elements
to
the
constant
Estimations
of
have
the
constant
changing
to
be
a rigorous
predictions
analysis
provided
only.
photographic
documentation
element,
antenna
t h e microwave
horn
elements
for
effect
of the
order estimates
XXXI I I
constant
line.
(VSWR) w o u l d
calculations.
The
of
in agreement
the
Linear
illumination.
or phasing
Otherwise,
RF c o m p o n e n t s ,
a nd t h e
applied
maintenance
wa v e r a t i o s
be t e d i o u s .
serves
lines
condition.
that
photoconductive
prohibits
can o n l y
standing
accounted
with
Appendix
conditions.
presupposes
of the
feed
and o b s e r v a t i o n s
impedance
(see
The p h o t o c o n d u c t i v e
accordance
lines
calculations
antenna
the
transmitter
used during
of
with
control
system
99
CHAPTER
6
CONCLUSION
6
.1
Summar y R e m a r k s
At t h e o n s e t
an e f f e c t i v e
automotive
false
complete
since
be am w i t h
to
Thus,
study
impetus
for
antenna
beam s t e e r i n g
existing
of
applications
this
has
the
The b r e a k t h r o u g h
was
it
is
application.
indeed
in
has
is
challenge
high
via a
system
The beam
system
heretofore
understandable
for
successful
level
provided
The d e v e l o p e d
method o f
f o r maki ng t h e
component t h e l e a s t
ma de p o s s i b l e by m e r g i n g
technologies.
(AGM) a n d m i c r o w a v e
limited
area
potential
system
radar
vehicle.
be c o n s i d e r e d
high
of
emitted
gain
This
selection.
and e s t a b l i s h e d
Modification
however,
area
the
most e x p e n s i v e
expensive.
Yet,
must
the
highest
no a t t e n t i o n .
effectiveness
implementation.
previously
the
to
the
the
documented
The s u b j e c t
steering
reality
but for
adequately
respect
yields
the
avoidance
promising
been
for
research,
collision
production.
enhancement.
little
cost
has
no p r o v i s i o n
provision
performance
received
This
television
electromagnetic
steering
presented
system appeared
rate.
incorporated
the
consumer o r i e n t e d
radar
alarm
of
Apparent
photoconductors
Yet,
difficult
to
within
imagine
Geomet r y
are,
these
any o t h e r
100
methods
competing
considerations.
successfully
Low p o w e r s h o r t
represent
t h e most
microwave
photoconductor.
rewarding.
Exhaustive
appropriate
previous
investigator
as
of
parts
fact
that
of
which
could
be a p p l i e d
attenuator.
Extensive
to
This
the
as
Signal
features
continued
of
using
: Eve n mo r e s u r p r i s i n g
of
research
technological
should
prove
overwhelming
to
a carbon
exciting
researchers
[91]
has
accelerated
electrons
resistor.
studied
the
At
effects
on CdS a n d C d S e .
or
contribution.
e v e n mo r e
applications.
should
area.
Secondary
solutions
For example,
n u c l e a r 'h a r d n e s s , the j u n c tio n le s s
comparable
element
comparable
frequencies
requirements.
the
microwave
h. i gh t e c h n o l o g y
this
is
by D i a l o g
nothing
increasing
in
the
considered
photoconductive
searches
revealed
related
at';ever
has
controlled
literature
presented
for
photoconductors
o f p h o t o c o n d u c t i v e c o m p o u n d s may p r o v i d e
otherwise
terms
is
a host
processing
inspire
to
in
application
a r e a p r o v e d most
O
searches
p r o v e d t h a t no
a light
Inc.
systems
research
microwave
The m i c r o w a v e p h o t o c o n d u c t o r
versatile
of
considered
system.
a universal
Services,
similar
class
radar
previous i n v e s t i g a t o r
development
even
salient
range
literature
has
an a n t e n n a
no o t h e r
Information
on a l l
photoconductor
least
of
in
one team of
3 - 1 0 MeV
Radiation
doses
of
0
Literature'searches-accomplished
by D i a l o g I n f o r m a t i o n ^ S e r v i c e s , I n c .
3460 H i l l v i e w Avenue
P a l o A l t o , C a l i f o r n i a . 94304
(domestic
and f o r e i g n )
101
g
g
5 x 10
-
10
rads,
crystal
structure
properties.
have been
with
Thus,
attendant
based
upon
insensitivity
to
t h e microwave
photoconductor
battlefield
6.2
tactical
research
on i n d i v i d u a l
on a n y
phases.
project
This
goal
realizable
is
not
application.
It
A practical
the
detector,
single
dictate
to
Further
the
commercially
available
reliability
wa s
application
in a
b e e n by n a t u r e
areas.
limited
for
radar
early
because
immediate
the
demonstration
of
The p r e s e n t e d
subassemblies
on h a n d .
antenna
radar
only.
the
[35].
RF s o u r c e ,
would e x i s t
and c o s t
a
mo d e l
RF s u b s e c t i o n
electronics
dwell
ultimate
address
the
to
research
automotive
s ys t e m would
cost
not
construction
photoconductors,
realized,
was e x p e n d e d
be am s t e e r a b l e
integrated
resources
time
The d e c i s i o n
in t h e
Reliability
approach.
with
has
a feasibility
this
be f a b r i c a t e d
and
Research
The d e v e l o p e d
and c o n t r o l l i n g
substrate.
find
was n e c e s s a r y
a totally
antenna,
hardness
( EMP) e n v i r o n m e n t s ,
was ma de d u r i n g
suitable
is
material
in e l e c t r i c a l
nuclear
pulse
could
culminate
automotive
development of
Thus,
area
decision
was
improvements
Consequently,
product.
obviously
for
constituent
supporting
enhance
radar system.
effort
interdisciplinary.
to
inherent
electromagnetic
Recommendations
This
reported
the
on a
effectiveness
research
relied
and d e v i c e s
Although
effectiveness
which
on
could
good
wa s g i v e n
no
102
consideration.
difficult
to
which
Geometry M o d i f i c a t i o n
needs
accomplished
which
much a t t e n t i o n .
in t h i s
incorporates
pattern
will
offer
area.
synthesis
material
developments
potential.
A single
methods
will
in o r d e r
for
AGM s h o u l d
from academic
be o f
existing
antenna
suitable
for
immediate
minimal
could
are
not
array
cost
effective
commercial
be h a d .
radar
Dialogue
interest
radiation
complement
to
to
realize
antenna
applicable
to
Optimization
presently
of
antenna.
an a r r a y
an
For
radiating
fabricators
have to
alike.
would p r o v i d e
performance
would
an a r r a y )
considerations
between antenna
photoconductor manufacturers
to
applications
a high
(not
technique
be am s t e e r a b l e
effort
been
possibilities.
have
technology.
automotive
has
adjustable
this
are
an e x c i t i n g
radiator
and p r a c t i c a l
Microwave p h o t o c o n d u c t o r s
is
So l i t t l e
many new a p p l i c a t i o n
and
designers
research
(AGM)
an e l e c t r o n i c a l l y
Analysis
full
further
identify.
Apparent
area
Areas m e r i t i n g
system
a nd
be e s t a b l i s h e d ,
however.
Cadmi um S e l e n i d e
performance
should
at
frequencies
(up t o
fabrication
methods
should
applications.
proved
to
provide
X-band mi cr owave f r e q u e n c i e s .
be c o n d u c t e d
compounds
(CdSe)
on t h i s
material
and beyo nd
for
this
be e x p l o r e d
at
even
100 G i g a h e r t z ) .
and o t h e r
for
Mor e
research
higher
Improved
photoconductive
specifically
The g e o m e t r y u s e d
good
the
f o r microwave
presented
research
103
is
very
close
to
opt i mum b e c a u s e
However,
a substrate
constant
could
wavelengths.
dielectric
candidate
devices
be u s e d
For
to
in t h i s
The
devices
loop
may be
inductive
provided
values,
even f o r
straight
values
line
frequencies
are
utilizing
narrow margins
devices
with
variations
resonant
indicator
requires
with
rudimentary
such
frequencies
utilized
with
(the
channel
inductors
of manufacturing
straight
in d e v i c e
frequency
of
line
the
of manufacturing
further
study.
higher
in adherence
which
to
t o wide
In f a c t ,
be u s e d
This
of
Producing
may l e a d
tolerances.
resonant
The s u c c e s s
tolerances.
could
lower
inductors
frequencies.
device
However,
can p r o v i d e
line
The
inductance
methods.
width).
inductors
resonant
flexibility.
Thus,
resides
to
fabricated
repeatable
straight
down t h e
substrate.
in th e
inductors
inductance.
farbicated
Even h i g h e r
fabrication
shunting
substrate
corresponding
a quartz
establishes
possible
a relative
By s c a l i n g
degree of tuning
also
short
with
Consider the
research.
loops
device
are
physically
device
end
dielectric
woul d be a b e t t e r
realized
channel
of t o t a l
[11]
capacitance.
at millimeter
may be a c h i e v e d .
a high
configuration
quartz
resonant
m illim e te r wavelengths
frequencies
relative
frequencies.
dimensions,
l ow d e v i c e
good a d v a n t a g e
of 4.0
higher
presented
physical
a lower
example,
constant
at
with
of
as
the
an
obviously
a
104
Finally,
many a d v a n c e d
techniques
are
available.
techniques
are
dedicated
circuit
production.
of microwave
existing
vol ume
requirements
production
avoidance
state
However,
to
all
the
of
these
manufacture
full
gamut o f
an a s s e s s m e n t
Widespread
radar
fabrication
integrated
commercial
Obviously,
dictated.
automotive
facilities.
and
must c o n s i d e r
methods.
is
device
nearly
transistor
The s u c c e s s f u l
photoconductors
production
collision
solid
could
of
application
warrant
of
dedicated
105
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P r a m a n i c k , P r o t a p a n d G u p t a , Ch i mn o y D a s .
"Thin-Film
Measurement D i s p e l s D i e l e c t r i c Dou bt. "
M i c r o w a v e s 21 ( J a n u a r y , 1 9 8 2 ) :
7 6 - 8 1 , 84.
79.
Raff,
S a mu e l J .
Microwave System E n g i n e e r i n g
Principles.
Oxford:
Pergamon P r e s s , I n c . ,
1977.
80.
Ramo,
81 .
Reindel, John.
"Printed
Costs."
Microwaves
82.
R i v a r d , J e r o m e G.
"Microcomputers
S p e c t r u m 17 ( N o v e m b e r , 1 9 8 0 ) :
83.
S a t e l l i t e Co mmu n i c a t i o n Radi o As t r o n o my and R a d a r .
D e s i g n and C o n s t r u c t i o n o f L a r g e S t e e r a b l e
A e r i a l s .- C o n f e r e n c e P u b T T c a t i o n no . 2 .
Middletown, Pennsylvania:
We r t B o o k b i n d i n g , I n c . ,
1969.
S i m o n , W h i n n e r y , J o h n R . , a nd Van D u z e r ,
Theodore.
F i e l d s and Wa ve s i n C o m m u n i c a t i o n
Electronics"!
New York":
Jofin Wi l e y and S o n s ,
I n c . , 1965.
WG C i r c u i t s T r i m C o mp o n e n t
19 ( O c t o b e r , 1 9 8 0 ) :
60-63.
h it the
44-47.
road,"
IEEE
1
84.
S c h i l l e r , T. R. a n d H e a t h , W. S .
"An E l e c t r o n i c a l l y
Scanned Ar ra y a t M i l l i m e t e r Wave le ngths Employing
Ferrite Apertures."
IEEE T r a n s a c t i o n s on
A n t e n n a s a n d P r o p o g a t i o n A P - 16 ( M a r c h , W e s ) :
1 8 0 - 1 8 7 . -------------- — :—
85.
Schwartz, Mischa.
Information Transmission,
M o d u l a t i o n , a nd N o i s e .
Brooklyn Polytec hnic
I n s t i t u t e Series'!
New Y o r k :
M c G r a w - H i l l Book
Co mp a n y , I n c . , 1 9 5 9 .
86.
S i g n e t i c s D i g i t a l Li n e a r MOS.
C o r p o r a t i o n , 1972.
87.
S l u r z b e r g , M o r r i s and O s t e r h e l d , W i l l i a m .
E s s e n t i a Is
o f E l e c t r i c i t y f o r R a d i o a n d T e l e v i s ion"!
Second
R itio n .
New Y o r k :
M c G r a w - H i l l Book C o m p a n y ,
1950.
n.p.:
Signetics
112
88.
S m i t h , R. W.
"Some A s p e c t s o f t h e P h o t o c o n d u c t i v i t y
Cadmi um S u l f i d e . "
RCA R e v i e w 12 ( S e p t e m b e r ,
1951):
350.
89.
S m y t h e , W i l l i a m R.
Third E d itio n .
Co mp a n y , 1 9 6 8 .
90 .
S o c ie ty of Automotive E n g i n ee rs .
"Speedometer Test
P r o c e d u r e s - SAE J 1 0 5 9 - S A E Re c o mme n d e d P r a c t i c e . "
SAE H a n d b o o k 1976 P a r t 1 M a t e r i a l s P a r t s a n d
Components.
Warrendale, P e n n sy lv ania:
Society
of Au t o m o t i v e E n g i n e e r s , I n c , 1976.
91 .
S p i n u l e s c u , I . , R u x a n d r a , V . , a n d B a l t a t e a n u , N.
" E f f e c t o f i o n i z i n g r a d i a t i o n s on t h e
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An.
c a d mi u m s e l e n i d e a n d c a d mi u m s u l f i d e . "
Stiint.Univ.
"Al. I . Cuza" I a s i , S e c t .
16 v o l .
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1981 .
92.
S t u t z m a n , War r en
and D e s i g n .
93.
Sun,
94.
Tachibana,' Akira, et a l .
S t e r e o Radar System f o r
A u t o m o b i 1e C o l l i s i o n A v o i d a n c e .
Kyoto:
Nissan
M o t o r Co . , Lt d . , 1 9 8 2 .
95.
T e r m a n , F r e d e r i c k Emmons, E d i t o r .
Antennas.
McGr awH i l l E l e c t r i c a l and E l e c t r o n i c E n g i n e e r i n g S e r i e s .
New Y o r k :
M c G r a w - H i l l Book Co mp a n y , I n c . , 1 9 5 0 .
96.
T e r m a n , F. E.
Radio E n g i n e e r Handbook.
Mc G r a w - H i I T B o o k C o mp a n y , 1 9 4 3 .
97.
Third
98.
T o m b o u l i a n , D. H.
E l e c t r i c and M a g n e t i c F i e l d s .
New Y o r k :
H a r c o u r t , B r a c e and Wor l d” I n c . ,
99.
of
S t a t i c a n d Dy n a mi c E l e c t r i c i t y .
New Y o r k :
M c G r a w - H i l l Book
L. a n d T h e i l , Ga r y A.
Antenna Theory
New Y o r k :
J o h n W i l e y a n d S o n s ” 1981 .
Ch e n g a n d W a l s h , T. E.
"A P a c k a g e d S y s t e m o f a
S o l i d - S t a t e Microwave-Biased Photoconductive
D e t e c t o r f o r 1 0 . 6 Mm."
P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e IEEE
58 ( O c t o b e r , 1 9 7 0 ) : 1 7 3 2 - 1 7 3 6 .
New Y o r k :
I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e on I n t e g r a t e d O p t i c s
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Sa n F r a n c i s c o :
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I n s t i t u t e o f E l e c t r i c a l and E l e c t r o n i c E n g i n e e r s ,
1981 .
v a n d e r N e u t , C. A.
"Long-Pitch
Beam. "
M i c r o w a v e s 20 ( Ma y,
1965.
Array Produces Pencil
1981):
130-131.
113
100.
Van V a l k e n b e r g , M. E.
Network A n a l y s i s .
Second
Edition.
P r e n tic e -H a l E l e c tr ic a l Engineering
Series.
E n g l e w o o d C l i f f s , New J e r s e y :
PrenticeHal 1 , I n c . , 1 9 6 4 .
1
101 .
W a l t e r , C a r l t o n H.
T r a v e l i n g Wave A n t e n n a s .
York:
M c G r a w - H i l l Book Compa ny" 1 9 7 5 .
102.
W e i s s b e r g e r , Alan J .
" Mode ms :
The Key t o I n t e r f a c i n g
D i g i t a l D a t a t o A n a l o g T e l e c o mm L i n e s . "
E l e c t r o n i c D e s i g n 27 ( 1 0 May 1 9 7 9 ) :
8 2-89 .
103.
W h e e l e r , H. A.
" T ra n s m is sio n Lines P r o p e r t i e s of
P a r a l l e l S t r i p s S e p a r a t e d by a D i e l e c t r i c S h e e t . "
IEEE T r a n s a c t i o n s on M i c r o w a v e T h e o r y a n d
T e c F n o l o g y ~ "MTT-13 TTTarcTi," '1965 )1
T7T-TW 5.
104.
Wong, R. E . , e t a l .
C o l l i s i o n Avoi dance Radar Bra ki ng
System.
W a s h i n g t o n , D. C . :
Bendix Res ear ch
l a b o r a t o r i e s , 1977.
105.
Wong, R. E . , e t a l .
C o l l o s i o n Avoidance Radar Braking
System I n v e s t i g a t i o n - Phase II S t u d y .
S o u t h f i e l d , Michigan:
The Bencf i x C o r p o r a t i o n ,
1976 .
106.
Wood, L. E . , C h a n d l e r , R. A . , a n d W a r r e n , B. D.
A n a l y s i s o f P r o b l e m s on t h e A p p l i c a t i o n o f R a d a r
Sensors to Automotive~Col I i s i o n P r e v e n t i o n .
Boulder.ToIorado:
U . S . D e p t , o f Commer ce, O f f i c e
of Telecommunications, I n s t i t u t e f o r
T e l e co m m u n i c a t i o n S c i e n c e s , 1973.
107.
Z i e m e r , R. E. and T r a n t e r , W. H.
P r in c ip le s of
Communications :
S y s t e m s , M o d u l a t i o n , and~FToi se.
Boston:
H o u g h t o n - M i f f i n C o m p a n y , T976 .
1
New
APPENDIX I :
Phase
Plane with
War ni ng
Boundary
1 15
250
200
RANGE (ft)
WARNING BOUNDARY
150
100
50
0
25
50
75
100
RANGE-RATE ( f t / s e c )
PHASE PLANE WITH WARNING BOUNDARY
125
APPENDIX I I :
Block
Diagram o f
Radar S e n s o r
P A R A B O L IC AN T EN N A
WITH RAD OM E
DOPPLER TRANSCEIVER
C IRC ULAT OR
GUNN
O SCILL AT OR
BIAS
FMPULSE
M O D U LA T O R
3 6 GHz
25 mw
RANGE
RATE
D ETECTOR
M IXER
D ETECTOR
CH. 1
GATE
DOPPLER
A M PL IFIE R
LIMITER
RANGE
DETECT OR
CH. 2
GATE
DOPPLER
A M PLIFIER
LIM ITER
APPROACHRECEOE
DE TECTOR
P RE A M P L IF IER
+12 V
V OL TAGE
REGULATOR
+ 10.5 V
OUT
♦5.0 V
OU T
RAW
COPFLER
THRESHOLD CHANNEL
CON FIDENCE
MONITOR
AMPLITUDE
COMPAR.
FREO
GATE
-o
Block Diagram o f Radar Sensor
APPENDIX
Range C a l i b r a t i o n
III:
for
Ford
Granada
119
300
ANALOG RANGE-MV
250
200
150
100
50
50
100
150
200
250
RANGE-FEET
RANGE CALIBRATION FOR FORD GRANADA
300
120
APPENDIX IV:
Data D oc umen ta ti on
Technique
DATA DOCUMENTATION TECHNIQUE
PAN
VIEW
VIDEO a
TELEMETRY
TV
CAMERA
TV
VTP
VTR
STUDIO
SWTCHR
ENCODED TELEMETRY
CLSR
RATE^
RDR
RDR
RNG
SPD
SNSR PRCSR
TELEM
TELEM
RCVR
STEERING
ANGLE
BRAKING
COMMAND-
(DATA
ENCOOEO
TELEMETRY
XMTR
WARN*"
VEHICLE
SPEED
COMPOSITE
I-^DRIVING
VTR SEQUENCES
DSPLY
TV
CAMERA
CALIB
AUTOMOBILE
ACQUI S IT IO N )
LABORATORY, STUDIO
(DATA A N AL Y S I S )
APPENDIX V:
Telemetry
Signals
TE L E M E T R Y TR A N SM ITTER SIGNALS
FUNCTION
XTAL
FREQ
(HZ.)
DIVIDE
BY
U4
OUTPUT
PIN
SPEED
2 6 6 ,8 0 0
256
13
RANGE
2 1 6 ,9 6 0
256
CLOSURE
RATE
3 9 2 ,7 0 4
C|
R2
I6.2KX1
.0 3 9 /if
IOOVDC
5.1 IK XI
13
I6.2KXI
.0 4 7 /if
IOOVDC
6.I9KX2
8 4 7 .5
------------
512
12
18.OKA
.0 4 7 /tf
IOOVDC
3.48KXI
7 6 7 .0
-----------
SAFE
14
I6 .2 K &
.I/if
I6VDC
3 7 8 .0
1024
3.48KXI
3 8 9 .0
WARNING
Rl
3 8 7 ,0 7 2
SLAVE
3 9 8 ,3 3 6
NOTES: ALL RESISTORS: 1/4 WATT, ± 1% TOLERANCE
ALL CAPACITORS: ±10% TOLERANCE
OUTPUT
FREQ.
(HZ.)
1 0 5 0 .0
COMMENTS
----------
AUTOMOBILE RADAR /T E L E M E T R Y INTERFACE
FUNCTION
AUTOMOBILE
TELEM ETR Y
Color Code
Pin No.
Color Code
Pin No.
SPEED
V IO L E T
1
WHITE
1
CLOSURE RATE
ORANGE
2
ORANGE
2
SYSTEM GROUND
GREY
3
BLACK
3
RANGE
GREEN
4
GREEN
4
- 5 V D C POWER
BLUE
-
ALARM
BROWN
5
BROWN
5
-I5 V D C POWER
YELLOW
7
BLUE
7
+I5VDC POWER
RED
8
RED
8
—
—
APPENDIX VI
Telemetry
Tr a n s m i t t e r
Schematics
BROWN
ALARM
BLACK
X
464 KA
5KA
LIN
WHITE
iMegA
cw
-I3VOC
XT
ORANGE
2.2/it
35VOC^jp
464KA
•TO PIN 4, Ul
•TO PIN 4, U2
ska«
LIN * CW
TO SPEED
TRANSMITTER
INPUT
IMeg A
39KA :
BLUE
, TO FSK
INPUT
t r
464KA
I Meg A
I Meg A
39KA
CLOSURE RATE
1
IOKA
TO CLOSURE
RATE
TRANSMITTER
INPUT
2 .2^1
464KA
3SVDC
vcs.
x:
GREEN
464 KA
SKA
LIN
I Meg A
CW
I47KA
39K A
8
«
RED
+I9VDC
RANGE
IMegA
464KA
-►TOPIN 9, UIB
-►TOPINI3.UIA
“ ^TOPINg.USB
4.7KA
6 • NO CONNECTION
SKA
LIN
9 e NO CONNECTION
-►TO PINI3.U2A
CW
NOTES: ALL RESISTORS: 1/4 WATT, ±l%TOLERA,\ICE
ALL CAPACITORS: *10% TOLERANCE
Ut AND 02: LM 747CN INTEGRATED
CIRCUITS
2 - 2
TO RANGE
TRANSMITTER
INPUT
****
35VDC
I47KA
I47KA
I47KA
IOKA
I47KA
I47KA
TRANSMITTER, INPUT
ISOLATION AND
SIGNAL CONDITIONING
(DC) AMPLIFIER
„
■
c
t
* :
35VDCT
TO SLAVE/
ALARM
TRANSMITTER
INPUT
* +
I.5V"C"X"
BATTERY T
DC CONTROL
SIGNAL V &
FROM
T
INPUT
”
SIGNAL
CONDITIONING
AMPLIFIER
10Meg ft
IMegA
XTAL
S 60 pf I 1
-MOOVOC 68pf -JL
T SM lOOVOCT"
SM
IMegA
IMegA
U3C
I35VAC
COUNTER
U4
+9V0C>
25V0C
GND>
OUT
U3B
!/*»
50V0C
NP
V v \ VCS
TO PIN 2, U3B
TO PIN II, U3C
TO PIN 14, U3
TO PIN 4, U3B
TO PIN 7, US
TO PIN9.U3C
NOTES: ALL RESISTORS: 1/4 WATT, ± 17,TOLERANCE
ALL CAPACITORS: i 107.TOLERANCE EXCEPT
DIPPED SILVER MICA (SM)
Ql: 2N2222
U3 MCI4007AL (CMOS) INTEGRATED CIRCUIT
U4:MCI4040AL (CMOS) INTEGRATED CIRCUIT
R„ R2,C2: SEE TELEMETRY TRANSMITTER
SIGNALS CHART
COUNTER OUTPUT PIN NO. SEE TELEMETRY
TRANSMITTER SIGNALS CHART
XTAL:HC6/U. SEE TELEMETRY TRANSMITTER
SIGNALS CHART
I IOOKA CW TO
20VDC
Ol/il 4' = LIN : : _ « * (OUTPUT
MIXER
SOVDC
NP =
r Ix
I X '
BATTERY
TRANSMITTER, PRECISION
AF SIGNAL GENERATION
ONE EACH USED FOR SPEED,
CLOSURE RATE AND RANGE
FUNCTIONS
OC CONTROL
SIGNAL
FROM
INPUT
SIGNAL
CONDITIONING
AMPLIFIER
^ TO CONNECTION "o"lN FSK
lOMagfi
13,8
U3A
IMegft
6 47pf
-MOOVDC 47pi J_
“
SM lOOVOC-
t :
) TO CONNECTION "C“ IN FSK
IMfgll
I Meg A
SM
2.2KG
135VAC
2 0
COUNTER
Z3VDC
GNO>
TO PIN 2.U3B
TO PIN II, U3C
TO PIN 14, U3
TO PIN 4, U3B
TO PIN 7, U3
TO PIN 9.U3C
NOTES: ALL RESISTORS: 1/4 WATT, *1%TOLERANCE
ALL CAPACITORS: 1107.TOLERANCE EXCEPT
DIPPED SILVER MICA (SM)
QI2N2222
03; MCI4007AL (CMOS) INTEGRATEO CIRCUIT
U4.MCI4040AL (CMOS) INTEGRATEO CIRCUIT
R|fR2,C2 :SEE TELEMETRY TRANSMITTER
SIGNALS CHART
COUNTER OUTPUT PIN NO: SEE TELEMETRY
TRANSMITTER SIGNALS CHART
I S VC
BATTERY
TRANSMITTER, PRECISION
AF SIGNAL GENERATION.
ONE USED FOR SLAVE/
ALARM FUNCTION
to
VDV
* T UN : tI E
50VOC
M,xt" T
NP VC\
33 KG
+9V0C >
IOOKH CW
50V0C
FSK INPUT
CONNECTION "0">
XTAL I
IN4I48
i— l° h
CONNECTION”C">
XTAL 2
IN4I48
33KA
■— loh22KA
AF
SIGNALS
WITH
AM DATA
33KU
IOKA
047m f
50VDC
NP
0 2
IOKA :
LED
2.2KA
GNO<S>FF
1.5V C
BATTERY
ON
NOTES: ALL RESISTORS: l/4WAtT, ± 17. TOLERANCE
ALL CAPACITORS: *10% TOLERANCE
02: 2N2222
XTAL I: HC6/U 398,336hv
XTAL2 HC6/U 387.072HI
+7 5V0C OBTAINED FROM FIVE 1.5V "C"
BATTERIES CONNECTED IN SERIES
TRANSMITTER, FSK
AND OUTPUT
SUMMER
TO VIOEO
. CAMERA
AUDIO
CHANNEL
APPENDIX V I I :
Telemetry
Receiver
Schematics
+ I2V 0C
m
]c»T
L2KA
r l
422KA
Z.Zpl
2 OKA
LIN
RISKA
I
-)h
047^1 J T
50V0C~j~^
3I6KA
VA-
50VDC
2
|N 7 Ul
—
—1w»----
:422kA
-I2V0C;
NOTES: ALL RESISTORS: 1/4 WATT, i 1% TOLERANCE
ALL CAPACITORS: tlOV.TOLERANCE
Ul: LM 741CN SINGLE OP AMP
RECEIVER, INPUT AMPLIFIER
)
3I6KA
50VDC I96KA
3I6KA
IOKA
3I6KA
V TO CHANNEL
AMPLIFIERS
P S G
FROM
INPUT > —
AMPLIFIER
-O p
680X11
MFI
316X11
348X11
-
047/if
50VDC
- ||-
2
50V0C
12
n o
—> TO PIN 4,U2
■>T0 PIN 4, U3
a
-I2V0C >-
1 0 0
KU
-w*~
ioxh
LIN
iookA
cw
U2B
14.7X11
10
lOMeqll
sofocT J
047/if X
50V0C
bbokiT
T"
348K11
^3'
68/xf
SOVOC
IN270
H
IN 2 7 0 l
-
1
-L 68/if
^50V0C
N N N
SI.IKll
V U3A
-N V 1
147X11
100X11
LIN
o s CW
—
\w ---23.7X11
U3B
10
I NW —
^464X11
10X11
TO PIN 9,U26
TO PIN I3.U2A
TO PIN 9, U3B
♦T2VDC>-
VA ■
•p*
U2A
^ TO PIN I3.U3A
NOTES: ALL RESISTORS: 1/4 WATT, ± 1%TOLERANCE
ALL CAPACITORS: ±I0%T0LERANCE
U2.U3: LM 747CN DUAL OP AMP
RECEIVER, CHANNEL AMPLIFIER
ONE EACH USED FOR SPEED AND
RANGE FUNCTIONS
147X11
IN270’A‘
82.9X11
200jiI 5 n
(mlOO/io
P S G
FROM
INPUT >
AMPLIFIER
6BOKfl
.04 7/if
SOVOC
348KA
50V0C
3I6KA
IOM«qA
-I2V0C>-
USB
I47KA
10
,047/if r£T
047/if -L
SOVOC^
680KA
IN270JT
348KA
IN270
r
-68/if
^50VDC
TO PIN 4,U2
■>T0 PIN 4, U3
SWIA
iookA
lOXA
LIN CW
TkIT
fill]
SWIB
si. ikA
s.
io o k a
I47KA
U3A
U3
12
26JKA
IOKA
£>
IOOKA
LIN
CW
23.7KA
U3B
10
^464tiT
TO PIN 9.U2B
TO PIN I3.U2A
TO PIN 9, U3B
+I2V0C>-
.68/if
50VDC
> TO PIN I3.U3A
NOTES: ALL RESISTORS: 1/4 WATT, ± 1%TOLERANCE
ALL CAPACITORS: ±10% TOLERANCE
U2, U3: LM747CN OUAL OP AMP
SWI SHOWN IN POSITION "a"
POSITION "A": 30M/SEC
POSITION "B":50M/SEC
RECEIVER, CHANNEL AMPLIFIER,
CLOSURE RATE
I47KA
B2.5KA
NVS
IN270
2
oo/if:
3V0C
"^lOO/io
FROM
INPUT >
AMPLIFIER
PS6
MFI
680KA
w. —
,047u f
SOVOC
'bvU2A
£$ > * ■
II—
3I6K
IO M E G A
,047j
348K A
soCoc
,041V I X"
SOVOC
I
-I2VDO-
IOOKA
2ISKA
IOOKA
JT
I7.8KA
U4
68-IK A
-►TO PIN 4,U2
-►TO PIN 4,04
-►TO PIN 9.U2B
-►TO PIN I3.U2A
-►TO PIN 7,U4
6 8
ul
SOVOC
10
680KA
SO
U2B
I47KA
■HI—
j^348KA
IN270'
IN270
*H
1
. _.60Ml
TSOVOC
I.8KA
1/2 W
I4.7KA
6JBul
3SV0C
90.9KA
is
IN400I
(D
SC628
11819
150A
I/2W
+I2VOO
NOTES: ALL RESISTORS, EXCEPT WHERE NOTED; 1/4 WATT,* 1%TOLERANCE
ALL CAPACITORS: AIOV.TOLERANCE
U2: LM747CN, DUAL OP AMP
U4:LM74ICN,SINGLE OP AMP
US:LM3IIN COMPARATOR
RECEIVER,CHANNEL AMPLIFIER
WARNING ALARM
2.2KA
I/2W
IA SB
^ V>
if ^ »
-> + l2VDC
SOLA
CAT. NO. 8 4 —12—0 2 II2 E
1I2VDC
I20MA
Ik
- > - l2 V D C
RECEIVER, POWER SUPPLY
APPENDIX V I I I :
Telemetry
Calibrator
+ I5 .0 V ® -
■<§) RED (+I5.0V)
-I5 .0 V ® -
-®
BLUE ( —15.0V)
GND<§>
-©
BROWN (ALARM)
-©
WHITE (SPEED)
- 0 GREEN(RANGE)
-®
f—
Vv\
b2
bi
+ 11
+ 11 -
1.5V
NOTES:
1. P| and P2 pushbutton switches shown
in "up" position.
2. B| and B2 are primary Alkaline—
Manganese Dioxide batteries.
Cell designation No. 315
(ANSI " L 4 0 " )
-
1.5V
o
Ph
TEST JACKS
TELEMETRY
CALIBRATOR
0
ORANGE (CLOSURE RATE)
BLACK (GND)
APPENDIX
Microstrip
I X:
Fed Ho r n A n t e n n a S u i t a b l e
f o r AGM
139
MtCROSTRIP FED HORN ANTENNA
SUITABLE FOR AGM
0 . 0 7 5 WAVELENGTH
FEED
0.1 WAVELENGTH
140
APPENDIX X:
Unloaded
Hor n
141
210*
150*
200 *
160*
190®
X70*
180°
170°
190®
160®
150®
200 ®
140*
220 *
130®
230®
280®
80®
60®
300®
SO®
310®
UNLOAOED HORN
30*
330®
APPENDIX XI
L o a d e d Hor n
143
180°
140*
220 *
220 *
140*
130*
230*
230*
130*
110 °
250*
260*
100*
280*
80*
70*
290*
60*
300*
310*
SO*
LOADED HORN
40*
320*
10 *
350*
APPENDIX X I I :
Semiconductor
Energy
Diagram
CONDUCTION BAND
DONOR LEVEL
ACCEPTOR LEVEL
•
•
VALENCE BAND
SEMICONDUCTOR
ENERGY
DIAGRAM
APPENDIX X I I I :
Ty p e 4 , CdSe T y p i c a l R e s i s t a n c e
Illumination C haracteristics
TYPE 4, Cd Se
Typical resistan ce vs. illumination
ch aracteristics.
IM
RESISTANCE-OHMS
IOOK
I OK
100
100
.01
ILLUMINATION-FOOTCANDLES
APPENDIX XI V:
Variation
of
Conductance
with
Light
History
VARIATION OF CONDUCTANCE WITH LIGHT HISTORY
g = CONDUCTIVITY MEASURED
0 FROM INFINITE DARK
HISTORY
g = CONDUCTIVITY MEASURED
L FROM INFINITE
3 0 ft -c LIGHT HISTORY
_ j3 0 .0
RATIOS OF CONDUCTANCE
o*
(CdSe Material)
20.0
10.0
TYPE 3
5.0
TYPE 4
2.0
1.0
.10
1.0
ILLUMINATION-FOOT CANDLES
100
APPENDIX XV:
Mi ni mum S e a r c h Ti me D e t e r m i n a t i o n
(RF C o n s i d e r a t i o n s )
151
Mi ni mum S e a r c h
Ti me
Determination
( RF C o n s i d e r a t i o n s )
The b a s i c
P
=
r
where
radar
equation
Pt G
t
4*R
Ae
a ------ “
4u R
as
follows:
EQ 1
[92]
power
Pt
= transmitted
power
G
= gain
transmitting
R
= range
a
= radar
0
of the
cross
= effective
Assuming c o h e r e n t
is
given
2
Pr = r e c e i v e d
A
signal
is
section
area
of
antenna
the
target
of
the
receiving
antenna
detection,
the
mi n i mu m d e t e c t a b l e
calculated:
Smi n
mi n
where d
= d Fk T B / B t
o
= detection
Birdsall,
EQ I I
j-7 9 j
index ( a f t e r P e te rs o n
as p e r r e f e r e n c e 79)
noise
and
F
= receiver
figure
k
= Boltzman's constant
seconds/degree)
T
= 290 d e g r e e s K e l v i n (The i n p u t n o i s e i s
u s u a l l y k T B.
I f n o t , F k T0 B m u s t b e
r e p l a c e d by a c t u a l n o i s e o u t o f t h e
r e c e i v e r d i v i d e d by i t s t o t a l c a s c a d e d
gain.)
(1.38
x 10
-23
watt-
0
B
= bandwidth
t
= transm itted pulse duration
coherent processing gain)
(Bt
is
the
152
Let P
then,
mi n
dFkT.
o
P+GoA,,
t
e
EQ I I I
max
w h e r e R _ . v = maxi mum s y s t e m
max
The t o t a l
range
energy tra n s m itte d
per pulse
is:
EQ IV
Thus,
EQ I I I
becomes
E+ GoA
t
e
EQ V
max
The s o l i d
approximately
total
solid
angle
to
angle
the
covered
by e a c h
gain
the
covered
of
in t
pulse
antenna
seconds
by
is
may be r e l a t e d
n = 4n/G.
therefore
The
[79]:
= 4 n n t s /G
whe r e
t
= search
n
= number o f p u l s e s
Rearranging
time
per
EQ VI :
EQ VI I
G = 4*nts/
Substituting
EQ VI I
(G)
into
dFkT
EQ V:
EQ V I I I
max
but,
second
where
so
P aw = a v e r a g e
a V
radar
power,
,
Jrl, T = Pa v Vj -----Ae '
dFkT
0
Rearranging
n+
ma v
t 4 «R max
terms:
dFkT 4nR^
o
max t
P
oTT
av
e
accounting
for
_ +
xs
system e f f i c i e n c y
dFkTo ’ R « x n t
4
4
pavt’V
.
t
s
( e ) :
154
APPENDIX XVI:
Ty p e 4 ,
CdSe P e a k S p e c t r a l
690.0 Nanometers
Response
155
TYPE 4,CdSe peak spectral response 690.0
nanometers.
100
90
80
% SENSITIVITY
70
60
50
40
30
2
0
4000
80Q 0
6000
NANOMETERS
IOOQO
APPENDIX X V I I :
LED O p t i c a l
Output C h a r a c t e r i s t i c
157
1
0
RELATIVE
INTENSITY
8
6
4
2
O'
0
5 0 0 .0
LED OPTICAL
OUTPUT
CHARACTERIST
-------- ------------------^ — --------
550.0
6 00 .0
6 5 0 .0
NANOMETERS
» ------ ---------
7 0 0 .0
7 5 0 .0
158
APPENDIX X V I I I :
LED T r a n s f e r
Characteristic
1 59
2.0
1.0
RELATIVE
LUMINOUS
I NT E NS I T Y
2.5
LED TRANSFER
CHARACTERISTIC
10
20
30
40
FORWARD C U R R E N T
Ip * m A
50
APPENDIX XIX:
Equivalent
Microwave
Circuits
-rm
I
o
_/im_
-rrm
—rsm~
SERPENTINE MICROWAVE
CAPACITOR
—
o To
—w -
—
SERPENTINE MICROWAVE
CAPACITOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT
Mf*M
us
FIG. I
FIG.2
SUBSTRATE
SERPENTINE MICROWAVE CAPACITOR
WITH INDUCTIVE SHUNT ON REVERSE
SIDE OF SUBSTRATE
FIG. 3
x i2 \u t
EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT MODEL
APPENDIX XX:
Mi c r o w a v e
Photoconductive
Element
163
MICROWAVE PHOTOCONDUCTIVE
ELEMENT
TOP VIEW
HOLE
CdSe
CONNECTION
CONNECTION
0 .195 IN.
CEN.TOCEN
BONO
INDIUM BOND
0 .006 IN.
0.223 IN.
0.026 IN.
0 .0 4 0 IN.
0 .2 6 3 IN.
Al20 3
SUBSTRATE
SIDE
VIEW
APPENDIX X X I :
Microwave
Photoconductive
E l e m e n t Mo d e l s
(A )
(B)
(C )
MICROWAVE PHOTOCONDUCTIVE ELEMENT MODELS
APPENDIX X X I I :
G e o m e t r i c Mode l
Total (Untuned)
used in Deter min ing
Device Capacitance
Hh
x
^
/
Microwave Photoconductor
Cross Section
\
\
\
Total Field
Confinement Region \
\
C3
CdSe
/^ - C \
C3
a i2 o ,
In
Free Space
Flux
167
GEOMETRIC MODEL USED IN DETERMINING
TOTAL (UNTUNED) DEVICE CAPACITANCE
168
APPENDIX X XI I I :
Total
Device C apa c ita nce
Calculations
Total
C
1
Device C a p a c i t a n c e
Eo h
K ' ( m)
= ~ 2 ~ * K( fill
m _ 0 . 0 0 6 0 0 _ n n -,A-,n
* m = TT7TJF07? =
°
e _ (0.169 )
= — — , -------- ( 1 . 6 9 5 7 )
where
K' ( m)
integrals
and
of
the
eQ = 2.2458
2
eh
o
K' (m)
= ~T~ • rr m T "
£
CI
’
are
first
x 10
-
1
= 0.195
9
- 0.026
°
= 0.03850
area
= wh
width
(0.223 - .08022) (0.169)
3 = e o -------------- 2---------------------( 0 . 0 4 )
“
7
elliptic
farads/inch
2
Therefore,
x 10
4
complete
eoA
3 - ~ T *
= 0.06774
7
kind
1, 1
where A = p l a t e
C
0
= 0.169
m _ 0 . 0 0 6 0 0 _ n ocnn
= 0 . 2 2 JOT) =
o ( 0 - 169 )
^— 2-------- ( 2 . 0 2 9 0 )
w = plate
-
1?
x 10- 1 ^ f a r a d s ,
= 0.03218
a n d K(m)
and h = l e n g t h
r
Calculations
1 2
farads
-
2
6
9
x 10
0
1 2
^
farads
inches
170
3 " u 1° 3
5 = C
3
"
1
Thus ,
C
5
= 0.007779
x 10
"
1 2
farads
Now ,
C3 = e r C ' 3
= (8.61)(0.06774
x 10"12) f a r a d s
= 0.5832
farads
Calculate
x 10
1 2
Cp :
r
C5 C3
cp = ^
5 " * ' <
- ' 3
= 0.007577
Find
“
x 10
'
1 2
farads
C :
1
C
1
= Er C '
= 8.61
1
(0.03218
= 0.2771
C o mp u t e t o t a l
x IQ
device
'
1 2
x 10~12) f a r a d s
farads
capacitance:
CtT = c.1 + c 2« + c p
CT = 0 . 3 2 3 1
x 10
'
1 2
farads
APPENDIX XXI V:
Mi cr owave P h o t o c o n d u c t i v e
Element with
Tuner
172
MICROWAVE PHOTOCONDUCTIVE
ELEMENT WITH TUNER
173
APPENDIX XXV:
SMA T e s t
Fixture
Performance
SMA TEST FIXTURE
PERFORMANCE W ITH
BLANK CONDUCTIVE CHIP
CHANNEL SPACING *.2 5 "
-4
-7
- 0
-1 0
8.0
NO DOT END
[TRANSMISSION 1
NO DOT END
I ISO LATIO N >50dbl
GHz —>
9.0
10.0
11.0
120
174
SMA TEST FIXTURE
PERFORMANCE W ITH
BLANK CONDUCTIVE CHIP
CHANNEL SPACING =.25"
£
-6
R thru s l - 2 a
DOT END
DOT END
80
GHz —>
90
I ISOLATION > 5 0 d b
10.0
11.0
12.0
175
SMA TEST FIXTURE
PERFORMANCE
CENTER CONDUCTOR DIAMETER = 0159
CHANNEL SPACING * .25"
-3
-4
S
'
7
- 8
-10
-
-12
NO DOT END
NO DOT END
IS Q L A T I0N >50 db
8.0
GHz
9.0
10.0
11.0
12.0
176
SMA TEST FIXTURE
PERFORMANCE
CENTER CONDUCTOR D IA M E T E R -.0159
CHANNEL SPACING = 25"
-4
- 6
-8
-9
DOT ENO
DOT END
8.0
G Hz —*
90
10.0
II
0
120
177
178
APPENDIX XXVI:
Mi ni
Pharaoh
Radiation
Pattern
179
MINI PHARAOH
RADIATION
PATTERN
| 11 11 ; i 11 i 11 11 i | i i i i j i i : i 11 m i j i i i i | i i !' | i i i i | i*n i 11i i i | i i n |~i i i 11 i i i
APPENDIX XXVI I :
Isotropic
Sources
Spaced
181
ISOTROPIC SOURCES
JO*
i ■m'-rm
111
m
20
*
I ! II
| I I IT I I I I I | I II
I | I I I I | I I ! I
APPENDIX X X V I I I :
Bihorn
Radiation
Pattern
183
210*
200 ®
150 *
160®
B
BIHORN
RADIATION
PATTERN
330*
30*
MO*
30*
350*
in*
I I I I I I II I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I
i
|
i i i
' j
i i i i | n
r r j
i m
i | i i i i
j
i i i i I ' T' T
APPENDIX XXIX:
Antenna
RF C o n f i g u r a t i o n
MICROSTRIP RADIATORS
PHASING LINE
MICROWAVE PHOTO
ELEMENTS
POWER DIVIDER
I.4X
T
I.5X
'I
r
POWER
GUNN
SOURCE
/
A
r
I.4X
♦
*
-
TUNE
wvw
ISOLATORS
ANTENNA RF CONFIGURATION
185
APPENDIX XXX:
Schematic
Diagram of Microwave T r a n s m i t t e r
SIGNAL 2 4 1 -7 -3 6
4.OKU
IOO/if
IN 4007
IN 5408
5W
-t— 75VDC
IN4007 IN4007
CW
30/if +
I50V0C ^
IA SB
IN S 408
NE5I
IN4007
+I9V0C
+ I3VDC
IN OUT
ADJ
4500ul
50VDC
3 I6 U
LM3I7 IN4007]
20ma
2 5 K Ilf
LIN ;i*.
cw 3
RIGHT
r z IO
/if
42I5KU
“T
20VDC
lO/if-T
20VDCI
IN 4 0 0 7
+I5V0C
I/if
IN OUT
ADJ
IOOVDC
'H
LED
LED
LED
LEO
LM3I7 IN4007
2.I5K U
IK U
LIN
3I6U
LED
icyj
20VDC
10/if '
IK ftl
20VDC
J600U
15V
T
DC. POWER
ITO MODULATOR ( m
NOTES:
RESISTORS: 1/4 WATT, ±1 %
ALL CAPACITORS: i 10% TOLERANCE
POWER SUPPLY,
MICROWAVE
TRANSMITTER
10V
OUTPUT
FROM
MO D ULA TO R
CW
ISV
200^ifo”l
0C
s 10V
POWER'
6 8
2.7 Kil
I/2W
IN758 r : 33/if0
T I6VDC
VV\
IOOKUN
mn
cwtz?-
8
2l.5Kfl
2N2222
lOKfl
T
T50V0C
348Kfl
2 I.5K& ’
NOTES: RESISTORS: 1/4 WATT ^INTOLERANCE
ALL CAPACITORS: i 10%TOLEPANCE
MODULATOR,
MICROWAVE
TRANSMITTER
25VOC ^
2N6049
I/2W
IN4007 IN4007
34 8KJI
ICM7555
0068^(D-L
600VDC
2W
2N2222 I> -^ I3 * O U T
2N3054A
APPENDI X XXXI :
Bihorn Phasor C a l c u la ti o n s
(Amplitude to Phase C on ver sion)
190
Bihorn
Phasor C alcu latio ns
(Amplitude to
* (electrical
Steer
Phasor
Phasor
spacing
of
Conversion)
feed
points)
= 137. 8*
on B o r e s i g h t :
1:
2:
X
1
= 1.0
cos
( 68.9)
=
0.36
Y
1
= 1.0
sin
( 68.9)
=
0.93
= 1.0
cos
(-68.9)
=
0.36
= 1.0
sin
(-68.9)
= -0.93
: 2
Y
2
Phasor
Phase
1 + Phasor 2 = ^
+ X2> Y
= (X
+ Y
2
2
1
+ Y£ ) = ( 0 . 7 2 ,
)k /arc
tan
0.0)
( Y/ X)
0.72 /0°
Steer
Phasor
Full
Right:
1:
P h a s o r 2:
X
1
= 0.6683
cos
( 68.9)
=
0.2406
Y
1
= 0.6683
sin
( 68.9)
=
0.6235
X
= 1.1220
cos
(-68.9)
=
0.4039
Y
= 1.1220
sin
(-68.9)
= -1.0468
2
2
Phasor
1 + Phasor
2 = (X
= (X
1
2
. 771
+ X2> Y
1
+ Y2 ) = ( 0 . 6 4 4 5 ,
+ Y ) y7 a r c
2
/ - 3 3 . 3*
tan
( Y/ X)
-0.4233)
Steer
Phasor
Phasor
Full
Left:
1:
2:
X
1
= 1.1220
cos ( 6 8 . 9 )
=
0.4039
Y
1
= 1.1220
sin ( 68.9)
=
1.0468
X
= 0 . 6 6 8 3 cos ( - 6 8 . 9 )
=
0.2406
Y
= 0.6683 sin (-68.9)
= -0.6235
2
2
Phasor
1 + Phasor 2
(X
(X
1
2
.771
Th u s a
max
= ±33.3°
+ X2 , Y
1
+ Y2 ) = ( 0 . 6 4 4 5 ,
+ Y2 ) yV a r c
7+33.3°
tan
( Y/ X)
0.4233)
APPENDI X X X X I I :
Inductance
Formula
Sensitivity
Analys
193
Inductance
Sensitivity
The Du k e s
turn
circular
inductance
conducting
L =5.08
where
L is
1
x
t
for
a flat
single
loop:
-1 . 7 6 )
EQ I
in n a n o h en r ies
t
= loop
circumference
*
0
i
=2*r
2
and
w
=r
- r
in mils
in m i l s
thickness
but
r
given
3
L =5.08 x
where
is
1 0 ~ je( I n w * t
= outer
2
Analysis
formula
w = loop width
for
Formula
in m i l s
10 ~ je ( I n £ - 1 . 7 6 )
EQ I I
3
EQ I I I
EQ IV
1
2
= outer
radius
in mils
r,|
= inner
radius
in mils
therefore,
L = 5.08
O
x 10 _J x 2 n r 9 ( In
2 Hf n
-------------- 2
■
define:
1.76)
EQ V
1
"
r2
a = —
therefore ,
L = 5.08
x 10
"
3
2 « r a ( 1n
1
a
2
”
“
1
-
1.76)
EQ VI
194
Since
the
size),
inner
the
radius
following
5.08
x 10
(r^
is
_3
is
held
constant
(the
hole
noted:
x 2nr
1
is
a numerical
constant
or,
The
inductance
define:
( L)
is
proportional
y = a(ln
-
to y.
1.76)
EQ VI I
or,
y = a(In
“ ] + 0.0778)
examine y.
Let
x
=
a -
— 2__
a n d dx =
^dct ~ adot
1
(a
or
-
EQ IX
1)2
=------- —------7
(a
also,
EQ V I I I
1
-
EQ X
1)2
rearranging
x
x
EQ V I I I
= a
EQ XI
so,
y = -
(lnx + 0.0778)
1
EQ XI I
or,
dy = ( * -
1 >dx ~ x d x
(x - I
)
( lnx + 0. 07 78 )
+
2
EQ X I I I
x
T ~ r-J
/ dx v
195
or,
dy
=—
(x
— _ (lnx
-
1
)
+ 0.0778)
2
+ v dx
x "
,
1
or,
da
= — (ot ~_.J i 7 ( I n —
+ 0.0778)
( -----—r )Z
“ “ "
-
-
dy
1
1
EQ XIV
da
(a
a
-
- —r
-
1
D 2
-
1
or,
dy = l n — «
da
It
is
above
-
noted
that
- 2.
In f a c t ,
horizontal
of
a
slopes
inductance
In s e c t i o n s
have
4.3.2
+ 0.0778
1
is
extremely
^
= 0 for
demonstrate
w =
= 13 m i l s ,
2 1
of
the
text
r ^ = 34 m i l s
mins
therefore,
a
= 2.615
thus,
= -0.05933
L_
-
small
for
a = 3.23.
that
the
EQ XV
1
values
t wo c a s e s
o f a.
The a l m o s t
predicted
l ow d e p e n d e n c y on a i n t h e s e
C a s e A ( Mi ni mum W i d t h )
r.j
a
were
values
regions.
cited:
196
r e c a 11 EQ VI :
L = 5 . 0 8 x 10
~
x 2nr^y
3
or,
gi - = 5 . 0 8 x
10
“
x 2*r
3
1
x ^
EQ XVI
or,
= 5.08
x 10
“
3
x 2nr
1
x g^
EQ XVII
or,
g p - = 5.08
substituting
x 10
~
3
x 2n x ^
EQ X V I I I
x 10
“
3
x 2n x ( 0 . 0 5 9 3 3 )
EQ XIX
f o r g^-:
g £ - = 5.08
or,
g-p— = - 0 . 0 0 1 8 9 3
Clearly,
Case
r
1
this
is
nH/ mi 1
a very
small
B (Doubl e Width)
= 13 m i l s ,
r
2
= 55 m i l s
w = 42 m i l s
therefore,
ot = 4 . 2 3 0
thus ,
^
= +0.03802
inductance
rate
of change.
197
or,
= +0.001213
Again,
a very
Included
a.
Also
small
on t h e
indicated
inductance
values.
nH/mil
inductance
rate
of
change
is
following
page
is
a plot
of y versus
on t h e
Note
vertical
r
1
axis
= 13 m i l s .
are
noted.
corresponding
1.248
INDUCTANCE
VERSUS a
r. =0.013 IN.
0.030
0.6074
0 *2 .6 1 8
0.418
0 - 3 .2 3
(SLOPE* 0 )
y * 1.0
»a
1.0
2.0
3 .0
4.0
8.0
APPENDIX X X X I I I :
Demonstration
Equipment
Photographs
Fig.
1.
Microwave P h o t o c o n d u c t i v e
Element.
201
Fig.
2.
Antenna
a n d RF C o m p o n e n t s .
202
Microwave T r a n s m i t t e r
Control
Unit
203
Fig.
4.
Receiving
Ho r n w i t h
Frequency Meter.
VI TA
Vincent
City.
Following
attended
of
of
also
Mc Gi nn was b o r n
graduation
(in
science
been
electrical
(in
awarded
Here
St.
he
electrical
a master
received
f r o m The P e n n s y l v a n i a
McGi nn
a registered
science
State
professional
Ac a de my he
a bachelor
degree
engineering)
of
New Yor k
Michael
engineering)
astronomy
is
i n The B r o n x ,
f r o m Mt .
New Yor k U n i v e r s i t y .
engineering
master
has
Paul
degree.
degree
University.
engineer.
and a
in
Dr .
He
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