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CONVENIENCE FOODS AND HOME-PREPARED FOODS HEATED WITH AN ELECTRIC RANGE AND A MICROWAVE OVEN

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University
Microfilms
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8313771
Richardson, Suzanne
CONVENIENCE FOODS AND HOME-PREPARED FOODS HEATED WITH
AN ELECTRIC RANGE AND A MICROWAVE OVEN
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and Slate University
University
Microfilms
International
300 N. Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106
Ph.D. 1982
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University
Microfilms
International
.CONVENIENCE FOODS AND HOME-PREPARED FOODS
HEATED WITH AN ELECTRIC RANGE
AND A MICROWAVE OVEN/
by
Suzanne ^Richardson,,
Dissertation submitted to the Faculty of the
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
in
Human Nutrition and Foods
APPROVED:
J . A. P h i l l i p / ,
Ch,a ir m a n
October, 1982
Blacksburg, Virginia
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The a u th o r w i s h e s t o e x p r e s s
h e r s i n c e r e g r a t r t u u e ana
a p p r e c ia tio n t o :
D r.
Jean
P h illip s ,
M ajor
P ro fe sso r,
u n d e r s t a n d in g , e n c o u r a g e m e n t , a s s i s t a n c e ,
fo r
n er
and a o u n d a n t g o o a
s e n s e th r o u g h o u t th e c o u r se o f th e a u t n o r 's g r a d u a te s t u u ie s
ana e s p e c i a l l y d u r in g t h e c o m p le t i o n o f t h i s p r o j e c t .
D r. J u le x n A x e is o n , D r . K e b e c c a L o v in g o o a , D r .
P ea rso n ,
and
D r.
M iriam s a it m a r c h f o r
th e ir
Joanne
a u v ie e ,
a s s i s t a n c e , and e n c o u r a g e m e n t a s c o m m it t e e m o a n e r s .
U s . Lucy Towe- ana M rs.
th e sen so ry
p a n e l,
a s w e ll
N ancy L a r k in s r o r h e l p i n g
a s M rs.
S te lla
w iu
h a st fo r
p u r c h a s in g t h e f o o d and s u p p l i e s .
The m embers o f
tn e sen so ry p a n el fo r
th e ir
r a itn .r u a
a tten d a n c e a t e v a lu a tio n s e s s io n s .
B i l l S y d o r and d a r k M a r c u c c i
f o r h e lp w it h s t a t i s t i c a l
a n a l y s i s or th e d a t a .
The D e p a rtm en t o f H o u s in g , I n t e r i o r D e s ig n a n a K e s o u r c e
M anagem ent a t
V i r g i n i a T ech
f o r u se
o f th e
h o u s e h o iu
e q u ip m e n t l a b o r a t o r y .
Tne U .S . D e p a r tm e n t o f A g r i c u l t u r e , f o r h e l p i n g t o ru n u
t h is research .
ii
TABLE OF COiNTEKTS
Page
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
. •i l
LIST OF T A B L E S..............................................................................
v ii
CHAPTER
I.
II.
IN TR O D U CTIO N ...............................
1
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
I n tr o d u c tio n
. . . . . . . . . . . .
............................ o
C o n v e n ie n c e F o o d s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . o
D e f i n i t i o n .........................................
o
Use
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . V
Y i e l d .................................................................................................. 13
..........................................................
P r e p a r a t io n Tim e
E n e r g y C o n su m p tio n . . . . . . . . .
. . . . 1 t >
C o st . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 0
n u tr ie n t c o n te n t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 0
S en sory q u a lit y
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2
Summary
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 4
E l e c t r i c R a n g e s and M icrow ave O v e n s .............................. 25
. . . . i n
O p e r a t io n
. ........................... . . . . . .
U s e ..............................................
27
H e a t in g T i m e .........................................................
..
E n erg y C o n su m p tio n . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 u
S en sory q u a lit y
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . o 2
Summary
. . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . .
.o n
S en so ry E v a lu a tio n
. . . . . . . . . .
. . . . 3 5
O v e r v ie w . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
35
S e l e c t i o n o f P a n e l H e a d e rs . . . . . . . . . 3 7
T r a in in g o f P a n e l H ead ers
. . . . .
. . . . 3 d
T e s t i n g E n v ir o n m e n t
. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Jb
P r e p a r a t io n and P r e s e n t a t i o n o f S a m p le s
. .
S c o r in g
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . n o
Sources o f in v a lid ity
. . . . . . . . . . . 4 1
iii
iv
III.
METHODS
I n tr o d u c tio n
. ....................................
.4 1
S e l e c t i o n o f F o o d s t o r L a n o r a to r y A n a l y s t s
. . 4b
G e n e r a l L a b o r a to r y p r o c e d u r e s . . . . . . . . . 4 d
E q u ip m en t anu P r e t e s t s
. . . . . . . . .
. . . <♦7
A p p lia n c e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 7
Cook,w a re . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . 4 0
P r e te sts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 9
h e ig h t
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 9
Tim e . . . . .
.......................................................... . . . ' . bo
e n e r g y c o n s u m p tio n
. . . . bi
C o st
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . b l
P r o d u c t s w it h C om ponent I n g r e d i e n t s . . . . . .
b4
Fooa C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s
. . . . . . . . . . . . .
bo
D e g r e e -o i-fc e a u in e s s . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . b7
N u t r ie n t c o n t e n t . ..........................
. . S7
S e n s o r y E v a lu a t io n
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
t>u
D a ta A n a l y s i s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . o s
IV .
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
in tr o a u c tio n
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 04
h e i g h t and i ' i e l d
. . . . . .
. . . . . .
. . . . 6 4
T o t a l T im e
. . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . .
. 70
A c t iv e T im e . . . .
. . .
. . . . .
. .
. . .
. bo
E n ergy c o n s u m p tio n
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 7
C o st
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
................................ 94
C o n v e n ie n c e F o o d s and H o m e-P rep a rea F o o d s
Food
................................................ . . . . . . . . 9 b
F uel
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9bA c t i v e Tim e a t Minimum Wage . . . . . .
.1 0 1
A c t i v e T im e a t a C o o k 's Wage
. . . . . . I U j
Food Plus* F u e l
. . .
. . . . . . .
. . .1 0 1
F o o d , F u e l , and A c t i v e Tim e
a t Minimum Wage
. . . . . . . . . . . 1 0 o
F o o d , F u e l , and A c t i v e Time
a t a Cook ' s h a g e . . . . . . . . . .
.lO o
Summary: C o n v e n ie n c e F o o d s and
. . . . . . . . . 1 0 9
H o m e-P rep a red F o o d s
E l e c t r i c R ange and M icrow ave Oven
F ood
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I l l
F uel
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.I ll
A c t i v e T im e a t Minimum h a g e . . . . .
..11b
A c t i v e T im e a t a c o o k ' s Wage . . . . .
.1 1 7
Food P i u s F u e l
. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 /
P o o d , F u e l , and A c t iv e Tim e
a t Minimum Wage • • • • • • • • • « » 12U
F o o d , F u e l , and A c t i v e Tim e
a t a Co ok ' s Mage . . . . . . . . . .
. 12u
Summary: K le e t r i e R ange and
M icrow ave o v e n . . . . . . . . . . .
.IKK
Food C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s
. . . . . . .
. . .
. . . l2 o
D e g r e e -o f-R e a d in e s s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 3 4
N u t r ie n t C o n t e n t
. . . . . . . . .............................. . . 1 4 1
S e n s o r y Q u a lit y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.140
A p p ea r a n c e . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . 1 5 2
T e x tu r e
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.1 5 4
F ia v o r . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . 1 5 8
o v e r a l l Q u a li t y
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . i b l
O v e rv iew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.1 b 5
P r e fe r e n c e A n a ly s is
. . . . . . . . . . . . 1 e > y
V.
SO lid ah Y AH D CONCLUSIONS
Summary . . . .
C o n c lu s io n s . .
I m p lic a tio n s
.
R eco m m en d a tio n s
. . . . . . .
. . . . . . .
. . . . . .
l o r F u r th e r
. . . . . . . . . 1 7 1
. . . . . . . . . 1 7 1
. .
...................................... 177
R esearch
.......................1b1
REFERENCES................................' ................................................................................. 1b4
APPENDICES
A.
5.
C.
D.
k.
F.
G.
B ra n d s o t C o n v e n ie n c e F o o u s U sed i n
L a b o r a to r y A n a l y s i s
.................................15o
R e c ip e s i o r H o m e-P rep a red F o o d s . . . . . . .
. ly o
T o t a l P r o d u c t Food C o s t f o r C o n v e n ie n c e and
H o m e-P rep a red F o o d s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 >7
E v a lu a t io n C ard
.2 3 0
P r e f e r e n c e C ard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.2 3 1
E n e r g y , E x p r e s s e d a s B r i t i s h T h erm al U n i t s ,
U sed t o P r e p a r e C o n v e n ie n c e and H om e-P rep ared
F o o u s i n E l e c t r i c R a n g e and M icro w a v e O ven
. .2 3 2
D e n s i t y , P e r c e n t M o i s t u r e , P e r c e n t F a t , E nergy
p e r Gram, H e a tin g Tim e p e r Gram, T o t a l T im e p er
Gram, a n a A c t i v e T im e p e r Gram: V a lu e s t o r
C o n v e n ie n c e and H o m e-P rep a red F o o d s i n E l e c t r i c
Range an d M icrow ave o v e n
. . . . . . . . . .
.2 3 4
vi
H.
N u t r i e n t D a ta f o r C o n v e n ie n c e a n d H o w e-P rep a red
F ocas:
V a lu e s P e r S e r v in g and P e r c e n t
U .S . HdA • • . . • • • • • • >
• • • . • •
. « .2 3 o
V I T A ...................................................................................................................................2Jy
ABSTRACT
L IS T OF TABLES
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
Page
F o o d s S e l e c t e d f o r L a b o r a t o r y A n a l y s i s ................................. 4 4
C o n su m er P r i c e I n d e x f o r C om m od ity G r o u p s O sea i n
C o st C a lc u la tio n s . . . .
. . . .
............................... 5 3
M ed ia n a n d Mean W e ig h t o f C o n v e n i e n c e a n d Home
P r e p a r e d F o o d s i n E l e c t r i c R an ge a n d M ic r o w a v e
oven
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
........................... 6 6
C o m p a r is o n o f T o t a l P r o d u c t W e ig h t B e tw e e n
C o n v e n i e n c e a n d H o m e -P r e p a r e d F o o d s . . . . . . . . 6 8
C o m p a r is o n o f T o t a l P r o d u c t W e ig h t B e tw e e n F o o d s
P r e p a r e d w it h t h e E l e c t r i c R ange a n d w i t h t h e
M ic r o w a v e O ven
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 9
N um ber o f E q u a l W e ig h t S e r v i n g s f o r C o n v e n ie n c e
a n d H o m e -P r e p a r e d F o o d s i n E l e c t r i c R an ge an d
M ic r o w a v e o v e n
...................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1
M e d ia n a n d Mean T o t a l P r e p a r a t i o n T im e f o r
C o n v e n ie n c e a n d H o m e -P r e p a r e d F o o d s i n E l e c t r i c
R a n g e a n d M ic r o w a v e O ven
............................................... 7 4
C o m p a r is o n o f T o t a l P r e p a r a t i o n T im e B e tw e e n
C o n v e n ie n c e a n d H o m e -P r e p a r e d F o o d s . . . . .
. . . 7 7
C o m p a r is o n o f T o t a l P r e p a r a t i o n T im e B e tw e e n F o o d s
P r e p a r e d w i t h t h e E l e c t r i c R ange a n d w i t h t h e
M ic r o w a v e O ven
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . 7 9
M ed ia n a n d Mean A c t i v e P r e p a r a t i o n T im e f o r
C o n v e n i e n c e a n d H o m e -P r e p a r e d F o o d s i n E l e c t r i c
R a n g e a n d M icro w a v e O ven
: . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 1
C o m p a r is o n o f A c t i v e P r e p a r a t i o n T im e B e tw e e n
C o n v e n i e n c e a n d H o m e -P r e p a r e d F o o d s . . . . . . . . 8 4
C o m p a r is o n o f A c t i v e P r e p a r a t i o n T im e B e tw e e n
F o o d s P r e p a r e d w it h t h e E l e c t r i c R a n g e and w i t h
t h e M ic r o w a v e Oven
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 8
M e d ia n a n d Mean E n e r g y C o n s u m p tio n f o r C o n v e n ie n c e
a n d H o m e -P r e p a r e d P o o d s i n E l e c t r i c f is n g e and
M ic r o w a v e O ven
. . . . .
......................... ..... . . . oo
C o m p a r is o n o f E n e r g y C o n s u m p tio n B e t w e e n C o n v e n ie n c e
a n d Home—P r e p a r e d F o o d s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 1
C o m p a r is o n o f E n e r g y C o n s u m p tio n B e t w e e n F o o d s
P r e p a r e d w it h t h e E l e c t r i c R ange a n d w i t h t n e
M ic r o w a v e O ven
..........................
. . . 9 3
C o s t p e r E q u a l W e ig h t S e r v i n g f o r C o n v e n ie n c e a n d
H o m e -P r e p a r e d F o o d s i n E l e c t r i c R a n g e and
M ic r o w a v e o v e n
. . . . .
. . . . . . . . . .
. . . 9 5
F o o d C o s t p e r E q u a l W e ig h t S e r v i n g :
C o m p a r iso n
B e tw e e n C o n v e n ie n c e an d H o m e -P r e p a r e d F o o d s . . . .
99
F u e l C o s t p e r E q u a l W e ig h t S e r v i n g :
C o m p a r is o n
B e tw e e n C o n v e n ie n c e an d H o m e -P r e p a r e d F o o d s . . .
.1 0 0
v ii
v iii
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
c o s t p e r E q u a l W e ig h t S e r v i n g o f A c t i v e T im e a t
Minimum W age: C o m p a r is o n B e t w e e n C o n v e n i e n c e sn d
H o m e -P r e p a r e d F o o d s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.1 0 2
C o s t p e r E q u a l W e ig h t S e r v i n g o f A c t i v e T im e a t
a C o o k ' s W age:
C o m p a r is o n B e t w e e n C o n v e n i e n c e
a n d H o m e -P r e p a r e d F o o d s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 0 4
C o s t p e r E q u a l W e ig h t S e r v i n g o f F ood and F u e l :
C o m p a r is o n B e tw e e n C o n v e n i e n c e and H o m e -P r e p a r e d
Foods . . . . . . . . . . . . J . .
. . . . . . .
.1 0 o
C o s t p e r B q u a l W e ig h t S e r v i n g o f F o o d , F u e l , and
A c t i v e T im e a t Minimum Wage:
C o m p a r is o n B e tw e e n
C o n v e n ie n c e and H o m e -P r e p a r e d F o o d s • . .
. . . .
.1 0 7
C o s t p e r B q u a l W e ig h t S e r v i n g o f F o o d , F u e l , and
A c t i v e T im e a t a C o o k ' s W age:
C o m p a r iso n B e tw e e n
C o n v e n ie n c e an d H o m e -P r e p a r e d F o o d s . . . . . . . . 1 0 d
F o o d C o s t p e r E q u a l W e ig h t S e r v i n g :
C o m p a r is o n
B e t w e e n F o o d s P r e p a r e d w it h t h e E l e c t r i c R a n g e
and w it h t h e M ic r o w a v e O ven . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 3
F u e l C o s t p e r E q u a l W e ig h t S e r v i n g :
C o m p a r is o n
B e tw e e n F o o d s P r e p a r e d w it h t h e E l e c t r i c R a n g e
an d w it h t h e H ic r o w a v e Oven .
..........................................
.1 1 4
C o s t p e r E q u a l W e ig h t S e r v i n g o f A c t i v e T im e a t
Minimum W age: C o m p a r is o n B e tw e e n F o o d s P r e p a r e d
w it h t h e E l e c t r i c R ange and w i t h t h e H ic r o w a v e
O ven
. . . . . . . . . . . .
. . .
. . . .
. . .
.1 1 6
C o s t p e r E q u a l W e ig h t S e r v i n g o f A c t i v e T im e a t
a C o o k 's H age:
C o m p a r iso n B e t w e e n F o o d s P r e p a r e d
w i t h t h e E l e c t r i c R ange and w i t h t h e M xcrow ave
O ven
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 1 1 8
C o s t p e r E q u a l W e ig h t S e r v i n g o f F ood and F u e l :
C o m p a r is o n B e tw e e n F o o d s P r e p a r e d w i t h t h e E i e c t r x c
R a n g e and w it h t h e H ic r o w a v e O ven
.......................... . . 1 1 9
C o s t p e r E q u a l W e ig h t S e r v i n g o f F o o d , F u e l , and
A c t i v e T im e a t Minimum Wage:
C o m p a r is o n B e tw e e n
F o o d s P r e p a r e d w i t h t h e E l e c t r i c R a n g e and w it h
t h e M ic r o w a v e O ven
. . . . .
. . . . . . . . . .
.1 2 1
C o s t p e r E q u a l W e ig h t S e r v i n g o f F o o d , F u e l , and
A c t i v e T im e a t a C o o k 's Wage:
C o m p a r iso n B e tw e e n
F o o d s P r e p a r e d w i t h t h e E l e c t r i c R a n g e and w it h
t h e H ic r o w a v e O ven
. .
. . .
. . .
. . . .
. . .
.1 2 2
C a t e g o r i e s o f F o o d s by F o o d C h a r a c t e r i s t i c
...................................... . . . . . . w . . . . 127
C o m b in a t io n s
E n e r g y C o n s u m p tio n p e r Gram b y C a t e g o r y o f F o o d
C h a r a c t e r i s t i c C o m b in a t io n s :
C o m p a r is o n B e tw e e n
E l e c t r i c R a n g e a n d H ic r o w a v e O v e n ..............................................129
H e a t i n g T im e p e r Gram b y C a t e g o r y o f F ood
C h a r a c t e r i s t i c C o m b in a t io n s :
C o m p a r is o n B e tw e e n
E l e c t r i c R a n g e a n d H ic r o w a v e O ven . . . . . . . . . 1 3 0
mma
■atauocfli
ix
3 4 . Mean E n e r g y C o n s u m p tio n a n d H e a t i n g T im e by
A p p l ia n c e an d by Low o r H ig h V a lu e s t o r D e n s i t y ,
P e r c e n t M o i s t u r e , and P e r c e n t P a t ............................................. 1 3 2
3 5 . C o n v e n ie n c e F o o d s C a t e g o r i z e d by D e g r e e - o f
B e a d in e s s . .
. . . . .
. . . . .
. . . . .
. . . . 1 3 5
3 6 . E n e r g y C o n s u m p tio n p e r Gram by D e g r e e - o f - H e a d i n e s s
C a te g o r y :
C o m p a r is o n o f C o n v e n ie n c e a n d Home
P repared Poods
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . 1 3 6
3 7 . T o t a l P r e p a r a t i o n T im e p e r Gram b y D e g r e e - o f
R e a d in e s s C a te g o r y :
C o m p a r is o n o f C o n v e n i e n c e
and H o m e -P r e p a r e d F o o d s
.............................1 3 6
3 8 . A c t i v e P r e p a r a t i o n T im e p e r Gram b y D e g r e e - o f
R e a d in e s s C a te g o r y :
C o m p a r is o n o f C o n v e n i e n c e
and H o m e -P r e p a r e d F o o d s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 3 9
3 9 . C o m p a r is o n o f N u t r i e n t D a ta B e t w e e n C o n v e n ie n c e
and H o m e -P r e p a r e d F o o d s :
Mean A d e q u a c y R a t i o ,
C a l o r i e s p e r S e r v i n g , G ram s F a t p e r s e r v i n g .
P e r c e n t C a l o r i e s fro m F a t , M i l l i g r a m s S od iu m p e r
S e r v i n g , a n d Grams F i b e r p e r S e r v i n g
. . . . . .
.1 4 2
4 0 . S e n s o r y Q u a l i t y o f C o n v e n i e n c e a n d H o m e -P r e p a r e d
F o o d s H e a te d i n E l e c t r i c R a n g e a n d M ic r o w a v e
O ven:
Mean V a lu e s f o r A p p e a r a n c e , T e x t u r e ,
F l a v o r , an d O v e r a l l Q u a l i t y
........................................1 4 6
4 1 . Mean S e n s o r y A p p e a r a n c e S c o r e s :
C o m p a r is o n B e tw e e n
C o n v e n ie n c e a n d H o m e -P r e p a r e d F o o d s
.............................1 5 3
4 2 . Mean S e n s o r y A p p e a r a n c e S c o r e s :
C o m p a r is o n B e tw e e n
F o o d s P r e p a r e d w it h t h e E l e c t r i c R a n g e and w i t h
t h e M ic r o w a v e Oven
...........................
155
4 3 . Mean S e n s o r y T e x t u r e S c o r e s :
C o m p a r is o n B e tw e e n
C o n v e n ie n c e a n d H o m e -P r e p a r e d F o o d s ....................................... 1 5 6
4 4 . Mean S e n s o r y T e x t u r e S c o r e s :
C o m p a r is o n B e tw e e n
F o o d s P r e p a r e d w it h t h e E l e c t r i c R an ge an d w i t h
............................................................ 1 5 9
t h e M ic r o w a v e O ven
4 5 . Mean S e n s o r y F l a v o r S c o r e s :
C o m p a r is o n B e tw e e n
C o n v e n ie n c e a n d H o m e -P r e p a r e d F o o d s . . . . .
. . .1 6 0
4 6 . Mean S e n s o r y F l a v o r S c o r e s :
C o m p a r is o n B e tw e e n
F o o d s P r e p a r e d w it h t h e E l e c t r i c R an ge an d w r t n
t h e M ic r o w a v e O ven
....................................... . . . . . . . . 1 6 2
4 7 . Mean S e n s o r y O v e r a l l Q u a l i t y S c o r e s :
C o m p a r is o n
B e tw e e n C o n v e n ie n c e and H o m e -P r e p a r e d F o o d s . • . . 1 6 3
4 8 . Mean S e n s o r y O v e r a l l Q u a l i t y S c o r e s :
C o m p a r is o n
B e tw e e n F o o d s P r e p a r e d w i t h t h e E l e c t r i c R a n g e
and w i t h t h e M ic r o w a v e O v en . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 6 6
CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
S i n c e W orld
War I I
a great
many c o n v e n i e n c e
fo o u
p r o d u c ts h a v e b e e n in tr o d u c e d
i n t o t h e A m e r ic a n m a r k e t p la c e
by f o o d p r o c e s s o r s .
c o n v e n i e n c e p r o d u c t s m ade up
in
1973
a p p r o x im a te ly h a l f o f t h e s a l e s
c o n s u m p t io n
fo o d s
in
(T rau b and O d la n d ,
1976
a m o u n te d t o
su p erm a rk et s a l e s
1 9 7 8 ).
in
C le m e n t s
o f fo o d
(1 9 8 0 )
o f f o o d p u r c h a s e d f o r acm e
1 9 7 9 ).
53 p e r c e n t
ite m s
in d ic a te d
t h e U n ite d S t a t e s u s e
S a le s o f p r o c e sse d
o f th a t
(L iv in g s to n
y e a r 's
and C hang,
t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f women
c o n v e n ie n c e f o o d s .
been a s s o c ia te d
c o n v e n ie n c e f o o d s ,
s u c h a s a g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n o f women i n
a r e e x p e c te d
f o r c o n v e n ie n c e i n
D e s p ite th e
t o c o n tin u e .
fo o d s can a ls o
fa c t th a t
c o n v e n ie n c e fo o d s
w h ic h may
Some
have
exp ressed
concern
(H andy a n d E a g a r ,
1
A
about t h e ir
fr o m b u y in g
h e a l t h f u l n e s s an d v a l u e o f c o n v e n i e n c e
a b ou t th e p r ic e
a r e w id e ly
(T ra u b a n d O d la n d ,
d is c o u r a g e co n su m ers
con su m ers
c o n tin u e .
fo o d s have b een r e p o r te d
m o re t h a n h o m e - p r e p a r e d f o o d s
1977) .
u se of
T h u s t h e dem and
b e ex p e c te d t o
c o n s u m e d , g u e s t i o n s a r e s o m e t im e s r a i s e d
m a jo r ity o f c o n v e n ie n c e
in c r e a s e d
th e
f a c t o r s w h ic h h a v e
t h e w o rx f o r c e ,
w ith
Som e o f
u se.
A
to c o st
1980,
1979)
th e s e ite m s .
about
tn e
p ro d u cts a s w e ll a s
C o n v e n ie n c e f o o d s
may v a r y i n c o m p o s i t i o n fro m
p e r c e n t o f p erso n s su rveyed
h o m e -p r e p a r e d f o o d s ,
b e lie v e d
t h a t c o n v e n ie n c e fo o d s
w e r e n o t a s n u t r i t i o u s a s f o o d s p r e p a r e d a t hom e
HEW ,
and 58
( U .S . D e p t .
1 9 7 3 -7 4 ) .
C o n v e n ie n c e f o o d s
a ls o
have
a d v a n ta g es,
d e v e lo p m e n t o f c o n v e n i e n c e f o o d s i s
a r e v e r y c o m p le x d u e i n
th e
o n e o f t h e m a jo r f a c t o r s
t h a t ’h a s s h a p e d t h e m od ern f o o d i n d u s t r y .
d e c is io n s
an d
P o o d p u r c h a s in g
p a r t t o t h e l a r g e num ber
o f i t e m s on t h e o a r i c e t , a n d c o n s u m e r s n e e d .in f o r m a t io n an o u t
and g u id a n c e i n
fo o d s fo r t h e ir
s e le c tin g
n eed s.
th e m ost s a t is f a c t o r y
U s in g t h i s in f o r m a t io n
th em t o m ake in f o r m e d c h o i c e s c o n c e r n i n g
T h e a d o p t i o n o f home m ic r o w a v e
a s a m a jo r t r e n d i n
1 9 8 0 ).
in
1944
1 9 6 8 ).
fir s t
A lt h o u g h
th e one p er c e n t
(S c h iffm a n n ,
1 9 7 7 ).
1956,
s a tu r a tio n
w h ic h i s
1982) .
H o u s e h o ld
it
le v e l
1981
w as n o t u n t i l
w as r e a c h e d .
e n e r g y u s e m a k e s up
can th u s be
(M a rk o v ,
e x p e r ie n c e d
e x p e c te d t o c o n tin u e
p e r c e n t o f th e en erg y u sed in t h e
an d c o n s u m e r s
now r e c o g n i z e d
A p p r o x im a t e ly 2 4 p e r c e n t o f A m e r ic a n
S ta te s h as r e c e n tly
sh o r ta g e
ovens is
home m ic r o w a v e o v e n s w ere
h o u s e h o l d s o w n ed a m ic r o w a v e o v e n i n
T h e U n it e d
th e ir d ie t s .
m ade u s e o f m ic r o w a v e o v e n s
i n t r o d u c e d i n t o t h e m a r k e t p la c e i n
1972 t h a t
w i l l e n a o le
t h e u s e o f c o n v e n i e n c e e q u ip m e n t ( W h it e ,
T he f o o d i n d u s t r y
(A r e f,
fo r m s o f
1 9 8 2 ).
an e n e r g y
(M a n d ig o an d J a n s s e n ,
a p p r o x im a t e l y 30
f o o d c h a in
e x p e c te d t o be
(H ir s t,
in te r e s te d
1 9 7 3 ),
in
3
e n e r g y c o n s u m p t io n by borne a p p l i a n c e s .
f r e q u e n t ly d e s c r ib e d a s e n e r g y
1975) .
H ow ever,
c o n tr a d ic to r y
Laughon
e v id e n c e
m ic r o w a v e o v e n i s
h e a tin g
s a v in g a p p lia n c e s
(1 9 8 0 )
e x i s t s c o n c e r n in g
w h e th e r
tam e r e q u i r e d
has b een r e p o r te d ,
research
w as d e s ig n e d
c o n v e n ie n c e
f o o d s and
h e a te d w ith
a m ic r o w a v e
ran ge.
tn e
a p p lia n c e fo r
th e ir
to
co m p a r e
w it h a
T he o b j e c t i v e s o f
th e
to
am ou n t or
a m ic r o w a v e o v e n .
h o m e-p rep a red
o v e n and
s a id
to p rep are fo o d s.
h o w e v e r , on t h e
a c t i v e tim e n e ed ed t o p r e p a r e f o o d s u s in g
e le c tr ic
th a t
H ic r o w a v e o v e n s a r e a l s o o f t e n
d e c r e a s e t h e t o t a l am ount o f
T h is
(B a d en n o p ,
p o in te d ou t
t h e m o st e n e r g y e f f i c i e n t
a ll fo o d s.
L it t le research
H ic r o w a v e o v e n s a re
s e le c te d
c o u n te r p a r ts
c o n v e n tio n a l
s tu d y
w ere t o
d e te r m in e w h e th e r :
1.
C o n v e n ie n c e
fo o d s and
h o m e -p r e p a r e d f o o d s
y i e l d t h e sa m e n u m ber o f e q u a l w e i g h t s e r v i n g s .
2.
Foods prep ared
a m ic r o w a v e o v e n y i e l d
w it h a n e l e c t r i c r a n g e and w ith
th e
s a m e n um ber o f e q u a l w e i g h t
s e r v in g s .
3.
C o n v e n ie n c e
r e q u ir e th e
4.
p r e p a r a tio n
h o m e-p rep a red f o o d s
sam e am ou n t o f t o t a l p r e p a r a t i o n
Foods prepared
a m ic r o w a v e
fo o d s and
w it h a n e l e c t r i c r a n g e an d w ith
o v en r e q u ir e th e
tim e .
tim e .
sam e am ou n t
of to ta l
4
5.
C o n v e n ie n c e
fo o d s
and
h o m e-p rep a red f o o d s
r e q u i r e t h e sam e am o u n t o f a c t i v e
6.
F o o d s p r e p a r e d w ith
a m ic r o w a v e
p r e p a r a tio n t im e .
an e l e c t r i c
oven r e q u ir e th e
r a n g e an d w i t a
sa m e a m o u n t
o f a c tiv e
p r e p a r a tio n t im e .
7.
C o n v e n ie n c e
fo o d s
and
h o m e -p r e p a r e d f o o d s
r e q u i r e t h e sam e a m o u n t o f e n e r g y
8.
F o o d s p r e p a r e d w it h
to p rep are.
an e l e c t r i c
a m ic r o w a v e o v e n r e q u i r e t h e
r a n g e an d w it n
sa m e a m o u n t o f e n e r g y
to
prep are.
9.
C o n v e n ie n c e f o o d s a n d h o m e -p r e p a r e d f o o d s h a v e
t h e sam e p r e p a r a t i o n c o s t p e r s e r v i n g .
10.
F o o d s p re p a re d w ith
w it h a m ic r o w a v e
an e l e c t r i c
o v e n h a v e t h e sa m e
nnge
*nd
p r e p a r a tio n c o s t
per s e r v in g .
11.
o f a fo o d
The d e n s ity ,
m o is tu r e c o n t e n t ,
o r f; « t c o n t e n t
a f f e c t s t h e e n e r g y c o n s u m p t io n
tim e r e q u ir e d t o p r e p a r e f o o d s
w ith
o r h e a tin g
an e l e c t r i c
ran ge
o r w i t h a m ic r o w a v e o v e n .
12.
T he d e g r e e - o f - r e a d in e s s o f a fo o d
e n e r g y c o n s u m p t io n o r t h e
tim e r e q u ir e d t o
a f f e c t s th e
t o t a l o r a c t i v e p r e p a r a tio n
p r e p a r e c o n v e n ie n c e fo o d s
o r hom e-
prepared f o o d s .
13.
C o n v e n ie n c e f o o d s
and h o m e - p r e p a r e d f o o d s
h a v e t h e sa m e n u t r i e n t c o n t e n t .
1h.
C o n v e n ie n c e f o o d s
and h o m e -p r e p a r e d f o o d s
h ave t h e sam e s e n s o r y q u a l i t y .
15.
F o o d s p r e p a r e d w it h
an e l e c t r i c
r a n g e an u
w it h a m ic r o w a v e o v e n h a v e t h e sa m e s e n s o r y q u a l i t y .
O v e r v ie w o f R e m a in in g C h a p t e r s
C h a p te r I I
t h i s stu d y #
a n a ly s is
and
a
of
lite r a tu r e
th e m e th o d s u se d i n
a r e d e s c r ib e d
p r e s e n t e d and
c o n ta in s
c o n t a in s a r e v ie w
sum m ary#
d a ta c o l le c t io n
in C h a p te r I I I .
d i s c u s s e d in C h a p te r
c o n c lu s io n s #
r e c o m m e n d a t io n s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h .
r e le v a n t to
IV ,
The
and
an d
r e s u lts are
C h a p te r
im p lic a tio n s ,
ana
J
CHAPTER I I
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
I n tr o d u c tio n
The l i t e r a t u r e
s e c tio n s :
r e v ie w
is
d iv id e d in t o
t h r e e b ro a d
1) c o n v e n i e n c e f o o d s , i n c l u d i n g d e f i n i t i o n s ,
y i e l d , p r e p a r a t io n t im e , e n e r g y c o n s u m p tio n , c o s t ,
co n te n t,
an d s e n s o r y q u a l i t y ;
o p e r a tio n ,
u se,
h e a tin g tim e ,
se n so r y q u a lity o f fo o d s;
o v e r v ie w
an d s e c t i o n s
m e m b e r s,
th e
2)
m ic r o w a v e o v e n s ,
sen so ry
on s e l e c t i o n
te s tin g
w as o b t a in e d
governm ent b u l le t i n s ,
c o v e r in g
and
e v a lu a tio n ,
and t r a i n i n g
e n v ir o n m e n t ,
p r e s e n t a t io n o f s a m p le s , s c o r in g ,
The in fo r m a tio n
n u tr ie n t
e n e r g y c o n s u m p tio n ,
and 3 )
u se,
w it h an
o f p an el
p r e p a r a tio n
ana
and s o u r c e s o f i n v a l i d i t y .
fro m b o o k s ,
u n p u b li s h e d
p e r io d ic a ls ,
r e p o r ts,
and m a s t e r s *
th e se s.
C o n v e n ie n c e F o o d s
D e fin itio n .
fr e q u e n tly
tr ie d
to
n o t d e fin e d
e s ta b lis h
fo o d s in to
A lt h o u g h t h e te r m
th ree
’• c o n v e n i e n c e
fo o d ” i s
in p u b lic a t io n s , s e v e r a l a u th o r s h ave
a d e fin itio n .
fo r m s:
R e is s
(1 9 5 4 )
t h o s e h a v in g a s
p r e p a r a tio n a s t h e m ark et a f f o r d s ,
c la s s ifie d
little
advance
t h o s e w h ic h a r e p a r t i a l l y
p r e p a r e d , a n d t h o s e w h ic h a r e r e a d y t o
serve.
K in d e r
(1 9 6 2 )
s t a t e d t h a t c o n v e n i e n c e f o o d s a r e t h o s e w h ic h w e r e g e n e r a l l y
6
7
u n a v a ila b le
b e f o r e w o r ld
War I I an d t h a t
them so m e o f t h e p r e p a r a t i o n
to
th a t tim e .
c a lle d
S im ila r ly ,
c o n v e n ie n c e
added t o
d e fin e d
in
th e
c o n v e n ie n c e f o o d s
(1 9 6 3 ,
o f p r e p a r a tio n r e q u ir e d
h o m e ," w h i l e
id e n tifie d
nome fro m f o o d s
(1 9 6 9 )
f o o d s " w h ic h
h o m e ."
reduce
have
t h e am ou n t
H a m ilto n and W h itn ey
c o n v e n ie n c e fo o d s
a lr e a d y co o k ed
b e f o r e r e a c h in g t h e m a r k e t.
am ount o f
B iv e n s
in g r e d ie n ts t o
in th e
p a g e 3)
have s e r v ic e s
t o red u ce th e
a s th o se
s e r v i c e s a d d ed t o t h e b a s i c
prepared a t
t h e home k i t c h e n p r i o r
f o o d s " t h o s e f o o d s w h ic h
r e q u ir e d
p a g e 334)
in
H arp a n d Dunham
th e b a s ic in g r e d ie n ts
p r e p a r a tio n
(1 9 7 9 ,
done
have b u ilt in to
as th o se
or p rocessed
C o n v e n ie n c e f o o d s n a v e a l s o
b e e n d e s c r i b e d a s " f o o d s t h a t h a v e h ad a c o m p a r a t i v e l y l a r g e
a m o u n t o f p r o c e s s i n g o r m a r k e t s e r v i c e s d o n e o n th em an a ms-y
be serv ed
w i t h a minimum
o f e f f o r t an d
s k ill"
(B ea m o n ,
1 9 8 0 , p a g e 12) .
A tte m p ts a l s o
fo o d s.
A x le r
h a v e b e e n made t o
(1 9 7 4 )
ty p e ,
p r o c e s s in g ,
and c o s t .
an d s a i d
p rocess
o f m a n u fa c tu r e ,
P a u lu s
(1 9 7 7 )
ready t o
h e a t , and rea d y t o
o n " n ew er"
c o n v e n ie n c e fo o d
c o n v e n ie n c e
"any f u l l y
degree o f
c la s s ifie d
p r o c e s s , read y t o k itc h e n p r o c e s s ,
e a t.
o f fo o d s
th e y c o u ld be c l a s s i f i e d
ready to
e m p h a s is
c o n v e n ie n c e
r e c o g n i z e d t h e b r o a d s p e c tr u m
a v a i l a b l e o n t h e m a r k e t,
by p r o d u c t
c la s s ify
T ra u b
read y t o
(1 9 7 4 a )
fo o d s
or p a r tia lly
fo o d s a s
c o o k ,
p la c e d
by c a l l i n g
&
p rep a red fo o d
an
8
in tr o d u c e d
in to
t h e r e t a i l m ark et in
th e la s t te n
w h ic h s i g n i f i c a n t p r e p a r a t i o n t i m e ,
en e r g y in p u t
k itc h e n
d e fin itio n
s a id
tim e ,
fo o d p r o c e s s o r
fr o m t h e
an d d i s t r i b u t o r . "
fo o d s in
c u lin a r y
tr a n sfe r r e d
w h ic h a
o r energy
in p u ts h ave
to
th e y w ere in tr o d u c e d
c o n v e n ie n c e f o o a s a s
b e fo r e 1960,
w ere in tr o d u c e d i n
P r o b a b ly t h e f i r s t
1960 o r la t» e r .
on t h e
a c o m b i n a t i o n o f b a k x n g s o a a an d
cre a m o f t a r t a r w h ic h w a s d e v e l o p e d
in
1850
a cook t o
1 9 h 0 ).
o r "new
c o n v e n ie n c e fo o d t o a p p ea r
m a r k e t w a s b a k in g p o w d e r ,
(B a ile y ,
been
t h e f o o d p r o c e s s o r an d
T h ey f u r t h e r c l a s s i f i e d
i f th e y
p a r tia lly
s i g n i f i c a n t a m ou n t o f p r e p a r a t i o n
s k ills ,
" e s ta b lis h e d ." i f
T h is
( 1 9 7 9 , p a g e 3)
" fu lly or
fro m t h e home k i t c h e n
d is t r ib u t o r ."
g e n e r a tio n "
fo o d s w ere
I t a llo w e d
m easu rem en t in s t e a d o f tw o .
M o st
t h e U n ite d S t a t e s in
maKe o n e
p e o p l e t o d a y w o u ld n o t
c o n s i d e r b a k in g p o w d er a c o n v e n i e n c e f o o d , h o w e v e r .
g e n e r a l l y t h o u g h t o f a s c o n v e n i e n c e f o o d s cam e i n t o
la r g e q u a n tity
in
nu m ber a n d v a r i e t y
now h a r d t o
fin d
th e la t e
1 9 h 0 #s a n d h a v e
s i n c e t h a t tim e
any fo o d s in
th is
reason ,
if
(M ille r ,
added,
Foods
b e x n g xn
in c r e a s e d in
1962) .
th e su p erm ark et
h a v e som e m e a s u r e o f c o n v e n i e n c e
t r im m i n g , o r p a c k a g i n g ,
or
end u s e r 's
w as m o d i f i e d w hen T r a u b and O d la n d
t h a t c o n v e n ie n c e
prep ared
c u lin a r y s k i l l s ,
h a v e been t r a n s f e r r e d
to th e
y e a r s in
(1 9 7 9 )
is
t h a t do n o t
su ch a s w a sh x n g ,
n o t c o o k in g o r f r e e z i n g .
T ra u b and O d la n d
It
e x c lu d e d f r e s h
F or
fo o d s
9
s u c h a s n e a t and p r o d u c e and
an d f l u i d
m il * fr o m t h e
in g r e d ie n t ro o d s s u c a a s f lo u r
c o n v e n ie n c e fo o d
ca te g o r y
xn r n e i r
stu d y .
U se.
B ec a u se c o n v e n ie n c e f o o d s a r e
su p erm a rk et i t
is
le a s t o c c a s io n a lly .
life s ty le
c h a n g e s o c c u r r in g
th e
in c o m e s h a v e r i s e n ,
fa m ily s i z e
in
y e a r s may
have
P er c a p ita
m ore women h a v e e n t e r e d t h e worjt f o r c e ,
(S t a f f o r d and W i l l s , 1 9 7 9 ) .
h o u s e h o l d s now m ake up
U .S . p o p u la tio n
( U .S . D e p t . C om m erce,
may h a v e
c o n t r i b u t e d t o an
fo o d s in
t h e U n ite d S t a t e s .
B e tw e e n 1 9 5 5 a n d 1 9 6 5
t h e S o u th
and
O ne-
m o re th a n 50% o f t h e
1 9 8 1 ).
in c r e a s e d u se
T h ese tr e a d s
o f c o n v e n ie n c e
lo w in c o m e h o u s e h o l d s i n c r e a s e d
o f c o n v e n ie n c e f o o d s
h o u s e h o ld s ,
recent
and
t h e e d u c a t io n a l l e v e l o f th e p o p u la tio n
has d ecreased
an d t w o - p e r s o n
th e ir u se
S e v e r a l d em ographxc
dem and f o r c o n v e n i e n c e f o o d s .
h a s in c r e a s e d ,
th e
l i k e l y t h a t m o s t A m e r ic a n s u s e c o n v e n i e n c e
fo o d s a t
a ffe c te d
s o common i n
m ore t h a n
had a g r e a t e r
h i g h e r in c o m e
in c r e a s e
in
u se o f
c o n v e n ie n c e f o o d s th a n th e r e s t
o f th e n a tio n ,
fa m ilie s
c o n v e n i e n c e f o o d s m ore th a n
in c r e a s e d
t h e ir u se o f
u rb a n f a m i l i e s a lth o u g h
a m o u n ts
(B iv e n s ,
M ore r e c e n t
th e y s t i l l u sed l e s s
1 9 6 9 ; A n o n .,
and r u r a l
in
a b s o lu te
1 9 6 8 ).
s tu d ie s have
sh o w n t h a t
v a r ia b le s a f f e c t
c o n v e n ie n c e fo o d u s e .
r e p o r te d th a t a s
th e age o f th e
a v a r ie ty
R u s s e ll
of
(1 9 7 1 )
h om em ak er i n c r e a s e d t a e r e
10
w as a
t r e n d to w a r d u s i n g
T in k lin ,
Fogg,
fe w e r c o n v e n ie n c e
an d W a k e f ie ld
(1 9 7 2 )
th a t th e
age o f th e
and
s im ila r ly r e p o r te d tn a t
h o u s e h o l d s w h e r e t h e m a le h e a d w a s l e s s
u s e d m ore c o n v e n i e n c e f o o d s .
fo o d s,
t h a n 50 y e a r s o f a g e
H o w ev er Redman
woman w as p o s i t i v e l y
(1 9 8 0 )
fo u n d
c o r r e la te d
to
in c r e a s e d u s e o f c o n v e n ie n c e f o o d s .
S ev era l r e p o r ts
have in d ic a te d
h i g h e r in c o m e s u s e m ore
T in k lin e t a l . ,
r e p o r te d th a t
th a t fa m ilie s
c o n v e n ie n c e fo o d s
1972; R u s s e ll,
1 9 7 1 ).
(R edm an,
Redman
u r b a n h o u s e h o l d s s p e n t m ore
fo o d s th a n d id r u r a l h o u s e h o ld s ,
w it h
1980;
(1 9 8 0 )
fu r th e r
on c o n v e n ie n c e
b u t t h a t b la c k s s p e n t l e s s
th a n o t h e r r a c e s .
T in k lin
e t a l.
w e r e h e a d e d by
(1 9 7 2 )
r ep o r te d
t h a t h o u s e h o l d s w h ic n
a c o l l e g e g r a d u a t e w e r e m ore
c o n v e n ie n c e f o o d s .
H ow ever R e x l l y
an d R u s s e l l
(1 9 7 1 )
a l l fo u n d t h a t e d u c a t io n a l
n e g a tiv e ly
r e la te d
served .
Redman
e d u c a tio n a r e
to
t h e num ber
(1 9 8 0 )
(1 9 8 2 ),
lik e ly
Redman
to u se
(1 9 8 0 ),
l e v e l w as
o f c o n v e n ie n c e
fo ca s
p o s t u l a t e d t h a t p e r s o n s w it h m ore
m ore n u t r i t i o n
c o n s c i o u s and
s e le c tiv e
of
in g r e d ie n ts .
Redman
(1 9 8 0 )
r e p o r t e d t h a t e m p lo y m e n t o f t h e w i f e w as
p o s it iv e ly c o r r e la te d
a lth o u g h
R u s s e ll
t o in c r e a s e d
(1 9 7 1 )
fo u n d
u s e o f c o n v e n ie n c e f o o d s ,
t h a t u n e m p lo y e d women u s e d
m ore c o n v e n i e n c e f o o d s t h a n e m p lo y e d w om en.
A lle n
(1 9 8 1 )
c la s s ifie d
S c h ^ n in g e r and
h o u s e n o ld s on t h e b a s i s
o f th e
11
w i f e ' s o c c u p a tio n a l s t a t u s
an d fo u n d t h a t f a m i l i e s
" l o w - o c c u p a t i o n a l - s t a t u s w o r k in g w i f e "
and i n s t a n t c o n v e n ie n c e f o o d s ,
o c c u p a t i o n a l - s t a t u s w o r k in g
w it h a
co n su m ed m ore q u i c k
w h ile f a m i l i e s w ith a " h ig h -
w ife " u sed
c o n v e n ie n c e f o o d s
w h ic h r e q u i r e d m e r e t i m e t o p r e p a r e .
Redman
in c r e a s e d
(1 9 8 0 )
u se o f
and R u s s e ll
b o th
r e p o r te d
c o n v e n ie n c e f o o d s a s fa m ily s i z e
A d d it io n a lly , T in k liu
c h ild r e n
(1 9 7 1 )
e t a i.
(1 9 7 2 )
u s e d m o re c o n v e n i e n c e
in c r e a s e d .
f o u n d t h a t f a i a i j u .e s w it h
fo o d s th a n f a m il ie s
w ith o u t
c h ild r e n .
Two o t h e r g r o u p s t h a t h a v e
fr e q u e n t u se r s
o f c o n v e n ie n c e fo o d s
p e r s o n s who l i v e
fo o d s o f f e r
b e e n m e n t io n e d a s p o s s i b l e
a lo n e .
For e ld e r ly
ease o f sto r a g e ,
(F a r th in g and C a s s i l l y ,
a re th e
an d
p e r s o n s c o n v e n ie n c e
p r e p a r a tio n ,
1 9 7 6 ).
e ld e r ly
an d c o n s u m p t io n
P erson s liv in g
a lo n e c o u ld
e n j o y g r e a t e r menu v a r i e t y w i t h c o n v e n i e n c e f o o d s s i n c e many
hom em ade r e c i p e s r e q u i r e t o o many
many s e r v i n g s t o
R e ta ile r s ,
oe p r a c tic a l
aw are
c h a r a c te r is tic s ,
of
are
th e
( A d d u c i,
( P e t e r k i n a n d C r o m w e ll,
s h ifts
in
now p r o m o t in g t h e
c o n v e n ie n c e f o o d s h a v e f o r
o ld e r p e o p le ,
in g r e d ie n ts o r y ie id
1971) .
p o p u la tio n
a d v a n ta g es th a t
s m a ll f a m i l i e s ,
an d f a m i l i e s w ith
to o
w o r k in g w om en,
many d i f f e r e n t m e a l t i m e s
1977) .
I f con su m ers are
t o u s e c o n v e n ie n c e fo o d s
p e r c e iv e th a t t h e s e fo o d s o f f e r
a d v a n ta g e s,
t h e y m u st
s o lv e
p r o n ie m s .
m i II ill III IW III WlWllil Hu li
MS
12
o r m eet a n eed
(T ra u b ,
1974b) .
W h ite
(1 9 8 0 )
r e p o r te d t h a t
c o n s u m e r s w a n te d f o o d s an d r e c i p e s r e q u i r i n g few i n g r e d i e n t s
and l i t t l e
p r e p a r a t i o n an d c l e a n u p
r e a s o n s con su m ers h a v e g iv e n
fo r
s a v i n g s i n t i m e , w o r k , and m on ey;
handy in
an e m e r g e n c y .
1 9 7 2 ).
b u y in g a n d
U se o f
s to r in g
and t h e f a c t t h a t t h e y a r e
and in
p rep ared fo o d s
of
sta te d
c o o k in g s k i l l s
an d
ite m s s e r v e d .
f r e q u e n t l y r e d u c e d w hen c o n v e n i e n c e
1 9 7 9 ).
C o n v e n i e n c e f o o d s may r e q u i r e
som e c a s e s may c o s t
(S ta ffo r d
an d
W ilis ,
c o n v e n ie n c e f o o d s a r e p r ic e d h ig h e r ,
(1 9 7 1 )
(T in k lin
u sed in g r e d ie n t s ,
en ergy to p rep a re , l e s s s to r a g e s p a c e ,
o f c o o k in g ,
le s s
le s s
K n o w led g e
t h a n h o m e-
1 9 7 9 ).
fiv e n i f
P e t e r k i n a n d C ro m w e ll
t h a t t h e y may b e a b e t t e r
nuy i f
tim e a n d /o r
a re lim ite d .
S everal d iffe r e n t
su rveys have
sh o w n a
v a r ie ty
c o n v e n i e n c e f o o d s t o b e com m on ly u s e d b y c o n s u m e r s .
1 9 5 5 and
i 1965 th e
in c r e a s e d
t h e m ost
c o n v e n ie n c e f o o d s
w ere f r e s h
p o w d e r e d f r u i t a d e s and
in s ta n t c o ffe e
seen
in
sta te d
c o n v e n i e n c e f o o d s may e l i m i n a t e
C le a n u p c h o r e s a r e a l s o
le s s
u s in g c o n v e n ie n c e fo o d s a re
exp and th e v a r ie t y
(Iso m ,
o f tn e
o f c o n v e n ie n c e fo o d s
in fr e q u e n tly
c o n v e n i e n c e f o o d s may
fo o d s a r e u sed
Som e
L ow er in c o m e u s e r s h a v e a l s o
a p r e fe r e n c e fo r th e q u a lity
e t a l.,
tim e .
p u n ch es,
(A n o n y m o u s,
1 9 6 8 ).
f o r w h ic h
c o m m e r c ia l f r u i t
B e tw e e n
u s e w as
ju ic e ,
d eh y d ra ted s o u p s ,
L arge in c r e a s e s
of
and
w ere a l s o
u s e o f f r o z e n , c a n n e d , an d p r o c e s s e d p o t a t o e s ;
and
13
in
m ix tu r e s w ith o u t m eat
(B iv e n s ,
1972 th e b ig g e s t g a in s in u s e
of
1969) .
B e tw e e n
c o n v e n ie n c e f o o d s w ere f o r
fr o z e n v e g e ta b le s , fr o z e n p r o c e sse d p o ta to e s ,
c a s s e r o le s ,
fo o d ite m s
fr o z e n
(T r a u b ,
th a t b read,
p l a t e "t v " d i n n e r s ,
1 9 7 4 a ).
c e r e a ls ,
c a n n e d and f r o z e n v e g e t a b l e s ,
fis h
(1 9 7 2 )
r e p o r te d
p o ta to p r o d u c ts,
f r u it ju ic e s ,
s t i c k s , canned so u p s, fr o z e n
an d c h e e s e m ix e s w e r e t h e
d r y m ix p o t a t o
and v a r x o u s sn a ck ,
T in k iin e t a l .
b akery p r o d u c ts,
1 9 6 2 an d
canned tu n a ,
p o t p i e s , a n d d r y m a ca ro n x
c o n v e n ie n c e f o o d s m ost fr e q u e n tx y
u s e d by a s a m p le o f K a n sa s h o u s e n o l d s .
F r o z e n m a in c o u r s e s
w e r e u s e d m a in ly by s i n g l e p e r s o n s ; c o m p l e t e TV d i n n e r s w e r e
u s e d by l o w e r in c o m e h o u s e h o l d s ; a n d o t h e r f r o z e n f o o d s w e r e
u s e d m ost
o f t e n by
(A n o n y m o u s,
u p p e r in c o m e
h o u seh o x d s
1 9 7 5 ).
Y ie ld .
r e c ip e s i s
m id d le an d
Y i e l d o f c o n v e n i e n c e p r o d u c t s c o m p a r e d t o ncuuan
K in g , G i l p i n ,
im p o r t a n t f a c t o r f o r c o n s u m e r s
an d D aw son
(1 9 6 2 )
to
fo u n d t h a t y i e l d
con sxaer.
xu s e r v i n g s
p e r pound o f c o n v e n ie n c e p o t a t o
p r o d u c t s w as c o m p a r a b x e t o
th e y ie ld
w o o l s e y and T in k lx n
fr o m f r e s h
p o ta to e s.
rep o rte d
t h a t b r o w n i e s w h ic h w e r e h om em ad e,
o r from
r e fr ig e r a te d
n um ber o f
dough y i e l d e d a p p r o x im a te ly
2 0 -g r a m s e r v i n g s ,
w h ile
b r o w n ie s c o n t a in e d a b o u t h a l f a s
O d la n d
m ore
(1 9 7 9 )
fro m
a p ackage
many s e r v i n g s .
of
(1 9 6 6)
a a r y m ix ,
t h e sa m e
fr o z e n
T rau b a n a
f o u n d t h a t so m e h o m e - p r e p a r e d r e c i p e s y i e l d e d
e g u a l-w e ig h t
s e r v in g s
th a n
d id
c o r r e s p o n d in g
14
c o n v e n ie n c e it e m s ,
a n d many o f t h e
c o n t a i n e d m o re m e a t , c h e e s e ,
it e m s o f t e n
h o m e -p r e p a r e d it e m s
o r v e g e t a b l e w h ile c o n v e n ie n c e
had a h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n o f n o o d l e s ,
sau ce,
or
o th e r s t a r c h y c o m p o n e n ts.
P r e p a r a t i o n T im e .
o f t im e
n eeded t o
fo o d s.
W e is s
p r e p a r e c o n v e n ie n c e
(1 9 5 4 )
a fa m ily o f f o u r ,
s e r v in g ,
R e s e a r c h e r s h a v e co m p a red t h e am ou n t
fo u n d t h a t p r e p a r in g a d a y 's
in c lu d in g
u s e d and t h e l e a s t t i m e
y e llo w
p r e p a r a tio n ,
to o k t h e m o st tim e
B a tc h e r ,
a n d F u ld a
and h o m e - p r e p a r e d
up and
when h o m e -p r e p a r e d i t e m s w e r e
w ith r e a d y - t o - s e r v e f o o d s .
(1 9 5 4 ),
and w h ite c a k e s ,
c le a n in g
m e a ls f o r
P a u l,
i n c o m p a r in g v a r i o u s fo r m s o f
fo u n d t h a t com ine r i c a ! m ix e s t o o *
th e
l e a s t t i m e t o p r e p a r e , w h i l e c a k e s b a k e d and t h e n f r o z e n
and
th a w e d t o o x t h e m o s t t i m e .
A s p , N o b l e , a n d C la r k
to
p repare cak e,
(1 9 5 7 )
c o o k ie s ,
b is c u its ,
i n d i v i d u a l i n g r e d i e n t s o r fro m a
s lig h tly
when
When t h e
t h e tim e f o r
t i m e n e e d e d t o m ake
in c lu d e d ,
p r e p a r a tio n
fo u n d t h a t t h e
t im e n e e d e d
a n d p i e c r u s t fro m
hom em ade m ix d i f f e r e d
m a k in g t h e m ix
o n ly
w as i n c i u a e a .
t h e hom em ade m ix e s
t im e f o r b a k e d p r o d u c t s
w as n o t
m ade fro m
hom em ade an d c o m m e r c ia l m ix e s w as v e r y s i m i l a r .
In
1 9 6 1 , o n e d a y ' s r e a d y - t o - s e r v e m e a ls f o r
f o u r to o k o n e and o n e - h a l f h o u r s t o p r e p a r e ,
m e a ls fr o m a r e c i p e t o o k f i v e
A g r ic .,
1 9 6 1 ).
P r e p a r a tio n
a f a m il y
of
w h i l e t h e sam e
and o n e - h a l f h o u r s
( 0 .5 .
D ep t..
t im e f o r a l l p r o d u c t s made fro m
15
fr e sh
p o ta to e s
w as
lo n g e r th a n
c o n v e n ie n c e p r o d u c t s .
1 9 6 2 ).
w it h t h e k i n a o f
(K in g e t
a l.,
b r o w n ie s ,
W o o ls e y and T i n k l i n
sh o r te st
p r e p a r a tio n
In
(1 9 6 6 )
p o ta to
I n te r m e d ia te
th e
product
fo rm s o f
fo u n d t h a t b o th t o r e !
th e
bak ery p r o d u c t,
tim e .
e q u iv a le n t
c o m p a r in g v a r i o u s
w ere lo n g e s t f o r
fo r th e
th e
T he am ount o f t im e s a v e d by u s in g
c o n v e n ie n c e f o o d s v a r ie d
and a c t i v e t im e
fo r
hom em ade p r o d u c t an d
w h ic h r e q u i r e d
tim e s
p r e p a r a t i o n o f b r o w n i e s from a d r y m ix ,
no
w ere n e e u e d
fo r
r e fr ig e r a te d
aougn,
and f o r f r o z e n b r o w n i e s .
Quam, F i t z s i m m o n s , a n d G o d f r e y
c o n v e n ie n c e fo o d s t o p r e p a r e s e v e r a l
73ft i n
la b o r t im e .
(1 9 6 7 )
fo u n d m a t u s in g
menu i t e m s s a v e d
A lt h o u g h t h e c o s t o f t h e f o o d
36ft -
.-.lo n e w as
g r e a t e r f o r t h e c o n v e n i e n c e f o o d s , w hen f o o d and l a b o r c o s t s
w e r e c o m b in e d 80ft o f t h e i t e m s
fo rm .
o n ly
O th e r r e s e a r c h e r s f o u n d t h a t
o n e -fo u r th
fo r m .
a s much t i m e
to
in t h e c o n v e n ie n c e
s e v e n menu i t e m s t o o x
p r e p a r e in t h e c o n v e n ie n c e
A lt h o u g h t h e c o n v e n i e n c e f o o d s t h e m s e l v e s c o s t m o r e ,
when t h e c o s t o f
in g r e d ie n ts ,
le s s
co st le s s
e m p lo y e e t i m e w as
t h e c o n v e n ie n c e it e m s c o s t
t h a n t h e hom em ade i t e m s
O d la n d
(1 9 7 9 )
added t o ta e c o s t o f th e
rep o rte d
(A n o n y m o u s,
an a v e r a g e o± hOft
1 9 6 7 ).
T ra u b and
t h a t t h e c o s t o f a c t i v e t im e n e e d e d
t o p r e p a r e m ost c o n v e n ie n c e
p r o d u c t s w a s c o n s i d e r a b l y lo w e r
t h a n t h e c o s t o f p r e p a r i n g t h e sa m e f o o d s fro m a r e c i p e .
g e n e r a l,
p r o d u c ts
h a v in g t h e h i g h e s t l e v e l
of b u ilt-in
In
16
c o n v e n i e n c e had t h e l o w e s t p r e p a r a t i o n c o s t an d t i m e .
E n e r g y C o n s u m p t io n .
T ra u b a n d O d la n d
t h e am ount o f e n e r g y n eed ed t o
th e ir
n eeded to
h o m e -p r e p a r e d f o o d s , and
le s s fo r
rep o rte d
63% and m ore f o r
T w e n ty -tw o p e r c e n t o f
co m p a red
p r e p a r e c o n v e n ie n c e
h o m e -p r e p a r e d c o u n t e r p a r t s .
o f g a s and e l e c t r i c i t y
(1 9 7 9 )
fo o d s and'
T h ey c a l c u l a t e d t n e c o s t
c o o k 59 c o n v e n ie n c e and 35
t h a t t h e c o s t o f f u e l w as
15% o f t h e
c o n v e n ie n c e f o o d s .
t h e c o n v e n i e n c e f o o d s h ad
about th e
sa m e f u e l c o s t a s t h e h o m e - p r e p a r e d f o o d s .
C o st.
C o m p a r is o n s h a v e b e e n m ade b e t w e e n t h e f o o d c o s t
o f c o n v e n ie n c e f o o d s
and t h e
p repared c o u n te r p a r ts.
d a y ' s m e a ls f o r
p a r tia lly
m en u .
(1 9 5 4 )
a fa m ily o f f o u r ,
p repared,
o f th e ir
when i t
com pared t n e c o s t o f a
u s in g h o m e -p r e p a r e d ,
c o s t m ost i n
an d
in g r e d ie n ts , fr o z e n b a tte r ,
w h ite
Paul e t a l .
c a k e s fro m
h o m e - p r e p a r e d m ix ,
p r e p a r e d m ix , a n d s t o r e d f r o z e n b a k e d c a k e s .
c a k e s , t h e c o m m e r c ia l m ix w a s m o s t
p r e p a r e d m ix t h e l e a s t e x p e n s i v e ;
c o o k ie s , b is c u it s ,
fr o m a hom em ade
A sp e t a l .
fresh
c o m m e r c ia x t y
For t h e y e llo w
e x p e n s i v e and t h e a o i e f o r w h it e c a k e s th e hom e-
m ost e x p e n s iv e and t h e
w ere l e a s t e x p e n s iv e .
t h e sa m e
th e r e a d y -to -s e r v e
w as h o m e - p r e p a r e d .
p rep ared y e llo w
p r e p a r e d m ix w as
h o m e-
an d r e a d y - t o - s e r v e v e r s i o n s o f
F o o d f o r t h e m e a ls
fo rm a n d l e a s t
(1 9 5 4 )
W e is s
fo o d c o s t
(1 9 5 7 )
fr e s h in g r e d ie n ts
s tu d ie d
c a jc e s,
an d p i e c r u s t m ade fro m raw i n g r e d i e n t s ,
m ix ,
and fr o m a
c o m m e r c ia l m ix .
T he
c o m m e r c ia l m ix e s w e r e m o s t e x p e n s i v e i n
a ll ca ses,
and t n e
hom em ade m ix e s w e r e l e a s t e x p e n s i v e .
In
1955 r e s e a r c h e r s fo u n d t h a t on e d s y * s r e a a y - t o - s e r v e
m e a ls f o r a f a m i l y o f f o u r c o s t
p r e p a r e d m e a ls c o s t $ 4 . 9 0
B e s u lt s o f a stu d y in
c o n v e n ie n c e
fo o d s
c o u n te r p a r ts.
p e r c e n t m ore
e x p e n s iv e
th a t,
$ 6 . 7 0 w h i l e t h e sam e h o m e-
( U .S .
D e p t.
W a s h in g t o n , D . C . ,
c o s t m o re
H ow ever, t h e
fo r th e
th a n
th e
ju ic e ,
27% w ere l e s s
( U .S . D e p t . A g r i c . ,
e x p e n s iv e ,
w ere t h o s e m ost r e a d i l y
t h e r e f o r e m ass p ro d u ced
w h ic h w e r e
m ore
O th e r r e s e a r c h e r s r e p o r t e d
o f c o n v e n ie n c e fo o d s s t u d i e d ,
th e fo o d s t h a t w ere l e s s
home—p r e p a r e d
a v e r a g e hom em aicer p a i d o n l y o n e
1 9 5 8 ).
t h a n h o m e -p r e p a r e d f o o d s
1 9 6 1 ).
sh o w ed t h a t 54% o f
" s e r v ic e d * * f o o d s
(A n o n y m o u s,
A g r ic .,
e x p e n s iv e
1 9 6 2 ).
Some o f
su ch as fr o z e n oran ge
a c c e p t e d b y t h e c o n s u m e r an d
(H ille r ,
1 9 6 2 ).
K in g e t a l .
(1 9 6 2 )
fo u n d t h a t c o n v e n i e n c e p o t a t o p r o d u c t s c o s t m ore p e r s e r v i n g
th a n p r o d u c ts
m ade fro m f r e s h
p l a c e d on t h e
fo o d p r e p a r e r 's
s a l e s v o lu m e s ,
p o ta to e s,
su ch as fr o z e n
co st le s s
p o ta to e s
tim e .
fr e n c h
if
no
v a l u e w as
P ro d u cts
w it h h ig h
fr ie s
an d a e n y d r a t e d
p e r u n it th a n o th e r c o n v e n ie n c e p o ta to
p r o d u c ts.
H arp a n d Dunham
(1 9 6 3 )
fo u n d
t h a t 73% o f c o n v e n i e n c e
f o o d s s t u d i e d w e r e m o re e x p e n s i v e t h a n
prepared c o u n te r p a r ts.
t h e i r f r e s h o r h o m e-
T h e f o o d s w h ic h w ere l e s s
t e n d e d t o b e t h o s e w it h h ig h s a l e s
v o lu m e s .
e x p e n s iv e
H e a ts,
d a ir y
18
p r o d u c t s , an d b aked g o o d s te n d e d t o
c o n v e n ie n c e fo r m ,
v e g e ta b le s
b e m o re e x p e n s i v e i n
b u t m o st c o n v e n i e n c e f o r m s o f f r u i t s
w ere l e s s
e x p e n s iv e
th a n t h e
tn e
and
h o m e -p r e p a r e d
v e r s io n s .
W o o ls e y a n d T i n k l i n
(1 9 6 6 )
made fro m b a s i c i n g r e d i e n t s ,
fr o m r e f r i g e r a t e d d o u g h ,
b akery p r o d u c ts.
u s in g
fro m
2 0 -g r a a s e r v in g
o f in g r e d ie n ts .
w ere l e a s t e x p e n s iv e i n t h i s
w ere m ost e x p e n s iv e .
case,
fr ie d
to sse d
was c a l c u l a t e d
Homemade b r o w n i e s
w h ile f r o z e n
h a s h brow n p o t a t o e s ,
w ere a l l fo u n d t o c o s t
m o re t h a n e q u i v a l e n t
(A n o n y m o u s, 1 9 6 7 ) .
in
c h i c k e n , m a c a r o n i and c h e e s e ,
v e g e ta b le s a la d
c o n v e n i e n c e fo rm
a d d itio n ,
cherry
w ere a l l f o u n d t o c o s t
(Quam e t a l . ,
When P e t e r k i n
p ie ,
in d
1967) .
a n d C r o m w e ll
f r o z e n r e a d y - t o - h e a t d in n e r s
b eef
m o re :m t n e
(1 9 7 1 )
p r ic e d c o n v e n ie n c e
an d h o m e - p r e p a r e d i t e m s i n W a s h in g t o n , D . C . , t h e y
tu r k e y )
b row n n .es
p iz z a ,
h o m e -p r e p a r e d it e m s
ste w ,
ana
I n a n o t h e r s t u d y , c o n v e n ie n c e fo r m s o f
b e e f d in n e r s , tu r k e y d in n e r s ,
an d a p p l e p i e
a p a c k a g e d d r y m ix ,
a s w e l l a s f r o z e n an d r e a d y - t o - e a t
C o st per
th e a c tu a l c o s t
s t u d i e d t h e c o s t o r b r o w n ie s
(m ea t l o a f ,
tr ie d
fo u n d t n a t
c h ic k e n ,
or
c o s t fro m 25% t o 110% m ore t h a n h o m e - p r e p a r e d when
t h e sa m e
p r o p o r tio n s o f m eat
P r i c e s f o r m ain d i s h
p i z z a m ix ,
it e m s
and f r o z e n
how m uch m e a t
p iz z a )
and v e g e t a b l e s
(m ea t p i e s ,
w ere u se d .
f r o z e n ch o w m e in ,
d e p e n d e d o n t h e b r a n d an d on
o r p o u ltr y th e p r o d u c ts
c o n ta in e d .
c o sts
19
r a n g e d fro m
m ore.
th r e e -fo u r th s
to
C o s t s f o r b a k e r y p r o d u c t s r a n g e d fro m s l i g h t l y
th a n h o m e -p r e p a re d
m ix )
a s m uch a s h o m e - p r e p a r e d
(a p p le p i e ,
t o t h r e e t i m e s a s much
pound c a k e ,
15%
le s s
b i s c u i t s from a
(fr o z e n w a f f le s ) .
B r o w n ie s and
s u g a r c o o k i e s c o s t a b o u t t h e sa m e a s h o m e - p r e p a r e d .
D u r in g t h e
b egan t o
In
1 9 7 0 * s a g r e a t e r n u m ber o f c o n v e n i e n c e f o o d s
c o st le s s
a 1974 s u r v e y i n
th a n t h e i r
h o m e -p r e p a r e d c o u n t e r p a r t s .
W a s h in g t o n , D . C . ,
59% o f t h e c o n v e n i e n c e
f o o d s s t u d i e d c o s t l e s s t h a n o r t h e sa m e a s hom em ade (T r a u b ,
1 9 7 4 a ).
L ow er
c o s t b ra n d s o f c o n v e n ie n c e
d is h e s c o s t l e s s
t h a n t h e sa m e p r o d u c t s
(C r o m w e ll a n d O d la n d ,
fro ze n p la te
1 9 7 4 ).
d in n e r s c o s t
Iso m
fr o m
s k i l l e t m ain
prep ared
(1 9 7 9 )
13%
to
rep o rte d th a t
105%
h om em ad e, a n d 83% o f c o n v e n i e n c e e n t r e e s a l s o
h om em ad e.
M ost o f
t h e s e ite m s a ls o
a m o u n t o f m a in i n g r e d i e n t s
m ore th a n
cost
c o n ta in e d
(m e a t, c h e e s e ,
a t nome
m ore t h a n
a s m a lle r
or v e g e ta b le )
tn a n
h o m e -p r e p a r e d r e c i p e s .
As r e p o r t e d
su rvey,
36% o f
h o m e -p r e p a r e d
m ix e s ,
in
t h e p r e lim in a r y r e s u l t s
c o n v e n ie n c e f o o d s s t u d ie d c o s t
(T r a u b a n d O d la n d ,
fr o z e n f is h
fr o z e n v e g e ta b le s ,
1 9 7 6 ).
many f r o z e n
fr u its
e x p e n s iv e
fro ze n
e n tr e e s
le s s
th a n
m ost ca n n ed ana
and j u i c e s ,
th a n hom em ad e.
r e a d y - t o - s e r v e baked g o o d s, fr o z e n p iz z a s ,
s u b s titu te s ,
a n a tio n a l
B a k ed p r o u u c t s fr o m
s t i c k s and c r a b c a k e s ,
fr e n c h f r x e s w ere l e s s
egg
of
and f r o z e n
H ow ever,
c h o le s te r o l-fr e e
an d d x n n e r s ,
m o st
20
c o n v e n ie n c e
c h ic k e n p r o d u c t s ,
d e h y d r a te d p o t a t o e s ,
fr o ze n f is n
an d f r o z e n v e g e t a b l e s i d e d i s h e s w ere
m o re e x p e n s i v e t h a n hom em ad e.
sa m e w ork T ra u b and O d la n d
c o n v e n ie n c e fo o d s w ere
prepared fo o d s,
c a s s e r o le s ,
In th e f i n a l v e r s io n o f th a t
(1 9 7 9 )
r e p o r t e d t h a t 58% o f
m ore e x p e n s i v e t h a n
2d p e r c e n t w e r e
le s s
s im il a r h om e-
e x p e n s iv e ,
and 18
p e r c e n t w ere w it h in o n e c e n t o f h o m e -p r e p a r e d it e m s i n
M ost
(75%) c o n v e n i e n c e f o o d s i n t r o d u c e d
s in c e
e x p e n s i v e t h a n h o m e -p r e p r e d p r o d u c t s .
w ere u p d a te d u s in g
O d la n d
le s s
(1 9 8 0 )
th a n t h e i r h o m e -p r e p a r e d
co st.
1 9 6 0 w e r e m ore
When t h e s e
t h e C on su m er P r i c e I n d e x ,
f o u n d t h a t 28% o f
16b
sam e d a t a
T ra u b and
166 c o n v e n ie n c e f o o d s c o s t
c o u n te r p a r ts,
and
13% c o s t
a b o u t th e sam e.
N u tr ie n t C o n te n t.
O ne o f t h e m a jo r
c o n v e n ie n c e f o o d s , e s p e c i a l l y
th e ir
n u tr ie n t c o n te n t.
u se o f
lim ite d
c o n tr ib u tin g t o
v a r ie ty
am ong c o n s u m e r a d v o c a t e s ,
P a r r is h
a ls o
be o f
to
fo o d s a s
e x a m in e d
h ave been
1 9 7 4 a ).
H ow ever,
T he m a j o r i t y o f
fo u n d t o
one fa c to r
c o n ta in
life
c o n v e n ie n c e fo o d s
a d d itiv e s
,m any c o n v e n i e n c e p r o d u c t s a l s o
1979) .
The
v a l u e o f t h e f o o d may
ad d ed n u t r i e n t s su ch a s t h e B v i t a m i n s , v ita m in C ,
(T ra u b a n d O d la n d ,
in c r e a s e d
im p r o v e p r o d u c t s h e l f
im p r o v e t h e n u t r i t i v e
concern.
c ite d th e
is
q u a l i t y o f A m e r ic a n d i e t s .
l a r g e num ber o f a d d i t i v e s w h ic h
b u t do l i t t l e
(1 9 7 1 )
c o n v e n ie n c e
a d e c lin e in
co n cern s about
(T r a u b ,
c o n ta in
and i r o n
21
M ille r #
co n ten t o f
u sed as
Wang# and B e u c h a t
s ig n ific a n t sou rces
(g r o u n d b e e f ) .
e ffic ie n c y
o f p r o te in .
w h ic h a r e
The n i t r o g e n
( c h ic k e n - v e g e t a b l e baby fo o d )
to
A l l b u t f o u r o f th e ite m s had p r o t e in
r a t i o s e q u a l t o o r b e t t e r th a n c a s e i n .
T he f a t c o n t e n t
g r e a tly .
a n a ly z e d
a n a ly z e d t n e p r o t e in
11 m u lt i- c o m p o n e n t c o n v e n i e n c e f o o d s
c o n t e n t v a r i e d fr o m 0.3%
3.9%
(1 9 7 9 )
S ta n d a i,
o f c o n v e n ie n c e f o o d s a p p e a r s
B a sse tt#
P o lic a r ,
22 com m on ly u s e d c o n v e n i e n c e
and Thom
to
vary
(1 9 7 0 )
f o o d s and fo u n u t h a t
f o o d s o f t h e sam e name d o
n o t n e c e s s a r il y c o n ta in
t y p e o r am ount o f l i p i d .
T h e v a r i o u s t y p e s and a m o u n ts ox
f a t s and
o ils
u s e d and
p rod u cers cau sed f a t t y
among d i f f e r e n t
K o v a c s#
Ackman#
g r e a tly
a ffe c te d
fis h .
th e
b r a n d s o f t h e sa m e
a n d Ke
(1 9 7 8 )
t h e ty p e and
fis h
p r o d u c t.
S im ila r ly #
am ount o f l i p i d
a ls o
in
can n ed
c o n ta in e d a d i f f e r e n t
ana
c o n t e n t t h a n t h e raw f i s h .
and K e a tin g
v a r io u s f r o z e n d in n e r s f o r c a r o te n e #
t h ia m in # r i b o f l a v i n #
a s c o r b ic a c id .
The v ita m in
in
a ssayed
v i t a m i n £#
n ia c in #
ana
c o n t e n t s v a r ie d c o n s id e r a b ly ,
and b e t w e e n p r o d u c t s ,
a d e q u a te
(1 9 7 4 )
v i t a m i n A#
v i t a m i n B6# v i t a m i n B12#
o f t h e U .S . RDA p e r d i n n e r .
m a r g in a lly
to d if f e r
fo u n d t h a t c a n n i n g o u s
D e R i t t e r # O sa d c a # S c h e i n e r #
b o th w ith in
of th e
a c id and c h o l e s t e r o l l e v e l s
B read ed and f r i e d
h ig h e r l i p i d
in d iv id u a l p r a c t ic e s
t h e sam e
and r a n g e d fro m
S e le n iu m
several
w a s fo u n d
fr o z e n p ie s
0% t o
50A
t o b e o n ly
and d in n e r s
22
(L e v a n d e r ,
ty p e s o f
1 9 7 5 ),
and f o l a c i n
fr o z e n d in n e r s
w a s fo u n d
(H o p p n e r , L a m p i, a n d P e r r i n ,
S en sory Q u a lity .
T he s e n s o r y
f o o d s may b e a n i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r
ch ooses to
u se th e m .
m ix e d
ta ste
(H arp a n d Dunham ,
w ere r e l a t i v e l y
r e s u lts
q u a lity
in
good,
1 9 6 3 ).
and h a v e t h e d e s i r e d
When c o n v e n i e n c e f o o d s
c o m p a r in g
r e s e a r c h e r s r e p o r te d
th e
sen so ry
c o n v e n i e n c e an d h o m e - p r e p a r e d f o o d s .
h o m e -p r e p a r e d , p a r t i a l l y
to
o f c o n v e n ie n c e
w h e th e r o r n o t a p e r s o n
new o n t h e m a r k e t ,
w hen
1 9 7 3 ).
C o n su m e r s e x p e c t g o o d q u a l i t y f o o d s -
o n e s w h ic h l o o k r i g h t ,
te x tu r e
t o b e lo w i n 3 0
prepared,
a fo u r -m e m b e r p a n e l .
W e is s
q u a lity
(1 9 5 4 )
of
serveu
a n d r e a d y - t o - s e r v e m e a is
T h e h o m e - p r e p a r e d m e a is r e c e i v e d
t h e h i g h e s t s c o r e s and t h e r e a d y - t o - s e r v e m e a ls r e c e i v e d
lo w e s t s c o r e s .
cak es,
Paul e t a l.
(1 9 5 4 )
fo u n d t h a t w it h y e x io w
t h e f r e s h l y m ade c a k e w as t h e m o s t p a l a t a b l e a n a t n e
c a k e from a c o m m e r c ia l m ix
H ow ever,
t h e l e a s t p a l a t a b l e fo r m t e s t e d .
w it h w h i t e c a k e s t h o s e m ade
m ost p a la t a b le
p a la ta b le .
and t h o s e
(W o o ls e y a n d T x n x l i n ,
fr o m a d r y m ix w e r e s c o r e d
fr o m a m ix w e r e t h e
fro m f r o z e n
B r o w n ie s w e r e s c o r e d f o r
an d p r e f e r e n c e
b a tte r tn e
le a s t
c o lo r , te x tu r e , fla v o r ,
1 9 6 6 ).
B r o w n ie s made
h ig h e r on a l l f a c t o r s th a n w ere
t h e o t h e r f o r m s , w h i l e b r o w n i e s made fro m r e f r i g e r a t e d
r e c e iv e d
tn e
dough
th e lo w e s t s c o r e s .
In o th e r s t u d i e s ,
fa v o r a b ly t o
th e ir
c o n v e n i e n c e f o o d s h a v e b e e n co m p a red
h o m e-p rep a red
c o u n te r p a r ts.
F rozen ,
23
d e h y d r a te d ,
an d c a n n e d
c o m p a r a b le t o
p o ta to
p r o d u c t s w ere f o u n d
th e fr e s h p r o d u c ts
by a
f iv e - m e m b e r p a n e l
(K in g e t a l . ,
1 9 6 2 ).
q u a lity
v a r i e t y o f c o n v e n ie n c e p r o d u c ts
of a
c o m p a r a b le t o
Harp an d Dunham
home p r o d u c t s .
s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s b e tw e e n t h e
an d n o n c o n v e n i e n c e f o o d s s d o r e d
p a n e l.
C o n su m ers
s e r v i c e s added
r e la tiv e ly
s t i l l to
r a te d
lo w
to
be p e r f o r m e d ,
much h i g h e r
C a s s illy
(1 9 7 6 )
c o n v e n ie n c e
(1 9 6 7 )
to be
fo u n d n o
o f c o n v e n ie n c e
w it h more
r e a d y - t o - e a t p u d d in g s ,
w n i l e p r o d u c t s w ith m ore s e r v i c e s
su ch a s p a ck a g ed cak e m ix e s ,
(H andy and P f a f f ,
ask ed e ld e r ly
c h ic k e n p r o d u c ts
around f o u r on
e v a lu a to r s in d ic a te d a
fo u n d t h e
te ste d
p r o d u c ts
1 9 7 5 ).
c itiz e n s
F a r m i n g and
fo r appearance,
a fiv e -p o in t
w illin g n e s s to
w ere
to e v a lu a te th r e e
t e n d e r n e s s , m o i s t u r e , an d o v e r a l l q u a l i t y .
w ere sc o r e d
a ls o
by an e ig h t - m e m b e r s e n s o r y
su ch a s
in t a s t e ,
a l.
q u a lity
r a t e d c o n v e n ie n c e
th e m ,
(1 9 6 3 )
Quam e t
to b e
fla v o r ,
A il th e p r o d u c ts
s c a le .
buy t h e
d ost
p r o d u c ts i f
t h e p r ic e w as r e a s o n a b le .
T ra u b a n d
O d la n d
(1 9 7 9 )
e v a lu a te th e e a tin g q u a lit y
prep ared
f o o d s on
te x tu r e ,
fla v o r ,
r e la tiv e
to
u sed
o f 34
a fiv e -p o in t
a sen so ry
c o n v e n ie n c e ana
s c a le
and o v e r a l l q u a l i t y .
a " s t a n d a r d ."
p a n e l to
A ll th e
fo r
appearance,
F o o d s w ere ju d g ed
h o m e -p r e p a r e d p r o d u c ts
b u t o n e and 76% o f t h e c o n v e n i e n c e f o o d s w ere r a t e d
4 on a l l f a c t o r s .
T h ese
19 n a m e-
at le a s t
w o r k e r s p o i n t e d o u t t h a t sex x so ry
24
e v a lu a t io n can g iv e
n e c e s s a r ily
su ch a s
an i n d i c a t i o n
o f e a tin g
o f con su m er a c c e p t a b i l i t y ,
t im e s a v i n g s o r c o s t
q u a lity
s in c e
may e n t e r
out not
o th e r fa c to r s
in to
a p u rcn ase
d e c is io n .
Sum m ary.
c la s s ifie d
in
C o n v e n ie n c e
a v a r ie t y o f w a y s.
c o n v e n ie n c e f o o d s
h a v e had
p r e p a r a tio n d on e t o
C o n v e n ie n c e f o o d
in
th e
u se has
p o p u la tio n g r o u p s t h a t
d e f i n e d and
V a r io u s a u t h o r s a g r e e t h a t
so m e s o r t
them p r i o r t o
o f p r o c e s s in g
b e in g u sed
in
or
t h e h o m e.
i n c r e a s e d am ong v a r i o u s s u o g r o u p s
U n it e d S t a t e s i n
fo o d s have
fo o d s h a v e b een
th e la s t s e v e r a l
d ecad es,
u s e a l a r g e n um ber
b een id e n t if i e d .
uad
o f c o n v e n ie n c e
T he c o n v e n i e n c e
f o o d s m ost
com m o n ly u s e d , a s w e l l a s so m e r e a s o n s f o r t h e i r
u se,
have
a ls o
y ie ld
of
been
r e p o r te d .
c o n v e n ie n c e and
The r e p o r t e d c o m p a r a t i v e
h o m e -p r e p a r e d f o o d s
p r o d u c ts s t u d ie d .
le s s
h o m e -p r e p a r e d c o u n t e r p a r t s and t o
c o n v e n ie n c e f o o d s s t u d ie d
e x p e n s iv e th a n t h e i r
cost
have a ls o
le s s fo r f u e l.
b e e n sn o w n
lo n g p e r io d o f
b e l e s s e x p e n s iv e
to
added n u t r i e n t s .
ftany
b e m o re
a ith o u g a
t h o s e w h ic h
t im e h a v e b e e n
th a n h o m e -p r e p a r e d
Many c o n v e n i e n c e f o o d s c o n t a i n
t h e y may a l s o c o n t a i n
t im e t h a n t h e i r
h ig h s a l e s v o lu m e s a n d
h a v e b e e n on t h e m ark et f o r a
to
p r e p a r a tio n
h o m e -p r e p a r e d c o u n t e r p a r t s ,,
c o n v e n ie n c e f o o d s w ith
p r o d u c ts.
on t n e
A m a j o r it y o f c o n v e n ie n c e f o o a s s t u d i e d
h a v e b e e n sh o w n t o r e q u i r e
f r e q u e n t l y sh o w n
h a s d epen d ed
a d d itiv e s ,
but
T he n u t r i e n t c o n t e n t
25
o f c o n v e n ie n c e f o o d s
v a r ie s g r e a tly
a c c o r d in g t o
b o tn t n e
fo o d and t h e n u t r i e n t
b e in g a n a ly z e d .
vary
a c c o r d in g t o t h e fo o d t e s t e d .
in
a c c e p ta b ility
C o n v e n ie n c e f o o d s
c o n v e n ie n c e f o o d s h a v e b een r e p o r t e d t o
p rep ared fo o d s in
be s im ila r
Many
t o hom e-
sen so ry q u a lity .
E l e c t r i c R a n g e s a n d M ic r o w a v e O v en s
O p e r a tio n .
M ic r o w a v e s a r e a
r a d i a t i o n w h ic h a r e r e f l e c t e d
th r o u g h g l a s s ,
paper,
by
fo r m o f e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c
m e ta l;
and p l a s t i c ;
a re a b le to
p ass
and a r e a b s o r b e d by
fo o d s.
T h ese q u a l i t i e s
m ake m ic r o w a v e s s u i t a b l e f o r c o o j c in g
fo o d s,
an d t h e m o s t common c o n s u m e r u s e o f m ic r o w a v e s i s
t h e hom e m ic r o w a v e o v e n
In a
fo o d .
and
( O .S . D e p t . HHS, 1 9 8 0 ) .
m ic r o w a v e o v e n
m a g n e tr o n ,
m ic r o w a v e s a r e
e n t e r t h e c o o ic in g c a v i t y ,
m ic r o w a v e s . .
a lig n
w it h
th e ch arge
T he r a p i d r o t a t i o n
a h ig h
o th e r fo o d s
is
th e
w hxch
m ore q u ic K l y
tn a n
( U .S . D e p t . HHS, 1 9 8 0 ) .
By c o n t r a s t ,
tr a n sfe r r e d
to
g e n e r a te d in
w ith an e l e c t r i c
s u r fa c e u n it or th e oven c a v ity
th e h e a t
c r e a t e d by
For t h i s r e a s o n , f o o d s
w a ter c o n t e n t c a n b e n e a te d
I n a m ic r o w a v e o v e n h e a t i s
im m e d ia te ly .
a
an t h e f o o d r o t a t e
c r e a te s f r ic t io n ,
p r o d u c e s h e a t w h ic h c o o k s t h e f o o d .
w it h
p r o d u c e d by
an d a r e a b s o r b e d by
D ip o la r m o le c u le s , su c h a s w a te r ,
a tte m p t to
in
th e
is
fir s t
f o o d by
a fo o d p rod u ct
ran ge e ith e r
n e a te d ,
a
and t h e n
c o n d u c tio n o r
26
c o n v e c tio n
( n a n d ig o a n d J a n s s e n ,
s u ffic ie n t to
e x p l a i n m o st i f
on f o o d s s i n c e
1 9 6 2 ).
T h erm a l e f f e c t s
n o t a l l a c t i o n o f m ic r o w a v e s
m ic r o w a v e s f a l l s h o r t by
m a g n it u d e o f b r e a k i n g c h e m i c a l b o n d s
sev era l ord ers of
(R o se n ,
1 9 7 2 ).
A lt h o u g h m ic r o w a v e s p e n e t r a t e i n t o f o o d s ,
h e a tin g ta k e s p la c e a t th e
to
th e c e n te r
1 9 8 1 ).
brow n,
an d
th e g r e a te s t
s u r f a c e and h e a t i s
o f t h e fo o d by c o n d u c tio n
P oods h e a te d in a
are
tr a n sfe r r e d
(O ls o n a n d O l s o n ,
m ic r o w a v e o v e n g e n e r a l l y
do n o t
d u e i n p a r t t o t h e l a c x o f a m b ie n t h e a t x a t h e o v e n
to th e
1 9 8 2 a ).
a t th e
c o o lin g
e ffe c t
o f e v a p o r a tio n
( S c h if f m a n n ,
H o w e v e r , e x c e s s i v e d r y i n g o r t o u g h e n i n g may o c c u r
in t e r i o r o f baxed
p r o d u c ts s in c e
m o i s t u r e m oves
to w a r d t h e s u r f a c e a n d t h e i n t e r i o r o f t h e p r o d u c t may r e a c n
te m p e r a tu r e s h ig h e r th a n t h o s e
(S c h iffm a n n ,
n o r m a ll y o c c u r r i n g
1 9 8 2 b ).
f li c r o w a v e o v e n s a r e
w a tts o u tp u t,
a v a i l a b l e w it h fro m 6 5 0
a n d may n e e d fro m
1500 t o
c a v ity ,
and i s
v a r ia b le
fo o d
1979) .
pow er.
tu r n ta b le s
(Tan
e n te r in g
t h e lo n g e r i t
ta k e s t o coox
Some m ic r o w a v e o v e n s a r e e q u ip p e d w it h
The c y c lin g o f
tem p era tu re t o
overd on en ess
is
d i v i d e d am ong t h e f o o d m o l e c u l e s .
T hus th e la r g e r th e fo o d lo a d ,
(H ic h a e l,
t o 2000
4300 w a tts in p u t.
A t an y g i v e n w a t t a g e a c o n s t a n t a m o u n t o f e n e r g y
t h e c o o x in g
xn b a x i a g
e q u ilib r a te
Z a n te,
a r e g e n e r a lly
1 9 7 3 ).
u sed t o
e n e r g y o n an d o f f
and
h e lp s to
F ie ld
h e lp
p reven t
s tir r e r s
m in im iz e
a llo w s
and
u n ev en
27
h e a tin g
( S c h iffm a n n ,
may b e u s e d
1 9 8 2 a ),
o v e n w it h b r o i l i n g
/
e le c tr ic
2500 to 3800 w a t t s ,
S m a ll
ra n g e g e n e r a lly
and b a k in g
w it h f o u r s u r f a c e u n i t s .
The
and th e
(6 -in c h )
b r o ilin g
u n i t may v a r y from
b a k in g u n i t from 2 0 0 0 t o
s u r f a c e u n i t s r a n g e fro m
2000 to 2700 w a tts
(P e e t, P ic k e t t ,
w e ste r n
a n d A r n o ld ,
to
1250 t o
1 9 7 9 ).
th o se
w it h H ig h e r
i n c o m e s , t h o s e w i t h m o re f a m i l y m e m b e r s, and t h o s e
B hee,
and S tu b b s
(1 9 7 7 )
u s e d m ic r o w a v e o v e n s
H ic r o w a v e
p r e d o m in e n tly
f o r w arm ing
S e p e r ic h ,
an d L y t l e ,
p r e p a r e w eek d a y
1977;
s a n d w ic h e s ,
an d
1 9 8 0 ),
w ere th e
d e fr o s tin g
r e u sea
ite m s
(G a st,
and w e r e u s e d m o s t o f t e n
and l e a s t
f o o d it e m
(G a s t
et a l.,
1 9 7 3 ) , a lth o u g h b a c o n ,
le fto v e r s ,
D rew ,
u s e a tnern
o v e n s w ere r e p o r te d t o
m ic r o w a v e o v e n s
H c C o n n e ll ,
1 9 7 7 ).
an d h u s b a n d s
(D rew , B h e e , a n d S t u b b s ,
V e g e ta b le s
p rep ared in
(H u r r a y ,
w h e re t h e
r e p o r t e d t h a t w iv e s and t e e n a g e r s
d i n n e r s and l u n c h e s
p rep are baby fo o d s
1 9 7 7 ).
e m p lo y e d
m ost o f t e n ,
le a s t o fte n .
1600
i n c l u d e m ic r o w a v e o v e n s
U n ite d S t a t e s ,
fe m a le h ead o f h o u s e h o ld i s
3950
s u r f a c e u n i t s may b e r u t e o . fro m
H o u s e h o ld s m o s t l i k e l y
th e
c o n t a i n s an
and a c o o k i n g t o p
(8 -in c h )
are th o se in
te x tu r e .
e le m e n ts ,
w a t t s , w h ile la r g e
U se.
or e le m e n ts
t o g i v e f o o d s a brow n c o l o r a n d a c r i s p
A fr e e -s ta n d in g
w a tts.
a n d b r o w n in g g r i l l s
c a s s e r o le s ,
o r te n
1978;
to
to
H urray,
m ost f r e q u e n t ly
1980;
H urray,
v a r io u s ty p e s o f
c o n v e n ie n c e m eat it e m s ,
w arm ed b a k e r y p r o d u c t s , an d b e v e r a g e s w e r e a l s o
o fte n
n e a te a
28
i n m ic r o w a v e o v e n s
ham b urger,
(D r e v e t a l . ,
1 9 7 8 ).
w as g e n e r a l l y n o t c o o k e d
(Drew e t a l . ,
M e a t,
in
ex ce p t to r
t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n
1 9 7 7 ).
A lt h o u g h 63% o f m ic r o w a v e o v e n o w n e r s s u r v e y e d
little
s in c e
or no
o w n in g a m ic r o w a v e o v e n
(1 9 7 7 )
and
ch an ge in s e le c t io n
oven ow ners
c o n v e n ie n c e it e m s ,
ite m s
(G a st e t a l . ,
fo o d s
(1 9 7 7 )
h a v in g in d u s t r y
p ack ages,
fr e q u e n tly
h urray
s p e c ific a lly
p u t m ic r o w a v e
d e v e l o p new c o n v e n i e n c e f o o d s t h a t
1962a;
a f t e r b e in g
h ea ted
S c h iffm a n n ,
o ffer
r e fo r m u la te
t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n ,
c o u ld
in
1978;
in
e x is tin g
and d i r e c t i o n s ,
m ic r o w a v e -c o m p a tib le p a c k a g e s ,
in
fo r
in te r e s te d
i n s t r u c t i o n s on
p r o d u c ts to g iv e b e t t e r r e s u l t s
( S c h if f m a n n ,
d is p o s a b le
d e s ig n e d
T h ey w e r e p a r t i c u l a r l y
th e ta b le
m ore
t h a t m ic r o w a v e o v e n u s e r s
s ta n d a r d iz e te r m in o lo g y
p r o d u c ts in
p u rch ased
1 9 7 7 ).
fo u n d
and u t e n s i l s
m ic r o w a v e o v e n s .
s ta te to
1 9 6 0 ),
in g r e d ie n ts fo r c a s s e r o le s ,a n d
(D rew e t a l . ,
Drew e t a l .
w a n te d
p r e p a r a tio n o f fo o d
r e p o r t e d t h a t h o m e - f r o z e n i t e m s w e r e u s e d m ore o f t e n
m ic r o w a v e
k itc h e n
and
r e p o r te d
and
g o fro m t h e f r o z e n
t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n
S c h iffm a n n ,
1977;
M c C o n n e ll, 1 9 7 3 ) .
C o n su m ers h a v e p e r c e i v e d a d v a n t a g e s
to in c lu d e s a v in g s
i n t im e
e a s e o f t h a w in g f o o d s ,
a b ility
to
le s s
u se l e f t o v e r s ,
and e n e r g y ,
o f m ic r o w a v e o v e n s
ease o f
n eed f o r p la n n in g ,
and
ease o f
c le a n in g ,
g r e a te r
p r e p a r in g s m a ll
29
s e r v in g s .
D is a d v a n ta g e s in c lu d e d t h e
w i t h and w i t h o u t b r o w n in g d i s h e s ,
d e fr o s tin g
(Drew e t a l . ,
1977;
M u rray,
w ith in
la c k
pow er l e v e l s ,
e x c e s s iv e r a te o f
s e ttin g s ,
c a v ity
H e a t in g T im e .
1 9 7 7 ).
T h ese and
a la c k o f u n ifo r m ity
la c k o f u n ifo r m ity
h e a tin g a t
h ea t in
h ig h
t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n
m ic r o w a v e o v e n s d e p e n d
b o th on fo o d f a c t o r s
and o n a p p l i a n c e f a c t o r s .
d is tr ib u tio n
fo o d lo a d ,
The s i z e
th e s t a r t in g
and l a t e n t h e a t s ,
a f f e c t c o o k in g t im e ,
and i t s
a s do th e
t h e s h a p e and c o m p o s it io n o f
s h i e l d i n g , and t h e d e p t h o f
an d O l s o n ,
d ie le c tr ic
sh ap e,
a ll
th e oven ,
s ta n d in g tim e ,
t h e m ic r o w a v e p e n e t r a t i o n
1 9 8 1 ; D r e w , B thee, a n d C a r p e n t e r ,
its
p r o p e r tie s
p o w er s e t t i n g o f
th e u te n s il,
and
a n d e n d in g
te m p e r a tu r e s o f th e fo o d , th e ty p e o f fo o d , i t s
s p e c ific
p ow er
1 9 8 2 a ).
H e a t in g t i m e s i n
o f th e
and
o f s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n o f n o m e n c la t u r e a n d
a n d la c K o f a m b ie n t
( S c h if f m a n n ,
to
an o v e n ,
b etw een o v e n s ,
d r o w n in g
and u n even c o o lin g
o t h e r d i s a d v a n t a g e s may b e r e l a t e d
o f t h e m ic r o w a v e f i e l d
degree of
1980;
( O ls o n
Van Z & n te,
1973) .
B e s e a r c h e r s h a v e fo u n d t h a t
le s s
tim e
(L a u g h o n ,
th a n a c o n v e n t io n a l
ran ge t o h e a t
r e q u ir e s
many it e m s
1 9 8 0 ), b u t t h a t t h e tim e s a v in g a d v a n ta g e d e c r e a s e s
a s th e s iz e
an d B h e e ,
a m ic r o w a v e o v e n
o f t h e lo a d i s
1 9 7 8 ).
fo o d s to o k l e s s
C arucci
in c r e a s e d
(1 9 7 h )
(M ic h a e l,
1979;
Drew
fo u n d t h a t n i n e c o n v e n i e n c e
t i m e t o p r e p a r e i n a m ic r o w a v e
tn a n in
an
30
e le c tr ic
oven .
B r itte n
and T r e v in o
p o t a t o e s and V o r i s an d Van D u y n e
r o a s t s w it h c o n v e n t i o n a l e l e c t r i c
i t e m s tooJc
le s s tin e to
E x tr a tim e
w as n eed ed
B hee,
When e n t i r e
ite m s ,
c o n v e n tio n a l ra n g e
te ste d
a
X lo c k o w ,
p repared
to p rounu
b r o w n in g m e th o d s
in t n e
(Brew a n a
m e a ls w e r e p r e p a r e d i n s t e a a o t
c o m b in e d w i t h
to o k l e s s tim e th a n
1980;
e n e r g y th a n a
o t h e r c o m b in a tio n s
D a v is ,
P r a tt,
R e b e r , ana
k
m ic r o w a v e o v e n may
c o n v e n tio n a l e l e c t r i c r a n g e t o
u se l e s s
cook fo o a s ,
e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e w i t h a h ig h c o n t e n t o f m o i s t u r e ,
(B en n ett,
1 9 7 5 ) ..
I lc C o n n e ll
a m ic r o w a v e o v e n a n d w it h
(1 9 7 8 )
h e ite d
or
a n d fo u n d
100 o f t n e
D rew and R h e s
fo u n d t h a t t h e e n e r g y s a v i n g s f o r f o o d s c o o k e d w i t h a
b e e f r o a sts to
an e l e c t r i c
92% f o r b e e f
o v e n r a n g e d fr o m
p a ttie s .
45* f o r
V o r i s and Van D uyn e
r e p o r te d s i g n i f i c a n t e n e r g y s a v in g s i n c o o k in g b e e f
r o a s t s in
a m ic r o w a v e r a t h e r
th a n a
c o n v e n tio n a l o v e n .
T haw ed o r f r o z e n r o a s t s , c o o k e d o n e i t h e r
in
fa t,
127 ite m s in
energy to h eat
The m e d ia n e n e r g y s a v i n g s was t>2.5% .
m ic r o w a v e c o m p a r e d t o
(1 9 7 9 )
(1 9 7 4 )
a c o n v e n tio n a l r a n g e ,
t h a t t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n u s e d l e s s
ite m s .
a
197 1 ) .
E nergy c o n s u m p tio n .
su gar
B o th
m ic r o w a v e o v e n .
b e e f p a ttie s
m ic r o w a v e o v e n
(L o v in g o o d and G o s s ,
p r e p a r e d n a k ed
and m ic r o w a v e o v e n s .
f o r c o o k in g
u s in g v a r io u s
in d iv id u a l
(1 9 7 9 )
p r e p a r e in t h e
m ic r o w a v e o v e n
1 9 7 9 ).
(1 9 8 0 )
a m ic r o w a v e o v e n ,
"sim m er*' o r " h ig a "
u s e d t h e sa m e a m o u n ts o f e n e r g y ;
a ll
31
to o k
30%
e le c tr ic
l e s s energy
oven
th a n s i m i l a r
(Drew e t a l . ,
B e r n e ic in g , an d B a ld w in
w as t h e
m o st e n e r g y
r o a sts.
10
1 9 8 0 ).
(1 9 8 0 )
S im ila r ly ,
an
K orsch g en ,
o f p r e p a r in g
a n d B e k k u g le r
(1 9 8 1 )
le s s energy
r ib
p repared
d i f f e r e n t a p p l i a n c e s * a n d fo u n d
m ic r o w a v e o v e n u s e d
in
fo u n d t h a t t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n
e f f i c i e n t m eth o d
B ak er, D a r fle r ,
c h ic k e n , u s i n g
r o a s t s h e a te d
th a t th e
th a n a l l a p p lia n c e s b u t o n e
b rand o f s lo w -c o o k e r .
f le n s e f o o d s
h e a tin g
tim e ,
h ave b een r e p o r te d
an d t h u s a
p o in te d o u t
w it h
t h a t t h e m ic r o w a v e
t h r e e ite m s
h e a te d in
cook
in
a
(1 9 7 5 a )
th e g r e a t e s t
(1 9 7 5 o )
V e g e ta b le s
m ic r o w a v e o v e n t h a n
r ep o rte d th a t to r
TV d i n n e r ,
a n e l e c t r i c r a n g e an d
energy
B u te l
and d e s s e r t s .
B u te l
(b a k ed p o t a t o e s ,
m ic r o w a v e o f f e r e d
th a n
medium a m o u n ts o f c o n c e n t r a t e d
f r e q u e n t ly t a k e m ore e n e r g y t o
range.
1977) .
oven o f f e r s
fo o d s su ch a s m e a ts , p o t a t o e s ,
an e l e c t r i c
a lo n g e r
t h e e l e c t r i c r a n g e anu i n
(G e n e r a l E l e c t r i c ,
e n e r g y s a v in g s f o r s m a ll t o
w ith
r e q u ir e
g r e a t e r am o u n t o f e n e r g y ,
l i g h t o r p o r o u s f o o d s b o th
t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n
to
and a c a s s e r o l e )
i n a m ic r o w a v e
s a v i n g s o f fro m 58.4%
ov en th e
to
7 9 .3 % .
H o w e v e r , f o r t h r e e t y p e s o f v e g e t a b l e s c o o k e d on a n e l e c t r i c
r a n g e s u r f a c e u n it
and i n
u s e d from 30.2%
54.0% m o re e n e r g y t h a n
to
S im ila r ly , C a ru cci
fo o d s t e s t e d ,
(1 9 7 4 )
o n ly
a
m ic r o w a v e
fo u n d t n a t ,
o v e n t h e m ic r o w a v e
d id t n e r a n g e .
o f n in e c o n v e n ie n c e
f r o z e n m ix ed v e g e t a b l e s ,
th e om y
32
v e g e ta b le t e s t e d ,
t o o k m ore e n e r g y
o v e n th a n w ith an e l e c t r i c r a n g e .
t h a t when h e a t i n g
an d i n
to h ea t in
B a d en h o p
tim e s on an e l e c t r i c
a m ic r o w a v e o v e n
a m ic r o w a v e
(1 9 7 b )
ran ge s u r fa c e u n it
w ere a p p r o x im a te ly t h e
e n e r g y c o n s u m p t io n f o r t h e tw o
r e p o r te d
sa m e t h e
a p p lia n c e s w as a ls o
s im ila r .
B h e e and Drew (1 9 7 7 ) fo u n d s u r f a c e u n i t s and m ic r o w a v e o v e n s
l
t o b e c o m p a r a b le i n e n e r g y
c o n s u m p t io n f o r
c o o k in g b e e f
p a ttie s .
A d d itio n
o f a b r o w n in g
u n it in
c o o k in g b e e f
p a t t i e s b y m ic r o w a v e i n c r e a s e d e n e r g y c o n s u m p t io n i>3% t o
o v e r t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n a l o n e
L aughon
(1 9 8 0 )
(D rew a n d B h e e ,
1 9 7 9 ).
f o u n d t h a t f o r o p e r a t i o n s n o r m a lly
s a u c e p a n on a b u r n e r an
o r a p p r o x im a te ly t h e
e le c tr ic
r a n g e r e q u ir e d
sam e a m o u n t o f e n e r g y
Ana
done i n
a
l e s s en ergy
a s a m ic r o w a v e
oven.
H assou n
(1 9 8 2 )
am ong s t u d i e s i n
to
d iffe r e n t
a n a ly z e d ,
p o in te d o u t t h a t
r e s u lts fo r
a p p lia n c e s ,
t h e am ou n t
r e p o r te d
v a r ia tio n
e n e r g y c o n s u m p t io n may b e d u e
d iffe r e n t
o f w a ter u s e d ,
r e c ip e s
an d
an a
m enus
t h e num ber o f
e x p e r im e n ta l r e p l i c a t i o n s .
I n g e n e r a l , h o w e v e r , a m ic r o w a v e
oven u ses
e n e r g y th a n an
a s much o r m ore
s u r fa c e u n it,
e l e c t r i c range
a n d a c o n v e n t i o n a l o v e n u s e s m o re e n e r g y t h a n
a m ic r o w a v e o v e n e x c e p t i n p r e p a r a t i o n o f a c o m p l e t e m e a l .
S en sory Q u a lit y .
in
m ic r o w a v e a n d
D a v is e t a l .
The s e n s o r y q u a l i t y
in c o n v e n tio n a l o v e n s h a s
(1 9 7 1 )
com pared
o f fo o d s p rep ared
been s t u d ie d .
m e a ls o f c h i c k e n ,
b a k ed
33
p o t a t o e s , and p e a s
e le c tr ic
in
i n m ic r o w a v e
c o m b i n a t i o n s and f o u n d
te x tu r e
o r m o is tn e s s .
p rep ared in
th e p ea s
o v e n s an d
appearance.
The
fla v o r o f
t h e m ic r o w a v e
S im ila r ly , B r itte n
s ig n ific a n t
d if f e r e n c e s in
p rep a red in
w ere
a m ic r o w a v e o v e n
r e c e i v e d lo w
s c o r e s due to
t h e i r m e ta l c o n t a in e r s
(1 9 8 2 )
a c o n v e n tio n a l
fla tte n in g
r a te d
fla v o r ,
fo r appearance,
" s a t is f a c t o r y ."
sen so ry sc o r e s
i n a m ic r o w a v e o v e n .
m ic r o w a v e h ad t h e l o w e s t
fo r
B eef
sen so ry
and e le m e n ts
b rew
fla v o r ,
o f th ree
p a ttie s
scores o f
(R h ee and D rew , 1 9 7 7 ) .
b r o w n in g g r i l l s
so m ew h a t
c o n v e n tio n a l o v e n s .
an d o v e r a l l a c c e p t a b i l i t y
f o u r c o o k i n g m e th o d s t e s t e d
c o m b in a tio n s o f
b u t t e r c a k e s b a k ed i n
m ic r o w a v e o v e n s i s
l o w e r t h a n t h a t o f m ea t c o o k e d i n
r e p o r t e d lo w
out o f
r e p o r te d th a t th e c a k e s oaken
Q u a lity o f m ea ts co o k ed in
co o k ed in t h e
N in a
and t e x t u r e t o t h o s e n aked
t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n w e r e c o n s i d e r e d
b e e f p r o d u c ts h ea ted
no
And a l t h o u g h H i u .
s u p e r io r
in
appearance,
fo u n d
a c c e p ta b ility
w hen t a k e n
1974) .
a m ic r o w a v e o v e n , t h e y a l s o
ten d ern ess,
(1 9 8 0 )
g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t a b l e w hen
in
(1 9 7 8 )
a b e tte r
b aked p o t a t o e s .
r e p o r te d t h a t y e llo w
t e n d e r n e s s , m outh f e e l ,
ana
a l t h o u g h m ea t a n d c h e r r y p i e s
(C a r u c c i,
o v e n w ere
how ever,
and T r e v in o
b e t w e e n m ic r o w a v e and c o n v e n t i o n a l l y
an d R h e e
th e p o ta to es
o v en had
p r efer en ce or
c o n v e n ie n c e p r o d u c ts t e s t e d
m ic r o w a v e -
no s ig n if ic a n t d iffe r e n c e s
t h e c o m b in a t io n o v e n w a s b e t t e r ,
p rep ared in
an d R e a g a n
in
had
V a r io u s
v a r y in g
34
e f f e c t s on a p p e a r a n c e ,
ju ic in e s s ,
p a ttie s
1 9 7 9 ).
(Drew an d R h e e ,
te n d e r ,
ju ic y ,
T a y lo r ,
(1 9 7 9 )
in
and B e n n e t t ,
r e p o r te d
Arm and r i b r o a s t s w e r e l e s s
an d f l a v o r f u l
r o a s t s when h e a t e d
ana t e n d e r n e s s o f b e e f
th a n c o n v e n tio n a l!y
t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n
197 4 )
s im ila r te n d e r n e s s , j u ic i n e s s ,
r o a s t s h e a te d in
R o a sts h e a te d in
t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n w e r e
fla v o r ,
m ic r o w a v e o v e n
t h e tw o
and e x t e r n a l c o l o r .
o n " h ig h " p o w e r
(Drew e t a l . ,
Sum m ary.
ty p e s o f o v e n s.
s c o r e d lo w e r on
w ere s c o r e d lo w e r
a m ic r o w a v e
d iffe r e n t c h a r a c te r is tic s
e le c tr ic
range.
oven have b een
prep ared
fo r
id e n tifie d ,
and f o o d s m o st
be n eed ed
m ic r o w a v e o v e n h a s
w it n an
lik ely
t o be
A d v a n ta g e s
h e a tin g h a v e b een d e s c r ib e d .
r e q u ir e s
H ow ever,
d e c r e a se s a s th e s iz e o f th e
have
t o own a m ic r o w a v e
i n a m ic r o w a v e o v e n h a v e b e e n l i s t e d .
e le c tr ic ran ge.
a
tiir s rea so n
oven fr e q u e n tly
H o u s e h o ld s m o s t l i x e i y
A m ic r o w a v e o v e n f r e q u e n t l y
t i m e may
d if f e r e n t in
th a n p r o d u c ts p rep ared
and d i s a d v a n t a g e s o f m ic r o w a v e
d o e s an
on a l l
1980) .
T he m eth o d o f h e a t i n g f o o d i s
p rep a red in
a
w e r e r o a s t s u e a t e d on
m ic r o w a v e o v e n t h a n w it h an e l e c t r i c r a n g e ,
p r o d u c ts
and i n t e r n a l
R o a sts h e a te d in
s e n s o r y a t t r i b u t e s e x c e p t f l a v o r th a n
" sim m er"
W ilc o x ,
a l t h o u g h V o r i s a n d Van D u yn e
c o lo r s c o r e s fo r
arom a,
(R eam ,
cook ed
lo a d
fo r v a r io u s
l e s s c o o k in g t i m e t h a n
th e
is
t im e a d v a n t a g e
in c r e a s e d ,
and e x t r a
b r o w n in g m e t h o d s .
b e e n sh o w n t o u s e l e s s
energy
A
t n a n an
35
e le c tr ic
r a n g e t o p r e p a r e many t y p e s o f f o o d s .
i t e m s n o r m a lly h e a t e d
m ic r o w a v e o v e n
ran ge.
on an e l e c t r i c r a n g e s u r f a c e
may r e q u i r e m ore
e n e r g y th a n
Food c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s u c h a s d e n s i t y
h e a tin g e f f i c i e n c y
m ic r o w a v e o v e n .
a m ic r o w a v e
o f b o th
th e e l e c t r i c
The s e n s o r y q u a l i t y
o v e n h a s b e e n sh o w n
p r e p a r e d w it h
H ow ever, t o r
an e l e c t r i c
g e n e r a lly b een r a te d
may a f f e c t t h e
r a n g e and
th e
o f many f o o d s h e a t e d
a lth o u g h
lo w e r when p r e p a r e d
a
an e l e c t r i c
to be s im ila r
range,
u n it,
in
t o fo o d s
m e a ts h a v e
in
th e
m ic r o w a v e
oven.
S e n so r y E v a lu a tio n
O v e r v ie w .
human
S en sory e v a lu a tio n i s
e v a l u a t i o n and
(L a rm o n d ,
1 9 7 3 )•
m easu re r e a c t i o n s
(C iv ille ,
to
1 9 8 0 ).
It
to
m ea su rem en t
is
a
fo o d s
of
p h y s ic a l
a s p e r c e iv e d
sen ses
a b o u t w h a t,
if
by t h e
se n so r y e v a lu a tio n
any,
a produ ct
p o p u la tio n .
The e f f e c t i s
u s u a lly d e s c r ib e d
r e s p o n s e w h ic h
has
a r e m ea su red
is
e f f e c t an
tr e a tm e n t o f
( S i d e l and S to n e ,
s tim u li
u sed t o
e x p e r im e n ta l
d if f e r e n c e s in
th e
s c ie n t if ic d is c ip lin e
T he m a jo r p u r p o s e o f
p r o v id e in fo r m a tio n
c o n c e r n e d w it h
on a
numan
as changes or
and a n a ly z e u
1 9 7 6 ).
Many c o n s u m e r s p u r c h a s e p r o d u c t s o n t h e b a s i s o f o n e o r
m o re
sen sory c h a r a c t e r is t ic s ,
e v a lu a tio n has
d e v e lo p m e n t
b een u sed
(C iv ille ,
so h is to r ic a lly
a great
1 9 7 8 ).
d e a l in
fo o d
sen so ry
p roduct
F r e q u e n t l y , a t t e m p t s a r e m ade
36
to
c o r r e l a t e s e n s o r y d a t a w ith
T h e s e a t t e m p t s may
e v a lu a tio n i s
(S a w y e r ,
o n e o r m ore o b j e c t i v e r e s t s .
o r may n o t b e
s u c c e s s fu l s in c e sen so ry
v e r y c o m p le x , i n v o l v i n g
1 9 7 1 ).
In a d d it io n ,
human ju d g m e n t w h ic h i s
sen sory
im p o r ta n t.
te sts
th e c o r r e c t
s p e c ific
D e s c r ip tiv e t e s t s
can be
W ith a f f e c t i v e
te sts
d egree o f lik in g
u n a c c e p ta b le t o
a su b je c t
e x a m in in g t h e m ean s c o r e s
is
(I P T ,
d iffe r e n c e or
not r e lia b le
1 9 8 1 ).
a n d /o r q u a l i t a t i v e
(D e th m e r s,
asJced t o
1 9 8 0 ).
1 9 7 9 ).
e x p r e ss h is
by
T h is m eth o d o r
o f th e s u b je c ts to e x p ress
d i s l i k e a b o u t t h e p r o d u c ts b e in g
A d d in g a p r e f e r e n c e q u e s t i o n o n t o a
d e s c r ip t iv e t e s t q u e s tio n n a ir e
s in c e th e r e
t e s t s e v a lu a te
p r e fe r e n c e can o e in f e r r e d
(C iv ille ,
an d
197 4 ) .
m a r r in g a s c a l e r a n g i n g fro m
e v a lu a tio n r e l i e s on t h e a b i l i t y
th e ir fe e lin g s o f l i r e
b e tw e e n or
When tw o o r m ere p r o d u c t s a r e
e v a l u a t e d o n t h e sam e s c a l e ,
e v a lu a te d
(H ir s h ,
a n d /o r o p in io n s
a c c e p ta b le .
e x is ts
w h ile a f f e c t i v e
a p ro d u ct by
is
or d if f e r e n c e s o f a
m easu re q u a n t i t a t i v e
a c c e p ta n c e ,
te st
D iffe r e n c e t e s t s
d iffe r e n c e
m easu red
c h a r a c t e r is t ic s o f p r o d u c ts,
p r e fe r e n c e ,
(1 9 8 1 )•
O v e r a ll d if f e r e n c e s
a ttr ib u te
sen so ry
d if f e r e n t ty p e s o f sen so ry
IF T
w h e th e r a p e r c e iv e d
among p r o d u c t s .
d e p e n a s on
1979) .
ty p e o f
An o v e r v i e w o f t h e
h a s b e e n p u b l i s h e d by
e s ta b lis h
e v a lu a tio n
i n d i v i d u a l and n o t a lw a y s c o n s i s t e n t
(C a m p b e ll, P e n f i e l d , a n d G r i s w o l d ,
S e le c tio n o f
many q u a l i t i e s a t o n c e
m u st b e a
is
d iffe r e n c e
g e n e r a lly
to
be a
37
p re fe r e n c e ,
and s i n c e
th e p r e fe r r e d
s c o r e d h ig h e r d u e t o a
wh a lo " e f f e c t
S e le c tio n
of
e v a lu a t io n p a n e ls
a c c e p ta b ility
o f th e
P a n e l M em b ers.
p anel c o n s is ts
of
c o n s u m in g t h a t p r o d u c t
l a r g e enou gh
P angborn,
to
it
p a rt to
is
at le a s t part
w o u ld t y p i c a l l y
be
1 9 7 5 ).The p a n e l sn o u x a
overcom e d a y -to -d a y
and H o e s s l e r ,
sen so ry
d e te r m in e t h e
h e lp fu l i f
p e o p l e who
(H ir s h ,
1965) .
he
(H ir s h , 1 9 7 4 ).
S in c e m ost
a r e d e s ig n e d in
o f a p r o d u c t,
s a m p le w i l l x i k e i y
v a r ia b ility
be
(A m erx n e,
T oo fe w p a n e l i s t s may
r e q u ir e la r g e
d i f f e r e n c e s am ong
s ig n ific a n c e ,
w h i l e t o o many p a n e l i s t s may c a u s e v e r y s m a l l
d iffe r e n c e s to b e s ig n if ic a n t
s a m p le s f o r
s ta tis tic a x
( S i d e l and S t o n e ,
1 9 7 6 ).
J u d g e s f o r s e n s o r y p a n e l s c a n b e men o r w om en, b u t t h e y
s h o u ld b e a v a i l a b l e f o r th e e n t i r e e x p e r im e n t,
w illin g
to ser v e ,
(C a m p b e ll e t
h e a lth ,
have
a n a ly tic a lly
p e r s o n a lity ,
ta ste d
a l.,
and n o t d i s l i k e t h e fo o d
1 9 7 9 ).
In a d d it io n
norm al t a s t e
a c u ity ,
w i t h a c o m p le x t e s t
to
be t e s t e d
th e y s h o u ld b e in g o o d
be
a b le t o
s itu a tio n ,
deal
have a s t a b le
and b e a b l e t o v e r b a l i z e and d e s c r ib e
(Z ook a n d W essm an, 1 9 7 7 ) .
McManus (1 9 6 5 a )
d e te c t fin e
in te r e s te d ,
D a w so n ,
th e fo o d
B rogdon,
and
a l s o reco m m en d ed t h a t p a n e l i s t s b e a b l e t o
d if f e r e n c e s in s p e c i f i c
a t t r i b u t e s o f f o o d s and
b e a b le t o g i v e r e p r o d u c ib le ju d g m e n ts .
A lt h o u g h s e x , a g e ,
a n d s m o x in g h a b i t s a p p e a r t o
e f f e c t on a b x x ity
to
d is c r im in a te t a s t e s
have l i t t l e
( M a r t in ,
1973;
A m erin e e t a l . ,
1 9 6 5 ),
3a
t h e ASTM (1 9 6 8 a )
e a tin g
a
reco m m en d ed a s k i n g j u d g e s t o r e t r a i n
m eal f o r a t l e a s t
s e s s io n ,
6 0 m in u t e s b e f o r e
a n d fr o m sm o k in g o r c h e w in g
fro m
a te s tin g
gum f o r a t l e a s t 2 0
m in u t.e s b e f o r e h a n d .
T r a i n i n g o f P a n e l M em b ers.
sen so ry p an el
r e q u ir e d ,
r e c e i v e s d ep en d s on
an d
e x te n s iv e ,
T he
v a r i e s from n o n e
y e a r lo n g t e x t u r e and
in d u str y p a n e lis t s
( M a r t in ,
h a s u n if o r m
u n d e r s ta n d in g o f t h e
and t h e s y s t e m
o f e v a lu a tio n ,
ir r e le v a n t fa c to r s
tr a in in g
g e n e r a lly
ju d g m e n ts,
o f a c u ity
f o r c o n su m e r
p a n e ls to
t o m o re
in c r e a s e s th e a b i l i t y
a
f l a v o r a n a l y s e s f o r so m e
T r a in in g
o f panel
m a k es c e r t a i n
th e p a n e l
p r o p e r t ie s t o be e v a lu a te d
and m in im i z e s t h e
(D aw son £ t a l . ,
le a d s
th e d eg ree
1973) .
m em b ers i n c r e a s e s s e n s o r y a c u i t y ,
am ou n t o f t r a i n i n g
1 9 6 3 a ).
e ffe c ts of
In a u d i t i o n ,
p r e c i s e an d
u n ifo r m
o f j u d g e s t o r e c o g n i z e an a
id e n tify
s e n s o r y p a r a m e t e r s , a n d f a m i l i a r i z e s p a n e l i s t s w it h
th e t e s t
p rocess
( M a r t in ,
1 9 7 3 ).
T r a in in g i s
when p a n e l i s t s c a n b e m o t i v a t e d b y e x p l a i n i n g
of th e research
p r o b le m t o
r e v e a lin g
in fo r m a tio n
resp o n ses
(C a m p b e ll e t a l . ,
t h a t m ig h t l e a d
T e s t i n g E n v ir o n m e n t .
sen sory
th em e n o u g h
i n t e r e s t u x th o u t
to
b ia s
E v e r y e f f o r t m u st b e
T he r e s e a r c h e r n e e d s
o p tim a l s e t t i n g f o r
to
an t h e i r
1 9 7 9 ).
e v a lu a tio n to c o n tr o l th e
ju d g m e n t.
w it h a n
arou se th e ir
a l s o a tam e
m aae i n
e f f e c t o f e n v ir o n m e n t on
t o p r o v id e t h e p a n e l i s t s
u n b ia s e d
j u d g m e n ts
(L arm on d ,
39
1 9 7 3 ).
I n t e r r u p t i o n s and d i s t r a c t i o n s s h o u l d b e a v o i d e d ,
s p e c i a l room f o r
sen so ry
c o n t r o l l e d h u m id ity ,
a d e q u a te l i g h t ,
te m p e r a tu r e ,
s h o u ld be v i s u a l l y
is o la te d
to
fro m
l i m i t p l a c e d on t h e i r e v a l u a t i o n
Many t i m e s o f
e v a lu a tio n ,
day h a v e b een u se d
but i t
ta k e p la c e a t l e a s t
tim e e a c h day
is
g e n e r a lly
(A m e r in e e t a l . ,
b e p r e s e n t e d w ith
c o m fo r ta b ly e v a l u a t e in on e
s a m p le s ca n
fla v o r ,
et a l.,
A room
m asx
and i t
1 9 7 9 ).
c o lo r s .
C o lo r e d
P a n e lis ts
each o t n e r ,
w it h n o ta m e
( S w a r t z and F u r i a ,
s u c c e s s fu lly
fo r
1977) .
sen so ry
reco m m en d ed t h a t t e s t i n g
a t t h e sa m e
1 9 6 5 ).
o f S a m p le s .
P a n e lis ts
m ore s a m p l e s t h a n
s e s s io n .
be e v a lu a te d f o r
t n e y ca n
In g e n e r a l,
c o lo r o r te x tu r e
m ore
th a n to r
and m o re b la n d t h a n s t r o n g f l a v o r s c a n b e e v a l u a t e d
( S id e l and S to n e ,
o n e -h a lf ounce o f
1 9 7 6 ).
S a m p le s c o n s i s t i n g o f a t l e a s t
liq u id o r one ounce o f
g i v e n , a n d t h e am ount s h o u ld b e c o n s i s t e n t
S a m p le s n e e d t o
u n if o r m
1 9 6 5 ).
o n e h ou r a f t e r a m ea l and
P r e p a r a t i o n an d P r e s e n t a t i o n
sh o u ld n o t
an d a d e q u a t e s p a c e f o r
(C a m p b e ll e t a l . ,
u sed o c c a s io n a lly
w it h
background,
p r e p a r a t i o n room i s r e c o m m e n d e d ,
s h o u ld b e f r e e o f o d o r s
lig h ts a re
(A m e r in e
re c o m m e n d e d ,
n e u tr a l
c o m fo r ta b le s e a t i n g ,
s a m p l e s an d f o r w r i t i n g
o th e r th a n th e
e v a lu a tio n i s
a
be ty p ic a l o f
a s p o s s ib le
(D a w so n , B r o g d o n ,
s o lid
(L arm on d ,
th e p r o d u c t,
1 9 6 3 b ).
1973) •
and a s n e a r l y
ex c e p t fo r th e v a r ia b le
and H ch a n u s,
s h o u ld be
b e in g
te ste d
A l l th e s a m p le s
40
s h o u l d b e t h e sam e -te m p e r a t u r e ;
is
id e a l,
(ASTii,
fo o d ,
c o n s id e r e d .
c a r r ie r i s
1968a) .
but
th e in f lu e n c e o f th e
R e s u lts
u sed
and c o l o r .
a re u s u a lly
(L a r a o n d ,
id e n tity
n e u t r a l w a ter
a p p le s ,
(L arm on d ,
s a m p le s .
a t room
are g e n e r a lly
u sed t o
sh ow .
T he c o n t a i n e r s s h o u l d
(C a m p b e ll e t a l . ,
s h o u l d b e random o r
c o d e n u m b e rs u s e d t o
P a n e l i s t s may b e
te m p e r a tu r e ,
or o t h e r it e m s t o
c le a r
h id e th e
g iv e n t a s t e -
u n s a lte d
crack ers,
t h e m o u th b e t w e e n s a m p l e s
1973) .
S c o r in g .
th e product
S e n s o r y e v a l u a t i o n p a n e l i s t s n o r m a ll y s c o r e
th e y a r e e v a lu a tin g
n u m e r ic a l s c a l e
is
s p e c ific
d iffe r e n c e s
n u m e r ic a lly
a la r g e
s c a le .
A
num ber o f i t e m s
w hen t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t o b e e v a l u a t e d
and e a s i l y
can be
u n d e r s t o o d , an d w hen t h e d im e n s io n o f
p r e d e te r m in e d
g r a d u a te d s c a l e .
th e s c a l e w i l l d ep en d on th e
can d is t in g u is h .
on a r a t i n g
a p p r o p r ia te i f
m u st be e v a l u a t e d ,
is
u te n s ils
sh ap e,
o r od or to th e fo o d s
and t h r e e - d i g i t
of th e
when a
t h e sam e s i z e ,
The o r d e r o f s a m p le p r e s e n t a t i o n
b a la n c e d ,
m u st b e
le s s c o n s is te n t
a l l be
th e c o lo r o f th e fo o d t o
1 9 7 9 ).
c a r r ie r
w it n a
1973) .
W h ite o r c l e a r
n o t im p a r t f l a v o r
b e t w e e n 7 °C
Som e i t e m s may b e s e r v e d
S e r v in g u t e n s i l s s h o u ld
a llo w
tem p era tu re
b u t t h e te m p e r a tu r e s h o u ld b e a t l e a s t
an d 7 7 °C
c a r r ie r
a c tu a l s e r v in g
T he
and
a rra n g ed on
n um ber o f g r a d & t io n s on
n u m ber o f i n t e r v a l s
A t y p e o f r a n k in g
a
is
o fte n
u sed
a p a n e lis t
when t h e
41
\
c h a r a c te r is tic to
be e v a lu a te d
is
d im e n s io n o f a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s
v a lu e s a r e n o t
not s p e c ific ,
d e s ir e d ,
needed or a r e d i f f i c u l t
1 9 6 8 b ; D aw son e t a l . ,
o p e n -e n d r e s p o n s e s
1 9 6 3 b ).
r e s p o n se s o r s c a le d r e s p o n se s
t o p r o v id e
ju d g es to
( S i d e l and S t o n e ,
may b e u s e d
S ou rces of I n v a lid ity .
R e lia b ility
in v a lid ity
can
in f o r m a t io n
(S c h u tz ,
in c lu d e s e le c t io n
ju d g e s,
le a d
to
in
a stu d y i s
1971) .
c o d in g
p r e d ic ts
1 9 7 5 ; ASTM, 1 9 6 8 b ) .
1 9 7 9 ).
a r e b o tn r e l i a b l e
and
ju d g e s,
m is le a d in g
in te r a c tio n
among
s y m b o ls t h a t c a u s e b i a s ,
an d v a l u e j u d g m e n t s , l e a r n i n g e f f e c t s ,
(H ir s h ,
fresn
n o r m a lly a s su m e d ;
m o tiv a tio n a l f a c t o r s ,
an d how w e l l t h e t e s t
A
P o s s ib le so u r c e s o f in v a lid it y
and t r a i n i n g o f
s e q u e n tia l e f f e c t s ,
1 9 7 6 ).
w r itte n ,
( W o lf e ,
e v a lu a tio n
in e ffic ie n c y
ex tr a n e o u s c u e s ,
may asK f o r
E v ery e f f o r t s h o u ld b e nude t o
en su re th a t r e s u lts o f sen so ry
an d v a l i d .
(A sm ,
make s e l e c t i o n
r e f e r e n c e s ta n d a r d - m e n ta l, p h o to g r a p h ic ,
p ro d u c t, or sto r e d p rod u ct -
o r w hen a c t u a l
T h e r e s p o n s e fo rm
o r may a s k
when t h e
d is c r im in c b ility
a tte n tio n a l f a c to r s ,
th e c r ite r io n
of
a c tu a i u se
CHAPTER I I I
HETHODS
I n tr o d u c tio n
T he d a t a f o r t h i s
e q u ip m e n t l a b o r a t o r y
stu d y w ere c o l l e c t e d
and i n
th e
V ir g in ia P o ly te c h n ic I n s t i t u t e
N ovem b er 1981 an d ila y 1 9 8 2 .
th e p roced u re
a n a ly s is ;
p r e te sts
tim e ,
u sed ;
r e la tin g
m o is tu r e c o n t e n t ,
and h e a t i n g
fo o d ite m s
f o r la b o r a to r y
p roced u res;
and c o s t ;
p r o d u c t s w it h c o m p o n e n t
m e th o d s f o r
c h a p te r a r e d e s c r ib e d
e q u ip m e n t a n a
m e th o d s f o r m e a s u r in g o r c a l c u l a t i n g w e i g h t ,
e n e r g y c o n s u m p tio n ,
d e a l i n g w it h
th e
and p r o c e d u r e s f o r
in g r e d ie n ts .
fo o d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s
and f a t c o n t e n t o f
tim e r e q u ir e d f o r
a fo o d t o
p r e p a r a tio n ,
th e energy
as w e ll as th e
th e d e g r e e -o f-r e a d in e s s o f a
th e
o f energy
am ount
p r e p a r a tio n tim e a r e a l s o
t h e m e th o d s
u sed t o
e v a lu a te se n so r y
d e s c r ip tio n
o f th e
and
t o t a l and
d e s c r ib e d .
T h is i s
c a lc u la t e n u tr ie n t
q u a lity ,
an d t h e
42
fo o d
to
a c tiv e
fo llo w e d
c o n t e n t an d
ch a p te r ends
m e th o d s w h ic h w e r e u s e d
d a ta .
The
d e n s ity ,
m e th o d s f o r r e l a t i n g
r e q u ir e d
h o u s e h o ld
S t a t e U n iv e r s it y b e tw e e n
In th is
g e n e r a l la b o r a to r y
th e
s e n s o r y e v a l u a t i o n room a t
and
u sed t o s e l e c t
in
by
to
w it a a
t o a n a ly z e th e
43
S e le c tio n
For th e
o f F oods f o r L a b o ra to ry A n a ly s is
p u rp o ses o f
t h is stu d y
th e d e f in it io n
c o n v e n i e n c e f o o d s w a s t h a t o f T ra u b a n d O d la n a
(1 9 7 9 ,
3 );
w h ic n
" fu lly
or
p a r t ia lly p repared
s i g n i f i c a n t am o u n t o f p r e p a r a t i o n
fo o d s
tim e ,
in
c u lin a r y
or
page
a
s k ills ,o r
e n e r g y i n p u t s h a v e b e e n t r a n s f e r r e d fro m t h e home k i t c h e n
th e
fo o d
p r o c e s s o r and
C o n v e n ie n c e f o o d s
u is t r u b u t o r ,"
w ere f u r t h e r c l a s s i f i e d
i t e m s w h e re c o n v e n i e n c e i s
or
i t e m s w h ic h
in g r e d ie n ts ,
w as
have
p r im a r ily
a s in g le
or
(2)
a c c e p te d .
(1 )
b a s ic :
a p r e s e r v a t i o n m e tn o a ,
lim ite d
o r i t e m s w h ic h c o n t a i n
but no c u lin a r y e x p e r t is e ;
as
to
num ber
of
tim e o r e n e r g y in p u t s
c o m p le x :
m u lti-in g r e d ie n t
p r e p a r e d m i x t u r e s , o r f o o d s w it h a h i g h l e v e l o f tjLiue s a v i n g
a n d / o r e n e r g y i n p u t s an d c u l i n a r y
m a n u fa c tu r e d :
fo o d s
w it h n o
e x p e r tis e b u ilt
f o r la b o r a to r y a n a l y s i s w ere
" c o m p le x " c o n v e n i e n c e f o o d s u s e d b y
D e p a r tm e n t o f
S urvey
( T a b le
p o s s ib le
e le c tr ic
to
1 ).
prepare
th e s p r in g
a t l e a s t one p ercen t o f
p o r tio n o f
th e
1 9 7 7 -7 8
A g r i c u l t u r e N a t i o n w i d e Food C o n s u m p tio n
Foods w ere
s e le c te d
a h o m e -p r e p a r e d
o n ly i f
it
v e r s io n u s in g
w as
an
r a n g e an d a m ic r o w a v e o v e n .
G e n e r a l L a b o ra to ry P r o c e d u r e s
F ifte e n
o f th e
(3)
1 9 8 2 a ).
The tw e n ty f o o d s s e l e c t e d
U .S .
or
h o m e -p r e p a r e d c o u n t e r p a r t
( H a v iic e k , C a p p s, and A x e ls o n ,
h o u s e h o ld s su r v e y e d in
m ;
tw en ty
fo o d
p ro d u cts ch o sen
fo r
44
Table 1
Foods Selected for Laboratory Analysis
S S S S B B S S S B S S S B ^ S S S a M 9 B S B S S B B S & B B B S S B S 9 S B 8 S a B B 9 a B B B 9 B B a B S a a B B a e S a B 9 E a B B B n E a B S S B B =
Food
Percent of Households^"
White bread, RTE2
70.4
Whole wheat bread, RTE
18.5
White soft rolls, RTE
Chocolate chip cookies, RTE
17.5
14.0
Chicken noodle soup, canned condensed
11.2
Pancake mix, dry enriched
Macaroni and cheese mix, dry
Cream of mushroom soup, canned condensed
8.9
8.2
7.8
Biscuits, refrigerated
6.2
Sweet rolls, RTE
3.8
Yellow cake mix, dry
3.5
Vanilla pudding mix, dry, regular
3.5
Meat/cheese pizza, frozen
3.1
Spaghetti sauce, canned
2.7
Chocolate cake mix, dry
Chicken pot pie, frozen
2.7
Apple pie, frozen
Fried chicken "TV" dinner, frozen
Combread mix, dry
Broccoli spears in butter sauce, frozen
2.6
1.7
1.6
1.4
1.2
1.
Percent of households surveyed in the Spring portion of
the 1977r78 U.S. Department of Agriculture Nationwide
Food Consumption Survey who consumed each food.
2.
RTE » Ready-to-eat
45
la b o r a to r y a n a ly s is
h o n e - p r e p a r e d fo rm
w ere p rep a red
a s in g b o th
c o n v e n tio n a l e l e c t r i c
w h ite b r e a d ,
r o lls )
th e
c o n v e n ie n c e
a m ic r o w a v e
range.
F or
w h o le w h e a t b r e a d ,
f i v e p r o d u c ts
w as r e a d y
T h e r e fo r e th e h o n e -p r e p a r e d
p r o d u c ts w ere p rep a red
m ic r o w a v e
o v en and
w it h
th e
w ere com p ared
to
a
(c o o k ie s ,
ana sw eet
to e a t
v e r s io n s
e le c tr ic
and i n
o v en and
w h ite r o i l s ,
c o n v e n ie n c e p r o d u c t
p u rch ased .
in
as
of th ese
ra n g e aau xn t a e
th e
r e a d y -to -e a t
c o n v e n ie n c e p r o d u c t s .
I n g r e d ie n ts fo r
th r e e r e p lic a tio n s o f a
p u r c h a s e d a t o n e t im e i n
sto r e d
in a tw o -d o o r
a l o c a l m a r k e t.
r e fr ig e r a to r /fr e e z e r
p r o a u c t w ere
I n g r e d ie n t s w ere
( 3 ° C /- 1 8 ° C )
if
p e r i s h a b l e o r a t a m b ie n t t e m p e r a t u r e i n c u p o o a r d s .
When m o re
th a n o n e brand
p r o d u c t w as a v a i l a b l e o n t h e
brand o f
medium p r i c e an d
a n a ly s is .
a c o n v e n ie n c e
m ark et a n a t io n a lly
c o n ta in e r s i z e
w as
a a v e r tis e a
ch osen fo r
T h e b r a n d s o f c o n v e n i e n c e f o o d s u s e d a r e sh ow n i n
A p p e n d ix A .
C o n v e n ie n c e f o o d s
package d ir e c tio n s
oven.
or s iz e o f
w e r e p r e p a r e d a c c ;> r d x n g t o
f o r b o th e l e c t r i c
I f n o m ic r o w a v e d i r e c t i o n s
range
and m ic r o w a v e
w ere g iv e n on t h e p a c k a g e ,
r e f e r e n c e w a s m ade t o a m ic r o w a v e c o o k b o o k .
H o m e -p r e p a r e d
r e c ip e s ,
" w ere s e le c t e d
c h o s e n fr o m com m on ly u s e d c o o k b o o k s ,
to be t y p ic a l
a lte r e d
o f f o o d s p r e p a r e d i n t h e home
an d w ere n o t
t o d u p l i c a t e t h e a m o u n ts o f i n g r e d i e n t s fo u n d xn t h e
c o n v e n ie n c e p r o d u c t ,
t h e n p o s s i b l e , h o w e v e r , t h e sam e t y p e s
46
o f i n g r e d i e n t s w ere
c o n ta in e d in
1979) .
t h e h o m e -p r e p r e d
t h e c o n v e n i e n c e p r o d u c t 1* (T rau b
T h e s» m e i n g r e d i e n t s
it e m s h e a te d w ith
oven
u sed in
ex cep t fo r
r e q u ir e d
sh o w n i n
t h e e l e c t r i c r a n g e and
w ere
an d O u la n a ,
R e c ip e s u se d
i n t h e m ic r o w a v e
t h e m ic r o w a v e
an a d d i t i o n a l i n g r e d i e n t s u c h
vhxch
a s m a r g a r in e f o r
f o r h o m e-p rep a red
th e
fo o d s a re
A p p e n d ix B .
E a ch a n a l y s i s w as d o n e i n
id e n tifie d .
tim e ,
is
w ere u sed f o r t h e h o m e -p r e p a r e d
p r e p a r a tio n u s in g
b r o w n in g g r i l l .
fo o u
tr ip lic a te
R e p lic a te a n a ly s e s
e n e r g y c o n s u m p tio n ,
an d m e d ia n s w e r e
fo r
m e a s u r in g p r e p a r a t i o n
and y i e l d
w e r e m ade fr o m o n e t o
th r e e d ays a p a r t.
S ep a ra te r e p l ic a t io n s
sen so ry a n a ly s is .
G eneral
w ere d o n e f o r t h e
l a b o r a t o r y p r o c e d u r e s f o x io w e u
th e g u id e lin e s o f
L o v in g o o d an d G c s s
m e a s u r in g e l e c t r i c
e n e r g y u s e d by m a jo r c o o k i n g a p p l i a n c e s :
1.
A l l w a te r u se d i n
fro m t h e B la c k s b u r g
2 0 °C ±
w a te r
undergoes
n a tu r a lly
no
w a ter sy ste m
about
tr e a tm e n t
fo r
u se in
t h i s s t u d y w as t a p w a t e r
1°C u n l e s s o t h e r w i s e
is
(1 9 8 0 )
a n d w as
s p e c ifie d .
th r e e
except
te m p ered t o
B la c k s b u r g
g r a in s hard
and
p u r ific a tio n
ana
c h lo r in a tio n .
2.
W h en ever p o s s i b l e ,
c o v e r e d w it h t i g h t - f i t t i n g
3.
h ea ted
c o o k in g u t e n s i l s w ere
lid s .
F o o d s s u c h a s s o u p s , p u d d i n g s , and s a u c e s w ere
to s p e c if ic
e n d p o in t te m p e r a t u r e s .
47
4.
tim e .
fo r
D o n e n e s s w as u s u a l l y
d e te r m in e d by c o o k in g
H o w ev er a v i s u a l t e s t t o r d o n e n e s s w a s n e c e s s a r y
p r o d u c ts s u c h a s p a n c a k e s and s a u s a g e .
5.
E l e c t r i c r a n g e u n i t c o n t r o l s w e r e t u r n e d on a s
soon a s
a fo o d ite m
r e m a in e d
cooked.
tu r n e d on
w as
p la c e d on t h e
u n til th e
fo o d
u n it,
w as
c o m p le te ly
The e l e c t r i c oven w as p r e h e a te d to
te m p e r a tu r e and t h e f o o d w as p la c e d
a s th e in d ic a to r l i g h t w en t o f f .
to f in is h
c o o k in g
u s in g r e t a in e d
and
th e d e s ir e d
in th e oven a s so o n
No a t t e m p t w as made
h e a t by
c o n t r o ls o f f p r io r
to
th e en d o f
T h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n
w as t u r n e d o n a f t e r
tu r n in g th e
t h e c o o k in g p e r i o d .
t h e fo o d w as
p l a c e d i n t h e o v e n and t h e d o o r w a s c l o s e d .
6.
each
C o o k in g u t e n s i l s
a p p lia n c e and
w ere a p p r o p r ia te i n
w ere
of
m a te r ia ls or
s iz e
fo r
d esxgn
reco m m en d ed by t h e m a n u f a c t u r e r o f e a c h a p p l i a n c e .
7.
A p p lia n c e s and
u te n s ils
w ere a t
room
te m p e r a tu r e f o r t h e s t a r t o f ea ch a n a l y s i s .
E q u ip m e n t a n d P r e t e s t s
A p p lia n c e s .
a 3 0 -in c h
cm)
(7 6 cm)
su r fa c e
(2 0 cm)
The e l e c t r i c r a n g e u s e d in t h i s
u n its
f r e e s ta n d in g
(1 5 0 0 w a t t s ,
s u r fa c e u n its
s e lf-c le a n in g
oven
(W h ir lp o o l,
m o d e l w i t h tw o 6 - i n c h
240 v o l t s
(2 6 0 0 w a t t s ,
s t u d y w as
e a c h ),
tw o 8 - i n c h
240 v o lt s e a c h ),
d o d e l R FE3630) .
(1 5
and a
The
48
m ic r o w a v e o v e n u s e d
1600 w a tts ,
pow er;
w as a c o u n te r to p
120 v o l t s ;
r a te d
w it h t e n p e r c e n t l e s s
pow er s e t t i n g
d e te r m in e d ,
w it h i n p u t o f
o u tp u t o f 650 w a tts a t f u l l
fr e q u e n c y o f 2450 m eg a h ertz;
s e ttin g s
m odel
a n d 10 v a r i a b l e p o w er
w a tta g e f o r e a ch d e s c e n d in g
( L i t t o n , M od el 1 0 4 1 ) .
T h e se a p p lia n c e s w ere
on t h e b a s i s o f n a t i o n a l s a l e s v o l u m e s ,
r e p r e s e n ta tiv e
o f m o d e ls
c u r r e n tly
in
u se
to
oe
(A n o n y m o u s,
1 9 8 0 a ).
C ookw are.
th e e le c t r ic
Medium g a u g e a lu m in u m c o o k w a r e w a s u s e d on
range su r fa c e u n it s .
The u t e n s i l s in c l u d e d :
2 - l i t e r co v ered sau cep an
3 - l i t e r co v ered sau cep an
5 - l i t e r co v ered sau cep an
2 0 cm d i a m e t e r s k i l l e t
5 0 x 2 9 cm g r i d d l e
Alum inum a n d h e a t r e s i s t a n t g l a s s
th e oven o f
a lu m in u m ,
g la s s .
th e e l e c t r i c r a n g e .
The
cookw are w as u sed
m
b a k in g s h e e t s w e r e
w h ile t h e r e m a in in g u t e n s i l s w ere h e a t - r e s i s t a n t
T he u t e n s i l s i n c l u d e d :
39x30
1- l i t e
2 0 cm
2 3 cm
2 3 cm
2- l i t e
cm b a k in g s h e e t s
r lo a f pans
d ia m e te r p i e p l a t e s
d ia m e te r p i e p l a t e s
d ia m e te r ro u n d c a k e p a n s
r covered c a s s e r o le
I n t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n ,
c e r a m i c c o o k w a r e w as u s e d .
h ea t r e s is ta n t g la s s
The u t e n s i l s
in c lu d e d :
170 m l c u s t a r d c u p s
1- l i t e r c o v e r e d c a s s e r o l e
1 .5 - l i t e r covered c a s s e r o le
and g l a s s -
49
2- l i t e r c o v e r e d c a s s e r o l e
1- l i t e r l o a f p a n s
3 4 0 a l ro u n d d i s h
2 0 c n d ia m e t e r p i e p l a t e s
2 3 cm d i a m e t e r p i e p l a t e s
2 3 cm r o u n d c a k e p a n s
2 9 x 2 0 cm b r o w n in g g r i l l
3 7 x 2 9 cm b r o w n in g g r i l l
P r e te sts.
T h e a c t u a l o u t p u t w a t t a g e o f t h e m ic r o w a v e
o v e n w as m e a s u r e d .
p la s tic
bow l in
One l i t e r
o f w a te r w as p la c e d
t h e c e n t e r o f t h e o v e n and
f u l l pow er f o r o n e m in u te .
by
fo r t h is
w as h e a t e d a t
a f a c t o r o f 70 t o
T h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n u s e d f o r t a l s
B a sed on t h r e e r e p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s t e s t ,
u sed
a w h ite
The d i f f e r e n c e b e tw e e n s t a r t i n g
a n d e n d in g t e m p e r a t u r e s w a s m u l t i p l i e d
g iv e th e o u tp u t w a tta g e .
in
s t u d y w as fo u n d t o
t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n
h ave an
a c tu a l o u tp u t o f
595 w a t t s .
E ach f o o d
ite m
in
th is
s tu d y w as p rep a red
a t le a s t
o n c e , an d up t o t h r e e t i m e s ,
on a " t r i a l H b a s is
b e fo r e th e
b e g in n in g o f r e p l i c a t i o n s d u r in g
T h i s w as d o n e t o
c o o k in g ,
d e te r m in e t h e
and t o
w h ic h d a t a w e r e c o l l e c t e d .
am ount o f tim e n e c e s s a r y
reduce v a r ia b ilit y
in t o t a l
fo r
an d a c t i v e
p r e p a r a tio n t im e .
w e ig h t
W e ig h t ,
on a H a r v a r d
r o u n d e d t o t h e n e a r e s t gram a f t e r
tr ip
b e f o r e and a f t e r
en tree s
b a la n c e ,
c o o k in g .
(b is c u its ,
w as d e te r m in e d
B ak ed
m easu rem en t
f o r e a c h fo o d
p r o d u c t s w h ic h w e r e n o t
c o r n b r e a d , y e llo w
cak e,
c h o c o la te ca n e ,
50
a p p le p i e , c o o k ie s ,
w h ite b r e a d ,
r o l l s , and s w e e t r o l l s )
b e fo r e
w ere c o o le d
b e in g w e ig h e d .
im m e d i a t e ly
Y ie ld
w h o le w h e a t b r e a d ,
The o t h e r
w n x te
3 0 m in u t e s a f t e r
fo o d s w ere
D a * la g
w ex g h ed
a f t e r c o o k i n g w as c o m p l e t e d .
w as d e t e r m i n e d
p r e p a r e d w it h
u s in g
th e e le c t r ic
t h e c o n v e n ie n c e
ran ge,
c o n v e n ie n c e f o o d , a s a s ta n d a r d .
or
fo o a
th e r e a d y -to -e a t
T h i s f o o d w as w ex g n ed t o
t h e n e a r e s t gram a n d t h e w e i g h t w a s d i v x d e d by t h e
su g g e ste d
n u m ber o f s e r v i n g s
no num ber
w as s u g g e s t e d )
( o r b y a ••r e a s o n a b le * * num ber i t
t o g i v e a w e ig h t p e r s e r v i n g .
each o f th e o th e r v e r s io n s o f
by t h e
w e ig h t p e r
The w exgat o f
t h e sa m e p r o d u c t w a s d iv x d e a
s e r v in g o f
t h e sta n d a r d
p roduct to
d e t e r m i n e t h e n u m ber o f e q u a l w e i g h t s e r v i n g s p r o d u c e d .
T im e
" T o t a l t i m e , " t h e a m ou n t o f
fr o m t h e b e g i n n i n g t o
" a c t iv e tim e ,"
th e
t h e a m ou n t o f
fu ll or
m easu red
(T rau b a n d O d la n d ,
sta r te d
tim e f o r t h o s e
p a r t ia l a tte n tio n o f th e
1979) .
e a c h fo o d w as a l s o
one p la c e .
s t e p s w hxch
w orker,
w ere
n o te d .
T im xn g was
and u t e n s i l s w ere
T im e f o r c l e a n u p w a s n o t r e c o r d e d .
T im in g w a s d o n e u s i n g tw o s t o p w a t c h e s ,
tim e and
ana
The am ou n t o f a c t u a l
a f t e r a l l i n g r e d i e n t s , e q u ip m e n t ,
a s se m b le d i n
a l l ste p o
e n d o f p r o d u c t fo r m u la tx o n ,
r e q u ir e d
h e a t in g tim e f o r
tim e n eed ed f o r
t h e o t h e r m e a s u r in g
a c tiv e
o n e m easu rxn g t o t a l
tim e .
T im e s w ere
m e a s u r e d i n m in u t e s a n d h u n d r e d t h s o f m in u t e s an d r o u n d e d t o
51
t h e n e a r e s t h a l f m in u te .
E n e r g y C o n s u m p tio n
E n erg y c o n s u m p t io n o f e a c h a p p l i a n c e v a s m e a s u r e d u s i n g
a s in g le
sta to r
w a tth o u r
m e te r
E n e r g y c o n s u m p t io n o f s m a l l
e le c tr ic
m ix e r s ,
n o t m easu red .
h o u rs and in
(D u n c a n ,
L a fa y ette,
p o r ta b le a p p lia n c e s ,
and e n e r g y
IN ).
su ch a s
f o r r e f r ig e r a t e d s t o r a g e w ere
E n e r g y c o n s u m p t io n w as e x p r e s s e d
B r i t i s h T herm al U n it s
(BTUs)
c o m p a r is o n o f e l e c t r i c a l e n e r g y w i t h
in
K ilo w a tt
to f a c ilit a t e
o t h e r fo r m s o f e n e r g y
in o th e r s t u d ie s .
C o st
C o st
w a s c o m p u te d
fo r fo o d ,
p r e p a r a tio n tim e f o r e a ch fo o d
th e c o s t o f
ite m s
ite m .
in g r e d ie n ts needed t o
or th e
cost of
lis te d
fo r
maJte
t h e h o m e-p rep a red
ite m s p lu s
a s m oney v a l u e p e r p o u n d ,
th e
C o n s u m p tio n S u r v e y t a p e s .
T h e m oney
an y
w ere o o ta ln e d
1 9 7 7 - 7 8 USD! N a t io n w id e Food
v a l u e p e r p ou n d w as
m oney v a l u e p e r a m o u n t o f e a c h i n g r e d i e n t u s e d .
The 1977 in g r e d ie n t c o s t s w ere
by m u lt ip ly in g t h e
a v e r a g e C o n su m er
c o m m o d ity g r o u p
a v e r a g e CPI
a c tiv e
c o m p le tio n o f p r e p a r a t io n .
fr o m t h e s p r i n g p o r t i o n o f
c o n v e r te d t o
and
T he f o o d c o s t i n c l u d e d
th e c o n v e n ie n c e
a d d it io n a l fo o d ite m s n eed ed
Food c o s t s ,
fu e l,
t h e n u p d a te d t o
1 9 7 7 c o s t by
P r ic e
In d ex
( U .S . D e p t .
f o r t h e sa m e
a r a tio
(C P I)
o f th e
fo r
L a b o r , 1982)
c o m m o d ity g r o u p
1981 l e v e l s
1981 a n n u a l
th e a p p r o p r ia te
to th e
( U .S .
1977 an n ual
D e p t.
52
A g r ic u ltu r e ,
1981}.
T he c o m m o d ity g r o u p s u s e d
and t h e i r
1 9 8 1 :1 9 7 7 r a t i o s a r e sh ovn in
T a b le 2 .
s e v e r a l fo o d it e m s ,
p r im a r ily
s p i c e s an d h e r b s ,
w ere n o t
a v a i l a b l e fro m t h e OSDA t a p e s *
C o st f o r th e s e
i t e m s w as
d e te r m in e d by s t a r t i n g
an d O d la n d
(1 9 7 9 )
1 9 8 1 :1 9 7 9 r a t i o
T he 1 9 8 1
d e te r m in e a fo o d c o s t
p repared p rod u ct
1974 p r ic e s re p o r te d
and a d j u s t i n g t h e s e p r i c e s t o
by m u ltip ly in g by th e
(T a b le 2 ) .
w it h
r a te per
a p p lia n c e en erg y
t h e n um ber
1981 l e v e l s
w ere ad d ed
f o r t h e t o t a l c o n v e n ie n c e
to
o r h o m e-
an d d i v i d e d by t h e num oer o f
a c o s t p er s e r v in g .
C o st o f f u e l w as c a l c u l a t e d
hours o f e l e c t r ic it y
by T rau b
f o r a l l f o o d s a t home
in g r e d ie n t c o s t s
(A p p e n d ix C)
s e r v in g s to e s t a b lis h
e le c tr ic
H on ey v a l u e s f o r
u sed by
by m u ltip ly in g th e k ilo w a t t
4 .9 7 k ,
k ilo w a tt hour in
g u id e l a b e l i n g .
o f s e r v in g s to
th e n a tio n a l a v era g e
1 9 8 1 w h ic h
The
is
u sed i n
c o s t w as d i v i d e d
d e te r m in e an e n e r g y
by
c o s t per
s e r v in g .
Two v a l u e s
p r e p a r a tio n
m u ltip ly in g
o r 5 .5 8 k p e r
m u ltip ly in g
in
w ere c a lc u la t e d
tim e .
The
fir s t
fo r
v a lu e
th e c o s t
w as o b t a i n e d
a c t i v e t im e by t h e minimum w a g e ,
m in u te .
o f a c tiv e
T he s e c o n d v a l u e
by
$ 3 .3 5 p er hour
w as o b t a i n e d b y
a c t i v e t i m e by t h e w a g e r a t e o f a c o o k , i n c l u d e d
t h e c a t e g o r y o f p r o d u c tio n
o r n o n s u p e r v is o r y
p r iv a t e n o n a g r ic u ltu r a l p a y r o lls
( D . s . D e p t.
S in c e w age in c r e a s e s a r e f r e q u e n t ly t i e d
w o r x e r s on
L abor,
1973).
to in c r e a s e s in
th e
53
Table 2
Consumer Price Index For Commodity Groups Used in Cost
Calculations
Commodity Group
1981 CPI
1977 CPI
1981/1977
Cereals and bakery products
270.5
183.5
1.474
Meats, poultry, fish, and
eggs
252.3
187.4
1.346
Dairy products
243.6
173.9
1.401
Fruits and vegetables
273.2
191.6
1.426
Fats and oils
267.4
191.4
1.397
All foods at home (misc)
269.3
190.2
1.416
Items not on 1977 tape
(All foods at home
1974-75)
269.3
169.1
1.592
54
C P I,
th e
(1 9 7 9 )
ite m s
1 9 7 4 - 7 5 w age f i g u r e s r e p o r t e d b y
w ere m u l t i p l i e d by a r a t i o
( U .S . D e p t .
fo r a l l
ite m s
2 7 2 .3 /1 5 4 .4
to
( U .S .
L abor,
D ep t.
1982)
T raub a n d O d ia n d
o f th e
d iv id e d
A g r ic .,
by t h e
1 9 8 0 a ).
= 1 .7 6 4 , w as m u l t i p l i e d by t h e
e s ta b lis h
a 1981 c o o k 's w age
p e r m in u te .
A g a in ,
tim e c o s t s
1981 C PI f o r a l l
o f $ 8 .3 4
1 9 7 4 - 7 5 C PI
T h is r a t i o ,
1 9 7 4 -7 5
w age r a t e
p e r h o u r o r 1 3 .9 1 2
w e r e d i v i d e d b y t h e num ber o f
s e r v in g s to g iv e a c o s t per s e r v in g .
In a d d it io n t o r e p o r t in g t h e c o s t s o f f o o d ,
a c tiv e
t im e a l o n e ,
fu e l;
c o s t o f fo o d , f u e l,
fu e l,
an d
c o s t s w ere r e p o r t e d a s c o s t o f fo o d p lu s
an d c o s t o f f o o d , f u e l ,
and a c t i v e
and a c t i v e
t im e a t minimum w a g e ;
tim e a t a c o o k ' s w ag e.
P r o d u c t s w it h C o m p o n en t I n g r e d i e n t s
For th r e e
h o m e-p rep a red f o o d it e m s
n o o d l e s o u p , and c h i c k e n p o t p i e )
fo r
e n e r g y c o n s u m p tio n ,
a n d /o r
c o st.
in g r e d ie n ts
One
tw o v a l u e s w e r e c a l c u l a t e d
t h a t c e r ta in
(to m a to s a u c e o r c h ic k e n b r o th )
p r e p a r e d and t h a t t h e e n e r g y c o n s u m p t i o n ,
in g r e d ie n ts .
n asxc
h ad a l r e a d y u t e n
p r e p a r a tio n t im e ,
e n e r g y f o r t h e s e p r o d u c t s was z e r o .
The o t h e r v a l u e r e p o r t e d in c lu d e d
o f e n e r g y and
ch x cK en
t o t a l and a c t i v e p r e p a r a t io n t im e ,
v a lu e a ssu m ed
an d c o s t o f t im e a n d o f
(p iz z a ,
tim e n eed ed i n
t h e e n e r g y , t i m e , an d c o s t
t h e p r e p a r a tio n
For on e fo o d p r o d u c t
of
th e b s s ic
( h o m e - p r e p a r e d TV d in n e r )
e n e r g y an d t i m e m e a s u r e m e n ts w e r e made f o r t h e t o t a l p r o d u c t
an d f o r e a c h c o m p o n e n t .
55
Food C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s
D e n s ity , c a lc u la te d
b y w e ig h in g
250
as s p e c ific
ml o f th e f i n i s h e d p r o d u c t
gram and d i v i d i n g b y t h e w e i g h t
th e fin is h e d
g r a v ity ,
p rod u ct c o n s is te d
w as d e t e r m in e d
to th e
n earest
o f 250 ml o f w a te r .
of
tw o o r
When
m ore s e p a r a b l e
it e m s a p r o p o r t io n a l d e n s it y
w a s c a l c u l a t e d b y m e a s u r in g t h e
v o lu m e o f
d e te r m in in g
e a c h co m p o n e n t,
its
p r o p o r tio n
co m p a r e d t o t h e t o t a l v o lu m e o f t h e f o o d i t e m , a n d p l a c i n g
p r o p o r t i o n a l am o u n t o f e a c h c o m p o n e n t
to
in
a
t h e 250 ml m easu re
b e w e ig h e d .
M o i s t u r e an d f a t ,
o f ea ch fo o d
ite m ,
(W a tt a n d M e r r i l l ,
a s a p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l raw w e ig h t
w e r e d e t e r m i n e d fro m
1963)
an d i t s
su b seq u en t r e v is io n s ,
fro m t h e C onsu m er N u t r i t i o n C e n t e r
( O .S .
D e p t.
s e c tio n
c o u ld
A g r ic .,
e n title d
not be
1980b)
a s d e s c r i b e d i n t h e m e tn o a s
fo o d s
( b r o c c o l i , m a c a r o n i an d c h e e s e , s p a g h e t t i s a u c e ,
p iz z a ,
p u d d in g );
t h e sam e
f o o d s w ere t h e r e f o r e a s s ig n e d
p e r c e n t m o is tu r e a s t h e i r
h o m e -p r e p a r e d f o o d s
d in n e r )
fiv e
The p e r c e n t m o is tu r e
c o n v e n ie n c e
th ese
fo r
and
n u t r i t i v e v a lu e d a ta s e t
" N u tr ie n t C o n te n t."
d e te r m in e d
OSDA H andbook 8
h o m e -p r e p a r e d c o u n t e r p a r t s .
( m a c a r o n i an d
ch eese,
p iz z a ,
anu
T hree
a n d TV
w e r e d i v i d e d i n t o tw o o r m ore c o m p o n e n t p a r t s b e f o r e
th e c a lc u la tio n s
fo r d e n s ity ,
m o is tu r e ,
an d
f a t w ere
c o m p u te d .
The f o o d s w e r e
grou p ed a c c o r d in g t o
w h e th e r
t h e y n^d
56
h i g h o r lo w v a l u e s f o r d e n s i t y ,
d e n s ity
f o o d s w ere t h o s e w ith
w h i l e lo w d e n s i t y
0 .8 0 0 .
m o is tu r e ,
and f a t .
H ig h
d e n s i t i e s g r e a t e r th a n 0 .8 0 0 ,
f o o d s had v a l u e s l e s s t h a n
or equ al to
H ig h m o i s t u r e f o o d s w e r e c o m p r is e d o f m ore t h a n 7 5 *
m o i s t u r e , w h i l e lo w m o i s t u r e f o o d s c o n t a i n e d 75% m o i s t u r e o r
le s s .
P o o d s w h ic h c o n t a i n e d m o re t h a n
h ig h f a t f o o d s ,
w h i l e lo w f a t
10% f a t
w ere c a lle d
f o o d s c o n ta in e d
l e s s . T h e s e g r o u p in g s w ere s i m i l a r
to
10% f a t o r
t h o s e u se d o y Laughon
(1 9 8 0 ).
The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s " lo w " a n d " h i g h ” w e r e i d e n t i f i e d
t h e n u m b e rs 1 a n d 2 , r e s p e c t i v e l y
p o s s ib le
c a t e g o r ie s b ased
on
(L a u g h o n ,
th e fo o d
c o m b in a tio n s w ere t h e n i d e n t i f i e d .
1 1 1 : lo w d e n s i t y ,
fa t;
122:
d e n s ity ,
c h a r a c te r is tic
112:
lo w
lo w
m o i s t u r e , lo w f a t ;
221:
d e n s ity ,
lo w d e n s i t y , h ig h m o i s t u r e ,
lo w d e n s i t y , h ig h m o i s t u r e , h ig h f a t ;
m o is t u r e , h ig h f a t ;
fa t;
121:
lig h t
T h e se c a t e g o r i e s w ere
lo w m o i s t u r e , lo w f a t ;
lo w m o i s t u r e , h i g h f a t ;
1 9 8 0 ).
212:
by
211:
h ig h d e n s i t y ,
lo w
h ig h
lo w
h i g h d e n s i t y , h ig h m o i s t u r e , lo w
an d 2 2 2 : h i g h d e n s i t y ,
h ig h m o is t u r e , h ig h f a t .
p r e p a r a t i o n fo rm o f e a c h f o o d w a s p l a c e d
la c n
in one o f th e ex g n t
c a te g o r ie s .
For ea ch f o o d ,
w ere d iv id e d
t h e e n e r g y c o n s u m p t io n and h e a t i n g t i m e
b y t h e raw
w e ig h t t o e s t a b l i s h
th e en ergy
c o n s u m p t io n a n d h e a t i n g t im e p e r gram o f f o o d .
fo r fo o d s
p r e p a r e d w ith
th e e le c t r ic
r a n g e an d
hean v a lu e s
in th e
57
m ic r o w a v e o v e n i n
each o f th e e ig h t
c a te g o r ie s
w e r e x-hen
co m p u te d .
D e tr r e e -o f-B e a d in e s s
C o n v e n ie n c e f o o d s w e r e g r o u p e d a c c o r d i n g
o f-r e a d in e s s c la s s if ic a t io n
C a p p s# a n d A x e ls o n
lis te d
in
to
sch em e d e s c r ib e d
(1 9 8 2 b ).
by H 'lv x ic e k ,
The c a t e g o r i e s i n
d e s c e n d i n g o r d e r fro m
a degree-
‘•m o st ready**
t h x s scaem e#
to
“l e a s t
r e a d y “ w ere:
00
01
02
03
Oh
05
06
07
08
09
10
11
12
13
Foods in
For each fo o d ,
t im e #
E at a s i s
R ea d y t o u s e
C u t# s l i c e # s h e l l
Thaw
H y d r a te
R ea d y t o h e a t
Thaw t n e n h e a t
H y d r a te t h e n h e a t
R ea d y t o c o o k
Thaw t h e n c o o k
H y d r a te t h e n c o o k
C u t# p e e l t h e n c o o k
Add o t h e r i n g r e d i e n t s t h e n c o o k
E v is c e r a te # p r e p a r e f o r c o o k in g ,
th e n cook
t h i s stu d y f e l l
in to
t o t a l p r e p a r a tio n
s ix
o f th e
t im e #
13 c a t e g o r i e s .
a c t iv e p rep a ra tx o n
an d e n e r g y c o n s u m p t io n w e r e d i v i d e d by t h e raw w e i g n t
o f t h e fo o d t o e s t a b l i s h
t h e t o t a l t im e #
e n e r g y c o n s u m p t io n p e r g ra m .
f o o d s and
f o r h o m e -p r e p a r e d
a c tiv e
t im e #
and
Mean v a l u e s f o r c o n v e n i e n c e
fo o d s in
each o f
th e s ix
c a t e g o r i e s w ere th e n co m p u te d .
H u tr ie n t C o n te n t
T he n u t r i e n t c o n t e n t o f c o n v e n i e n c e
f o o d s and o f nom e-
58
p rep ared fo o d s
w as co m p a red .
H ow ever,
in fo r m a tio n u a s b een p u b lis h e d on
s in c e
little
th e n u tr ie n t c o n te n t o f
a
w id e v a r i e t y o f f o o d s h e a t e d by m i c r o w a v e s , a c o m p a r is o n w as
n o t m ade b e t w e e n f o o d s p r e p a r e d
in
w it h
r a n g e and
fo o d e n e r g y ,
p r o te in ,
a m ic r o w a v e o v e n .
n u t r ie n t in f o r m a t io n on w a t e r ,
fa t,
A,
an e l e c t r i c
crude f ib e r ,
th ia m in ,
c a l c i u m , p h o s p h o r u s , i r o n , s o d iu m , v i t a m i n
r ib o fla v in ,
n ia c in ,
o b t a i n e d fro m USDA H andbook 8
fr o m H a n d b o o k s 8 - 1
an d flu r p h y ,
(P o s a ti,
P o s a ti,
1979) ,
8 -6
sau ce,
1 9 8 0 ),
m acaroni
t h e N a t io n w i d e F ood C o n s u m p tio n
A g r ic .,
fib e r ,
an d
8 -5
( R ic h a r d s o n ,
c o n v e n ie n c e it e m s
sp a g h e tti
w ere
N u t r i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n on
t h e C o n su m er N u t r i t i o n C e n t e r
n u t r i t i v e v a lu e d a ta s e t " N u t r itiv e
p r o v id e d a ta on w a te r ,
1 9 7 9 ),
an d v a n i l l a p u d d in g m ix)
t h e s e f o o d s w a s o b t a i n e d fr o m
D e p t.
fiv e
1963)
( H a r s h , M o ss,
a n d c h e e s e m ax,
n o t a v a i l a b l e fro m t h e s e s o u r c e s .
( U .S .
an d 8 - 7
1 9 8 0 ) . D a ta f o r
s a u c e , fr o z e n sa u sa g e p iz z a ,
1 9 7 7 -7 8 "
1 9 7 6 ), 8 -2
( R e e v e s an d W e ih r a u c n ,
(H a r s h ,
and A n d e r so n ,
(b r o c c o li in
(W a tt a n d M e r r i l l ,
( P o s a t i and O r r ,
1 9 7 7 ), 8 -6
a n d a s c o r b i c a c i d w as
V a lu e s o f F o o d s U sed m
Survey,
1980b) .
B a s ic I n d iv id u a l,
T he t a p e s d id n o t
o r s o d iu m
an d s o t h e t a p e s
w ere n o t u sed f o r a l l fo o d s .
N u tr ie n t
prepared.
d a ta w ere
c a lc u la te d
F o r t h e f o o d s w h ic h
p rep ared in th e s o u r c e s
fo r
th e fo o a s
w ere n o t l i s t e d
o f n u t r ie n t in fo r m a tio n ,
as
a s a lr e a d y
n u tr ie n t
59
d a ta w ere f i r s t c a l c u la t e d
c o o k in g l o s s e s
n ia c in ,
fo r
f o r w a te r , v ita m in A ,
an d a s c o r b i c a c i d
L o ss o f w a te r
e a c h raw i n g r e d i e n t and t u e n
th ia m in ,
r ib o fla v in ,
w e r e c a l c u l a t e d and s u b t r a c t e d .
w a s a s su m e d t o b e t h e
d iffe r e n c e
b e t w e e n t h e raw p r o d u c t and
th e cook ed p r o d u c t.
l o s s e s w ere c a lc u la t e d
a ta b le
e s tim a te
th e
u s in g
v ita m in r e t e n t i o n
A d am s, a n d F i n c h e r ,
1 9 6 6 ).
in
lis tin g
cook ed
in
w e ig h t
V it a m in
f a c t o r s u sed to
fo o d s
(H e r r in ,
A l l n u t r i e n t d a ta w ere e x p r e s s e d
on a p e r - s e r v i n g b a s i s .
In o r d e r t o
o b t a i n e. s i n g l e
num ber w h ic h
in d ic a t io n o f th e n u tr ie n t c o n te n t
v e r s io n o f
t h e Mean A d e q u a cy
C r o c e t t i and G u t h r i e
MAR f o r e a c h f o o d ,
(1 9 8 1 )
wouxd be
an
o f ea ch fo o d a m o d i f i e d
R a tio
(MAR)
d e s c r i b e d oy
w as d e v e lo p e d .
th e p e r -s e r v in g
To c a l c u l a t e
am ount o f e a c n o f
tn e
n in e
n u t r ie n t s - p r o t e in , c a lc iu m , p h o sp h o r u s, i r o n ,
vitam in
th ia m in , r i b o f l a v i n , n ia c in ,
w^s d iv id e d
b y t h e U .S .
and a s c o r b i c a c i d -
RDA f o r t h a t n u t r i e n t a n d t h e n
lis te d
p e r c e n t o f t h e U .S . RDA.* Any n u t r i e n t w h ic h m et o r
t h e U . S . RDA w a s g i v e n a v a l u e o f
t h e n in e n u t r i e n t s w as th e n
a
,
as a
exceed ed
1 0 0 .0 .
A mean v a l u e f o r
c a lc u la te d .
A c o m p a r is o n w a s
1 U n i t e d S t a t e s R ecom m ended
D a i l y A ll o w a n c e ,
d e v e l o p e d oy
t h e Food
a n d D rug
A d m in is tr a tio n f o r
u se in
n u tr itio n
la b e lin g .
T he f o l l o w i n g U .S .
RDA v a l u e s
w ere u se d :
p r o t e i n - 45 g i f t h e P r o t e i n
E f f i c i e n c y R a t i o (PER)
w as >
c a s e in ,
o r 6 5 g i f t h e PER w as < c a s e i n ;
c a lc iu m - 1 .0 g ;
p h o sp h o r u s- 1 .0 g ;
i r o n - 18 mg;
v ita m in
A- 5000 I .U .;
t h i a m i n - 1 . 5 mg; r i b o f l a v i n — 1 . 7 mg; n i a c i n - 20 mg; a s c o r b i c
a c i d - 6 0 mg ( U .S . D e p t .
HEW, 1 9 7 6 ) .
60
m ade b e t w e e n t h e
UAH f o r e a c h f o o d i n
h o m e -p r e p a r e d fo r m .
S in c e n u t r ie n t s f o r
( J .S . BDA a r e a l s o o f i n t e r e s t ,
t h e am o u n t o f f o o d e n e r g y ,
fa t,
s o d iu m ,
its
w h ic h t h e r e i s
no
a c o m p a r is o n w as m ade b e t w e e n
fa t,
an d c r u d e f i b e r
c o n v e n ie n c e ana
p e r c e n t o f c a l o r i e s fro m
in
t h e c o n v e n ie n c e and n o n e -
p rep ared v e r s io n s o f each fo o d .
S e n so r y E v a lu a tio n
F ifte e n
o f t h e tw e n ty f o o d it e m s a n a ly z e d i n
( b i s c u i t s , p a n c a k e s , c o r n b r e a d , y e llo w
th is
stu a y
c a k e , c h o c o x a te c a k e ,
m a c a r o n i a n d c h e e s e , p i z z a , p u d d i n g , m ushroom s o u p ,
c h ic k e n
n o o d le s o u p ,
w h o le
c h o c o l a t e c h ip c o o k i e s ,
w heat b r e a d , w h ite r o l l s ,
a sen so ry
p r e p a r a tio n
p a n e l.
and s w e e t r o l l s )
E a ch f o o d
fo r m s,
w h ite b r e a d ,
and f o u r
w ere e v a lu a t e d
w as e v a l u a t e d
in
its
w ere
ite m s
(b is c u its ,
en ergy,
p repared fo r sen so ry e v a lu a tio n .
For a n a ly s is o f r e a d y -to -e a t
n a t i o n a l b r a n d an d
fo u r
r e p l i c a t i o n s o f e a c h p r o d u c t,
f o r m , s e p a r a t e fr o m t h e r e p l i c a t i o n s u s e d f o r t i m e ,
an d y i e l d a n a l y s e s ,
by
c o n v e n ie n c e p r o d u c t s ,
a h o u se b rand w ere
cornbread, c a k e s,
b o tn
e v a lu a te d .
c o o k ie s ,
a
B ak ed
b read s,
and
r o lls )
w e r e made a h e a d a n d f r o z e n a t - 1 8 °C f o r up t o t h r e e
w eek s.
R e a d y - t o -e a t c o n v e n ie n c e it e m s w ere fr o z e n
sa m e c o n d i t i o n s f o r
ite m s w ere
s e r v in g .
t h e sa m e l e n g t h o f
a llo w e d t o
com e t o
tim e .
room t e m p e r a t u r e
under t h e
T he baked
b e fo r e
T he p u d d in g w as m ade 2 4 h o u r s b e f o r e s e r v i n g
a llo w e d t o c h i l l
a t 3<>C u n t i l s e r v e d .
and
I t e m s w h ic h w e r e
61
served h ot
so u p s)
(p a n c a k e s , m a c a r o n i and c h e e s e ,
w e r e p r e p a r e d im m e d i a t e l y
b e fo r e s e r v in g
k e p t h o t by h o l d i n g o v e r a w a t e r b a t h .
r a n g e a n d o n e m ic r o w a v e o v e n w e r e
c o n v e n ie n c e
and
p iz z a ,
u s e d t o p r e p a r e b o th t a e
th e
fo llo w in g
p r e p a r a t i o n s c h e d u l e f o r h o t i t e m s w as f o l l o w e d
HP-ER
C-flW
HP-MW2
Rep 1
1s t
2 nd
2 nd
1s t
Rep 2
2 nd
1s t
1s t
2 nd
Rep 3
2nd
1s t
2 nd
1s t
Rep 4
1s t
2 nd
1s t
2nd
& p a n e l o f 26 ju d g e s w as s e l e c t e d
and g r a d u a te s t u d e n t s i n t h e
e lim in a te
fro m f a c u l t y ,
sta ff,
C o l l e g e o f Human H e s o u r c e s a t
V ir g in ia P o ly te c h n ic I n s t i t u t e
and
S t a t e U n iv e r s x ty .
1h j u d g e s c o m p le t e d t h e s e n s o r y e v a l u a t i o n ,
th e r e s u lt s
s e le c te d
to
le n g th o f h o ld in g .
C-ER
th e se 26,
and w e r e
B ecau se o n e a x e c t r ic
h o m e -p r e p a r e d f o o d s ,
p o s s ib le d iffe r e n c e s due to
ana th e
fro m t h e s e
w ere a sk ed
14 j u d g e s a r e r e p o r t e d .
to r e fr a in
l e a s t 6 0 m in u t e s b e f o r e a
o r c h e w in g gum
fo r
fr o m e a t i n g a
te s tin g
a t l e a s t 20
s e s s io n
0±
ana
The ju d g e s
m eal fo r a t
a n d fr o m s m o x in g
m in u t e s b e f o r e h a n d
(hSl'H ,
1 9 6 8 a ).
D u r in g a t r a i n i n g
s e s s io n
p r io r t o
th e
2 C= C o n v e n ie n c e f o o d ; HP= H o m e -p r e p a r e d f o o d ;
r a n g e ; MS= M ic r o w a v e o v e n .
s t a r t o f th e
ER = E l e c t r i c
62
sen so r y e v a lu a tio n ,
an d t h e j u d g e s
th e fa c to r s to
w ere g iv e n a c h a n c e t o
s c o r e s h e e t s by e v a l u a t i n g
u sed
b e s c o r e d w ere d e fin e d
in t h e s t u d y .
a
p r a c tic e
u s in g th e
p r o d u c t t h a t w as n o t a c t u a l l y
T h e j u d g e s w e r e n o t p a id b u t w e r e g i v e n
a to k e n rew ard a t t h e end o f t h e s t u d y .
S en so ry e v a lu a tio n to o k
a .m .
p l a c e t w i c e a w eek
f o r n i n e w e e k s a n d t w i c e a w eek a t 2 : 0 0 p .m .
w eek s.
The p a n e l w as h e l d
w ith e i g h t i n d i v i d u a l ,
b o o th s w ere s e t
in
an e v a l u a t i o n
n e u tr a l
gray
w as u s e d .
a p e n c il, g la s s o f d is t ille d
j u d g e w as
Warm w h i t e 1 5 - w a t t
w a t e r a t room t e m p e r a t u r e , s p i t
se a te d ,
n eeded.
a
p la te
was
c o n t a in in g t h e fo u r v e r s io n s o f a fo o d p r o d u c t
H P -E R , a n d HP-HW;
fo o d s w ere
o r C -N B , C -H B , HP-BR,
id e n tifie d
c o d in g ,
(1 9 6 5 ).
te x tu r e ,
fla v o r ,
(C -E B ,
c o d e n u m b e r s.
and o y A m erxne
T h e j u d g e r a t e d e a c h s a m p le f o r
an d o v e r a l l
s c a l e w ith d e s c r i p t o r s a t e a c h
g u a lity
appearance,
u s in g a n in e - p o in t
o f t h e n in e p o in t s
The p l a t e w as t h e n r e t u r n e d
C - mw,
and p r e s e n t a t io n o f th e
s a m p l e s w e r e t h o s e s u g g e s t e d b y ASTH ( 1 9 6 8 a )
e t a l.
p resen ted
and H P-H W ).3 T he
by ra n d o m t h r e e - d i g i t
P roced ures fo r s e le c t io n ,
A d d itio n a l
B a ch b o o t h w as e q u ip p e d w it h
c u p , n a p k in , and fo r k o r sp o o n i f
When a
fo r s ix
room e q u ip p e d
b o o th s.
up i n a n a d j o i n i n g r o o m .
flu o r e s c e n t lig h t in g
0 ).
a t 1 0 :0 0
(A p p e n d ix
and t h e j u d g e w a s g i v e n
3 NB = N a t i o n a l b r a n d ; HB = H o u se b r a n d .
a
63
secon d p la t e id e n t ic a l to th e
n u m b ers.
The s a m p le s w ere r a n k ed
th e f a c t o r s r e s p o n s ib le
n o ted
day.
it e m
f i r s t b u t w it h d i f f e r e n t c o d e
( A p p e n d ix £ ) .
fo r
w as
s e r v e d on any g iv e n
e v a lu a te d
th a t order o f
Two f o o d
The f o o d s w ere p a ir e d
one product
fir s t
i n o r d e r o f p r e f e r e n c e and
p r e f e r e n c e w ere
p r o d u c ts w ere e v a lu a te d e a c a
a t random a l t h o u g h o n l y o n e h o t
day.
and
H a lf o f
t h e ju d g e s
th e r e n a m in g
ju d g es
e v a lu a te d t h e o th e r p ro d u ct f i r s t .
D a ta A n a l y s i s
T hree r e p lic a t io n s o f ea ch v e r s io n o f each fo o d p ro d u ct
w e r e p r e p a r e d , an d t o t a l a n d a c t i v e p r e p a r a t i o n t i m e , e n e r g y
c o n s u m p tio n ,
te st
and y i e l d
( H o l la n d e r a n d t f o l f e ,
th e t e s t
s ta tis tic
w as u se d t o t e s t
fo o d ite m .
is
w ere m ea su red .
1 9 7 3 ),
fr o m Im&n,
fo r
T h is t e s t i s
w ith t a b u la t e d
Q us.de,
d iffe r e n c e s
T he K r u s k a l - W a l l i s
an d A le x a n d e r
(1 9 7 5 )
am ong t r e a t m e n t s f o r e a c h
u s e d w i t h s m a l l s a m p l e s w hen t n e r e
r e a s o n t o d o u b t t h e a s s u m p tio n s o f n o r m a lit y .
u s e s t h e m e d ia n ;
v a lu e s o f
T he t e s t
b o t h m e d ia n a n d mean v a l u e s a r e r e p o r t e d .
A l l s u b s e q u e n t a n a l y s e s w e r e b a s e d on m ed ia n v a l u e s .
F o u r r e p l i c a t i o n s o f e a c h p r e p a r a t i o n m eth o d o f f i f t e e n
fo o d s w ere
e v a lu a te d f o r se n so r y
q u a lity .
v a r i a n c e a n d D u n c a n 's H u l t i p l e R a n g e
te st
A n a ly s is o f
w ere u se d t o
te st
f o r d i f f e r e n c e s am ong t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s f o r e a c h v a r i a b l e f o r
each fo o d .
CHAPTER IV
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
I n tr o d u c tio n
For t h i s
stu d y s e le c t e d
h o n e -p r e p a r e d c o u n te r p a r ts
c o n v e n ie n c e fo o d s
w e r e p r e p a r e d w it h
r a n g e a n d w i t h a m ic r o w a v e o v e n .
y ie ld ,
t o t a l and
a c tiv e
c o n s u m p tio n , c o s t ,
r e a d in e s s ,
r e p o r te d
fo o d
n u tr ie n t
an e l e c t r i c
to r
p r e p a r a tio n tim e ,
w e ig n t and
en ergy
c h a r a c te r is tic s ,
co n te n t,
and d i s c u s s e d
The r e s u l t s
en d t n e i r
d e g r e e -o f-
and s e n s o r y
q u a lity are
in t h i s c h a p te r .
W e ig h t a n d Y i e l d
W e ig h t
lo s s
d u r in g
e v a p o r a tio n o f w a te r
oven h e a ts
c o o k in g i s
(M e r r ill e t a l . ,
f o o d s m o re r a p i d l y an d
e v a p o r a tio n o f w a te r ,
c o n v e n tio n a l
la r g e ly
1 9 6 6 ).
th o u g h h e a t in g
g e n e r a lly
range.
w h ic h w e i g h t r e t e n t i o n
r a n g e in c lu d e d
sh o r te r
to
th o se
(b is c u its );
a g r e a te r
t im e i n
t h a n w it h t h e
w h ic h h ad a n i n g r e d i e n t
u sed fo r
e le c tr ic
th e e l e c t r ic
added t o t h e
range
or p a r t ia lly
w ith t h e e l e c t r i c r a n g e
64
th e
th e e l e c t r i c
t h o s e w h ic h w e r e f u l l y
u n c o v e r e d d u r in g h e a t i n g
th a n
w it h t h e m ic r o w a v e
th a n w e ig h t r e t e n t i o n w ith
m ic r o w a v e v e r s i o n w h ic h w a s n o t
v e r s io n
T h e m ic r o w a v e
may l e a d
m ic r o w a v e o v e n i s
o v e n w as g r e a t e r
to
and t h u s g r e a t e r w e i g h t l o s s ,
h e a tin g ev en
Foods in
due
b u t w ere
65
covered
in
c h e e se );
t h e m ic r o w a v e
and t h o s e
s u r f a c e a r e a w ere
e le c tr ic
oven
( p u d d in g ,
w h e r e t h e b a k in g fo rm
r a n g e tn a n
in th e
m ic r o w a v e o v e n
h o m e -p r e p a r e d p i e s
w ere fr o z e n
t h e th a w in g /e v a p o r a tio n
m ore r a p i d l y i n
at
(c o o k ie s ).
t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n ,
w e ig h e d m ore
T h i s may h a v e b e e n d u e
c o n v e n ie n c e p i e s
w xth t h e
p o t p i e w e ig h e d m ore w hen
p r e p a r e d w it h t h e e l e c t r i c r a n g e t h a n i n
p r e p a r a tio n .
and am ount o f
m ore c o n d u c i v e t o e v a p o r a t i o n
C o n v e n ie n c e a p p l e p i e an d c h i c k e n
but th e
m a c a r o n i and
a fte r
m ic r o w a v e
to th e f a c t th a t th e
th e s t a r t
o f h e a tin g ,
le a d in g t o w e ig h t l o s s
t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n t h a n
ana
to o * p la c e
w ith t h e
e le c tr ic
range.
M ed ian and m ean
t o t a l p r o d u c t c o o k e d w e ig h t
d i f f e r e n t p r e p a r a t io n fo r m s o f e a c h
T a b le 3 .
Ten i t e m s p r e p a r e d
f o o d it e m a r e show n xn
w ith t n e
( b is c u it s , p an cak es, corn b read , b r o c c o li,
s o u p , c o o k ie s , w h ite b r e a d ,
r o lls )
p r e p a r e d th a n
in
m o re
r o lls )
( p < .1 0 )
in
(b is c u its ,
a ls o
w e ig h e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y
n o o d l e s o u p an d f r i e d
in
m ore
ana s w e e t
t h e h om e-
E ig h t fo o d s
p an cak es,
( p < .1 0 )
c o n v e n ie n c e th a n
p iz z a ,
and s w e e t
w hen p r e p a r e d
Two m ic r o w a v e - p r e p a r e d i t e m s
c h ic k e n )
range
mushroom
p o t p i e , a p p le p i e , c o o k ie s , w h ite b r e a d ,
fro m a hom e r e c i p e .
(p < .1 0 )
p iz z a ,
t h e c o n v e n ie n c e v e r s i o n .
p r e p a r e d i n t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n
c h ic k e n
e le c tr ic
w h o le w h e a t b r e a d ,
w e ig h e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y
fo r th e
( c n ic k e n
w e ig h e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y
in h o m e -p r e p a r e d
fo r m .
m ore
In
I
66
Tabla 3
Madiai a d Mesi Weight o f Cctivwiienca and Hane-Preparad Foods la E laccrlc Bang* and Microwave Oven
Convenience
E laccrlc Range
B iscuits
Pncakes
Combread
Yellow cake
Chocolate cake
Broccoli
Macarcni & cheese
Spaghetti sauce
Pizza
Pudding
ttjshrocm soup
Chicken noodle soup
Chide® pot pie
Apple p ie
TV dinner
Carrots
Potatoes
F ried chicken
Median
(8)
266.0*
276.0*
509.0*
812.0*
840.0*
275.0*
643.0*
427.0*
360.0*
510.0*
568.0*
607.0*
220.0*
561.0*
320.0*
62.0*
103.0*
156.0*
Mean + SD
(8 )"
265.74; 4.5
277.3+ 5.1
510.3+ 5.1
805.0+26.2
830.7+19.7
276.0+ 2.6
644.3+ 2.3
425.7+ 4.2
364.7+ 9.0
511.0+ 4.6
567.0+ 1.7
602.3+14.6
218.0+ 7.2
559.3+ 6.7
324.3+24.8
62.7+ 3.1
103.0+ 1.0
158.7+27.1
Hone-Prepared
Micrcwwe Oven
Madim
287.0*
239.0*
500.0*
680.0*
269.0*
716.0*
415.0*
322.0*
574.0*
566.0*
590.0*
196.0*
514.0*
292.0*
48.0b
95.0*
145.0*
E lectric Range
Mean + SD Median Mean + SD
(gF
(8>
<sT
284.3+ 5.5 474.0 474.0+10.0
239.7+ 7.0 419.0C 420.0+10.5
500.7+12.0 594.0b 597.7+ 7.2
661.7+23.0 771.0* 780.3+22.5
680.0+12.0 955.0b 954.7+13.5
270.0+ 8.5 335.0 333.0+ 3.5
717.0+15.5 681.0* 685.0+20.3
415.7+ 8.0 404.0* 408.7+13.6
315.3+23.7 777.0° 776.7+12.5
574.3+ 4.5 551.0* 555.0+19.3
567.3+ 7.1 818.0b 823.7+13.4
585.7+ 7.5 503.0* 504.0+ 4.6
200.0+ 7.8 863.015® 863.3+11.5
500.7+27.51083.0bc1083.3+ 9.6
297.7+23.0 303.0* 302.0+ 9.5
47.7+2.5 66.0* 66.0+ 1.0
94.7+2.5 1J07.0* 103.0+ 7.8
155.3+24.2 129.0* 131.7+4.6
Microwave Oven
Medim Mean + SD
(8)“
(8)
505.0° 507.7+ 8.3
343.0bc 341.7+ 4.2
581.0* 584.3+ 6.7
702.0* 707.3+13.8
326.0* 827.3+^.1
299.0* 300.3+ 7.1
802.0b 800.3+ 5.7
354.0b 349.3+ 9.0
745.0^° 743.0+ 5.3
587.0b 586.7+10.5
814.0* 809.7+ 9.3
484.0b 483. > 16.0
903.0° 909.7+15.1
1113.0° 1110.7+18.6
263.0b 265.3+ 4.9
5 9 .0 * 58.7+ 1.5
97.0* 95.7+ 3.2
U 0.0b 111.0+5.6
Ready-to-2at
Cookies
White bread
Whole wheat bread
White ro ils
Sweet ro lls
Mediai (g)
Mean + SD (g)
387.0*
458.0*
475.0*
362.0*
317.0*
388.7+ 3..8
454.0+12 .5
472.0+ 7,.0
363.0+ 8.,5
315.0+6,.2
575.0b
615.0b
782.0b
371.0*
860.0b
575.7+ 2.1
620.0+23.9
786.0+ 8.7
369.0+ 7.2
856.0+10.6
605.0b
6 0 3 .$
758.0*
359.0®
822.0b
604.0+ 2.6
601.3+11.6
760.0+ 8.2
357.7+ 8.1
823.0+12.5
a.b.c Within a rtw, medians wich d ifferm t le tte rs are sig itfican tly different (p <.lfl) using the
Kruskal-Wallia te st.
67
a d d itio n ,
tw o c o n v e n i e n c e f o o d s
w e ig n e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y
e le c tr ic
m ore
ra n g e th a n in
(y e llo w
( p C .1 0 )
w hen p r e p a r e d w it h t h e
t h e m xcrow ave o v e n .
A c o m p a r is o n o f p e r c e n t a g e
d i f f e r e n c e i n c o o ite d w e ig n t
b e tw e e n c o n v e n ie n c e and h o m e -p r e p a r e d
T a b le 4 .
T h ir ty -s ix
r a n g e a n d 18
in
fo o d s
(1 8
in
p r o d u c ts i s
w e ig h e d
m o re i n t h e
th e c o n v e n ie n c e fo r m .
d if f e r e n c e e x p r e sse d a s p e r c e n ta g e ranged
f o r t h e ite m s p r e p a r e d
w it h
sh ow n i n
p r e p a r e d w it h t h e e l e c t r i c
t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n )
h o m e -p r e p a r e d th a n
c a £ e and c a r r o ts )
th e e le c t r ic
The w e ig h t
fro m 2.4% range,
74.5%
e n d fr o m
2.1% - 78.3% f o r t h e m i c r o w a v e - p r e p a r e d f o o d s .
W e ig h t w as
g r e a te r fo r
w x th t h e
e le c tr ic
te n
c o n v e n ie n c e f o o d s
r a n g e a n d 5 i n t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n )
h o m e -p r e p a r e d c o u n t e r p a r t s .
e x p r e sse d a s p e r c e n ta g e
prep ared
a n a ly z e d
w as fro m 5.0% t o
t h e i r s t u d y p r o v id e d
17.3% f o r i t e m s
an d fro m 0.8% -
t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n .
a l s o r e p o r t e d t h a t "m any"
in
th a n f o r t h e i r
T he r a n g e o f w e ig h t d i f f e r e n c e
w it h t h e e l e c t r i c r a n g e ,
ite m s p r e p a red i n
(1 9 7 9 )
(5 p r e p a r e d
of
T ra u b
24.1% f o r
a n d O d ia n d
t h e c o n v e n ie n c e fo o d s
few er s e r v in g s
tn a a tn e x r
h o m e -p r ep a r e d c o u n t e r p a r t s .
As sh o w n . i n T a b le
5,
th ir ty -tw o
c o n v e n i e n c e a n d 17 h o m e -p r e p a r e d )
w ith t h e e l e c t r i c r a n g e th a n
p erc e n ta g e d iffe r e n c e in
f o r t h e c o n v e n ie n c e
in
fo o d
ite m s
(1 5
w e ig h e d m ore w hen p r e p a r e d
t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n .
w e i g h t r a n g e d fro m 0.4%
i t e m s a n d fro m 0.5% t o
The
t o 22.6%
18.1% f o r t h e
Tabla 4
Ccnpariaon o f T otal Produce Weight Beg— i Convenience aid Home-Prepared Foods
HP^>
C > HP
E lectric Range
White to lls
Potatoes
Macaroni & cheeae
Carrots
Ridding
Chocolate cake
♦Combread
♦Broccoli
♦Ifcita braed
♦Mushroan soup
♦Cookies
*Pancakas
♦Whole wheat bread
♦Biscuits
Apple pie
♦Pizza
♦Sweet ro lls
Chicken pot pie
HP WT3
371
107
681
66
551
955
594
335
615
818
575
419
782
474
1083
777
860
863
C WT
362
103
643
62
510
840
509
274
458
568
387
275
475
266
561
360
317
220
Microwave Oven
Potatoes
Pudding
Yellow cake
Broccoli
Macaroni & cheese
Cornbread
Chocolate cake
Carrots
♦White bread
♦Pancakes
ttiahrocm soup
♦Cookies
tftiola wheat bread
★Biscuits
♦Apple pie
♦ P itta
♦Sweet ro lls
♦Chicken pot pie
97
587
702
299
802
581
826
59
603
343
814
605
758
505
1113
745
822
903
95
574
661
269
716
500
680
48
458
239
566
387
475
287
514
322
317
196
E le ctric Range
Yellow cake
TV dim er
Spaghetti sauce
Chicken noodle soup
Fried d r lr k i
7. O lff4
2.4
3.7
5.6
6.0
7.4
12.0
14.3
17.9
25.5
30.6
32.7
34.1
39.2
43.9
48.2
53.7
63.1
74.5
C WT
812
320
427
607
156
HP WT
771
303
404
503
129
7. D iff
5.0
5.3
5.4
17.1
17.3
362
292
415
590
145
359
263
354
484
110
0.8
9.9
14.7
18.0
24.1
Microwave Own
White ro lls
TV dim er
Spaghetti sauce
♦Chicken noodle soup
♦Fried chicken
2.1
2.2
5.8
10.0
10.7
13.9
17.7
18.6
24.0
30.3
30.5
36.0
37.3
43.2
53.8
56.8
61.4
78.3
1.
2.
3.
4.
HP - Hana-prepared food
C - Ccnvenimca food
WT - Weight in grana
7, D ifference “ la rg e r valua-anal!er value
Larger value
*
Food for tfdch difference significant (p<.10) using the Kruskal-Uallis case.
jg .
Tabla 5
Goaparlaon o f T otal Product Haight Bet ween Foods Prepared w ith the E lectric Range and w ith the
Mlorewatm Oven
ER1 > MH2
m >ER
ERWT3 MWWT
Caawarlarce
568
Mishroon soup
566
Combread
500
509
269
Broccoli
275
Spaghetti sauce
427
415
Chicken noodle soup
607
590
M a d chicken
156
145
Potatoes
103
95
514
Apple pie
561
292
TV dim er
320
Pizza
360
322
Chickm pot p la
220
196
Pancakes
276
239
*Yallcv cake
312
661
Chocolate cake
840
640
*Carrots
62
48
Htme-Praoared
taahrooB soup
White bread
Combread
Whole wheat bread
White ro lls
Chicken noodle soup
Pizza
Sweat ro lls
Yellow cake
Potatoes
Carrots
Broccoli
Spaghetti sauce
TV dim er
Chocolate cake
F ried chlrkm
Pmcakea
818
615
594
782
371
503
777
860
771
107
66
335
404
303
955
129
419
314
603
5B1
758
359
484
745
822
702
97
59
299
354
263
826
110
343
7. D lff4
0.4
1.8
2.2
2.8
2.8
7.0
7.8
8.4
8.3
10.6
10.9
13.4
18.6
19.0
22.6
Convenience
B iscuits
Macaroni & cheese
Pudding
tWWT
287
716
574
ERWT
266
643
510
1113
903
605
587
505
802
1083
863
575
551
474
681
X D lff
7.3
10.2
11.1
Hme-Piauered
Apple pie
Chlrkm pot pla
Cooklas
Pudding
B iscuits
Macaroni & cheese
0.5
2.0
2.2
3.1
3.2
3.8
4.1
4.4
8.9
9.3
10.6
10.7
12.4
13.2
13.5
14.7
18.1
1. ER ■ Elaccrl c Edge
2. Mf “ Microwave Oven
3. WT - Height In grass
4. 7. Difference ■ Larger valua - sm aller valua _ 1m
Larger value
* Food fo r which differencesignificant (p<.lfl)using the Kruakal-Wallis te st.
2.7
4i4
5.0
6.1
6.1
15.1
70
h o m e -p r e p a r e d f o o d s .
an d 6 h o m e - p r e p a r e d )
m ic r o w a v e o v e n .
C o n v e r s e ly , n in e it e m s
h a d h i g h e r w e i g h t s w hen p r e p a r e d xn t o e
P o r c o n v e n ie n c e
p ro d u cts th e p e r c e n ta g e
w e i g h t d i f f e r e n c e r a n g e d fr o m 7 . 3 * t o
p rep a red ite m s th e p e r c e n ta g e
2.7% t o
fo o d s.
1 1 .1 % , w h i l e f o r h o m e -
w e ig h t d i f f e r e n c e
r a n g e d fro m
1 5 .1 * .
I n su m m a ry , t h e m a j o r i t y
y ie ld e d
(3 c o n v e n i e n c e
m o re
(78.3% )
e g u a l-w e ig h t s e r v in g s
T h is t r e n d
fo o d s prep ared
th a n d id
w as s i g n i f i c a n t
w ith t h e e l e c t r i c
o f h o m e -p r e p a r e d f o o d s
( p < .1 0 )
c o n v e n ie n c e
fo r
r a n g e an d f o r
f o o d s p r e p a r e d w it h t h e m ic r o w a v e
oven.
43.5% o f
34.8% o f
H o w ev er 8.7% o f
f o o d s p r e p a r e d w it h t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n w e ig h e d s i g n x f x c a n - c l y
m ore
( p < .1 0 )
in
t h e c o n v e n ie n c e fo r m .
o f fo o d s p r e p a r e d w ith th e
f o o d s p r e p a r e d w it h
s ig n ific a n t
( p < .1 0 )
S e v e n ty -e ig h t p e r c e n t
e l e c t r i c r a n g e w e ig h e d m ore t h a n
t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n .
fo r
T h is
t r e n d w as
1 1 .1 * o f c o n v e n i e n c e f o o d s .
P o r s u b s e q u e n t c o s t an d n u t r i e n t a n a l y s e s ,
c o m p a r is o n s
am ong t h e p r e p a r a t i o n f o r m s f o r e a c h f o o d p r o d u c t w e r e o a s e a
on t h e
num ber o f e q u a l
T a b le 6 s h o w s
fo r m o f e a c h
w e ig h t s e r v in g s in
t h e n u m ber o f s e r v i n g s
fo o d p r o d u c t.
fo o d s w ere packaged
to y ie ld
tn e p r o d u c t.
f o r ea ch p r e p a r a tio n
The m a j o r it y
few er s e r v in g s
o f c o n v e n ie n c e
th a n w ere t h e
h o m e -p r e p a r e d c o u n t e r p a r t s .
T o t a l T im e
One
o f th e
a d v a n ta g e s o f
c o n v e n ie n c e f o o d s ,
as
71
Table 6
Number of Equal Weight Servings for Convenience and HomePrepared Foods in Electric Range and Microwave Oven
Convenience
Electric
Range
Microwave
Oven
Home-Prepared
Electric
Range
Microwave
Oven
Biscuits (53.2)^
5.0
5.4
8.9
9.5
Pancakes (92.0)
3.0
2.6
4.6
3.7
Combread (84.8)
6.0
5.9
7.0
6.8
Yellow Cake (67.7)
12.0
9.8
11.4
10.4
Chocolate Cake
(70.0)
12.0
9.7
13.6
11.8
Broccoli (68.8)
4.0
3.9
4.9
5.0
Macaroni & cheese
(161.0)
4.0
4.4
4.2
5.0
Spaghetti sauce
(106.8)
4.0
3.9
3.8
3.3
Pizza (180.0)
2.0
1.8
4.3
4.1
Pudding (127.5)
4.0
4.5
4.3
4.6
Mushroom soup (284.0)
2.0
2.0
2.9
2.9
Chicken noodle soup
incl. broth (303.5)
2.0
1.9
1.6
1.6
Chicken pot pie
(220.0)
1.0
0.9
3.9
4.1
Apple pie (93.5)
6.0
5.5
11.6
11.9
TV dinner (320.0)
1.0
0.9
0.9
0.8
1.
Numbers in parentheses after each food represent the
weight in grams of one serving.
72
Table 6 (Continued)
Number of Equal Weight Servings for Convenience and HomePrepared Foods in Electric Range and Microwave Oven
Convenience
Electric
Range
Microwave
Oven
Home-Prepared
Electric
Range
Microwave
Oven
Carrots (62.0)
1.0
0.8
1.1
1.0
Potatoes (103.0)
1.0
0.9
1.0
0.9
Fried chicken (156. 0)
1.0
0.9
0.8
0.7
17.0
25.2
26.5
White Bread (57.2)
8.0
10.8
10.5
Whole wheat bread
(59.4)
8.0
13.1
12.8
White rolls (36.2)
10.0
10.2
9.9
Sweet rolls (39.6)
8.0
21.7
20.8
Ready- to-Eat
Cookies (22.8)
73
p e r c e i v e d by c o n s u m e r s ,
(T in k lin e t a l . ,
is
1 9 7 2 ).
t h a t c o n v e n i e n c e f o o d s s a v e t im e
The tim e s a v in g
a s w hen t h e c o n v e n i e n c e
product i s
or i t
s m a ll,
may
be r e la tiv e ly
may b e v e r y g r e a t ,
p u rch ased r e a d y - t o - e a t ,
a s w ith
so m e m ix e s t h a t
r e q u ir e th e
a d d itio n o f o th e r in g r e d ie n t s
The m a jo r ity
(91.3% )
s tu d y r e q u ir e d l e s s
o f c o n v e n ie n c e
b e f o r e c o o k in g .
fo o d s t e s te d
t o t a l p r e p a r a tio n
in t h i s
tim e th a n t h e i r
h o m e-
prepared c o u n te r p a r ts.
C o n v e n ie n c e p r o d u c t s w h ic h t o o t m ore
t o t a l p r e p a r a t io n tim e
t h a n t h e sam e f o o d s
in g r e d ie n t s
i n c l u d e d tw o i t e m s w h e r e t h e c o n v e n i e n c e p r o d u c t
r e q u ir e d
a lo n g e r h e a t in g tim e t o
d on en ess
(y e llo w
c a k e a n d p u d d in g
o v e n ) ; a n d o n e it e m
in
a c h i e v e t h e sa m e d e g r e e o f
prepared in
o f h e a t i n g and w n ic h h a d
c o o k in g t im e
( b r o c c o l i p r e p a r e d w ith t h e
m ic r o w a v e
w as f r o z e n
a r e la tiv e ly
e le c tr ic
sh ort
ra n g e ).
(c o r n b r e a d p r e p a r e d w ith t h e e l e c t r i c r a n g e )
m o re t o t a l
tim e i n
t h e c o n v e n ie n c e
d i f f e r e n c e w as l e s s
th a n on e m in u te .
H e d ia n
an d m ean
to ta l
ite m s
c h o c o la te c a k e ,
fo r m b u t
p r e p a r a tio n
d i f f e r e n t v e r s i o n s o f e a c h f o o d ite m
S ix te e n
th e
w h ic h t h e c o n v e n i e n c e fo rm
a t th e s t a r t
One i t e m
made fro m raw
t n e t im e
t im e f o r
a r e sh o w n i n
p r e p a r e d w it h t h e e l e c t r i c
range
to o k
th e
T a b le 7 .
(n is c u its ,
m a c a r o n i and c h e e s e , s p a g h e t t i s a u c e ,
p iz z a
w i t h an d w i t h o u t s a u c e t i m e , p u d d i n g , m ushroom s o u p , c h i c x e n
n o o d l e s o u p w i t h an d w i t h o u t
w ith b r o th t i m e , c o o x i e s ,
b ro th tim e ,
w h ite b r e a d ,
c h ic k e n p o t p i e
w h o le w h e a t b r e a a , '
74
Tabla 7
Medial and Mean Total Preparation U na f a r Ccnvwrrlance and Hone-Prepared Foods In E lectric Rage aid
Microwave Ousn
Ccnvsiiaice
Microwave Oven
E lectric Roige
Btaarita
Poicakaa
Combread
Yellow cake
Chocolate caka
Broccoli
Macaroni & cheese
Spaghetti aoice
Pizza
Pizza I n d . sauce
Ridding
Mushroom soup
drlckan noodle soi^
Chicken noodle soup
I n d . broth
Chicken pot pie
Chickm pot pla
I n d . broch
Apple pie
TV dim er
Carrots
Potatoes
Fried chlckan
Medial Meai + SD
<Wh») (mtnj"
Madlai
(adn)
Msai + SD
(adnT
17. 0*
14.5®
20.0**®
U.O6
3 8 .5 *
34.0*
10.0b
2 6 .0 *
8.0*
12.5*
12.5b
U.sh®
2 1 .5 *
9 .0 *
9 .0 *
14.% 0.5
19.% 0.3
13.0+0.0
38.2+ 1.0
30.8+5.9
10.2+0.3
26.0+0.5
8 .% 0.0
12.3+0.3
12.3+0.3
15.5+0.5
21.% 0.6
9.0+ 0.0
9.0+ 0.0
4 4.5* 44.3+0.3
4 4.5* 44.3+0.3
8.0b
8.0*
8.2+ 0.3
8 .% 0.3
3 9.0* 39.2+ 0.3
43.0* 43.% 0.3
-
13.5C
9.0*
-
13.7+0.3
8.8+ 0.3
-
8.5®
24.0®
39.0*
40.5*
22.5®
20.0®
7.5®
18.0*
18.0*
12.0®
12.0*
5.0®
5.0*
17.0J; 0.5
8.7+ 0.8
23.% 0.3
39.0+ 1.0
40.8+ 1.0
22.5+0.5
19.8+0.3
7.5+ 0.5
17.8+0.3
17.8+0.3
U .% 0.8
12.0+ 0.5
5.0+ 0.0
5.0+ 0.0
Sane-Prepared
Microwave ovm
E lectric Bangs
Martial Mwn + SD
(nrtnj"
(ndn)
Median Meat + SD
(adn)
(adn)
29.0* 29.% 0.8 20.5?** 20.% 0.8
11.5®* 11.5+0.5 29.5b 29.% 0.3
23.5® 23.% 0.3 1 5.0* 15.% 0.3
42.0® 41.7+ 0.6 37.0b 36.7+0.6
57.0* 57.0+ 1.0 48.015* 48.% 1.0
tt.O 5* 12.% 0.3 15.5®* 15.% 0.3
59.0* 58.% 0.6 42.5b* 42.% 1.0
58.0b 58.0+ 1.0 3 2 .5 * 32.% 0.8
99.0* 99.0+0.0 82.0bc 81.% 0.8
157.0* 157.0+ 1.0 115.0®* 114.2+ 1.4
35.01* 36.0+1.7 14.5®* 14.% 0.5
48.5* 48.% 0.6 25.oh* 25.% 1.0
20.sh* 20.% 0.3 23.0* 23.% 0.6
100.0* 100.% 1.2 75.5b* 75.% 0.5
55.0* 55.% 1.0
136.0* 136.% 0.5
67.0*
57.0*
14.0®
21.0®
22.0*
67.%
56.%
14.%
20.%
22.%
0.6
0.8
0.0
0.6
0.3
30.0b
192.oh
188.oh
167.5b
175.5b
30.%
192.%
187.%
167.%
175.%
0.3
1.0
2.1
0.8
1.3
31.O6* 31.% 0.6
83.oh* 83.% 1.3
37.oh*
42. s1**
10.0**
12.oh
20.5b
37.%
42.%
10.%
11.%
20.%
0.3
0.3
0.0
0.3
0.5
18.%
173.%
167.%
153.%
165.%
0.5
1.0
2.1
0.8
1.3
Reedy-to-Eat
Cookies
White bread
Whole tdiaac bread
White roll*
Sweat ro lls
Median
Meat + SD
0.0*'
0.0*
0.0*
0.0*
0.0*
0.0+
0.0+
0.0+
0.0+
0.0+
0.0
0.0
0.0'
0.0
0.0
18.5b
173.01*
l£8.oh
153.5h
165.5b
a.b.c Within a tow, martlaia with different laceata are algnl ft candy d jfferm t (p<.10) using tha
Kruskal-Uallis te st.
75
w h ite r o l l s ,
and s w e e t r o l l s )
t i m e , ( p < .1 0 )
in
to o k s i g n i f i c a n t l y
h o m e -p r e p a r e d th a n i n
w h ile o n e c o n v e n ie n c e fo o d p r e p a r e d
(b r o c c o li)
th a n i t s
in
r e q u ir e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y
p iz z a w ith and
c o o k ie s ,
tim e ,
in
c h ic k e n
p i e w it h
range s in c e
e ffic ie n tly
ite m s t e s t e d
in
(c o n v e n ie n c e
r e q u ir e
h e a t e d w it h
an
h e a t f o o d s m o re
The m a jo r ity
(7 8 .0 % )
t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n .
w h ic h r e q u i r e d m ore t o t a l t i m e i n
ran ge
and
of
t o o k m o re t o t a l p r e p a r a t i o n t i m e
w ith t h e e l e c t r i c r a n g e th a n i n
e le c tr ic
b r o th tim e ,
fr e q u e n tly
th a n t h o s e
1973) .
t h i s stu d y
n o o d le sou p
w h ite r o l l s ,
a m ic r o w a v e o v e n may
(V an Z a n t e ,
b r o c c o li,
c o n v e n ie n c e fo r m .
a m ic r o w a v e o v e n
p r e p a r a t i o n t im e
( p < .1 0 )
m ore t o t a l p r e p a r a t i o n r im e
in h o m e -p r e p a r e d th a n i n
to ta l
e le c tr ic
c h ic k e n p o t
ran ge
T w e lv e i t e m s p r e p a r e d
( b is c u it s , c h o c o la te ca k e,
to o k s i g n if ic a n t l y
Foods h e a te d
le s s
t o t a l tim e
w h i t e b r e a d , w h o le w h e a t b r e a d ,
sw eet r o lls )
( p < .1 0 )
m ore
w ith o u t s a u c e t i m e ,
w ith o u t b r o th
c o n v e n ie n c e fo r m ,
w it h t h e e l e c t r i c
h o m e -p r e p a r e d c o u n t e r p a r t .
t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n
m ore t o t a l
Item s
t h e m ic r o w a v e t h a n m
sp a g h e tti sa u ce,
p u d d in g ,
m a c a r o n i and c h e e s e , m ushroom s o u p , c h i c h e n n o o d l e s o u p ,
p a n c a k e s , and h o m e -p r e p a r e d c h ic k e n n o o d le s o u p ,
and p a n c a k e s )
and
b r o c c o li,
w e r e a l l o n e s w h ic h w e r e p r e p a r e d o n a s u r f a c e
u n it o f th e e l e c t r i c ra n g e.
a m a jo r ity
th e
o f ite m s
L aughon
r e q u ir e d l e s s
m ic r o w a v e o v e n th em w i t h an
e le c tr ic
(1 9 8 0 )
a ls o
c o o k in g tim e
ran ge,
fo u n d t h a t
w it n a
a lth o u g h s h e
76
rep o rte d
th a t
so m e i t e m s r e q u i r e d
m ic r o w a v e t h a n o n a n e l e c t r i c
As in d ic a t e d
in
T a b le
lo n g e r to
7,
d in n e r )
r e q u ir e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y
( p < .1 0 )
w hen p r e p a r e d w it h t h e
p u d d in g )
fiv e
c o n v e n ie n c e fo o d s
m ic r o w a v e o v e n
th a n on an
E ig h t h o m e -p r e p a r e d it e m s
p ie ,
fr ie d
tim e
e le c tr ic
( p < .1 0 )
e le c tr ic
su r fa c e
(y e llo w
r e q u ir e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y
o n e h o m e -p r e p a r e d
s ig n ific a n tly
m ic r o w a v e o v e n t h a n o n a n e l e c t r i c
p r o d u c ts i s
o f p erce n ta g e
tim e b e tw e e n
r a n g e a n d 2 1 m ic r o w a v e o v e n )
tim e in
p e r c e n t a g e t im e d i f f e r e n c e
100.0% f o r i t e m s p r e p a r e d i n
pot
an d
to o x
( p < .1 0 )
in th e
ran ge su r fa c e u n it .
d iffe r e n c e
r e q u ir e d
in
to ta l
c o n v e n ie n c e
(2 1 e l e c t r i c
m ore t o t a l p r e p a r a t i o n
th e c o n v e n ie n c e fo r m .
r a n g e d fr o m 7.1% -
it e m s p r e p a r e d w ith t h e e l e c t r i c
(2 e l e c t r i c
t im e
F o r ty -tw o ite m s
t h e h o m e -p r e p a r e d th a n i n
u n it.
t h e m ic r o w a v e
(p a n ca k es)
h o m e - p r e p a r e d an d
sh ow n i n T a b le 8 .
tn e
m ore t o t a l p r e p a r a t i o n
fo o d
m ore t o t a l p r e p a r a t i o n
c o m p a r is o n
in
m a sh ed p o t a t o e s ,
w ith t h e e l e c t r i c r a n g e th a n in
w h ile
p r e p a r a tio n
ran ge
ana
c a k e , p u d d in g , c h ic x e n
c h ic k e n )
A
(p a n c a k e s
m ore t o t a l t i m e
TV d i n n e r , c a r r o t s ,
oven,
an d TV
ra n g e th a n in th e
ite m s
a p p le p i e ,
( p < .1 0 )
a p p le p i e ,
m o re t o t a l p r e p a r a t i o n r im e
Two c o n v e n i e n c e
to o * s ig n if ic a n t l y
in th e
ran ge su r fa c e u n it.
(c o r n b r e a d , b r o c c o l i , c h ic k e n p o t p i e ,
m ic r o w a v e o v e n .
heat
range,
100.0% f o r
and from
t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n .
r a n g e a n d 2 m ic r o w a v e o v e n )
The
r e g u ir e d
13.1% F ou r i t e m s
m ore t o t a l
77
Table 8
Mne P atro n Canvmitnra and Heme-Prepared Food*
Comparison o f Total
C > HP
HP1 > C2
E lactric Racsa
Yellow oak*
Chicken pot pla
TV (tim e
Psicakes
*Chocolate cake
*BiscuLts
Apple pla
♦Pudding
♦Macaroni & chaasa
♦Chicken pot pla
I n d . broth
♦Mushroom soup
♦Chicken noodLa soup
♦Pirza
♦Spaghetti sauce
♦Pizza I n d . saucs
♦Chicken noodle soup
♦Cookies
♦Whit* bread
♦Whole wheat brood
♦White ro lls
♦Sweet ro lls
Microwave Oven
Combread
Mishrocm soup
♦Chocolate coke
♦Biscuits
Paacakes
♦Broccoli
Macaroni & chaasa
♦Chicken noodle soup
Apple pla
Chicken pot pla
Spaghetti sauce
TV d im e
♦Pizza
Chicken noodle soup
In d . broth
♦Pizza in d . souca
♦Chicken pot pla
I n d broth
♦Cookiaa
♦White bread
♦Whole wheat broad
♦White ro lls
♦Sweat ro lls
HP TT3
42.0
55.0
57.0
11.5
57.0
29.0
67.0
35.0
59.0
136
C TT
39.0
44.5
43.0
8.5
40.5
17.0
39.0
12.0
20.0
44.5
% PIS
7.1
19.1
24.6
26.1
28.9
41.4
41.8
65.7
66.1
67.3
48.5
20.5
99.0
58.0
157.0
100.0
30.0
192.0
188.0
167.0
175.0
12.0
5.0
18.0
7.5
18.0
5.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
75.2
75.6
81.8
87.1
88.5
95.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
15.0
25.0
48.0
20.5
29.5
15.5
42.5
23.0
37.0
31.0
32.5
42.5
82.0
75.5
13.0
21.5
34.0
14.5
20.0
10.0
26.0
9.0
13.5
8.0
8.0
9.0
12.5
9.0
13.3
14.0
29.2
29.3
32.2
35.5
38.8
60.9
63.5
74.2
75.4
78.8
84.8
88.1
115.0
83.0
12.5
8.0
89.1
90.4
18.5
173.0
168.0
153.5
165.5
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
1. HP - Hana-preporad food
2. C - Convenience food
3. TT - Total preparation d a * in minutes
4. 7. Diffemnca - L arne value - sm elle value
L arge valua
*
E lactric Raise
Combread
♦Broccoli
C TT
24.0
22.5
HP TT
23.5
12.0
Z M ff
2.1
46.7
38.5
15.5
37.0
14.5
3.9
6.4
MLcroweve Oven
Yellow cake
Pudding
^y.
Food for which difference shprLficant (p<.10) using the Kruskd-Wellia tM t.
78
tim e in
t h e c o n v e n ie n c e th a n in
ran ge o f p erce n ta g e
t h e hom e—p r e p a r e d f o r m .
t i m e d i f f e r e n c e w as fro m
f o r t h e i t e m s p r e p a r e d w it h
th e e l e c t r ic
The
2 .1 f t - 46.7%
ran ge,
a n d fro m
3 .9 f t - 6 .4 f t f o r t h e m ic r o w a v e - p r e p a r e d f o o d s .
T a b le 9 s h o w s a c o m p a r is o n
t o t a l p r e p a r a tio n
e le c tr ic
tim e b e tw e e n
r a n g e and
T h ir ty -tw o
fo o d s
o f p e r c e n ta g e d if f e r e n c e
ite m s p rep a red
ite m s p rep a red in
(9
r e q u i r e d m ore t o t a l
c o n v e n ie n c e
i t e m s , a n a fro m
N in e i t e m s
5 .7 f t -
1 .3 -
(6 c o n v e n i e n c e a n d
ran ge.
th e e le c t r ic
The r a n g e o f p e r c e n ta g e
8 2 .0 f t
f o r th e c o n v e n ie n c e
5 8 .6 f t f o r t h e . h o m e - p r e p a r e d p r o d u c t s .
t o t a l t i m e w hen p r e p a r e d i n
e le c tr ic
h o m e -p r e p a r e a )
t i m e w hen p r e p a r e d w x th
fro m
w ith t h e
m ic r o w a v e o v e n .
and 23
r a n g e t h a n i n t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n .
t im e d i f f e r e n c e w a s
th e
in
3 h o m e -p r e p a r e d )
t o o * m o re
t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n t h a n w it h t n e
T he p e r c e n t a g e tim e d i f f e r e n c e
6 .2 f t - 5 7 .5 f t f o r t h e c o n v e n i e n c e
ite m s ,
r a n g e d fro m
and fro m
1 0 .9 ft -
6 1 .0 f t f o r t h e h o m e - p r e p a r e d f o o d s .
To s u m m a r iz e ,
fo o d s
r e q u ir e d
m ore
c o n v e n ie n c e f o o d s .
6 9 .6 f t o f
t h e m a jo r ity
to ta l
o f h o m e-p rep a rea
p r e p a r a tio n
T h is f in d in g
f o o d s p r e p a r e d w ith
( 9 1 .3 f t )
t im e t h a n
w as s i g n i f i c a n t
( p < .1 0 )
th e e l e c t r ic ran ge
5 2 .2 f t o f f o o d s p r e p a r e d w it h t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n .
4 .3 f t o f
f o o d s p r e p a r e d w it h
s ig n ific a n tly
m o re
th e e l e c t r ic
t o t a l p r e p a r a tio n
c o n v e n ie n c e th a n i n h o m e -p r e p a r e d f o r a .
tim e
d id
fo r
and f o r
H ow ever,
r a n g e r e q u ir e d
( p C .1 0 )
in
H ost f o o d s p r e p a r e d
79
Table 9
GoopsrlscB o f Tocal Preparation Time Between Foods Prepared with the Elaccrtc Bangs sad with the
Microwave O w
ER-^m2
Convenience
Yellow cska
Biscuits
Chocolate cake
Pizza
’'Combread
*Broccoli
*Appla pie
#TV Hliuwr
*Ch±ckan pot pie
MW> ER
EB. TT2
39.0
17.0
40.5
18.0
24.0
22.5
39.0
43.0
44.5
tW TT
38.5
14.5
34.0
12.5
13.0
10.0
13.5
9.0
8.0
7. Dlff4
1.3
14.7
lfi.O
30.6
45.8
55.6
65.4
79.1
82.0
175.5
22.0
167.5
192.0
188.0
42.0
57.0
99.0
100.0
165.5
20.5
153.5
173.0
168.0
37.0
48.0
82.0
75.5
5.7
6.8
8.4
9.9
10.6
U .9
15.8
17.2
24.5
57.0
157.0
59.0
14.0
29.0
23.5
30.0
136.0
42.5
115.0
42.5
10.0
20.5
15.0
18.5
83.0
25.4
26.8
28.0
28.6
29.3
36.2
38.3
39.0
21.0
55.0
58.0
67.0
48.5
35.0
12.0
31.0
32.5
37.0
25.0
14.5
42.8
43.6
44.0
44.8
48.4
58.6
Hraie-Prepared
Sweet ro lls
*Friad chicken
White ro lls
White bread
(tools wheat bread
*Yallow cake
Chocolate cake
Pizza
Chicken noodle soup
i n d broth
*rv iiinii*
Pizza in d . saoca
Macarmi & cheese
*Carrcrts
Biscuits
Combread
Cookies
Chicken pert pie
I n d . broth
^Potatoes
*Orickan pot pie
Spaghetti sauce
*Appla pie
Mushroom soup
*Pudding
Convenience
Spaghetti sauce
*Pudding
Macaroni & cheese
Mushroom soup
Chicken noodle soup
*Pancakes
HI TT
, 8.0
15.5
26.0
21.5
9.0
20.0
Bt TT
7.5
12.0
20.0
12.0
5.0
8.5
7. Dlff
6.2
22.6
23.1
44.2
44.4
57.5
Chicken noodle soup 23.0
15.5
Broccoli
29.5
*Pancakes
20.5
12.0
11.5
10.9
22.6
61.0
Heme-Prepared
1.
2.
3.
4.
HR « E lactric Bangs
HW“ Microwave O w
TT » Total preparation tin s In nrinutaa
7. Difference ” Large r value - smaller value ..
'
Larger •ialue---------------* 100
*
Food for which difference significant (pa.10) using Che Kruakal-WslHs te st.
80
w ith
th e e l e c t r i c
range
(7 8 .0 % )
p r e p a r a t io n tim e th a n d id f o o d s
oven.
r e q u i r e d m ore
prepared
T h is t r e n d w as s i g n i f i c a n t
c o n v e n ie n c e f o o d s
H ow ever,
13.3%
p repared fo o d s
and f o r
o f c o n v e n ie n c e
w it h t h e m ic r o w a v e
( p < .1 0 )
30.8% o f
to ta l
fo r
33.3% o f
h o o e -p r e p a r e a f o o d s .
f o o d s and
3.8% o f
r e g u i r e d m o re t o t a l p r e p a r a t i o n
h o m e-
t i m e w hen
h e a t e d w it h t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n .
A c t i v e T im e
A c t i v e p r e p a r a t i o n t im e may b e m o re im p o r t a n t t o a f o o d
p r e p a r e r th a n
t o t a l p r e p a r a tio n
c o n s i s t s o f th e tim e r e q u ir in g
w orker.
a c tiv e
c o u n te r p a r ts,
and
tim e
in
th is
w h e th e r p r e p a r e d
m ic r o w a v e o v e n ,
th a n
e x p ecte d t o
th e ir
Quam e t a l .
a l.
to
stu d y a l l
c o n v e n ie n c e fo o d s
w ith t h e e l e c t r i c r a n g e
d id t a k e l e s s
a c t i v e tim e t o p r e p a r e th a n
t h o s e r e p o r t e d by T ra u b
T h ese r e s u lt s
en d Odl&nu
( 1 9 6 7 ) , W o o ls e y a n d T i n k l i n
a n d m ean
a c t i v e p r e p a r a tio n
d if f e r e n t v e r s io n s o f each fo o d
in
o r th e
(1 9 6 b ),
(1 9 7 9 ) ,
a n d X in g e t
(1 9 6 2 ).
M ed ian
10.
ta k e l e s s
h o m e -p r e p a r e d
t h e sam e f o o d s p r e p a r e d from raw i n g r e d i e n t s .
a re s im ila r
a c t i v e t im e
th e a c tu a l a tte n tio n o f th e
C o n v e n ie n c e f o o d s w o u ld b e
p r e p a r a tio n
te ste d ,
tim e s i n c e
A ll ite m s t e s t e d
tim e f o r
th e
p r o d u c t a r e sh ow n i n T a o le
r e q u i r e d m o re a c t i v e p r e p a r a t i o n t im e
t h e h o m e -p r e p a r e d th a n i n
t h e c o n v e n ie n c e fo rm .
ite m s p r e p a r e d w ith t h e e l e c t r i c r a n g e
(b is c u its ,
S ix te e n
p an caxes.
81
tab le 10
Madlm and Man Active Preparation Time fo r Convenience and Hcme-Prapered Fooda in Elec tr ic Range and
Microwave Oven
Convenience
Heme Prepared
Microweve Oven
E lectric Range
Microuave Oven
MedLm Mem 4 SD
(adn)
(ndnj
Medlm
(adn)
Mun + SD
(pdnT
Median Maan + SD
iWni
(pdaT
Median Mun + SD
(adn)
OataT
2.5*
8.5*
4.5*
11.5*
10.0*
2.5*
6.0*
i.a *
2.0*
2.0*
12.0*
5 .5 *
1.0*
1.0*
2.34 0.3
8.74 0.8
4.34 0.3
11.04 0.6
10.04 0.0
2.34 0.3
5 .% 0.3
1.24 0.3
2.04 0.0
2.04 0.0
U . 34 0.8
5.74 0.3
1.04 0.0
1.04 0.0
9 .5 *
10.5*
4 .5 *
12.0*
10.0*
2.5*
5.0*
2 .0 *
2.0*
2.0*
4.0°
4.0*
1.0*
1.0*
9.54 0.5
10.34 0.3
4.54 0.0
12.04 0.5
9.84 0.3
2.34 0.3
5.24 0.3
2.04 0.0
2.04 0.0
2.04 0.0
4.04 0.0
3.840.3
1.04 0.0
1.04 0.0
U .5bc
i i . s '50
6.5b
m . s1*
2 1 .0 *
6 .0 *
24.0^
12
30.0b
43.o'5
18.0*
1 2 .0 ^
l.^
17.5*
18.5C
19.5C
6.5b
16.5b
21.5b
6.5b
1 5.5*
U .5b
2 6 .0 *
3 7 .5 *
7.5bc
16.0C
1.5b
20.CP
18.24 0.6
19.34 0.3
6.54 0.0
16.24 1.0
21.84 1.0
6.54 0.5
15.54 0.5
11.74 0.8
25.84 0.8
37.54 1.0
7.54 0.5
15.74 0.6
1.54 0.0
20.24 0.3
1.5*
1.5*
1.54 0.0
1.54 0.0
1.5*
1.5*
1.54 0.0
1.54 0.0
24.0* 24.24 0.8
39.5* 40.54 1.7
27.GP
45.5b
26.% 0.3
46.04 1.3
1.5*
1.0*
1.54 0.0
1.04 0.0
2 .0 *
2 .0 *
2.04 0.0
1.84 0.3
27.05 27.24 0.3
12.0** 12.04 0.0
3.04 0.0
3.0*
4.04 0.0
4.0*
5.04 0.0
5.0*
27.0b
12.5*
3.5b
4.0*
5.0*
27.04
12.54
3.54
4.04
5.04
0.5
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
22.0b
22.oh
33.rf*
22.5b
35.5b
13.06
22.0b
33.rf*
22.5b
35.5b
13.34
22.34
32.54
22.74
35.34
0.6
1.0
1.3
0.8
1.3
E lectric Range
Biscuits
Fmcakes
Combread
Yellow cake
Chocolate cake
Broccoli
Macaroni & cheese
Spaghetti sauoe
Pizza
Pizza incl. sauce
Pudding
Mishroam soup
Qtickm noodle soup
Chickm noodle soup
in d . broth
Chicken pot pie
Chicken pot pie
incl. broth
Apple pie
TV dinner
Carrots
Potatoes
Fried chickm
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
11.54 0.5
11.54 0.5
6.54 0.0
16.34 0.8
21.04 1.0
6.24 0.3
24.54 1.3
12.74 0.3
30.04 1.0
42.74 1.0
18.34 0.6
11.74 0.6
1.54 0.0
17.84 1.0
Reedy-coEatt
Median
(mln)
Cookies
White bread
Whole wheat breed
White breed
Sweet ro lls
0.0*
0.0*
0.0*
0.0*
0.0*
Mem 4 SD
(clnT
0.04
0.04
0.04
0.04
0.04
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
22.04
22.34
32.54
22.%
35.%
0.5
1.0
1.0
0.8
1.3
a,b ,c Within a row, median* with different le tte rs are significantly diffwient (p <.10) using the
KruskaL-tJallis te st.
82
corn b read ,
sau ce,
y e llo w
cake,
p i z z a w it h
an d w i t h o u t s a u c e t i m e ,
so u p w ith o u t b r o th t i n e ,
w h ite b r e a d ,
r o lls )
m a c a r o n i an d c h e e s e ,
a p p le p i e ,
w h o le w h eat b r e a d ,
r e q u ir e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y
(p< •>10)
in
F ifte e n
p rep a red in
c h ic k e n
TV d i n n e r ,
w h ite r o l l s ,
n o o d le
c o o k ie s ,
and sw e e t
m o re a c t i v e p r e p a r a t i o n t i n e
t h e h o m e -p r e p a r e d th a n in
fo o d s
sp a g h e tti
t h e c o n v e n ie n c e t o r n .
t h e m ic r o w a v e
oven
(b is c u its ,
p a n c a k e s , c h o c o l a t e c a k e , b r o c c o l i , m ushroom s o u p ,
n o o d l e s o u p w it h a n d w i t h o u t
b r o tn tim e ,
w it h
TV d i n n e r ,
and w i t h o u t b r o t h t i m e ,
c h ic k e n
c h ic k e n p o t p ie
c o o k ie s ,
w h ite
b r e a d , w h o le w h e a t b r e a d , w h i t e r o l l s ,
and sw e e t r o l l s )
s ig n ific a n tly
tim e
m o re a c t i v e p r e p a r a t i o n
( p < .1 0 )
to o k
in th e
h o m e -p r e p a r e d fo r m .
A lt h o u g h , i n
oven
g e n e r a l,
r e q u ir e d l e s s
f o o d s p r e p a r e d i n t h e m ic r o w a v e
t o t a l p r e p a r a tio n
p r e p a r e d w it h t h e e l e c t r i c
ran ge,
a c t i v e p r e p a r a tio n t im e .
The
te ste d
tim e th a n
th e r e v e r s e w as tr u e f o r
m a jo r ity
e i t h e r r e q u i r e d m ore a c t i v e
tn o se
(78.0% )
o f ite m s
p r e p a r a tio n t i n e
m ic r o w a v e o v e n t h a n w i t h t h e e l e c t r i c
ran ge,
or th e a c tiv e
p r e p a r a t i o n t i m e w a s e q u a l f o r t h e tw o a p p l i a n c e s .
t h e i t e m s p r e p a r e d i n t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n r e q u i r e d
s tir r in g
p a r t w ay t h r o u g h c o o k i n g
prepare se v e r a l
w h ic h r e q u i r e d
it e m s in t h e
Many o f
tu r n in g o r
o r r e q u ir e d an e x t r a s t e p
s u c h a s r e m o v a l fr o m t h e i r o r i g i n a l c o n t a i n e r .
a b r o w n in g g r i l l ,
in th e
p r e h e a tin g ,
m ic r o w a v e .
A ll
In a d d itio n ,
w as u sed t o
o f th ese
83
a d d itio n a l
ste p s
p r e p a r a tio n
t i m e r e q u i r e d f o r t h e s e m ic r o w a v e p r o d u c t s .
As sh o w n i n
c o n tr ib u te d
T a b le 1 0 ,
r e q u ir e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y
to
th e
g r e a te r
a c tiv e
o n e c o n v e n ie n c e ite m
m ore a c t i v e
(p u d d in g )
p r e p a r a tio n tim e
w i t h t h e e l e c t r i c r a n g e t h a n i n t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n .
p r e p a r e d p u d d in g
( p < .1 0 )
a l s o to o k s i g n i f i c a n t l y
w hen p r e p a r e d w it h
c a s e s t h e p u d d in g
r a n g e th a n i n
(c a r r o ts)
( p < .1 0 )
th e
r e q u i r e d m ore s t i r r i n g
t h e m ic r o w a v e
t h e m ic r o w a v e
b e t w e e n t h e m e d ia n
a c t i v e tim e
ran ge.
on
H om e-
In b o th
th e e l e c t r ic
oven.
One h o m e -p r e p a r e d f o o d
m ore
a c t i v e p r e p a r a t i o n t im e
to o k s i g n i f i c a n t l y
in
e le c tr ic
m ore
( p < .1 0 )
oven,
v a lu e s f o r
a lth o u g h t h e d i f f e r e n c e
t h e tw o
a p p lia n c e s
was l e s s
t h a n o n e m in u t e .
A
c o m p a r is o n o f
p r e p a r a tio n
is
p e r c e n ta g e
sh o w n i n T a b le 1 1 .
t h e h o m e -p r e p a r e d
F o r t y - s ix ite m s
t o o k m ore a c t i v e
th a n in
a c tiv e
1 0 0 .0% f o r i t e m s p r e p a r e d i n
fo rm .
ran ge,
in
The
100.0% f o r
an d fro m
27.3% -
t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n .
T he p e r c e n t a g e d i f f e r e n c e i n
sh o w n i n T a b l e 1 2 .
p r e p a r a t i o n t im e
r a n g e d fr o m 26.1% -
it e m s p r e p a r e d w ith th e e l e c t r i c
p r e p a r e d w it h t h e e l e c t r i c
(2 3 e l e c t r i c r a n g e
t h e c o n v e n ie n c e
p e r c e n t a g e tim e d i f f e r e n c e
p repared)
in
t i m e b e t w e e n c o n v e n i e n c e a n d h o m e -p r e p a r e d f o o d s
an d 2 3 m ic r o w a v e o v e n )
is
d iffe r e n c e
ran ge
N in e i t e m s
a c t i v e tim e b e tw e e n ite m s
and i n
t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n
(3 c o n v e n i e n c e a n d 6 h o m e-
r e q u i r e d m ore a c t i v e t i m e w hen p r e p a r e d
w it h t h e
84
p
Table 11
of Acdve preparation Time Bewem Convenience aad Home-Prepared Foods
HP1 > C2
E lectric Range •
♦Paicakes
♦Yellow cake
♦Combread
Pudding
♦Chicken noodle soup
Chocolate cake
Mushroom soup
Broccoli
♦Macaroni & cheese
♦Biscuits
♦TV dinner
♦Spaghetd sauce
♦Pizza
Pot pie
Chicken noodle soup
In d . broth
♦Apple pie
♦Pizza in d . sauce
Chicken pot pie
in d . broth
*Coakies
♦White bread
♦Whale wheat bread
♦White ro lls
♦Sweet ro lls
'■lcrowave Oven
Ydlow cake
Combread
♦Chicken noodle s<xjp
♦Pancakes
Pudding
♦Biscuits
♦Chocolate cake
♦Eroccoli
Macaroni & cheese
♦Mushroom soup
Spaghetd sauce
♦TV dinner
Pizza
Apple pie
♦Chicken pot pie
Pizza Incl. sauce
♦Chicksn noodle soup
in d . broth
♦Chicken pot pie
i n d broth
♦Cookies
♦White bread
♦Whole wheat bread
♦White ro lls
♦Sweet ro lls
C AT
8.5
11.5
4.5
12.0
1.0
10.0
5.5
2.5
6.0
2.5
1.0
1.0
2.0
1.5
1.0
7. Diff*
26.1
30.3
30.8
33.3
33.3
47.6
54.2
58.3
75.0
78.3
91.7
92.0
93.3
93.8
94.3
27.0
43.0
39.5
1.5
2.0
1.5
94.4
95.3
96.2
22.0
22.0
33.0
22.5
35.5
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
16.5
6.5
1.5
19.5
7.5
18.5
21.5
6.5
15.5
16.0
11.5
12.5
26.0
27.0
27.0
37.5
20.0
12.0
4.5
1.0
10.5
4.0
9.5
10.0
2.5
5.0
4.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
1.5
2.0
1.0
27.3
30.8
33.3
46.2
46.7
48.6
53.5
61.5
67.7
75.0
82.6
84.0
92.3
92.6
94.4
94.7
95.0
45.5
1.5
96.7
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
HP AT3
11.5
16.5
6.5
18.0
1.5
21.0
12.0
6.0
24.0
11.5
12.0
12.5
30.0
24.0
17.5
13.0
22.0
33.0
22.5
35.0
1.
2.
3.
4.
♦
HP » Home-prepared food
C • Convenience food
AT - Acdve preparat i on time in minutes
7. Difference - Larger value-smaller value
Larger value
Food for which difference significant (p<.10)
using the Kruskd-Wallis te s t.
85
Table 12
Comparison of Acdve Prepagadcn Tine Between Foods Prepaced with the E lectric Range and with Che
Microwave Oven
ER1 > MJ2
Ccnveniance
Macaroni & cheese
Mushroom soup
*Pudding
tW >ER
ER AX3
6.0
5.5
12.0
W AX
5.0
4.0
4.0
12.5
42.7
30.0
24.0
22.0
18.0
11.5
37.5
25.8
15.5
13.0
7.5
7. Diff4
16.7
27.3
66.7
Hose-Prepared
Spaghetd sauce
Pizza Incl. sauce
WWM
Macaroni & cheese
Cookies
♦Pudding
8.0
12.2
14.0
35.4
40.9
58.3
ER » MW
Convenience
Chicken noodle soup 1.0
Chicken pot pie
1.5
Pizza
2.0
Broccoli
2.5
Combread
4.5
Chocolate cake
10.0
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
4.5
10.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.5
4.0
5.0
6.5
16.5
22.0
22.5
27.0
33.0
35.5
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
W AX
12.0
10.5
2.0
2.0
2.0
9.5
ER AT 7. Dlff
11.5
4.2
19.0
8.5
25.0
1.5
1.0
50.0
1.0
50.0
73.7
2.5
21.5
12.5
6.5
27.0
20.0
21.0
12.0
6.0
24.0
17.5
2.3
4.0
7.7
U .l
12.5
45.5
39.5
13.2
3.5
16.0
18.5
19.5
3.0
12.0
11.5
11.5
14.3
25.0
37.8
41.0
nvanience
Yellow cake
Pancakes
Apple pie
Spaghetd sauce
TV dinner
Biscuits
Heme-Prepared
Chocolate cake
TV dinner
Broccoli
Chicken pot pie
Chicken noodle soup
I n d . broth
Chicken pot pie
I n d . broth
*Carrots
Mushroom soup
Biscuits
Paicakes
Home-Prepared
Chicken noodle soup
Potatoes
Fded chicken
Combread
Yellow cake
tftiite bread
White ro lls
Apple pie
Whole wheat bread
Sweet ro lls
1.5
4.0
5.0
6.5
16.5
22.0
22.5
27.0
33.0
35.5
1. Ql ■ E lactric Range
2.
“ Mlcrouave Oven
3. AX - Acdve Preparation Time In minutes
4. 7. Difference “ L aner valua - smaller valua .. ,
"
Larger value----------------- 100
*
Food for which d lffem ce slgdficanc (p<.10) using the Knmkal-Mallis te st.
86
e le c tr ic
ran ge.
16.7% -
66.7% f o r t h e c o n v e n i e n c e
58.3%
The p e r c e n t a g e t i a e
f o r h o m e -p r e p a re d
prepared
an d fr o m 2.3% t o
fo o d s
41 .0 %
4.2%
(6
t i m e when
T he r a n g e o f p e r c e n t a g e
- 73.7% f o r c o n v e n i e n c e i t e m s
f o r h o m e -p r e p a r e d it e m s .
(6 c o n v e n i e n c e a n d 10 h o m e - p r e p a r e d )
am ount o f a c t i v e
6.0% -
S ix te e n ite m s
t o o k m ore a c t i v e
i n t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n .
t i m e d i f f e r e n c e w a s fr o m
r a n g e u fr o m
i t e m s and fro m
p r o d u c ts.
c o n v e n i e n c e and 10 h o m e -p r e p a x e d )
d iffe r e n c e
S ix te e n
r e q u i r e d t n e sa m e
t i m e when p r e p a r e d w i t h e i t h e r t h e e l e c t n c
r a n g e o r t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n .
In sum m ary#
r e q u ir e d
h o m e -p r e p a r e d
m ore a c t i v e p r e p a r a t i o n
c o u n te r p a r ts.
s ig n ific a n t
e le c tr ic
a il
The d i f f e r e n c e i n
( p < .1 0 )
range
m ic r o w a v e o v e n .
65.2%
A tr e n d w as
t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n t o r e q u i r e
(1 0 0 .0 % )
ta m e t h a n t h e c o n v e n x e n c e
a m o u n t o f t im e r e q u i r e u w as
f o r 6 9 .6 % o f
and f o r
fo o d s te s te d
f o o d s p r e p a r e d w it h t h e
o f fo o d s prepared
w it h t n e
s e e n f o r f o o d s p r e p a r e d w it h
m o re a c t i v e p r e p a r a t i o n
tx m e
sam e a m o u n t o f a c t i v e
txm e
(3 9 .0 % o f f o o d s t e s t e d )
or th e
(3 9 .0 % o f f o o d s t e s t e d )
a s f o o d s p r e p a r e d w it h t h e e l e c t r x c
range.
T h i s t r e n d w as s i g n i f i c a n t
( p < .1 0 )
f o r 3.8% o f h o m e -
prepared fo o d s.
H o w ev er 6.7% o f c o n v e n i e n c e f o o d s and 3.8%
o f h o m e-p rep a red
fo o d s r e q u ir e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y
p r e p a r a t io n tim e
( p < .1 0 )
ran ge.
when h e a t e d w i t h
m o re a c t i v e
th e e le c t r ic
87
E n e r g y C o n s u m p tio n
C o n v e n ie n c e f o o d s a s p u r c a a s e d
p repared
an d w o u ld t h u s h e e x p e c t e d
c o m p le tio n o f p r e p a r a t io n
fr o m raw i n g r e d i e n t s .
to ta k e l e s s
d id t a k e l e s s e n e r g y
p r e v i o u s w ork by T ra u b an d O d la n d
t h e h o m e -p r e p a r e d
fr o z e n a t th e
in
d in n e r ).
(b r o c c o li,
prepare
e n e r g y th a n
t h a t r e q u ir e d
a
t im e t h a n t h e h o m e -
a p p le p i e ,
and TV
n ot fro ze n a t
b u t r e q u i r i n g a l o n g e r h e a t i n g t im e t o
a c h i e v e t h e sam e d e g r e e o f
t h e h o m e -p r e p a r e d form
so u p ),
of
c o n v e n ie n c e fo o d s
In a d d it io n , c o n v e n ie n c e p r o d u c ts
th e s t a r t o f h e a tin g ,
in
p iz z a ,
(78.3% )
P o o d s w here t n e
s t a r t o f h e a tin g and t h o s e
prep ared p rod u ct
to
r e q u i r e d m o re p r e p a r a t i o n
h ig h e r t e m p e r a tu r e a n d /o r l o n g e r h e a t in g
to r
a g r e e m e n t w it h
(1 9 7 9 ).
p ro d u ct in c lu d e d th e
en ergy
f o o d s made
s tu d y t h e m a jo r ity
th a n t h e i r h o m e -p r e p a r e d c o u n t e r p a r t s ,
c o n v e n ie n c e p r o d u c t
or p a r tia lly
t h a n w o u ld t h e sam e
In t h i s
c o n v e n ie n c e fo o d s t e s t e d
are f u lly
d o n e n e s s i n t h e c o n v e n ie n c e th a n
(y e llo w
cake,
p u d d in g ,
mushroom
t o o k m ore p r e p a r a t i o n e n e r g y i n c o n v e n i e n c e th ^ n in
h o m e -p r e p a r e d fo r m .
M ed ian a n d
m ean t o t a l p r o d u c t e n e r g y
t h e d i f f e r e n t p r e p a r a t io n fo rm s o f
in
T a b le
13.
e a c h f o o d it e m
a r e sh o w n
E ig h t it e m s p r e p a r e d w ith t h e e l e c t r i c r a n g e
(m a c a r o n i and c h e e s e ,
sp a g h e tti sa u ce,
in c lu d in g b r o th , c o o k ie s ,
w h ite r o l l s ,
c o n s u m p t io n f o r
w h ite b r e a d ,
an d s w e e t r o l l s )
c h i c k e n n o o d l e so u p
w h o le w h e a t b r e a d ,
r e q u ir e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y
m ore
88
Table 13
Median and Mem Ehergy C c n strrd a i for Ccnvwiienca and Home-Prepared Food* in Ele c tric Rmge end
Microwave Oven
Convenience
'hcrowava Oven
E lectric EUnga
Biscuits
Pancakes
Coxnbmad
Yellow caka
Chocolate caka
Broccoli
Macaroni & cheese
Spaghetti sauce
Pizza
Pizza in d . sauce
Ridding
fhahroaa soup
Chicken noodle soup
Qtidcan noodle scud
In d . broth
Chicken pot pie
Chicken pot pie
I n d . broth
Apple pie
TV dlm ar
Carrots
Potatoes
Fried chicken
Hona-Prspared
E lectric Range
Medim Mem + SO
Microwave Ovm
Mriim Ifcm + SD
WO
(wG)
Hsdim
>kai + SO
602.0*
302.0*
757.0*
579.0a
312.0*
310.0*
302.0*
' 62.0*
822.0*
822.0*
111.0*
113.0*
120.0*
120.0*
601.74; 7.5
310.0+17.4
760.0+78.5
568.0+21.7
812.0+ 9.6
317.0+ 4.6
300.7+ 9.1
62.0+3.0
817.7+15.0
817.7+15.0
109.3+5.7
112.7+ 3.5
118.3+ 7.6
113.3+ 7.6
190.0*1
266.0*
151.0b
403.0*
406.0C
196.(P
315.0*
116.0*
262.0^
262.0^
215.06
239.0*3
190.0*
190.0*
197.0+ 1.7 768.0* 766.7+ 8.1 199.0*3 193.7+ W
266.3+ 0.6 335.0* 334.0+ 5.6 372.0b 371.7+2.5
151.3+ 1.5 792.0* 797.3+34.3 151.0b 151.7+ 1.2
403.0+ 0.0 573.0* 572.7+18.5 310.0b 311.0+ 5.6
404.3+ 6.7 975.0* 982.3+33.6 506.0130 505.0+ 3.6
196.0+ 3.0 152.0*3 151.7+ 1.5 241.0* 242.7+ 2.9
315.0+ 4.0 1179.0° :L172.3+20.8 396.0b° 396.0+ 0.0
116.0+2.0 209.013® 204.0+ 15.1 394.0° 393.7+15.3
262.7+0.6 585.0*° 586.3+10.1 353.0 354.7+ 5.7
261.7+0.6 794.0* 790.3+24.7 747.0* 748.3+ 7.1
215.3+0.6 137.0*° 137.0+ 3.0 144. O * 145.0+2.6
240.3+ 3.2 164.0*° 163.0+ 3.6 218.0b° 219.0+ 1.7
190.7+ 1.2 139.0* 190.3+ 7.1 348.0b 347.7+ 0.6
190.7+ 1.2 887.0° 909.0+44.3 844.013® 344.0+ 2.0
942.0* 946.0+12.5
942.0* 946.0+12.5
142.0°
142.0°
142.3+ 1.5 1114.0* 1115.0+29.5 344.013® 344.0+ 1.0
142.3+ 1.5 1827.0* 1833.7+20.3 840.O*3® 840.3+ 0.6
948.0* 949.3+ 5.1
892.0* 392.3+26.5
279.0* 273.7+ 1.5
170.0^ 169.7+0.6
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
WO
-
(w©
WO
WO
947.0* 949.0+12.1
447. O*3® 448.3+ 5.1
97.0* 95.7+5.1
117.0* 117.3+ 5.5
235.0* 235.3+ 5.0
Medim Maan+ SD
WO
WO
241.0b
707.0*°
139.0b
140.0b
429.oh
242.0+ 2.6
707.7+ 3.1
133.3+2.1
140.3+0.6
429.0+ 1.0
130.0b
186.013
135.0*3
85.013
134.0*3
131.3+2.3
186.0+ 1.0
185.0+ 1.0
85.0+ 1.0
134.3+0.6
Ready-to-Eat
tlhite bread
Whole wheat bread
Vld.ce ro lls
9waet to lls
Median
WO
0.0*
0.0*
0.0*
0.0*
0.0*
Mem + SD
W0"
o.o+p
o.o+p
0.0+0
o.o+p
o.o+p
740.013
677.0b
7S6.0>b
601.013
525.0^
743.0+10.3
630.3+11.4
785.7+ 5.5
602.3+13,0
525.0+ 7.0
a.b .c
tflthln a row, median with djfftirm t le tte rs aie significantly different (p<. 10)uslug the
Kruskal-Hallia te st.
89
en ergy fo r
p r e p a r a tio n
c o n v e n ie n c e fo r m .
e le c tr ic
range
m ore e n e r g y
( p < .1 0 )
H ow ever,
i n h o m e -p r e p a r e d
th a n i n
ite m s p rep ared
w it h t h e
tw o
( b r o c c o l i and TV d i n n e r )
u sed s i g n i f i c a n t l y
(p < * 1 0 )
i n th e c o n v e n ie n c e fo r a
th a n in th e
h o m e -p r e p a r e d fo r m .
E ig h t it e m s p r e p a r e d in
t h e m ic r o w a v e
oven
( p a n c a k e s , s p a g h e t t i s a u c e , TV d i n n e r , c o o k i e s ,
bread,
w h o le w h e a t b r e a d ,
r e g u ir e d
in
s ig n ific a n tly
w h ite r o l l s ,
m ore e n e r g y
w h ite
and s w e e t r o l l s )
f o r p r e p a r a tio n
( p < .1 0 )
h o m e -p r e p a r e d th a n i n c o n v e n ie n c e fo r m .
A m ic r o w a v e o v e n h e a t s many f o o d s m ore e f f i c i e n t l y
a n e l e c t r i c r a n g e s i n c e t h e m ic r o w a v e e n e r g y i s
h e a t w ith in t h e f o o d s w h erea s
is
tr a n sfe r r e d
(Van Z a n t e ,
th is
to
1973) .
The m a jo r ity
r a n g e t h a n i n t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n ,
(B a k e r e t a l . ,
Van D u y n e , 1 9 7 9 ;
1981;
H o w e v e r , a num ber o f i t e m s
m a c a r o n i and c h e e s e ,
sou p ,
and c h ic k e n
d in n e r and i t s
to
prepare
in
1978;
sp a g h e tti sa u c e ,
1980;
M c C o n n e ll,
p u d d in g ,
V orxs an a
1 974) .
b r o c c o li,
m ushroom
and t h e h o m e -p r e p a r e d TV
i n d i v i d u a l co m p o n en ts)
i n t h e m ic r o w a v e
ite m s in
a g r e e m e n t w ith p r e v io u s
(c o n v e n ie n c e p a n c a k e s,
n o o d le s o u p ,
th ese
o f fo o d
p r e p a r e w ith t h e e l e c t r i c
Drew e t a l . ,
Drew and f i h e e ,
ran ge hear
f o o d by c o n d u c t i o n
( 6 3 .4 * )
s t u d y r e g u i r e d m o re e n e r g y t o
s tu d ie s
c o n v e r te d to
w ith t h e e l e c t r i c
th e in t e r io r o f th e
th a n
r e g u i r e d m o re e n e r g y
o v e n t h a n w it h
ite m s w ere o n e s
th e e l e c t r i c
range.
A ll o f
w h ic h w e r e h e a t e d
e n tir e ly
on a s u r f a c e u n i t o f t h e e l e c t r i c r a n g e .
H assou n
90
( 1 9 8 2 ) , L aughon
an d C a r u c o i
e le c tr ic
( 1 9 8 0 ) , R hee a n d Drew
(1 9 7 4 )
a ls o rep o rte d
range su r fa c e
a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h e sa m e
prep ared
u n it
(1 9 7 7 ), B u te i
(1 9 7 5 b ),
t h a t i t e m s p r e p a r e d o n an
r e q u ir e d
le s s energy
am ount o f e n e r g y a s
or
t h e sa m e i t e m s
i n a m ic r o w a v e o v e n .
As sh o w n i n
T a b le
c a k e , b r o c c o li, p iz z a ,
s ig n ific a n tly
e le c tr ic
m o re
13, f i v e
h o m e -p r e p a r e d it e m s
(c h o c o la te
c h i c k e n p o t p i e , a n d TV d i n n e r )
en ergy
ra n ge th a n in
c o n v e n ie n c e fo o d s
(p < -1 0 )
w hen p r e p a r e d
t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n .
(b is c u its ,
u sed
in th e
S im ila r ly ,
corn b read ,
y e llo w
sev en
c a jc e ,
c h o c o l a t e c a ic e , c h i c k e n p o t p i e w it h a n d w i t h o u t b r o t h ,
a p p le p ie )
r e q u ir e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y
p r e p a r e w ith
th e e le c t r ic
range.
( p u d d in g and m ushroom s o u p )
( p < .1 0 )
to p rep are
e le c tr ic
ran ge,
p o ta to e s,
( p < .1 0 )
c h ic k e n )
to
e n e r g y c o n s u m p t io n
sh ow n
in
p r e p a r e d u s in g an
oven)
s ig n ific a n tly
r e q u i r e d m ore
c o n v e n ie n c e fo r m .
th a n w ith th e
ite m s
and h o m e - p r e p a r e d
T h ir ty -fiv e
r a n g e an d 18
fo o d
it e m s
h o m e-p rep a red th a n
100.0% f o r
(1 7
u s i n g a m ic r o w a v e
The p e r c e n t a g e d i f f e r e n c e
4.4% -
(c a r r o ts,
d if f e r e n c e in t o t a l p rod u ct
energy in
c o n s u m p t io n r a n g e d fro m
m o re e n e r g y
t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n .
b e tw e e n c o n v e n ie n c e
e le c tr ic
no
a l s o r e q u ir e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y
p rep a re in
T a b le 1 4 .
( p < .1 0 )
c o n v e n ie n c e f o o d s
and t h r e e h o m e -p r e p a r e d
A c o m p a r is o n o f p e r c e n t a g e
it e m s i s
Two
i n t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n
and f r i e d
m ore e n e r g y
to o k
m o re e n e r g y
and
m
in
en ergy
ite m s p rep a red
91
Table 14
Onpariann o f Ehargy Consuiption Betnem Convenlanra m i Heme-Prepared Food*
HP1 > C2
E lectric Range
Coznbread
Pancdcas
Chicken poc ads
Chocolate cake
Pudding
Biscuits
Mishrocm soup
Chicken noodla soup
Chickai poc pis
I n d . broth
*Spaghacd sauoa
*Macaroni & chsase
*Chidcen noodla soup
I n d . broch
^Cookies
*Wbita bread
*Uhola wheat broad
*White ro lls
*SmmC ro lls
hp m 3
C > HP
C EM
E lectric Rauza
7. Dlff4
792
333
1114
975
137
768
164
189
1827
757
302
942
316
111
602
113
120
942
4.4
9.8
15.4
16.3
19.0
21.6
31.1
36.5
48.4
209
1179
887
62
302
120
70.3
74.4
86.5
740
677
786
601
525
0
0
0
0
0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
151
199
241
506
396
353
372
348
344
747
394
707
844
151
198
196
406
315
262
266
190
142
262
116
170
190
0.0
0.1
18.7
19.8
20.4
25.8
28.5
45.4
58.7
64.9
70.6
76.0
77.5
840
142
83.1
130
186
185
85
134
0
0
0
0
0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
Apple pie
Yellow cake
Pizza I n d . sauce
Pizza
*TV d im er
*Brocooli
C EH
7. Dlff
948
579
822
• 822
892
318
947
573
794
585
447
152
0.1
1.0
3.4
28.8
49.9
52.2
239
279
403
215
218
241
310
144
8.8
13.6
23.1
33.0
Microwave Oven
Mushroan soup
Apple pie
Yellow cake
Pudding
Microwave Oven
Combroad
Bisci,dts
Broccoli
Chocolate cake
Macaroni & cheasa
Pizza
*Psieakes
Chicken noodla soup
Chicken poc pie
Pizza I n d . saica
*Spaghetti sauce
*TV aim er
Chicken noodle soup
I n d . broch
Chicken poc pia
I n d . broch
^Cookies
*VJhite bread
*Whola wheat bread
*Wilte ro lls
*Sueec ro lls
HP m
1.
2.
3.
4.
HP - Home-Prepared food
C - CcnvmLmce food
Ot - Ebergjr censuipeion in Matthaus
Z Difference ~ Larger value - smeller value
Larger value
*
Food fa r which difference sig n ificait (p<. 10) using chs Kruakal-WeTHs case.
lm
92
w ith t h e e l e c t r i c
range,
a n d fr o m 0.1% -
m ic r o w a v e - p r e p a r e d i t e m s .
T en f o o d i t e m s
th e e le c t r ic
m o re e n e r g y
r a n g e o v e n and 4
fo r
p r e p a r e d fo rm .
in
100.0% f o r t h e
(6 p r e p a r e d w it h
t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n )
p r e p a r a t io n i n c o n v e n ie n c e th a n
in hom e-
The r a n g e o f p e r c e n ta g e d i f f e r e n c e
0.1% - 52 .2 % f o r i t e m s p r e p a r e d w i t h t h e e l e c t r i c
fro m
8.8% -
33.0% f o r f o o d s p r e p a r e d i n
P e r c e n ta g e
d iffe r e n c e
in
to ta l
c o n s u m p t io n b e t w e e n i t e m s p r e p a r e d
an d i t e m s p r e p a r e d i n
15.
T w e n ty -s ix fo o d s
t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n .
c o n s u m p t io n r a n g e d fro m
i t e m s a n d fro m
4.8% -
C o n v e r s e ly , f i f t e e n
p repared)
oven.
r a n g e d fro m
and
t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n .
product
energy
oven i s
range
sh o w n i n T a o l e
w ith t h e e l e c t r i c r a n g e th a n
The p e r c e n t a g e d i f f e r e n c e
11.9% - 84.9% f o r
85.8% f o r
ite m s
(5
t h e c o n v e n ie n c e
c o n v e n ie n c e
an d 10
hom e-
p r e p a r e d i n t h e m ic r o w a v e
p erce n ta g e d iffe r e n c e
4.1% - 52.7% f o r
in en ergy
t h e h o m e-p rep a red f o o d s .
u s e d m ore e n e r g y w hen
T he
ran ge,
(10 c o n v e n i e n c e an d 16 h o m e -p r e p a r e d )
u s e d m ore e n e r g y when p r e p a r e d
in
w as fro m
w ith t h e e l e c t r i c
t h e m ic r o w a v e
u sed
in
e n e r g y c o n s u m p t io n
t h e c o n v e n i e n c e i t e m s an u fro m
4.9% - 7 2 .7 % f o r t h e h o m e - p r e p a r e d f o o d s .
I n sum m ary# m o s t h o m e - p r e p a r e d f o o d s
m o re e n e r g y t o
34.8% o f
3 4.8%
p r e p a r e th a n d id c o n v e n ie n c e
f o o d s p r e p a r e d w ith
o f fo o d s
(78.3% )
p r e p a r e d w ith
d i f f e r e n c e w as s i g n i f i c a n t
fo o d s•
th e e l e c t r ic ran ge
th e
(p < .1 0 ).
r e g u ir e d
m ic r o w a v e o v e n
fo r
and f o r
th e
H ow ever 8.7% o f f o o d s
93
Comparison o f Energy Consmption
Table 15
Foods Prepared with lb s K lacrrtc Range aid with tb s Microwave
Own
Mf>ER
EH^MJ2
EELEH3
vuw
7. Dlff4
302
579
313
816
602
822
948
757
892
942
266
403
196
406
198
262
279
151
170
142
11.9
30.4
38.4
50.2
67.1
68.1
70.6
80.0
80.9
84.9
887
794
585
573
975
1827
844
747
353
310
506
840
4.8
5.9
39.6
46.0
48.1
54.0
1179
1114
677
768
525
947
786
792
740
601
396
344
186
199
134
241
185
151
130
35
66.4
69.1
72.5
74.1
74.5
74.6
76.5
80.9
82.4
85.8
Convenience
Pancakes
Yellow cake
♦Broccoli
♦Chocolate cake
Biscuits
^PlZZft
Apple pie
Combread
*TV dinner
♦Chicken poc pie
Convenience
Macaroni & cheese
Ovtckn noodle sojp
Spaghetti sauce
*Puddlog
♦ttishroam soup
Wd.Ce ro lls
315
190
116
215
239
302
120
62
111
113
4.1
36.8
46.6
48.4
52.7
144
372
140
218
139
707
241
348
394
429
137
335
117
164
97
447
152
189
209
235
4.9
9.9
16.4
24.8
30.2
36.8
36.9
45.7
47.0
72.7
Home-Preoazed
Pudding
Pneakas
♦Potatoes
Mushroom soup
♦Carrots
TV dirwar
Broccoli
Chicken noodle soup
Spaghetti sauce
♦Fried chickm
Heme-Prepared
Chicken noodle soup
Pizza I n d . sauce
Pizza
♦Yellow cake
♦Chocolaca cake
th ic k e n pot pie
I n d . broth
Macaroni & cheese
♦Chickn pot pie
Write bread
♦Biscuits
Sweet ro lls
♦Apple pie
Hhole whose bread
♦Cornbraad
E tta t 7. Dlff
1. EEL- E lectric Rnge
2. MJ - MLcroweve Own
3.
- Charge ccnsmptlcn in wetthcurs
4. % Difference - Larger velue - smaller value
♦
100
Larger value
Food fo r which d ifference sig n iflc n t (p<.10) using the Kruskal-Wallia te st.
94
p r e p a r e d w it h t h e e l e c t r i c r a n g e r e q u i r e d
en ergy to p rep are
p rep a r e d fo rm .
energy to
(p < « 1 0 )
A m a jo r ity
in
m ic r o w a v e o v e n .
13.3%
T h is tr e n d
e n tir e ly
f o o d s and
r e q u i r e d m o re e n e r g y
in
to
e le c tr ic
w ith , t h e
( p < .lO )
fo r
th e e le c t r ic
11.5% o f
prepare
h o m ew it h t n e
ran ge.
T h ese w ere
ran ge v e r s io n ,
w ere h e n te a
on a s u r f a c e u n i t .
E n erg y c o n s u m p t io n v a l u e s f o r
fo r m s o f e a ch
A p p e n d ix F .
r e s u lts
r e q u i r e d m ore
2 6 .9 % o f h o m e - p r e p a r e d f o o d s .
m ic r o w a v e o v e n t h a n w it h t h e
f o o d s w h ic h ,
m ore
i n h o m e-
r a n g e th a n
w as s i g n i f i c a n t
o f c o n v e n ie n c e
p rep ared fo o d s
(6 3 .4 % )
e le c tr ic
33.3% o f c o n v e n i e n c e a n d f o r
H ow ev er
c o n v e n ie n c e th a n
o f fo o d s
p r e p a r e w it h t h e
s ig n ific a n tly
fo o d ,
ex p ressed in
T h is w as d on e t o
w it h
th o se o f
th e d i f f e r e n t p r e p a r a tio n
B T U s,
fa c ilita te
o th er rese a r c h e r s
are li s t e d
in
c o m p a r is o n o f t h e s e
w h e re d i f f e r e n t
fo rm s o f en erg y w ere u s e d .
C o st
T he c o s t f o r t h e v a r i o u s p r e p a r a t i o n
fo r m s o f
each f o o d
it e m , e x p r e s s e d a s c e n t s p e r e q u a l w e ig h t s e r v i n g ,
is
i n T a b le
a c tiv e
16.
C o s t w as c a l c u l a t e d
p r e p a r a t i o n t i m e a t minimum
tim e a t a
p lu s f u e l ;
' s
w age.
fo o d ,
fu e l,
cook
an d f o o d , f u e l ,
w age,
fo r fo o d , f u e l,
snovn
and a c t i v e p r e p a r a tio n
C om b in ed c o s t s a r e r e p o r t e a - f o r - f o o d and p r e p a r a t i o n c o s t a t minimum w a g e;
and p r e p a r a t i o n c o s t a t a c o o k ' s
w age.
Table 16
Cose par Equal Weight Serving for Convenience and Hone-Prepared Foods la Electric Range and Microwave
Oven
Prepsrertm Cost
Total
AfB
Cook's2
Wage(D)
(cents) (cents)
a iHie
nruiv
A+B+D
(bants)
(cental
Min2
Wage(C)
(cents)
B iscuits
C-ER^’5
C-MW8,
HP-ER
HP-MJ
7.00
7.22
4.27
4.42
0.60
0.18
0.43
0.10
2.79
9.82
7.21
10.87
6.96
24.47
17.97
27.09
7.60
7.40
4.70
4.52
10.39
17.22
11.91
15.39
14.56
31.87
22.67
31.61
Pancakes
C-ER
C-MJ
HP-ER
HP-MJ
8.33
8.85
8.91
10.54
0.50
0.51
0.36
0.50
15.81
22.53
13.95
29.41
39.41
56.18
34.78
73.31
8.83
9.36
9.27
11.04
24.64
31.89
23.22
40.45
48.24
65.54
44.05
84.35
Combread
C-ER
C-Uf
HP-ER
HP-Mf
11.33
11.52
7.71
7.94
0.63
0.13
0.56
0.11
4.18
4.26
5.18
5.33
10.43
10.61
12.92
13.30
11.96
11.65
8.27
8.05
16.14
15.91
13.45
13.38
22.39
22.26
21.19
21.35
Yellow cake
C-ER
C-MJ
HP-ER
HP-tH
9.75
11.94
9.30
10.19
0.24
0.20
0.25
0.15
5.35
6.33
8.08
8.85
13.33
17.03
20.13
22.07
9.99
12.14
9.55
10.34
15.34
18.97
17.63
19.19
23.32
29.17
29.68
32.41
Q ncolate cake
C-ER
C-MJ
HP-ER
HP-MJ
9.50
11.75
12.20
14.07
0.34
0.21
0.36
0.21
4.65
5.75
8.62
10.17
11.59
14.34
21.48
25.34
9.84
11.96
12.56
14.28
14.49
17.71
21.18
24.45
21.43
26.30
34.04
39.62
Broccoli
C-ER
C-Mf
HP-ER
HP-MJ
21.00
21.54
15.31
17.44
0.40
0.25
0.15
0.28
3.49
3.58
6.83
8.43
8.69
8.92
17.03
21.03
21.40
21.79
15.46
17.72
24.89
25.37
22.29
26.15
30.09
30.71
32.49
38.75
Macaroni & Cheese
C-ER
C-MJ
HP-ER
HP-MJ
12.75
11.59
25.48
21.40
0.38
0.36
1.39
0.39
8.37
6.34
31.88
17.30
20.86
15.81
79.48
43.12
13.13
11.95
26.87
21.79
21.50
18.29
58.75
39.09
33.99
27.76
106.35
64.91
Spaghetti sauce
C-ER
C-MW
HP-ER
HP-MJ
21.75
22.31
24.21
27.38
0.08
0.15
0.27
0.59
1.40
2.86
18.36
19.44
3.48
7.13
45.76
48.47
21.83
22.46
24.48
28.47
23.23
25.32
42.84
47.91
25.31
29.59
76.24
76.94
(cants)
96
Table 16 (continued)
Cose per Equal Uaighc Serving for Gonvaniance and Huue Prepared Foods In E lectric Range End Microwave
Oven
Preparation Cost
Cock's
Min
Maga(C)
Maga<D)
fcants)
(cents)
Total
nTlmj
A+BH)
femes)
(cants)
fe ta ]
13.91
15.46
97.05
88.21
71.54
77.94
45.10
47.01
77.12
84.14
84.03
82.39
85.45
93.40
142.15
135.22
5.58
6.20
55.80
51.04
13.91
15.46
139.10
127.22
71.54
77.94
45.34
47.48
77.12
84.14
101.14
98.52
85.45
93.40
184.44
174.70
0.14
0.24
0.16
0.16
16.74
4.96
23.36
9.10
41.73
12.36
58.23
22.68
17.39
15.57
12.48
11.68
34.13
20.53
35.84
20.78
59.12
27.93
70.71
34.36
26.00
26.00
28.28
28.28
0.28
0.59
0.28
0.37
15.34
11.16
23.09
30.79
38.25
27.82
57.56
76.74
26.28
26.59
28.56
28.65
41.62
37.75
51.65
59.44
64.53
54.41
86.12
105.39
17.00
17.89
14.38
14.38
0.30
0.50
0.59
1.08
2.79
2.94
5.23
5.23
6.96
7.32
13.04
13.04
17.30
18.39
14.97
15.46
20.29
21.33
20.20
20.69
24.26
25.71
28.01
28.50
Chicken noodle soup lncl. broth
C-ER
17.00
C-MJ
17.89
HP-ER
43.75
HP-MJ
43.75
0.30
0.50
2.76
2.62
2.79
2.94
61.03
69.75
6.96
7.32
152.14
173.88
17.30
18.39
46.51
46.37
20.09
21.33
107.54
116.12
24.26
25.71
198.65
220.25
Chicken pot pie
C-ER
C-MJ
HP-ER
HP-MJ
55.00 61.11
32.82
31.22
4.68
0.78
1.42
0.42
8.37
9.30
34.34
36.75
59.68
61.89
34.24
31.64
68.05
71.19
68.58
68.39
80.54
85.07
119.84
123.24
Chicken pot pla ln cl. broch
C-ER
C-MJ
HP-ER
HP-MJ
55.00
61.11
38.97
37.07
4.68
0.78
2.33
1.02
8.37
9.30
56.51
61.92
20.86
23.18
140.88
154.37
59.68
61.89
41.30
38.09
68.05
71.19
97.81
100.01
80.54
85.07
182.18
192.46
Apple pie
C-ER
C-MJ
HP-ER
HP-MJ
23.83
26.00
11.55
11.26
0.78
0.25
0.40
0.10
1.40
2.03
12.99
12.66
3.48
5.06
32.38
31.56
24.61
26.25
11.95
11.36
26.01
28.28
24.94
24.02
28.09
31.31
44.33
42.92
Food
Coat (A)
(cants)
Fuel
Coat(B)
(cants)
Pizza
C-ER
MW
HP-ER
HP-MJ
69.50
77.22
44.42
46.58
2.04
0.72
0.68
0.43
5.58
6.20
38.93
35.38
Pizza lncl. sauce
C-ER
C-MJ
HP-ER
HP-MJ
69.50
77.22
44.42
46.58
2.04
0.72
0.92
0.90
Pudding
C-ER
C-MJ
HP-ER
HP-MJ
17.25
15.33
12.32
11.52
Miahrocm soup
C-ER
C-MJ
HP-ER
HP-MJ
Chicken noodle soup
C-ER
C-MJ
HP-ER
HP-MJ
Product
20.86 .
23.18
85.60
91.60
Arf-8
97
Table 16 (continued)
Cost per Equal Weight Serving fo r Convenience aid Hone-Prepared Foods In E lectric Range and Mtcrcxave
Oven
PmHugt
Preparation Cost
________ T otal
a o ju t
Cock's
AtB
A
l U lu
Min
Waga(C)
Wage(D)
Ccatts)
(dents)
(cants)
(cents)
Food
Cost(A)
(cents)
Fuel
Cost(B)
(cants)
96.00
106.67
72.22
60.00
4.43
0.94
2.47
4.39
5.58
12.40
74.40
87.19
13.91
30.91
185.47
217.34
100.43
107.61
74.69
64.39
106.01
120.01
149.09
151.58
114.34
138.52
260.16
281.73
Cookies
C-RIE
HP-ER
HP-MJ
6.41
6.82
6.49
0.00
0.14
0.02
0.00
4.87
2.74
0.00
12.14
6.82
6.41
6.96
6.51
6.41
11.83
9.25
6.41
19.10
13.33
White bread
C-RIE
HP-ER
HP-MJ
7.00
3.33
3.43
0.00
0.31
0.09
0.00
11.37
11.69
0.00
28.34
29.14
7.00
3.64
3.52
7.00
15.01
15.21
7.00
31.98
32.66
Whole wheat bread
C-RIE
HP-ER
HP-MJ
9.75
5.15
5.31
0.00
0.30
0.07
0.00
13.95
14.38
0.00
34.78
35.86
9.75
5.45
5.38
9.75
19.40
19.76
9.75
40.23
41.24
White ro lls
C-PTE
HP-ER
HP-MJ
8.10
3.04
3.13
0.00
0.29
0.04
0.00
12.31
12.68
0.00
30.68
31.61
8.10
3.33
3.17
8.10
15.64
15.85
8.10
34.01
34.78
Sweet ro lls
C-RIE
HP-ER
HP-MI
9.88
4.24
4.42
0.00
0.12
0.03
0.00
9.13
9.52
0.00
22.76
23.74
9.88
4.36
4.45
9.88
13.49
13.97
9.88
27.12
28.19
TV dim er
C-ER
C-MJ
HP-ER
HP-MJ
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Fhel cost: Kilowatt hours o f e le c tric ity x 4.97c
Mtnimin wage: $3.33 per hour
Cook's wage: $8.34 per hour
C - Convenience food
ER - E lectric raige
MJ “ Microwave Oven
HP « Hone-prepared food
BTE ” Ready-to-eat
AfBfD
(cents)
96
C o n v e n ie n c e F o o d s a n d H o m e -P r e p a r e d F o o d s
Food.
T he p e r c e n t a g e d i f f e r e n c e i n
c o n v e n i e n c e an d h o m e - p r e p a r e d
F o u rtee n fo o d s
(7 p r e p a r e d w i t h t h e
t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n )
p rep a red th a n in
t h e s e ite m s
fo o d s i s
cost
sn o w n i n
e le c tr ic
T a b le 1 7 .
r a n g e and 7 i n
m o re p e r s e r v i n g i n
th e
t h e c o n v e n i e n c e f o r m , a lt h o u g h f o r
(2 e l e c t r i c r a n g e
d i f f e r e n c e in c o s t w as l e s s
and on e
i t e m s p r e p a r e d w it h
th e e le c t r i c
59.1% f o r i t e m s p r e p a r e d i n
(1 6 p r e p a r e d
h o m eth r e e o f
m ic r o w a v e )
tn e
th a n on e c e n t p er s e r v in g .
p e r c e n ta g e d if f e r e n c e in c o s t ran ged
fo o d s
f o o d c o s t B e tw e e n
fro m b.O ft -
range,
and
b 1 .6 ft f o r
fr o m
t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n .
w it h t h e e l e c t r i c
1 .2 ft -
T h ir ty -tw o
r a n g e an d
1b i n
cost
prepared
The c o s t d i f f e r e n c e f o r o n e e l e c t r i c r a n g e
it e m
w as l e s s t h a n o n e
d if f e r e n c e in
c e n t p er s e r v in g .
c o s t ranged
p r e p a r e d w it h t h e e l e c t r i c
fo o d s p repared in
flg ejr-
fr o m 4 .6 f t
range,
in
rep o rte d in
T a b le
e le c tr ic
c o s t m o re p e r s e r v i n g
c o n v e n ie n c e fo r m .
s m a ll, how ever,
home-*
The p e r c e n t a g e
6 2 .5 f t
and fro m
T he p e r c e n t a g e d i f f e r e n c e i n
p r e p a r e d w it h t h e
oven )
-
in
fo r fo o d s
1 4 .6 ft -
6 1 .4 f t f o r
t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n .
f o r fo o d p r e p a r a t io n b e tw e e n
fo o d s i s
c o n v e n ie n c e th a n
th e
m ic r o w a v e o v e n )
fo rm .
m ore i n
The
c o s t o f f u e l u sed
c o n v e n i e n c e and h o m e - p r e p a r e d
18.
T w e n ty -fiv e
r a n g e and 13
f o r f u e l in
T he f u e l
and f o r 21 it e m s
in
ite m s
(1 2
t h e m ic r o w a v e
h o m e -p r e p a r e d t h a n
c o s t p er s e r v in g
w as v e r y
(1 0 e l e c t r i c r a n g e an d
11
99
Table 17
Food Cose par Equal Weight Serving: Gcnpaziscn Between Convenience and Heme-Prepared Foods
C > HP
HP1 * C2
E lectric Raise
VCockle*5
✓Paacakes
Miahrocm soup
Spaghetti sauca
Chocolate cake
Macaroni & cheese
Chidcan noodla soig)
lncl. broth
HP Coe3 c Coe
7. Dlff4
6.82
8.91
28.28
24.21
12.20
25.48
43.75
6.41
8.33
26.00
21.75
9.50
12.75
12.75
6.0
6.5
8.1
10.2
22.1
50.0
61.6
6.49
28.28
10.54
14.7
27.88
21.40
43.75
6.41
8.85
8.85
11.75
22.31
11.59
17.89
1.2
16.0
16.0
16.5
20.0
45.8
59.1
Microwave Oven
✓Cookies
Mishrocm soup
Pancakes
Chocolate cake
Spaghetti sauca
Macaroni & cheese
Chidcan noodle soup
lncl. broth
E lectric Raise
✓Yellow cake
Chidcan noodle soup
TV dim er
Broccoli
Pudding
Chidcan pot pie
incl. broth
Combread
Pizza
Pizza ln c l. sauce
Biscuits
Chicken pot pie
Whole wheat bread
Apple pie
White breed
Sueet to lls
White ro lls
HP - Home-prepared food
C * CoRwUncs food
Cents par serving
7. Difference «■Lamar valua - anallar value ..
L arg e vHE i -------------- x 100
5. ✓ - Dtffarmc* i l cent
HP Cost 7. Dlff
9.75
17.00
96.00
21.00
17.25
55.00
9.30
14.38
72.22
15.31
12.32
38.97
4.6
1 5.4
24.8
27.1
28.6
29.1
11.33
69.50
69.50
7.00
55.00
9.75
23.83
7.00
9.88
8.10
7.71
44.42
44.42
4.27
32.82
5.15
11.55
3.33
4.24
3.04
32.0
36.1
36.1
39.0
40.3
47.2
51.5
5 2.4
57.1
62.5
11.94
21.54
17.89
15.33
11.52
7.22
61.11
10.19
17.44
14.38
11.52
7.94
4.42
37.07
14.6
19.0
19.6
24.8
31.1
38.8
39.3
77.22
77.22
106.67
9.75
61.11
7.00
9.88
26.00
8.10
46.58
46.58
60.00
5.31
31.22
3.43
4.42
11.26
3.13
39.7
39.7
43.8
45.5
48.9
51.0
55.3
56.7
Microwave Oven
Yellow cake
Broccoli
Chidcan noodle soup
Pudding
Combread
Biscuits
Chidcan pot pie
lncl. broth
Pizza
Pizza in cl. sauce
TV dim er
Whole wheat bread
Chidcan pot pie
White bread
Sweet ro lls
Apple pie
White ro lls
1.
2.
3.
4.
C Cost
61.4
100
table 18
R iel Cose1 p er Equal Weight Serving: Ccnperison Between Convenience and Heme-Prepared Foods
HP2 > C3
C > HP
HP Coat4 C Coat
E lectric Rauza
'/Yellow cake6
/Chocolate cake
/Pudding
/Chicken noodle soup
/Spaghetti sauce
Macaroni & cheese
Chicken noodle soup
incl. broch
/Cookies
/White bread
/Whole wheat bread
/White ro lls
/Sweet ro lls
0.25
0.36
0.16
0.59
0.27
1.39
2.76
0.24
0.34
0.1A
0.30
0.08
0.38
0.30
0.14
0.31
0.30
0.29
0.12
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
7. Dlff5
4.0
5.6
12.5
49.2
70.4
72.7
89.1
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
Microwave Oven
/Macaroni & cheese
/Broccoli
/P izza in cl. sauce
/Chidcan poc pie
lncl. broch
/Qiicksn noodle soup
/Spaghetti sauca
TV dinner
(hickan noodle soup
incl. broth
/Cookies
/White bread
/Whole wheat bread
/White ro lls
/Sweet ro lls
0.39
0.28
0.90
1.02
0.36
0.25
0.72
0.78
7.7
10.7
20.0
23.5
1.08
0.59
4.39
2.62
0.50
0.15
0.94
0.50
53.7
74.6
78.6
80.0
0.02
0.09
0.07
0.04
0.03
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
0.28
0.28
0.0
0.21
0.21
0.0
HP ■ C
E lectric Raise
ttuhroom soup
Microwave Ovm
Chocolate cake
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Riel cost: kilow att hours o f e le c tric ity x 4.97c
HP - Hare-prepared food
C - Convenience food
Cants per serving
% Difference - Larger Value - analler value lnn
Larger value
6. •i • Difference 1 1 cant
E lectric R ase
/Combread
/Pacakaa
/B iscuits
TV dim er
/Apple pie
Chicken poc p ie
in cl. broch
Pizza ln cl. sauca
/Broccoli
Pizza
Chicken pot pie
C Cost
HP Coat
0.63
0.50
0.60
4.43
0.78
4.68
0.56
0.36
0.43
2.47
0.40
2.33
2.04
0.40
2.04
4.68
0.92
0.15
0.68
1.42
0.51
0.13
0.20
0.24
0.59
0.72
0.18
0.78
0.25
0.50
0.11
0.15
0.16
0.37
0.43
0.10
0.42
0.10
Microwave Ovm
/Pwicakea
1 /Combread
/Yellow cake
/Pudding
/Mishroan 3cup
/P izza
/B iscuits
/Chicken poc pie
/Apple pie
*
101
m ic r o w a v e o v e n )
th e d iffe r e n c e in
c e n t p er s e r v in g .
r a n g e d from
e le c tr ic
T he p e r c e n t a g e d i f f e r e n c e i n
4.0% -
ran ge,
•s e r v in g
100.0% f o r
an d
prepared fo o d s.
e le c tr ic
c o s t was l e s s
-
100.0%
n in e te e n ite m s
r a n g e and 9 i n
fo r f u e l in
th e
(1 0 p r e p a r e d
th a n in
a lth o u g h th e c o s t d i f f e r e n c e f o r
w as l e s s
The p e r c e n t a g e d i f f e r e n c e i n
p rep ared
c o s t o f a c t i v e p r e p a r a tio n
r a n g e d fro m
range,
fo r m ;
prepared
to
in
w it h t h e
p rep are in
6y.6%
and fr o m 2.0% Two r o o d s ,
th e
h o m e -p r e p a r e d fo r m .
The p e r c e n ta g e d if f e r e n c e
t i m e a t minimum w a g e b e t w e e n
e le c tr ic
(2 2 p r e p a r e d w i t h
t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n )
range c o s t
in
T a b le
ly .
m ore p e r
i n h o m e -p r e p a r e d
c o s t w as 1 1 .8 % .
T he
t h e e l e c t r i c r a n g e and 2 1
c o s t m o re p e r s e r v i n g t o p r e p a r e i n
t h e h o m e -p r e p a r e d fo r m .
o n e c e n t f o r o n e it e m
r ep o r te d
c o n v e n ie n c e th a n
th e p er c e n ta g e d if f e r e n c e in
r e m a in in g f o o d s
11.1% -
r a n g e and on e p r e p a r e d i n
c o n v e n ie n c e and h o m e -p r e p a r e d f o o d s i s
s e r v in g
range
had t h e sa m e f u e l c o s t p e r s e r v i n g w h e t h e r
in c o n v e n ie n c e o r in
One f o o d
(5 e l e c t r i c
t n e m ic r o w a v e o v e n .
A c t i v e T im e a t Minimum W age.
in
c o s t m ore p e r
th a n one c e n t p e r s e r v in g .
cost
o n e p r e p a r e d w ith t h e e l e c t r i c
m ic r o w a v e o v e n ,
w ith tn e
h o m e-p rep a red fo r m ,
14 i t e m s
f o r f o o d s p r e p a r e d w it h t n e e l e c t r i c
60.0% f o r f o o d s p r e p a r e d i n
w itn th e
f o r m ic r o w a v e -
m ic r o w a v e o v e n )
c o n v e n ie n c e
an d 9 m ic r o w a v e o v e n )
c o st of fu e i
ite m s p rep a red
fro m 7.7%
th a n o n e
The c o s t
d if f e r e n c e w as e q u a l to
p r e p a r e d w ith t h e e l e c t r i c
ran ge.
The
102
Table 19
Cost per Equal Height Serving of Active Tima a t Minima Wage: Ccapariscn Beni— i Convenience aid
Hone-Prepared Foods
C > HP
HP2 * C3
E lectric Ranoe
C Cost
7. D lff3
E lectric R—
5.18
23.36
23.09
8.08
8.62
5.23
6.83
7.21
31.88
34.34
56.51
4.18
16.74
15.34
5.35
4.65
2.79
3.49
2.79
8.37
8.37
8.37
19.3
28.3
33.6
33.8
46.0
46.6
48.9
61.3
73.7
75.6
85.2
Pancakes
38.93
12.99
55.80
18.36
74.40
61.03
4.87
11.37
13.95
12.31
9.13
5.58
1.40
5.58
1.40
5.58
2.79
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
• 0.00
85.7
89.2
90.0
92.4
92.5
95.4
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
10.87
5.33
8.85
29.41
10.17
5.23
9.10
8.43
17.30
30.79
36.75
35.38
12.66
61.92
9.82
4.26
6.83
22.53
5.75
2.94
4.96
3.58
6.34
11.16
9.30
6.20
2.03
9.30
9.6
20.1
22.8
23.4
43.5
43.8
45.5
57.5
63.4
63.8
74.7
82.5
84.0
85.0
19.44
87.19
51.04
69.75
2.86
12.40
6.20
2.94
85.3
85.8
87.8
95.8
2.74
11.69
14.38
12.68
9.52
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
HP Cost4
VCotnbread6
Pudding
Mishroan soup
Yellow cake
Chocolate cake
(Woken noodle soup
Broccoli
Biscuits
Macaroni & cheese
Chidcan pot pie
Chicken poc pie
lncl. broth
Pizza
Apple pie
Pizza ln cl. sauce
Spaghetti sauce
TV Mrwyjr
Chidcan noodle soup
Cooking
White bread
Mule wheat bread
White ro lls
Sweet ro lls
C Cost
15.81
HP Coat X Dlff
13.95
11.8
Microwave Ovm
Biscuits
Combread
Yellow cake
Patcakes
Chocolate cake
Chidcan noodle soup
Pudding
Broccoli
Macaroni & cheese
tiishroan soup
Chidcan poc pie
Pizza
Apple pie
Chidcan pot pie
lncl. broth
Spaghetti sauce
TV dim er
Pizza ln c l. sauce
Chick— noodle so»g>
lncl. broth
Cookies
White bread
Whole wheat bread
White ro lls
Sweet ro lls
1. Mtirlmm wage: $3.35 per hour
HP « Hcma -prepared food
C " Convenience food
Cants per serving
% Differmoe Larger value-via H e r value
Larger value
6 . V « Difference * 1 cane
2.
3.
4.
5.
1nn
103
p e r c e n t a g e d i f f e r e n c e i n c o s t r a n g e d fro m
th e e le c t r ic
p r ep a red in
ra n g e ite m s ,
a n d fr o m 9.6% -
100.0% f o r
100.0% f o r i t e m s
t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n .
A c t i v e T im e a t a C o o k 's W age.
p e r c e n ta g e d if f e r e n c e in c o s t o f
a c o o k ' s w age a r e sh o w n i n
c o s t s r e p o r te d
th e
F u e l.
A lt h o u g h t n e a c t u a l
th o s e re p o r te d
in
T a b le
d i f f e r e n c e s xn c o s t
S lig h t d iffe r e n c e s
b e t w e e n t h e tw o t a b l e s a r e d u e t o
th e
a c t i v e p r e p a r a t i o n txrne a t
th e p e rce n ta g e
sam e.
Food P lu s
S im ix a r r e s u l t s f o r
-T a b le 2 0 .
a r e g r e a te r th a n
f o r minimum w a g e ,
e s s e n tia lly
19.3% -
19
w ere
xn p e r c e n t a g e
r o u n d in g .
T he p e r c e n t a g e d i f f e r e n c e
in th e
c o m b in e d c o s t o f f o o d and f u e l b e t w e e n c o n v e n x e n c e and h o m e p rep ared fo o d s i s
p r e p a r e d w it h
oven)
cost
sh o w n i n T a b le 2 1 .
th e e le c t r ic
m ore p e r s e r v i n g
c o n v e n ie n c e f o r a .
For
one c e n t .
fro m 4.7%
range,
m ic r o w a v e o v e n .
e le c tr ic
1.5% - 60.3% f o r i t e m s
T h ir ty -tw o f o o d s
m an
th e e le c t r x c
(1 6 p r e p a r e d
th a n o n e c e n t - p e r s e r v i n g .
w ith t h e
or
in c o s t ran geu
cost
w it h t h e
m ore f o r
c o n v e n i e n c e t h a n xn h o m e - p r e p a r e d fo r m ;
d i f f e r e n c e i n c o s t f o r o n e it e m
le s s
(2 e l e c t r x c
prepared in th e
r a n g e a n d 16 i n t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n )
fo o d and f u e l in
th a n in
t h e d i f f e r e n c e w as l e s s
it e m s p r e p a r e d w ith
(7
t h e m x cro w a v e
h o m e-p rep a red
T he p e r c e n t a g e d i f f e r e n c e
- 62.6% f o r
and fro m
in
an d 7 i n
t h r e e o f t h e s e it e m s
r a n g e a n d 1 m ic r o w a v e o v e n )
eq u al to
range
F o u rtee n fo o d s
e le c tr x c
th e
r a n g e w «s
The p e r c e n t a g e d i f f e r e n c e
104
Table 20
Cose per Equal Height Serving of Active Time a t a Cock's Wage:* Ccsfwrisca Between Convenience and
Hans-Prepared Foods
C > HP
HP2 ,* C3
E lectric Passe
Combread
Pudding
Mushroom soup
Yellow cake
Chocolate cake
Chicken noodle soup
Broccoli
Biscuits
Macaroni & cheese
Chicken pot pie
Chidcm pot pie
incl. broth
Pizza
Apple pie
Pizza in c l. sauce
Spaghetti sauce
TV ittnrMW
Chicken noodle soup
incl. broth
Cookies
Whits bread
Whole wheat bread
White r a ils
Sweet ro lls
HP Cost
C Cost
% Dlff
12.92
58.23
57.56
20.13
21.48
13.04
17.03
17.97
79.48
85.60
140.38
10.43
41.73
38.25
13.33
11.59
6.96
8.69
6.96
20.86
20.86
20.86
19.3
28.3
33.5
33.8
46.0
46.6
49.0
61.3
73.8
75.6
85.2
97.05
32.38
139.10
45.76
185.47
152.14
13.91
3.48
13.91
3.48
13.91
6.96
85.7
89.2
90.0
92.4
92.5
95.4
12.14
28.34
34.78
30.68
22.76
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
27.09
13.30
22.07
73.31
25.34
13.04
22.68
21.03
43.12
76.74
91.60
88.21
31.56
154.37
24.47
10.61
17.03
56.18
14.34
7.32
12.36
8.92
15.81
27.82
23.18
15.46
5.06
23.18
9.7
20.2
22.8
23.4
43.4
43.9
45.5
57.6
63.3
63.7
74.7
82.5
84.0
85.0
48.47
217.34
127.22
173.88
7.13
30.91
15.46
7.32
85.3
85.3
87.3
95.8
6.82
29.14
35.86
31.61
23.74
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
E lectric Range
Microwave Oven
Biscuits
Combread
Yellow cake
Pancakes
Chocolate cake
Chicken noodle soup
Pudding
Broccoli
Macaroni & cheese
Mishrocm soup
Chicken poc pie
Pizza
Apple pie
Chidcm pot pie
incl. broth
Spaghetti sauce
TV dinner
Pizza in cl. sauce
Chidcm noodle soup
incl. broch
Cookies
White bread
Whole wheat bread
White r a ils
Sweet ro lls
1. Cook's Wage: 38.34 per hour
2. HP - Hone-prepared food
3. C - Convenience food
4. Cents per serving
3. 7. Difference » Larger value - smaller value x 100
Larger value
Pancakes
C Cost
39.41
HP Cost Z Dlff
34.78
11.7
105
Table 21
Cose per Equal Weight Serving of Food and Fuel:1 Ccnnarisan Between Convenience and Hone-Prepared Food
C > HP
HP2 * C3
E lectric Range
/Pancakes6
/Coddes
Mnhroaa soup
Spaghetti sauca
CbocolaEa cake
Macaroni & cheese
Chicken noodle soup
incl. broch
HP Cost
C Coat
7. n iff 5
9.27
6.96
23.36
24.43
12.56
26.87
46.51
8.83
6.41
26.23
21.33
9.84
13.13
17.30
4.7
7.9
8.0
10.8
21.6
51.1
62.3
E lectric Ranze
/Yellow cake
Chicken noodle soup
TV dinner
Broccoli
Pudding
Combread
Chidcan pot pie
incl. broth
Pizza in cl. sauce
Pizza
Biscuits
Chicken pot pie
Whole wheat bread
White bread
Apple pie
Sweet ro lls
White to lls
Microwave Oven
/Cookies
Mishroon soup
Pancakes
Chocolate cake
Spaghetti sauce
Macaroni & cheese
Chidcan noodle soup
incl. broth
6.51
23.65
11.04
14.28
28.47
21.79
46.37
6.41
26.59
9.36
11.96
22.46
11.95
18.39
1.5
7.2
15.2
16.2
21.1
45.2
60.3
C Cost
HP Cost 7. Dlff
9.99
17.30
100.43
21.40
17.39
11.96
59.68
9.55
14.97
74.69
15.46
12.48
8.27
41.30
4.4
13.5
25.6
27.8
28.2
30.3
30.8
71.54
71.54
7.60
59.68
9.75
7.00
24.61
9.88
8.10
45.34
45.10
4.70
34.24
5.45
3.64
11.95
4.36
3.33
36.6
37.0
38.2
42.6
44.1
48.0
51.4
55.9
58.9
12.14
18.39
21.79
15.57
11.65
61.39
10.34
15.46
17.72
11.68
8.05
38.09
14.8
15.9
13.7
25.0
30.9
38.4
7.40
79.94
77.94
107.61
9.75
61.89
7.00
9.88
26.25
8.10
4.52
47.48
47.01
64.39
5.38
31.64
3.52
4.45
11.36
3.17
38.9
39.1
39.7
40.2
44.8
48.9
49.7
55.0
56.7
60.9
Microwave Oven
Yellow cake
Chicken noodle soup
Broccoli
Pudding
Combread
Chicken pot pie
incl. broth
Biscuits
Pizza in cl. sauce
Pizza
TV dim er
Whole wheat bread
Chidcm pot pie
White bread
Sweet ro lls
Apple pie
White to lls
1. Fuel coat: Kilowatt hours o f e le c tric ity x 4.97c
2. HP - Home-prepared food
3. C - Convmim'S'-food
4. Cants per serving
5. % Difference - Larser value - smaller value ..
Cargar value---------------x 100
6. / « D iffem ce 4 1 cant
106
in
c o s t r a n g e d fro m 4.4% - 5 8 .9 % f o r f o o d s p r e p a r e d
e le c tr ic
r a n g e , an d fr o m
14.8% -
w it h t n e
60.9% f o r f o o d s p r e p a r e d xn
t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n .
F o o d . F u e l . a n d A c t i v e T im e a t H in im u a W age.
in
T a b le 22 t h e c o m b in e d c o s t
p r e p a r a t io n tim e a t
o f fo o d ,
minimum w a g e w a s g r e a t e r
(1 9 p r e p a r e d w i t h t h e e l e c t r i c
oven)
in
r a n g e and
w as l e s s
ite m s
fo r
(2 e l e c t r i c
ran ge
The p e r c e n t a g e
f o r f o o d s p r e p a r e d w it h t h e e l e c t r i c r a n g e ,
10 i t e m s
0.3% - 61.3%
and fro m
t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n .
p rep a red fo rm .
d iffe r e n c e o f
w as g r e a t e r i n
and b xn
c o n v e n ie n c e th a n in
One m ic r o w a v e - p r e p a r e d f o o d h a d
le s s
th a n
p er c e n ta g e d iffe r e n c e in
f o o d s p r e p a r e d w it h
one cen t
15.9% f o r f o o d s p r e p a r e d i n
F u e l,
The
fro m 4.1% - 1 b . 7% f o r
ran ge,
and
fr o m
2.1% -
t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n .
and A c t iv e
p er c e n ta g e d iffe r e n c e in
aom e-
a c o st,
p er s e r v in g .
c o s t ranged
th e e le c t r ic
1.1% -
The c o s t
(4 p r e p a r e d w i t h t h e e l e c t r i c r a n g e
t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n )
Food.
The c o s t
an d 3 m x cro w a v e
c o m b in e d c o s t r a n g e d fro m
81.6% f o r f o o d s p r e p a r e d i n
36 f o o d s
17 i n t h e m xcxow ave
th a n o n e c e n t p e r s e r v in g .
d iffe r e n c e in t h i s
fo r
an d a c t i v e
h o m e -p r e p a r e d th a n i n c o n v e n ie n c e fo r m .
d iffe r e n c e fo r 5
oven )
fu e l,
As sn ow n
a t a C o o t's B a g e .
c o m p o s ite c o s t o f f o o d ,
The
fu e l,
an d
a c t i v e p r e p a r a t i o n t i m e a t a c o o J c 's w a g e b e t w e e n c o n v e n i e n c e
and h o m e - p r e p a r e d f o o d s i s
g r e a te r fo r
42
ite m s
s h o w n i n T a b le 2 3 .
(2 1 p r e p a r e d w i t h
T he c o s t
was
th e e l e c t r i c ran ge
107
Tabla 22
Cose per Equal Weight Serving of Food, Rial,
Convtnlmce aid Bone-Prepared Foods
1 aid Active Tims at Mtnlmm Hags: 2 Coaparison Between
C > HP
HP3 *
E lectric Ratuta
HP Coat3
/Chidcm noodla sag) 7 20.20
VChicken pot pie
68.58
35.84
Pudding
Pizza
84.03
Biscuits
11.91
Yellow cake
17.63
Mushrocm soup
51.65
101.14
Pizza incl. sauca
Sweat ro lls
13.49
IV dinner
149.09
Chidcm pot pie
97.81
incl. broth
Chocolate cake
21.18
Spaghetti sauce
42.84
Cookies
11.83
White ro lls
15.64
Whole wheat bread
19.40
White bread
15.01
Macaroni & cheese
58.75
Chidcm noodle soup 107.54
incl. broth
C Cost
7. Dlff6
E lectric Rerun
20.09
68.05
34.13
77.12
10.39
15.34
41.62
77.12
9.88
106.01
68.05
0.5
0.8
4.8
8.2
12.8
13.0
19.4
23.7
26.8
28.9
30.4
Apple pie
Pancakes
Broccoli
Combread
14.49
23.23
6.41
8.10
9.75
7.00
21.50
20.09
31.6
45.8
45.8
48.2
49.7
53.4
63.4
81.3
18.97
20.53
25.37
84.14
120.01
31.89
17.71
71.19
1.1
1.2
3.0
14.6
20.8
21.2
27.6
28.8
9.88
6.41
37.75
25.32
8.10
9.75
•18.29
7.00
21.33
29.3
30.7
36.5
47.2
48.9
50.6
53.2
54.0
81.6
Microwave Oven
/Yellow cake
19.19
✓Pudding
20.78
✓Broccoli
26.15
Pizza incl. sauce
98.52
IV dinner
151.58
Pmcakes
40.45
Chocolate cake
24.45
Chicken pot pie
100.01
incl. broth
Sweet ro lls
13.97
Cocklas
9.25
Mjshrocm soup
59.44
Spaghetti sauce
47.91
White ro lls
15.85
Whole wheat bread
19.76
Macaroni & cheese
39.09
White bread
15.21
Chicken noodle soup 116.12
incl. broch
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Fuel cost: Kilowatt hours o f e le c tric ity x 4.97c
Mlnisun wage: $3.35 par hour
HP - Bane-prepared food
C ” Convenience food
Cents par serving
7. Difference • Larger value - smaller value lnn
'
Larger value--------------- x 100
7. / * Difference & 1 cant
C Coat
HP Coat 7. Dlff
26.01
24.64
24.89
16.14
24.94
23.22
22.29
13.45
4.1
5.8
10.4
16.7
84.14
21.33
71.19
17.22
28.28
15.91
82.39
20.69
63.39
15.39
24.02
13.38
2.1
3.0
3.9
10.6
15.1
15.9
Microwave Oven
Pizza
/Chidcm noodle soup
Chicken poc pie
Biscuits
Apple pie
Combread
108
Table 23
C ost par Equal Uelghc Serving o f Food, Rial.
Corwwisice aid Hcme-prepered Foods
1 and Active Tine ac a Cook's Mage:2 Coaparison Betwem
HP3 * C4
E lectric Rawe
Broccoli
Chicken noodle soup
Podding
Yellow cake
Mjshrocm soup
Chicken pot pie
Biscuits
Apple pie
Chocolate cake
Pizza
Pizza incl. sauce
Chicken pot pie
lncl. broth
TV dizzier
Sweet ro lls
Spaghetti sauce
Cookies
Macaroni & cheese
Whole wheat bread
White ro lls
White bread
Chicksn noodle soup
in cl. broth
C > HP
HP Cost5
C Cost
7. Dlff6
E lectric Range
C Coat
32.49
28.01
70.71
29.68
86.12
119.84
22.67
44.33
34.04
142.15
184.44
182.18
30.09
24.26
59.12
23.32
64.53
80.54
14.56
28.09
21.43
85.45
85.45
80.54
7.4
13.4
16.4
21.4
25.1
32.8
35.8
36.6
37.0
39.9
53.7
55.8
Cornbread
Pncakas
•
Microwave Oven
22.39
48.24
21.19
44.05
5.4
8.7
31.87
22.26
31.61
21.35
0.8
4.1
260.16
27.12
70.24
19.10
106.35
40.23
34.01
31.98
198.65
114.34
9.88
25.31
6.41
33.99
9.75
8.10
7.00
24.26
56.0
63.6
64.0
66.4
68.0
75.8
76.2
78.1
87.8
28.50
32.41
34.36
38.75
84.35
42.92
135.22
123.24
39.62
174.70
105.39
281.73
13.33
192.46
25.71
29.17
27.93
30.71
65.54
31.31
93.40
85.07
26.30
93.40
54.41
138.52
6.41
85.07
9.8
10.0
18.7
20.7
22.3
27.0
30.9
31.0
33.6
46.5
48.4
50.8
51.9
55.8
64.91
76.94
28.19
41.24
34.78
32.66
220.25
27.76
29.59
9.88
9.75
8.10
7.00
25.71
57.2
61.5
65.0
76.4
76.7
78.6
88.3
7
VB iscuits7
Cornbread
HP Cost Z Dlff
Microwave Oven
Chickoi noodle soup
Yellow cake
Pudding
Broccoli
Pancakes
Apple pie
Pizza
Chicken pot pie
Chocolate cake
Pizza incl. sauce
Mishroan soup
TV dinner
Cookies
Chicken pot pie
incl. broth
Macaroni & cheese
Spaghetti sauce
Sweet ro lls
Whole wheat bread
White ro lls
White bread
Chicken noodle soigi
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Fuel cost: Killowatt hours o f e le c tric ity x 4.97c
Cook's wage: $8.34 per hour
HP » Hcme-prepared food
C " Convenience food
Cants per serving
7. Difference • larg er value-smeller value x 100
Larger value
“ Difference i 1 cent
7.
109
an d 2 1 i n
t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n )
c o n v e n ie n c e fo r m .
in
h o m e -p r e p a r e d th a n in
T he p e r c e n t a g e
d i f f e r e n c e r a n g e d fro m
7.4% - 87.8% f o r i t e m s p r e p a r e d w it h t h e e l e c t r i c
fr o m
9.8% -
88.3% f o r
Pour fo o d s
ite m s
prepared
(2 p r e p a r e d w it h t h e
m ic r o w a v e o v e n )
m ic r o w a v e - p r e p a r e d i t e m s w a s l e s s
d iffe r e n c e fo r
b o th
th a n o n e c e n t p e r s e r v i n g .
i n - c o s t r a n g e d fr o m
f o r f o o d s p r e p a r e d w ith t h e e l e c t r i c r a n g e ,
4.1% f o r f o o d s p r e p a r e d i n
th e
c o s t i n c o n v e n ie n c e th a n in
a lth o u g h t h e
The p e r c e n t a g e d i f f e r e n c e
i n t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n .
e l e c t r i c r a n g e and 2 i n
had a g r e a t e r
h o m e -p r e p a r e d fo r m ,
r a n g e , and
5.4% -
8.7%
and fr o m 0.8% -
t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n .
Sum mary; C o n v e n ie n c e P o o d s a n d H o m e -P r e p a r e d P o o d s .
s u m m a r iz e
th e
p e r -s e r v in g
cost
d iffe r e n c e
c o n v e n ie n c e and h o m e -p r e p a r e d f o o d s ,
fo o d s t e s t e d
(6 9 .6 % )
c o s t m o re
c o n v e n ie n c e th a n i n t h e
f u e l a lo n e .
w hen t h e
(5 4 .3 % )
fo o d and f u e l c o s t s
cooK »s w a g e ,
th e
c o s t m ore f o r
s m a l l , and
t h e c o n v e n ie n c e fo rm .
o f th e
Por c o s t
a t e i t h e r minimum w age o r
m a jo r ity o f
h o m e -p r e p a r e d f o o d s
When c o s t o f t i m e a n minimum
w age w as a d d e d t o t h e f o o d a n d f u e l c o s t ,
p rep a red ite m s w ere
an t h e
w e r e c o m b in e d 69.6%
c o s t m o re p e r s e r v i n g .
o f tn e
By c o n t r a s t ,
H ow ever, th e c o s t o f f u e l w as v e r y
o f a c t i v e p r e p a r a t io n tim e a lo n e
(9 7 .8 % )
t h e m a jo r ity
h o m e-p rep a red fo r m .
f o o d s w e r e m ore e x p e n s i v e i n
at a
b e tw e e n
f o r fo o d a lo n e
t h e m a j o r it y o f h o m e -p r e p a r e d f o o d s
To
78.3% o f t h e h o m e -
m o re e x p e n s i v e p e r s e r v i n g
th a n th e x r
110
c o n v e n ie n c e c o u n t e r p a r t s .
And w hen c o s t o f t im e a t a
w age w as a d d e d t o
and f u e l c o s t ,
th e fo o d
c o s t m ore p e r s e r v i n g i n t h e
w h i l e 52.2% o f
a lo n e .
s
th e fo o a s
h o m e -p r e p a r e d v e r s i o n .
P o r f o o d s p r e p a r e d w it h t h e
t h e c o n v e n ie n c e f o r a
91.3% o f
'
cook
e le c tr ic range,
w e r e m o re e x p e n s i v e f o r
69.6% i n
fo o d a lo n e ,
t h e h o m e -p r e p a r e d f o o d s c o s t
m ore r o r f u e l
When t h e c o s t o f f o o d an d f u e l w a s c o m b in e d , 69.6%
o f c o n v e n ie n c e fo o d s
p r e p a r a tio n t im e ,
w ere m ore e x p e n s i v e .
an d c o s t o f t i m e a t minimum
When f o o d ,
w age w e r e a d d e d ,
h o m e - p r e p a r e d f o o d s w e r e m o re e x p e n s i v e ,
o f th e
fu e l,
and p r e p a r a tio n tim e a t a
fo o d s w ere
c o st of
95.6% o f t h e f o o d s w e r e m ore e x p e n s i v e
h o m e -p r e p a r e d th a n i n c o n v e n ie n c e fo r m .
o f fo o d ,
P or
m o re e x p e n s i v e
in
in
fu e l,
82 .6 % o f t h e
w h ile f o r th e c o s t
cook
th e
'
s
w age,
91.3%
h o m e -p r e p a r e d
v e r s io n .
Of t h e f o o d s p r e p a r e d i n
t h e c o n v e n ie n c e fo o d s
t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n ,
c o s t m o re f o r
th e
6 9 . o% o f
fo o d a lo n e ,
but
56.5% o f h o m e - p r e p a r e d f o o d s c o s t m ore f o r f u e l a l o n e .
c o m b in e d c o s t o f f o o d and f u e l
c o n v e n ie n c e f o o d s .
h ad a
A ll
g r e a te r c o s t fo r
c o m b in e d c o s t f o r f o o d ,
w as g r e a t e r f o r
(1 0 0 .0 % )
69 .6 % o r t n e
o f t h e h o m e-p rep a red f o o d s
a c t i v e p r e p a r a tio n
fu e l,
Tne
tim e .
T he
a n d a c t i v e t im e a t minimum
w age w as g r e a t e r f o r 73.9% o f h o m e - p r e p a r e d i t e m s ,
and t h e
c o m b in e d c o s t o f f o o d ,
cook
fu e l,
an d a c t i v e
t im e a t a
w a g e was g r e a t e r f o r 91.3% o f h o m e - p r e p a r e d f o o d s .
'
s
111
The h ig h e r fo o d
fo o d s u sed
c e r ta in
m ig h t h e
c o sh o f t h e m a jo r ity
ex p ecte d s in c e
o f c o n v e n ie n c e
th e s e fo o d s
d e g r e e o f c u lin a r y e x p e r t is e b u i l t i n .
have a
F ood s w here
t h e h o m e - p r e p a r e d v e r s i o n w a s m o re e x p e n s i v e w e r e n o t e a s i l y
so r te d
in t o any p a r t ic u la r g r o u p in g ,
f o o d s w h ic h
c o n ta in e d
at
l e a s t one
in g r e d ie n t su ch a s c h o c o la te c h ip s ,
C o st o f f u e l p er s e r v in g fo r
any
th e c o s t d iffe r e n c e s
p rep a red fo o d s w ere a p p lie d
h o u se h o ld o v e r a
r e la tiv e ly
ch eese,
it e m
d id n o t a f f e c t t h e o v e r a l l r e s u l t s .
th a t i f
a lth o u g h s e v e r a l w ere
e x p e n s iv e
o r m u sh r o o m s.
w as s o s m a ll t h a t
H ow ever i t
is
it
p o s s ib le
b e t w e e n c o n v e n i e n c e an d h o m e t o t h e a m ou n t o f f o o d e a t e n b y a
p e r io d o f t im e ,
fu e l c o sts
m ig h t b e an
im p o r ta n t p a r t o f t h e t o t a l c o s t o f f o o d p r e p a r a t io n .
T he t im e n e e d e d t o p r e p a r e
c o n s id e r e d
p r e p a r a tio n
to be
t im e g r e a t l y
When t h e c o s t
c o st,
th e
e x p e n s iv e .
fr e e of ch arge,
a ffe c te d
fo o d c a n n o t n e c e s s a r ily
and t h e
c o s t oE a c t i v e
th e r e s u l t s in
o f t i m e w as n o t i n c l u d e d i n
m a jo r ity o f t h e
tn a s stu d y .
th e t o t a l fo o d
c o n v e n ie n c e fo o d s
H o w ev er s i n c e h o m e - p r e p a r e d
be
w e r e m ore
fo o d s in
general
t o o * m o re a c t i v e
p r e p a r a t i o n t i m e , w hen t h e c o s t o f t i m e w as
in c lu d e d
t o t a l fo o d
in t h e
c o s t th e
p r e p a r e d f o o d s b e c a m e m ore e x p e n s i v e .
w as i n c r e a s e d ,
m a jo r ity o f
As t h e v a l u e o f t i m e
t h e num ber o f h o m e - p r e p a r e d
b e c a m e m ore e x p e n s i v e a l s o i n c r e a s e d .
h o m e-
f o o d s w h ic h
112
E le c tr ic
R an ge a n d M ic r o w a v e O ven
Food.
T a b le 2 4
c o s t p er s e r v in g
an d i n
sh ow s t h e p e r c e n t a g e d i f f e r e n c e in
fo r
fo o d s
t h e m ic r o w a v e
oven.
h o m e -p r e p a r e d )
e le c tr ic
had a
range,
p r e p a r e d w it h t h e e l e c t r i c r a n g e
N in e f o o d s
d iffe r e n c e fo r
f o o d s w as l e s s
th a n o n e
p e r c e n ta g e d if f e r e n c e in c o s t ranged
c o n v e n ie n c e f o o d s ,
fo o d s.
a n d from 2.5% -
T w e n ty -fiv e ite m s
p repared)
h ad
1.6% -
fr o m 9.1% -
11.1% f o r
16.9% f o r h o m e - p r e p a r e d
T he c o s t d i f f e r e n c e
T he r a n g e i n
The
a n d Id
c o s t w hen p r e p a r e d
c o n v e n i e n c e an d 7 h o m e - p r e p a r e d )
s e r v in g .
th ree o f
c e n t.
(1 2 c o n v e n i e n c e
a h ig h e r fo o d
m ic r o w a v e o v e n .
(2 c o n v e n ie n c e and 7
h i g h e r f o o d c o s t w hen p r e p a r e d w it h t h e
a lth o u g h t h e c o s t
t h e h o m e -p r e p a r e d
fo r
w as l e s s
13
p r e p a r e d f o o d s had
h o m ein th e
fo o d s
(6
th a n o n e c e n t p e r
p e r ce n ta g e c o s t d if f e r e n c e
19.1% f o r c o n v e n i e n c e f o o d s and fro m 2.9% -
h o m e -p r e p a r e d f o o d s .
fo o d
w as from
I o . oa t o r
One c o n v e n i e n c e f o o d an d t h r e e h o m et h e sam e f o o d
cost
p er s e r v in g
w h e th e r
p r e p a r e d w it h t h e e l e c t r i c r a n g e o r t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n .
F u e l.
The p e r c e n t a g e d i f f e r e n c e
f o r f u e l b e tw e e n f o o d s p r e p a r e d
in
t h e m ic r o w a v e
fo o d s
oven i s
s e r v in g fo r
w it h t h e e l e c t r i c
sh o w n i n
(1 0 c o n v e n i e n c e and 16
th e c o s t d iffe r e n c e
ce n t fo r
22 i t e m s
T a b le 2 5 .
h o m e -p r e p a r e d )
f u e l when p r e p a r e d
a lth o u g h
in c o s t p er s e r v in g
w ith t h e
w as l e s s
r a n g e an a
T w e n ty -s ix
c o s t m ore p e r
e le c tr ic
range,
th a n o r e g u a l t o on e
(7 c o n v e n i e n c e a n d 1 5 h o m e - p r e p a r e d ) .
The
113
Table 24
Food Cose par Equal Height Serving: Comparison B w e e i Foods Prepa red with the Electric Range aid
with the Microwave Oven
ER > m2
MW > ER
ER Cost
Convenience
Macaroni & d a see
Pudding
MJ Cost 7. Dlff4
12.73
17.25
11.59
15.33
9.1
11.1
u .s s
6.82
38.97
11.26
6.49
37.07
2.5
4.8
4.9
32.82
12.32
25.48
72.22
31.22
11.52
21.40
60.00
4.4
6.5
16.0
16.9
Hama-Prepared
/Apple pia^
/Cockles
Chicken pot pie
In d . broth
Chickm pot pie
/Pudding
Macaroni & cheese
TV dinner
ER-MT
Convenience
/Mishroan soup
26.00
26.00
0.0
28.28
14.38
43.75
28.28
14.38
43.75
0.0
0.0
0.0
Hane-Prepared
/Misbrcan soup
/Chicken noodle soup
/Chicken noodle soup
In d . broth
1.
2.
3.
4.
ER - E lectric Range
MJ - Microwave Oven
Cents par serving
7. DICfef ca ” L atter value - vnanar value _
Larger vd u e--------------- * 100
5. / - Difference ± 1 cant
CawrHair*
/Gombraad
/Broccoli
/Speghettl sauce
/B iscuits
/Chicken noodle soup
/Pancakes
Apple pie
Pizza
Chicken pot pie
TV dinner
Tallow cake
Chocolate cake
tM Cost
ER Cost Z Dlff
11.52
21.54
22.31
7.22
17.89
8.85
26.00
77.22
61.11
106.67
11.94
11.75
11.33
21.00
21.75
7.00
17.00
8.33
23.83
69.50
55.00
96.00
9.75
9.50
1.6
2.5
2.5
3.0
5.0
5.9
8.3
10.0
10.0
10.0
18.3
19.1
7.94
3.13
3.43
5.31
4.42
4.42
46.58
46.58
10.19
17.44
27.88
14.07
10.54
7.71
3.04
3.33
5.15
4.27
4.24
44.42
44.42
9.30
15.31
24.21
12.20
8.91
2.9
2.9
2.9
3.0
3.4
4.1
4.6
4.6
8.7
12.2
13.2
13.3
15.5
Home-Prepared
/Combread
/White ro lls
/White bread
/Whole wheat bread
/B iscuits
/Sweet ro lls
Pizza
Pizza in d . sauce
/Yellow cake
Broccoli
Spaghetti sauce
Chocolate cake
Pancakes
114
Table 25
Rial Coat1, par Equal Weight Serving: Conparlaca Between Fooda Preparad with tha E lectric Range and
with tha Microwave Ousn
Mf * ER
ER2 * W3
4
ER Cost tV Cost
Ccnvaniance
/Macaroni & cheese6
/Tallow cake
/Broccoli
/Chocolate cake
Pizza
/Apple pie
✓Biscuits
• TV dim er
/Cambread
Chicken pot pia
7. ra ff5
0.38
0.24
0.40
0.34
2.04
0.78
0.60
4.43
0.63
4.68
0.36
0.20
0.25
0.21
0.72
0.25
0.18
0.94
0.13
0.78
5.3
16.7
37.5
38.2
64.7
67.9
70.0
78.8
79.4
83.3
0.92
2.76
0.90
2.62
2.2
5.1
0.68
0.25
0.36
2.33
0.43
0.15
0.21
1.02
36.8
40.0
41.7
56.2
1.42
0.31
1.39
0.12
0.40
0.43
0.30
0.56
0.14
0.29
0.42
0.09
0.39
0.03
0.10
0.10
0.07
0.11
0.02
0.04
70.4
71.0
71.9
75.0
75.0
76.7
76.7
80.4
85.7
86.2
0.16
0.16
0.0
Haae-Presared
/P izza Incl. sauce
/Chicken noodla soup
in c l. broth
/P izza
/Tallow cake
/Chocolate cake
Chicken pot pie
in c l. broth
/ Chicken pot pia
/White bread
/Macaroni & chaase
/Sweet to lls
/Apple pia
/B iscu its
/ t t o l s wheat breed
/Combreed
/Cookies
/tt iita ro lls
e r- m
Hrma-Prw pa r a d
/Pudding
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
RjbI cost: Kilowatt hours o f a la c r r ld ty x 4.97c
EH - E lectric Range
tU - Microwave O m
Cants par serving
Z Difference - Larger value - smaller valua lnft
Larger valua
6. / - Difference & 1 cant
Ccnvaniance
/Pancakes
/Chickm nmtfla s o n
✓Pudding
/Spaghetti sauce
✓Mahrocn soup
Mf Cost
HI Cost 7. Diff
0.51
0.50
0.24
0.15
0.59
0.50
0.30
0.14
0.08
0.28
2.0
40.0
41.7
46.7
52.5
0.37
0.50
4.39
1.08
0.28
0.59
0.28
0.36
2.47
0.59
0.15
0.27
24.3
28.0
43.7
45.4
54.2
54.2
Hooa-Preoared
✓Mushroom soup
/Pancakes
TV dinner
/Chickm noodle soup
✓Broccoli
/Spaghetti sauce
115
p e r c e n ta g e d iffe r e n c e in f u e l c o s t
f o r c o n v e n ie n c e it e m s ,
and
fro m
2 .2 f t - 8 6 .2 f t
p rep ared fo o d s .
E le v e n it e m s
prepared)
g r e a t e r f u e l c o s t w h en
had a
m ic r o w a v e o v e n .
(5
r a n g e d fr o m 5 .3 f t - 8 3 .3 f t
f o r h o m e-
c o n v e n ie n c e and 6 h om eprep ared
H o w ev er t h e c o s t d i f f e r e n c e f o r
in th e
a l l th e se
ite m s , e x c e p t on e prepared in
th e e l e c t r ic ra n g e,
th a n one c e n t p er s e r v in g .
T he p e r c e n t a g e d i f f e r e n c e i n
c o s t r a n g e d fro m
fr o m 2 4 .3 f t
2 .0 f t -
- 5 4 .2 f t f o r
5 2 .5 f t f o r
t h e c o n v e n ie n c e f o o d s ,
th e n o m e -p r e p a re d i t e m s .
p r e p a r e d p r o d u c t h a d t h e sa m e
p r e p a r e d w it h t h e e l e c t r i c
A c t i v e T im e a t
p e r c e n ta g e d iffe r e n c e
A c o m p a r is o n
in th e c o s t
p e r s e r v in g
minimum w a g e i s
r e p o r te d
(3 c o n v e n i e n c e a n d 6 h o m e - p r e p a r e d )
c o s t when
p r e p a r e d w ith t h e
prepared
fo o d
d if f e r e n c e in
f o o d s and
e le c tr ic
o f th e
o f a c tiv e
in
T a b le 2 b .
h ad a
r a n g e th a n
th a n
c o s t r a n g e d fr o m
fro m 2 .5 f t
T w e n ty -e ig h t f o o d s
- 6 1 .0 f t
one c e n t.
2 4 .2 f t -
h ig h e r
in th e
a lth o u g h t h e c o s t d i f f e r e n c e f o r
w as l e s s
w n e th e r
r a n g e o r t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n .
M in e i t e m s
m ic r o w a v e o v e n ,
and
One h o m e-
f u e l c o s t p er s e r v in g
M inim ua W age.
p r e p a r a t io n tim e a t
w as l e s s
o n e n o m e-
T he p e r c e n t a g e
7 0 .4 f t f o r c o n v e n i e n c e
f o r h o m e -p r e p a r e d
fo o a s.
{1 2 c o n v e n i e n c e an d 16 h o m e -p r e p a r e d )
had
a h i g h e r p r e p a r a t i o n c o s t a t minim um w age when h e a t e d i n
th e
m ic r o w a v e o v e n t h a n
d i f f e r e n c e w as l e s s
w it h t h e e l e c t r i c
th a n o n e c e n t
c o n v e n ie n c e and 6 h o m e -p r e p a r e d ).
fo r
ran ge.
The c o s t
12 o f t h e s e
ite m s
(6
The r a n g e o f p e r c e n ta g e
116
Table 26
Cose par Equal Weight Serving o f Active Tins a t Wrrlmin Wage:^ Ccopariscn Betveen Foods Prepared with
tha Elec tric Rmga aod w ith tha Microwave Oven
Bl? > m3
m > er
ER Cose4 Mf Cost
Convanianoa
7. Diff5
Macaroni & cbaese
Mtahrocm soup
Pudding
8.37
15.34
16.74
6.34
11.16
4.96
24.2
27.2
70.4
Masa-Preoarad
j*
■/Apple pie
Pizza I n d . sauce
Pizza
Cookies
Macaroni & chaesa
Pudding
12.99
55.80
38.93
4.87
31.88
23.36
12.66
51.04
35.38
2.74
17.30
9.10
2.5
8.5
9.1
43.7
45.7
61.0
Hone-Prepared
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
✓Garnbraod
✓Broccoli
✓Chicken noodle soup
✓Pizza
✓Chicken pot pie
Chocolate cake
Yellow coke
Pancakes
✓Apple pie
Spaghetti sauce
TV d in e r
Biscuits
Hi Cost
ER Cost % D iff
4.26
3.58
2.94
6.20
9.30
5.75
6.83
22.53
2.03
2.86
12.40
9.82
4.18
3.,49
2.79
5.58
8.37
4.65
5.35
15.81
1.40
1.40
5.58
2.79
1.9
2.5
5.1
10.0
10.0
19.1
21.7
29.8
31.0
51.0
55.0
71.6
11.69
5.33
12.68
14.38
9.52
19.44
36.75
61.92
11.37
5.18
12.31
13.95
9.13
18.36
34.34
56.51
2.7
2.8
2.9
3.0
4.1
5.6
6.6
8.7
8.85
69.75
8.08
61.03
8.7
12.5
87.19
10.17
8.43
30.79
10.87
29.41
74.40
8.62
6.83
23.09
7.21
13.95
14.7
15.2
19.0
25.0
33.7
52.6
Hone-Prepared
E R -M f
✓Chicken noodle soup
Ccnvaniance
5.23
5.23
0.0
Minima Mage: $3.35 par hour
ER - Elec tric Range
HI - Microwave Oven
Cants par serving
7. Difference « Large r valua - amsllar valua __
Larger v i U --------------- x 100
6. ✓ ■ Difference 1 1 cane
✓White bread
✓Cornbraad
✓White ro lls
✓Whole wheat bread
✓Sweet ro lls
Spaghetti sauce
Chickan pot pie
Chickei pot pie
I n d . broth
✓Yellow cake
Chicken noodle soup
In d . broth
TV d in e r
Chocolate cake
Broccoli
Hishrocm soup
Biscuits
Pmcakas
117
c o s t d i f f e r e n c e w as fr o m
an d fro m
2.7% -
c o s t w as t h e
e le c tr ic
1.9%
- 71 .6 % f o r c o n v e n i e n c e f o c u s
52.6% f o r h o m e - p r e p a r e d f o o d s .
sa m e f o r o n e i t e m
range o r
A c tiv e
th e
T im e
p r e p a r e d w it h t h e
m ic r o w a v e o v e n .
a t a Cook:*s
d iffe r e n c e in c o s t
w h e th e r
W age.
T he
w age b e t w e e n f o o d s p r e p a r e d w i t h
sh ow n i n
e s s e n tia l!?
w as u s e d ,
t h e sa m e i n
a t a cook ,s
t h e e l e c t r i c r a n g e ana in
T a b le 2 7 .
f ig u r e s a re g r e a te r th a n t h o s e r e p o r te d
h ig h e r w age r a t e
p e r c e n ta g e
o f a c t i v e p r e p a r a t io n tim e
t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n i s
P r e p a r a tio n
The a c t u a l c o s t
i n T a b le 2b Since a
b u t th e p erce n ta g e f ig u r e s a re
b o th t a b l e s .
S m a ll d i f f e r e n c e s a r e
due t o r o u n d in g .
Food P lu s
F u e l.
c o m b in e d c o s t p e r
p repared
is
s e r v in g o f fo o d
w it h t h e e l e c t r i c
sh o w n i n
T a b le 2 8 .
h o m e-p rep a red )
ra n g e th a n in
ran ge
th e
f u e l b etw een f o o d s
an d i n
m ic r o w a v e o v e n .
(2 c o n v e n i e n c e and
i n c o s t r a n g e d fro m 2.6% -
xn t h e
t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n
(4 c o n v e n i e n c e and 15
p r e p a r e d w it h t h e e l e c t r i c
th a n o n e c e n t p e r s e r v i n g .
fr o m 0.3% -
and
S e v e n te e n fo o d s
c o s t m o re w hen
11 o f t h e s e i t e m s
le s s
T he p e r c e n t a g e d i f f e r e n c e
Thec o s t , d if f e r e n c e
fo r
9 h o m e -p r e p a r e d )
w as
The p e r c e n t a g e d i f f e r e n c e
10.5% f o r c o n v e n i e n c e f o o d s a n d
18.9% f o r h o m e - p r e p a r e d f o o d s .
(11 c o n v e n i e n c e a n d 10 h o m e - p r e p a r e d )
T w e n ty -o n e f o o d s
had a h i g h e r c o s t when
p r e p a r e d i n t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n t h a n w i t h t h e e l e c t r i c
The c o s t d i f f e r e n c e f o r 8 o f
t h e s e ite m s
range.
(4 c o n v e n i e n c e en d
118
Table 27
Cose par Equal Height: Serving of Active U na ac a Cook's VJsga:^ fifinari.non Batman Foods Psaparad
with tin E lectric Rtnga aid with tin Microwave Ovaa
tW > ER
ER2 * m 3
Ccnvanjance
Macaroni & rhaaaa
Miahcoon soup
Pudding
HI Cose
Mil Cost
20.86
38.25
41.73
15.81
27.82
12.36
24.2
27.3
70.4
32.38
139.10
97.05
12.14
79.48
58.23
31.56
127.22
88.21
6.82
43.12
22.68
2.5
8.5
9.1
43.8
45.7
61.0
X Diff5
Hana-Preoared
/Apple pie
Pizza in cl. sauce
Pizza
Cookies
Macaroni & cheese
Pudding
ER - W
/Cotnbraad
/Broccoli
/Qiidcan noodle soupi
Pizza
Chifksn pot pie
Chocolate cake
Yellow cake
Pancakes
Apple pia
Spaghetti sauce
TV d im er
Bisculcs
Ml Cose
HI Cose 7. Diff
10.61
8.92
7.32
15.46
23.18
14.34
17.03
56.18
5.06
7.13
30.91
24.47
10.43
8.69
6.96
13.91
20.86
11.59
13.33
39.41
3.48
3.48
13.91
6.96
1.7
2.6
4.9
10.0
10.0
19.2
21.7
29.8
31.2
51.2
55.0
71.6
29.14
13.30
31.61
35.86
23.74
48.47
91.60
154.37
28.34
12.92
30.68
34.78
22.76
45.76
85.60
140.88
2.7
2.8
2.9
3.0
4.1
5.6
6.6
8.7
22.07
173.88
20.13
152.14
8.8
12.5
217.34
25.34
21.03
76.74
27.09
73.31
185.47
21.48
17.03
57.56
17.97
34.78
14.7
15.2
19.0
25.0
33.7
52.6
Hcaa Prepared
Here-Prepared
/Chicken noodle soup
Convenience
13.04
13.04
0.0
1. Cook's Wage: $8.34 par hour
2. ER - E lectric Range
3. Ml ” Microwave Oven
4. Canes par serving
5. X Dlffaraice “ Lamer value - smaller value
Larger value
6. / “ Difference i 1 c a it
/U tica bread
/Gonobread
/White ro lls
Whole wheat bread
/Sweet ro lls
Spaghetti sauce
Chidcan pot pia
Qtlrkan pot pia
in c l. broth
Yellow cska
Qtickan noodla soup
incl. broth
TV dim er
Chocolate cake
Broccoli
Muahroaa soup
B1e m its
Paicakes
119
Table 28
Cose par Equal Weight Serving of Food aid Fuel:1 Campariscn Between Foods Prepared with tha E lectric
Raige aid with the Microwave Ovai
EB? > tH3
Convenience
✓Biscuits®
✓Combraad
Macaroni & cheese
Pudding
Mf »ER
ER Cost4 VH Cost
7. D iff5
7.60
11.96
13.13
17.39
7.40
11.65
11.95
15.57
2.6
2.6
9.0
10.5
46.51
46.37
0.3
5.45
8.27
3.64
4.70
3.33
11.95
12.48
6.96
34.24
41.30
5.38
8.05
3.52
4.52 .
3.17
11.36
11.68
6.51
31.64
38.09
1.3
2.7
3.3
3.8
4.8
4.9
6.4
6.5
7.6
7.8
74.69
26.87
64.39
21.79
Ha ne-I’reoared
✓Chicken noodle soup
incl. broth
✓Whole trfieac bread
✓Combread
✓White bread
✓Biscuits
✓White ro lls
✓Apple pie
✓Pudding
✓Cookies
Chicken pot pie
Chickan pot pie
incl. broth
TV dim er
Macaroni & cheese
13.8
18.9
1. Fuel cost: Kilowatt hours of e le c tric ity x 4.97c
2. ER - E lectric Range
3. t« - Microwave Oven
4. Cents par serving
5. 7. Difference • Larger value - smaller value _
l a rger"value---------------x 100
6. ✓ “ Dlfferencesl c o t
Convenience
✓Mishrocm soup
✓Broccoli
✓Spaghetti sauce
Chickoi pot pie
✓Poicakes
Chickan noodle soup
Apple pie
TV dim er
Pizza
Yellow cake
Chocolate cake
Mf Cost
ER Cost '7. D iff
26.59
21.79
22.46
61.89
9.36
18.39
26.25
107.61
77.94
12.14
11.96
26.28
21.40
21.S3
59.68
8.83
17.30
24.61
100.43
71.54
9.99
9.84
1.2
1.8
2.8
3.6
5.7
5.9
6.2
6.7
8.2
17.7
17.7
28.65
4.45
15.46
47.01
47.48
10.34
14.28
17.72
28.47
11.04
28.56
4.36
14.97
45.10
45.34
9.55
12.56
15.46
24.48
9.27
0.3
2.0
3.2
4.1
4.5
7.6
12.0
12.8
14.0
16.0
Hone-Prepared
✓Mushroom soup
✓Sweet ro lls
✓Chicken noodle soup
Pizza
Pizza in cl. sauce
✓Yellow caka
Chocolate cake
Broccoli
Spaghetti sauce
Pancakes
120
4 h o m e -p r e p a r e d )
w as l e s s
p e r c e n ta g e c o s t
th a n
one c e n t.
d i f f e r e n c e w as
c o n v e n i e n c e f o o d s and
fro m
fro m 0.3% -
The r a n g e o±
1.2!%
16.0%
-
17.7%
to r
f o r h o m e -p r e p -ir e a
fo o d s.
F o o d . F u e l , and A c t i v e Time> a t Minimum W age.
in
T a b le 2 9 , t h e c o m b in e d c o s t o f f o o d ,
p r e p a r a tio n tim e
e le c tr ic
a t minimum
ra n g e th a n
in
w age w as
le s s
th a n o n e
r a n g e d from
- 4 2.0 %
ce n t.
12 t o o a s
in
(4
cost
The p e r c e n t a g e d i f f e r e n c e
w.-.s
xn c o s t
1.4% - 39.8% f o r c o n v e n i e n c e f o o d s a n d from U.d%
T w e n ty -six
h ad
fo o a s
d iffe r e n c e fo r
and 5 h o m e -p r e p a r e d )
w as l e s s
s ix
(11
a h i g h e r c o s t when
t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n t h a n w it h t h e e l e c t r i c
th e c o s t
T he r a n g e i n
me
(1 c o n v e n i e n c e an d 3 h o m e - p r e p a r e d )
c o n v e n i e n c e an d 15 h o m e - p r e p a r e d )
a lth o u g h
g r e a t e r w ith
The d i f f e r e n c e
f o r h o m e -p r e p a r e d f o o d s .
p r e p a r e d in
an d a c t i v e
t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n f o r
c o n v e n i e n c e an d 8 h o m e - p r e p a r e d ) .
f o r 4 o f t h e s e ite m s
fu e l,
As sh o w n
it e m s
range,
(1 c o n v e n i e n c e
th a n on e c e n t p er s e r v in g .
p e rc e n ta g e d if f e r e n c e
in
39.7% f o r c o n v e n i e n c e f o o d s and fro m
1.y% -
c o s t w as fr o m
1.3% - 42.6% f o r h o m e-
prepared fo o d s.
Food.
F u e l,
and A c t i v e T im e a t £ C ooJc's W a g e.
p e r c e n ta g e d iffe r e n c e p er
fo o d ,
fu e l,
in
t h e c o m b in e d
and a c t i v e p r e p a r a t io n tim e a t a
b e tw e e n f o o d s p r e p a r e d
m ic r o w a v e o v e n
s e r v in g
is
sh ow n
w it h t h e e l e c t r i c r a n g e
in
T a b le
30.
T en
c o o k
T he
co st of
'
s
w age
and i n
fo o d s
(4
th e
121
Tibia 29
Goac par Equal Height Serving a t Food, B\*l,^ aid Active Tima a t tfixdsra Wsgn:^ Ccnpariscn Bai
Food Prepared w ith tha K lactric Range m d with tha MlesoHma Own
m >
EH3 >
CaBwrisnoa
✓Cambraad^
Mabroaa soup
M sfirm t & cfaaasa
Pudding
EH Coae^ W Goac
* n te t6
16.14
41.62
21.90
34.13
15.91
37.75
18.29
20.93
1.4
9.3
14.9
39.8
68.93
13.45
84.03
101.14
24.94
11.83
58.75
35.84
68.39
13.38
82.39
98.52
24.02
9.25
39.09
20.78
0.3
0.5
2.0
2.6
3.7
21.8
33.5
42.0
Hone-Praoared
/
poc pff,a
✓Cambraad
Pizza
Pizza l a d . sauca
✓Apple pia
rsM m f
Macaroni & chansa
Puddlzg
er
Goovanlanee
✓Broccoli
Chtdrsn poc pia
Qlidcan noodla soup
Appla p ia
S p artacd
****
Pizra
TV d in a r
Chooolaca cake
Tallow caka
Pancakes
Biscuits
Mf Coat
ER Cose 7. D iff
29.37
71.19
21.33
28.28
29.32
84.14
120.01
17.71
18.97
31.89
17.22
24.89
68.05
20.09
26.01
23.23
77.12
106.01
14.49
15.34
24.64
10.39
1.9
4.4
5.8
8.0
8.2
8.3
U .7
18.2
19.1
22.7
39.7
15.21
15.85
151.58
19.76
100.01
15.01
15.64
149.09
19.40
97.81
1.3
1.3
1.6
1.8
2.2
20.69
13.97
116.12
20.20
13.49
107.54
2.4
3.4
7.4
19.19
47.91
59.44
24.45
26.15
15.39
40.45
17.63
42.84
51.65
21.18
22.29
11.91
23.22
8.1
10.6
13.1
13.4
14.8
22.6
42.6
lloaa-Praoared
✓Vhita brand
✓UMfia ro lls
TV
✓Whole whaac braad
(Writan poc pia
l a d . broth
iwiHIa
✓Suaac r o lls
Qdckaa noodla soup
l a d . broth
Tallow caka
Spaghetti sauca
Wialiron soup
Chooolaca caka
Broccoli
Pmcakas
1. f b d coat: KUomcc
hourso f s loc a te ! ty x 4.97$
2. M inina Uaga: $3.39
p ar hour
3. EH - E laccric Range
4. Mf - Mtczoee'w Oven
5. Ck c s par sarviag
6 . X m fh n c i - I m r vmlua - m ilia r valua
' lig g a r valua----------------x 100
7.
DLffiBaooa 4 i cntc
122
Table 30
1
2
Cose per Equal Weight Serving o f Food, Fuel, and Active Tins a t a Cook's Wage: Comparison Becuatn
Foods Prepared with tha E lectric Range aid with the Microwave Own
ER?> Hf4
M* > ER
ER Cost^ Hi Cost
Convenience
/Gombsaad^
ttishroom soup
Macaroni & cheese
Pudding
7. Diff6
22.39
64.53
33.99
59.12
22.26
54.41
27.76
27.93
0.6
15.7
18.3
52.8
44.33
142.15
184.44
19.10
106.35
70.71
42.92
135.22
174.70
13.33
64.91
34.36
3.2
4.9
5.3
30.2
39.0
51.4
.
Hdne-Preoared
Apple pie
Pizza
Pizza in cl. sauce
Cookies
Macaroni & cheese
Pudding
Conwnioice
/B roccoli
Chickan pot pie
Chickan noodle soup
Pizza
Apple pie
Spaghetti sauce
TV dinner
Chocolate cake
Yellow cake
Pncskes
Biscuits
Thai coat: Kilowatt hours o f e le c tric ity x 4.97c
Cook's wage: $8.34 per hour
ER » E lectric Range
m - Microwave Own
C nts per serving
7. Difference ” larger value - smaller value __ i„«
—Jh5gE 15Iue------------- xl0°
7. V » D iffem ce i 1 cent
Bl Cost X Diff
30.71
85.07
25.71
93.40
31.31
29.59
138.52
26.30
29.17
65.54
31.87
30.09
80.54
24.26
85.45
28.09
25.31
114.34
21.43
23.32
48.24
14.56
2.0
5.3
5.6
8.5
10.3
14.5
17.4
18.5
20.0
26.4
54.3
21.35
28.50
32.66
34.78
41.24
123.24
28.19
192.46
21.19
28.01
31.98
34.01
40.23
119.84
27.12
182.18
0.7
1.7
2.1
2.2
2.4
2.8
3.8
5.3
281.73
32.41
76.94
220.25
260.16
29.68
70.24
193.65
7.6
8.4
8.7
9.3
39.62
38.75
105.39
31.61
84.35
34.04
32.49
86.12
22.67
44.05
14.1
16.2
18.3
28.3
47.8
Home-Prepared
/Combread
VChicken noodla soup
/White bread
/White ro lls
Whole wheat bread
Chickan pot pie
Sweat ro lls
Chicken pot pie
in cl. broth
TV dim er
Yellow cdke
Spaghetti sauce
Chicken noodle soup
in cl. broth
Chocolate cake
Broccoli
Hishrocm soup
Biscuits
Poicakes
1.
2.
3.
4.
3.
6.
Hf Cost
123
c o n v e n ie n c e and 6
h o m e -p r e p a r e d )
s e r v i n g w hen p r e p a r e d
m ic r o w a v e o v e n ;
w as l e s s
had a h i g h e r
w it h t h e e l e c t r i c
th a n o n e c e n t .
3.2% - 51.4% f o r
The p e r c e n ta g e d if f e r e n c e
52.8%
f o r c o n v e n ie n c e f o o d s ,
h o m e-p rep a red f o o d s .
(11 c o n v e n i e n c e an d 17 h o m e - p r e p a r e d )
p rep ared
in
fo r 5 o f
t h e s e ite m s
Sum mary;
su m m ary,
s e r v in g .
had
0.7% -
E le c tr ic
68.4%
w age,
p r o d u c ts r e q u ir e d
and
In g e n e r a l
m ore
a c tiv e
and t h i s w as r e f l e c t e d
When f o o d , f u e l ,
t i m e a t minimum w age w e r e c o m b in e d ,
c o s t
f o o d s w e r e m ore
A t b o t h minimum w a g e an d a t a
t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n .
fo r
m tn ta e
When f o o d
73.7% o f t h e f o o d s n a d a h i g h e r p r e p a r a t i o n
p rep a red in
w as
In
o f th e fo o d s
55.3% o f t n e
tim e p e r s e r v i n g ,
c o s t o f a c t iv e tim e .
w hen
c o s t m ore p e r s e r v i n g
e le c tr ic ran ge.
c o m u in e d ,
O ven.
t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n t h a n
For f u e l a lo n e ,
m ic r o w a v e - p r e p a r e d
p r e p a r a tio n
,
5 4 .3 % f o r c o n v e n i e n c e
e x p e n s i v e w hen p r e p a r e d i n t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n .
th e
c o s t
th e c o s t d if f e r e n c e
R a n g e an d m ic r o w a v e
m ore when p r e p a r e d i n t h e
f u e l c o s t s w ere
h ig h e r
47.8% f o r h o m e - p r e p a r e d f o o d s .
65.8% o f t h e f o o d s t e s t e d
range.
a
T he r a n g e o f p e r c e n t a g e
w a s from 2.0% -
f o o d a l o n e w hen p r e p a r e d i n
e le c tr ic
an d fro m
(1 c o n v e n i e n c e a n d 4 h o m e -p r e p a r e d )
th a n o n e c e n t p e r
d if f e r e n c e in c o s t
in c o s t
T w e n ty -e ig h t f o o u s
t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n , a l t h o u g h
f o o d s an d fr o m
th a n in th e
t h e c o s t d i f f e r e n c e f o r o n e c o n v e n ie n c e fo o d
r a n g e d fro m 0.6% -
le s s
range
c o s t per
6 8 .4 % o f t h e
in
c o o k
th e
'
s
c o s t when
and a c t i v e
rood s c o s t
124
m ore p e r s e r v i n g
w hen p r e p a r e d i n
th e c o s t s o f fo o d ,
w ere ad d ed ,
in
fu e l,
t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n .
an d a c t i v e
tim e a t a
'
c o o k
When
s
wage
73.7% o f t h e f o o d s h ad a h i g h e r p r e p a r a t i o n c o s t
t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n .
F or c o n v e n ie n c e
fo o d s a lo n e ,
s e r v i n g f o r f o o d a l o n e when
w h ile f o r th e
80.8% c o s t
prep ared
i n t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n ,
c o s t o f f u e l a l o n e 66.7% o f
th e fo o d s c o s t
m ore when p r e p a r e d w it h t h e e l e c t r i c r a n g e .
f u e l c o s t s w e r e c o m b in e d ,
7 3 .3 % o f
p r e p a r e i n t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n .
a t b o th
minimum w age a n d a t
c o n v e n ie n c e f o o d s
When lo c o . an a
t h e f o o d s c o s t m ore t o
F o r a c t i v e p r e p a r a t i o n t im e
a
c o o k
h ad a h i g h e r
m ic r o w a v e o v e n .
'
s
w age 80.0%
p r e p a r a tio n
When t h e c o s t o f f o o d ,
sa m e 73 .3 %
a ls o
prepare m
had
o f th e
cost
fu e l,
in th e
and a c t i v e
t im e a t minimum w a g e w e r e c o m b in e d , 73 .3 % o f t h e
f o o d s c o s t m o re t o
m o re p e r
c o n v e n ie n c e
t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n ,
a h ig h e r
p r e p a r a tio n c o s t
m ic r o w a v e o v e n w hen t h e c o s t o f f o o d ,
fu e l,
ana t h e
in tn e
an d t im e a t a
c o o k ' s w age w e r e c o m b in e d .
When h o m e - p r e p a r e d f o o d s a r e
m ore f o r f o o d a l o n e w hen p r e p a r e d
c o n s id e r e d ,
5 6 .5 % c o s t
i n t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n t h a n
w it h t h e e l e c t r i c r a n g e .
H o w e v e r , f u e l c o s t w as h i g h e r f o r
69.6% o f
p r e p a r e d w ith t h e e l e c t r i c
t h e s e f o o d s w hen
When t h e f o o d a n d f u e l c o s t s
w e r e c o m b in e d ,
h o m e - p r e p a r e d f o o d s c o s t m ore t o
ran ge.
C o s t o f a c t i v e t im e a t
range.
5 6 .5 % o f t h e
p r e p a r e w it h t h e
e le c tr ic
b o t h minimum w a g e and a t a
125
c o o k ' s w age w a s g r e a t e r f o r
ite m s .
7 8 .3 % o f t h e m ic r o w a v e - p r e p a r e d
The c o m b in e d c o s t o f f o o d , f u e l ,
minim um w age
p rep a red in
w as g r e a t e r
f o r 65.2%
t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n .
an d a c t i v e t i m e a t a c o o k ' s
h o m e -p r e p a r e d f o o d s w ere
an d a c t i v e t im e a t
o f th e
f o o d s when
When c o s t s o f f o o d , f u e l ,
w age w e r e a d d e d ,
73 .9 % o f t h e
m o re e x p e n s i v e t o p r e p a r e
m
th e
m ic r o w a v e \o v e n .
N e a r ly a l l t h e
fo o d s u sed in
t h i s stu d y
h a d an e g u a i
t o t a l p r o d u c t fo o d c o s t r e g a r d le s s o f t h e a p p lia n c e
p r e p a r a tio n
c o s t per
(A p p e n d ix C ) ,
s e r v in g
w ere
so th e
due t o
d iffe r e n c e s in
th e d iffe r e n t
a p p lia n c e s .
f u e l c o s t s w e r e c o m b in e d ,
m a jo r ity o f a i l
m o re p e r s e r v i n g t o
t h e majority o f
p rep are in
When f o o a a n a
fo o a s c o s t
t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n ,
h o m e -p r e p a r e d f o o d s c o s t s l i g h t l y
p r e p a r e w ith t h e e l e c t r i c
range.
w as a g a i n a n i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f
a c t i v e p r e p a r a tio n
a lth o u g h
m ore t o
C o s t o f p r e p a r a t i o n t im e
t h e t o t a l fo o d c o s t ;
t i m e w as f r e q u e n t l y g r e a t e r
p r e p a r e d i n t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n ,
fa c to r th a t
t h e fo o d
num ber o f
s e r v i n g s o b t a i n e d fr o m t h e tw o
th e
u sed fo r
cost
of
s in c e
to r fo o d s
r ^ c tiv e t i m e w as a
made m ic r o w a v e - p r e p a r e d f o o d s
m ore e x p e n s i v e .
As t h e c o s t o f tim e i n c r e a s e d ,
s o d i d t h e num ber o f f o o a s
w h ic h b eca m e
p rep a re in
oven.
m ore e x p e n s i v e t o
t h e m ic r o w a v e
126
Food C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s
In T a b le 3 1 ,
fo o d s a re
lis te d
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c c o m b in a tio n s .
The a c t u a l v a lu e s t o r d e n s i t y ,
p e r c e n t m o is tu r e , p e r c e n t f a t ,
an d h e a t i n g
e n e r g y c o n s u m p t io n p e r g r a m ,
t i m e p e r gram a r e sh o w n i n
M ore e n e r g y
e le c tr ic
by c a t e g o r i e s o f f o o d
w as r e q u i r e d t o
ra n g e th a n i n
A p p e n d ix G .
p rep a re fo o d s
t h e m ic r o w a v e
w it h t h e
oven fo r fo o d s in fo u r
c a te g o r ie s
( T a b le 3 2 ) .
F o r f o o d s w i t h h ig h d e n s i t y ,
m o is tu r e ,
and lo w f a t ,
th e e le c t r ic
e n e r g y th a n d id
u s e d 40.0%
t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n .
m ore e n e r g y
m o is tu r e b u t h ig h f a t ,
fo r fo o d s
f o r f o o d s o f h i g h d e n s i t y , lo w
e le c tr ic
m ic r o w a v e o v e n
range
c a te g o r ie s
d e n s ity
r e q u ir e d
and
d e n s ity
( T a b le 3 2 ) .
lo w
d e n s ity
m o is tu r e ,
fa t,
and h i g h
ta t.
en ergy tn a a
fo o d s in
ta e
th r « e
th e
m ic r o w a v e o v e n
range.
Tne
36.7% m ore e n e r g y f o r f o o d s w it n lo w
b u t h ig h m o i s t u r e a n d f a t ,
T a b le 3 3
an d 51.1% m ore e n e r g y f o r
m o i s t u r e , a n d lo w f a t .
t h e e l e c t r i c r a n g e r e q u i r e d m ore
t i m e o r t h e sa m e a m o u n t
oven
w m cc
an d 74.0% m o re e n e r g y
24.1% m o re e n e r g y t h a n d i d t h e e l e c t r i c
t h e m ic r o v & v e
c.nd
F o r t h e c a t e g o r y o f f o o d s w it n h iy u
m o i s t u r e b u t lo w
As sh o w n i n
d id
w ith
p r e p a r a tio n o f
f o o d s w i t h lo w d e n s i t y , h ig h
h e a tin g
T he e l e c t r i c r a n g e a l s o
r e q u i r e d m ore
fo r th e
m ic r o w a v e o v e n r e q u i r e d
36.9% m ore
68.7% m ore e n e r g y f o r f o o d s i n
a l l t h r e e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w ere lo w ,
The
ra n y e u sed
lo w
fo r
o f h e a t i n g t im e p e r gram a s
a l l c a te g o r ie s
of
fo o a
127
Table 31
Categories of Foods by Food Characteristic Ccnobinaticns
Cooking Appliance
Category Code
1111 Low density
Low moisture
Low fat
112
Low density
Low moisture
High fat
Electric Range
Microwave Oven
Combread-C^
Corobread-HE^
Yellow cake-C
Chocolate cake-C
TV dinner-C
White bread-HP
Whole wheat bread-HP
Sweet rolls-HP
Pancakes-C
Combread-C
Cornbread-HP
Yellow cake-C
Chocolate cake-C
TV dinner-C
White bread-HP
Whole wheat bread-HP
Sweet rolls-HP
Biscuits-C
Biscuits-HP
Pancakes-C
Pancakes-HP
Yellow cake-HP
Chocolate cake-HP
Pizza-C
TV dirmer-Hp
Fried chicken-HP
Sausage-HP
Cookies-HP
White rolls-HP
Biscuits-C
Biscuits-HP
Pancakes-HP
Yellow cake-HP
Chocolate cake-hp
Pizza-C
Fried chicken-HP
Sausage-HP
Cookies-HP
White rolls-HP
121
Low density
High moisture
Low fat
Broccoli-C
Carrots-HP
Macaroni-HP
Broccoli-C
Carrots-HP
Macaroni-HP
TV dinner-HP
122
Low density
High moisture
High fat
Broccoli-HP
Broccoli-HP
211
High density
Low moisture
Low fat
Macaroni & cheese-C
Macaroni & cheese-HP
Pudding-C
Pudding-HP
Pizza-HP
Pizza incl. sauce-HP
Macaroni & cheese-C
Macaroni & cheese-HP
Pudding-C
Pudding-HP
Pizza-HP
Piuza incl. sauce-HP
128
Table 31 (continued)
Categories of Foods by Food Characteristic Combinations
Category Code
Cooking Appliance
Microwave Oven
Electric Range
212
High density
Low moisture
High fat
Chicken pot pie-C
Chicken pot pie-HP
Chicken pot pie incl.
broth-HP
Apple pie-C
Apple pie-HP
Chicken pot pie-C
Chicken pot pie-HP
Chicken pot pie incl.
broth-HP
Apple pie-C
Apple pie-HP
221
High density
High moisture
Low fat
Spaghetti sauce-C
Spaghetti sauce-HP
Mushroom soup-C
Mushroom soup-HP
Chicken noodle soup-C
Chidden noodle soup-HP
Chicken noodle soup
incl. broth-HP
Potatoes-HP
Spaghetti sauce-C
Spaghetti sauce-HP
Mushroom soup-C
Mushroom soup-HP
Chicken noodle soup-C
Chicken noodle soup-HP
Chicken noodle soup
incl. broth-HP
Potatoes-HP
222
High density
High moisture
High fat
No foods in this
category
No foods in this
category
Note:
Convenience pancakes contained less fat when prepared in the
microwave because margarine was used to grill the microwave pan­
cakes while oil was used for the pancakes prepared on the
electric range. Oil is 100% fat while margarine is not.
Similarly, hone-prepared TV dinner contained more moisture and
less fat when prepared in the microwave oven since margarine was
used to fry the chicken, while oil was used .on the electric range.
1. Category code, L to R: 1st digifdensity, 2ncH% moisture, 3rd-% fat
1-low level characteristic 2-high level characteristic
2. O Convenience food
3. HP - Hone-prepared food
129
T a b le 32
Energy Consumption per Gram by Category of Food Characteristic
Combinations: Comparison Between Electric Range and Microwave Oven
Electric Range
Microwave Oven
Percentage^
Category
N
Mean
N
Mean
Difference
____________________________ (wh/g)__________ (wh/g)____________
ER^> MW3
2114 High Density
Lew Moisture
Lew Fat
6
0.65
6
0.41
36.9
112
Low Density
Low Moisture
High Fat
12
1.10
10
0.66
40.0
111
Lew Density
Low Moisture
Low Fat
8
1.15
9
0.36
68.7
212
High Density
Lew Moisture
High Fat
5
1.92
5
0.50
74.0
MW > ER
221
High Density
High Moisture
Lew Fat
8
0.44
8
0.58
24.1
122
Low Density
High Moisture
High Fat
1
0.38
1
0.60
36.7
121
Low Density
High Moisture
Low Fat
3
0.45
4
0.92
51.1
1. Percentage difference ■ Larger value-smaller value „ nnn
L arg ^"v i lu e -------------- x 100
2. ER - Electric Range
3. MW ■ Microwave Oven
4.
Category code, L to R: 1st digit-density, 2nd-% moisture, 3rd=% fat
l*low level characteristic 2“high level characteristic
130
T a b le 33
Heating Tine per Aram by Category of Food Characteristic Combinations:
Comparison Between Electric Range and Microwave Oven
Electric Range
Category
N
Mean
Microwave Oven
N
Mean
Percentage,
T M f fg tr p n r A
W e).
ER2 > MJ3
122
Low Density
High Moisture
High Fat
1
0.028
1
0.025
10.7
112
Low Density
Low Moisture
High Fat
12
0.040
10
0.030
25.0
221
High Density
High Moisture
Low Fat
8
0.041
8
0.028
31.7
111
Low Density
Low Moisture
Low Fat
8
0.050
9
0.021
58.0
211
High Density
Low Moisture
Low Fat
6
0.046
6
0.019
58.7
212
High Density
Low Moisture
High Fat
5
0.077
5
0.018
76.6
4
0.042
0.0
ER = MW
121
Low Density
High Moisture
Low Fat
3
0.042
1. Percentage Difference ■ Larger value-analler value x ^
;er
2. ER * Electric Range
3. MW ■ Microwave Oven
4.
Category code, L to R: 1st dLgit-density, 2nd*% moisture, 3rd»% fat
l«low level characteristic 2=high level characteristic
131
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c c o m b in a tio n s .
fr o m
10.7% m ore h e a t i n g t im e f o r
h ig h m o is tu r e and f a t ,
w ith
T he
h ig h d e n s i t y ,
to
e l e c t r i c r a n g e r e q u ir e d
f o o d s w i t h lo w d e n s i t y
but
7 6 .6 % m ore h e a t i n g t i m e f o r f o o d s
lo w m o i s t u r e ,
an d h ig h f a t .
T he tw o
a p p l i a n c e s r e q u i r e d t h e sa m e a m o u n t o f h e a t i n g t i m e p e r gram
f o r f o o d s w i t h lo w d e n s i t y , h i g h m o i s t u r e , an d lo w
A p p lia n c e . m a n u fa c tu r e r s h a v e s t a t e d
fa t.
th a t a s th e d e n s ity
o f a fo o d i n c r e a s e s t h e e n e r g y and t im e r e q u ir e d
to coo* tn e
fo o d w i l l
u x th th e
e le c tr ic
a ls o
range,
e n e r g y and
d e n s ity
in c r e a s e .
For
fo o d s p repared
t h o s e w it h a h i g h d e n s i t y d i d r e q u i r e m ore
h e a t i n g t i m e p e r gram
( T a b le 3 4 ) .
th a n f o o d s w ith
H o w ev er t h e r e v e r s e w as t r u e
p r e p a r e d i n t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n .
t h a t a s fo o d d e n s it y in c r e a s e d
d ecrea sed fo r fo o d s
a lo w
L aughon
(1 9 8 0 )
fo r fo o d s
rep o rte d
t h e e n e r g y and t i m e r e q u i r e d
p r e p a r e d w ith b o th t h e
e l e c t r ic range
a n d t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n .
B e n n e tt
(1 9 7 5 )
and L aughon
(1 9 8 0 )
m o is tu r e c o n t e n t o f f o o d s i n c r e a s e d ,
w ere r e q u ir e d t o co o k t h e f o o d .
w ere s im ila r f o r
H ow ever,
r e q u ir e d
B e n n e tt
in c r e a s e d b o th
(1 9 7 5 )
fo o d in c r e a s e s ,
as
and t i m e
T he f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y
e le c tr ic
p r e p a r e d i n t h e m ic r o w a v e
a ls o in c r e a s e d
th a t,
le s s energy
f o o d s p r e p a r e d w it h t h e
f o r fo o d s
m o is tu r e c o n t e n t
r e p o r te d
e n e r g y and
range.
oven,
as
h e a t in g tim e
( T a b le 3 4 ) .
a ls o s ta te d
th a t
t h e c o o k in g t i m e ,
as f a t c o n te n t o f a
and th e r e b y th e e n e r g y
T a b le 34
Mean Energy Ccnsunption and Heating Time by Appliance and by Lew or
High Values For Density, Percent Moisture, and Percent Fat
Density
% Moisture
% Fat
Low1
High2
Low3
High4
Low5
High6
Mean Energy CcnsunptLon
(wh/g)
0.77
1.00
1.20
0.42
0.67
1.13
Mean Heating Time*
(min/g)
0.040
0.055
0.053
0.037
0.045
0.048
Mean Energy Consumption
(rii/g)
0.64
0.50
0.48
0.70
0.57
0.59
Mean- Heating Time
(min/g)
0.030
0.022
0.022
0.032
0.028
0.024
E le c tr ic Range
Microwave Oven
1. Low density: £0.800; categories 111, 112, 121, 122
2. High density: >0.800; categories 211, 212, 221
3. Low moisture: £ 75%; categories 111, 112, 211, 212
4. High moisture: > 75%; categories 121, 122, 221
5. Low fat: £ 10%; categories 111, 121, 211, 221
6. High fat: > 10%; categories 112, 122, 212
133
r e q u ir e d , s h o u ld d e c r e a s e .
f a c t th a t
m ost f a t s
in c r e a s e in
h a v e a lo w
s p e c ific h eat
how ever,
a p p lie d
r e p o r te d t h a t
stu d y a s f a t c o n te n t
th e
aad th u s
w a t e r when
(Van Z a n t e ,
t h e sa m e
1 9 7 3 ).
L au gh on
a s f a t c o n te n t in c r e a s e d
e n e r g y c o n s u m p t io n a n d t im e a l s o
th is
th o u g h t t o b e due t o
te m p e r a tu r e f a s t e r th a n
am ount o f e n e r g y i s
(1 9 8 0 ),
T h is i s
ten d ed t o in c r e a s e .
in c r e a s e d
th e e l e c t r i c ra n g e a ls o in c r e a s e d
In
t h e e n erg y r e q u ir e d
( T a b le 3 h ) .
by
The e n e r g y
r e q u ir e d
by t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n and t h e h e a t i n g t i m e r e q u i r e d
by b o th
a p p lia n c e s s ta y e d a b o u t
t h e sa m e a s
f a t c o n te n t
in c r e a s e d .
I t s h o u ld b e n o te d t h a t a lth o u g h
and e n e r g y
c o n s u m p t io n w e r e
m o i s t u r e c o n t e n t and
v a lu e s .
d e n s it y , h e a tin g
m easu red in
may
not
h ave b een
r e p r e s e n ta tiv e o f th e fo o d s p repared in
a d d itio n , c a te g o r y
fa t)
122
(lo w d e n s i t y ,
c o n ta in e d o n ly o n e f o o d .
stu d y no fo o d s w ere in
on
tu b u la te d
p r e c is e ly
th e la b o r a to r y .
h ig h m o is t u r e ,
th a t ca te g o r y .
c a te g o r y 2 2 2 ,
In
n ig h
T he r e s u l t s f o r t h a t f o o d
n ot b e r e p r e s e n ta tiv e o f o th e r fo o d s in
th is
th e la b o r a to r y ,
f a t c o n t e n t w ere b a sed
T h ese v a lu e s
tim e ,
may
In
f o o d s h ig h i n
a ll
c h a r a c te r is tic s .
I n su m m a ry ,
e n e r g y and
d e n s ity
f o o d s w ith a
h ig h d e n s i t y r e q u ir e d
h e a t i n g t i m e p e r gram
th a n f o o d s w ith
w hen p r e p a r e d w i t h t h e e l e c t r i c r a n g e .
m ore
a lo w
H o w ev er t n e
r e v e r s e w a s s e e n f o r f o o d s p r e p a r e d w i t h t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n .
134
F o o d s w it h a h ig h m o is tu r e
h e a tin g
c o n t e n t r e q u ir e d l e s s
e n e r g y and
t i m e p e r gram t h a n f o o d s w it h a lo w m o i s t u r e c o n t e n t
w hen p r e p a r e d w i t h t h e e l e c t r i c
range.
A g a in , h o w e v e r , t h e
r e v e r s e w as t r u e f o r f o o d s p r e p a r e d w i t h t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n .
F o o d s w ith a h ig h f a t c o n t e n t
t h a n f o o d s w it h
e le c tr ic
a lo w f a t c o n t e n t w hen
range.
energy per
r e q u i r e d m o re e n e r g y p e r gram
p r e p a r e d w it h t h e
F a t c o n t e n t d id n o t a p p r e c ia b ly a f f e c t th e
gram r e q u i r e d
m ic r o w a v e o v e n ,
fo r fo o d s
o r th e h e a tin g
p r e p a r e d w ith
th e
t i m e p e r gram r e q u i r e d f o r
f o o d s p r e p a r e d w it h e i t h e r a p p l i a n c e .
D e g r e e -o f-R e a d in e s s
The c o n v e n ie n c e fo o d s u se d i n
c a t e g o r y o f r e a d i n e s s i n T a b le 3 5 .
g iv e n
th e
sa m e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n
c o u n te r p a r ts.
oy
H o m e -p r e p a r e d f o o d s w ere
as
th e ir
convenxence
V a lu e s f o r e n e r g y c o n s u m p t io n p e r g r a m , t o t a l
p r e p a r a t io n tim e p e r gram ,
gram a r e sh ow n i n
As sh o w n
t h i s stu d y a r e l i s t e d
and a c t i v e p r e p a r a t io n
t im e p e r
A p p e n d ix G .
i n T a b le 3 6 ,
c o n v e n ie n c e f o o d s
in
th ree
c a t e g o r i e s r e q u i r e d m ore e n e r g y p e r gram t o p r e p a r e t h a n d i d
t h e i r h o m e -p r e p a r e d
c a te g o r y
p e r gram
10
c o u n te r p a r ts.
(h y d r a te th e n cook )
m o re e n e r g y p e r g r a m ,
r e q u ir e d
r e q u ir e d
th a n h o m e-p rep a red f o o d s
c o n v e n i e n c e f o o d s w h ic h
4 6 .4 *
C o n v e n ie n c e
in
fo o d s in
1 4 .3 * m o re e n e r g y
th e
w ere rea d y t o h e a t
sa m e c a t e g o r y ;
r e q u ir e d
16.1%
w h ile r e a d y - t o - c o o k c o n v e n ie n c e f o o d s
m ore e n e r g y
p e r gram
th a n h o m e -p r e p a r e d
T a b l e 35
Convenience Foods Categorized by Degree-of-Readiness
Category
Foods
00 Eat as is
Cookies, ready-to-eat
White bread, ready-to-eat
Whole wheat bread, ready-to-eat
White rolls, ready-to-eat
Sweet rolls, ready-to-eat
05 Ready to heat
Spaghetti sauce, canned
TV dinner, frozen
07 Hydrate then heat
Mushroom soup, canned condensed
Chicken noodle soup, canned
condensed
08 Ready to cook
Biscuits, refrigerated
Pizza, frozen
Pot pie, frozen
Apple pie, frozen
Broccoli, frozen
10 Hydrate then cook
Pancake mix, complete
Pudding mix, regular
12 Add other ingredients
then cook
Macaroni & cheese mix
Yellow cake mix
Chocolate cake mix
Corabread mix
136
T a b le 36
E n erg y C onsum ption p e r Gram b y D e g re e -o f-R e a d in e ss C a te g o ry :
C om parison o f C onvenience an d H om e-P repared Foods
Convience
Home-Prepared
PercentageD iffe r e n c e
Category
N
Mean
W s)
c2 >
N
Mean
W s)
HP3
10 Hydrate then cook
4
0.56
4
0.48
14.3
05 Ready to heat
4
0.93
4
0.84
16.1
08 Ready to cook
10
1.38
14
0.74
46.4
HP > C
12 Add other
ingredients then
code
8
0.55
8
0.73
24.6
07 Hydrate then heat
4
0.27
6
0.70
61.4
00 Eat as is
5
0.00
10
0.61
100.0
1. Percentage Difference * Larger Value-smaller value _ m n
* "LargervbE£----------- x 100
2. C - Convenience food
3. HP ■ Hone-prepared Food
137
p r o d u c ts.
C o n v e r s e ly ,
h o n e-p rep a red
c a t e g o r i e s r e q u i r e d m o re
t h e i r c o n v e n ie n c e
c a te g o r y
12
roods in
e n e r g y p e r gram t o
c o u n te r p a r ts.
p r e p a r e th a n
H o n e -p r e p a r e d
(a d d o t h e r i n g r e d i e n t s
th e n cook )
n o r e e n e r g y p e r g ra n th a n c o n v e n ie n c e f o o d s .
f o o d s W hich
c a te g o r y
gran,
"eat a s
is** r e q u i r e d
H o m e -p r e p a r e d f o o d s
( T a b le 3 7 ) .
tin e
in
100.0% n o r e
t o o k 61.4%
a l l c a te g o r ie s
th e
p er gran
r e q u i r e d m ore
d id c o n v e n ie n c e f o o d s
The p e r c e n ta g e d if f e r e n c e
fro m
energy
in
th a t ca teg o r y .
gran t o p r ep a re th a n
r e q u ir e d r a n g e d
t o o k 24.6%
w h ile h o n e -p r e p a r e d fo o d s
th a n t h e c o n v e n ie n c e f o o d s i n
t o t a l t in e per
roods in
H o n e -p r e p a r e d
r e q u ir e d h y d r a tio n b e f o r e h e a t in g
n ore energy p er
th r ee
i n am o u n t o f t o t a l
19.0% f o r f o o d s
in
10
(h y d r a te th e n co o k )
to
as i s ) .
h o n e -p r e p a r e d fo o d s in a i l c a t e g o r ie s
r e q u ir e d
S im ila r ly ,
n ore a c tiv e
c o n v e n ie n c e f o o d s
a c tiv e t in e
100.0% f o r f o o d s i n
c a te g o r y
p r e p a r a tio n
( T a b le 3 8 ) •
ranged fr o n
(h y d r a te th e n cook )
to
18.5%
tin e
c a t e g o r y 00
p er gran
(ea t
th a n
The p e r c e n ta g e d i f f e r e n c e in
f o r fo o d s in
ca te g o r y
10
100.0% f o r f o o d s i n c a t e g o r y 00
(e a t
as is ) .
B ecau se
c o n v e n ie n c e f o o d s
p rep a red a s p u rch ased i t
n ig h t
f o o d s w o u ld r e q u i r e l e s s e n e r g y
f r o n raw i n g r e d i e n t s ,
b etw een
an d
c o n v e n ie n c e and
are
fu lly
or
p a r tia lly
be e x p e c te d th a t con ven xen ce
t o p r e p a r e t h a n f o o d s made
th a t th e p erce n ta g e d x ffe r e n c e
h o n e -p r e p a r e d
f o o d s w o u ld
be
138
T a b le 37
T o ta l P r e p a r a tio n Tim e p e r Gram b y D e g re e -o f-R e a d in e ss C ateg o ry :
C om parison o f C onvenience an d H om e-P repared Foods
Category
Convenience
Hone-Prepared
Percentage,
N
N
M-Hermca
Mean
(m inutes/gram )
(ndn/g)
tfean
(minutes/gran)
frrin/g)
HP2> C3
4
0.034
4
0.042
19.0
10
0.058
14
0.075
22.7
12 Add other
ingredients then
code
8
0.033
8
0.046
28.3
05 Ready to heat
4
0.050
4
0.084
40.5
07 Hydrate then heat
4
0.019
6
0.075
74.7
00 Eat as is
5
0.000
10
0.217
100.00
10 Hydrate then cock
08 Ready to cook
1. Percentage Difference * Larger value-smaller value
Larger value
2. HP * Home-prepared food
3. C =■ Convenience food
iqq
139
T a b le 38
A c tiv e P r e p a r a tio n T in e p e r Gram b y D e g re e -o f-R e a d in e ss C a te g o ry :
C c n p a risc n o f C onvenience an d H om e-P repared Foods
Convenience
Category
N
Home-Prepared
Mean
(nrin/g)
N
Percentage-,
Difference
Mean
(ndn/g)
HP2> c 3
10 Hydrate then code
4
0.022
4
0.027
18.5
12 Add other ingredients
then code
8
0.009
8
0.018
50.0
07 Hydrate then heat
4
0.005
6
0.016
68.8
08 Ready to code
10
0.008
14
0.030
73.3
05 Ready to heat
4
0.004
4
0.022
81.8
00 Eat as is
5
0.000
10
0.038
100.0
1. Percentage Difference - larga: value-smaller vajne x 1(Q
Larger value
2. HP ■« Hcme-prepared food
3. C ■ Convenience food
140
s m a lle s t fo r
c a t e g o r ie s in
nl e a s t r e a d y . n
H ow ever,
w h ic h c o n v e n i e n c e
in
th is
f o o d s w ere
s tu d y c o n v e n ie n c e f o o d s i n
t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s r e g u i r e d m o re p r e p a r a t i o n e n e r g y t h a n h o m e p repared fo o d s.
Many
c a t e g o r ie s w ere e i t h e r
r e q u ir e d
o f t h e c o n v e n ie n c e fo o d s
fr o z e n a t th e s t a r t
xn th o s e
o f h e a tin g o r
a l o n g e r h e a t i n g t i m e t o a c h i e v e t h e sa m e d e g r e e o f
d o n e n e s s a s t h e i r h o m e-p rep a red c o u n t e r p a r t s .
It
m ig h t a l s o
d if f e r e n c e in t o t a l
be
ex p e c te d
th a t th e
p e r c e n ta g e
a n d a c t i v e p r e p a r a t io n tim e
w o u ld b e
l a r g e s t b e tw e e n h o m e -p r e p a r e d f o o d s and c o n v e n ie n c e f o o d s in
th o se c a te g o r ie s
w here th e
r e a d y ."
W h ile t h e
c o n fir m
th a t e x p e c ta tio n ,
d if f e r e n c e in
r e q u ir e d
c o n v e n ie n c e f o o d s
r e s u l t s o f t h i s stu d y
in
d id n o t s t r i c t l y
g e n e r a l th e
p r e p a r a t io n t im e w as
w e r e " m o st
p e r c e n ta g e
g r e a t e r f o r f o o d s w h ic n
j u s t h e a t i n g t h a n f o r f o o d s w h ic h r e q u i r e d c o o k i n g .
T he p e r c e n t a g e d i f f e r e n c e i n
p r e p a r a t io n tim e w as g r e a t e s t
w hen t h e c o n v e n i e n c e f o o d s c o u l d b e e a t e n
I t s h o u ld
b e n o te d t h a t n o t
c a t e g o r ie s w ere r e p r e se n te d
in
a s p u rch ased .
a l l d e g r e e -o f-r e a d in e s s
t h is stu d y .
In a d d it io n ,
*
th r e e c a te g o r ie s
h y d r a te th e n cook )
f o o d s m ay
c a te g o r ie s .
(rea d y t o
h e a t,
h y d r a te th e n h e a t ,
c o n t a i n e d o n l y tw o f o o d s e a c h .
n o t be r e p r e s e n ta tiv e
o f o th e r fo o d s
and
T h ese
in th e s e
141
H u tr ie n t c o n te n t
C o m p a r is o n s b e t w e e n c o n v e n i e n c e a n d h o m e -p r e p a r e d f o o d s
o f Mean A d e q u a cy B a t i o
f a t per s e r v in g ,
percent
s o d iu m p e r s e r v i n g ,
show n i n
(MAB),
c a lo r ie s p er s e r v in g ,
c a l o r i e s fr o m f a t ,
and gram s
gram s
m illig r a m s
cru d e f ib e r p er s e r v in g a r e
T a b le 3 9 .
N in e c o n v e n i e n c e f o o d s
(b is c u its ,
cornbread,
c h o c o la te
c a k e , p i z z a , p u d d i n g , m ushroom s o u p , TV d i n n e r , w h i t e b r e a d ,
and w h o le w h e a t b r e a d )
h ad a
p rep ared c o u n te r p a r ts .
d if f e r e n c e in
Of th e s e
t h e MAB r a n g e d fr o m
27.8% f o r m ushroom s o u p .
sa m e MAB i n
h i g h e r MAB t h a n t h e i r n o m e -
O ne fo o d
c o n v e n i e n c e an d i n
r e m a in in g t e n f o o d s had a
fo o d s,
th e p erce n ta g e
0 . 2 * f o r TV
d in n e r t o
(w h ite r o l l s )
h o m e -p r e p a r e d
h ad t h e
fo r a .
The
h i g h e r MAB i n h o a e - p r e p i.r e d t h a n
in c o n v e n ie n c e fo r m ,
w it h t h e p e r c e n t a g e d i f f e r e n c e r a n g in g
fr o m
c a k e t o 6 7 .6 * f o r a p p le p i e .
fo o d ,
1 7 .1 * f o r y e l l o w
th e
am ount o f e a c h
n u t r ie n t p e r s e r v in g
p e r c e n t U .S . RDA a r e sh ow n i n
In c a l c u la t in g
t h e MAB,
g iv e n e q u a l w e ig h t.
A fo o d
th e r e fo r e ,
w h ic h i s
h ig h i n
T h e MAB
and t h e
A ppendix* H .
a ll
n in e n u t r ie n t s
u sed w ere
su c h a s m acaroni and c h e e s e ,
p r o t e i n an d c a lc iu m
so m e o f t h e v i t a m i n s m ig h t a p p e a r
MAB.
For e a c h
to have a r e la tiv e ly
a ls o d o es n ot id e n tify
s p e c ific a lly
n u t r i e n t s a r e p r e s e n t i n l a r g e o r s m a ll a m o u n ts.
s i n c e c o m p a r is o n w a s m ade o n l y
b u t lo w i n
lo w
w h ic h
H ow ever,
b e t w e e n t h e c o n v e n i e n c e and
142
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143
h o m e - p r e p a r e d f o r m s o f t h e sa m e
fo o d it e m ,
it
w a s a ssu m ed
t h a t t h e sam e n u t r i e n t s w ere p r e s e n t i n t h e tw o f o r m s o f a n y
f o o d it e m
a lth o u g h
s tu d ie d ,
a p p r o x im a te ly h a l f had a g r e a t e r n u t r i e n t c o n t e n t
p er s e r v in g
in
n u tr ie n ts in
t h e a m o u n ts d i f f e r e d .
Of
th e fo o d s
t h e c o n v e n i e n c e f o r m , a n d h a l f c o n t a i n e d m ore
t h e h o m e -p r e p a r e d f o r a .
T h ree c o n v e n ie n c e fo o d s
(co rn b rea d , p iz z a ,
a n d m ushroom
sou p )
h a d a g r e a t e r num ber o f c a l o r i e s p e r s e r v i n g t h a n d id
th e ir
h o m e -p r e p a r e d c o u n t e r p a r t s ,
d i f f e r e n c e r a n g in g fr o m 9.4% f o r
p iz z a
( T a b le
c a lo r ie s
3 9 ).
The
p er s e r v in g
68.9% f o r
r e m a in in g f o o d s
in h o m e -p r e p a r e d
b r o c c o li.
d id t h e i r
a ls o
c o n ta in e d
d i d t h e sa m e
fo r a ,
and
th e
w h ite
c o n v e n ie n c e fo o d s
c o n ta in e d
m ore
h o m e -p r e p a r e d c o u n t e r p a r t s ,
fr o m
1.6% f o r p a n c a k e s
T h e s e sa m e f o u r c o n v e n i e n c e f o o d s
a h i g h e r p e r c e n t a g e o f c a l o r i e s fr o m f a t t n a n
f o o d s m ade fr o m raw
in g r e d ie n ts ,
p e r c e n t a g e d i f f e r e n c e r a n g i n g fr o m 3.3%
fo r b is c u its .
c o n t a i n e d m ore
and p iz z a )
an d t h e p e r c e n t a g e d i f f e r e n c e r a n g e d
t o 30.6% f o r c o r n b r e a d .
16.1% f o r
r a n g e d fr o m 6.9% f o r
Four
( b is c u it s , p an cak es, corn b read ,
f a t ( p er s e r v in g th a n
p erce n ta g e
m ushroom s o u p t o
p erc e n ta g e d iffe r e n c e in c a lo r ie s
b read t o
w it h t h e
w it h t n e
f o r p i z z a t o 28.8%
T h e r e m a i n i n g f o o d s c o n t a i n e d m o re f a t a n d a
h i g h e r p e r c e n t a g e o f c a l o r i e s fr o m
v e r s io n .
For f a t ,
p repared
and c o n v e n ie n c e
f a t in
t h e h o m e -p r ep a r e d
t h e p e r c e n t a g e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n h o m efo o d s ranged
fro m
19.7%
fo r
144
m ushroom s o u p t o
81.4% f o r b r o c c o l i .
( T h is h i g h v a l u e f o r
b r o c c o l i w as d u e t o t h e a d d e d f a t . )
For p e r c e n t o f c a l o r i e s
fr o m
r a n g e d from
fa t
th e p er c e n ta g e d iffe r e n c e
c h ic k e n n o o d le so u p t o
55.3% f o r w h i t e r o l l s .
T en c o n v e n i e n c e f o o d s
(b is c u its ,
cornbread,
c a k e , m ushroom s o u p , c h i c k e n n o o d l e s o u p ,
a p p le p i e ,
w h ite b r e a d ,
c o n t a i n e d m o re s o d iu m
p rep ared c o u n te r p a r ts
i n s o d iu m c o n t e n t
w h ite
d in n e r .
For
fiv e
on d ie ta r y
w h o le w h e a t b r e a d t o
c o n v e n ie n c e
fo o d s
c o n v e n ie n c e p r o d u c t s .
w ere
a n d p u d d in g )
n o c o m p a r is o n
n ot a v a ila b le
Of t h e f i f t e e n
w as in fo r m a tio n o n c r u d e f i b e r ,
s ix
c h ic k e n n o o d le s o u p , c h ic k e n p o t p i e ,
w h ite r o l l s )
c o n t a i n e d m o re f i b e r
c o n v e n ie n c e fo r m .
c o n t e n t r a n g e d fro m
The p e r c e n t a g e
42.1%
(b r o c c o li,
p iz z a ,
w as n o t a v a i l a b l e s o
fib e r
TV
c o n t a i n e d m ore
w i t h t h e h o m e - p r e p a r e d p r o d u c t s c o u l d b e m a d e.
d a ta
cake,
w ith t h e p e r c e n t a g e
m a c a r o n i and c h e e s e , s p a g h e t t i s a u c e ,
i n f o r m a t i o n on s o d iu m
h o m e-
c h o c o la te cake to
(p a n c a k e s, y e llo w
v e r s io n ,
d i f f e r e n c e r a n g i n g fro m 4.3% f o r
th e ir
The p e r c e n t a g e d i f f e r e n c e
an d w h o le w h e a t b r e a d )
s o d iu m i n t h e h o m e - p r e p a r e d
f o r TV
and s w e e t r o i l s )
19.1% f o r
F iv e fo o d s
c h o c o la te
c h ic k e n p o t p i e ,
th a n d id
( T a b le 3 9 ) .
r a n g e d fr o m
c o o k ie s ,
r o lls ,
p er s e r v in g
60.7% f o r c o r n b r e a d .
d in n e r ,
6.3% f o r
S im ila r ly ,
fo r
fo o d s fo r
(b is c u its ,
fiv e
w h ic h t h e r e
cornbread,
w h o le w h e a t b r e a d , an d
p e r s e r v in g
d iffe r e n c e in
11.8% f o r c o r n b r e a d t o
in th e
fib e r
76.7% f o r c h i c k e n
145
n o o d le s o a p .
S ix o th e r p r o d a c ts
m ushroom s o u p ,
a p p le p i e ,
c o n t a i n e d m o re f i b e r
in
TV
(p a n c a k e s, c h o c o la te c a k e ,
d in n e r ,
t h e h o m e -p r e p a r e d v e r s i o n ,
p e r c e n t a g e d i f f e r e n c e r a n g i n g fr o m
to
55.6%
c o o k ie s ,
in
fo r p an cak es.
and w h it e b r e a d )
w it h t h e
7.1% f o r c h o c o l a t e c a k e
T hree p r o d u c ts
(y e llo w
cak e,
c o n t a i n e d t h e sa m e a m o u n t o f f i b e r
b o t h t h e c o n v e n i e n c e an d t h e h o m e - p r e p a r e d f o r m s .
A m e r ic a n s h a v e b e e n a d v i s e d
b e w is e t o a d j u s t c a l o r i c
to
and s w e e t r o l l s )
lim it f a t
( U .S . D e p t . A g r i c .
an d t o
may
D e p t.
H£M,
C o m p a r is o n s o f n u t r i e n t c o n t e n t b e t w e e n c o n v e n i e n c e
(85%)
o f h o m e -p r e p a r e d f o o d s
s e r v in g th a n d id t h e i r
percent
s e r v in g ,
sh ow t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y
c o n t a i n e d m ore c a l o r i e s p e r
c o n v e n ie n c e c o u n t e r p a r t s .
o f h o m e -p r e p a r e d
fo o d s c o n ta in e d
E ig h ty
m ore f a t
w ere a v a il a b l e ,
Of th e fo o d s fo r
w h ic h s o d iu m
66.7% c o n t a i n e d
c o n v e n ie n c e th a n i n h o m e -p r e p a r e d
fo r m .
h o m e - p r e p a r e d f o o d s c o n t a i n e d m ore f i b e r ,
t h e s a n e am ount
T h e r e fo r e ,
o f fib e r in
a lth o u g h t h e
f o o d s s t u d i e d c o n t a i n e d m ore s o d iu m
and f i b e r
m ore s o d iu m
in
F o r ty p e r c e n t o f
c o n v e n i e n c e f o o d s c o n t a i n e d m o re f i b e r p e r s e r v i n g ,
f o o d s had
per
a n d t h e sa m e 80% c o n t a i n e d a h i g h e r p e r c e n t a g e o f
c a l o r i e s from f a t .
fo r m s.
it
e a t an a d e q u a te
an d D .S .
an d h o m e - p r e p a r e d f o o d s i n t h i s s t u d y
d a ta
s t a y h e a lth y
in t a k e t o m a in ta in i d e a l w e ig h t ,
a n d s o d iu m i n t a k e s ,
am ount o f f i b e r
1 9 8 0 ).
th a t to
40% o f
a n d 20% o f t h e
b o th p r e p a r a tio n
m a jo r ity o f c o n v e n ie n c e
p er s e r v in g
th a n t h e i r
146
h o m e -p r e p a r e d c o u n t e r p a r t s ,
fo o d s w ere a ls o
th e
m a jo r ity
o r c o n v e n ie n c e
lo w e r i n f a t a n d c a l o r i e s an d
had a lo w e r
p e r c e n t a g e o f c a l o r i e s from f a t .
A lt h o u g h t h e
ch osen to
r e c ip e s f o r
h o m e -p r e p a r e d f o o d s
w ere
be ty p ic a l o f th o se
w h ic h m ig h t b e u s e d
in an
A m e r ic a n h o m e,
a p a r tic u la r
con su m er c o u ld
r e c ip e s t o c o n ta in fe w e r c a l o r i e s ,
m ore f i b e r .
T h is
m o d if y t h e
l e s s f a t and s a l t ,
o p t i o n w o u ld n o t g e n e r a l l y
or
b e open t o
u s e r s o f c o n v e n ie n c e f o o d s .
The n u t r i e n t
in fo r m a tio n
a ccu ra te as th e ta b le s
on c o n v e n ie n c e f o o d s
o n e brand
o f each
p re se n te d
from w h ic h i t
h ere i s
cam e.
The i n f o r m a t i o n
in t h e t a b l e s w as b a sed
p r o d u c t,
an d
o n ly a s
may o r
o n m ore t h a n
may n o t
be
r e p r e s e n t a t iv e o f any one p a r t ic u la r b ra n d .
S en so ry . Q u a lit y
T he s e n s o r y
p a n e l m em b ers e v a l u a t e d
fo r m o f e a c h f o o d o n a 9 - p o i n t s c a l e
d is lik e
e x tr e m e ly )
o v e r a ll q u a lity
fo r appearance,
(A p p e n d ix D) .
e v a lu a te d f o r s e n so r y q u a lit y :
c o n v e n ie n c e and
ea ch p r e p a r a tio n
(9 = l i k e
te x tu r e ,
e x tr e m e ly ,
fla v o r ,
Two c a t e g o r i e s o f
.1=
an d
fo o d s w ere
t h o s e w h ic h w e r e p r e p a r e d i n
h o m e - p r e p a r e d fo r m w i t h b o t h
an e l e c t r i c
r a n g e a n d a m ic r o w a v e o v e n , a n d t h o s e w h ic h w e r e p r e p a r e d i n
h o m e - p r e p a r e d fo r m
o v e n b u t w h ic h
For th e f iv e
w it h t h e e l e c t r i c
range
ca m e r e a d y - t o - e a t i n t h e
fo o d s in t h i s seco n d
ca te g o r y
and m ic r o w a v e
c o n v e n ie n c e fo rm .
(c o o k ie s ,
w h ite
147
bread,
w h o le w h e a t b r e a d , w h i t e r o l l s ,
and s w e e t r o l l s )
b r a n d s o f t h e r e a d y - t o - e a t c o n v e n ie n c e p r o d u c t,
tw o
a n a tio n a l
b rand and a h o u se b ra n d , w ere e v a lu a t e d f o r s e n s o r y q u a l i t y .
As sh o w n i n
T a b le 40 a l l c o n v e n i e n c e
w ith t h e e l e c t r i c
scored
at le a s t
ran ge e x c e p t
m ushroom , s o u p a n d p i z z a w e r e
5 on t h e n in e - p o in t s c a l e
fa c to r s.
Mushroom s o u p w a s r a t e d
p i z z a w as
ra ted
lo w e r
o v e r a ll q u a lity .
q u a lity
in t e x t u r e ,
an d o v e r a l l
an d
q u a lity .
except
w ere r a te d a t l e a s t 5 f o r
M a c a r o n i and c h e e s e
a n d p u d d in g
fo r a ll
t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n ,
m a c a r o n i and c h e e s e and p u d d i n g ,
a ll fa c to r s.
lo v e r
in fla v o r
C o n v e n ie n c e f o o d s p r e p a r e d i n
appearance,
fo o d s prepared
w as r a te d
w a s r a t e d lo w e r o n
lo w e r f o r
t e x t u r e and
A l l r e a d y - t o - e a t c o n v e n i e n c e f o o d s w h ic h
w ere n a tio n a l b ran d s w ere r a te d
w h ile a l l r e a d y - t o - e a t h o u se
at
le a s t
b ran d c o n v e n ie n c e f o o d s e x c e p t
c o o k ie s a ls o r e c e x v e d s c o r e s o f a t
C o o k ie s w ere r a t e d lo w e r f o r
A l l h o m e-p rep a red
5 fo r a l l fa c to r s ,
le a s t 5 fo r a i l fa c to r s .
o v e r a ll q u a lity .
fo o d s p rep ared
w ith t h e
e le c tr ic
r a n g e , e x c e p t p u d d in g , w ere r a t e d
a t le a s t 5 fo r a l l fa c to r s
( T a b le 4 0 ) .
lo w e r
P u d d in g w as
te x tu r e , fla v o r ,
p rep a red in
r a te d
an d o v e r a l l q u a l i t y .
fo r appearance,
H o m e -p r e p a r e d f o o d s
t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n w e r e s c o r e d a t l e a s t 5 e x c e p t
p u d d i n g , w h ic h w a s s c o r e d l o w e r f o r a p p e a r a n c e , t e x t u r e ,
o v e r a ll q u a lity ;
fla v o r ,
b is c u its ,
an d o v e r a l l q u a l i t y ;
scored
and
lo w e r f o r a p p e a r a n c e ,
w h it e b r e a d , s c o r e d lo w e r f o r
148
T a b le 40
S en so ry Q u a lity o f C onvenience a n d H o n e-P rep ared , Foods H eate d i n
E l e c t r i c R ange an d M icrow ave Oven: Mean V alu es^ f o r A p p earan ce,
T e x tu re , F la v o r , an d O v e ra ll Q u a lity
Overall
Biscuits
C-ER2 3
C-M*4
Appearance
Texture
Flavor
Quality
6.2+0.8a
6.1+0.9a
5.5+1.0a
6.2+1.la
5.8+1.4a
6.2+0.9a
5.5+1.03
6.1+0.7s
5.7+1.4^
5.7+1.13
HP-ER5
5.2+1.3^
6.6+0.6a
HP-PW
4.5+l.lb
5.1+l.la
4.7+1.6b
4.4+1.3b
C-ER
6.6+0.9a
6.8+0.6a
6.5+0.7s
6.6+0.6a
C-Mf
HP-ER
6.8+0.5a
6.7+0.4a
6.6+0.6a
6.5+0.6a
6.4+0.63
6.3+0.7s
6.2+1.03
6.2+0.7s
HP-W
5.7+0.7b
4.3+0.9b
s.s+ i.o 3
4.9+l.lb
C-ER
7.0+1.0a
7.1+0.7s
6.1+1.2a
6.6+0.6a
c-m
5.8+0.9b
5.7+0.6a
HP-ER
5.2+0.7b
6.9+0.8a
6.7+0.9a
6.1+1.2a
s.g+o.e1*
6 ^ 1 .0 ^
HP-MW
5.5+0.9b
5.8+l.lb
5.7+l.la
5.5+0.7C
C-ER
6.7+0.6a
7.0+0.7s
6.8+0.7s
6.9+0.8a
C-MW
6.3+0.8a
6.6+0.6^
6.1+0.8b
HP-ER
6.4+0.9^
6.9+0.8a
7.0+0^
7.1+0.6a
6.9+0.6a
HP-MW
5.8+0.9b
5.5+1.0b
6.0+1.0b
5.3+l.lc
C-ER
7.0+0.6a
6.8+0.7*
7.0+0.7s
7.0+0.8a
C-MW
7.3+0.4a
6.1JL.la
6.7+0.5a
HP-ER
7.1+0.7a
7.0+0.6a
6.9+0.53
6.8+0.7s
HP-Mf
5.5+0.8b
3.0+1.0b
5.7+1.2b
3.9+1.0b
Pancakes
Cornbread
Yellow cake
Chocolate cake
6.8+0.7s
149
T a b le 40 (c o n tin u e d )
S en so ry Q u a lity o f C onvenience an d H om e-P repared Foods H eate d i n
E l e c t r i c R ange an d M icrow ave O ven: Mean V alu es^ f o r A p p earan ce,
T e x tu re , F la v o r, and O v e ra ll Q u a lity
Appearance
Texture
Flavor
Overall
Quality
Macaroni & cheese
C-ER
C-MW
HP-ER
HP-MW
5.1+1.2
4.8+1.2a
6.4+1.3^
6.6+1.4*3
6 .2+1.0
5.4+1.3a
a
6.2+1.5'
6.3+1.l a
5.7+1.0
6.2+l.Cf1
5.9+1.6
6.4+1.2a
5.3+1.23
5 .6 + l.la
6.0+1.5“
6.2+1.5a
Pizza
C-ER
C-MW
HP-ER
HP-MW
5.6+0.6°
5.7+0.5a
7.6+0.8^
7.3+0.71
5.4+0.9
a
5.2+1.0'
7.1+0.81
6 . 6+0 . 81
4.8+0.8“
5.0+0.9a
7.0+0.81
6.7+0.6^
4.9+0.8“
5.0+0.9a
6.8+0.7*"
6 . 6+0 .81
6 . 6+0.9
5.3+1. 3*
3.4+0.7C
4.7+1.01
6 . 8+0 . 8“
4.8+0.9',b
be
4.3+1.3
3.8+1.1°
6 .6+0.9
5.7+0.8*5
4.9+1.O*3
5.0+0.6*3
6.7+0.5“
4.9+1.0
4.2+1.i be
4.0+0.7°
HP-ER
6.2+1.0*'
a
4.9+1.2'
5.3+1.1“
6.9+0.9t
a
c-m
5 .0 + l.la
5.2+1.r
5.3+1.0'
5.5+0.85
7.8+0.7l
5.0+0.9“
5.2+0.8a
7.2+0.8^
5.6+0.9
5.6+1.0s
7.5+0.8*
7.7+0.61
5.5+1.0“
5.2+1.3a
7.6+0.9*"
7.6+0.6*“
5 .7 + i.r
5.5+0.8s
5.2+0.8s
7.3+0.7b
7.4+0.6b
Ridding
C-ER
c-m
HP-ER
HP-MJ
Mushroom soup
C-ER
Chicken noodle soup
C-ER
C-MW
HP-ER
HP-MW
a
5.7+1.0'
7.3+0.7l
7.6+0.6^
150
T a b le 40 (c o n tin u e d )
S en so ry Q u a lity o f C onvenience an d H em e-P repared Foods H eate d i n
E l e c tr i c Range a n d M icrow ave O ven: Mean V a lu e s1 f o r A p p earan ce,
T e x tu re , F la v o r, an d O v e ra ll Q u a lity
Appearance
Texture
Flavor
O verall
Q uality
5.5+1.3a
5.4+0.9a
7.7+0.5b
6.1+1.l a
5.9+1.3a
5.0+0.93
7.7+0.6b
7.0+1.4a
5 .8 + l.la
5.2+1.l a
7.9+0.7b
7.4+1.6b
5.8+1.2a
4.9+0.8a
7.9+0.6b
7.0+1.5b
7.0+0.9a
5.8+1.4bc
6 .2 + 1 .0 ^
4.9+1.0C
6.7+0.9a
5.3+1.6b
e.O+l.O315
4.2+1.2C
6 .5 + l.r *
5.9+1.2a
6.9+0.6b
5.8+1.0a
6.6+0.8a
5.6+1.4bc
6 .4 + 0 .9 *
4.7+1.2C
7.2+0.7s
7.2+0.3a
6.1+0.8a
5.2+0.5c
7.3+0.6a
7.0+0.5a
6.8+0.6a
4.4+1.0b
6.8+0.7s
7.0+0.7s
6.8+0.6a
6.1+0.7b
7.0+0.6a
7.0+0.5a
6.3+0.7b
4.9+1.0c
C-NB
C-HB
HP-ER
HP-MW
5 .7 + 0 .8 ^
6 .6 + 0 .6 ^
7.5+0.9c
5.4+1.3a
5 .9 + l.la
6 .W ) .6 ^
7.2+1.0b
6.0+1.43
6.3+0.8a
7.4H).7b
6 .9 + 0 .7 ^
6 .1 + l.la
6 .6 + 0 .6 ^
7.3+0.7b
6.2+0.9a
Sweet r o l ls
C-NB
C-HB
HP-ER
HP-MW
5.7+0.9a
5.8+1.2a
7.1+1.0b
6.2+0.8a
6.5+1. l a
5.4+0.9b
6.6+1.03
5 .6 + 1 .4 *
5 .9 + l.la
5.4+1.2a
7.4+0.7b
7.3+0.9b
5 .6 + 1 .2 ^
5.2+1.2a
6.9+0.9c
6 .^ + 0 .9 ^
Cookies
C-NB6
C-HB7
HP-ER
HP-MW
White bread
C-NB
C-HB
HP-ER
HP-Mf
Whole wheat bread
C-NB
C-HB
HP-ER
HP-MW
White rolls
151
T a b le 40 (c o n tin u e d )
S en so ry Q u a lity o f C on v en ien ce an d H o n e-P rep ared . Foods H eate d i n
E l e c t r i c Range an d M icrow ave O ven: Mean V alu es f o r A p p earan ce,
T e x tu re , F la v o r , an d O v e ra ll Q u a lity
1. Mean o f 4 re p lic a tio n s by 14 judges.
2. C = Convenience food
3. ER « E le c tric range
4. Mtf =» Microwave oven
5. HP * Home-Prepared food
6. NB = N ational brand
7. HB * House brand
a, b , c, For each food, means w ith in a colutm w ith d iffe re n t l e t t e r s
a re sig n ific a n tly d iffe re n t (p<.01) using th e analy sis o f
variance procedure.
152
a p p e a ra n c e ,
te x tu re ,
and o v e r a l l q u a l i t y ;
and c h o c o l a t e
c a k e , p a n c a k e s , and w hole w h eat b r e a d , w hich w ere a l l s c o r e d
lo w e r f o r t e x t u r e and o v e r a l l q u a l i t y .
A p p e a ra n c e .
I n a c o m p a riso n o f
p re p a re d fo o d s,
ch eese,
f o u r ite m s
c h ic k e n
c o n v e n ie n c e and hom e-
(mushroom s o u p ,
h o o d ie s o u p ,
and p iz z a )
m a c a ro n i and
w ere s c o re d
s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r f o r a p p e a ra n c e (p< .01)
i n t h e hom e-
p r e p a r e d form w h e th e r p re p a r e d w ith t h e e l e c t r i c ra n g e o r In
t h e m icrow ave oven (T a b le 4 1 ) .
e l e c t r i c ra n g e
(P < .0 1 )
(pudding)
One fo o d p re p a re d w ith t n e
was r a t e d
f o r a p p e a ra n c e i n t h e
s i g n i f i c a n t l y h ig h e r
c o n v e n ie n c e fo rm ,
and two
m ic ro w a v e -p re p a re d fo o d s (p a n c a k e s and c h o c o la te cak e)
a ls o
w ere s c o re d s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r f o r a p p e a ra n c e (p k .0 1 )
in
t h e c o n v e n ie n c e fo rm .
H om e-prepared sw e e t r o i l s ,
p r e p a r e d w ith
w h ite r o l l s ,
t h e e l e c t r i c r a n g e w ere
h i g h e r (p < .01)
f o r a p p e a ra n c e
c o n v e n ie n c e p r o d u c t s ,
and c o o k ie s
ra te d s ig n ific a n tly
tn a n t h e
n a t i o n a l b ra n d
a lth o u g h t h e n a t i o n a l
b ra n d w hole
w h eat b re a d was r a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y h ig h e r (p< .01)
th a n th e
h o m e -p re p a re d p r o d u c t
ra n g e
(T a b le 4 1 ) .
b r e a d and
(p < .01)
The
w ere s c o r e d
w h o le w heat
s i g n i f i c a n t l y h ig h e r
t h e h o m e -p re p a re d p r o d u c t p r e p a r e d
m icrow ave o v e n .
in
th e e l e c t r i c
n a t i o n a l b ra n d v e r s i o n s o f
w h ite b re a d
th a n
p r e p a r e d w ith
th e e l e c t r i c
i n th e
H om e-prepared s w e e t r o l l s and c o o k ie s baked
ra n g e w ere
ra te d s ig n ific a n tly
h ig h e r
153
Mu r Sensory Appearance Scores:
HP2 > C
Table 41
Conpd s o i Between Convenience a d Home-Prepared Foods
Mean HP Msoi C 7 M ff
7.1
7.5
7.7
5.7
5.7
5.5
19.7
24.0
28.6
Hi Sweet ro lls
6.2
6.1
5.7
5.5
8.1
9.8
ER Uhite bread
♦tools wheat bread
6.2
6.1
7.0
7.2
11.4
15.3
Hi Uhite ro lls
♦Whole wheat bread
♦Uhite bread
5.4
5.2
4.9
5.7
7.2
7.0
5.3
27.8
30.0
7.1
6.9
6.6
6.2
6.4
7.5
7.6
7.0
6.7
6.2
5.0
5.1
5.6
5.6
1.4
2.9
6.1
19.4
20.3
25.3
26.3
MJ® Cotnbread
♦Mjshnocm soup
*Pizza
♦Macaroni & cheese
♦Chicken noodle soup
5.5
6.3
7.3
6.6
7.7
5.2
5.2
5.7
4.8
5.6
5.4
17.5
21.9
27.3
27.3
ER Cornbread
Pancakes
♦Pudding
6.9
6.4
3.4
7.0
6.6
6.6
1.4
3.0
48.5
C-HB >_CrHB
Mi Yellow cake
Pudding
Biscuits
♦Paicakas
♦Chocolate cake
5.8
4.7
4.5
5.7
5.5
6.4
5.3
5.2
6.8
7.3
9.4
11.3
13.5
16.2
24.6
C-HB > C-NB
HP >
ER Uhite bread
Uhite ro lls
♦Sweet ro lls
♦Cookies
6.2
7.5
7.1
7.7
5.8
6.6
5.8
5.4
6.4
12.0
18.3
29.9
Hi Sweet ro lls
Cookies
6.2
6.1
5.8
5.4
6.4
11.5
C-HB > HP
ER ♦Whole wheat bread
6.1
7.2
15.3
Hi Uhite bread
♦ to ite ro lls
♦Whole wheat bread
4.9
5.4
5.2
5.8
6.6
7.2
15.5
18.2
27.8
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
♦
Mann fWR 7. P iff
ER ♦Sweet ro lls
♦White ro lls
♦Cocki.ee
ER? Chocolate cske
Yellow cake
Biscuits
♦Mahroan soup
* Macaroni & cheese
♦Chickm noodle soup
♦Pizza
g >.H
E
Mean HP
HP > C-HB
C-HB > HP
Mbji OIR Mna-i fflB 7. niff
Cookies
♦ to ita bread
Sweet ro lls
Uhite ro lls
5.5
7.0
5.4
5.8
1.8
17.1
5.7
5.7
5.8
6.6
1.7
13.6
7.2
7.2
0.0
C-HB-C-HB
Uhole wheat bread
Mean o f 4 replications by 14 judges
HP - Hone-Prepared food
C - Ccnvenlaxa food
% Difference - U m r value - wnellar value _
' '^ Targer valui ----------------x 100
ER - E lectric range
MI - Microwave Oven
NB - National brand
HB - House braid
Food for which difference sig n ific o it (p < .01) using the aaalyais of various procedure.
154
(p < .0 1 ) th a n t h e h o u se brand c o n v e n ie n c e f o o d s .
h o u se brand
w h o le w heat
b read was
However t h e
scored s ig n if ic a n tly
h ig h e r f o r a p p ea ra n ce (p < .0 1 ) th a n t h e h o n e -p r e p a r e d p ro d u c t
p rep a red w ith e i t h e r
oven,
and t h e
th e e l e c t r i c range o r
h o u se brand
s i g n i f i c a n t l y h ig h e r
p r ep a re d
in th e
(p < .0 1 )
r o l l s w ere
(w h ite b read )
f o r a p p ea r a n ce
r a te d
th a n t h e h o n e -p r e p a r e d p r o d u c t
m icrow ave o v e n .
c o n v e n ie n c e fo o d
h ig h e r
w h it e
t h e m icrow ave
One n a t io n a l
was
(p < .0 1 )
brand
sco red s i g n i f i c a n t l y
th a n
t h e h o u se
brand
t h r e e c o n v e n ie n c e
fo o d s
c o u n te r p a r t.
As
shown i n
T a b le 4 2 ,
( b i s c u i t s , p u d d in g , and co rn b rea d )
h ig h e r f o r
a p p e a ra n c e (p < .0 1 )
w ere s c o r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y
when p rep a red
e l e c t r i c r a n g e th a n i n t h e m icrow ave
p r e p a r e d ite m s (p a n c a k e s,
y e llo w c a k e , c o r n b r e a d ,
cake,
w h ite
r o lls ,
s i g n i f i c a n t l y h ig h e r
range.
One
sw eet r o l l s ,
c o o k ie s ;
and
oven,
w h ole
w heat
w ere
b read,
c h o c o la te
a ls o ra te d
when p r ep a red w ith t h e e l e c t r i c
h o m e-p rep ared fo o d
s i g n i f i c a n t l y h ig h e r (p < .0 1 )
and t e n hom e-
w h it e b r e a d ,
b is c u its )
(p < .O l)
w ith t h e
(pudding)
was
r a te d
when p re p a r e d i n t h e m icrow ave
oven.
T e x tu r e .
As shown i n T a b le 4 3 ,
h o m e-p rep a red f o o d s w ere
p rep a r ed f o o d s ( p i z z a ,
soup)
scored fo r
when c o n v e n ie n c e ana
te x tu r e th r e e
c h ic k e n n o o d le s o u p ,
hom e-
and mushroom
w ere s c o r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y h ig h e r (p < .0 1 )
th an t h e i r
155
Table 42
Mean^ Sensory Appearance Scares:
as: Canparison
Canpf
Between Foods Prepared w ith
the Electric Range and with the Microwave Oven
,2
ER > MW3
(r
Yellow cake
Macaroni 6c cheese
^Biscuits
’'Pudding
’'Cornbread
HP6 Pizza
^Pancakes
*Sweet rolls
’'Whole ^dtieat bread
*Yellow cake
’'Cornbread
*CoofcLes
’'White bread
’'Chocolate cake
’'White rolls
’'Biscuits
Mean ER
Mean M1
% D iff4
6.7
5.1
6.2
6.6
7.0
7.6
6.4
7.1
6.1
6.9
6.9
7.7
6.2
7.1
7.5
6.6
6.4
4.8
5.2
5.3
5.2
7.3
5.7
6.2
5.2
5.8
5.5
6.1
4.9
5.5
5.4
4.5
4.5
5.9
16.1
19.7
25.7
3.9
10.9
12.7
14.8
15.9
20.3
20.8
21.0
22.5
28.0
31.8
M O ER
C
Pizza
Pancakes
Mushroom soup
Chocolate cake
5.6
6.6
5.0
7.0
5.7
6.8
5.2
7.3
1.8
2.9
3.8
4.1
HP
Mushroom soup
Macaroni & cheese
’'Pudding
6.2
6.4
3.4
6.3
6.6
4.7
1.6
3.0
27.6
ER -
m
C
Chicken noodle soup
5.6
5.6
0.0
1. Mean of 4 replications by 14 judges
2.
ER = Electric Range
3.
MW =* Microwave Oven
4.
7o Difference =*■Larger value
—
5.
-smaller value ..inn
"Larger vilue--------- x 100
C = Convenience food
6. HP a Home-prepared food
* Food far which difference significant (P<.01) using the analysis of
variance procedure.
156
Maa1 Sensory Texture Scores:
HP2 > C3
Table 43
Caoparisock Between Convenience a d Hans-Prepared Foods
Mean HP M»<n C.
Z Dlff4
ER Chocolate cake
*Pizza.
*Chician noodle scup
^Mushroom soup
7.0
7.1
7.6
6.9
6.8
5.4
5.5
4.9
2.8
23.9
27.6
29.0
EH8 Macaroni & cheese
*Pizza
’•Mushroom soup
*Chickm noodle soup
6.3
6.6
6.8
7.6
5.4
5.2
5.3
5.2
14.3
21.2
22.0
31.6
ER Cornbread
Pocdces
*Puddlag
6.7
6.3
4.3
7.1
6.8
6.8
EH Biscuits
*Yellow cake
^Pudding
*Pocakes
^Chocolate cake
5.2
5.5
3.8
4.3
3.0
EH Biscuits
Macaroni & cheese
Yellow cake
EH Cornbread
Maa HP Mean CNB 7. M ff
ER Sweet to lls
*White ro lls
*Cootdes
6.6
7.2
7.7
6.5
5.9
5.9
1.5
18.0
23.4
EH White ro lls
rnrlHam
6.0
7.0
5.9
5.9
1.7
15.7
.
C-HB / HP.
ER Vhola wheat bread
White bread
6.8
6.0
7.3
6.7
6.8
10.4
5.6
7.4
36.8
EH Sweet ro lls
*Uhite bread
*Vhvole wheat bread
5.6
4.2
4.4
6.5
6.7
7.3
13.8
37.3
39.7
5.5
6.3
4.8
6.7
6.1
5.4
12.7
20.8
35.8
50.8
C-NB > C-HB
6.1
6.2
7.0
6.1
6.2
7.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
5.8
5.8
0.0
<LLHE.
C- HP
HP > C-HB8
HP Krfltt?
Mean HP
Eton CNB
Whole wheat bread
Cockles
*Sweat ro lls
*Whita bread
7» P tff
7.3
5.9
6.5
6.7
7.0
5.0
5.4
5.3
4.1
15.2
16.9
20.9
5.9
6.4
7.8
C-HB > C-NB
White ro lls
CHB 7. m ff
ER White ro lls
White bread
*9weet ro lls
*Coakies
7.2
6.0
6.6
7.7
6.4
5.3
5.4
5.0
U .l
11.7
18.2
35.1
EW Sweet ro lls
5.6
7.0
5.4
5.0
3.6
28.6
HP.
ER Whole wheat bread
6.8
7.0
2.8
EH White ro lls
*Uhite bread
*Whole wheat bread
6.0
4.2
4.4
6.4
5.3
7.0
6.2
20.8
37.1
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
*
Maa of 4 repUcatlans by 14 judges.
HP - Hone-Prepared food
C - Convonlaca food
7. Difference - la rg e r value - smaller value .. 100
—
Larger value------------- x
ER - Ele c tric Rage
EH ■ Microweve Oven
NB - Ksrtmal b r a d
HB - House b r a d
Food for which difference significant (p < .01) using the analysis of variance procedure.
157
c o n v e n ie n c e c o u n t e r p a r t s w h e th e r p r e p a r e d
r a n g e o r t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n .
w as r a t e d
s ig n ific a n tly
sa m e h o m e - p r e p a r e d
r a n g e o r in
h ig h e r
( p < .0 1 )
T hree
ca k e, p an cak es,
w ere r a te d s i g n i f i c a n t l y
h ig h e r
(p u d d in g )
f o r t e x t u r e th a n th e
fo o d w h e th e r p rep a r e d in
(y e llo w
th e e le c t r ic
O ne c o n v e n i e n c e f o o d
t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n .
p rep ared fo o d s
v ita
th e e le c t r x c
o t h e r m ic r o w a v e and c h o c o l a t e c a k e )
( p < .0 1 )
fo r te x tu r e in th e
c o n v e n ie n c e fo r m .
H o m e -p r e p a r e d w h i t e r o i l s
e le c tr ic
ra n ge w ere sc o r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y
t e x t u r e th a n t h e n a t io n a l
4 3 ).
H ow ever,
h ig h e r
( p < .0 1 )
b ran d c o n v e n ie n c e p r o d u c ts
fo r
( T a b le
n a t i o n a l b r a n d w h i t e b r e a d a n d w h o le w h e a t
b read w ere sc o r e d
th a n
a n d c o o x i e s p r e p a r e d w it h t h e
s ig n ific a n tly
t h e i r h o m e -p r ep a r e d
m ic r o w a v e o v e n .
h ig h e r f o r t e x t u r e
c o u n te r p a r ts
prep ared
H o m e -p r e p a r e d s w e e t r o l l s
( p < .0 1 )
in
th e
and c o o k i e s
p r e p a r e d w it h t h e e l e c t r i c
ra n g e w ere sc o r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y
h ig h e r f o r t e x t u r e
t h a n t h e c o n v e n i e n c e f o o d s w n ic n
( p < .0 1 )
w ere h o u se b r a n d s,
a lth o u g h
w h o le
w ere r a te d
w heat b read
te x tu r e
(p < « 0 1 )
s ig n ific a n tly
h ig h e r
fo r
t h a n t h e h o m e - p r e p a r e d p r o d u c t s p r e p a r e d xn
t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n .
b read w ere
t h e h o u s e b r a n d w h i t e b r e a d and
N a tio n a l brand
ra ted s ig n if ic a n t ly
sw eet r o l l s
h ig h e r f o r
an d w h i t e
te x tu r e
( p < .0 1 )
t h a n t h e c o m p a r a b le h o u s e b r a n d p r o d u c t s .
Two c o n v e n i e n c e p r o d u c t s
scored s ig n ific a n tly
( c o r n b r e a d and p u d d in g )
h ig h e r f o r
te x tu r e
( p < .0 1 )
w ere
when
158
p r e p a r e d w it h t h e e l e c t r i c r a n g e
( T a b le 4 4 ) .
th a n in
t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n
S i m i l a r l y , e i g h t h o m e -p r e p a r e d f o o d s
c o r n b r e a d , w h ite r o l l s ,
w h o le w h e a t
bread,
s ig n ific a n tly
y e llo w
and
(c o o x ie s ,
c a k e , w h ite b r e a d ,
c h o c o la te cake)
h ig h e r f o r t e x t u r e
p an cak es,
w ere s c o r e d
( p < .0 1 )
w hen p r e p a r e d w it h
th e e l e c t r i c r a n g e .
F la v o r .
T a b le 4 5 .
A c o m p a r is o n o f s c o r e s f o r f l a v o r i s
T hree fo o d s
m ushroom s o u p )
(c h ic k e n n o o d le s o u p ,
w ere s c o r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y
h o m e -p r e p a r e d th a n i n c o n v e n ie n c e
w ith t h e e l e c t r i c r a n g e o r
p r e p a r e d w ith
th e e le c t r ic
range
xn
w h e th e r p r e p a r e d
(p u d d in g )
( p < .0 1 )
One f o o d
w as sc o r e d
in t h e c o n v e n ie n c e
a n d m ic r o w a v e - p r e p a r e d c h o c o l a t e
w ere sco red
and
( p < .0 1 )
t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n .
s i g n i f i c a n t l y h ig h e r f o r f la v o r
fo rm ,
p iz z a ,
h ig h e r
fo rm ,
sh ow n i n
c a k e an d n i s c u x t s
s i g n i f i c a n t l y h ig h e r f o r f la v o r
(p C .0 1 )
in
th e
c o n v e n ie n c e fo r m .
H o m e -p r e p a r e d w h i t e r o l l s ,
p r e p a r e d w it h t h e e l e c t r i c
h ig h e r
fo r
fla v o r
(p < .0 1 >
sw eet r o lls ,
ra n g e w ere sc o r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y
th a n
t h e n a tio n a l
c o n v e n ie n c e v e r s io n s o f t h e s e p r o d u c ts
p repared sw eet r o l l s
oven w ere a ls o
and c o o k ie s
r a te d s ig n if ic a n t ly
c o m p a r a b le n a t i o n a l
b ra n d s.
w h o le w h e a t b r e a d w a s s c o r e d
( p < .0 1 )
th a n
and c o o k x e s
b ra n d
( T a b le 4 5 ) .
prepared in th e
h ig h e r
H o w ev er t h e
( p < .0 1 )
Hom e-
m ic r o w a v e
th a n t h e
n a t i o n a l b ran d
s i g n i f i c a n t l y h ig h e r f o r f l a v o r
t h e h o m e -p r e p a r e d p r o d u c t p r e p a r e d
in th e
159
Table 44
Mean'*’ Sensory Texture Scores: Comparison
Camparis Between Foods Prepared with
the Electric Range and with the Microwave Oven
2 >MJ3
ERL
(r Pancakes
Pizza
Chicken noodle soup
Biscuits
Yellow cake
Chocolate cake
Macarcni & cheese
*Cambread
*Pudding
HP^ Mushroom soup
Pizza
*Cockies
Pudding
^Cornbread
Biscuits
Sweet rolls
*Khite rolls
^Yellow cake
*tihite bread
^Pancakes
*Whole wheat bread
^Chocolate cake
Mean Mf
% Diff4
6.8
5.4
5.5
6.1
7.0
6.8
6.2
7.1
6.8
6.7
5.2
5.2
5.5
6.3
6.1
5.4
5.8
4.8
1.5
3.7
5.4
9.8
10.0
10.3
12.9
18.3
29.4
6.9
7.1
7.7
4.3
6.7
6.1
6.6
7.2
7.0
6.0
6.3
6.8
7.0
6.8
6.6
7.0
3.8
5.8
5.2
5.6
6.0
5.5
4.2
4.3
4.4
3.0
1.4
7.0
9.1
11.6
13.4
14.8
15.2
16.7
21.4
30.0
31.7
35.3
57.1
Mf>ER
C
Mushroom soup
4.9
5.3
7.5
HP
6.2
6.3
1.6
7.6
7.6
0.0
Macaroni & cheese
Mean ER
'
ER - M W
HP
Chicken noodle soup
1. Mean of 4 replications by 14 Judges
2. ER - Electric Range
3.
- Microwave Oven
4. 7. Difference * Larger value - smaller value _
B Larger 5a3ue---------x 100
5. C - Convenience food
6. HP - Heme-prepared food
*
Food for which difference significant (pcOl) using the analysis of
variance procedure.
160
TOtla 45
Mwn1, Sensory Flavor S cons: Ccnpariacn Between Ccnvm ianca m d Hone-Prepared Food*
M m HP Mann C
HP > C-NB7
ju u fd
EK8 Macaroni & Cheese
Yellow cake
*ChLckm noodle soup
*Pizza
*M»hroan soup
5.9
7.17.3
7.0
7.8
5.7
6.8
5.7
4.8
5.3
3.4
4.2
21.9
31.4
32.0
I*I® Macaroni & cheese
*Qrickan noodle woup
*Pi2za
*Mishroam soup
6.4
7.6
6.7
7.5
6.2
5.7
5.0
5.5
3.1
25.0
25.4
26.7
ER Chocolate cake
Pmcakas
Biscuits
★Pudding
6.8
6.2
5.7
4.9
7.0
6.5
6.2
6.6
HI Yellow cake
Pancakes
Pudding
*Choaolate cake
*BlscuLts
6.0
5.8
5.0
5.7
4.7
6.6
6.6
5.7
6.9
6.2
9.1
12.1
12.3
17.4
24.2
OBP
am X D lff
ER Uhite bread
*Uhite ro lls
*Suaac ro lls
*Cookie*
6.9
7.4
7.4
7.9
6.5
6.1
5.9
5.8
5.8
17.6
20.3
26.6
tli Uhite ro lls
*9weet ro lls
*Cookies
6.9
7.3
7.4
6.1
5.9
5.8
11.6
19.2
21.6
6.1
5.8
6.8
6.5
10.3
10.8
Ql Uhole wheat breed
6.8
6.8
0.0
C-NB > C-HB
CRB
Mf «viboie wheat bread
Uhite bread
C-NB - HP
,
Mem
Sweet ro lls
Uhite bread
Cookies
Moan rHR
7. Dlff
5.9
6.5
. 5.8
5.4
5.9
5.2
8.5
9.2
10.3
6.8
6.1
7.0
6.3
2.8
3.2
C-HB > C-NB
ER Cornbread
6.1
6.1
0.0
CM Cornbread
5.7
5.7
0.0
HP > C-HB8
Mm
C-NB > HP
C > HP
2.8
4.6
8.1
25.8
Msan HP
Uhole wheat bread
Uhite ro lls
Mem HP to rn CUB 7. D lff
ER*Uhite bread
*Wtri.t* ro lls
*9weet ro lls
*Cookias
6.9
7.4
7.4
7.9
5.9
6.3
5.4
5.2
14.5
14.9
27.0
34.2
tW White ro lls
*Sweet ro lls
*Cockias
6.9
7.3
7.4
6.3
5.4
5.2
8.7
26.0
29.7
ER Uhole wheat bread
6.3
7.0
2.8
n t Uhite bread
**hola wheat bread
5.8
6.1
5.9
7.0
1.7
12.8
C-HB > HP_
1. Mam o f 4 replications by 14 judges
2. HP - tfans-Praparsd food
3. C - Convenience food
4. X Difference “ Larger value - amslLer vein*
Larger value
™
5.
ER ■ E lectric Rmge
6.
7.
8.
*
1W - Microwave Oven
NB - National bread
HB « House brand
Food for vtdcb dLffareooa sig n ific m t (p < .01) using tbs m alysis of variance procedure.
161
f
m ic r o w a v e o v e n .
sw eet r o l l s ,
H o m e -p r e p a r e d w h i t e o r e a d ,
and c o o k ie s p re p a r e d
w ere r a te d s ig n i f i c a n t l y
c o u n te r p a r ts,
a ls o
w ere
h ig h e r
(p < « 0 1 )
s ig n ific a n tly
e l e c t r ic range
th a n h o u se b ran d
h ig h e r f o r
th a n t h e h o u se brand p r o d u c t s .
th a n i t s
w ith th e
and m ic r o w a v e - p r e p a r e d s w e e t r o l l s
scored
w h o le w h e a t
w h ite r o l l s ,
b r e a d w as r a t e d
H ow ever,
and c o o k i e s
fla v o r
(p < .0 1 >
th e h o u se orand
s ig n ific a n tly
h ig h e r
( p < .0 1 )
h o m e -p r e p a r e d c o u n t e r p a r t p r e p a r e d i n t h e
m ic r o w a v e
oven.
One c o n v e n i e n c e f o o d
fo o d s
( p u d d in g )
( w h o le w h e a t b r e a d ,
c h o c o la te cake)
(p< .0 1 )
w ere r a te d
fo o d s
w ith th e
(c h ic k e n n o o d le s o u p ,
e le c tr ic
range
th e
w as s c o r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y
p rep a red v e r s io n o f
p iz z a ,
a ls o
w h e th e r p r e p a r e d
th e e le c t r ic
( p < .0 1 )
r a te d
i n t h e c o n v e n ie n c e th a n in
one
range
ta a n
and f i v e
c a k e , p u d d in g ,
w ere
and m ushroom
m ic r o w a v e o v e n .
th a t p r o d u c t,
(y e llo w
and c h o c o l a t e c a k e )
h ig h e r
t h r e e hom e-
h ig h e r f o r o v e r a l l g u a x it y
or th e
c o n v e n ie n c e fo o d p r e p a r e d w ith
( p < .0 1 )
e l e c t r i c r a n g e th a n in
th a n t h e c o n v e n ie n c e c o u n t e r p a r t s ,
p rep ared fo o d s
an d
h ig h e r f o r f l a v o r
As sh o w n i n T a b le 4 7 ,
w ere sc o r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y
( p < .0 1 )
w h ite b r e a d ,
( T a b le 4 6 ) .
O v e r a ll Q u a lit y .
p repared
cake,
s ig n ific a n tly
when p r e p a r e d w it h t h e
m ic r o w a v e o v e n
sou p )
y e llo w
en d f o u r h o m e - p r e p a r e d
(p u d d in g )
t h e h o m em ic r o w a v e -
b is c u its ,
p an cak es,
s ig n ific a n tly
h ig h e r
t h e h o m e -p r e p a r e d fo r m .
162
Table 46
Comp
Ccnparisc
a r i so n B etw een Foods P re p a re d w ith th e
Electric Range and with the Microwave Oven
Mean^ S en so ry F la v o r S c o re s:
ER'.
2> MW^
(T
Mean ER
Mean MW
7. Dig4
Chocolate cake
Yellow cake
Cambread
*Pudding
7.0
6.8
6.1
6.6
6.9
6.6
5.7
5.7
1.4
2.9
6.6
13.6
HP6 Sweet rolls
Mushroom soup
Pizza
Cookies
Pancakes
Cambread
White rolls
*Whole wheat bread
*Yellow cake
*tthite bread
^Chocolate cake
Biscuits
7.4
7.8
7.0
7.9
6.2
6.1
7.4
6.8
7.1
6.9
6.8
5.7
7.3
7.5
6.7
7.4
5.8
5.7
6.9
6.1
6.0
5.8
5.7
4.7
3.3
3.8
4.3
6.3
6.4
6.6
6.8
10.3
12.7
15.9
16.2
17.5
6.5
5.3
4.8
5.7
6.6
5.5
5.0
6.2
1.5
3.6
4.0
8.1
4.9
7.3
5.9
5.0
7.6
6.4
2.0
3.9
7.8
5.7
6.2
5.7
6.2
0.0
0.0
M J > ER
C
HP
Pancakes
Mushroom soup
Pizza
' Macaroni & cheese
Pudding
Chicken noodle soup
Macaroni & cheese
ER-Mf
C
1.
2.
3.
4.
Chicken noodlesoup
Biscuits
M a m of 4 replications by 14 judges
ER - Electric Range
MW - Microwave Oven
% Difference * Larger value*-smaller value _
Larger vaES------ 1100
5. C - Convenience food
6. HP - Home-prepared food •
*
Food for which difference significant (pcOl) using the analysis of
variance procedure.
163
Table 47
Mem^ Overall Quality Scores: C om parison Batuaen Convenience aid Heme-Prepared Foods
HP2 > C3
Mam HP Mean C
7. D iff4
ER? Macaroni & cheese
*Chickm noodle soup
*Pizza
*Mushroan soup
6.0
7.3
6.8
7.2
5.3
5.5
4.9
.5.0
11.7
24.6
27.9
30.6
MJ8 Macaroni & cheese
*Pizza
*t4jshroan soup
*Chidcm noodle soup
6.2
6.6
7.0
7.4
5.6
5.0
5.2
5.2
9.7
24.2
25.7
29.7
SLLBL
ER Biscuits
Oiocolate cake
Cambread
Pancakea
"Pudding
5.7
6.8
6.4
6.2
4.2
5.8
7.0
6.6
6.6
6.7
1.7
2.8
3.0
6.1
37.3
JW Cambread
"Yellow cake
*Pudding
*Biscuits
"Pancakes
"Chocolate cake
5.5
5.3
4.0
4.4
4.9
3.9
5.9
6.1
4.9
5.5
6.5
6.7
6.8
13.1
18.4
20.0
24.6
41.8
6.9
6.9
0.0
c.-.ffi.
ER Yellow cake
HP > C-HB8
HP > C-NB7
Mem HP Mem C-NB 7. Dif£
ER "White ro lls
"Sweet ro lls
*Cockies
7,3
6.9
7.9
6.1
5.6
5.8
16.4
18.8
26.6
HJ White ro lls
Sweet ro lls
"Cookies
6.2
6.3
7.0
6.1
5.6
5.8
1.6
u :i
17.1
ER White bread
"Whole wheat bread
6.4
6.3
6.6
7.0
3.0
10.0
ttf "White bread
"Whole wheat bread
4.7
4.9
6.6
7.0
28.8
30.0
C-NB > HP
C-NB > C-HB
Mem CUB Mem (HB 7. Diff
Sweet ro lls
*White bread
Cookies
5.6
6.6
5.8
5.2
5.6
4.9
7.1
15.2
15.5
6.1
6.6
7.6
7.0
7.0
0.0
C-HB > C-NB
White ro lls
C-NB - C-HB
Mem HP Item CUB 7. D iff
ER White ro lls
White bread
"Saeet ro lls
"Cookies
7.3
6.4
6.9
7.9
6.6
5.6
5.2
4.9
9.6
12.5
24.6
38.0
Mf ’'Sweet ro lls
’'Cockles
6.3
7.0
5.2
4.9
17.5
30.0
SI "Whole wheat bread
6.3
7.0
10.0
y u White ro lls
6.2
4.7
4.9 .
6.6
5.6
7.0
6.1
16.1
30.0
Whole wheat bread
C-HB > HP
White bread
- "Whole wheat bread
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
*
Mem o f 4 replications by 14 judges
HP - Home-Prepared food
C • Ccnvenimca food
7. Difference • Larzer value - smaller value _
I S ger"value-------------- * 100
ER - E lectric range
Mf - Microwave Oven
MB • National brand
HB » House brand
Food for which difference si& d ficm t (p < .01) using the analysis of variance procedure.
164
T h ree h o m e -p r e p a r e d
range
(w h ite r o i l s ,
s ig n ific a n tly
f o o d s p r e p a r e d w it h
sw eet r o l l s ,
h ig h e r
( p < .0 1 )
c o n v e n ie n c e c o u n t e r p a r t s
c o o k ie s p rep ared
s ig n ific a n tly
in
h ig h e r
th a n
w heat b read
o v e r a ll q u a lity
in e ith e r
( p < .0 1 )
( p < .0 1 )
s ig n ific a n tly
sw eet
th e n a tio n a l
s ig n ific a n tly
ran ge
r o lls
or in th e
c o o k ie s
w ere
h ig h e r f o r o v e r a l l
q u a lity
(p < .0 1 )
scored
h ig h e r
( p < .0 1 )
p rod u ct prep ared
w it h e i t h e r t h e
m ic r o w a v e o v e n .
The n a t i o n a l
b e tte r fo r o v e r a ll
th e n tn e
w h e th e r n a*ed in
H ow ever, fo r
t h e h o u se b ran d c o n v e n ie n c e
s ig n ific a n tly
fo r
m ic r o w a v e o v e n .
t h e e l e c t r i c r a n g e o r i n t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n .
s ig n ific a n tly
h ig h e r
t h a n t h e h o m e - p r e p a r e d p r o d u c t b aited
h o u s e b ra n d v e r s i o n s o f t h e sa m e p r o d u c t s ,
r a te d
b ra n d
w h ile th e n a t io n a l oran a
and
w h o le w h e a t b r e a d
scored
th a n t h e h o m e -p r e p a r e d v e r s io n
w as s c o r e d
th e e l e c t r ic
H o m e -p r e p a r e d
a ls o
N a t i o n a l b r a n d w h i t e b r e a d w as s c o r e a
p r e p a r e d i n t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n ,
w h o le
b ra n d
T he h o m e - p r e p a r e u
o v e n w ere
th a n
e le c tr ic
w ere sc o r e d
th e n a tio n a l
( T a b le 4 7 ) .
( p < .0 1 )
c o n v e n ie n c e c o o k i e s .
s ig n ific a n tly
and c o o k ie s )
t h e m ic r o w a v e
h ig h e r
th e
v e r s io n
wis
th a n th e h o m e -p r e p a r e d
e le c t r ic range
brand
or tn e
w h i t e b r e a d w as r a t e d
q u a lity
( p < .0 1 )
th a n t h e
h o u se brand w h ite b r e a d .
T h ree c o n v e n ie n c e fo o d s
p u d d in g )
r o lls ,
(c o r n b r e a d ,
an d e i g h t h o m e - p r e p a r e d f o o d s
p an cak es,
y e llo w
c a ic e ,
(c o r n b r e a d ,
w h o le w h e a t b r e a d , b i s c u i t s ,
y e llo w
and
w h ite
c ;.ic e .
w h it e b r e a d , and c h o c o l a t e c a k e )
h ig h e r f o r o v e r a l l q u a lit y
e le c tr ic
r a n g e th a n in
O v e r v ie w .
s tr ik in g .
Som e
w ere s c o r e d
( p < .0 1 )
r e s u lts
(then c o n v e n i e n c e a n d
com pared, p iz z a ,
w hen p r e p a r e d
t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n
o f th e
s ig n ific a n tly
w it n t h e
( T a b le 4 8 ) .
w ere
p a r tic u la r ly
h o m e - p r e p a r e d f o o d s W ere
m ushroom s o u p ,
and c h i c k e n n o o d l e s o u p ,
w h e th e r p r e p a r e d w ith t h e e l e c t r i c r a n g e o r i n t h e
o v e n , w ere r a te d
in
s ig n ific a n tly
t h e h o m e -p r e p a r e d th a n i n
t h e c o n v e n ie n c e fo rm s
h ig h e r on a l l
u sed
t h e c o n v e n ie n c e fo r m .
q u a lity f a c to r s r e g a r d le s s o f
c h o c o la te cak e
fa c to r s in
In a d d it io n ,
and b i s c u i t s w ere
t h e c o n v e n ie n c e th a n
H o m e -p r e p a r e d c o o k i e s ,
f a c t o r s th a n t h e i r n a t io n a l
w h ile h o m e -p r e p a r e d
th e
e le c tr ic
f a c t o r s th a n
sco red
th e
a p p lia n c e
fo r a l l
i n t h e h o m e -p r e p a r e d fo r m .
w it h t h e e l e c t r i c
w ere s c o r e d h ig h e r f o r a l l
b rand c o n v e n ie n c e c o u n t e r p a r t s ,
w ere a ls o
w h i t e b r e a d a n d w h o le
s c o r e d h ig h e r f o r a l l f a c t o r s e x c e p t
r o lls
p repared
r a t e d h ig h e r
th e n a t io n a l bran d p r o d u c ts .
n a tio n a l brands o f
w ere r a te d
h ig h e r
w h it e r o l l s and s w e e t
range
H ow ever
m ic r o w a v e - p r e p a r e d
w h e th e r p r e p a r e d
r a n g e o r i n t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n ,
w ith
h ig h e r on a l l q u a l i t y f a c t o r s
o f p u d d in g an d p a n c a k e s
fo r p r e p a r a tio n .
m ic r o w a v e
H o w ev er t n e
w heat b rea d w ere
f l a v o r t h a n t h e h o m e-
p r e p a r e d p r o d u c ts p r e p a r e d w ith t h e e l e c t r i c r a n g e ,
a l l f a c t o r s th a n t h e h o m e -p r e p a r e d
m ic r o w a v e o v e n .
on a l l
and f o r
p r o d u c ts p rep ared in
H o m e -p r e p a r e d c o o k i e s ,
th e
w h ite b r e a d , w h ite
166
T a b le 48
Mean'*' Overall Quality Scores: Comparison Between Foods Prepared with
the Electric Range and with the Microwave Oven
ER2> MW3
(T
Pancakes
Chocolate cake
Biscuits
Chicken noodle soup
*Combread
*Yellow cake
*Pudding
HP^ Mushrocm soup
Pizza
Sweet rolls
Cockles
*Corribread
*White rolls
*Pancakes
*Whole wheat bread
^Biscuits
^Yellow cake
*White bread
*Qiocolate cake
% Diff
Mean ER
Mean MW
6.6
7.0
5.8
5.5
6.6
6.9
6.7
7.2
6.8
6.9
7.9
6.4
7.3
6.2
6.3
5.7
6.9
6.4
6.8
6.5
6.7
5.5
5.2
5.9
6.1
4.9
7.0
6.6
6.3
7.0
5.5
6.2
4.9
4.9
4.4
5.3
4.7
3.9
1.5
4.3
* 5.2
5.4
10.6
11.6
26.9
2.8
2.9
8.7
11.4
14.1
15.1
21.0
22.2
22.8
23.2
26.6
42.6
MW > ER
C
Pizza
Mishrocm soup
Miacaroni & cheese
4.9
5.0
5.3
5.0
5.2
5.6
2.0
3.8
5.4
HP
Chicken noodle soup
Macaroni & cheese
7.3
6.0
7.4
6.2
1.4
3.2
1. Mean of 4 replications by 14 judges
2. ER ■ Electric Range
■ Microwave Oven
3.
4. 7a Difference » Larger value - smaller value
Larger value
5. C ■ Convenience food
6. HP ■ Home-prepared food
* Food for which difference significant (pc.01) using the analysis of
variance procedure.
167
r o lls ,
and s w e e t r o l l s p r e p a r e d i n
h o n e -p r e p a r e d
c o o k i e s an d
m ic r o w a v e o v e n w e r e
th a n th e
p repared in
s c o r e d h ig h e r on a l l
w h o le w h e a t b r e a d
f a c t o r s th a n
q u a lity
ran ge,
on a l l f a c t o r s
b r e a d s p rep a red in
N a t io n a l b ran d c o o k i e s and
h ig h e r f o r
on a i l
a l l sen so ry
w it h t h e
b r a n d w h i t e a n d w h o le w h e a t
w ere s c o r e d h ig h e r
c o m p a r a b le hom e—p r e p a r e d
th e
fa c to r s
w as s c o r e d h ig h e r
an d t h e h o u s e
and
H ow ever t h e
t h e h o m e -p r e p a r e d v e r s i o n p r e p a r e d
b r e a d s b o th
oven.
sw eet r o lls
h o u se brand c o n v e n ie n c e c o u n t e r p a r t s .
h o u s e b rand
e le c tr ic
th e e le c t r ic ra n g e,
t h e m ic r o w a v e
w h ite b read w ere s c o r e d
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s th a n
b ran d c o u n t e r p a r t s , a lth o u g h f o r
tn a u th e
w h ite r o l l s
t h e i r h o u se
t h e h o u se brand
p r o d u c t r e c e iv e d h ig h e r s c o r e s f o r a l l q u a lit y f a c t o r s .
It is
d iffic u lt to
p r e fe r e n c e fo r
te ste d
in t h is
n ix e d r e s u l t s
d e s c r ib e a
g en era l p a tte rn
e i t h e r c o n v e n ie n c e o r
stu d y .
h o m e -p r e p a r e d f o o a s
O th e r r e s e a r c h e r s n a v e a l s o
i n c o m p a r is o n s
of
of
c o n v e n i e n c e an d
re p o r te d
h o m e-
p r e p a r e d f o o d s , d e p e n d in g on t h e p r o d u c t s b e in g c o m p e r e d .
I n a c o m p a r is o n
r a n g e and i n
o f fo o d s prepared
t h e m ic r o w a v e
oven,
w it h
th e
e le c tr r c
t h r e e c o n v e n ie n c e f o o a s
I
(c o r n b r e a d , y e llo w
prepared
fo o d s
cake,
e le c tr ic
and e l e v e n h o m e-
( b is c u it s , p a n cak es, cornbread,
c h o c o la te c a k e , p iz z a ,
b read,
a n d p u d d in g )
w h ite r o l l s ,
c o o k ie s ,
w h ite b r e a d ,
and s w e e t r o l l s )
y e llo w
cak e,
w hore w n eat
p r e p a r e d w x th t h e
r a n g e w e r e r a t e d h i g h e r on a l l q u a l i t y
f a c t o r s th a n
168
t h e sa m e f o o d s
p rep a red in
c o n v e n i e n c e m nshroom
c h e e s e w ere s c o r e d
oven,
t h e m ic r o w a v e
oven.
so u p and h o m e -p r e p a r e d
h i g h e r w hen p r e p a r e d i n
m a c a r o n i an d
t h e m ic r o w a v e
a lth o u g h t h e d i f f e r e n c e s w ere s l i g h t .
p iz z a p rep ared in
t h e m ic r o w a v e
C o n v e n ie n c e
o v e n w as s c o r e d
a l l f a c t o r s e x c e p t t e x t u r e th a n
e le c tr ic
H ow ever
h ig h e r f o r
t h e p i z z a p r e p a r e d w it h t h e
ran ge.
A ll but one o f th e
h ig h e r on
e le c tr ic
a l l q u a lity
fo o d s
(p u d d in g )
f a c t o r s w hen
w h ic h w e r e r a t e d
p r e p a r e d w ith
ra n g e w ere dough o r b a t t e r p r o d u c ts .
th e
T h ese fo o d s
n o r m a l l y a r e b a k e d o r h e a t e d o n a g r i d d l e t o a c h i e v e a b row n
cru st
and a
c h a r a c t e r is t ic cook ed
e x c e p tio n o f fo o d s
p an cak es,
h e a t e d o n a b r o w n in g
and p i z z a )
d id n o t b row n.
a p p e a r a n c e an d
fo o d s p rep ared in
B i s c u i t s and
fla v o r
b r o w n in g g r i l l ,
s in c e
an d t h e
th e e l e c t r ic
range.
W ith
g r ill
th e
(b is c u its ,
t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n
p a n c a k e s had a som ew h at o i l y
m a r g a r in e w a s
u sed on
p a n e lis t s p r e fe r r e d
c o n v e n t i o n a l a p p e a r a n c e an d f l a v o r
w it h
fla v o r .
th e
t h e m ore
o f t o e p r o d u c ts p rep ared
The p r o d u c ts p rep a r e d
in th e
m ic r o w a v e o v e n t e n d e d t o b e d r y a n d so m e w h a t s p o n g y , p e r h a p s
due t o
r a p id e x p a n s io n o f t h e
h e a tin g
and t o
dough o r b a t t e r
a la r g e r l o s s o f w a te r
e a r ly in
by e v a p o r a tio n th a n
o c c u r r e d i n t h e p r o d u c t s p r e p a r e d w it h t h e e l e c t r i c
I n te r e s tin g ly ,
lis t
of
f o o d s w h ic h
b o th p iz z a and
"cannot be
range.
p a n c a k e s a p p e a r e d on a
a d a p te d " f o r
m ic r o w a v e
169
p r e p a r a tio n
(A n o n y m o u s,
fo o d s w ere p rep a red
d is c u s s e d in
1 9 8 0 o ).
o n a b r o w n in g g r i l l ,
th e a r t i c l e .
s c o r e d h ig h e r f o r
m ic r o w a v e o v e n ,
I n t h i s stu d y b o th o f th o s e
w h ic h w as n o t
T he c o n v e n i e n c e p a n c a k e s w e r e
a p p e a r a n c e and f l a v o r w hen p r e p a r e d i n
th e
w h ile t h e c o n v e n ie n c e p iz z a p re p a r e d in
th e
m ic r o w a v e o v e n w a s r a t e d h i g h e r f o r a p p e a r a n c e , f l a v o r ,
o v e r a ll q u a lity .
T he h o m e -p r e p a r e d p r o d u c t s , h o w e v e r , w ere
s c o r e d h ig h e r on a l l q u a l i t y
e le c tr ic
f a c t o r s w hen p r e p a r e d w it h
h o m e -p re p a r e d f o o d s
n in e -p o in t s c a le
(7 6.7% )
(83.3% )
te x tu r e ,
No g e n e r a l t r e n d
The m a jo r ity
(8 8 .0 % )
and o v e r a l l q u a l i t y .
p r o d u c ts ten d ed t o b e s c o r e d
an d t h e
t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n
w ere sc o r e d a t l e a s t 5 on a n in e - p o in t s c a l e f o r
fla v o r ,
en d
o f p r e f e r e n c e w as s e e n
e le c t r ic range
m a jo r ity o f f o o d s p r e p a r e d w ith
5 on a
fla v o r ,
f o r e i t h e r c o n v e n ie n c e o r h o m e -p r e p a r e d f o o d s .
o f f o o d s p r e p a r e d w ith t h e
and m o st
w ere sc o r e d a t l e a s t
fo r appearance,
o v e r a ll q u a lity .
e le c tr ic
th e
ran ge.
To s u m m a r iz e , m o s t c o n v e n i e n c e f o o d s
te x tu r e ,
and
(68.0% )
appearance,
B a t t e r and dough
h i g h e r w hen p r e p a r e d
w xth t h e
r a n g e t h a n w hen p r e p a r e d w it h t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n .
P r e fe r e n c e A n a ly s is .
on a 9 - p o in t s c a l e ,
ran k th e fo u r
I n a d d itio n t o r a t in g
th e fo o d s
t h e s e n s o r y p a n e l i s t s w ere in s t r u c t e d
p r e p a r a tio n fo r m s o f e a c h fo o d
p r e fe r e n c e ,
and
to
appearance,
te x tu r e ,
in d ic a te
fla v o r ,
w h ic h f a c t o r ( s )
in
order o f
-
o r o v e r a ll q u a lity
i.e .
- m ost
to
170
in f l u e n c e d t h e r a n k in g
(A p p e n d ix E ) .
H ow ever,
sev erx i of
t h e p a n e l i s t s d id n o t u n d e r sta n d
how t o c o m p l e t e t h e s e c o n d
s c o r e s h e e t , ev en a f t e r a tte n d in g
a seco n d tr a in in g
The
r e s u lts o f
th e p r e fe r e n c e
a n a ly s is
c o u ld
not
s e s s io n .
he
m e a n in g fu lly i n t e r p r e t e d , and t h e r e f o r e a r e n o t in c lu d e d .
CHAPTER ?
SUHHARY AND CONCLUSIONS
T w en ty c o n v e n i e n c e f o o d s u s e d b y
o f h o u s e h o ld s s u r v e y e d
D e p a r tm e n t
of
in t h e s p r in g p o r tio n
A g r ic u ltu r e * s
C o n s u m p tio n S u r v e y
co u n te r p a r ts,
1 9 7 7 -7 8
w ere p r e p a r e d ,
w ith an e l e c t r i c
m ic r o w a v e o v e n .
a t le a s t one p ercen t
N a t io n w i d e
a lo n g
w it h
Food.
th e ir
home
r a n g e a n d w it h a c o u n t e r t o p
Y ie ld , t o t a l and a c t i v e
e n e r g y c o n s u m p tio n , c o s t p e r s e r v i n g ,
t h e f o o d s w ere d e te r m in e d .
o f t h e U .S .
p r e p a r a tio n tim e ,
an d s e n s o r y q u a l i t y
or
N u t r i e n t c o n t e n t w as c a l c u l a t e d
fr o m t a b l e s o f f o o d c o m p o s i t i o n .
In a u d itio n , r e la t io n s h ip s
w ere a s s e s s e d b e tw e e n t h e d e n s i t y , m o is tu r e c o n t e n t , ana f e e
c o n t e n t o f a fo o d and t h e
f o r p r e p a r a tio n ;
e n e r g y an d h e a t i n g
an d b e t w e e n
f o o d and t h e r e q u i r e d a m o u n t
tim e r e q u ir e d
th e d e g r e e -o f-r e a d in e s s o f a
o f energy,
t o t a l p r e p a r a tio n
t im e , and a c t i v e p r e p a r a t io n t im e .
C o n c lu s io n s
B a s e d on
th e fo o d s t e s t e d
th e
fo llo w in g c o n c lu s io n s
w ere r e a c h e d :
1.
T he m a j o r i t y
( 7 8 .3 % )
o f h o m e -p r e p a r e d f o o d s y ie ld e d
m o re e g u a l - w e i g h t s e r v i n g s t h a n d i d c o n v e n i e n c e f o o d s .
t r e n d w as s i g n i f i c a n t
( p < .1 0 )
fo r
171
T h is
4 3 .5 * o f f o o d s p rep a red
172
w ith t h e e l e c t r i c
r a n g e an d f o r
t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n .
34.8% o f f o o d s p r e p a r e d w it h
H ow ever 8.7% o f f o o d s p r e p a r e d w it h
m ic r o w a v e o v e n w e ig h e d
s ig n ific a n tly
m ore
( p < .1 0 )
in
tn e
tn e
c o n v e n ie n c e fo r m .
2.
S e v e n ty -e ig h t p e r c e n t o f
e le c tr ic
r a n g e w e ig h e d
m ic r o w a v e o v e n .
11.1% o f
3.
m ore t h a n f o o d s p r e p a r e d
T h is tr e n d
w as s i g n i f i c a n t
The
m a jo r ity
(9 1.3% )
of
fo o d s p repared
w as s i g n i f i c a n t
( p < .1 0 )
fo r
w ith t h e e l e c t r i c
prepared
w ith
th e
d id c o n v e n ie n c e
( p < .1 0 )
fo r
r a n g e an d f o r
f o o d s p r e p a r e d w i t h t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n .
e le c tr ic
s i g n i f i c a n t l y m ore
t o t a l p r e p a r a tio n
c o n v e n ie n c e th a n i n
h o m e -p r e p a r e d fo r m .
4.
w it h t h e
h o m e -p r e p a r e d fo o d s
t o t a l p r e p a r a t io n tim e th a n
T h is f i n d i n g
fo o d s
w it h t h e
c o n v e n ie n c e f o o d s .
r e q u i r e d m o re
fo o d s.
fo o d s prepared
69.6% o f
52.2% o f
H ow ever,
range
tim e
4.3% o f
r e q u ir e d
( p < .1 0 )
xa
H o st f o o d s p r e p a r e d w ith t h e e l e c t r i c r a n g e
(78.0% )
r e q u i r e d m ore t o t a l p r e p a r a t i o n t i m e t h a n d id f o o d s p r e p a r e d
w it h t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n .
fo r
33.3% o f
T h is tr e n d w as s i g n i f i c a n t
c o n v e n ie n c e fo o d s
prepared fo o d s.
H ow ever,
3.8% o f h o m e - p r e p a r e d f o o d s
and f o r
30.8% o f
( p < .1 0 )
h o m e-
13.3% o f c o n v e n i e n c e f o o d s a n d
r e q u i r e d m ore t o t a l p r e p a r a t i o n
t i m e w hen h e a t e d w i t h t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n .
5.
m ore
A l l h o m e -p r e p a r e d f o o d s t e s t e d
a c tiv e
p r e p a r a tio n
tim e
th a n
(1 0 0 .0 % )
th e
r e q u ir e d
c o n v e n ie n c e
173
co u n te rp a r ts.
s ig n ific a n t
e le c tr ic
The d i f f e r e n c e i n
( p < .1 0 )
range
am ount o f tim e r e q u ir e d
f o r 69.6% o f
an d f o r
65.2%
w as
f o o d s p r e p a r e d w it h t h e
o f fo o d s prepared
w it h t h e
m ic r o w a v e o v e n .
6.
A
t r e n d w as s e e n
m ic r o w a v e o v e n
fo r fo o d s p repared
t o r e q u ir e
m o re a c t i v e
w ith t n e
p r e p a r a t io n tim e
(3 9 .0 % o f f o o d s t e s t e d )
or th e
(39.0% o f f o o d s t e s t e d )
a s f o o d s p r e p a r e d w it h t h e e l e c t r i c
range.
sam e am o u n t o f a c t i v e t im e
T h is t r e n d w as s i g n i f i c a n t
( p < .1 0 )
f o r 3.8% o f h o m e-
prepared fo o d s.
H o w ev er 6.7% o f c o n v e n i e n c e f o o d s and 3.8%
o f h o m e -p r e p a r e d
f o o d s r e q u ir e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y
p r e p a r a t io n tim e
( p < .1 0 )
w hen h e a t e d w i t h
m o re a c t i v e
tn e e le c t r ic
range.
7.
H o st h o m e -p r e p a r e d f o o d s
(7 8 .3 % )
r e q u i r e d m ore
e n e r g y t o p r e p a r e t h a n d id c o n v e n i e n c e f o c d s .
fo o d s prep ared
w ith t h e e l e c t r i c
f o o d s p r e p a r e d w ith
s ig n ific a n t
th e e l e c t r ic
p repare
8.
in
s ig n ific a n tly
(63.4% )
th e e le c t r ic ran ge
d i f f e r e n c e w as
m ore
r e q u i r e d m ore e n e r g y t o
( p < .1 0 )
t h e m ic r o w a v e
f o r 33.3% o f
c o n v e n i e n c e an d f o r 26.9% o f h o m e - p r e p a r e d f o o d s .
13.3% o f c o n v e n i e n c e f o o d s a n d
energy to
h o m e -p r e p a r e a fo r m .
th a n w ith
T h is tr e n d w as s i g n i f i c a n t
34.8% o f
o f f o o d s p r e p a r e d w it n
c o n v e n ie n c e th a n i n
A m a jo r ity o f f o o d s
p r e p a r e w ith
oven.
H o w ev er 8.7%
r a n g e r e q u ir e d
( p < .1 0 )
r a n g e and f o r
t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n t n e
( p < .1 0 ) .
F o r 34.8% o f
H ow ever
11.5% o f h o m e -p r e p a r e d f o o d s
174
r e q u i r e d m ore e n e r g y t o p r e p a r e w i t h t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n t h a n
w it h t h e e l e c t r i c r a n g e .
e le c tr ic
ran ge v e r s io n ,
T h e s e w e r e f o o d s w h ic h ,
w ere h e a te d
e n tir e ly
in
tn e
on a s u r fa c e
u n it.
9.
The m a j o r it y o f c o n v e n ie n c e f o o d s
p er s e r v in g
fo r fo o d
c o u n te r p a r ts.
a lo n e th a n
p rep ared fo o d s c o s t
When f o o d
t i m e w as a d d ed
and
g r e a te r
and f u e l c o s t s
d id c o n v e n ie n c e
w e r e c o m b in e d ,
m ore p e r
t o t h e fo o d and
78 .3 %
c o n v e n ie n c e f o o d s ,
v a lu e d a t a
97.8% o f h o m e -
s e r v in g th a n
69.6% o f
a id
h o m e-
H o w ev er w nen t h e c o s t o f a c t i v e p r e p a r a t i o n
a c tiv e
fo r
h o m e -p r e p a r e d f o o d s c o s t
a t a c o o k 's w age,
f o o d s b eca m e m ore e x p e n s i v e .
fu e l,
h o m e -p r e p a r e d
m o re p e r s e r v i n g t h a n
c o n v e n i e n c e f o c id s c o s t
prepared fo o d s.
c o s t m ore
F or c o s t o f a c t i v e p r e p a r a t io n tim e a t
e i t h e r minim um w a g e o r
fo o d s.
d id t h e
H o w ev er 54.3% o f
m o re f o r f u e l a l o n e .
(6 9.6% )
fu e l c o s t,
The
c o m b in e d c o s t f o r f o o d ,
p r e p a r a t io n tim e
o f h o m e -p r e p a r e d
and
h o m e -p r e p a r e a
a t minimum
w a g e w as
fo o d s
fo r
th a n
t h e c o m b in e d c o s t when
c o o k ' s w a g e w as
g r e a te r fo r
91.3%
t i m e wfjs
o f hom e-
prepared fo o d s.
10.
Due t o t h e f a c t t h a t so m e f o o d s p r e p a r e d w i t h t h e
m ic r o w a v e o v e n w e ig h e d
le s s
a m a jo r ity
th a n f o o d s p rep a red
w it h t h e
e le c tr ic
ran ge,
o f m ic r o w a v e - p r e p a r e a p r o d u c t s
(6 5 .8 % )
c o s t m ore p e r e q u a l- w e ig h t s e r v in g f o r fo o d a l o n e .
H o w ev er m o s t f o o d s p r e p a r e d w i t h
th e e l e c t r i c ra n g e
(68.4% )
175
c o s t m ore p e r s e r v i n g
to r f u e l
a lo n e .
For c o s t o f a c t iv e
p r e p a r a t i o n t i m e a t e i t h e r minimum w a g e
73.7% o f f o o d s
p r e p a r e d w ith
p e r s e r v in g th a n
When t h e c o s t s
o r a t a c o o k ' s w age
t h e m ic r o w a v e
f o o d s p r e p a r e d w it h t h e
o f fo o d and f u e l w ere
f o o d s c o s t m o re t o p r e p a r e i n
o v e n c o s t m ore
e le c tr ic
c o m b in e d ,
range.
55.3% o f
t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n .
When c o s t
o f a c t i v e p r e p a r a t i o n t i m e a t minimum w a g e w as a d d e d ,
o f fo o d s
c o s t m o re
m ic r o w a v e o v e n .
p er s e r v in g
w hen p r e p a r e d
When c o s t o f a c t i v e
w as a d d e d t o t h e f o o d a n d
m ore p e r s e r v i n g
to
68.4%
w ith th e
t i m e a t a c o o k ' s w age
fu e l c o sts,
73.7% o f f o o d s c o s t
p r e p a r e w ith t h e
m ic r o w a v e o v e n t h a n
w it h t h e e l e c t r i c r a n g e .
11.
F o o d s w i t h a h ig h d e n s i t y
h e a t in g tim e p e r
gram th a n f o o d s w i t h a
p r e p a r e d w it h t h e e l e c t r i c r a n g e .
seen
f o r f o o d s p r e p a r e d w it h
a h ig h m o is tu r e
t i m e p e r gram
r e q u ir e d
lo w d e n s i t y
wnen
H o w ev er t h e r e v e r s e w as
t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n .
c o n t e n t r e q u ir e d
m ore e n e r g y an d
le s s
t h a n f o o d s w i t h a lo w
p r e p a r e d w it h t h e e l e c t r i c r a n g e .
en ergy
F o o d s w it h
and h e a tin g
m o i s t u r e c o n t e n t when
A g a in ,
h ow ever,
tn e
r e v e r s e w as t r u e f o r f o o d s p r e p a r e d w i t h t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n .
F o o d s w ith a h ig h f a t c o n t e n t
t h a n f o o d s w it h
e le c tr ic
range.
energy p er
a lo w
f a t c o n t e n t w hen
p r e p a r e d w ith t h e
F a t c o n t e n t d id n o t a p p r e c ia b ly
gram r e q u i r e d
m ic r o w a v e o v e n ,
r e q u i r e d m o re e n e r g y p e r gram
fo r fo o d s
o r th e h e a tin g
a f f e c t tn e
p r e p a r e d w ith
th e
t i m e p e r gram r e q u i r e d f o r
176
f o o d s p r e p a r e d w ith e i t h e r a p p lia n c e .
12.-
E n e r g y c o n s u m p t io n w a s n o t r e l a t e d t o
a c o n v e n ie n c e p r o d u c t w a s.
t o t a l an d
In
how " r e a d y 1*
g e n e r a l th e d if f e r e n c e in
a c t i v e p r e p a r a t io n t im e b etw een
c o n v e n ie n c e ana
h o m e -p r e p a r e d f o o d s w as g r e a t e r f o r f o o d s t h a t r e q u ir e d
h e a tin g
th a n f o r
f o o d s w h ic h
r e q u ir e d
d i f f e r e n c e b e tw e e n c o n v e n ie n c e and
g r e a te st
when
t h e c o n v e n ie n c e
c o o k in g .
ju st
T he
h o m e - p r e p a r e d f o o d s w as
f o o d s c o u ld
be e a te n
as
p u rch ased .
13.
T h e c a l c u l a t e d Mean A d e q u a cy R a t i o
(MAH) f o r n i n e
n u t r i e n t s w a s h i g h e r f o r 50.0% o f t h e f o o d s i n h o m e - p r e p a r e d
th a n in c o n v e n ie n c e fo r m .
F o r 5.0%
o f fo o d s tn e
e g u a l b e tw e e n c o n v e n ie n c e and h o m e -p r e p a r e d fo r m s ,
t h e r e m a i n i n g 45.0% o f p r o d u c t s t h e
c o n v e n ie n c e v e r s i o n .
f o o d s c o n ta in e d
m o re f a t
The m a j o r i t y
and 80.0%
p e r c e n t a g e o f c a l o r i e s fro m f a t
(8 5 .0 % )
o f h o m e -p r e p a r e d
80.0% c o n t a i n e d
c o n ta in e d a
fib e r
th a n s i m i l a r h o m e -p r ep a r e d p r o d u c t s ,
w as c o n s id e r e d ,
m ore f i b e r
am ount o f f i b e r
in
m ore s o d iu m
when c r u d e
40.0% o f c o n v e n i e n c e f o o d s c o n t a i n e d
p er s e r v in g ,
c o n t a i n e d m ore f i b e r ,
h ig h e r
th a n d id c o n v e n ie n c e i t e m s .
H o w ev er 66.7% o f t h e c o n v e n i e n c e f o o d s c o n t a i n e d
p er s e r v in g
w h ile , f o r
MAR w as h i g h e r f o r t h e
m ore c a l o r i e s p e r s e r v i n g ,
p er s e r v in g ,
MAR w as
4 0 .0 % o f
h o m e -p r e p a r e d f o o d s
a n d 2 0 .0 % o f f o o d s c o n t a i n e d t h e sam e
b o th p r e p a r a tio n fo r m s .
177
14.
H o st c o n v e n ie n c e
p rep ared fo o d s
p o in t s c a le f o r
q u a lity .
(7 6 .7 % )
fo o d s
(83.3% )
w ere s c o r e d a t
appearance,
te x tu r e ,
and
m o st hom e-
l e a s t 5 on a n i n e fla v o r ,
and o v e r a l l
No g e n e r a l t r e n d o f p r e f e r e n c e w as s e e n f o r e i t h e r
c o n v e n i e n c e o r h o m e -p r e p a r e d f o o d s .
15.
ran ge
The m a jo r ity o f f o o d s p r e p a r e d
(8 8 .0 % )
and t h e m a jo r ity
m ic r o w a v e o v e n
(6 8 .0 % )
o f fo o d s p repared
w ere s c o r e d a t
p o in t s c a l e f o r a p p e a r a n c e, t e x t u r e ,
q u a lity .
h i g h e r w hen
B a t t e r an d
w it h t h e e l e c t r i c
l e a s t 5 on a n m e fla v o r ,
and o v e r a l l
dough p r o d u c ts te n d e d t o
p r e p a r e d w it h t h e
w it h t h e
e le c tr ic
be sco red
range
t h a n wnen
p r e p a r e d w it h t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n .
I m p lic a tio n s
C o n su m ers may b a s e a d e c i s i o n
of
w h e th e r o r n o t t o
u se
Among t h e s e f a c t o r s
are
t
c o n v e n i e n c e f o o d s o n many f a c t o r s .
th e y ie ld ,
t o t a l and a c t i v e p r e p a r a tio n
e n e r g y c o n s u m p tio n ,
c o st,
q u a lit y o f c o n v e n ie n c e
tim e r e q u ir e d ,
n u tr ie n t c o n te n t,
fo o d s a s
com pared t o
and s e n s o r y
t h e i r h om e-
p rep ared c o u n te r p a r ts .
H o st c o n v e n ie n c e fo o d s i n t h i s
y ie ld
fe w e r
W h ile t h i s
s e r v i n g s th a n s i m i l a r
may n o t
appeal to
a d v a n ta g eo u s f o r o t h e r s ,
s tu d y w ere p ack aged t o
h o m e -p r e p a r e d p r o d u c t s .
so m e
con su m ers i t
p a r tic u la r ly
C o n v e n ie n c e f o o d s i n g e n e r a l r e q u i r e d
may b e
f o r s m a ll h o u s e h o ld s .
l e s s t o t a l m d a c tiv e
p r e p a r a t io n tim e th a n h o m e -p r e p a r e a f o o d s ;
th is
f a c t m ig h t
178
e n c o u r a g e p e r s o n s w ith l i m i t e d tim e
to
u s e c o n v e n ie n c e f o o d s .
energy to
or a d is lik e
o f c o o k in g
C o n v e n ie n c e f o o d s a l s o
p r e p a r e th a n
g e n e r a lly
r e q u ir e d
le s s
d i d h o m e -p r e p a r e d
fo o d s.
W h ile t h e a m o u n t o f f u e l s a v e d o n a n y o n e f o o d w as
s lig h t,
o v e r t i m e t h e a m o u n t m ig h t
a d d up t o a n o t i c e a b l e
s a v in g s .
H ost o f th e
s e r v in g fo r
c o n v e n ie n c e f o o d s s t u d ie d c o s t
th e fo o d a lo n e
c o u n te r p a r ts.
c o n v e n i e n c e f o o d s t e n d e d t o b eco m e l e s s
As t h e v a l u e o f t im e w as i n c r e a s e d , t h e num ber
o f c o n v e n ie n c e f o o d s
a ls o
in c r e a s e d .
or n ot to
t h e i r h o m e -p r e p a r e d
H o w e v e r , w hen t h e c o s t o f a c t i v e p r e p a r a t i o n
t i m e w as i n c l u d e d ,
e x p e n s iv e .
th a n d id
m ore p e r
w h ic h w e r e l e s s
e x p e n s iv e
to prepare
Thus a d e c i s i o n , b a sed on c o s t ,
u s e c o n v e n i e n c e f o o d s w o u ld h a v e
to
o f w h e th e r
in c lu d e th e
v a lu e o f th e fo o d p r e p a r e r 's t im e .
T he n u t r i e n t c o n t e n t f o r h a l f
s tu d ie d
was e q u a l
p repared fo o d s.
to or
b e t t e r th a n
c o n v e n ie n c e f o o d s
s o d iu m th a n h o m e - p r e p a r e d f o o d s ,
to
p erson s
m in e r a l.
fa t,
o f t h e c o n v e n ie n c e f o o d s
in te r e s te d
th a t o f
t h e h o m e-
ten d ed t o c o n ta in
w h ic h w o u ld b e o f c o n c e r n
in li m it in g
th e ir
in ta k e
o f th is
C o n v e n ie n c e f o o d s c o n t a i n e d f e w e r c a l o r i e s ,
and a lo w e r p e r c e n t a g e o f
t h e h o m e -p r e p a r e d f o o d s i n
w o u ld h a v e l e s s c o n t r o l o v e r
and c a l o r i e s i f
m ore
c a lo r ie s
t h is stu d y .
le s s
fro m f a t t h a n d i d
H ow ever c o n s u m e r s
m o d ify in g t h e i r
th e y u sed c o n v e n ie n c e f o o d s
in ta k e o f fa r
th a n o f th e y
179
p r e p a r e d t h e f o o d s fro m home r e c i p e s .
F o r many c o n s u m e r s , t h e u l t i m a t e d e c i s i o n o f
not to u se
a c o n v e n ie n c e fo o d
sen so ry q u a lit ie s .
may b e b a s e d
R e s u lts o f
th is
many o f t h e c o n v e n i e n c e f o o d s t e s t e d
t o h o m e -p r e p a r e d f o o d s .
fo r e ith e r
T h e r e fo r e an
No
in d i v i d u a l con su m er
w ere s i m i l a r
in q u a lity
w as n o t e d .
w o u ld n e e d
to
e v a lu a te
d e te r m in e w h e th e r o r n o t
w ere a c c e p t a b l e .
to p rep are fo o d s
Foods in
may s i m i l a r l y
t h i s stu d y
te n d e d t o y i e l d
w h ic h
few er
p r e p a r e d w it h t h e e l e c t r i c
w as s i g n i f i c a n t f o r
to ta l
e le c tr ic
be b ased
o n many f a c t o r s .
e q u a l w e ig h t s e r v in g s th a n fo o d s
range.
H o w ev er t h e d i f f e r e n c e
o n ly a s m a ll p e r c e n ta g e
o f th e fo o d s.
t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n r e q u i r e d
p r e p a r a tio n tim e th a n
ran ge,
t o u s e a m ic r o w a v e o v e n
w e r e p r e p a r e d w it h t h e m ic r o w a v e
H h i l e m o s t f o o d s p r e p a r e d w it h
le s s
stu d y in d ic a t e d t h a t
c o n v e n ie n c e o r h o m e -p r e p a r e d f o o d s
T he d e c i s i o n o f w h e t h e r o r n o t
oven
on t h e f o o d 's
g e n e r a l p a tte r n o f p r e fe r e n c e
d i f f e r e n t c o n v e n ie n c e p r o d u c ts t o
th e y
w h e th e r o r
fo o d s h e a te d
t h e a c t i v e p r e p a r a t io n tim e r e q u ir e d f o r a
m a jo r ity o f f o o d s p r e p a r e d w ith
sa m e a s o r g r e a t e r t h a n t h e
p r e p a r e d w it h t h e e l e c t r i c
t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n w as t h e
a c t i v e tim e r e q u ir e d f o r f o o d s
range.
P e r s o n s b a s in g a d e c i s i o n
o f w h e t h e r o r n o t t o u s e a m ic r o w a v e o v e n o n i t s
c a p a b ilitie s
w o u ld
p r e p a r a t io n - t i m e
w it h t h e
n eed t o
c o n s id e r th e
d e s c r ib e d h e r e and t h e
tim e -s a v in g
tw o k i n d s
of
d iffe r e n t r e s u lts
180
c o n c e r n i n g t i m e w h ic h w e r e o b t a i n e d .
r e q u ir e l e s s e n e r g y th a n t h e
fo o d s,
The m ic r o w a v e o v e n d i d
e l e c t r i c r a n g e to p r e p a r e m ost
a l t h o u g h f o r f o o d s w h ic h w o u ld n o r m a ll y b e p r e p a r e d
on a s u r fa c e
u n i t o f an e l e c t r i c
r e q u i r e d m ore e n e r g y .
range
t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n
C o n su m e r s i n t e r e s t e d
w ith k it c h e n a p p lia n c e s
in
s a v in g en erg y
w o u ld w a n t t o c o n s i d e r
w hen d e c i d i n g w h ic h f o o d s t o
h e a t in
th is fa c t
a m ic r o w a v e o v e n .
F o r m o st f o o d s t h e t o t a l p r o d u c t f o o d c o s t we;s t n e sa m e
w h e th e r t h e fo o d
w as p r e p a r e d w ith t h e
w it h t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n .
H o w ev er s i n c e
w i t h t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n t e n d e d t o
fo o d c o s t
fo o d s.
p er s e r v in g
e le c tr ic
w as g r e a t e r
tn e fo o d s p rep ared
y ie ld few er s e r v in g s ,
th e
f o r m ic r o w a v e - p r e p a r e d
F u e l c o s t w a s l e s s f o r m o s t f o o d s w hen p r e p a r e d w i t h
t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n .
T he d i f f e r e n c e w a s s m a l l f o r i n d i v i d u a l
f o o d s , b u t m ig h t b e i m p o r t a n t o v e r t i m e .
f o o d s f r e q u e n t l y r e q u i r e d m o re
fo o d s prepared
a c tiv e
p r e p a r a tio n
t im e t h a n
o v en w as g r e a t e r
c o s t o f f o o d s p r e p a r e d w it h t h e e l e c t r i c
o f t i m e w as i n c l u d e d .
n um ber o f f o o d s
H ic r o w a v e - p r e p a r e d
w it h t h e e l e c t r i c r a n g e , a n d t h u s t n e c o s t o f
f o o d s p r e p a r e d w i t h t h e m ic r o w a v e
As t h e
th a n th e
r a n g e when t h e c o s t
v a lu e o f tim e in c r e a s e d t h e
w h ic h w e r e m ore e x p e n s i v e
t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n a l s o
c o st,
range or
in c r e a s e d .
t o p r e p a r e w it h
A d e c is io n ,
b a se d on
o f w h e t h e r o r n o t t o u s e a m ic r o w a v e o v e n w o u ld n e e d
t o c o n s id e r th e v a lu e o f th e fo o d
C o n su m ers may b a s e a d e c i s i o n
p r e p a r e r 's tim e .
of
w h e th e r o r n o t t o
u se
181
a m ic r o w a v e o v e n o n t h e s e n s o r y
th e o v en .
q u a lity
R e s u lts o f t h is stu d y
o f fo o d s h ea ted
i n d i c a t e d t h a t so m e f o o d s
p r e p a r e d w i t h t h e m ic r o w a v e o v e n
w ere s i m i l a r in
t h o s e p r e p a r e d w ith t h e
range.
how ever,
e le c tr ic
e le c tr ic
q u a lity
C o n su m ers w i s h i n g t o
m ic r o w a v e o v e n may w a n t t o
c r u s t, su ch a s fr o s tin g
u se
w it h t h e
bake su ch fo o d s in
a m eth o d o f c o v e r i n g t h e
a cake, to
to
B a k ed p r o d u c t s ,
t e n d e d t o h e s c o r e d h i g h e r w hen p r e p a r e d
range.
in
a
to p
im p r o v e t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f
th e p r o d u c ts.
R e c o m m e n d a tio n s f o r F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h
The num ber o f f o o d s t e s t e d
F u r th e r r e s e a r c h
is
in t h i s
s tu d y w as l i m i t e d .
n eed ed t o d e te r m in e w h e th e r t h e f i n d in g s
h o ld t r u e f o r o t h e r f o o d s .
One e l e c t r i c
th is
stu d y .
r a n g e and o n e
A d d itio n a l r e s e a r c h
ra n g es a s w e ll
m ic r o w a v e o v e n w e r e u s e d i n
c o u ld
a s d i f f e r e n t b ra n d s and
b e d on e u s in g g a s
m o d e ls o f
e le c tr ic
r a n g e s a n d m ic r o w a v e o v e n s .
One b r a n d
la b o r a to r y
o f e a c h c o n v e n ie n c e
a n a ly s is .
F u r th e r
research
d e te r m in e w h erh er t h e f in d in g s o f
to
f o o d w as
is
ch o sen fo r
n eeded
to
t h i s stu d y can b e a p p lie d
o th e r b ra n d s o f c o n v e n ie n c e f o o d s .
The s m a l l
s a m p le s i z e t a k e n
t o t a l and a c t i v e p r e p a r a t io n
n e c e s s ita te d
th e
tim e ,
fo r a n a ly s is
a n d e n e r g y c o n s u m p t io n
u s e o f a n o n p a r a m e t r ic
w h ic h h ad lo w p o w e r .
o f y ie ld ,
s ta tis tic a l te s t
U se o f a l a r g e r s a m p le s i z e
in
fu tu r e
182
r e s e a r c h m ig h t c a u s e d i f f e r e n c e s
among t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s no
b e sh o w n a s s i g n i f i c a n t m ore o f t e n
T h e s a m p le o f c o n v e n i e n c e
c o n ta in e d a
research
is
l a r g e n um ber
fo o d s s e le c te d
o f baked
c o n te n t
T h e r e fo r e ,
F u r th e r
f o r a w id e r v a r i e t y o f f o o d p r o d u c t s .
T h e n u t r i e n t d a t a and t h e
fa t
p r o d u cts.
in a d v e r te n tly
n eed ed t o d e te r m in e w h e th e r t h e f i n d i n g s o f x n is
stu d y a re v a lid
an d
and w it h h i g h e r p o w e r .
w ere ta k e n
th e v a lu e s
r e p r e s e n ta tiv e o f
v a lu e s f o r m o is tu r e c o n t e n t
fro m
may
not
th e fo o d s
p u b lis h e d
have b een
p rep ared in
F u t u r e r e s e a r c h e r s may w a n t t o
ta b le s .
p r e c is e ly
t h e la b o r a to r y .
d e t e r m i n e t h e i r own n u t r i e n t ,
m o is t u r e , and f a t d a t a .
A ll c a t e g o r i e s o f fo o d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c c o m b in a tio n s w ere
n ot r e p r e se n te d
m o is tu r e ,
in
th e a n a ly s is o f th e
and f a t o n e n e r g y
T h e num ber o f f o o d s i n
f u t u r e s tu d y c o u ld
each
e f f e c t o f d e n s ity ,
c o n s u m p t io n and h e a t i n g
tim e .
c a t e g o r y w as a l s o l i m i t e d .
b u ild on t h i s
work by
te s tin g
A
a la r g e r
and m ore r e p r e s e n t a t i v e g r o u p o f f o o d s i n e a c h c a t e g o r y .
D e fin itio n s o f
p e r c e n t m o is tu r e ,
lite r a tu r e .
d e v e lo p e d .
" h ig h " a n d " lo w " v a l u e s
and
p e r c e n t f a t w ere n o t
fo r d e n s ity ,
fo u n d in t h e
S ta n d a r d d e f i n i t i o n s f o r t h e s e te r m s n eed t o
I n a d d i t i o n , f u r t h e r w ork i s
t h e m e th o d o f m e a s u r in g d e n s i t y
need ed t o
be
v a lid a te
u sed in t h i s s tu d y .
A ll d e g r e e - o f - r e a d in e s s c a t e g o r i e s w ere n o t r e p r e s e n t e d
in
th e
a n a l y s i s o f how d e g r e e - o f - r e a d i n e s s
a f f e c t s energy
183
c o n s u m p t io n an d
t o t a l and a c t i v e p r e p a r a t i o n
n u m b er o f f o o d s i n
stu d y ,
u s in g
c a t e g o r y , c o u ld
e a c h c a t e g o r y whs a l s o
a r e p r e s e n t a t iv e group
tim e .
lim ite d .
o f fo o d s
b u i l d o n t h e w ork b e g u n h e r e .
in
T he
A fu tu r e
eacn
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W a s h in g t o n , D .C .
Van Z a n t e ,
H .J .
1 9 7 3 . HT a e iiic r o w a v e o v en .* *
M if f l in C o ., B o s to n .
h o u g n to n
V o r is ,
H .H .
an d Van D u y n e ,
F .O .
1979.
Low w a t t a g e
m ic r o w a v e c o o k i n g o f
to p
round r o a s t s :
E nergy
c o n s u m p t i o n , t h i a m i n c o n t e n t ana p a x a t a n x i i t y . J .
F o oa
S c i.
4 n :l4 4 7 .
194
W a tt, B .K . and H e r r i l l , a . L .
1963.
" c o m p o s i t i o n ox f o o a s .
Raw,
P rocessed ,
P r e p a r e d . 1* A g r i c .
HanabooK a .
C onsu m er a n d F o o u E c o n . I n s t . , ARE, U .S . n e p t .
A g ric .,
W a s h in g t o n , D .C .
W e is s ,
G .S .
1954.
T im e a n d m oney c o s t s o f m e a x s u s i n g
nom e— a n d p r e J t i t c n e n - p r e p a r e d f o o a s .
J.
Home E c o n .
4 6 :9 8 .
W h it e ,
J .G .
198U .
C o n te m p o r a r y
c o n c e r n s i n r o o d an a
n u tr itio n .
s to x e ly
Van Camp A n n u a l S y m p o siu m ,
K n o x v i l l e , TN .
tla j 2 9 - 3 0 .
w o i r e , K .A .
1979.
e v a lu a tio n
ot
33 (9 ) : 4 5 .
U se o t r e f e r e n c e s t a n a a r a s r o r s e n s o r y
p roduct g u a iit y .
fo o d T e c h n o i.
W o c i s e y , M .£ . a n a T i n K i i n , G .L .
1966.
B r o w n ie s : C o m p a r iso n
o f v a r io u s m ark et to r m s.
J . Am. D i e t . A s s o .
4 9 ;l i e .
2o o x ,
K . an d W e s s n a n , C .
1977.
T he s e l e c t i o n n t a u s e or
ju d g es
fo r
a e s c r ip t iv e p a n e ls .
Fooa T e c n n o i.
3 1 (1 1 ) : 5 6 .
195
Appendix A
Brands of Convenience Foods Used in Laboratory Analysis
Food Item
National Brand
House Brand
Biscuits, refrigerated Pillsbury Hungry Jade, 10 oz.
Pancake mix, complete
Aunt Jemima, 32 oz.
Combread mix
Flako, 12 oz.
Yellow cake mix
Duncan Hines, 18.5 oz.
Chocolate cake mix
Duncan Hines, 18.5 oz.
Broccoli spears in
butter sauce, frozen
Green Giant, 10 oz.
Macaroni & cheese mix
Kraft, 7.25 oz.
Spaghetti sauce, canned Ragu 10C% Natural, 15.5 oz •
Sausage pizza, frozen
Totino1s party pizza,
12.5 oz.
Vanilla pudding mix,
regular
Jello Pudding & Pie
Filling, 3.12 oz.
Cream of mushroom soup, Campbell1s, 10.75 oz.
canned condensed
Chicken noodle soup,
canned condensed
Campbell's, 10.75 oz.
Chicken pot pie, frozen Banquet, 8 oz.
Apple pie, frozen
Banquet, 20 oz.
Fried Chicken TV dinner Banquet American
Favorites, 11 oz.
Chocolate chip cookies Chips Ahoy, 13 oz.
Country Oven, 18
White bread, enriched
Pepperidge Farm, 16 oz.
Kroger, 20 oz.
Whole wheat bread
Pepperidge Farm, 16 oz.
Kroger, 16 oz.
White rolls
Pepperidge Farm, 12.25 oz.
Country Oven, 13
Sweet rolls (raisin)
Bainbo, 10 oz.
Country Oven, 13
196
A p p e n d ix B
R e c i p e s r o r H o m e -P r e p a r e d F o o d s
T h e e l e c t r i c r a n g e used, i n t a i s
s t u d y w as a 3 0 - i n c n (?6cm ;
f r e e s t a n d i n g m o d e l w l t a tw o
6 -x n c R (15cm ;
s u n ace u n its ,
tw o 8 - i n c h (20cm ) s u r f a c e u n i t s ,
an d a s e l f - c l e a n i n g o v e n .
T he s u r f a c e u n i t c o n t r o l s R aa t u e f o l l o w i n g s e t t i n g s :
h ig n ,
M e d -H ig R , M ea, M e a -L o ,
no,
and O f f .
T he o v e n s e t t i n g s
r a n g e d fro m
1 5 0 ° F (66°C )
t o 5Q 0°F
(2 6 0 °C )
in
2 5 uf
in c r e m e n ts .
T h e' m ic r o w a v e o v e n was a c o u n t e r t o p m o u ei
R a v in g t h e f o l l o w i n g
10 v a r i a b l e p o w e r s e t t i n g s
w it n t e n
p e r c e n t l e s s w a t t a g e a t e a c h d e s c e n d i n g p o w er s e t t i n g :
jr'Uj.1
p o w e r : 100%; S a u t e : 90%; Red e a t : 80%; £itu h i g h ; 70%; Bc.«.e:
60%; M edium : 50%; B r a i s e : 40%; D e f r o s t : 50%; Low: 20%; warm:
10 %.
A b b r e v i a t i o n s u s e u i n t h i s a p p e n d ix i n c i u u e :
R a n g e ; Mb = M ic r o w a v e o v e n .
ER = E l e c t r i c
B I SCUITS
CORVEWIENCE
R e fr ig e r a te d b i s c u i t s
m a r g a r in e (HR o n ly )
284g
2bg
ER - P r e h e a t o v e n t o
204°C .
P la c e n i s c u i t s
b a it in g s h e e t .
B axe 8 m in u te s .
on u n g r e a s e a
Mb - H e a t m a r g a r in e 1 m in u t e o n h i g h .
P r e n e a t J 7 x i b cm
b r o w n in g g r i l l
5 m i n u t e s on
H ig h .
D ip
n i s c u i t s in to
m a r g a r in e t o c o a t a l l s i d e s .
A rra n g e on p r e h e a te d g r i l l .
H e a t on H ig h 4 5 s e c o n d s . T u rn b i s c u i t s o v e r .
H e a t on h ig n
1 .5 m in u te s .
HOME - PREPARED
F lo u r
S a it
28 Og
5g
197
B a k in g p o w a e r
s h o r te n in g
M ilk
M a r g a r in e (Mfc o n l y )
11g
67g
ib S g
28g
Com n i n e t i o u r , s a l t , a n d b a k in g p o w a e r .
C a t x n s n o r t e h x iig
w x th p a s t r y b l e n d e r .
Ada m il k a n u
s t a r w ith a r o t * u n t i l
dough fo rm s a b a l l .
T urn o u t o n t o f l o u r e d b o a r d .
a h ea d 15
tim e s .
R o l l 1cm t h i c k .
C u t w it h 5cm c u t t e r .
u e r o i l ana
cut scra p s.
ER - P r e h e a t
m in u te s .
oven to 218°C .
B ake on
u n greasea
sh eet
12
MW - H e a t m a r g a r in e 1 m in u t e o n H ig h .
P r e h e a t 5 7 x 2 9 cm
b r o w n in g g r i l l 5 m in u t e s on h i g h .
Dxp b i s c u i t s xn m a r g a r i n e
to c o a t a l l s x d e s .
A rran ge on p r e h e a te d g r x x x .
B e a t on
H xgh 45 s e c o n d s .
Turn b i s c u i t s
over.
B e a t o n Hxgh 1 .5
m in u te s .
Pancakes
CONVENIENCE
C o m p le te p a n c a k e m ix
W ater
O i l (ER o n l y )
M a r g a r in e (MW o n ly )
135g
19Gg
28g
2b g
ER - Com oxne m ix a n d w a t e r .
P r e h e a t 5 0 x 2 9 cm g r i d d l e on
H ig n u s i n g 2 b u r n e r s .
R educe h e a t t o
Meu H i g h .
Oxx
g r id d le .
M e a su r e o u t 5 0 m i n a t t e r f o r e a c h p a n c a k e .
Co c k
p a n c a k e s a t a t i m e , f l i p p i n g o n c e h a lf w a y t h r o u g h c o o k x n g .
o
MW - C om bin e m ix a n d w a t e r .
P r e h e a t 3 7 x 2 9 cm b row n xn g g r x x x
5 m in u te s on h i g h .
S p r e a d 1 4 g m a r g a r in e o n g r x i l .
M ea su re
o u t 50m l b a t t e r f o r ea ch p a n ca k e,
c o o k in g 4 a t o n e tx m e .
H e a t 4 5 s e c o n d s o n H ig h .
T u rn p a n c a k e s o v e r .
H e a t I m in u te
on H ig h .
P r e h e a t g r i l l 2 . 5 m in u t e s o n H ig h and s p r e a u w x tn
m o re m a r g a r in e b e t w e e n b a t c h e s .
19tt
RUilE - PEisf JUEI)
l40g
2g
?g
hg
244g
50g
I4 g
flo u r
s a lt
B a x in g p o w a e r
Sugar
M llX
Egg
o il
2bg
O i l (EB o n l } )
M a r g a r in e (MW o n ly )
2Bg
C om b in e t i c u r ,
sd x t,
b a k in g p o w d e r ,
anu s u g a r .
aeat
t o y e t h e r m i l x , e g g , ,f,rd o i l .
Ada t o u r y i n g r e d i e n t s .
iiix
u n t i l g u s t c o n t a in e d .
Eh P r e h e a t 5 0 x 2 9 cm g r i d d l e
2 m in u t e s on lix g n
u s^ n g 2
b u rn ers.
B e u u c e n e a t t o fle a H i g n .
G il g r id d le .
M ea su re
o u t 50m l b a t t e r l o r e a c h p a n c a k e .
C oox t> p a n c a k e s a t o n e
t i m e . H i p p i n g o n c e h a x iw a y t h r o u g h c o o k i n g .
MW P r e h e a t 5 7 x 2 9 cm b r o w n in g
g r i l l 5 m in u t e s
on h ig n .
S p r e a d 1bg m a r g a r in e o n g r i l l M ea su re o u t 5 u m i n a t t e r r o r
each p ancake,
c o o k in g 4 a t o n e t im e .
H e a t 45 s e c o n u s on
n ig h .
Turn p a n c a x e s o v e r ,
h e a t 1 m in u te o n h i g n .
P reneat
g r i l l 2 . 5 m in u t e s
on h ig h a n d s p r e a d
v i t a m ore m a r g a r in e
b e tw e e n b a t c h e s .
COBflEhEAD
CGbVENXEBCE
3h0g
5 0g
170g
d ry c o r n b r e a d m ix
Egg
M ilk
Efl — P r e a e a t o v e n t o 204<>c. L i n e 2 3 -c m r o u n d g l a s s p an w i t u
wax p a p e r .
C o m b in e m ix , e g g ,
and m iix an a p la c e in p a n .
B aX e 15 m i n u t e s .
Mb -
L in e 2 3 -c m r o u n d g l a s s
p a n w it h
wax p a p e r .
C om nm e
195
m ix , e g g , <*na m ilk a n a p l a c e i n p a n .
T urn.
H e a t on Hxgh 3 . 5 m i n u t e s .
h e a t on (led 5 m xnu-c.es.
HOME - FKEPABED
Y e llo w c o r n m e a i
F lo u r
Sugar
B a x in g p o w d e r
s a lt
r t il k
Eg y
O xi
104g
140g
b 7g
11y
2g
244g
50 y
28g
C om nine c o r n m e a i , f l o u r , s u g a r ,
m a k in g p o w d e r ,
and i a i t .
B e a t t o g e t h e r m x lk , e g g , an a o x i .
Add I x g u i a x n g r e a x e n t s t o
d ry i n g r e a i e n t s an a co m o x n e.
L in e
2 3 -c m r o u n a g x a s s p a n
w it h wax p a p e r .
EB - P r e n e a t o v e n t o 2 1 8 ° C .
15 m i n u t e s .
MW - P o u r b a t t e r
H e a t on H ig n 3 . 5
in to p an .
m in u te s .
Pour h a tte r
i n t o pan ana h ak e
H e a t on Med 5 m i n u t e s .
T urn.
YELLOW CAKE
CONVENIENCE
Dry c a k e m ix
Egg
W ater
525g
IQOg
330g
C om n in e m ix , e g g s ,
and w a te r i n b o w l.
B e a t 2 m in u t e s a t
m edium s p e e d w i t h h a n u m i x e r .
L in e tw o 2 3 -c m r o u n a g l a s s
c a k e p a n s w i t n w ax p a p e r .
D iv ia e b a t t e r in t o p a n s.
EB — P r e h e a t o v e n t o
177°C .
B axe c a k e s 2 5 m in u te s .
200
ilVi - h e a t o n e l a y e r 6 m in u t e s o n a e d .
m in u te s .
R epeat ro r seco n a la y e r .
T urn,
i i e a t on H ig h 4
HOME - PEEP ABED
C ake f l o u r
B a lt
b a . n 2. v i q p o w a e r
su gar
S h o r te n in g
a x iJ t
V a n iix a
Egg
2B0g
i>g
11 g
200g
100g
244g
3g
IGOg
Com nxne f l o u r , s a l t , b a k in g p o w a e r , a n a s u g a r i n u o w i .
Auu
s h o r te n x n g , a11 A,
an d v a n x x x a .
B e a t 2 m in u t e s o jd meaxum
s p e e d w it h h an d m x x e r .
Aaa e g g s .
B e a t x m x n u te s on w eaxu a
sp eed .
L i n e tw o 2 3 -c m r o u n a g l a s s c a k e p a n s w it h wax. p a p e r .
D iv id e b a t t e r in t o p a n s .
i
EH - P r e h e a t o v e n t o
177°C .
B a k e c a x .e s 2b m i n u t e s .
MW - h e a t 1 l a y e r 8 m in u t e s on t t e a .
m in u te s .
R epeat fo r secon d la y e r .
T urn.
H e a t c n Hivjn
CHOCOLATE CAKE
CONVENIENCE
Dry c a k e m ix
525g
lOOg
375g
Egg
W ater
C om b in e m ix , e g g s ,
an d w a t e r i n b o w l .
B e a t 2 m x n u te s a t
m edium s p e e d o f n a n d m i x e r .
L in e tw o 2 3 -cm r o u n d g l a s s c s x i c
p a n s w it h w ax p a p e r .
D iv id e b a t t e r i n t o p a n s .
EE - P r e h e a t o v e n t o
177°C .
B a le c a k e s 30 m x n u te s.
201
MW - H ea t 1 x a y e r B m in u t e s o n a e d ' .
on H i g h .
R ep eat f o r secon u la y e r .
T u rn -
H e a t 4 m in u t e s
HOME - PREPARED
U n s w e e te n e d c h o c o l a t e
B u tte r
Sugar
Egg
V a n illa
C axe f l o u r
B a k in g s o d a
56g
115y
300g
lOOg
7g
280g
4y
S a lt
ic e
2y
w a te r
(4<*C)
250y
M e lt c h o c o l a t e (EE - 5 m in u t e s on a e a Low; t i u - 2 m in u t e s on
H ig h ) .
C ream n u t t e r an d s u g a r 1 m in u t e o n lo w s p e e d o r nc.no.
m xer.
Aud e g g s a n a v a n i x l a .
a i x 1 m in u t e o n m e a iu n s p e e a .
Ada c n o c o l a t e a n d mxx 3 0 s e c o n d s on L o w .
C o m o ia e f l o u r ,
s o d a , ana s a l t .
Add t o f x r s t m i x t u r e .
( l i x 1 .5 m x n u te s on
ile a .
Aau i c e w a t e r .
n i x 1 m x n u te o n L ow , t h e n 1 m in u te o n
M ed.
L in e 2 2 3 -cm r o u n d g l a s s
c a x e p a n s w it h wax p a p e r .
D iv x u e h a t t e r i n t o p a n s .
EE - P r e n e a t o v e n t o
177°C .
B a x e c a x .e s 3 3 m x n u t e s .
UK - H e a t 1 l a y e r 8 m in u t e s on B e d .
on H x g h . R e p e a t t o r s e c o n d l a y e r .
T urn.
H e a t 3 m x n u te s
BROCCOLI SPEARS IN BUTTER S a UCE
CONVENIENCE
h a t e r (EE o n l y )
F rozen b r o c c o li in s a u c e
SOQg
284g
ER B r in y w a t e r
t o b o x l o n H ig h i n c o v e r e a
2- i x t e r
sau cep an .
Put unopened p ou ch x n to
boxxxng w a ter
xn
uncovered p an.
B r in g w a t e r t o s e c o n d b o i l ,
c o o x 1b m x n u te s
o n H en .
C ut o p en p ou cn ana p o u r i n t o b o w l.
202
MW - Make s m a l l s l i t i n c e n t e r o£ p o u c h a n d p l a c e
1 - lit e r ca ssero x e d xsh .
H e a t 8 m i n u t e s o n H ig h .
p ouch and p ou r i n t o b o w l.
in co v er ed
C ut o p e n
HOME ~ PREPARED
B r o c c o li
R a te r
S a lt
B u tte r
45hg
62g
2g
57g
E& - C ut b r o c c o l i i n t o s p e a r s 1 -2 cm t h i c k .
s a l t t o o o i l x n g o n H ig n
xn c o v e r e a 2 - x i t e r
b r o c c o li.
C o o k , b m x n u te s on H e a .
b r a in .
bed.
Ada t o b r o c c o l i .
H e a t w a te r o.na
sau cep an .
aua
b e l t n u t t e r on
MW - C ut b r o c c o l i i n t o s p e a r s 1 -2 cm t h i c k .
P la c e in co v er ea
1 -1 it e r c a s s e r o le u x sh ,
sp ea rs to o u ts id e ,
w it h w a te r a n a
s a lt.
H e a t o n Hxgh 5 m x n u t e s .
S tir .
H e a t o n Hxgn 4
m in u te s ,
b r a in .
H e a t b u t t e r o n H ig n 1 m i n u t e .
P ou r o v e r
b r o c c o x i.
MACARONI AND CHEESE
CONVENIENCE
W ater
S a lt
M a r g a r in e
iiilk
Box d in n e r
500 or
IbOOy
5g
57g
62g
20bg
ER B r in g 1 5 0 0 g w a t e r
an d s a x t
t o b o i x i n g on
h x g h xn
covered 3 - l i t e r sau cep a n .
Add m a c a r o n i an d b r x n g t o s e c o n d
b o i l on H ig h .
B o i l o n Med, s t i r r i n g o c c a s i o n a l ! / ,
t o r 1u
m in u te s .
D ram .
Add m a r g a r i n e , m i l k , a n a c h e e s e s a u c e m x x.
M ix w e l l .
MW H eat 500y w a te r ana
s a l t in co v ered
i - i i t e r g la s s
c a s s e r o l e 7 m x n u te s o n H x g h . Add m a r g a r i n e , m xxk , m a c a r o n i,
an d c h e e s e s a u c e m ix .
H eat on h ea b m in u t e s .
S tir .
H ext
203
o n Mea 5 m x n u t e s .
L e t s t a n d , c o v e r e d , 5 m x n u te s.
HOME - PREPARED
R a te r
s a lt
O il
E lb ow m a c a r o n i
Medium C h e d d a r c h e e s e
M a r g a r in e
F lo u r
S a lt
P epper
M ilk
500 o r I5 0 0 g
2g
7g
146g
113g
21g
I2 g
ig
386g
£R - B r in g
1 5 0 0 g w a t e r t o b o x ! o n H ig h
xn c o v e r e d 3 - x x t e r
s a u c e p a n w x th s a l t
and o i l .
Add m a c a r o n i a n a n r x n g t o
s e c o n d b o i l on H ig h .
Cook on M ed,
covered,
7 m in u te s .
D r a in .
G r a te c h e e s e .
M e lt m a r g a r in e o n a e d ;
b x e n d xn
flo u r , s a lt ,
an d p e p p e r .
R em ove fr o m h e a t and a u a m xxk .
R e tu r n t o M ea-H xgn n e a t a n d s t a r u n t i l s a u c e r e a d i e s bu“ C .
Ada c n e e s e , s t i r t o b l e n d .
And m a c a r o n i.
B ak e x n u i* c u v e r e a
2 - g u a r t y x a s s c a s s e r o l e d x s h 2 5 m in u t e s a t 20 h » c .
MW - b e a t 5 0 0 g w a t e r o n H ig h
7 m i n u t e s w x th s a l t t i i a o x i xn
covered 2- l i t e r
g la s s c a sse r o x e .
G r a te
ch eese.
And
m acaroni to w a te r .
H e a t o n D e f r o s t ID m i n u t e s .
D r a in .
C om b in e c h e e s e , m a r g a r i n e , f l o u r , s a l t ,
p epper,
an a iaij.K .
Aaa t o m a c a r o n i.
h e a t , c o v e r e d , on Med 5 m i n u t e s .
s tir .
H e a t on Mea 5 m i n u t e s .
L e t s t a n d , c o v e r e d , 5 m x n u te s.
SPAGHETTI SAUCE
CONVENIENCE
C anned s p a g h e t t i s a u c e
hhOg
ER h e a t s a u c e on Mea H ig h t o 7D°C i n
sau cep a n .
S tir o c c a s io n a lly .
MW - h e a t s a u c e o n R e h e a t 3 m in u t e s i n
coverea 2- li t e r
covered
1 -lite r
yxaos
ca ssero x e d is h .
S tir .
H e a t 3 m in u t e s on R e h e a t t o
7 0 ^C.
HOME - PREPARED
3g
G a r lic
O n io n
O liv e o i l
C anneu t o m a t o e s
Tom ato p a s t e
Sugar
P epper
B a s il
B u tte r
S a it
42g
I4 g
3 0 1g
96g
2g
Ig
2g
35g
*9
ER - P e e l a n d c h o p g a r l i c
and o n io n .
H e a t o x i xn 2 - i x t e r
s a u c e p a n 1 m in u t e o n H ig n .
Cook o n i o n an u g a r l i c , c o v e r e u ,
3 m i n u t e s o n M ed .
Chop t o m a t o e s .
Aad t o m a t o e s ,
tom ato
p a s t e , s u g a r , p e p p e r ,.a n d n a s i i t o o n x o n ana g a r l i c .
rie a t
t o 8 0 °C o n H x g h .
R e d u c e n e a t t o Med L ow .
Cook 4 5 m x n u t e s ,
covered.
Add b u t t e r a n a s a l t .
MW P e e l an a c h o p g a r l i c
an d o n x o n .
H e a t w it h
oxx 3
m in u t e s o n Hxgh
in c o v e r e d 2 - x i t e r g l a s s
ca ssero x e d xsh .
Chop t o m a t o e s .
Add t o m a t o e s , t o m a t o p a s t e , s u g a r , p e p p e r ,
and b a s x i t o o n x o n a n d g a r l i c . ' H e a t on H x g h , c o v e r e d ,
o
m in u t e s t o 8 0 ° C .
S tir .
H e a t o n Med b m i n u t e s .
Scxr.
u ea
o n Med 7 m i n u t e s .
Add b u t t e r an d s a l t .
SAUSAGE PIZZA
CONVENIENCE
F rozen p iz z a
ER - P r e h e a t o v e n t o 2 3 2 ° C .
7 m in u te s .
354g
P l a c e p i z z a on o v e n
MW - p r e h e a t
3 7 x 2 9 cm D r o w n in g g r x l l 5
H e a t p i z z a o n g r i l l o m in u t e s on H ig h .
t u c k .
Bake'
m in u t e s o n H x g h .
HOWE - PREPARED
F lo u r
su gar
S a lt
A c tiv e ury y e a s t
h o t ta p w a ter (5 0 °c)
o il
S h o r te n in g
ttiia p o r i sa u sa g e
M o z z a r e lla c h e e s e
T om ato s a u c e
O regano
420g
7g
lO y
?g
250g
2B g
25g
228g
22bg
540g
C om b in e l4 0 y r i o u r ,
su g a r,
s a lt,
a n a y e a s t xn d o w x o x
K itc n e n a x u m ix e r .
Ada w a t e r and o x i .
U s in g u o n g h l o o k ,
m ix 3 0 s e c o n d s on s p e e a * 2 * .
S c r a p e o o w l.
n xx j U
on sp e e a *2*.
Ada r e s t o r f l o u r o n s p e e d *2* t o maKe a s o r t
douga.
i-iix 5 m i n u t e s o n s p e e d
•2 * .
T u rn o u t o x u o w j..
G r e a s e b o w l w x th s h o r t e n i n g .
R e tu r n d o u g h t o o o w l ;
cover
w ith p i n s t i c w r a p .
n e t r i s e 45 m i n u t e s .
P u n ch d ow n .
D iv id e in
n a i f by w e i g h t .
fo r m
e a c h h a ir x n to
a 25cm
c ir c le ,
P r ic x . a i l o v e r w it h f o r * .
ER - Brown 1 1 4 g s a u s a g e o n ile a H ig h i n 2 0 -cm s x x l x e t .
c r a te
11J y c h e e s e .
S p read 270y to m a to s a u c e o n o n e p x z x a .
Aaa
s a u s a g e a n a 1 .5 g o r e g a n o .
Top w x th c h e e s e .
P r e h e a t oven t o
177<*c.
B a x e p x z r a o n baJcxng s h e e t 2 5 m i n u t e s .
tti» h e a t 114y s a u s a g e 1 . 5 m i n u t e s
o n h xgh
xn c o v e r e d
1 - l i t e r c a s s e r o le d is h .
T urn.
H e a t 1 . 5 m in u t e s on n x g n .
G r a te 113g c h e e s e .
S p r e a d 2 7 0 g t o m a t o s a u c e on o n e p x z z a .
Add s a u s a g e a n a 1 .5 g o r e g a n o .
Top w i t h c h e e s e .
P reheat
3 7 x 2 9 cm b r o w n in g g r x l l 5 m x n u te s
on H x g n .
h e a t p x z z a on
g r i l l 7 m in u t e s o n h x g h .
VANILLA PUDDING
CONVENIENCE
Dry p u d d in g m ix
h ilJ t
bby
dtifig
2 Ot>
ER s tir
C om bine m ix and m ilk
xn 2 - x i t e r s a u c e p a n .
h e a t anu
on Wed. H ig h u n t x i m ix t u r e r e a c h e s 9 3 ° C .
chX xx.
MW - C om bin e mxx an d m il k i n c o v e r e d 2 - l i t e r c a s s e r o l e u x s n .
H e a t on H ig h 4 m x n u t e s .
S tir .
H e a t o n Hxgn 5 m in u t e s u n t x x
m ix tu r e r e a c h e s 9 5 °C .
C h ili.
HOME - PREPARED
M ilk
C o r n sta r c h
Sugar
S a it
V a n illa
b u tte r
4bby
24g
50g
1g
3g
2 by
ER - h e a t 4 4 0 g m iiK t o 5 0°C
on Mea H ig h i n 2 - x x t e r c o v e i e a
sau cep an .
C om bin e r e m a in in g m x lk , c o r n s t a r c h , s u g a r ,
ana
s a lt.
A ad
t o h e a te a m ilk .
H ea t on
M ea,
stx r r x n g
c o n s t a n t ly , u n t il m i x t u r e r e a c h e s 75°C .
R e d u c e h e a t t o h eu
Low a n a c o o k , c o v e r e d , 15 m x n u t e s . R em ove fro m n e a t and a cu
v a n x lla ana b u t t e r .
C h ill.
MW - C om bine c o r n s t a r c h , s u g a r ,
an u s a l t .
G r a d u a x iy a a u
m iiK .
H ea t on
H ig h 3 m in u t e s i n
covered 2 - x it e r g la s s
c a s s e r o le ,
s tir .
H e a t o n H ig h
5 m x n u te s u n t i l m x x tu r e
r e a c h e s 75°C .
Add v a n i l l a a n d b u t t e r .
C n ix X .
CREAM OF MUSHROOM SOUP
CONVENIENCE
C anned c o n d e n s e d s o u p
M ilk
3 0 5g
314g
ER C om b in e s o u p an a m x lk i n 2 - x i t e r
H e a t on Med H ig h , s t i r r i n g o c c a s i o n a l l y ,
covered sa u cep a n .
to 93°C .
MW - C om bine s o u p and m ilk xn
1 .5 - iit e r covered ca ssero x c
u is h .
H e a t o n Mea 6 m i n u t e s .
S tx r .
H e a t on h e a a m x n u t e s .
207
S tir ,
h e a t on d e d 6 m in u t e s t o
y3°C .
HOME - JrKEPAaiD
o n io n
H u sh room s
H a r g a r in e
F lo u r
C h icK en o o u i l l o n
H a ir a n a h a l f
P epper
42g
1 I4 g
57g
bg
500g
128g
ig
Bit - Chop o n io n artl m u sh r o o m s.
B e l t m a r g a r in e o n Heu i n
2 -1 i t e r sa u c e p a n .
Ana v e g e t a b l e s .
C o c a , c o v e r e u , on l e u
h e a t , s t i r r i n g o c c a .s i.o n a i.r y , t o r t> m i n u t e s .
Adu x x o u l a n u
b le n u .
Auu o o u r i i o n .
H e a t, s t i r r i n g o c c a s i o n a l x j , on ned
H ig h t o 9 3 ° C .
R e d u c e h e a t t o Lew a n d
c o o k 20 m i n u t e s .
R em ove from n e a t a n u s t i r i n h a l t and h a i r a n a p e p p e r .
Mtf Chop o n io n
a n a m u sh r o o m s .
H e a t m a r g a r in e
ana
v e g e t a b l e s on n i g h 1 m in u te
in c o v e r e a 1 . 5 - i i t e r c a s s e r o ie
d is h .
s tir .
H e a t o n H igh 2 m i n u t e s .
S t i r f i o u r i n t o 6Umi
b o u ix lo n .
Ada t h i s , r e m a in in g b o u i l l o n , h a i r a n a h t . i i , an a
pepper to v e g e ta b le s .
H e a t on H ig h 3 m i n u t e s .
S tir .
n eat
on h ig h 3 m i n u t e s .
CHICKEN’ NOODLE SOUP
CONVENIENCE
C anned c o n d e n s e d s o u p
W ater
ER - C om bin e s o u p and w a t e r i n
H e a t on H ig h t o H 3°C .
30Sg
305g
2 -lite r
tiw - C om bine s o u p a n d
w a te r in l . b - i i t e r
d is h .
H e a t on H ig h 8 m i n u t e s t o y j ° C .
covered sau cep an .
co v ered c a s s e r u ie
208
HOME - PREPARED
C h ic k e n b r o t h
N arrow n o o d l e s
C ooked c h i c k e n
500g
28g
70g
ER - h e a t b r o t h t o 9 3 “ C o n h i g h i n c o v e r e d 2 - x i t e r
Add c h i c k e n and n o o d l e s .
C ook o n Med 15 m i n u t e s .
sau cep an .
MW h e a t b r o t h o m in u t e s o n H ig h i n
co v ered 1 .5 -x it e r
c a s s e r o le d is h .
Ada c h i c k e n a n a n o o d l e s .
h e a t on Mea In
m in u te s .
CHICKEN POT PIE
CONVENIENCE
F rozen p ot p ie
22bg
Eh - P r e h e a t o v e n t o 2 1 6 ° C .
C ut s l i t s
P l a c e p i e , i n own p a n , on b a k in g s h e e t .
in to p pxe c r u s t .
B a k e 35 m i n u t e s .
MW — Rem ove p i e fr o m p an a n a p u t i n 3 4 0 - m i g l a s s d i s h .
C ut
s l i t s m to p c r u s t ,
tie a t on h ig h 3 m in u t e s .
T u r n , h e a t on
H ig h 3 m i n u t e s .
HOME - PREPARED
F lo u r
S a lt
S h o r te n in g
w a te r
B u tter
F lo u r
C h ic k e n b r o t h
H a lf a n d h a l f
P ep per
S a it
C ooked c h i c k e n
O n io n
11Gg
1g
5Gg
3Gg
42g
2bg
250g
12b g
1g
2g
280g
21g
C a r r o ts
F rozen- p e a s
40g
3bg
C om bin e t i o u r and. s a l t .
b le n d e r .
Anu w a t e r a n a
c r u st.
C ut in s h o r te n in g
w x tu p a s t r y
s t i r t o make a b a l l .
R o il
out
EE - n e x t b u t t e r i n 2 - i i t e r s a u c e p a n o n Med H i g h .
S t ir in
flo u r .
Cook o n Low 2 m i n u t e s .
Aud b r o t h , n s l f and n a i f ,
p e p p e r , ana b a i t . * c o o k w it h s t i r r i n g on Med h ig n t o &uuc .
P u t c h i c k e n xn 1 - i i t e r g l a s s c a s s e r o l e d i s h .
P ren eu t oven
to 2 1 t° c .
P e e l a n a c n o p o n i o n s and c a r r o t s .
Aau o n i o n s ,
c a r r o t s , anu p e a s t o c n i c k e n .
C o v er w it n s a u c e , m e n w xtn
c r u st.
C ut v e n t s i n c r u s t .
B ak e 2 5 m i n u t e s .
MW - B e l t b u t t e r 1 m in u t e o n Hign. i n 1 - i i t e r g r a s s c a s s e r o x c *
d is h .
Auu f l o u r an d h e a t 1 m in u t e o n H ig h ,
auu o r o tn ,
ta x i
and h a l f , p e p p e r , a n a s a l t ,
h e a t o n H ig h 2 m i n u t e s .
S tir .
H e a t on h ig h 2 m in u t e s t o
30°C .
P e e l a n d c n o p o n i o n s &na
c a r r o ts.
Ada v e g e t a b l e s and c h i c k e n t o s a u c e .
c o v e r w it n
c r u st.
C ut . v e n t s i n c r u s t ,
h e a t o n H ig h 4 m i n u t e s .
T u rn .
H e a t on H ig h h m i n u t e s .
CHICKEN BROTH
HOME - PREPARED
W hole c h i c k e n
O n io n
C a r r o ts
C e le r y
W ater
E ay l e a f
P epper
Thyme
S a lt
(raw)
1362y
63g
134y
I2 b g
500g
1g
2g
Ig
lO y
ER - C ut c h i c k e n i n n a i f .
P e e l, tr im ,
a n a c u t up o n i o n ,
c a r r o t s , an d c e l e r y .
P u t a i l in g r e d ie n t s in c o v e r e d 5 - n t u r
p o t.
B r in g t o n o i l on H i g n .
E e u u c e h e a t t o M ea .
C oo k
u n t i x c h i c k e n r e a c h e s a n i n t e r n a l t e m p e r a t u r e o t ob^C m o n e
b r e a s t m u s c le .
S t r a in b r o th an a rem ove f a t .
T ake c h ic k e n
o ff bone.
210
tin - c u t c n i c x e n xn h a l f .
P e e l,
tr im ,
a n a c u t up o n i o n ,
c a r r o t s , ana c e l e r y .
Put a l l in g r e d ie n ts in covered 3 - l i t e r
g la s s d is h .
H e a t o n H ig h 10 m i n u t e s .
H e a t on h e a u n t i l
c h ic k e n r e a c n e s
an i n t e r n a l t e m p e r a t u r e
o r &i>a C
m m e
o r e a s t m u s c le .
S t r a in croon ana rem ove r a t .
T ake c h ic k e n
o ff bone.
APPLE PIE
CON VE tilE h CE
E rozen p ie
567g
£B - P r e h e a t o v e n t o 218Q C .
C ut s l i t s
P l a c e p i e , i n own p a n , o n c o o k i e s h e e t .
MW - Remove p i e fr o m m e t a l
pan;
pan.
C ut s l i t s i n to p c r u s t .
T urn.
H e a t on H ig h b m i n u t e s .
xn t o p p i e c r u s t .
B a x e hi) m i n u t e s .
p l a c e i n 20-crn g l a s s p i e
H e a t on H ig n b m i n u t e s .
HOME - PSEPABED
B io u r
H a lt
S h o r t e n in g
w a te r
su gar
S a it
Cinnam on
Nutmeg
Pa o u r
A p p le s
B u tte r
280g
2g
133g
bOy
150g
2g
ig
ig
12g
bOOg
2 by
C om b in e f l o u r a n d
s a lt.
C ut in s h o r te n in g
w ith p a s tr y
b le n d e r .
S p r i n k l e w it h w a t e r .
h i x w it h f o r k u n t i l d o u y n
fo rm s a c a l l .
B o ll h a lf o i
p a s t r y o u t on f l o u r e d c o a r a .
L in e 2 3 -cm
g l a s s p i e pan w itn p a s t r y .
Mix s u g a r ,
s a lt,
c in n a m o n , n u t m e g , a n d f l o u r i n c o w l .
P e e l , c o r e , and s l i c e
a p p le s ; t o s s w ith s u g a r m ix t u r e .
P l a c e m l i n e d p a n an a n o t
w it h b u t t e r .
B o l l o u t to p c r u s t a n a c o v e r p i e .
h a xe s a i l s
in to p c r u s t .
C rim p e d g e s .
211
£R - P r e h e a t o v e n t o 2 1 6 » C .
B axe p ie
h e a r t o 1 7 7 °C .
b a k e BO m i n u t e s .
MW - h e a t p x e o n H ig h 5
m in u te s .
m in u te s .
10 m x n u t e s .
T urn.
H eau.ce
H e a t o n H ig h 5
FRIED CHICKEN TV DINNER
CONVENIENCE
F ro zen a in n e r
311y
Ee - P r e h e a t o v e n .to 2 0 4 “C .
F o ld h a c k
t o i l fr o m c h i c k e n .
con t a m e r .
Rem ove a i n n e r tra m c a r t o n .
B ak e 35 m in u t e s
xu own
MW - Rem ove a i n n e r fro m m e t a i
c o n t a i n e r a n d p x a c e xn 2 3 - c x
round g l a s s a i s h .
C o v e r c a r r o t s and p o t a t o e s
w xtn wax
paper,
h e a t on H ig h 7 m i n u t e s .
HOME - PREPARED
C a rro ts
w a te r
S a it
fta r g a n n e
P o ta to e s
M ater
M a r g a r in e
S a it
M irk
o i l (EH o n l y )
F lo u r
S a lt
P ep p er
Egg
M ilk
M a r g a r in e (MM o n l y )
C h ic k e n p i e c e s (raw )
ER - P a r e a n a s l i c e
c a r r o ts.
70 g
62y
ig
5g
100g
125g
5g
iy
15g
250g
8g
Ig
ig
?y
15g
14y
13Jg
B r in y w a t e r t o o o x i o n h ig h
xn
212
c o v e r e d 1- l i t e r p a n .
Add c a r r o t s and s a l t .
C o o k o n ile a lu
m in u te s .
D r a in .
Aua m a r g a r i n e ,
t a r e an d q u a r t e r p o t a t o e s .
Ada w a t e r .
Br j.u a t o n o i l on
H ig h i n c o v e r e d 1 - x x t e r p a n .
C o o k on Med 15 m i n u t e s .
D r a in .
Add m a r g a r i n e , s u i t , a n a
m ilt.
H ash
v i t a f o r r . W h is t u n t i l
l i g h t and f l u f f y . B e a t
o x i on
h ig h
in co v er ed 2 - l i t e r
p an t o ib b ^ C .
CG m om e l i o u r ,
s a l t , p e p p e r , e g g , and m i l l t o f o r a n a t t e r .
D ip C h ic x e ii x t
b a tte r .
F r y i n o i l 15 m i n u t e s .
MW - P a r e a n d s l i c e c a r r o t s .
H e a t c a r r o t s , w a te r , ana s a l t
o n H ig h 3 m in u t e s i n c o v e r e d 3 4 U -m l d i s h .
S tir .
H eat o
m in u t e s o n H ig n .
D r a i n . Aua m a r g a r i n e .
P a r e anu q u a r te r
p o ta to e s.
H eat p o t a t o e s
a n d w a t e r 3 m in u t e s
on H ig h i n
c o v e r e d 3 4 0 -m i d i s h .
S tir .
H e a t 3 m in u t e s o n H i g h .
D r a in .
Aua m a r g a r i n e , s a l t , an u m i i x .
Maau w it h r o r x .
m ^isa. a n ti^ .
l i g h t and f x u r f y .
P r e n e a t 2 9 x 2 0 cm b r o w n in g y i n a. o m in u t e s
on H ig h .
C o m o in e f x o u r , s a i t , p e p p e r , e g g a n a lu x ix t o l o x j >
b a tte r .
S p r e a d g r i l l w it n m a r g a r i n e .
D ip c h i c x e n i n n a t t e r
and a r r a n g e on g r i l l .
H e a t 5 m in u t e s on H i g h . T u rn c n x c x e a
over.
H eat
5 m in u t e s o n H ig h .
CHOCOLATE CHIP COOKIES
HOME - PRjsP a IED
M a r g a r in e
Sugar
Brown s u g a r
Egg
V a n illa
F lo u r
B a x in g s o d a
S a it
S e m is w e e t c h o c o l a t e c h i p s
1 l3 g
lOGg
55g
50g
2g
156g
2y
2y
17 0 g
Cream m a r g a r i n e , s u g a r s , e g g ,
and v a n i l l a 3 m in u t e s on lo w
s p e e d o f hanu m ix e r .
C om b in e t i o u r , s o d a , a n a s u i t a n a a u a
t o f i r s t m ix tu r e .
M ix 1 m in u t e o n m edium s p e e d .
S t i r xn
c h o c o la te c h ip s .
EH - P r e h e a t o v e n t o 190® C .
D rop d o u g h b y s p o o n f u i s o n t o x
n a x in g s h e e t s ,
f o r m in g 21 c o o t i e s on e a c n s h e e t .
Baxe 7
m in u te s .
213
MW - P l a c e d o u g h i n 2 3 -cm
rou n a g l a s s cak e p a n .
H ig h 2 . 5 m i n u t e s .
T u rn .
H e a t on h ig h 3 m i n u t e s .
P ea t, o n
WHITE BREAD
HUME - PKEPABED
375g
125y
h 2g
770g
3 by
lo g
Ih g
2by
W a ter
M ilk
M a rg a r in e
Bread f l o u r
Sugar
S a lt
A c t i v e d ry y e a s t
S h o r te n in g
H eat w a te r , m ilk ,
a n a m a r g a r in e t o 5 0 °C (Eh - a m in u t e s on
M ea;
ilw — 2 m i n u t e s on Med) .
C o m b in e 2aGy r i o u r , s u g a r ,
s a lt,
a n a y e a s t i n b o w l o f K i t c h e n A id m i x e r .
And l ^ y u i a
i n g r e d i e n t s t o d ry i n g r e d i e n t s .
U s in g d o u g h h o c K ,
m ix o n
s p e e d '2 * 1 m i n u t e , t h e n s p e e d ' s * 2 m i n u t e s .
G r a d u a ll y a u a
m o re f i o u r o n s p e e d * 2 * u n t i l d o u g h f o r m s a n a i l a r o u n u h o o k
and n o lo n g e r s t i c k s t o s i d e s
o t b o w l.
M ix b m i n u t e s on
sp eed *2*.
T urn o u t o r b o w l .
G r e a s e b o w l w it n s r o r c e n m g .
B e tu r n aou gh t o b o w l, c o v e r w ith p i a s t r e w ra p , l e t r i s e on e
h our.
P u n ch d ow n; l e t r e s t 15 m i n u t e s .
D i v i d e m n a ix ny
w e ig h t.
Form i n t o 2 l o a v e s .
L et r is e one h ou r.
Efi - P r e n e a t o v e n t o
MW -
1 9 U °C .
H e a t o n Med 5 m i n u t e s .
B ake 25 m in u t e s .
T urn.
H e a t on Med 6 m i n u t e s .
WHOLE WHEAT B&EAD
HOME - PEEPABED
W ater
M ilk
M o la s s e s
M a r g a r in e
W hore w n e a t f i o u r
375y
190g
110g
7bg
bhOg
2 14
B reaa f io u r
Sugar
S a lt
A c tiv e ary y e a s t
S n o r te n in g
3b0g
3bg
2Uy
Ih g
25g
H ea t w a te r , m ilk ,
m o la s s e s ,
aua. m a r g a r in e t o 5 0 °C (Eh - d
m in u t e s o n Med;
MW - 2 m in u t e s o n M e d ).
C om bine i x o u r s .
M ix 3 5 0 g f l o u r m i x t u r e , s u g a r ,
s a lt,
an d y e a s t i n o o w i o f
K i t c h e n A id r a i x e r .
Add l i q u i d i n g r e d i e n t s .
U s in g a o u g n
hoox,
m ix o n s p e e d ‘ I * 1 m i n u t e ,
th e n on
s p e e u *5* 2
m in u te s .
Add m ore f i o u r m ix t u r e
on s p e e d *2* u n t u a o u g n
fo r m s a b a l l a r o u n d n o o k an d n o l o n g e r s t i c k s t o o o w i .
M ix
5 m in u t e s o n s p e e d ' 2 * .
T u rn o u t o f n o w x . e r e a s e bcwx w i t n
s h o r te n in g .
R e tu r n
a o u g n t o b o w l a n a c o v e r w it n p l a s t i c
w rap.
L et r i s e one h o u r.
P u n ch aew n a n a u i v i u e m h a i r ny
w e ig h t.
Form i n t o 2 l o a v e s .
£R - P r e h e a t o v e n t o
190°c.
HW - n e a t o n Mea 5 m i n u t e s .
B ake 20 m in u t e s .
T urn,
t i e a t on Mea b m i n u t e s .
WHITE SOFT ROLLS
HOME ~ PREPARED
B read f l o u r
Sugar
S a lt
A c t i v e ckry y e a s t
M a r g a r in e , s o f t e n e d
H ot w a t e r (5 0 °C )
Egg
s n o r te n in g
M a r g a r in e
h11y
50g
2g
7y
70g
165g
50 g
25g
2Bg
C om bin e 1 0 5 y f l o u r ,
su g a r,
s a lt,
a n d y e a s t i n n o w ! ox
K i t c h e n A id m i x e r .
Add m a r g a r in e a n d w a t e r .
U s in g d o u g a
hook,
b e a t 1 m in u t e o n s p e e d * 2 * .
S c r a p e b o w i.
beat I
m in u t e o n ' h * .
nan e g g and 7 0 y f l o u r .
B e a t 1 m in u te o n
' b B.
S c r a p e b o w l.
B e a t 1 m in u te o n * 8 * .
Ada r e m a in in g
f l o u r o n s p e e d *2* t o form a s o f t d o u g n .
B e a t 3 m in u t e s o n
'2*.
T u rn o u t o f b o w l . G r e a s e b o w l w i t h s h o r t e n i n g , n e t u r n
215
dough t o c o w l,
c o v e r w ith p l a s t i c w ra p .
L et r is e 1 to u r .
P u n ch down and d i v i d e i n h a i r
by w e i g h t .
Shape t a c t n a if
i n t o 10 r o n s .
P u t r o l l s xn 2 3 -c m r o u n d g l a s s p a n s .
L et
r is e 1 nour.
M e lt m a r g a r in e (E£ - 2 m in u t e s o n il e a ; n'w - 1
m in u t e o n h ig h ) .
B ru sh r o l l s w ith m a r g a r in e .
SB - p r e h e a t o v e n t o
MW - h e a t r o l l s
190°C .
Bake r o l l s
3 m in u t e s o n M ed.
T urn.
10 m i n u t e s .
H e a t 3 m in u t e s o n
Mea.
SWBBT BOLLS
BOMB - PRLPABBD
M ilk
W ater
M a r g a r in e
F io u r
Sugar
S a lt
A c t i v e d ry y e a s t
h gg
S h o r t e n in g
Sugar
C innam on
R a is in s
M a r g a r in e
P o w d erea s u g a r
W ater
125g
125y
bog
7 0 Og
lOOg
?9
14g
10 Og
25g
30 Og
5g
!0 0 g
2 fag
12u y
20g
H e a t m ilk # w a te r #
a n a m a r g a r in e t o 5 0 °C (LB ~ 6 m in u t e s on
Med; MW - 2 m in u t e s o n Med) .
Com n i n e 2 4 5 g H o u r # s u g a r #
s a lt#
a n d y e a s t i n h o w l o r k i t c h e n A id m i x e r .
A ua i i y m a
in g r e d ie n ts to ary in g r e d ie n t s .
U s in g d o u g h h o o x .,
m ix 1
m in u t e o n s p e e d * 4 * .
S cra p e h o w l.
Mix 1 m in u t e o n s p e e d
*4*.
Ada e g g s and 7 0 g f i o u r .
M ix 1 m in u t e o n s p e e d ' « * .
S c r a p e h o w l.
M ix 1 m in u t e o n s p e e d * 8 * .
Add r e m a in in g
f l o u r o n s p e e d ' 2 ' t o m ake a s o f t d o u g h .
B e a t 5 m in u t e s o n
sp eea *2".
T urn o u t o f b o w l .
G r e a s e n o u i w it h s h o r t e n i n g .
H e tu r n a o u g h t o b o w l , c o v e r w i t h p l a s t i c w r a p .
L et r is e 1
n our.
P u n ch down and u i v i u e i n h a l f by w e i g h t .
C om bine
su gar,
c in n a m o n ,
an d r a i s i n s .
M e lt m a r g a r in e (BA - 2
m in u t e s o n M ea; liw - 1 m in u t e o n H ig h ) .
B o l l e a c h h a ir or
21b
dougn
i n t o a. jd x h b c u r e c t a n g l e .
B r u s h w ith , m e lt e d
m a r g a r in e .
S p r in J c ie
e a c h r e c t a n g l e w it n n a i l
or su gar
m ix tu r e .
R o i l up j e l l y r o i l s t y l e .
C u t i n t o 1o p i e c e s .
P la c e , c u t s id e up,
i n 2 3 -cm r o u n d g l a s s p a n .
L et r is e 1
hour.
A lte r
h a K in g c o m o in e
pow dereu s u g a r
and w a te r .
D r i z z l e o v e r warm r o l l s .
ER - P r e n e a t o v e n t o
Hit - H e a t r o l l s
Med .
177°C .
Baice r o i l s
5 m in u t e s o n M ed .
T u rn .
1b m i n u t e s .
H e a t B m in u t e s o n
v
217
A p p e n d ix c
T o t a l P r o d u c t Pood C o st
f o r C o n v e n ie n c e a n a iio m e - P r e p a r e a F o o d s
A b b r e v ia tio n s u sed in t h i s
a p p e n d ix i n c l u d e :
R a n g e ; MW= M ic r o w a v e O v en ; RC= S o C o s t .
ER= E l e c t r i c
B1SC01TS
COR VESIBRCE
2 8 4g
28g
R e fr ig e r a te d b i s c u i t s
M a r g a r in e (MW o n l y )
T o ta l
ER
• jb
nw
.b h
.0 4
.3 b
.3 9
. 14
.0 0
.1 4
.0 0
HOME - PREPARED
280g
i>9
11g
b7g
18 bg
28g
F lo u r
S a ix
B a itin g p o w d er
S h o r te n in g
M ilJt
M a r g a r in e (MW o n l y )
T o ta l
.0 3
.11
. 10
•
Ob
——
.3 8
.11
.1 0
.0 4
.4 1
ER
.1 9
NC
.0 b
—
.2 b
MW
.1 9
i»C
—
.0 4
.1 3
PANCAKES
CONVENIENCE
C o m p le te p a n c a k e m ix
W ater
O i l (ER o n l y )
M a r g a r in e (MW o n l y )
T o ta l
13bg
190g
28g
28g
21b
HOME ~ PEEP AREIt
F lo u r
S a lt
B a k in g p o w d er
Sugar
M ilk
Egg
O il
O i l (EE o n l y )
K a r g a r in e (Mk o n ly )
T o ta l
I4 0 g
2g
7g
4g
244y
5bg
I4 g
2 by
2bg
.0 7
.0 0
.0 2
.0 0
. 14
.0 9
,0 b
.0 6
—
.4 1
CONVENIENCE
Dry m ix
Egg
ttiJ . K
T o ta l
340g
bbg
170g
ERfattk
.4 9
.0 9
.1 0
.b b
H011E - PREPARED
y e llo w c o r n m ea l
F lo u r
Sugar
B a k in g p o w d er
S a lt
B ilk
Egg
O il
T o ta l
104g
I4 0 g
b7y
11g
2g
244y
5bg
2bg
.1 0
.0 7
. 0b
.0 3
.0 0
.1 4
.0 9
.0 6
.5 4
.0 7
.00
.02
.u u
.1 4
.0 9
.Ob
.04
.3 9
219
YELLOW CAKE
CONVENIENCE
C ake m ix
Egg
W a ter
T o ta l
525g
112g
330g
Eh LJW
1 .0 0
.1 7
NC
1 .1 7
HOME - PREPARED
C ake r l o u r
Saxt
B a k in g p o w d er
Sugar
S h o r te n in g
M ilk
V a n illa
Egg
T o ta l
2 8 Og
5g
11g
2 0 Og
100g
244g
3g
112g
.3 2
-0 0
-0 3
.1 4
.1 6
. 14
.1 0
.1 7
l.o o
CHOCOLATE CAKE
CONVENIENCE
C ake m ix
Egg
W ater
T o ta l
525g
I1 2 g
375g
ERLMW
.9 7
.1 7
NC
1 .1 4
56g
115g
3 0 Og
112g
7g
2 8 Og
4g
.3 2
.4 2
.2 1
.1 7
.2 2
.J 2
.0 0
HOME - PREPARED
U n s w e e te n e d c h o c o l a t e
E u tte r
Sugar
E gg
V a n illa
C ake f l o u r
B a k in g s o d a
220
S a it
W ater
2g
250g
T o ta l
.0 0
NC
1 .6 6
BROCCOLI SPEARS IN BOTTEP. SAUCE
CONVENIENCE
w a te r
F rozen b r o c c o li in s a u c e
T o ta l
500g
284g
ER6MW
NC
.8 4
-8 4
HOME - PREPARED
b r o c c o li
W ater
s a lt
B u tte r
T o ta l
454g
62g
2g
57g
.5 4
NC
.0 0
.2 1
-7 5
MACARONI AND CHEESE
CONVENIENCE
W a ter
s a lt
M a r g a r in e
M ilk
B o x d in n e r
T o ta l
5G 0g
5g
57g
62g
20og
Rift saw
NC
.o u
.0 9
,0 3
,3 9
-5 1
500g
2g
7g
NC
.0 0
.0 4
HOME - PREPARED
W ater
S a lt
O il
221
B loom m a c a r o n i
Medium c n e a d a r c d e e s e
M a r g a r in e
F lo u r
S a it
P epper
Milk:
T o ta l
I4 b g
113y
21g
12g
2y
ig
3bbg
.2 2
.3 6
.0 3
.0 1
.0 0
.0 0 '
.2 1
1 .0 ?
SPAGHETTI SA0CE
CONVENIENCE
c a n n e d s p a g h .e x .tx s a u c e
T o ta l
440y
ERbflN
.b 7
.6 ?
HOME - PREPARED
G a r lic
o n io n
o liv e o i l
C anned t o m a t o e s
T om ato
p a ste
Sugar
P epper
b a s il
B u tte r
S a it
T o ta l -
dbg
14y
3o 1y
9bg
2g
Ig
2g
35y
2g
.0 3
.0 4
.0 4
.3 7
-'lb
«oo
.0 0
.1 3
.1 3
.0 0
.3 2
SAUSAGE PIZZA
CONVENIENCE
F rozen
p iz z a
T o ta l
354g
BKbrtW
1 .3 3
1 .3 9
222
HOfli, “ PREPARED
F lo u r
Sugar
S a lt
•A c tiv e d r /
je a st
W a ter
O il
S h o r te n in g
M ild pork, s a u s a g e
M o z z a r e lla c h e e s e
T om ato s a u c e
O regano
T o ta l
2 l0 g
4g
5g
4g
125g
I4g
13y
1 l4 g
113g
2 7 Og
2g
.1 'l
.0 0
.0 0
.0 4
NC
.0 3
.0 2
.4 1
.6 1
.6 3
.0 4
1 .9 1
VANILLA PODDING
CONVENIENCE
D ry m ix
M ilk
T o ta l
88g
486g
RRfrttW
.4 2
.2 7
.6 9
HOME - PREPARED
M ilk
C o r n sta r c h
Sugar
S a it
V a n illa
B u tte r
T o ta l
488g
24g
3og
1g
3g
28g
.2 7
.0 3
.0 3
.0 0
.1 0
.1 0
.3 3
223
CitEitn OF MUStiROOrt SOOP
CONVENIENCE
c a n n e d c o n d e n s e d so u p
M ilk
T o ta l
305g
3 l4 g
.3 3
.1 7
.5 2
HOME - PREPARED
u n io n
M ushroom s
M a r g a r in e
F io u r
C h ic k e n b o u i l l o n c u o e s
W ater
H a lf an d h a lf
P epper
T o ta l
4by
117g
57g
8g
8g
500g
128g
ig
.0 4
.4 7
.0 9
.0 0
.0 5
NC
.1 7
.o o
.8 2
CHICKEN NOODLE SOHP
CONVENIENCE
c a n n e d c o n d e n s e d so u p
h a te r
T o ta l
3 0 5g
J05y
gRQrtW
.3 4
NC
.3 4
HOME - PREPARED
C h ic k e n b r o t h
N arrow n o o d l e s
C h ic k e n (ra w )
T o ta l
500g
28g
93g
NC
.0 6
.1 7
.2 3
224
CHICKEN NOODLE SOOP OilTH BROTH COST'
HOME - PREPARED
C H ic x en b r o t h
N arrow n o o d l e s
C h ic k e n (raw )
T o ta l
500g
28g
93g
ER6MW
.4 7
.0 6
.1 7
.7 0
CHICKEN POT PIE
CONVENIENCE
F rozen p ie
T o ta l
226g
ER6MW
.5 5
.5 5
HOME - PREPARED
v
F lo u r
S a lt
S h o r t e n in g
h a te r
B u tte r
F lo u r
C h ic k e n b r o t h
h a ir an a h a lf
P epper
s a lt
C h ic k e n (raw )
o n io n
C a r r o ts
F rozen p ea s
T o ta l
HOg
lg
50g
30g
42g
2bg
250g
12bg
lg
2g
372g
23g
47g
36g
.u b
.0 0
.0 5
NC
.1 5
.0 1
NC
.1 7
.0 0
.0 0
.6 8
.0 2
.0 5
.0 6
1 .2 8
225
CHICKEN POT PIE
(WITH BKOTii CQSTi
HOME - PEEPAaEO
F lo u r
s a lt
S h o r t e n in g
W ater
B u r te r
F lo u r
C hxcX en o r o t n
H a ir a n a h a l f
P ep p er
S a it
C h x c x en ira w )
u n io n
F rozen p eas
C a r r o ts
T o ta l
110g
19
50g
3og
42g
26g
250g
125g
ig
2g
372y
23g
5bg
4?y
ERBfiW
.Ob
.oO
.Ob
NC
.1 5
.0 1
.2 4
.1 7
.0 0
.0 0
.0 8
.0 2
.Ob
• 05
1 .5 2
CHICKEN BROTH
HOME - PREPABED
-
W ater
o n io n
C a r r o ts
C e le r y
w h o le c u ic X e n
Bay i e a t
P epper
Thy me
s a it
T o ta l
T o t a l (B r o th )
500g
b3g
134g
126g
13 b 2 g
iy
2g
ig
10y
EH BMW
NC
.0 7
.1 3
.1 5
2 .5 0
.Ob
.00
• Ob
• 00
2 .9 7
.4 7
226
APPLE PIE
CONVENIENCE
F rozen p ie
T o ta l
567g
EHBMW
1 .4 3
1 .4 j
HOME - PREPARED
F lo u r
S a lt
S h o r t e n in g
W ater
Sugar
S a it
C innam on
Nutm eg
F lo u r
A p p le s
B u tte r
T o ta l
2d0y
2g
133g
SOg
IbOy
2y
2g
1g
12g
600g
26g
.1 4
.
do
.2 2
NC
.1 1
.0 0
.0 5
.0 3
.0 1
.6 3
.1 0
1 .3 4
FRIED CHICKEN TV DINNER
CONVENIENCE
F ro zen d in n e r
T o ta l
3 l1 g
BR6MW
.3 6 .
• 3o
HOME - PREPARED
C a rro ts
w a te r
S a lt
M a r g a r in e
P o ta to e s
W ater
M a r g a r in e
70y
62g
lg
bg
IGOg
12by
bg
M
.0 7
NC
.0 0
.0 1
.0 4
MW
.0 7
nC
.uO
.01
.0 4
nc
NC
.0 1
.O l
22?
S a it
iiiik
o i l (EE o n l y )
F io u r
S a it
P epper
Egg
iiilJ t
M a r y a r in e (aw o n ly )
C h icK en (raw )
T o ta l
lg
15g
ti5y
tig
lg
lg
tig
15g
14y
16ug
.0 0
.0 1
.1 5
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.0 1
.0 1
—
.3 0
.6 5
.00
CONVENIENCE
365g
EHOflN
1 .0 5
1 .0 5
HOttE - PHEPAKisD
tta rg a r i n e
Sugar
Brown s u g a r
Egg
V a n illa
F io u r
B a k in g s o d a
S a lt
S e m is w e e t c h o c o i a t e c a r p s
T o ta l
lljg
100y
55g
56g
^5
15b g
2g
2y
17 Og
.1 6
.0 7
• Oe
.0 5
.0 8
.0 6
.0 0
.0 0
1 . 14
1 .7 2
CONVENIENCE
Heady t o e a t o r e a d
T o ta l
454g
00
.01
.00
CHOCOLATE CHIP COOKIES
H eady t o e a t c o o k i e s
T o ta l
•
EKfattW
.5 b
.5 6
.00
.0 1
.01
.0 ^
• 30
.4 8
HOME - PREPARED
187y
62g
21g
3Bbg
I8g
bg
7g
I3 g
•
w a te r
ttiiK .
M a r g a r in e
B r e a u t j .o u r
Sugar
s a lt
A c tiv e cry y e a s t
S h o r t e n in g
T o ta l
NC
.OB
.0 3
.2 0
.0 1
.u o
.0 7
• 02
• 3b
WHOLE WHEAT BREAD
CONVENIENCE
R eady t o e a t b r e a d
T o ta x
4bng
ER8MW
. 7B
.7 b
HOME - PREPARED
W ater
M il*.
M o la ss e s
M a r g a r in e
Whoxe w h e a t f l o u r
b read ilo u r
Sugar .
s a lt
a c t i v e dry y e a s t
s n o r te n in g
T o ta l
1b 7g
y5g
5bg
38y
270g
IbOg
1by
10g
7g
13y
NC
.O b
.1 3
.Ob
.a 4
.1 0
.0 1
.00
.0 7
.0 2
.b o
WHITE SQPT ROLLS
CONVENIENCE
R eady t o e a t r o l l s
T o ta l
347y
ERbttft
.'B 1
• B1
229
HOME ~ PREPARED
B reau f l o u r
Sugar
S a lt
A c t i v e d ry y e a s t
M a r g a r in e
w a te r
Egg
S h o r te n in g
M a r g a r in e
T o ta l
205g
2S g
1g
4g
35 g
83g
28g
13g
I4g
.1 1
.O x
.0 0
.0 4
.Ob
NC
.0 4
.0 2
.0 2
.3 1
SWEET ROILS
CONVENIENCE
R eady t o e a t r o i l s
T o ta l
284y
ERfrrtW
.7 9
.7 9
HOME - PREPARED
M ilk
W ater
M a r g a r in e
F lo u r
Sugar
S a lt
A c t iv e dry y e a s t
Egg
S h o r t e n in g
■ Sugar
C innam on
R a is in s
M a r g a r in e
F o w d ereu s u g a r
W ater
T o ta l
62g
62y
28g
350y
50g
4g
7g
Sby
13g
150g
2y
50g
I4g
bOg
lo g
.0 3
NC
.0 4
.1 8
.0 3
.0 0
.0 7
.0 9
.0 2
.1 1
.0 6
•1 8
.0 2
.0 9
NC
.9 2
230
A p p a o d ix D
EVALUATION CARD
Product
Judgu #
Qata
Plaaac n c i «ach Map La m aacii o f the four charaecartaeiea.
iM g U ob lea own n a rlta . Do not coapara saaplaa.
Like
lik e
V«rr
Saaola # lExeruaulr Much
1.
4.
1
9
8
2
9
8
2
9
8
2
9
8
2
9
8
2
9
8
2
9
8
2
9
8
2
—
9
8
2
__
9
8
2
—
9
8
2
9
8
2
Taxtura
—
2.
1 n«leh«ri
i
iDlallka
Lika
Like nor I Otalika [ Ola Ilka I Vary I OlaIlka
SllahclT I Malika Isiluhelv I tfadaraealr' ttoch Exct—a ir
Appaaxanca
_
2.
Zcet aaeh
Plavoc
O ru rsll Q uality
—
9
8
—
9
8
—
9
8
9
8
A p p m d ix E
m ra a c E
card
Judge # _______________ Produce _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Data _ _
Plaaaa rank eh* fo u r
l a d ac raea in f o rd er o f preference,
ta d lca ca which c h a r a c c e r iie ic (i) aada you shooca ehac ranking.
Saapla #
Appearaaea
Texture
fla v o r
Than
O verall
Q u ality
232
Appendix F
Energy, Expressed as British Thermal Obits,* Used to Prepare
Convenience and Heme-Prepared Foods in Electric Range and Microwave Oven
Convenience
Home-Prepared
Electric Microwave
Electric Microwave
Range (BTU) Oven (BTU) Range (BTU) Oven (BTU)
Biscuits
2054.6
675.8
2621.2
679.2
Pancakes
1030.7
907.8
1143.4
1269.6
Combread
2583.6
515.4
2703.1
515.4
Yellow cake
1976.1
1266.6
1955.6
1058.0
Chocolate cake
2785.0
1385.7
3327.7
1727.0
Broccoli
1085.3
668.9
518.8
822.5
Macaroni & cheese
1030.7
1075.1
4023.9
1351.5
211.6
395.9
713.3
1344.7
Pizza
2805.5
894.2
1996.6
1204.8
Pizza incl. sauce
2805.5
894.2
2709.9
2549.5
Pudding
378.8
733.8
467.6
491.5
Mushroom soup
385.7
815.7
559.7
744.0
Chidcen noodle soup
409.6
648.5
645.0
1187.7
Chidcen noodle soup
incl. broth
409.6
648.5
3017.3
2880.6
Chidcen pot pie
3215.0
484.6
3802.1
1174.1
Chicken pot pie
incl. tooth
3215.0
484.6
6235.6
2866.9
Apple pie
3235.5
452.2
3232.1
822.5
TV dinner
3044.4
580.2
1525.6
2413.0
Carrots
-
331.1
474.4
399.3
477.8
Spaghetti sauce
Potatoes
-
233
Appendix F (continued)
Energy, Expressed as British Thermal Units,^ Used to Prepare
Convenience and Hdne-Prepared Foods in Electric Range and Microwave Oven
Convenience
Home-Prepared
Electric Microwave
Electric Microwave
Range (BTU) Oven (BTU) Range (BTU) Oven (BTU)
Fried chicken
-
-
802.0
1464.2
Ready-To-Eat
(BTU)
Cookies
0.0
2525.6
443.7
White bread
0.0
2310.6
634.8
Whole wheat bread
0.0
2682.6
631.4
White rolls
0.0
2051.2
290.1
Sweet rolls
0.0
1791.8
457.3
1.
British'Thermal Units:
Watthours x 3.413
234
Appendix G
Density, P a re n t Moiature, Percent Fat, Qaergy per Gran, Hearing Tine per G m , Total Tine par Gran,
n d Active Tine par Gran: Values fa r Convenience and Home-Prepared Fooda in E lectric Rmga and
Microwave Oven
Dansicy
Biscuits
Psicakes
Combreed
Yellow cake
Chocolate cake
Broccoli
Macaroni & cheese
Macaroni
Spaghetti sauce
Pizza
Pizza in c l. sauce
Sausage
Pudding
Mbataocm saw
c - n ti’
C-Mr*
hp-s i
HP-tlf
C-ER
C-WJ
HP-ER
HP-tW
C-ER
C-*W
HP-ER
HP-W
C—
SI
C-Mf
HP-ER
HP-*W
C-ER
C-W
HP-ER
HP-W
C-ER
C-Hf
HP-ER
HP-fW
C-ER
C-H1
HP-ER
HP-IH
HP-ER
HP-W
C-Ql
C-W
HP-ER
HP-W
C-ER
C-W
HP-ER
HP-W
HP-ER
HP-W
HP-ER
HP-W
C-ER
C-W
HP-ER
HP-W
C-ER
C-W
HP-ER
HP-W
0.312
0.340
0.332
0.432
0.412
0.404
0.460
0.456
0.448
0.384
0.452
0.376
0.320
0.276
0.336
0.320
0.344
0.260
0.308
0.340
0.796
0.768
0.656
0.672
0.980
0.908
0.988
0.984
0.560
0.560
1.068
1.068
1.068
1.088
0.540
0.500
0.980
0.992
0.980
0.992
0.766
0.756
1.063
1.060
1.100
1.100
0.992
0.996
0.996
0.900
7.
% '
Moisture Fat
37.50
35.54
35.93
34.95
73.18
74.42
54.99
55.89
36.32
36.32
43.62
43.62
44.18
44.18
33.35
33.35
47.00
47.00
34.04
34.04
ha3
HA
79.33
79.83
HA
HA
64.68
64.68
91.39
76.78
HA
HA
80.12
30.12
HA
HA
57.90
57.90
57.90
57.90
44.52
44.52
HA
HA
73.56
73.56
34.60
34.60
87.82
37.32
17.0022.70
13.07
17.10
10.72
9.18
11.68
10.56
9.78
9.78
6.37
6.37
8.26
8.26
12.82
12.32
7.26
7.26
12.24
12.24
0.91
2.52
11.80
11.30
2.68
5.90
8.80
3.80
0.53
1.33
4.20
4.20
8.71
3.71
13.30
13.30
9.26
9.26
9.26
9.26
40.29
40.29
3.90
3.90
6.57
6.57
5.42
5.42
7.14
7.14
Ehargy/
Hearing
Tina/
gran
onto).
Total
Tina/
gnu
win)
Active
Tine/
gm
fain)
2.12
0.63
1.40
0.34
0.86
0.75
0.68
0.76
1.35
0.27
1.23
0.23
0.61
0.42 .
0.61
0.33
0.82
0.41
0.88
0.45
0.40
0.69
0.38
0.60
0.16
0.38
1.33
0.26
0.16
0.51
0.14
0.27
0.42
0.79
2.28
0.73
0.57
0.32
0.88
0.83
0.63
0.5?
0.22
0.42
0.23
0.24
0.18
0.39
0.19
0.25
0.053
0.026
0.036
0.014
0.024
0.042
0.024
0.031
0.039
0.015
0.036
0.013
0.032
0.025
0.033
0.021
0.036
0.024
0.037
0.023
0.028
0.028
0.028
0.025
0.010
0.022
0.079
0.020
0.003
0.033
0.016
0.014
0.108
0.046
0.043
0.030
0.034
0.013
0.076
0.032
0.044
0.026
0.022
0.018
0.052
0.010
0.018
0.029
0.036
0.010
0.060
0.046
0.053
0.036
0.024
0.057
0.024
0.060
0.043
0.023
0.036
0.023
0.041
0.040
0.044
0.039
0.040
0.034
0.051
0.043
0.029
0.035
0.030
0.039
0.011
0.031
0.075
0.054
.0.009
0.030
0.021
0.032
0.024
0.030
0.024
0.040
0.008
0.008
0.010
0.010
0.012
0.012
0.017
0.017
0.010
0.010
0.019
0.019
0.003
0.009
0.015
0.016
0.003
0.006
0.030
0.020
-
-
0.018
0.019
0.U6
0.065
0.050
0.035
0.110
0.091
0.174
0.127
0.002
0.005
0.025
0.023
0.006
0.006
0.033
0.029
0.048
0.042
-
-
0.024
0.030
0.059
0.024
0.019
0.035
0.056
0.029
0.024
0.008
0.030
0.013
0.009
0.006
0.014
0.019
'
235
Appendix G (continued)
Dmsity, Percent Moisture, Percent Fat, Ehargy per Gran, Heating Tine per Gram, Total Tine per Gran,
and Active Tina per Gran: Values £or Convenience and Hone-Prepared Foods in E lectric Range and
Microwave Owen
Density
%
%
?toiscure Fat
Energj/
(adn)
Chidcen noodle soup
Chidcen noodle soup
incl. broth
(Mcfean pot pie
a d d w pot pie
incl. broth
Apple pie
TV dinner
Carrots
Potatoes
Fried chtdcan
Cookies
ttd ta bread
'■Thole wheat bread
White ro lls
Sweet ro lls
C-ER
C-W
HP-ER
HP-W
HP-ER
HP-W
C-ER
C-W
HP-ER
HP-W
HP-ER
HP-W
C-ER
C-W
HP-ER
HP-W
C-ER
C-W
HP-ER
HP-W
HP-ER
HP-W
HP-ER
HP-W
HP-ER
HP-W
C-HB6
HP-ER
HP-W
C-NB
HP-ER
HP-W
C-NB
HP-ER
HP-W
C-HB
HP-ER
HP-W
C-NB
HP-ER
HP-W
1.024
1.024
1.043
1.036
1.048
1.036
1.008
1.016
0.988
1.040
0.983
1.040
0.9C3
1.060
0.980
1.040
0.791
0.775
0.733
0.735
0.666
0.666
0.850
0.883
0.700
0.680
91.99
91.99
87.23
87.28
87.28
87.28
57.30
57.80
62.59
62.59
62.59
62.59
47.30
47.30
51.16
51.16
66.74
66.74
54.89
80.31
90.28
90.23
89.70
89.70
25.71
61.55
1.02
1.02
2.03
2.08
2.08
2.08
11.50
11.50
13.28
13.23
13.28
13.28
10.10
10.10
13.33
13.33
9.37
9.37
37.05
7.35
3.36
3.36
2.03
2.03
65.84
18.32
0.492
0.756
11.75
11.75
24.55
24.55
0.208
0.192
16.25
16.25
-
.
0.284
0.316
18.00
13.00
6.35
6.35
0.252
0.268
12.66
12.66
14.16
14.16
0.426
0.456
16.68
16.68
6.40
6.40
_
.
.
1. C » Convenience Food
2. ER. - E lectric Range
3. TIT - mcxoeave Own
4. HP - Home-prepared food
5. HA “ Data not available
6. NB - National Brand Convenience Food
.
_
.
5.71
5.71
.
0.20
0.31
0.32
0.58
1.48
1.41
4.17
0.63
1.10
0.34
1.80
0.32
1.69
0.50
0.82
0.21
1.78
0.53
0.5B
1.34
0.79
1.13
0.52
0.62
0.56
2.40
0.00
1.14
0.20
0.00
0.97
0.27
0.00
0.39
0.21
0.00
1.480.21
0.00
0.58
0.15
Heating
Tine/
gran
farfrrt
0.006
0.013
0.032
0.035
0.057
0.048
0.190
0.026
0.040
0.014
0.048
0.018
0.068
0.021
0.041
0.009
0.131
0.022
0.064
0.057
0.089
0.049
0.070
0.026
0.052
0.100
.
0.021
0.003
.
0.056
0.019
.
0.039
0.015
.
0.046
0.017
0.032
0.013
Total
Tima/
gran
Active
Time/
gran
0.008
0.015
0.034
0.038
0.167
0.126
0.197
0.035
0.054
0.030
0.134
0.082
0.070
0.024
0.058
0.032
0.134
0.023
0.074
0.080
0.002
0.002
0.002
0.002
0.029
0.033
0.007
0.007
0.024
0.026
0.039
0.045
0.003
0.004
0.023
0.023
0.003
0.006
0.016
0.024
JaiaL.
.
.
-
-
.
0.000
0.046
0.028
0.000
0.275
0.248
0.000
0.213
0.190
0.000
0.414
0.379
0.000
0.193
0.182
0.000
0.034
0.020
0.000
0.032
0.032
0.000
0.037
0.037
0.000
0.056
0.056
0.000
0.039
0.039
236
a
32j
omotnaoQOON'*?atoor*»r>«cnc*)'4>coinr»icoo ovo oo r»*r"**04r^o o
cs o
aid Percent U.S.
*»e a a s s s s s s a s s s s s s s s s a s is R S s s s s s a s ;*
; ; | 5 ^ s | g g § :3 f f s g g | s ^
a a
a
3
•4,H<M(^9tve^N<j\<4iiii>«oorii> ^ ^ o e o * tO (^ '^ 9 |'O M i'flN ^N < n « o a|n to ai| (O o to ^
» n i n e * 4 s o e d » o » ^ » - i < n < n c 4 « n f l d r ^ » n o v O N O O O * ^ « n « r t O » ^ ^ » - < i o ^ ^ M < M r * » o r * r * * < n c n e * ,>« n
(S| ^
^ w
»**♦
a S S S S 2 S S S R 3 S 5 S S S S S 8 8 ffS S S S a a a 3 S q fS 3 3 a 3 S g a S
odo^H H doddoo^H H H V irtcdoooH N N ddw f'iooH H H H eooo
Values Per Serving
it Data for Convenience and Hone-Prepared Foods:
O^ O O
a s s a s a s a ^ ^ " ^ s a ^ ^ s s s 2 s s <:a 3 a ci~ 8 a « M',,:' ' 3 2 " e4" ~
S $88S 22P ;S a£;Q S 35583g;3S !3R S 8S 3!C 38!S aS S S S P :;S 83
««ao»^
O 9» r»*H«^o^ou,io<n«0mooe\'>e«*44OOe«f,i*«o^<-*^v^^r»o^^o«aO4O'^fC^'4rf>
eng 5y|s^ifl»0fl\^rtrtv0HHrt«n«nH'tf<nN>0NN<S,«0O^|sdo,O^H,ft<^w®rtH
H m
N<*> rtNHHN
H
5s~
2 S R R a * g » S a 3 S 8 a S I C 3 8 a a R S a 3 8 3 3 2 S ;3 8 S I 8 R 2 a S 3 fa g
s sHs sHs gHj s s s s a sNs s s s flN«HN
s s s s s s s s a s ^ ' s sH^ s a s s a ^ a s
«tHO'O>AHN(l»ttinO (f)OHrfNtOMtfilA9O^'flvOlOr<>K4V>NO|9|ri»*t«0C4\PONin
\ONfiina'C'ad^^^<f<ncn^pjr^<nfj4v^o>fldgav*-4gcn<2~ ^ s s ^ ^ ^ 10^ ^
sr
•2
og
o s::
a a i l 1 « s
!!! 3 s
111
3:
ug ^
■ 1u g
ug
11
• - di « B.**2 o S
9•*frd
: ^ ^ * "
og
uS I guScjfe
iijoJaiii i
■I P ! ^ « s'# • ■* -
l l i l l l i i ; i!j?! Si i i i 1
*1
«n«-
237
«^«a4*>4*4 JfdCM
nrt
O N O « n < ro r4 O O N H O H N N O in p 4 n p d in in o H h > o o ^< 0 O O O N O ^ o p p * H
m
9g
Appendix II (continued)
Nutrient Data Cor Convenience and Home-Prepared Foods: Values Per Serving^ end Percent U.S.
?5l-dCM
d d d e d d o 'd d d ^ g e ^ jH N K N ^ d n d d jQ n d H fj^ d d d d d d d d d c
*? *7*?*? 3 8 8 S 8 8 8 S S 8 3 S 5 8 3 S R 8 S S Q 3 3 2 3 2 8 3 8
1< . wi.dHddoHddda-jbeicej'O'c-idNNodwNHO^eiHdHOHOHdHO
n m
^**^
! a
d
m
•4
=1
II?
•X
mi | w
CO*
S*
,2 s-a
a” <5
n
n
«7OiOOaD«Ov0P,*>OOr**mcMCM-*7>HvocMvD«nsoeoco«ocM*^osrM<-«flO*7aocooomnoC'*7eM
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VITA
S u z a n n e R ic h a r d s o n w a s b o r n J a n u a r y
H ir e r ,
O regon.
A la s k a ,
and i n
1974 r e c e iv e d a
1979.
1977 t o
N u tr itio n
an d P o o d s ,
A fte r te a c h in g
w ork o n a D o c t o r o f P h i l o s o p h y
p o s itio n
She fin is h e d
a s A s s is ta n t
M a r y la n d b e g i n n i n g i n
th is
C o lle g e .
and
c o m p le te d t h i s
a t B e s t V ir g in ia
w ork i n
H e s le y a n
V ir g in ia T ech t o b e g in
d eg ree in
Human n u t r i t i o n
1 9 8 2 and h a s a c c e p t e d
P r o fe sso r a t
th e U n iv e r s ity
January 1 9 8 3 .
S u z a n n e B ic h a r d s o n
239
She
p u r s u e a M a s te r o f S c i e n c e
C o lle g e f o r on e y e a r , s h e r e tu r n e d t o
F ood s.
Hood
B a c h e lo r o f A r ts d e g r e e in
fr o m L e w is and C la r k
e n t e r e d V i r g i n i a T ech i n
d eg ree in
1952 in
S h e a t t e n d e d p u b l ic s c h o o l s i n O regon an d
E l e m e n t a r y 'E d u c a t io n
d e g r e e i n Human
27,
of
and
a
CONVENIENCE FOODS AND HOttxi—fKJitAKxiD FOODS
HEaTED WITH AN ElECTKIC BANGS
AND A MICROWAVE OVEN
Dy
S u za n n e R ic h a r d s o n
(ABSTRACT)
Twenty c o n v e n ie n c e f o o d s u s e a Dj
ox n o u s e n o id s s u r v e y e d xn t h e
s p r in g
a t xfcU*»t oiiii p ercc-u t
p o r t io n ox t n e
ls V 7 -/b
N a t io n w id e Foou C o n su m p tio n S u r v e y w e r e p r e p u r e a , a lo n g w icn
t h e x r home c o u n t e r p a r t s ,
m icr o w a v e o v e n .
w ith an e i e c t r i c r a n g e anu w xtn a
Y i e l d , t o t a l an a a c t i v e p r e p a r a t io n t r u e ,
e n e r g y c o n s u m p tio n , c o s t p e r s e r v i n g ,
th e
f o o a s were
c a l c u l a t e d from
d e t e r m in e d ,
ta b u la te d
and
c o n t e n t o f a f o o d ana t h e
r e y u ir e u f o r
rea a m ess of a
p r e p a r a tio n ;
n u tr ie n t c o n te n t
v a lu e s .
a s s e s s e d n e tw e e n t h e d e n s i t y ,
ana s e n s o r y y u a x x ty ox
war.
R e l a t i o n s h i p s w ere
m o is t u r e c o n t e n t ,
ana i a t
am ount o f e n e r g y and h e a t i n g t r u e
and
b e tw e e n t n e
f o o d and t h e r e y u x r e d am ount
u e y r e e -o fo f e n e r g y an a
p r e p a r a t io n
tim e .
The m a j o r it y
s e r v i n g s th a n
p rep ared
(7Bfc)
of
h o m e -p r e p a r e d f o o d s y i e l d e d m ore
d i a c o n v e n ie n c e f o o a s ,
w it h t h e
e ie c tr ic
m ic r o w a v e -p r e p a r e d f o o a s .
range
a n a 7b*
ox fo o a s
w e ig h e d m ore
m an
The m a j o r it y
o r norne-
p r e p a r e a f o o d s r e q u ir e d m ore t o t a l p r e p a r a t i o n t i m e th a n a i d
c o n v e n ie n c e f o o a s ,
more
a c tiv e
p r e p a r a tio n
c o u n te r p a r ts.
p r e p a r a t io n
m icr o w a v e
w h ile a l l
tim e
oven.
p r e p a r a t io n tim e
H ost
h o m e -p r e p a r e d r o o u s r e q u ir e d
t im e
fo o d s
th a n
(7b *)
o r t h e sam e
r a n g e th a n
r e q u ir e d
w ith t i e
more
a c tiv e
am ount o f a c t i v e
p r e p a r e d w it h t h e m icro w a v e o v e n .
(7b *)
c o n v e n ie n c e
r e q u i r e d more t o t a i
w it h t h e e l e c t r i c
H ow ever 7b*
th e
t im e when
M ost n o a e - p r e p a r e a r o o u s
r e q u ir e d m ore e n e r g y t o p r e p a r e th a n a^d c o n v e n ie n c e
f o o u s ; 63* o r r o o d s r e q u ir e d m ore e n e r g y t o p r e p a r e w ith t u t
e l e c t r i c r a n g e th a n w it h t n e m icr o w a v e o v e n .
p er s e r v i n g
w as
g r e a te r fo r
c o n v e n ie n c e th a n
prepareu r o o u s .
H o w ev er,
p r e p a r a t io n t im e
made h o m e -p r e p a r e d f o o d s
F o o d s c o s t m ore p e r s e r v i n g
th a n w ith t h e e i e c t r i c
fo r e ith e r
in c lu d in g
C o n v e n ie n c e an d
tn e c o s t o f a c tiv e
more e x p e n s i v e .
No p r e f e r e n c e t r e n d was s e e n
h o m e -p r e p a r e d f o o d s ;
p r o d u c t s w ere s c o r e d h ig h e r when
ran ge.
l o r hom e-
p r e p a r e d w it h t n e m icr o w a v e o v e n
range.
c o n v e n ie n c e o r
The f o o u c o s t
p rep a red w its tn e e i e c t r i c
h o m e -p r e p a r e d f o o d s
s i m i l a r am o u n ts o f n u t r i e n t s .
naKeu
c o n t a in e d
T r e n d s w ere n o t s e e n r e l a t i n g
d e n s ity ,
m o is t u r e
c o n te n t,
c o n s u m p tio n o r h e a t i n g t im e ,
n e c e s s a r ily
tim e .
r e la te d
or
f a t c o n te n t
to
energy
a n a d e g r e e - o r - r e a a r n e s s was n o t
t o e n e r g y c o n s u m p tio n
o r p r e p a r a tio n
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