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Development of a heterogeneous microwave network, fade simulation tool applicable to networks that span europe

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×ØÑÙÚÚÙÛ ÜÎÒÏ

‘’“”•–— ˜™š– ™”— ›“œ”™•’– žŸ ™”—“—™•–
ÝÞßàáßÞàÝÞ

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H H-Q A W ELY-TUALE ALL-S L RESATRS A
F LTERS FR M RWAVE A M LL METER-WAVE AL AT S
A ier
i
Sie he F
cy
o
re Uieriy
y
Mh
S. Ario
ri
Fle o he
Reqiree or he egree
o
cr o hiphy
eceer 22
re Uieriy
We L
o
yeet i
Pro Q ue st Num b e r: 10156466
All rig hts re se rve d
INFO RMATIO N TO ALL USERS
The q ua lity o f this re p ro d uc tio n is d e p e nd e nt up o n the q ua lity o f the c o p y sub m itte d .
In the unlike ly e ve nt tha t the a utho r d id no t se nd a c o m p le te m a nusc rip t
a nd the re a re m issing p a g e s, the se will b e no te d . Also , if m a te ria l ha d to b e re m o ve d ,
a no te will ind ic a te the d e le tio n.
Pro Q ue st 10156466
Pub lishe d b y Pro Q ue st LLC (2016). Co p yrig ht o f the Disse rta tio n is he ld b y the Autho r.
All rig hts re se rve d .
This wo rk is p ro te c te d a g a inst una utho rize d c o p ying und e r Title 17, Unite d Sta te s Co d e
Mic ro fo rm Ed itio n © Pro Q ue st LLC.
Pro Q ue st LLC.
789 Ea st Eise nho we r Pa rkwa y
P.O . Bo x 1346
Ann Arb o r, MI 48106 - 1346
ii
t
S Ammi a Abb
iii
A
KNOLEDGMENTS
Pie be t A L o te Heven n te Et
Fit I wu ile t
tnl my vi Poe Dimiti Peui o i guine enugement n
ntinuu usst
He been ue o insitin t me o i lnwege sp
in etemintin n soeinim
I m gteou t my iettin mmittee
membe Poe Ao u Am Poe Byung Jung n Poe Jeey
F
R o tei inee stiistin n vube mment n my wl
A sei tnl t my ee egue n te ARES gus membe w
ve ese guie n usste me bt soeiny n seny in tee
ye
Ti inue D
Anug Gg D
Ngi D
D
ung H (Jes
H Hn Hu D
Jengi Kim Jn
Kene
Abb Semnni D
Am Fueing Anew Kv
en D
Dwn Kim Dvi Bey Ei
Himnu Ji Poe Hjti Sigmn D
by Btett D
Jien
ee D
Ju Sm Jun Zeng
en Lle Gust Mi Sinni Nitin Rguntn D
Sen Stt
Sungwl Mn eey Aen im I Poe Xin ng Poe
Xigung (Le Liu n Zengn (Any Yng
I wi yu te bet in ioe
Finy I wu ile t tnl te sese w mtte te mt in my ioe p my
omiy
My sent wm I n neve tnl enug o tei ice sye
n et t mle me wt I m
My wioe n upmte S ine nne o ti wl
wu ve been sibe witut te ubiuitu ve n usst om e
Duing
my PD e ingepney mnge te ioe yptpy eti wit stiene n
mie
My n Aij n ugte Any o te be mie getue n
w tt me my y eveyy
My ibing inpw n te omiy membe
o tei enugement n sye
I oee tuy bee t ve o yu in my ioe
i
TBLE OF CONTENTS
Pa
LST OF TBLES
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
i
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ii
LST OF FES
BSTCT
1
NTODCTON
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1
11
Mo
i a
io . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1
1
D“i
io . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5
1
1
11
BaPa Fi
r
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5
1
oa
or
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6
1
Quai
y Fa
or . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6
1
Tui . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8
15
FMEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8
Tua Fi
r Thooi
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9
11
Frria
i ( Tua Fi
r
. . . . . . . . . . . . .
9
1
Paar Fi
r
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9
1
Loa Ca i
y Fi
r
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1
1
S
a
of
hr
S a C a Tua Fi
r . . . . . . . .
1
Dir
a
io O r ie
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15
CPCTIEPOST LODED TNBLE CIT ESONTO TE
O ND DESN
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1
1
Wori Priip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1
Quai
y Fa
or . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1
1
Ca i
y Diio
Sh
i
a
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
oa
Frquy a Tui a
io
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
v
Pa 2
Caviy Dinsions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2
22
Miniu Ga (dm
) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2
2
Ciein Dion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2
2 Q an Tunin Raio Esiaion fo Nonyeiniae Caviis . . . .
2
2 Eeohaniae Dsi n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2
2
MEMS Tun . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3
22
Eeosai Auaion of a Diaha . . . . . . . . . . . .
2
2 Coneusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ALLSLCN FARCATN TECNLGY . . . . . . . . . . . . .
nouion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2 Faiaion Pision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2
Dinsionae Auay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
22
Siwaee Rou hnss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2
n aion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3
Reiaieiy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Eas of n aion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ky Faiaion Ss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Caviy Faiaion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2
Diaha Faiaion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Assey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sai GH AeeSieion Rsonao . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Coneusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4ŠKu AND ALLSLCN TUNALE RESNATR WT MAGNE
TSTATC MEMS ACTUATN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
nouion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2 Dsi n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2
2
Caviy Dsi n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2
v
Pa
4
D aia Ds g . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
64
4
Magtostat Fo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6
4 Fa at og . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6
4
Cav ty Fa at og . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6
4
D aia Fa at og . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6
4
Igtat og . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7
44 Masgts agn D sss og . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7
4
Cogls og . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7
5ŠK BD TOPO BD PSS SIICO FIT IT
CTOSTTIC MMS CTTIO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7
Igtont og . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7
F lt Si eat ogs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
74
F lt Sygts s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
74
4 F lt F Ds g . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
74
4
Coa al P g Fn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
76
4
tgal Coil g . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
76
4
Igtsogato Coil g . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
76
F lt Tg g Mag s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7
SOI D aia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7
ltostat tat og . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7
6 F lt Fa at og . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6
F lt Cav ty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6
SOI D aia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6
Tooiss og Bogn g . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
64
lton Fa at og . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6
F lt F t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7 Masgt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7
galys s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7
v
Pa
5 Immtat w ti Paal Fe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8
5
Cn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6 6Š2 GHz LLSILIC TUL RSTR WITH LCTR
STTIC MMS CTUTI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6 Itlent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
62 D ae Me . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
62
RF D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9
622
ntlmnia na D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5
69 Fal nat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5
6 Malmt ae D n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6
65 Cn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6Š2
GHz LLSILIC TUL FILTR USIG SI SUSTRT
ISD LCTRSTTIC MMS TURS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Itlent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2 RF D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2
F tl Sn “nat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
22
F tl Sti . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
29
F tl Me . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9 T Mnia m . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2
Fal nat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2
5 Pl m al Rt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6 SI Stlat ae D ailam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6
6
Mt vat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6
62
D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
69
Fal nat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Malmt ae a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2
8 Cn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8 SUMMRY D FUTUR DIRCTIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5
8 D ltat Smmal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5
v
Pa
8 Cot t o . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11
8 Ft Wo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
118
81
Pow Ha . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11
8
R a ty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11
L OF RFRNC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1
A UFUL CHCAL FOR FARCAON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1
UFUL QUPN FOR FARCAON AN CHARACRAON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11
C FARCAON PROC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1
C1 todt o . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1
C Waf Ca Pod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1
C1 P iaa Ca . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1
C UC Adto/PA Ca (ovt Can . . . . . . . . . . .
1
C PR/ H2 O/Adto/PA Ca (PR Can . .
1
C O2 Pama Ca . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1
C Pioto tioahi d Pod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1
C1 L tioahiy w ti Po t v Pioto t (C18n . . . . . . .
1
C L tioahiy w ti Po t v Pioto t (A
n . . . . . . .
1
LCON CROACHNN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1
1 todt o . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1
11 Wt A otoh d tdi KOH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1
1 h Radt v o tdi (h tdi µmn . . . . . . .
1
VA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11
i
L O ABL
ab
Pa
4
Ke Dig Parar fr 8Š
8 G AliiSg Rgar
. . . . . .
Ke Dig Parar fr XlKu Bag 2lP AliiSg ir
6
Ke Dig Prori fr 6Š24 G ugab Rgar
A
N CiSa r abriSaig Of DiS Prg g i
. . . .
8
. . . . . . . .
94
i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
B
6
1
N Euiog r abriSaig Of DiS Prg g i
i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12
C
PrSig Parar fr Paa Cagig
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14
D
iNx Mak Pargig Uig Paa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
18
D2
DR RSio gia Parar
4
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
x
L O F
Pa
11 Vi f Jt actca aR yitm amii a-tm w
ii vc
Rata aR vR cmmcat am iR
i - wt aR ac
ii mta
y i
vci cat f
ci aR ai i i p
amma aR [3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2
12 yitm a
ctct
f
mtaR HSPA/SF Rv
ity aR iiyitm [ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3
13 Sv
c w
ii itaRa
Ri t accmmRat mty aR
acv t
pt [ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1 Atmip
c t
aimii v
1- ia-v pat [7 . . . . . . . . .
5
15 matR ipi f
a 2 HM aRwRt Btt
w
t aRpaii “t
at 2 FHM (a i
t ii RpRac Qu f cittt iat
( -o RpRac m
f cittt iat
i . . . . . .
7
1 (a C
ii-ict f a typca Y F “t
t i acvR y ca t c matc “R ( Cp it
ct
f i-ita aRpaii
“t
[9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1
17 (a F
aMR cmpa
i f qaty fact
aR iM f
mpR aR Rit
tR ta “t
tci ( at cmpa
i [1 .
12
1 w itat-f-t-a
t ta iat
/ “t
p
f
maci aR C
aRi i capactv-pit aRR cavti (a 9Š3 FHM (1355
tw-p “t
wt a Qu f 3Š5 i pMct
c actat [25 ( 19Š5 FHM (12 iat
wt a Qu f 3Š5 i
pMct
c actat [22 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13
21 (a A cyR
ca mtac cavty y aRR wt capactv pit t
ct
( -“R aR H-“R patt
i capactv-pit aRR iat
H [3 . .
tat ca mRR ai LC-tak matR Aiyi
17
22 Ccpt icmatci f a capactv pit aRR cavty iat
iw
mp
tat Rmii aR actv mti f t cavty . . . . . . . .
1
23 Ca f
qcy aR aRR qaty fact
ai a fct f pitc ap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19
x
F Pa
2 F i c
a f a ci cai a crach S cav : a Eicr
c “ie a i cca a h e b Ma c “ie c ci a h . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2
2 Qu va a w h h cha a F a “x a e h r
Qu ba wh = .2 (a ia ie (b aai cai
i f Qu v a a GH [ . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
22
2 Qu va a w h h cha cav a e f w h h a GH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2
2 S ia Qu va a w h cav h h a 1 a 22 GH . . . .
2
2 S ia a fc a ac cav f fc a Th Qu f aii (a a e (b cav a e a (c cav h h . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2
2 S ia fac c
a f ha
cav f ia
(a Qu v fc ie (b fc v a
Aai cai
i f cirf a ai i f c
a . . . . .
2
21 A crh f h Qu a T Ra Caicia fwa a
h w . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2
211 Eica c aca cha c f A!S a
ha wh via a
i h b a ic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1
212 B a via ac aa f aai "c a A!S a
ha (a ai A “i #$u e (b A “i
h c t$u e (c a
ha a %e a ( i c “i h c t&' 1 Cc
cha c f a aiir i c ca
ac vr
ia cav a
ica c aca . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2 Cv aii ach cav f ca
ac vr
ia cav a (a Sa cav a ch LTCC ba a
ia w h i [2e (b ci cai cav a ca TMM
ba a ia w h c
[e (c ci cai cav w h ch bi c
[ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exa
i f fab ca ca h h a
cra fab ca
cv ai ba ach ch (a O
cai r
a hw a ha
1 µ a ch TMM bae (b SEM a f 2 µ a ch C
ba hw be c a a h r
. . . . . . . . . . . .
x
F Pa
3 D ins ona conto n i coiach n n s n asconoca i coscop
w th capa
ty to ias cav ty d ins ons w th s
i coit pc s on [ (a Etch po and stp h ht (
posttop d ins ons and
aa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3
3 S iatd ct o sac ohnss on th sonato Qu at d nt
fnc s ( nst Rohnss s appox iatd n HFSS y ntodc n
n oiy spacd ds o ohnss h ht and w dth . . . . . . . . .
3
3 S dwa ohnss d to scaop n and i coass n o
svd n ii
dp S cav t s tchd s n DRIE (a Sfa post (
c ca post
3 Sac s dwas and capac t vpost po coipa son o a convnt on
ay iach nd cy nd ca cav ty n b copp (Top and an sotop c wt
tchd S cav ty (ottoi oth cav t s a ii w d w th a posttop
d ait o 2 µi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2
3 Iipact o ond n iat a condct v ty on th sonato Qu . . . . .
3 (a Fa
cat on ncta nty n 0 and C d to cav ty and c n sac
ohnss and ”atnss A ipct ons assid on cav ty s d o s i
p c ty (a Iipct cav tyc n attachint d to sac ohnss
ony (
post ohnss and (c nonpaa iat n sacs . . . . .
3 Wa v a
cat on pocss o as con cav ty sonatos . . . . .
3 Soi ipotant stps n cav ty a
cat on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
32 (a av ty wttch po daiad d to d cacb n o h hystssd
n t d iasb (
Ma n coiponnts o th wttch ath stp o dp
cav ty tch n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
33 (a Sp iposd ias o posttop aa show n th post tch poss
w th t i iasd s n conoca i coscop o chaact at on (
Two o
svd post aa shaps d n th tch poss on o a sfa
post [3 (Lt whn AL2 ( ht whn AL2 . . . . . . . . .
3 (a Sp iposd ias o posttop aa show n th post tch poss
w th t i iasd s n conoca i coscop o chaact at on (
two o
svd post aa shaps d n th tch poss on o a sfa
post (Lt whn AL2 ( ht whn AL2 . . . . . . . . . . .
2
3 Soi ipotant stps n d aphai a
cat on . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3
3 (a D aphai daia d to i shand n (
D aphai cb n d
to xcss v stss n od i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3 Assi
y o th tna
as con sonato . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
x
F Pa
3 B
st co s f a c s ck--ac t w t tat
fc ao a
tat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5
3 H toat cts Au aao (a A s f
t o sao w t i s ba (b bck coa s
f aaos f t st ss toats . . . .
5
3 HF s oat s f t 55 GH stat c sat w t CPW f
5
3 Fab cat
ats f 55 GH stat c sat (a cav ty w t st (b
stat c c w t f
s a
ctat
b
. . .
5
3 oat
a
oas
foac f t a-s c stat c “t s f 55 GH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4 coat c f a caac t vy-a
vasct-o
cav ty sat t
by ca t a btw t cav ty st a
aao s oatstat c actat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4 ct a v w f t HF s oat s f a-s c tab sat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3
43 oat
a
oas
B-“
f t c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
44 oat
oatstat c fc t oat as a fct f a fo
t t f t c f t c cts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
45 Ky sts t fab cat css (a Cav ty fab cat (b D aao
fab cat (c Attacot s A-A to-coss b
(
Itat f oat a
ct c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4 Mas
-aaots f a waky c
sat Eac sccss v
ak cs
s t -oA ca ct (Ist T Mas
Dv c (Ist Btto Pta f sat cav ty ft a
back . .
4 Fqcy a
qa ty fact at t c cts Coa s f
oas
Q w t s oat
o
Q . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5 Cct scoat c f a tw- a-s c “t t
w t ctstat c
MEM actat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3
5 Exta c ac t RF f
(a P st t
(b stac fo sat st . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5
53 Qe st oat fo rct (S11 as vs fqcy t . . . . . .
5
54 It-sat c ac wav s os s (a s
w t (b s t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
x
F Pa
55 Int-sonato cou n dtm nat on fom “t tansm ss on uaamts
s n su t uo mtod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7
5
Sct ona i of t tio-uo “t s mat on ds n i t d mns ons
A d mns ons a n m mts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7
57 Exuctd d auam d”ct on s b as ota to ac 15 µm anao d”ct on in t d auam-ctod n t a au s 45 µm T
d auam st nss s 66 Nm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6
5 (a-(f K stus n t “t ca t fab cat on uocss, ( fab catd
“t ca t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8
5 (a-(fK stus n t SOI d auam fab cat on uocss, ( fab catd
d auams b tc n SOI and a fom backs d, ( fab catd
AS d auams i t bond n n on tou . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
516 (a-(d K ctod fab cat on stus, ( fab catd ctod . . . .
511 T assmb od fo d nt “t comuonnts n t “xt, ds nd
to ass st n “t masmnt s n coax a u n fd . . . . . . . . . .
4
518 F t masmnt stu s n “xt i t nd da b as n fo ac
d auam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4
51 Masd tn n ufomanc of Š1
G a-s con tio uo ca t “t
ds n (a Tansm ss on (2, (b ”ct on ( . . . . . . . . . . .
514 Oa uot of s matd and masd s-uaamts of t “t (a At
t oist masd frnc of 15 G, (b at t st masd
frnc of 1585 G . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7
515 F t masd ufomanc comua son i t s matd sts (a Inst on oss (b Fact ona and absot bandi dt (c Extna ra t
facto Qe (d Int-sonato cou n coc nt . . . . . . . . . . .
51
T xtactd noadd ra t facto of t masd tio-uo a-s con
tnab “t comuad i t s matd Q . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
517 Š1
G tnab 8-uo Bttiot “t i t uana CP fd (a
FSS ds n, (b fab catd uat, (c assmb . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6
1 (a Concuta ds n of i d tnab, coax a-u n-fd a-s con cauac t uost oadd ca t sonato, tnd s n ctostat c actat on (b Const tnt uats of t assmbd sonato (c Cos-u ma of t uost
t u soi n Pan-N suac “m btin t uost tou and moab
d auam, a k mnt n ac n i d tn n an . . . . . . .
8
x
F
Pa
6 Siua 6 o 4 GH
tt ah hoh 15 µi of ahai
dot wh 05 µi tau a t PautN a “ui Th tt
at b 48% who PautN fo h ai dot (t
Rotao t wh itot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9
6 K fabaot (a Ca (b Dahai ( Ba uo . .
96
64 Rotao aibu Th iauu “x t o a t RF
iait t oaxau t f . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9
65 Rdot ot ( fqt a a ftot of ba oua, how
t otao tt foi 61 o 44 GH
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
98
1 Siua RF t fo 6Š0 GH
auuuot tabu “u . . . . . .
99
Siua RF foiat of 6Š0 GH
“u t . . . . . . . . . .
101
Faba t au a at aibu t “x fo h 6Š0 GH
“u
t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10
4 Puita “u iait wh AS ahai (a Tatiot
(2 , (b dot ( . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10
5 Cot hia fo SO ba ba t (a A tu ba fo
boh ahai, (b t au bat of ah ahai b ht
th t h hatu ua o oua h uo . . . . . . . . . .
104
6 Voua dot fo h “tau
t xa foi Co t
owa iuaot t a h booi h SM ia of h fab
105
a SO ba ba ahai wh k itot . . . . . .
(a K t h fabaot of SO ba ba ahai wh
10
oua uo, (b faba . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8 Mait fo ou auuuot “u t wh SO ba
ba ahai . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
108
9 Ma tt ot of h “u (a Tatiot (2 , (b d
ot ( . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
110
10 Coiaot of ia u wh iuaot (a tot uo, (b
abou B batwh, ( faotau batwh . . . . . . . . . . .
111
11 Tatiot ot oiaot of iua t at ia aa
a fw u ot t h tt at Th ou bu ut t
ia aa wha o buak ut h oott iuaot
u . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11
x F
Pa
7 Qu a
t a coao of th alllco “lt otat
th wor wth oth tatofthat “lt tcholo . . . . . . . . .
1
8 (a Sa o
l of a MMS aha actato hh ow
co
to caact ot loa
oato [67 (b olat a
ob twor aal to lf lli ct wth ca
RF ow [7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8 Fc ft oato to tat cha aall co
at
b al ba olta (a TMM1 ca t wth AS aha attach
ox (b C ca t wth AS aha at
tach
ox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
81 A 
ai fo cooat caact th SO btat ba
t B “ a a
toal all caactac lcto
th ct of xt lcto
cocto wth a caactac cct a tal cotoll a
a f
bacr to ow l th wat
fc ft to tat ca b cotoll
alt Ca t
at ot how fo lct . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
x AAC
A Mu
. P.h. Puu U ey hb 22. HQ Wly
u
bl AlllS eS
Se Fle S MSw
Mllw
Ap
pl
Se. M
jS PSeeS hSe PSule.
lSp S uly Snu
bl x S eSw
n S
(h) e ll by e F S e u S S pS
Sp
SuSuelyu
bl bS
b
nl w lSw pSw SeupS. e
wSr pee S l b
S SlSy S l u
bl nle p
bl S
e e h ue. e 
llelSs SlSy e b
eueeully plSy S Se
u
bl eS
Se/nle C X Ku K
b
e w eul
Sue ulS
u
ly Se Q ( 5) u Se
( 2). AS
lly e SlSy Soe e l ry e lr SSl
(eyeSp) S lSw Se b
pSee Sp
bly w CM
pSee. S be S Su rSwl u
bl y eS
Se nle
pe e wSr ne S r eul
Sue Q u S pS
e up
lll S . I e bl pe
SlSy e pS
l S lSp pS
u
bl eS
Se
nle S Sw
llw
h ppl
Se.
ne p
S ee
S Suee S wSr ppl e b
S Se
Se S Q wlyu
bl p
pSe lS
eS y eS
S S bS Sw
llw
ppl
Se. h
le S llelS b
S SlSy e e S S S
l
b
S ue euee. Su pSSSSp e
llelS e
S
S e b
S eu e eSw Su ul Sl
peS b
S ep
y bw eul
eu eule
x cn be sincnt mnme The secn p
t o the sse
ttn hs ocuse n
e ces o
techni emnst
tn The mst ntbe emnst
tns o ths w
ncue 1 the st e e
emnst
tn o tunbe esnt
wth 1 tunni t b
emnst
tni 61Š2 GH ni tunni wth hihQ o 3Š1 usni eec
t
sttc MEMS ctutn 2 6.Š2 GH (13 tunbe twpe Butte
w
th
te
wth n nse
tnss o .6 B (ncuni cnnect
sses mntne
th
uihut tunni nie tune wth eect
sttc ctutn o SO subst
te bse
w tie tune
s
1
. IOCIO
Mo
ao
The ide f sfwe de“ed dis (S hs w bee d f seve yes
d hee hs bee eesive es i his “ed eseiy f miiy mmiu
is [1 The visi is hve sie e“be di wih miubd d
miusdd mibiiy, h ee eeivey i dese eemei
dii evimes whie hvi he ferey iiy eeded mmie
si mie wvefms i id sessi (see Fi 11 The deveme f e
eei S is si f fm mee e mi e erii ivi is is
e“be F fued (FFR, h is hideed by hih s d ess h deu
sibe di efme de uvibiiy f sibe be “e ehy
h f“ he sie S eriemes [
The ie behid he eed f be FFR, whe he e f sie
be mmii devie h s viey f wieess sdds hs
edy bee imemeed f seve yes w, be eied by ki he
FFR hiee f hese eisi devies, s i Fi 1 be see h he
miubd / miusdd mibiiy is ey hieved by iei seve
ideede dis i sie devie This e di h hs sbsiy
iesed he desi meiy, s, size, weih d F sses [4, 5 Wih he
idy iesi se demd f iei ew sdds s shw i Fi 1 ,
fhe diveee i wieess sdds is eeed h he eisi hiee
my be be s A sie e“be di h e!iey iize
he vibe sem si m, w s b hihy ”eibe hdwe wih
miim we smi is heefe hihy desibe f“ eisi d
fe mmii eriemes
2
F 11 V o o Jo t Tat al Ra o Stem Seamle realt me
w rele vo ei ata a v eo ommu at o amo ol er w t
a aro US m l tar erv ei oal t o ore a all e u le
prorammale ra o [
Aot
er emer prolem w t
t
e rea ema o a t oal taar t
e lak o reue e ava lale or t
e ew erv e a well a t
e ex t ommu at o aeli l t a tro ee or a t oal reue a Look at t
e atmop
er atteuat o o EM wave (F 1.i t
e CŠ K m rowave a
a a ew m ma t
e m ll meterwave re o ourr at 3 Gi 9. Gi 1.
G a e explo te eet vel u reonurale ra o or w rele ommu at o T
e ev e e reut o ome aturall w t
er reue e (maller
wavelet
mak t
e reue SR ver lurat ve or portale temi
a rore a pae appl at o
T
e eal tuale nlter or exteerat o ra o oul ave t
e ollow ar
ater t [35
3
F 1 Sstem ah tetue fo mult a HS
A/E
GE der
s t a o susstem [6
€ low set o loss (h h uloae qual t fato Q )
€ h h selet d t (w e tu at o omae to aw th)
€ low ost
€ small s ie a we ht
4
F 1 D erence n w reless stanars to accommoate h her
mo l ty an ach ee h her throht [4
€ oo comat l ty (ease o
nterat on w th RF c rc ti
€ h h l near ty
€ h h ower hanl n
€ low ower consmt on
€ a l ty (h h seei
€ an rel a l ty
In the ollow n sect ons , the er
ormance o
ex st n tnale “lter technolo es w ll
e r eby scsse n the l ht o
these SDR re rements Wh le eery technoloy
has ts mer ts an l m tat ons, a common shortcom n s the lack o
s mltaneos
h hQu an tn n rat o n a mo le orm actor, esec ally or h h reency ( 6
GHzi al cat ons Th s work ocses on a new tnale “lter technoloy or real z n
comact, low cost, systemonch (Soi comat le “lters caale o
emonstrat n a
5
s ulus h hQ a w a u su l fo h h fou SDR l s
F 1 Asho os ss vo 1 slvl h [7
e
Thouhu h s a sso os o a us h o l s wh h
o foul usa
wll uaosa a a h owv a RF MS
u Hwvo
fo a suss h ov us wok s s aoa sso
o b aso s s os l fo h f h oao w h s
o u ls lo h x wh h h o usa
B!"#$! %&e'
A ass lo s vo wo wok h llws os ss f
s ls w h o a f fou s (ssa) a us ll hos ( h
sa) A lo s ss l f ll oao a u ss
oh uo a s l l s lua lwss
h hss
ass
6
a ba s f s ssn Alu “l lu s i is
wr is all siabl f s sso l ba ass “ls av b is
ss
f lu d sai n A i
al ba ass “l f s s is
uiv
i
Fiun 1n.o w 0 is f o is alf w (
ba wi a sl f ll is di b db f ls i “l a sf f i n
Re
A s a a si ul l “l is bili u bl
r f alii u iu
“lsn T si “l ll di s db f si i i
al s
as (ls was assba fda (b
vo w o lli
i
alo ssl n is di b wa s s as i a
(
l wi
a
a x al i
in Tf F fda f a “l a b
i
bas fda f si s asn
Q !"y #$
T ali fa
% is a id si lss aad wi
di s F fda f a s a “ln A s as % is ai f daxidd u
s i s a u issia f a
ln Fd f s so ali fa
a b sida b ai f f ba wi [&'n
% = )* ×
E+,-g/ 234-,5
0
8
E+,-g/ 7422 p,- c/c7,
(1n1
I is w d i i u a % di fd 9 n (1n1 u all i ls
lsss f b avi a x al i
io lss s a is v warl
l i wi
as x al lsss a b ul
n Tfo i if
s a fda lo la ali fa
%: is a f dn W
is
ssi u a “l ali fa
o fllwi u ds will b s isi l i if
7
F 1 S uld rspons for 2 MHz bnda di Buraori
bndpss “lr 2 GHz ( Insr on loss dpndn
on Q of on
s un rsonor (b Rollo dpndn
on nubr of ons un
rsonors
8
“ peornc
Qu Un o q ay eco - Exn caca cona o- n o pow
o an ono on y,
Q Exn q ay eco - Rono cona o- n o pow o
an xn caca on y,
Ql Lo q ay eco - Whn pow o oe boh h ono n xn
caca cona
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1
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Th cpba ay oe ono o “ o rov a pbn an h eqncy
pcr on h pp acaon oe n xn ar ( conac a e o h nang
Tnang ng cab h eqncy pcr cov by “ bwn
a ranarr n rxarr opang eqncy, wh h nang ao (h ao
oe rxarr o ranarr eqncy a h r oe vac nang cpba ay
B
on h nang chr, h nang cn b n og ( poab eqnca wahan h
nang ng va b eo opaon o aga (ac eqnca wahan h
nang ng
F
Rao eqncy raco- corchnac yr (R-MEM a pca a cgoy oe MEM vac an R n ra ar-wv pp acaon
Lai MEM,
R MEM vac ebac on n raco-ebacaon b ai a acon, g ar na, n a acon-on-an o (S ang 3-D raco-ebacaon
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9
change the RF re on e of the crct wth ther controlle mechancal movement le
wtche tnaule caactor tnaule “lter etc Secon the tatc mcroimachne
hghiQ RF comonent le antenna mcroimechancal re onator an “lter nci
tor an mcroimachne cavty re onator an “lter 1
T
T
he ex tng tnaule “lter technologe can ue uroaly ve nto three catei
gore each of whch urey c e uelow
11
( T
he yttrmironigarnet Y!"# cry tal ua e “lter are the mo t wely e
tnaule “lter technology n mea rement n trmentaton ua e taton for celli
lar hone an efen e y tem Fre$ency tnng acheve uy ujectng the Y!"
cry tal to an external tatc magnetc “el he re onant fre$ency change wth
the ale external “el controlle uy crrent Fg %. how the chematc of a
tycal Y!" “lter Y!" “lter are avalaule for we fre$ency range
2Š4& "G'#
emon tratng mltioctave tnng ng ngle or mltle tage # wth very hghi
)* 2&&&Š5&&&# h excellent RF erformance come at the exen e of large 'e
hgher ower con mton &5Š5 W# to generate the tatc magnetc “el relatvely
low tnng ee
everal mll econ # an a nee for a temeratre controlle
envronment whch mae them le
1+
taule for moule form factor [5 9]
P he econ category of tnaule “lter technology comr e of lanar or two meni
onal RF “lter on a taule u trate he e “lter are faurcate ng lme
or trute reactve element !n the trute aroach nctve tran m i
on lne are loae wth varactor for tnng he mo t olar varactor e
1
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H wever ter pert i lte t l w p wer l w freue
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Cv 3456767
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2
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T ccrc f ts cd s t b 1r“d fr mssb
2
F 2 A screen-sh f he Qu an Tnn Rane Ca
c
ar
sfware prepare n hs wr
cbnans fr , , an an errrs n 0 an Qu esan are expece be
ch hher a hh freenc an hh aspec ra (ba1 esns, wn seera
apprxans ae n anfn frnn “e
capacance, ca sac
capacance, an shee ressance I s recene ha hs ce a n
be
se fr pre
nar esn Qu an nn rane esan Usn hese pre
nar
res
s, a re accrae e
n sh
be ne sn F base srcre s
ers
e HF
El !"#$%&$l D'&)%
The e
ecrechanca
esn epens pn seera
app
can-spec“c facrs,
nc
n cpab
wh RF esn, rere acan rane, pwer cnspn, pwer han
n, spee an perana
enrnen ach f hese facrs has
3
sr trs m
t dt t frmt mors
s
g
Trfr s
tt
nso
e trm
s
s
rt
s w
b orst
t tr otrsg
2
MEM u
Tw mortt tyos f trs w
b s
r fr rstr t
r: 1 Arry f bms ormg
B
!ms r t mst xts
y s sss "#"$ strtrsg I RFn
"#"$ ty b m
y s fr sw
t rtr oo
t
sg F
xn
ex exnfr (t
r r t oor bm ert
s t
r s
fbr
t
ts str
ts b xts
y sss trtr
fr RF oo
t
s [1%&g A bm r rry f bms s b s t m
tt
mb fr t
t o
t
nost t
s [3'&g T f
bm b ts oo
t
s wr w b
s ts (1n1 s f ts
sw
t
sos () 1
µs sm tr s
i () 1 mm r t t
s
orfrrg T
r ws
s t oss
b
ty f sbstt
etr Q* rt
t RF rrt rw
t sro sw
t rrs b
s
trfr r
t
sbstrt sssg
D+,-a
A orm r mmbr s t
”t ot (sy sqr r rr
mo ts s (
y no mmt bt ob f ”t
tnfno r t ” f oo
fr r orssrg Ur frm n
t mx
mm ”t
rs t t tr f t orm t m
t
f w
o t orm st
ss oo
orssrg T st
ss k
3
F 2 Electtatc actat chematc f Au da
ham
whe vltae a
led t the ba electde
f a ccla membae f ad R ad thcke de fm lad ca be
calclated by: [ 1
= + =
+ 1
3R ( Š )
(2 3)
whee the Yo mdl the matealo Po at ad the ed
al te the membae The cm
et f te de
ed mateal
ete ad dme wheea de
ed maly the fabcat techl
y ad eeally the dmat te ctbt mecham de t dclty
fabcat lwte da
ham A da
ham te the efeed chce a
ca
actve
t laded eat de t fllw beent:
€ adal tefeece fee ymmety f fm cet ”w whch eceay
f hhQ
€ cm
lete metallc ecle f cavtyt
edc adat ad btate
le
€ ble lat f actat mecham (eteal t the cavty) edc F
le de t ba tefeece
The challee f a da
ham f th a
lcat ae:
3
€ choce o mer dmensons nd frcon echnoo o ed smooh nd
” dihrms
€ hseressree nd creeiree de”econ or reiefe oieron
€ re
e re se comired o fems
€ hher sness comired o fems
€ choce o cton scheme o che
e desred de”econ
In hs wor we h
e octsed on on dihrm tners or echnoo de
eoimen
22
Ela Aua a Daa
ecrosc cton s he mos wde tsed MM cton scheme dte o s
nerero iower constmion desnsmic nd hhsieed [ !" F shows
he schemc o n eecrosc cted #t$ fmorih dihrm When oe V s iied o he fs eecrode he eecrosc orce its he dihrm
owrds he eecrode f dsicemen x The dihrm sness k crees reconr resorn orce iroioron o hs dsicemen # e%tfrtm he
eecrosc nd resorn orces fnce ech oher hereore we cn wre&
kx = '0
(b)*+ V ,
-g0 Š x.,
- !.
where (b)*+ s he fs eecrode re nd g0 s he n i feween he fs
eecrode nd he tnde”eced dihrm Usn hs ireie cton o d
ihrm conntots de”econ cn fe che
ed or on onehrd o he cton
i -g0 $3. oowed f he itn/ nsf Thereore or no resonor de
sns he n i feween he dihrm nd fs eecrode shotd fe es
hree mes he re%tred dihrm de”econ o che
e he desred tnn rne
33
F 22 B vol dpndn on ky d n p
fo n
lo de on n A d pi
(a dl n A “l
, (ba A “l
i kn t , (a d pi
d R, nd (da l on
“l
i kn tS 3
The bi voe needed o ahieve he required deeaion hereore deend min
uon k, A nd g0 .
In ae o ui dihrm, whiah i eenive ued in hi wor, he u
hiane t nd reidu re re he dominn isne aonribuor due o
he reree nure o arine iiaon [. Thereore he k r o he isne
k in Eqn. (.3 i ener ever ime hiher hn k nd we an roime he
dihrm isne o be
k k = t
(.
The eimed bi voe or required no deeaion in ui dihrm, unaion o ome imorn dein rmeer i reened in Fi. ..
2
C !"#
Thi aher diaued he bia heor o aaiiveo oded avi reonor.
Dein uideine or oimipin Q nd unin rio hrouh he mniuion o de
in rmeer i reened. I i hown hrouh imued reu h aaiive
o oded reonor wih hihQ ($55 nd $1 unin rio an be deined
or miarowve nd miimeerwve requenaie. Thi hih requena dein i ini
ian m nd hih eniive o dimenion oernae, whiah oe ahene
o he eiin “er briaion roahe uin aonvenion mahinin. The ne
aher wi oau on he briaion aoniderion or reipin hih requena re
onor.
3
A FA
AT T
Intrdtn
ca w !cu ioa co!ao sc" a fa#ca$
o coso"h fo ua#s caac%$o soa!! “s ua#s fo icowa% a!
issi$wa% ascaop & w fa#cao coso"h oo! wc i$
cofa#cao c'u a u! o ac% 'u! s%s of fa#cao co
cah fo " f'uch !%cp coso"h sco u! a u#a iaas fo fa#ca" ass cou coio of caac%$o
soa!! ua#s oao a! fo ai! a ass$sco( coso"hp )
ioa fa#cao a!%aa" a! cass" isoh" ass$sco
aoac a aso "s"!p *assh o a %as!h of ou ass$sco R*
io!s" oc!u a! co ass$sco fa#cao a ac oao !"! fa#ca! a! aashl!p
*"p 3p+ ow coc ciac of a ua#s ass$sco oao w sc$
oac MEMS acuaop ) oao asl! #h coi#" !%!uassh
icofa#ca! coio, +1 & "os!$coa! ca%h w o c! #usb s$
co u#a 21 & "os!$coa! "s$chas$sco !aa"i sa! #h sc%
c" of a sco$o$usao -S.1 u#a 31 a #a" sco sco! w
a ico$iac! o coa! w a !scc sah fo scc osaop ) !$
aa"i S. aac! o ca%h ou" "os!$"os! io$coio #o!"
ou" a "os! #o!" " o S.p ) cb of #o!" " aso !$
“ as "a #w o$o a! cs"p )u" ac%! ou"
scoac acuao of !aa"i w a #a %osa" as! o S
sco! ou! c! c of S. a!sp ) ! of sco!
o b sow a S. a!s sah cb o ca as #a"
3
F 3 C
she
o llsl cs
l
c
y rs
r u us l
rs
u
Ths bs s re hruh l
rehl lyss o h hre
d
ssry or h l “l
r u h sr orfuy r
Bor w h ls o hs llsl hly s ssry kw
h our er
sr
s sl
obr
hly su
bl or
rl hs hh orfuy cs
€ rs
€ rlbl
y
€ e
bl
y € s
aa P
A sussoul obr
hly shul b ur
ss
I rr
rl hh orfuy cs
l ubl “l
rs rs s ely
1 ess 21 suro r“l (ruhss1 31 r
o s
u
r
s
3
F 3 Conventon mhned vtes used fo atve-aost
oded vt esontos (
Sue vt nd aost ethed n LTCC
sustte nd ated wth od [32 (
nd vt nd aost
eted n TMM3 sustte nd ated wth oaae [42 (
nd
vt wth steaaed aost ethed n ub oaae [32
F 33 Exmaes of fton unetntes n hh saet-to
aosts fted n onventon susttes usn mhnn tehnues (
Oat me shown sie nd shae dstoton n 1
µm dmete aost ethed n TMM3 sustte (
SEM me of µm dmete aost ethed n Cu sustte shows us uts nd ouh aost-toa
D A
Fom the aevous hate t n e noted tht dmenson u eomes
t t hh feuenes (n the ode of few mometes fo mm-wve aatons
s shown n F .
sm devton n aost sie n use mjo shft n
esonnt feuen nd tunn aefomne In the aevous fton shemes the
vtes e fted n met o deet susttes usn onventon mhn-
3
F 3 Dnin cint
i n c
ichnn un lcinic
c
icim wth cmty ti u
cvty dnin wth ul
c
it
m
cin [ (a Etch m
ip nd tm hht (a mitl
tim dnin nd n tchnu un m
ic n d
n ndn nd mtn hiwn n
F 3 Th ti
nc i th ci
cy v chnn tchnu n
y hh nd ndut i
th th mu
mi Evn wth hh m
cin l
chnn tii th ctin i m
c hhlmct ti mit ( 22 µ dt
nd hhta dcut ti m
iduc y du ti tiin i
c ( F 33a
S c
ilchnn tchnu iw npcnty hh
v i dnin m
l
cin Th mhitithi
mhy n cinunctin wth th cint
id chcm
tchn cn m
ivd th u
d v i m
cin ndd i
iu
mmctin Th
u i hh m
cin ninlcintct ch
ct
tin tii imtc nd lcinic
c
icim ctt th mm
ich hiwn n F 3
Ro!"#$%%
It w thd ct tht n t
nin n &F i nc
wth u
l
c iuhn nd mcy m
iniuncd t hh
unc whn th iuhl
n in th i
d
i n dmth [3 S
y nc th &F cu
nt cincnt
t
ti th ns i th cvty dw nd mit th u
c iuhn nc
th ht
3
F 3 Suld c o
sur
c rouss o rsoor Q dr rfucs (s Rouss s aaroxd HFSS by
roduc u
orly sacd rds o
rouss d wd
rssc o
cvy d drds Q To s ac o
rouss
o Q dr rfucs cacv-aos lodd rsoorn w v usd
HFSS sulos d oud Q drdo rd w crsd roussn s
xacd T ac o
rouss o Q s r rfucs s sow F 3 Sc auraos o
s sulos s o sur rd o cul
vlusn rouss s aaroxd by u
orly sacd rds cvy bsn
sdwllsn d aos s sow s o
F 3 W cvs r brcd
us covol cn ool b lvs s rcks d rrulr rks o
cvy sdwlls d aosn wc r xrly dcul o aols sll cvs
(
w llrs w rl rou aos r cr Dad uao fua arcson s rouss c b ordr o
2Š2 µ Sdwll rouss
4
i a i v i Si mimahii if De Raiv I Ehi (DRIE
i u
a h avii Th allei au miai h iuall au ”
(eiall f fa ue hi ie
a ev a ifm au i
mal ueii a h iuall li i auuiial hmi l ( Fi 3.
Ui h hmial hi f ili mh mili fa “ih a b
ahivu a h iuall au e Fi 3 h h iuall h meai
f a viall mahiu avi i bl ee a mimahiu Si avi f
imila avi au ee uimi
nttn
Th ifmi uivi au aa i aviili iai a h
m imea e ha a a a efma A hihl uiv
aahm ill l ia h RF ha a ifm aah
m ill l i mmi uiibi Bh f h fa imea h
a Q I h vial fabiai hi h h e fa a
all h h mml u aahm mhu i uiv ilv ex
ih a aeexima uivi f 2 S m [44! Slui ih laivl l uivi lau i au iuim all i h h availabl ei I ih a h
Q f a a ih C A a h avi mal a baial uaua
i (m ha 3 % imlau f A v ex
i Q u hi bui mal
uivi vaiai (Fi 3"
Ah uiauvaa i i mahiu avii
ih ex lu bau ili aahm i h la f eii i umii
h eili ae (d0 au eaalllela aeaia (#pp Bh f hm a i
ial i umii h a f au i a Fi 3$ xelai h
h fa h ”a au eaalll aahm a uvia h mau
l fm h iial ui
I a allili aeeah a limia h i f h f mai fa b xelii h mh au ”a f h Si af hih a ivu
4
F 3 Sall r
t sall a msrira
br imm S sat ts
DRIE (a) Sqar
t (b) srslar t
4
F 3 Se, sdewlls ad ie-
osi ople om
soa o
oaeaioall mhaed ladl i a bl o
e (To
ad
asoio
wei-eihed S i (Boiiom Boih ies e 6-mm
wde wih osi-io
dmeie o 22 µm
4
pol an ll to um
omt
au
a at t foun
Wt Au a t
at mtal al p
an onut attamnt mto a
aalal nlu
ni AuAu t
moomp
on onni w p
oal t it onutt
attamnt aalal toa ( 4 MS/m AuAu t
moomp
on onni
a n ufull mplo n al m
oman tat onato
an “lt
( [1221 34 On majo
allni n uni AuAu t
moomp
on onni
fo
ou
tunal “lt
applaton to nu
tat t moal lni u
t
onni onton ( app
oxmatl 0 C tmp
atu
an MPa p
u
wtout ani o
ulni In t tuaton a latl low tmp
atu
ut
t onni mat
al l AuSn allo (onni tmp
atu
23 0 C an Inum
(onni tmp
atu
0 C an alo u a utal alt
nat wt a lit
pnalt on Q T ol of a onni ni mpo
tant n au
atl talni t ntal
iap (d0 T it of t onni ni (w tat t ntal iap n alllon
app
oa an au
atl ont
oll uni wll a
at
mtal poton
mto ommonl u n m
ofa
aton l am apo
aton putt
ni
an lt
oplatni To umma
uni alllon app
oa wt optall moot
an ”at matni u
fa aloni wt t Au onni ni of nown it a il
onut atlni attamnt wt tt
d0 an au
a an al
tan t onntonal fa
aton tnhu
Re !"y
T lalt of a tunal “lt
mau
t ontn n t p
fo
man o
pat u T lalt of ontat a MEMS DC an apat
wt a n allni p
olm l tton fatiu an p an lt
a
ini fo
al a
now [4 Spal tnhu l nol ontat
mat
al atuaton wafo
m an fa
aton p
o a n lop to mt
iat t falu
manm an u
ntl al wt tnoloi a lal
44
F 3 I o bon
n m on
c y on tm meono Qu monem
om emm b on ew t n yme( [44 In tm one wtmm
no cn n nm e mqc m
d onmee MEMS m om me bm In onmee
MEMSd mm n
tyemme e m tm wo n cm mtn ee t n m
cm
tm m m mmb y n
m b y [22 In m oce mmn one o m
oe o
m
cnbm “med mpomm c on o Cc om
PZT t n
mmoe c on o o
om
e nmyee on t tm bmmn cem
o cn n coeme Ttm mpo
te ecm o ecben tyemme e On tm
otm tn
d mmoe c on o Ac om
SCS t te bmmn mon
em
o bm oe mmmm w t no tyemme e n tm no cn n nm [22 Fo
t e meond tm t me n e km e o [22 o t e e on ot
4
F 3 ( Fat
u
et
ty d0 Cpp ue t vty ec
sue ur
ess ”t
ess Acc meet
s ssume vty se smcty ( Imeet vty-ec
ttrme
t ue
t sue ur
ess cy, (a st ur
ess ( -ccec
mt
sues
E of non
Tre m
ctr tet
tre RF m
e
ts m
mies at
mcex-
ty te
et csses [1, 2, 2, 3, 4 Sc
s tre mst mm
cy use RF
suastte te tre wese ucty MOS RFIs, treee tre mtac-
4
iy of “l fiio wi C
pocc ic ily dcile Allcilio “l
fiio ppo c ic uiu d ov pviouc piivpoc lodd viy
ul “l ppoce
3
Glly, miofiio ic ocidd ocly du o ic i cup occe How
v, i ldy ici miofiio filiy o foudy, fiio of
c llcilio cooc d “lc oomilly ivd wi miiml d
diiol cupe T llcilio ppo llowc wflvl fiio, wi
ic ily oomil ompd o idividully mid d ccmld “lce
oov, wi fully dcid cup, miiml dviŠdvi viio ivd occ wf ( 5 o 1mm wf ou cupt c cow i Fie e1e
Wi low um of rc, oc p ui cucilly dude
3
K ab a! S"
Tic cio oulic impo fiio cpc i llcilio ul
coo# “l pocce Dpdi upo fdi cuu, uio cm
o y o cpil oci, od d um of cpc i piul
dvi fiio my vy c will dicuccd i l pce Howv, cpc, poduc d puioc miod i ic cio ocicly followd
i ic wo$e
3%
a& ab a!
T viy fiio md c o o d“i pocc i ic ll
cilio ppoe Ac miod i li cioc, viy wi i i (wi
d wiou poct c ldy pcd i cvl wo$c [1', 24, 2), 2*, , 45+e
W m$c ic fiio oloy uiu fom ll pviouc ppoc ic 4
F 3 Waf lel faa
pcc f allcl ae
y ca
c
p
oa
f t t c allw faa
f ey p ae
c ( 1
oom w
t t pc
c f c p aa wtl kp a co
t t pl a
a
ufo t a
S w
t cut p
tc c ttly uoo w
t l
l alc l
a
u Tt o
ea
t tc uucual c
p c t fa
ta
t Q
4
o t cavity is proportioa its dpt as ol as t tuil ral is ot coproisd
(rr Captrh 2)h I aisotropic Si wtetcil wr t sidwas covrl wit
a al o 54h0 ad iitia post ara is uc arlr ta t “a ara t dpt
o t cavity caot b idpdty cotrod ad dciddh Kpil i viw a
t dsil cosidratios ad war adil iitatios a 2e tick Si substrat
is sctd or t rsoator ad “tr dsils i CŠK rucy badsh
So ky stps i t cavity abricatio procss ar prstd i Filh 3h..h T
abricatio starts wit a cavity substrat Si war coatd wit 3
e o LCVD
siico itrid (Nx )h T wtetcil ask is t pattrd i t itrid ayr by
sctivy tcil it i SF6 pasa usil a potoersist (P) askh T cavity ad
post o dsird disios is t tcd i a 45 potassiu ydroid soutio at
0 Ch T itrid ayr is strippd ad a lod “ is sputtrd o to t cavity tope
sid to provid uior ta covral to t sidwas ad t posth T cals
acd i attaiil t dsird soot pro“ wit il yid duril cavity abricatio
ar liv bowh
Filh 3h..h So iportat stps i cavity abricatioh
4
Wt-Etching
For dee vy ee w o e os
ydroxde (KOH bed l
le olso reerred over er
eyl
os
ydroxde (H olso
bese o er (1(111 le elevy [5 w orreod o leer e
sdersu I osr wor 30 low re L lo rde ( “l
deoed o e 2
wer by e wer sler sed e u I
oberved e re e rde “l
ly or role lo dsro
dee ee d e oo
er L rde “l
deoed osr ly o s e we e odo beyod 1
de d r e
orer rs e ow Fu 3u12(u oer or e oo e ro“le deer
e rore e odo d
e
ros os e dsro o eu er exer
e w der
e KOH oero d b e
ersre e 45% (by we KOH olso
ed 80 oe w rovde very oo de wll w e
re o rox
ely 75 µ
er osru re dee vy ee e everl
osr d order o e oero d e
ersre o e olso
el wee b es rosredu b oer reo e
ersre orol resx odeer d el ld e o o e e
odo (ee Fu 3u12(bu I ddo e or ol wer le
e d rrer
eed das
e re lo or o esre sor
y d ely re
ovl o bsbble ro
e eed re w oerwe derde e e ro“leu
P!"t Etch P#!$&
o e e dered oo re e orre vy de oe o e ore
lle e e vy de d bro roeu Fu 3u13( ow
e e rore o lly qsre ou I be ee e de o e
qsre o lly r sor
ly reed ro
e orer exo e (411
leu er o
e e e orl qsre de o
leely der d e
5
F 3 ( Cviy wei-eith pr
e daed de i ede trtkn
o hh
y-ireed nirde ak (b Mn tapneni o ihe wei-eith
bih eip or deep tviy eithn
pi ip reeab
e nora tin nd anin i hpe drn oriher eith
Thereore ihe ni
ze o ihe pi ihe tviy verit
eith rie (H nd ihe ier
eith pr
e o qre ze h i be prper
y terined Io ihe eith rie re kepi
tnini ihen ihe n
tviy hehi ( nd pi re As oier terin eith iae
tn be t
t
ied aiheait
y a
r i [3
= H (3
5
F 3 3 ( Seriosed ies of ostto re shown the
ost etch roress wth tie, iesred sn confocl icroscoe for
chrcteraton (b Two obsered ost re shes drn the etch
roresson of sqre ost [3
(Left when ACL (rht when
ACL
5
Aps = L2 Š 4
Aps = L2 Š 4
T 2 rC 2
1 c310
f r
(T rC Š L 2
T 2 rC 2
4
1 c310
c310
A L
(3 f r
(33
A L
w L i t initi inet o t ot T i t t ti n rC i t t
t wi oint  wy o oint  own in Fie 313(b
Fo t
u ott o“ w ut rH n rC to b 75 µ ou n
3
µ ou tiy u ity t n ot nt in
Fie 314
Fie 314 (
Suio ie o otto owine t
ot t oe wit ti u uine ono ioo
o tition (b
two ob ot uine t
t oeion o qu ot (t
wn (iet
wn
5
3
Di Fai
i
T Au d f e w O wf f d
ly keen A ld “l f ded kee e ded O
d lyn Ue PR ldo Au d e d ld “l
ue ll d“ l w e d dn Bked
ly e d u ek f wy O dl ly
ll he ud xd ly ue R E (RE n !llyo
xd ly e d ue Bu"d Oxd E (BOE le eo
” ld d S dn Mj d f ee ew !n n#5n T ede d f ( x dl fl led de d ( ll eee ld
“l d ukl u r f de ln T
f$u de ed d f du e w fe ew !n n#.n
!n n#5n ee d fn
5
F 3 ( Di
d
d t mada ( Di
bka d t ebmm mtmm a d “
Assl
t t btaf t bty ad di
wm ty mat
bad ad U ttd t ay dm ab bat
ata a t mb
Tm wm ta ad ad add ma t
b
imma ada
bd t ad t
it ( 330 C ad imm ( 5 P m mwa
a F 3 T itat bamdtam a t ada ibd ( ibm
a
at bty ad di
ibm t am di
bat babdm wt
imt ( mtamm di
t mmta t m ada badtam wtt
k ab bka (b iat d ma at Sf kawa
55
p at i tpratr t at ca drad “ cdctioity ad c aica
prprtis [5
Fi
3
Assby t tab alsiic rsatr
Bnn Su
T sr t ait tpratr ad prssr rirts w ao sd a
pickllpac t wit a itratd rclar ad t pat as s w i Fi
3
.
Ait arks ar tc d ar t ds ac ati srac dri abricati
t sr prpr ait
uS Dun B
T prot t disi A it i a 5l t ick LP ! siic itrid ayr
is sd btw A ad i
T t ickss t itrid “ is cary sctd t
ao iia ora act diap ra stiss d t ory i rsida strss i
5
F 3 B set
co
s f a ecs ck--
ace t
wt teate fce ao a t
ate
te te “os Te co
as f te Au a
ao wt a wtt te
aye we sjecte t teo
eates s sw F 3.a
D Rn
A Au -o
a
ao atay ckes wt te cease teo
eate
e t deece te cecet f teoa e ass etwee a A Ts
ck ca eve est eakae astc efoat at teo
eates
!efe t F 3." we seve tat te e tet f ck a w-# 3($ Nuo
a
ao ace oe s e ta te a
ao te eft $$ Nuo a
5
F 3 H tmratr cts on Au daram (a A
d
son n for t mdd sam wt no ix d
son barrr
(b bckn comarson for darams of d
rnt st
nss ndr
r tmratrs
rt ( 57 ium It s obsrd tat d to t s of rsnt and robst sn
crstascon n t daram strctr ac of ts darams rcors back to
ts orna ”at sa wn t otat s trnd o
Drn acta bondn tsts
owr t ow darams dmonstrat a ow sra Ts s attrbtd to t
rsnc of a rat sar ost on fw mcromtrs awa from t daram
5
tt c poe n be te moe bck (kow
) npm n te bon
poce
F 3 HF mkto ne fo te 155 GH ttc eoto
wt C feen
Sai z ASii R !ar
e e te e wee te ndcemet 3- mkto oftwe de mne
mkto tek pt of te ne poce I nedekop fbcto tecok
oy, to emp pkcen o cefk monek n pece fbcto ben o
t monek to cede te neen pefomce I nedekop t kkkco tecok
oy, te 3- "F monek ben o te meen cdty nmeo n po#ke I
t tto wee te cccy of bot te monek n fbcto e ow,
we de pefeen to pefom poofofcocept fbcto of ttc eoto, to
edkte o ne n fbcto ttee Te ne to e te feenbc fom te
meen nedce pefomce to okte te ccce monek n fbcto
$ eoto neen fo 155 GH eot feqecy wt Qu of 7 we
te potcek p 1µm Te "F ne of te ttc eoto cen ot
5
F 3 Fabad pa
o 55 GH a onao (a avy
w po
s (b a cn w d cn
and copcad ocd
bondn n
u
n HF and own n F 3. I ed w a pcana ondd CP
d on avy cns a n
avy va dou co
d on
avy op dwacc
T onao abad u
n acc
con appoa T
abad avy and cn p
a own n F 3 T abad dv
don
ad a Q o 7.. ( . ucad a 57 GH ( o a
own n
F 3 T ead 0 o ucaon
.1µ w o
pond
o µ
ap unany
!
In ap w p
nd dac
o acc
con abaon nocoy o
apav po
coadd avy onao
and “c
I own a p
on
oabaon nhu
o" vac advana
ov onvnonac abao o
acn poan unabc “c
s paccy o huny appcaon
A
nocoy don
aons A a onao a 55 GH abad and a
6
F 3 Sul n mu
p
r
n r h llamln
m “l
mn r
1 GH
mu
whh nm
9 r h mul Q wh lmm hn vn r
h mn r
un
6
4 XŠK B AAA
TBAU RU
T
R
WT MGUT
TT MUM TT
Intrdtn
l f ! ! f"
f “ ll#l "l w !! f$% f 8& 8 '() ! o * f k% l+ f !o F f 2#
++ k S wf llw l,l% !- , % f , Qo
S! xl " + + .F - f f+ "
fo *! ! ,% +-l% l% !, "! "w ,% +l ! /E/S w !,l% 0 1 l#
+l o * +-l! "% l-l! l!
"! ! !-+ ! j ,% " l!#l! +#+- "! $o $ -"l
l l - "w l ! -, - "% !j
k f l-l! o * l !+ ! ,% f +ll -o Fll% l
f" + !+! wk -"l% " lll% ! -- +l [223o (w, w l,l%
! + -ll% -+ -- f #-w
--lo 5 + +ll %l!l + 7 o6 ++ !+ 9o8 ++
k 9o9
8 +: ! "k f +,"l !-+ ! % l -l! "lw o * + 7! !-+: +,
! i f + f ! ! l#+ o
/ ,l !, , l l!
: +! f 2: "#!l !-+ +,+ ;: !-+
6
Fig. 4.1. Shti of piticllodd cnentod cit
reontor tnd b hnging th gp btwn th cit poet nd
diphrg eing gntoetti ttion.
pllin inetbilit 4 highr tning rng. Th drwbk of gntoetti ttion
ie th nd for rlticl high D
powr oneption ( 1eŠ1e m. Thie
howcr onl onetitt ell frtion of th rird D
powr in di
or highpowr trneittre.
Cavy Rlling fro rlir dieeeion th lit ftor of reontor ie priril
dpndnt on 1 th pheil dineione of th cit nd ite poet th bonding
lit btwn th eilion cit nd th S diphrg 3 th tl thiknee of
th diphrg nd 4 th cit wll ondticit nd roghnee. All of the ftore
r highl dpndnt on th hoen thnolog nd th lit of th fbrition
6
F 4 S
vi f h HFSS su
ds f as
u
t rs
r
prss Ir
s hh f h vy prvs qu
y f
r prvdd s kp
uh s
r h
h pr
i
vh A v
s i
fr hkss
s y h
f r d is vry sh
i vs Thrfr prv h RF
prfr
f as “rs hk s i
fr (am s sd s h vy
sutsr
I rdr hv hhy duv ti h vy d h
d
phr
dad hraprss td s sd Hivr sp
r
s dd s h r
vy hh pr
ur ( 0 Cm y d
h d
phr
Th RF d f h rs
r s d HFSS A su
ry f h ky ds
p
r
rs s v T
t 4 d h RF ds f h prpsd rs
r s
prsd F 4 Ths ds vrs hr
u r
f 8Š8 GH fr
d
phr
v f 5Š40 µ i
y fr h ps
ee
Th rs
r s fd ty padd rsrp p
rd h t
k f h
vy Th “d s upd hruh r
u
r s hd sd h vy d
6
A co wvee (
P to mcoit tito i coote to eom
owe op The imte eioto eeve qty cto ei om
9Š1 o thi eqecy e
4
D D
The ieecto o the hm ise eqei ieve coietoi e ec the
exeiio o i coitt k o cc hm i ve py [1 k=
16 !3
+ $!
"R2 (1 Š # 2 ( 1
To iit the eqe po temete, etvey im thc% hm
i eee (hh k, tht t eqei hh ctto oce Ai ote [&&,
the hhe (mte i% ethi thc%eii o o “m movei the qty cto
pt io ceiei the ove k o the hm e to ei iteii $ o the o
“m It i io eipe to %ee the thc%eii o the S hm mch hhe th
the o “m to mmse eomto e to “m'i ei iteii The ei o
“m iteii hi ey pee chctese to pe " MP [&& I to, the ise
o the met (16 mm mete mti the mmm hm ise to × mm
(thee tmei the met ise to mmse the e)ecti o met o hm edecto
o“e Bie o the povemetoe coitti, the vpe ctto oce,
two hm vtoi wee ee ipjecte to the po oceii The
ow k ("*9 N-m hm o ise *×* mm wth "µm thc% S evce ye 1µm thc% A “m (oxmtey oe i% eth t 1 GHs oei ot wthit
the po oceii, wheei the hhe k (6 N-m hm o ise × mm
wth µm thc% S evce ye 1µm thc% A “m icceiiy poe wth
o vipe eomto i iee e the ie cooc mcoicoe
6
Tble 4.1
Key Den Prmeer for 8Š18 G AllSlon Reonor
Prmeer
Vlae
Cvy Deph
1.
mm
Cvy Top Are
8 mm x 8 mm
Po Top ra 24 µm
SI Deve Lyer
µm
SI Aa Thkne
1. µm
Real Aa Flm Sre
3 MP
Dphrm 
6 Nm
Mne Dmeer
1.6 mm
Mne Thkne
.8 mm
Mne M
.118 Tann Rne
8 Š 18 G
The neron beween arren rryn ol n permnen mne lmo
anuee by ln n he mllmeer le [ 25. The mneo fore ! "z on permnen mne of volame # wh onn mneon $z ae o nonanform
mne “el Hz from he ol ven by
! "z = $z
&Hz
d#
% &'
(4.2)
To hek he ably of h aon heme for oar pplon* very mll
ommerlly vlble rreerh mne [ 35 ae h “ he menon of he
phrm whoa an n“n eformon. The eleromne ol lo
prepre from ommerlly vlble arfemoane naor [ 45. The ol
mne “el pern w meare an ameer wh probe ueren
heh from he ener of ol op for ueren arren. The ol w hen moele
66
F 4 S uld nd aud B
ld o t co l
tout coc lli v ll aow M (i Inoli c Coo onr o
ct t aud n c ld Tt aula au md n F 4 Aa
atown n F 44 w a nconan oc o ox li 2 o t a
co n on o t co l nd n w t x u cun o 8A (o onl
cun l o t co lr wtn t wn t co l nd t n a wn
Š4 µ Tt a coaonda o d t dc on o loa µ (k o 6
Nr To c vli cov t un n n (5µ ovll d t vlr w
d
n 15 µ n l cc v nd u l m d c onl n c cu on
Tt noa c oc a on wn t cun ci n co l nd nn
n uad n t a da n a don clli a ti otatl coonna
Tt ollow n cloado xaa ona cn uad o ox t noa c
oc o co l o nown nu o una nd d na ona Tt n c ux dna i
6
F 44 Suld aot fot oa a fuatoa
of g fo og of tol fo dia tol tua
Bz du o tua I a al ttul loog of du b goa loa a y [55
Bz =
µ0 Ib2
3
2 + b2 ) 4()
Fo tol w
N ua w
a ggooa of tol ut
ll a du at ”u day ta ggod o
µ0 N Ib2
Bz =
3
2 + b2 ) 44)
T
fo aot fot z oa gaa a of olu V w
toaa kaowa aoa Mz du o aoauafo at “ld Hz fo tol ta tltuld y
z =
Bz
Mz
V
µ0 45)
6
F 4 Ky stps i t faat
i p
ss (a Cavty faat
i( Dapa faat
i ( Attait usi Au-Au t
pss
i ini (n Iitat
i f ait ain uit T avty faat
i s a t-ask p
ss as s
wi i F 4(a W stat
wt a 2- tk -sstvty S waf aany atn wt 3-i f LCVD
s
i itn (S x S wt-ti ask s pattin i (S x y stvy ti
t i SF! pasa usi a A"-# 2$ p
t
-sst ask #$- np avts wt nsn
p
st aa a f
n t
u wt-ti i a 4% KOH s
ut
i aitain at 0 C
T S x ay s stppn ain a -µ tk SO& s ti tay wi i waf
f
ta s
at
i Fn is a faatn i t aksn y sputti #µ tk n ay usi a ft-
o p
ss T t
p sn f t waf (iuni
t tn avts a sputtn wt #-µ tk n t
t
apy ain
n wt-ti s ti pf
n t
nei t fn upi s
ts i t avty
tt
T s
t nis
is i t p
t
-ask a aany andustn t
pisat
6
F 46 Meaued Saaete o a wea
ly couled eonato Each
ucceve ea
coeond to 1 chane n cuent (Inet To
Meaued Devce (Inet Botto Photoah o eonato cavty
ont and bac
o ie devaton at cavty botto due to U dveence Fnally, the cavte ae
electolated wth addtonal 5µ thc
old laye to at n bondn
The daha ceaton a twoa
oce hown n F 45(b n SOI wae
wth a 5µ thc
devce laye, 1µ thc
bued oxde and 5µ thc
handle laye
“t coated wth 5n LPCD ntde to act a a bae o old d!uon nto
lcon dun the bondn oce 2µ thc
PR A 26 ued a a
to
etch the SOI handle laye tll the oxde laye un DRIE The oxde laye then
eoved un bu!eed Oxde Etch (BOE, leavn a vey ”at nlecytal S devce
7
F 47 Frequeny an quay fatr a ieren t urrens Ctm
parstn tf measure Q w
smuae eenmte Q ayer T
e ee ayer s en spuertae w
1µm k t “m A setn
trap
y s arre tu tn s t ayer t reae a pan mt ftr e btnn
rn artun e ap
ram A 1µm k t rn s en pae usn sanar
t eertpan seup
I
Bt
e ap
ram an ay man t surfaes are trtu
y sten eanec
U reaec ane an btne a 33 0 C tn a tpae uner Ma pressure as
s
twn n F 4. A mane s en aa
e t e bak tf e ap
ramc w
a pkanpae seupc usn a rae amtun tf tw sress eptxy a ures a rttm
emperaure F 4. s
tws e “na assemby sep w
en e sampe s mtune
7
on a coicarrin PC uin a pacr to contro th ap btwn mant and th
coi
44
Me
ee D
Th maurmnt i don uin an Aint PA 2mm GG RF prob b
Cacad ircotch and a Kith prciion currnt ourc A TRL caibration wa
carrid out to dmbd th o o prob cab and connctor throuh an on
war cakit Fi . how th tranmiion (S ) paramtr o a wak coupd
ronator with tunin rom 9 to 7 GH whn th currnt i wpt rom 7 to
7 mA Each ucciv pak corrpond to a mA chan in coi currnt Th
ritanc o th coi i which corrpond to a powr conumption o m!
to tun ach id Fi 7 how th maurd rfunc and fuait actor vru
coi currnt Einmod Q i ao pottd or rrnc Th comparion o imuatd
and maurd data howd th initia ap o maurd dvic to b 2µm intad o
µm a t throuh ctropatin Thi can b attributd to th nonuniormit
o th patd bondin rin whr th cornr o th bondin rin ar hihr than
th cntr Th xtractd tunin ap i .Š3. µm Th maurd fuait actor i
within 7 to 8" o th imuatd Q Thi di#rnc in rut ma poib b du
to th act that th inmod imuation do not account or rducd conductivit
o thin mtaic “m poib void in th bondin rin and radiation #ct rom
th din tructur
4$
%&
Thi chaptr prntd th dtai o th “rt vr dmontration o a tunab
aiicon vancntmod cavit ronator antotatic actuation ha ao bn
introducd or th “rt tim to tun a ronator ovr a wid rfunc ran b
utiiin much tronr bidirctiona orc a compard to ctrotatic actuation
Th abricatd ronator dmontratd a hihQ o .Š9 durin anao tunin
7
from 9.5 o 7 Hz (XŠK b w
orro o t r
o of .. T
mto
o h b frr epor for mrov
t owr
p
t of MEM b roor “pr.
7
5 XŠK B TOO
B SS SAAO
FAT
E ATH TEOSTTA M
MS TTAO
Intrdtn
C she o w- -s “ ! u" wh
!s #$#% u
&h '-(u b" ub es !s! sussou ) "es!" h
b) us -s !h s ssb ! * e ub !s!s
wh seu us hh Q+ " u ! , hs h!a w !s h eh" ) o! "s " ob! hh!-!"! “ !s us hs -s !h
&h "sa ob! " h!!* o 8.1 G/* !s ub w- b"ss -s “ ! wh x!" u "" Q+ o 83.33 "
087 u ! s !s" s h ) "es!
&h “ ! "2 e !ss b "2"" “2 "s ss0 4 s“a 64 s)hssa 4 "sa 94 ob! " 4 esu!e , h o w
ssa w w b!:) "suss h o hs ss u!2w o "es! s “ ! h )
7
5
Fie Seiio
Th g t ra 2 Bttrrth “tr th 1 frt bth
( tb fr 8Š16 GHaz Th “tr t fr f t
g trtt ttz Th yt f th t “tr h gz z1z
5!
Fie S"
#ei
Th “tr yth r t “g th trt bt th ttt
rtr (trrtr g bt th R f th rtr
(tr g ry t gt th r “tr rz Th t f th
r gry th fr f rtty g rtr ($0 $% zzz$N r “tr g tr (M trz I gr “tr yth b vvg r g th “tr “t thr r vr
b& [8 6' ftr [ 7' vb fr tz Hvr fr tr
rr Bttrrth “tr th rtty v b ry f
fr trtr t b $0 = 1 $% =$) =1z 1 z Ug th v th trrtr
g *t kc th tr qty ftr Q+ fr r r “tr r
b t b [8'z
kc =
, -.-$% $)
( z1
$0 $%
,1 1
( z2
Q+ =
5/
Fie 3F Dei4
R g fr th t bttrrth “tr rfr H99z v
t r t trfr th r g *t t hy tr
tr bt t t rtr th f thrgh trtv rz Th
rtr hv r t th tb rtr rt th
7
F 5 E
c
ddc h RF fd (a P
i hl (ba dic fr i i pi ch d i did fr 8Š1 GHz wh rrb rpr
f
50 µr wy fr h i
F Qe ir fr c (S a hi pi fcy 7
5
Co Pi Fee
I c
tt t
t pr
t
dg wt pl tm
l fd
f
t “lt w pl
d t p
lty f tgtg c
l p fd t “l
t dgn T w rl f
g t p fdn tly t p fd
ttlly mm t tt d dt
l
ctd wt t pl
tm
l wt c
plg l
tn Sc
dly w wtd t
pl
t p
lty
f
g t m lllc
tc
l
gy f
m
dl (td f ytm
cp ppl
ct
wc tdl
“lt t
tgtd t
g c
ct
n Tdly
t mpl“ d cclt “lt mmt c
mpd t
wf p
gn
5
Exei Coi
Ug p fd t tl c
plg f t “lt tr t
t p
t
f t
p ltr t
t p
t d t gt f t p td t
t crty w gn n n m t fct
rwp
t t d!clt t
t ct gt f
t p td d t S crtyn Tf
t
gt t d tl c
plg
t p td t
t crty clg d t dd Q" datd ly t
g
t p
t
f fd p ltr t
t p
tn T
rlt t p p
t
f
m fll
wr mlt
w r t p gl rn fcy p
f t #ct
c
!ct ($11 f
gl t
n R d ld dmddd c tt t
t t fcy t p c
m 0% d w t t p
t &1 d &2 w
t p gl +90% d 90% pctrly ( gn n.n T Q" t gr
y t f
ll
wgn
Q" =
5'
&%
&2 Š &1
(n.
)ixe*,e-oixo Coi
Glly tw
t
dctrly c
pld wt c t y t
dcg
wrgd tw tm t dm
f wc dtm t tt f
77
F 5 Itrt co
d
dc wvo d r d mr r (a r w dt (ba r t
co
u r rw F 5 [u 2u 52 A r w t ccot d mr r d w
dd r
cve cr t wttcd S cv t r r v c bcor
t cve cr ttckd d botd do dot S wttc F
ccot co
dr ru d cm
rt rtoctor etr v cct t d md f t tcd cr r o d F btt dr ccoc d rr
fb ct ru t r wku w or rrr cv t dr w c tw dt c
rtr ct d r cv t d t ett f mt c co
r
ctd m b t btw t tw rtr d r b t v w dt f t
cv t T trt co
btw t tw rtr c b etctd fm
t fo wv r mot r or t r
t
mtd T oco
du dt c
rtr v t rm rt foc 0 dd b t rm vor
W t cv t r co
du t mdr bcm dt d t foc r
7
s it fe ai fm as as shtwi i F 55 Ftr br accuracy, rais
ssti
(S2 ) ara
rs t ach a shtu b ss hai 0 B (wa ria ctui).h
ctui ctci k cai hi b cacua by h ttwi
F 55 Iirrstiatr ctui r
iati rt
“r rais
s
sti ara
rs usi s t ht
k =
fe 2 Š fm 2
fe 2 + fm 2
(5)
F 5 ctia vw t h wtt “r s
uati si wh
istis A istis ar i rs
I ay b it ha u t h iucv iaur t h ctui, bth k ai
Qe ar iai ti rstiai ruicy .hrtr tr wy uiab “rs, hs
7
cou ch s coutrd by us ccti mts to mt r costt
frcto bddth throuh out th tu r [2
5 I ths or
sc th
rmry uros of ths “tr s fbrcto tchooy dmostrto
th bddth
cotro ds s omttd for smcty Thrfor th “tr s dsd to hi th
rurd k
Qe d th md of th bd (2 G F 5. shos th dmsos
of th “d ds
M !a"#
$
SO% Da&!a#
For to'o “tr ds
to smr dhrms (ctrd boi ch ost
r cd sd'by'sd s )*I c Th dmsos d comosto of
ch dhrm r t dtc to th rdy dmostrtd 'sco rsotor
(+h 4 hch succssfuy suriis Au'Au thrmo'comrsso bod rocss
thout y otcb buc or dm
,
E -"a / a-
Th oir ds utos rt dhrm st0ss d bs iot for
ctrosttc ctuto of Au'cotd s'cryst'sco dhrm s dtd +h 2 Th ctrosttc ctuto of Au'cotd s'cryst'sco dhrm
for “tr tu hs rdy b dmostrtd [22 oir
th oits ths
ds s th us of s )*I c cot both dhrms
s ) ctrod
c th didu bs cbty for ch dhrm d th us of sf'
cty st0r dhrms tht c thstd Au'Au thrmo'comrsso bod
codtos
As r th RF ds
for o tu from 8 to . G
ch dhrm
ds to cotuousy moi from 5Š21 µm (5 µm ctuto stro y from th
ost to To sur ths o th th mmum bs iot
th bs ctrod
8
sho be pe 4 µm wy from the dphrm sttd posdtdo (three tdmes the
o stroe to vod eetrosttd p
d The expete vote vs e”etdo
rve for eh dphrm ds show d Fd . The orer to vrdtdos of Some ey
esd prmeters re dve d Tbe 5
Fd . Expete dphrm e”etdo vs bds vote to hdeve
5 µm o e”etdo whe the dphrm
eetroe ddtd p ds
4 µm The dphrm stdess ds 6 Nm
i aiai
i Cai
The “ter vdty fbrdtdo proess ds two
ms proess wdth two metdtdos
Sd wet
mdromhdd Sd DR!E s show d “ 8 Fdrst photodthorphy
ds oe to ptter the 3 m SdN" o 2
mm hdh
resdstdvdty sddo wfer to t s
wet
ethd ms A 58
mm eep vdty wdth two posts ds ethe d the Sd sbstrte
sd tempertre
oetrtdo
otroe KO# bth The KO# sotdo
oetrtdo ds mdtde t 4$ (by wedht t 8 0 % to et smooth dsotropd
eth t the rte of . µmhr After hdevd the esdre post sde epth the
8
Tble 5.
Ke De Paeea foa XK
B 2Pole AllSlo Flea
Paeea
Vl
e
Cv Deph
.8 Cv Top Aae
7. x 20 Po Top a
20 µ
SI Deve Lea
5 µ
SI A
Thke
.5 µ
Re
l A
Fl Sae
0 MP
Dpha 600 N
T
Re
8 Š 6 G
Req
ae De”eo
5Š20 µ
Mx
b vole
20 V
ae lea appe o bol phophoa . The ex ep o aee v
hole he boo of he v foa he fee p. Foa h eo phoolhoaph
aae o
o he bke of he ehe v wfea o aee eh k 5µ hk ha bke AZ260 phooae. The wfea o
e o le
xh wfea 200µ eep hao
h lo v ae ehe DRI. The
v wfea wh v he lee oxe p
eae wh 2µ ol fao
boh e followe b µ ol eleaopl of oplee wfea. Th e
ae he
e ello of v whh eea foa ao
he v el wh
he oxl oeoa ao
.
O !"#$!%&
F. 5. how he wok pha fbao paoe ep. The SI wfea
wh 5µ eve lea oe wh 50 hk LPCVD ae o A
8
F 58 (( Ke stes n the “
te cvt actn cess, (
actef “
te cvt
fdsn ae fn the anfn cess Fst ht
thh s cef t
n the hnf
e e t cete the DR etchsk sn 2µ thck hf akef
A 2 htesst The 422µ thck S hnf
e e s then se
ectve
etchef t
the aef xfe e tht cts s n etch st The xfe e s then stef d
sn adeef xfe etch (B t e
ese ”t, stessee, SS fhs These
fhs e then fcstteef wth 15µ thck A sn T fhesn e
A secnf thh cetes tn f the anfn n A 5µ thck f
“
s e
ect
tef s anfn n t fetene the nt
0 moom !!"o# $o#%"#&
A sccess
f
f thecessn eres the tw anfn sces t
ae ve c
en nf ”t T ense c
en
ness, the cvt nf fh S eces
8
F 5 (()y stps n th S
dphi fitan piass,
( fitd dphis fy thn S
hnd yi ia fksd,
(h fitd AuS dphis wth fandn in an tap
F 510 ((d )y tiad fitan stps, ( fitd tiad
i saont nd, aawd fy axyn ps nd utioat titnt ta iao
th ain antnnts Usn aui ustad fandn stup, th oty nd
S
ps i fandd tathi t 0 C tpitui wth n ppd pissui a
ppiaxty 5 MP
8
F 5 The assembl oe fo deent “lte comonents n the
“t
e esne to assst n “lte meas
ement sn coaal n fee
F 5 Flte meas
ement set
sn “t
e wth n
al
basn fo each aham
8
5
Elrd Fabrai
The eecte f
ct
thee-mk pce hw c
e ut fte the phm hve ee f
cte the epth f the ece
cete y the he ye etch SI ck
e h ee ccutey meue t
e 4 µm It tt w
th pht
thphy tep f cet
eecte pt 2-mm h
h e
t
v
ty S
wfe u
DRI A 2-µm th
ck h ke AZ-2
pht-e
t ue etch mk S
c pt f 3 -µm he
ht e fme (4 µm
e th the SI he ye th
cke The DRI ccutey ut
e ece
f the SI p
ece t ccutey “t et
ve t the eecte pt w
thut eu
y pec
met The etche wfe the cee ep
te w
th -µm
th
ck c x
e thuh wet-x
t
The x
e eve the t
ye
etwee tw eecte A -µm th
ck Au “m puttee the etche e ec thphy -wet etch
c
e ut t e“e the tw eecte
w
th p ech e The eecte e the ecpute w
th -µm th
ck
ut
ye f pht-e
t U
th
pht-
thphy th
pht-e
t
ye eect
vey pttee t ce the p
55
Flr Fr
T fc
tte the meuemet “xtue e
e t tete the cmpet
tethe (
The “xtue e me fm t
e tee wh
ch hue the
upe-S A cect the ck
e whee the tp
e h ece t hue the
S
cv
ty The e f the cv
ty ece h tw he f the fee p
t cme ut
The eth f the fee p
h t e cefuy jute t eue tht the fee p
tuche the tp SI e t the cv
ty The eecte p
ece the pce ve
the SI uch tht the SI p
ece “t the ece the eecte S
The “te ecue fm the ck
e u
pt
c pte t keep eveyth
pce
8
F 5 Meaued tu per
ae r 8Š G alll tw
ple avty “lte de (a Ta
(S2 ) ( eet (S 8
5
Meeet
T
“l
m
su
m
s
u is sw i Fi. .2. T
“l
m
su
m
s ci
d u usi Ail
2 wo lnz
d w K
il
n 2 cisi
w
suln. El
cic cliai (
-cl N- is d
d
-
ma
d cal
lss
s. Du
faici l
c
s, is sli mismc i iiil (0 f w dims suli i sli l
mislim
. Bn idiidulln
dusi c dim d lii l
s, “l
is ciuusln ual
fm 8. .2 Gz (1.8 wi mimum ais l
f V. T
m
su
d
“l
is
i lss i
d fm .8 dB . dB wi c
sdi r
ci f -8.
dB -22 dB s
ci
ln. Fi. . sws smissi d r
ci m
s
sm
s
l
c
d i wii l ui .
Fi. .. O
ln l f simul
d d m
su
d s-m
s f
“l
. ( A lw
s m
su
d f
u
cn f 8. Gz, (a i
s m
su
d f
u
cn f .2 Gz.
5!
"#$%
T
m
su
d d ws cm
d wi simuli suls d i ws as
d
ll “l
RF fmc
is a
8& f simul
d fmc
uu ui . Fi. . sws ln f simul
d d m
su
d s-
88
F 55 F r maurd prrma
mpar w i muad
ru (a I
r ( Fra a a
d au a
dw di (
Er
a qua y ar Qe (d I
r-r
ar up kc
paramr a
d F 55 iw i mpar maurd r s a
dw di
a
d up w i i mua I a
ia i maurd
ru iw arm
w i i muad C
dr i a ia
i r imh rdu a 0Š02 dB i rqu
y ra
s
i aua “r prrma
h
r Ti Q i “r rad y
mpar i maurm
w i a 2-p Burwri “r da rp
i
Adha
d D Sym (ADS war F 5 iw i rad u
add
qua y ar i maurd “r w i a
d w iu d-mdd i r
mpar qua y ar rad rm u wah mua u HFSS
8
F 5 The extted u
ded qu
ty ft f the meaued
twop
e oa
tu
e “
te mped wth amu
ted Q Ii i Pl F the pefme mpa the “
te wth the am
dea ape“o
ta (8Š G 1 F ! 2op
e
uttewth" a a mde
ed d fted
wth the p
tamaa e feed a ahw F 57 #ated f ua the
ao
eaa pph the teoeat up
a heved thuh wveude a
ethed the SO# dphm wfe Tha “
te hweve u
d t e teated auo
eaafu
y euae the eaatvty f the SO# deve ye ( whh the feed ea d
dphma e fted" e meaued t e muh we (2$ hmom" th the
muftuea ape“ta (5$$$ hmom" Aa eau
t the feed e aaea e t
hh t et mefu
meauemet eau
ta Theae “
tea u
d t e eofted
due t mted tme d eauea evethe
eaa the amu
ted eapae aueaafu
9
f a h
p
fr
f h
ci p f
a “i
s an
f h
f
h ef f hs a
s si
SI wii is s
ssfiu
Fu 5uu 8Š1 G i
2epi
B
wh “i
wh pi
C f
au ( FSS a
s ( f
a p ( ss
rilu
Ths hp
p
s
a h
ra
i a
s a f h!
f i
hheQ" iiesi “i
s wh wa
i pilu Th
r
s
a sis f
h
“s 2epi
iiesi i
“i
s p
s
a s hil a
rsu Ths
“i
a
s
a f XŠK a ppis a
rs
a i fr 8u5 5u25 G (#u8 wh iw s
iss f 3u8 u95 aB ia
iss
su Th
c
a ia
a !il f f h
“i
s fr 35
8
(38 Š a
e
r
aa issu Th
s
sis s
efeh
e
si
h
i
“i
hil f h
s
f
!
l asu
9
6 A 6Š2 G ALLL
TU
AL R
ATR
WT LTRTAT MM ATUAT
Intrdtn
h Ch !" f# c-# l# cy h u
u ###l # h # #f lll-l bw h # m#cbl lu mmm m$mm # u D # h /% l#h bw u" huh y h mmm
# u yl huh u u f# m # #mbl # #&
F# h #" mll #bl l u hc b u h huh u
# (' !) * u l& [!!+ [!,+ . h w#& #f b#h 0# e1 a34 [!!+ 5##
e1 a34 [!,+" h mmm u by h f #uh (7 ! µm* #f h
# " lmu h m$mm y cl # 8 8: F;mm< = 8
F;mm< cly h c w fb m #lym #m# b u #c#l mhu h>
. h ly b h#w
h by u l# h fb# ml ml#yu wll h? m#fb# h>" h u b ##ll wh huh # h h
#c#l mhu @u h m#fb# h>" h w#& m# h “ 8) bl cy ##" wh m$mm y #f
8B F;mm< ( E , µm HJKN * whh , O× huh h h -#f-h-
P
QSVXn Ynd ZdS\nX
]h ## ##o u hm Fu O (* c-
# l# cy ##" $ by f " by l# #
#f u#l-# l#-#-l# (^_.* hum ]h ## mbly #-
9
F 6 ( Coept
des o wde
l t
e, o
ipied
is
o ptceipost oded ctl resotor, ted s e
ei
trostt tto ( Costtet prts o te ssem
ed resotor
( C
oseip me o te post tp sow Prl
eeiN sper “
m ei
twee te post top d moce
e dprm, kel e
emet eci
wde t re
ssts o or dstt prts s sow F 6(. A met
“tre tt oses SSA oetor or p eed A o
dioted s
o wetieted ctl wt pi
tce post d c t ts se or p eed 3 A SO sstrte wt o
dioted
s
o dprm te eter A pt o Prl
eeiN “
m deposted o dprm
o
d s sper “
m 4 A s e
etrode wt post mde rom s
o wetiet
Te post “ts te reess o te SO d
e ler d ts et determes te t
p etwee te dprm d e
etrode Te e
etrode s e
etr
l so
ted rom
te SO s red potoiresst F 6( presets te eerted cew o te
post tp re sow s“t lers
9
F 6 Sul 6 t 2 GHz u
ah htuh 15 µ tf
dh at
wh 05 µ l d u
Pl
-N da
“l Th u
ua b 24 whtu Pl
-N ft h
at
(
Rt
t wh t
De
Th t
t t u
ft 6 GHz ( b
t 2 GHz (K b
Th a dta l t whah h l t
hh-Q u
t tth wll hhl at
ua ah
bw
h a dh Twt a fu h 1 laa da “l l atcl d
f
Dee r !"#er
t t cz h ada
a , ub-at l d bw
h dt h dh Th aatdlh htuh h u
tf h
laa “l, t t ht
tf dh t h dt Th hh
tf h u
ull u
$a u t h t
(ltw 9
Tble 6.1
Ke Dei Prerie fr 6Š2 G
Tuble Rer
Preer
Vlue
Cvi Deh
1. Cvi T Are
6 x 6 P Ti Dieer
1 µ
SI Devie Ler
5 µ
SI Au Thike
1.5 µ
PrleeN “l Thike
.5 µ
Reiul Au Fil Sre
3 MP
Dihr 
6 N
Q (eiee)
1,35
Require De”ei
15 µ
Iiil DC Bi G
5 µ
ie i erie. Lw l ler like PrleeN ( = 2.65, t = .6 1 M
) re uible fr hih ei [25. Ui .5µ PrleeN he er
(whih rre xiu ie ei f 4 F ) he rer
i eie ue fr 6 2 G
wih 15 µ ihr e”ei. I bee
f hi “l (xiu ie ei f 1 F ), he ui re reue
b fr he e ihr e”ei.
!" # $"% &''*
The eie rer i exie b i iere fr he be f he vi. The
i fee +er everl ve ver lr rii lie fee like ubre
le eliible rii le. Due he ll vi i
e, i i ible
e w xil er ie b ie fr w r euree. A
reul, he eie vi i fe wih l ile r Q i eerie b
9
HF stwar
t retn mtd [60]. T RF mdn s prrmd n Anss
and t smuatn dsn wt rsuts s swn n F. 6..
Elhl D
T trmana dsn nsdratns r an O dapram usn tr
stat atuatn av bn dsussd n dta n Captr. and ar nt rpatd
r. T sprn nstant k r a ruar dapram radus and tnss
undr unrm adn an b auatd b [!"]
k = k # + k ## =
!6$% 3
+ "$*
&2 (! Š ' 2 )
(6.!)
wr % s t Yunos mduus, ' s t Pssnos rat and * s t dapram rsd
ua strss. n nra, k # << k ## r t bmrp snid dapram. Tab. 6.!
summar-s svra dsn prprts.
/
14
T rsnatr abratn an b dvdd nt tr parts: !) avt abra
tn, ) dapram abratn and &) trd abratn. T avt abratn
[F. 6.&(a)] starts wt a &000 5 A n Ntrd (S78x ) atd mm t sn
substrat. Wt pattrnd S78x as an t mas, a avt wt dsrd pst damtr
and dpt s td n ts substrat usn sn wttn tn;us. A d pn
va s tn td nt t bas t avt rm t basd usn >p Ratv
n ?tn (>R?). A µm t d “m s tn sputtrd n bt sds t
avt substrat t v unrm d vra at t sura and sdwas, nudn
va s. T dapram abratn starts wt a !. µm t d dpstn n
a µm t O dv ar. 0. µm t ParnN “m s tn dpstd usn
Parn Cma Vapr >pstn (CV>) and pattrnd usn @n pasma wt
ptrsst mas. T 00µm t O and ar s tn pattrnd and td
awa usn >R? wd b @d t tru BuGrd O@d ?t (BO?) t r
9
l th gl ct ilic idhg hw i Fig
.
44µ d i
lct dt wttch i 2 thick ilic wf with SNx k Th
lct th di ct with 10µ thick dhtit f lcticl ilti
kig vll i iitil D i gd f 4 µ [Fig .
c] Th t
dt l i dcille ig tllic “t f t, hw
i Fig 4 A A cct i cw i t th “t tt, with it lch
di cig t it th td c Thi c h th cvite, th idhg
i chiclle cld t th cvite ig cw Th i lct th “t
i th O hl c
Fig . Ke ficti td vite Didhg c Bi lct
6
M n
!"!#
Th t le w ig Agilt P$A Kithle high
dcii dw ddle Th t tt lg tig f 1 t 244
G%& wh th i vltg i d f 0 t 00 V Th f high i
vltg i ttit t high iitil gd tw th i lct th
idhg high il t i th gl “l th igille ticidt
9
F 6 R
sbl T s
lle “
dd
RF ss
el fd
T e
ee
(S11 ) f s le
d b vl
l
d F 6.
T sd fd b el s
w
sl
T
ql
fe
e
d fs e
s
d wd sd Qu v
fs 3 ( sl
d) 6 GH (3. sl
d) 2 GH T
de sl
d d sd ql
fe
e b d e dle
e l f Pl- “ls fqe s -fs
seel els f ds w
ev
ew
Co !o
B lw-l dle
e e b
w -
d svbl d-
s sss ee
e d
e b “e
l svd ll-le ee
v-
ldd d “l
we e
el f wd A bl w
(dle
e d) . µs sss d
ee
e d
f F"ss# (.$6× -f-
-
) d
el ds
I
ebl f fs 6 2 GH (%) wl
9
F 6 R”cti cict (S11 ) vs frqucy as a fucti if bas
vilta shiw rsiatir tu fri 6
ti 2 GH
ata a hh Q if 3 ti wth lctristatc actuati Ths s th hhst
tu rati reirto ti oat liaoo cavty baso tuabl rsiatirs ao “ltrs
99
7
A 6Š2 G ALLL TUA
L FLTE UG
U
TEAT A LTETAT MM
TUE
Intrdtn
K ba uab wo-po bapa “ i p ui a-iiso sh-
oo i hi shap !h “ R" i i ba o h # o $4 %H& uab
oao p i hap # k 'ui( i “ p)o(as i o kp
h “ iio-o * 0 + B houhou h ui a houh h pi(ia “ ashisu i kp i(ia o h X-Ku “ ,hap 5./ ub'u
u o a ow voa/ (a i& iapha( 'ui(/ sha a (a i h ui (shai( a h u13i iapha( i i pas b a (a u iapha(
wih -ivi i ui a ov 3S8 ba u )abisaio shoo !h
)abisa vis (oa aao ui )o( # :$0 5 %H& ,;<= ui aio.
wih h i iio o shaasiis
"i : ; 3i(ua R" i )o #$0 %H& a-iiso uab “
1
7
RF De
7
Fie S
e
T dd stn f t CŠK bnd lt nld tw-sl mamll”t lt wt l tn 0 dB ntn l mntnd tt mnmm
nl tnn fm 6Š1 G (1 tnn tr0
7
Fie S he
T mdbnd ntn-l f t bnds lt m b tmtd fm t
fllwn !tn ["0
I# =
4.4Q$
Qu
g%
& = 1, 2, ...'
()01r
I# =
4.4+/
3+ Qu
g%
& = 1, 2, ...'
()02r
Altnt*l
n
Q$ =
+/
3+
()0r
E!n0 ()02r ndt tt t ntn-l n*l sstnl t bt Qu
nd lt -dB bndwdt (3+ r0 5m t 6Š 24 G nt sfmn8 t
md Qu * fm Š1
n t tnn n0 Tf8 t t lwt
f!n (6 Gr wt Qu f 8 mnmm f 209: bndwdt ndd t
mt t !d 0 dB ntn l !mnt0 ;lln fm t lt sfmn n Cst0 98 t lt bndwdt nd Qu bt mntnl n wt
f!n8 ttll lt dn wt 209: bndwdt t 6 G ld b
<nt t flll ntn-l !mnt0
7>
Fie M?ei
A 209: lt wt 0 dB ntn l dnd n 5HH n t mtdl
ld sntd n Cst0 90 On t dnd lt tnd t 24 G t
1 1
F 7 Suld RF prfr
f 6Š G “lr ds
dpr d
sr
lss s bsrd rdu s xpd wr
by
d u
(1 Gz “lr rsp
s srd rppls
pssb
d subs
lly rs
sr
lss T rs
fr s
rsp
s s r
xr
l d r-rs
r upl
w frqu
y O
f slu
s s prbl s a b xr
l d r
l upl
s
u
bl slr [5 A dw
sd ppr fr ur ppl
s pssbl rs sr
lss du s ddd p wra Alr
ly
s d s rppl rsp
s b sw pusd r frqu
y xp
s f b
dwd Trfr ru full-w sul
s 7% “lr 6
G s ds
d w d
srd pbl 0 dB ll G s sw
F 7 T “
ld FSS ds
s F 71
1 F 7 Faba
i
a pa ai
asbl i “ f h
6Š G “ i
Tu M
F spl ai
“ai f h “t w feil RF pfsaic ial kp h aphas ai
fabai sa h 6Š
2 G ia i p hh ba a esi D h w
bai
w
h esic h ip ap il 6 ss wha h aa f
pi (whh a h
h al i a sl ss awal fs ah p
(F 71 A a ieic a A!" aphas f 5ss as k ia
i a pbl F a 5 ss as A!" ssbai wh A “s hki
f 15 µs ai
" “s hki f 5 µsc h sa
ba a ah h
e
1 µs #i 5 V whi h ba 6 µs awal fs h
aphas a pi
$
%&')*
+h al ai
aphas fabai p a kp ia h “ p
i
i Chap 5 Ai a
ia p h pi ai
paii f 5µs
hk PaliN al i h aphas +w ia b paa 1 F 7 Prelr “l
er eauree
a w
t Au ditra
( Traaao (S2 ) ( ree
o (S re fr
ed for ddull u et ditr ua te ele
rode fr
o
e
tod ireae
ed reao
or fr
o(ti
er 6 Ia
ed of ito
opreaa
) 1pµ
1 tk P d
ostd sio tnd s usd as a suiato iayn to novd mon
uonm suna A “xtun s aiso dsed ad mauatund to tenat aii t
s toetn T avty ad da
naem s an id toetn by t “xtun
sns T osttut ants ad tn assmbiy s so Fe 7.
Fe 7 o
t smat on SO substnat basd tun (a A s
ei bas on bot da
naems (b dvduai base o a da
naem
by te tns t adi iayn to soiat t itnods
rr R !
T “itn masunmts an annd out use Aeit PNA ad to Ktiy 2
nso on su
iy A SO"T aibnato s nonmd use Aeit 8 2
aikt to dmbd t iosss o abi ad ada
tns A siet msaiemt ois
s otd du to vny e sstvty at submnomtn ea
s By aiee t ois
use dvduai bas voitae a otuous “itn tue nom 77Š12 G#$ s obsnvd
1 wit a maimum bia volta o 2
V byon wi
t PECV niti lay ba
own u to it low tan e
t “lm quality. T “lt RF eoman
(t
intion lo in eati
ulap i mau to b a e imulation ( .0 Bp. Som
l
t ataeoint om t mau “lt eoman
a own in Fi. 7.. L
tan .1 B ieel in eaban a obv o f blow 1 GH mot lily u to
mino o in t oaial ein molin o ela
mnt. T l
to n
to b rabi
at to t t ull tunin eon owv w i to u an
altnativ tunin m uin wi
w an ini“
antly low t bia volta by
imultanouly u
in t iaeam tisn an nuin an a
uat l
tor
iaeam ae.
Fi. 7.6. Volta v. tion uv o t “nali in ta
t
om Covntowa imulation. Int at it bottom i t SE
ima o t abi
at SOI ubtat bia iaeam wit y
imnion.
1 7
SO Srae Biae Dia
ra
7
Moiaio
f n th w w hv u mmhn t pt pppt
nt nt th I hn n t th !u bn
p. In th
p w nunt pbm u t v fbtn untnt nun
nn”t th uf nnunfm nutn tn p t ppt f
nutn n humn . A ubmmt tph m p u n t p tmn th b vt n t n th. In t nu
th !u t n th u "t h bn t p th p !u ht m
thn th n p pn th pnt n th fm f h h thn xpt b
vt . In th nv tun fbtn hm w hv xpt th h h pn
t wth I wf fbtn n th fun t tmn th p wth muh
h h u.
W n t th pbt f un th t"n f th ph m t
w th tutn vt wthut ngnt "tn th Q# f th vt. n
ppu mth f wn th t"n f ph m !un ”tn ntun u tn. Th u t ph m thn!u h bn ufu
pt n v $%$ pptn mpump mt RF wth
[1& mut ['& n pt v [(&. Wh th utbt f u t
ph m f tunb gt pptn bn bn nvt t b m
mmb n u h up n th w w nvt t tv nw t"n
wn pph n whh th n nhn u t vt th "t f
bx u t fm th ph m t"n. Th bngt f th th n
nhn
hv bn xp n mn tmptu nntv n h h pw
hnn RF wth n vt [6 )&.
1 F ( Key steps n the ftan af SO
sustte sed
dphs wth salted eletades, ( fted dee
7
D
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pta ta edue the dee senstty ta esdul il stess nd tepetue
n au new dph desn, we he used sl ppah y ppaptely
R ehnl sultans
pln utauts n the ul dph Caentawe
he een used ta detene nd adfy the dph stness sa s ta n the
aell tutan alte elaw 2
V fa the desed “lte espanse The HFSS
sultans e lsa ed aut ta setn the Q edutan s esult af uent
1 cwd t cutut d
It may b td tat du t pttyp d ad
fabcat ptmoat f Q ba vlta a b cad ut
F
7
w t “alod d f t pttyp fabcat tat at“d bt t RF
pfmac ad t dc ba rumt
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SI ubtat bad dapam
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7
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T tpc S tc
u XF a t MEMS la mcam
T ky advata f u t
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plo doilu i oi pla Ei i i id y
fl kd lxd y i l ld id uid dp lwi idodu i lwi i Fa 7a.a Du l iu
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11
F 7 Meaued tu epoe o te “lte (a
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11
dydd T A d
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dmd i iml m m uimbl mlmit AuSi dimhm A ninulm
dimhm bmd hml mnhi di wih .× mll dim hm
h ”m AuSi dimhm dmd h iilm d”ni wihi mximl
1/ r o h bim tlm o h liim di
Fi 1 Q md ui m nmi o h mlleilin “l
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i
11
7
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t
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8 SARY AND FUR DIRUIONS
i
i ummr
T dept f a f, t nab, t at sft
wa dnd ad s ad b ts !" ft d ds d t aeaabt f
a pfa, pat, ts tab badbad nt wt w pw
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ab nts apab f t ts stt %&! ts f wae ad
t wae appatsc T t f ts a s' t s t a$
t 3 & apate pst add tab aet sats ad nts s p
s fabat ts, t fn t tt ta ts ssa
f pfa at ts fsc T nst pat f t dsstat fss
t t dept, tat ds t ds ad fabat sda
ts f Q( ad wd tab apate pst add east d aet
nts f bt wae ad t wae appatsc &tas f a s fab
at t ad ts adeatas e eta fabat ts a
dsssdc T a pf f pt stat a s sat ds, fabat
ad ast, t s sw tat af d ad ps fabat
a snat $ t dspat btw satd ad asd stsc T
sd pat f t dsstat s fsd des f t dstatc
T tab pfas d 1) 9c Š1* G+$ -1.1c/) atstata tab
sat wt a Q( f 6 0Š9 0, 2) a tw p, 14 badwdt Bttwt nt
tab f /c1 Š1 c2 G+$ -1.1c/*) wt a st ss ea f 3c/ t 0c9
dB -wt ts) s tstat atat, 3) a tstata tab
6c1Š25c5 G+$ -1.5) tab sat a Q f 300Š1000 ad 5) a 6c*Š20c G+$
-1.3) tab, tw p Bttwt nt wt a st ss f 7 0c*6 dB -d
11
i coco lo mii to
to
i e wit lcoic
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io of SO u ui low vol . All t pfomc sofsts i ul “l ctoloi.
8
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Tt coiu
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€ Cr A il ic
io o t i coiio fo cpciivs
po lo vcsmo cviy oo i p. B o ti is
c
ioe plimiy i ofw o ppoxim t cviy imio
fo t i Q i t u vlop i MATLAB. Tti
“sofsisi ofw c c q
ic ie li opimiio
ool. Alto
te t i q
io i ti ofw vlopm u o cyliicl cviy po lyi. W tv tow to
t ms
icl im
lio t ti ofw i lmo q
lly f
l i ii q
wsmicomcti Si (pymil cvii of imil imio o
ti imil “l p.
€ Cr 3 A w fuicio ctoloy o li HitsQ wily ul
vcsmo cviy “l fo micowv millimswv fq
ci
t u p. Tt v of ti micosfuicio u llsilico
ctoloy ov coviol fuicio ctiq
ic
xplie
wtict mily icl
cc
cye liuiliye puiliyecompiuiliy co.
Tt il of t y fuicio p lo wit t i fuicio
ctll oci wit ct of tm p. Fillye poofsofs
cocp ic ooe i fo Q of 71 1. GHe i fuic
. Tt m
pfomc tow Q of 7 1.71 GH.
Tt fc t t Q i lmo 9
fq
cy i witi 2
of t im
l vl
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11
t dirity btwe t die ed murd rormen ne b ieinetly
rdund
€ C
4: T die brintioe ed murmet o t rt llilinoe
enetmod nity tuebl roetor i retd Metottin ld ie
trntioe btwe nurret nrryie noil ed mll rmeet ttnd to
mobl dirm be ud or t rt tim or roetor tueie T
roetor i died or XŠKu bed (Š1 G) wit imultd Q o
9Š1 we t nilie dirm mo Š µm wy rom t nity
ot uie bidirntioel metottin ntutioe T murd din dmoe
trtd e elo tueie rom 9Š1 G (11 tueie rtio) wil mietie
ie Q o 6Š9 wit maimum noilnurret o ± m T bttr te
7 norrltioe btwe imultd ed murd rult ieiy t lidity o
t die rondur ed uitbility o brintioe ron or rliie iQ
tuebl ltr or i rfueny lintioe
€ C
5: T modlie die brintioe ed murmet o iQ
ed widly tuebl ltr brintd uie llilinoe tneoloy i retd
For tneoloy dmoetrtioe twool 17 rntioel bedwidt (midbed)
Buttrwort ltr tuebl rom XŠ Ku bed (Š16 G) uie lntrottin
MM ntutioe i died brintd ed murd uie ti ron
oail ie d i ietrodund ibl die ron or llilinoe ltr
du to lowr ubtrt ed rditioe lo nomtibility wit modulr die
ed o murmet T brintd ltr aibit elo tueie wit t
died ltr roe rom 1Š1 G wit e iertioe lo ryie
rom 3 to 9 dB (ienludie noeentor lo) T atrntd Q o t ltr
re rom 3 to (3Š11 tr dmbddie noeentor lo) T
norrltioe btwe die ed murd rult i bttr te 7 Ti i
t rt dmoetrtioe o tuebl ltr brintd uie llilinoe tneoloy
11
a it dtatd iutadu hih Q a tui ati i thi fdrud
ad i bdttd tha a thd dxiti “td pdfa
d
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3Š1 It i hw that b itu
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11
ss aas in his a in pow hanin haaiaion an iariiy
eaaion
nhann of hs “s
8
P H
Th pow hanin haaiaion of alsiion “s is nssay o in
hi siariiy fo i o hih pow ansi appiaions Th ain pow
iiin faos in MEMS iapha n apaiielpos oa eansn o
aeiy “s a soi ii raown, as isha an ohania nonl
inaiis of h MEMS nin n [67] Ahoh h as isha phnonon
a hih Rlpow in h apaiielpos oa aeiy “s is no w nsoo
an haai, howe, i an r safy ass ha h ion os pon o as
isha raown is spa rwn h poslop an aeiy iin o son
an hihy onna i “ A w nown phnonon in osai as
isha is h owin of raown eoa o sfa ohnss as a s of
“ nhann a hi shap s ry a fao popoiona o ohnss a
“ nhann fao () [671] If a siia n is orse in h R
isha, hn a hih pow hanin an r p fo alsiion “s (wih
sooh sfas) han a “ of siia spi“aions faria sin oneniona
ahinin A opaison of h wo appoahs an r an iin aa of sah
whih an hp in ipoein h pow hanin apariiis of hs nar “s
Th apaiielpos oa nar “ nonlinaiis o hi MEMS nin
n has rn nsiey isss in [67, 72, 73] Aoin o hi sy, in
hs hihlQ “s, h nonlinaiis ainy ais fo h sf aaion of h
iapha owas h pos o hih DClqiean R eoa eop rwn
h pos an iapha a hih R pow as shown in i 1 Th faos ha an
a! h pow hanin of hs “s a as foows
€ Oea qaiy fao Q A hihlQ ospons o a hih DClqiean R
eoa ha an ow “ pow hanin apariiy
1 F 81 ( S
mdl mf MEMS d attm
d mw amdtm aat
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i at wt a RF mw [ € D t A t d m RF mw dl t
a lt attm mlt
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t a at t t € Pmt tm ps A mt mf ll wll r m RF mw tm ll
d mf at t
1 1
For th aso “trs t w b a iportat trste a usu stu
to
tri th trao btw powr hae tue rae a atuato votae
to asrta thr sutabt
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8
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