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Anglosphere

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МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ
Федеральное государственное автономное образовательное учреждение
высшего профессионального образования
САНКТ-ПЕТЕРБУРГСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ
АЭРОКОСМИЧЕСКОГО ПРИБОРОСТРОЕНИЯ
____________________________________________________________
О. В. Акимова
Anglosphere: history, economy
and culture
Учебное пособие
Санкт-Петербург
2014
УДК 811.112.2(075)
ББК 81.2АНГЛя73
А39
Рецензенты:
кандидат филологических наук, доцент Е. А. Рудая;
кандидат филологических наук, доцент Б. М. Абубакарова
Утверждено
редакционно­издательским советом университета
в качестве учебного пособия
А39
Акимова, О. В.
Anglosphere: history, economy and culture: учеб. пособие на
английском языке / О. В. Акимова. — СПб.: ГУАП, 2014. — 224 c.
ISBN 978-5-8088-0933-8
Учебное пособие по страноведению на английском языке предназначен для
студентов, обучающихся по направлению «Международные отношения», и может
быть использован студентами направления «Экономика» в качестве дополнительного материала.
Основная цель данного издания заключается в развитии коммуникативных
способностей изучающих английский язык. Благодаря его аутентичным текстам
студенты на занятии погружаются в «англоговорящую» среду.
Структурно пособие представлено модулями, соответствующими основным
вопросам учебной программы по страноведению. Многообразие заданий в каждом
модуле позволяет сделать отработку и закрепление только что пройденного
материала более эффективными (студент прорабатывает новую лексику в текстах,
в грамматических упражнениях, а также в устных заданиях).
УДК 811.112.2(075)
ББК 81.2АНГЛя73
ISBN 978-5-8088-
© О. В. Акимова, 2014
© Санкт­Петербургский государственный
университет аэрокосмического
приборостроения (ГУАП), 2014
2
Содержание
ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ ..................................................................................................... 4
MODULE 1 THE UK ............................................................................................... 6
1A. BACKGROUND ................................................................................................ 6
1B. BUSINESS ....................................................................................................... 18
1C. CULTURE ........................................................................................................ 25
1D. ENVIRONMENT ............................................................................................. 36
MODULE 2 THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA........................................... 44
2A. BACKGROUND .............................................................................................. 44
2B. BUSINESS ....................................................................................................... 84
2C. CULTURE ........................................................................................................ 93
2D. ENVIRONMENT........................................................................................... 106
MODULE 3 CANADA......................................................................................... 118
3A. BACKGROUND ............................................................................................ 118
3B. BUSINESS ..................................................................................................... 127
3C. CULTURE ...................................................................................................... 134
3D. ENVIRONMENT........................................................................................... 137
MODULE 4 AUSTRALIA ................................................................................... 147
4A. BACKGROUND ............................................................................................ 147
4B. BUSINESS ..................................................................................................... 154
4C. CULTURE ...................................................................................................... 164
4D. ENVIRONMENT ........................................................................................... 172
MODULE 5 NEW ZEALAND ............................................................................. 179
5 A. BACKGROUND ........................................................................................... 179
5B. BUSINESS ..................................................................................................... 181
5C. CULTURE ...................................................................................................... 190
5D. ENVIRONMENT........................................................................................... 199
Послесловие ......................................................................................................... 206
Библиография ...................................................................................................... 209
ПРИЛОЖЕНИЕ ................................................................................................... 211
3
ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ
Англосфера (англ. Anglosphere) — это совокупность англоязычных
стран, характеризующихся рядом общих черт, обусловленных особо тесной
исторической связью этих стран с Британскими островами (Великобритания,
США, Канада, Австралия и Новая Зеландия). В этих странах английский
язык является государственным или официальным (фактически или
законодательно). Английский язык является языком международного
общения и как средство межкультурного общения играет важную роль в
современном мире. На рисунке 1 представлена карта, где красным цветом
выделены
страны,
в которых английский язык является государственным языком.
Рис.1
Во все времена общение являлось неотъемлемой частью жизни людей.
Сегодня в условиях глобализации экономики, политики и культуры, когда
общение на уровне международных контактов пронизывает все сферы
человеческой деятельности, оно приобретает первостепенное значение.
Именно поэтому современная цивилизация выдвигает высокие требования
к культуре общения и искусству владения устной и письменной речью.
4
Страноведческие знания являются частью национальной культуры
и представляют собой сведения, известные всем членам национальной
общности.
Наше понимание межкультурных различий и полезно, и необходимо в
сегодняшнем мире бизнеса. Непонимание и недооценивание влияния
межкультурных различий в таких областях как управление, связь с
общественностью, при ведении переговоров, может, в конечном счете,
привести к грубым ошибкам, у которых могут быть разрушительные
последствия. Для сегодняшнего делового персонала крайне важно понять
воздействие межкультурных различий в бизнесе, торговле и внутренней
организации компании. Успех или провал компании, предприятия, их
слияния или поглощения находятся по существу в руках людей. Если эти
люди культурно неграмотны и не знают национальных особенностей другой
культуры, то возникает недоразумение, происходит ломка отношений.
Потребность в большем взаимном культурном понимании необходима и в
мировой экономике. Межкультурные различия в вопросах, таких как язык,
этикет, невербальная коммуникация (язык тела), нормы и ценности могут,
сделать и привести к межкультурным грубым ошибкам. Приведем несколько
примеров грубых «межкультурных ошибок», которые можно было бы
избежать, зная этику поведения в бизнесе и корпоративный этикет.
У всех членов определенной культуры есть подобные предположения о
том, как люди должны думать, вести себя и общаться; поэтому важно, как
иностранцы относятся к культуре других стран, насколько они осведомлены
о ней и как вести бизнес в стране, в которой совершенно иные понятия,
верования и принципы. Таким образом, культурное понимание способствует
эффективному общению, а, следовательно, ведет к взаимопониманию между
народами.
5
MODULE 1 THE UK
1A. BACKGROUND
Background texts
At length (A.D. 409), the Roman emperors found it necessary to withdraw
their troops from Britain to defend Rome itself from the numerous enemies that
threatened its destruction; and soon afterwards they gave up their authority over
the Britons, whom they had ruled for nearly four centuries, telling them that they
were freed from all allegiance and all tribute; but that they must in future provide
their own safety.
The recovery of their ancient freedom gave no joy to the natives of Britain,
who had long been accustomed to regard the Romans as their friends and
protectors. They had lived in ease and plenty under good laws, while the arms of
their warlike rulers had been their safeguard from the invasion of ruder nations;
therefore, they saw but little advantage in regaining that independence for which
their ancestors had fought so long and so bravely.
Quarrels soon took place between the Saxons and the Britons, and long and
terrible wars ensued; the Saxons being resolved to make themselves masters of the
country, while the Britons were determined to defend it to the last extremity. Many
great chiefs distinguished themselves on both sides, amongst whom was a
renowned British prince, King Arthur, whose glorious deeds were long celebrated
in the songs of the Welsh bards.
***
When the Saxons first arrived in Britain (A.D. 457) they were pagans, and
so they continued till some time later, when a monk, named Augustine, came from
Rome, with forty missionaries, and Christianity was preached among the
heathens. Ethelbert, king of Kent, was the first royal convert, and his example
being followed by other monarchs.
6
St. Augustine was the first archbishop of Canterbury, and soon after his
appointment to this high dignity, the Abbey of Westminster was founded by
Sebert, king of the East Saxons; and the first stone church in England was erected
at York.
The progress of Christianity in this country was much the same as in other
parts of the world. Churches and monasteries were founded by the rich; while
people of all ranks and both sexes eagerly embraced a religious life, and vied with
each other in showing their devotion, by making pilgrimages, and giving lands and
money to the church. The tax called Peter-pence, so long paid by the people of
England to the Pope, was established in consequence of a pilgrimage performed to
Rome by Ina, king of the West Saxons, whose original object was to maintain an
English school in that city.
Abbeys in England were, perhaps, more numerous and more richly endowed
than in any other country, there being on an average about twenty for every
country. They were in those days the chief schools for education, for in every
establishment, a certain number of monks were appointed to give instructions to
the youth in the neighbourhood, free of expense to the parents; and all the
daughters of the nobility and upper classes were sent to the convents to be taught
reading, needlework, music, spinning, and embroidery.
Moreover, all the monasteries were the shelter and protection to travelers,
who there never failed to meet with a kind welcome and hospitality.
***
William the Conqueror (1066 to 1087) has been accused of tyranny in many
instances, but he never more truly deserved this accusation than when he turned
hundreds of families out of their homes, and seized on their lands, to make himself
a forest to hunt in; for although there were many large forests all over England,
where the Saxon monarchs had been used to enjoy the pleasure of the chase, he
thought it would be more convenient to have one close to his own palace at
Winchester; and as he never suffered either law or justice to interfere with his will,
he took to himself a large tract of inhabited country in Hampshire, gave orders that
7
all the dwelling-houses, convents and churches should be pulled down. All this
land was made into one immense park for hunting, and stocked with wild animals;
and then the king made a law that any one who should kill a deer in the New Forest
should have his eyes put out; for you must know, that putting out the eyes, and
cutting off the hands, feet or ears, were common punishment in those days. The
game laws were very strict at this period, and the inhabitants of London were
deprived of the privilege they had enjoyed under the Saxon kings of hunting in the
forest of Middlesex and Surrey; but this right was restored to them by Henry the
First, and is the origin of the once famous Epping hunt, still held on Easter
Monday in Epping Forest.
William the Conqueror had four sons, only three of whom survived him,
Robert, William, and Henry. To the eldest, he left the duchy of Normandy; to the
second, the kingdom of England; to the third, a sum of money, but no estates. So
William, the second son became the king of England. He was a rough-mannered
tyrant, and was universally disliked. More than that, he was fond of the chase that
he prohibited the nobles from hunting in any of the forests without his special
permission, fearing that otherwise there might not be enough game for his own
sport. William was killed by an arrow shot at random while hunting in the New
Forest. He had reigned thirteen years, during which the people had been more
burdened with taxes than they had ever been before, and suffered much distress in
consequence.
***
During the reign of William II (the second son of William the Conqueror)
(1087 to 1100), were begun those famous wars called the Crusades, undertaken by
the Christians of Europe against the Mohammedans of the East. A great number of
princes and nobles joined the first expedition to the Holy Land, some of whom, to
raise money for that purpose, sold their lands, or allowed their slaves and vassals to
purchase their freedom. Among these was Robert (the eldest son of William the
Conqueror), duke of Normandy, who sold his duchy to his brother William II for
ten thousand pounds; and thus the English and Norman crowns were reunited.
8
The Crusaders took back with them many fine things to Europe; for besides
plundering all the towns they conquered, they robbed the caravans of traveling
merchants, which were sometimes very richly laden. On one occasion they
plundered a caravan traveling from Babylon to Palestine with a great quantity of
valuable merchandise, consisting of gold and silver, silk robes, embroidered
cushions, Persian carpets, silver candlesticks, armour and weapons, provision,
spices, sugar and many other luxuries then common among the people of the East.
Very few sovereigns are more renowned in history than Richard I (Richard
the Lion Heart). He was a brave warrior and a true knight errant, fond of daring
deeds and romantic adventures, and distinguished himself above all other princes
by his brilliant exploits in the Holy Land. Such qualities were sure to gain
admiration in an age when the great business of life was Crusading; therefore, it
was to his spirit of chivalry rather than to his merits as a ruler than he owed his
fame. Nevertheless, when the king received news from England which made him
anxious to return, he concluded a truce with Saladin, the famous sultan of Egypt
and Syria, for three years, three months, and three days; three being considered a
lucky number.
The romantic interest that has always been attached to this Crusade is owing
chiefly to the personal character of the rival princes, Richard and Saladin, who
were both distinguished for their valour, generosity and courtesy; they mixed
friendly together as friends, while their illustrious chiefs entertained each other
with banquets and other amusements; and once, when Richard was ill, Saladin sent
him every day the finest fruits he had, with snow procured from the tops of the
mountains, which was a great luxury in that hot climate.
***
Richard I (1189 to 1199) had lived so little among his people that the laws
during the whole of his reign had been set quite at defiance; and among the noted
robbers of the age, was Robin Hood, the far-famed captain of a troop of outlaws
that lived in Sherwood Forest. It is said that they led merry lives and carried on
their lawless trade with a spirit of chivalry that distinguished them from other
9
robbers; for they never took any thing from the poor, nor ever did injury to
females or children. But who will believe that a gang of outlaws and robbers could
live merrily when they had to hide in caves and dens, surrounded by almost
impenetrable thickets or swamps, amidst dirt, damp, and danger?
Robin Hood is sometimes represented as a man of noble birth, who had been
outlawed; but more probably he was a descendant of one of those Saxon nobles
who sought refuge in the woods at the time of the Conquest.
Coats of arms were brought into fashion in the time of Richard I, and were
adopted that the knights who were cased in armour might be known by the devices
on their shields. In this reign, also, sheriffs and common councilmen were
appointed for the city of London, and the citizens obtained leave to be governed by
a Lord Mayor, who at first was chosen for life; but in the next reign the privilege
was granted them of electing the mayor annually, and they have retained the right
ever since.
The true heir to the throne of England at Richard’s decease was Prince
Arthur of Brittany, the orphan son of his elder brother Geoffrey; but he was a
child, therefore, his uncle John was wicked enough to seize on his inheritance,
and to confine the unlucky boy in a castle in Normandy, where it is supposed he
was murdered, as no tidings were heard of him afterwards.
***
Edward I (1272 to 1307) was regarded as a very brave and noble prince, and
so he was; but he was also very ambitious, and fonder of war than peace,
particularly when the object of the war was to extend his dominions. There are
two great events to recorded in his reign; the one is the conquest of Wales; the
other the war between England and Scotland, in which the renowned Scottish
hero, William Wallace, played so conspicuous a part.
Llewellyn, the prince of North Wales was defeated and slain; and the whole
of the country, after a gallant resistance, was obliged to submit. The Welsh were
treated with great cruelty before the conquest was completed. The greater part of
the land was given in fief to the barons who had been engaged in the war; and the
10
king’s eldest son, who was born in Carnarvon Castle, was called Prince of Wales,
which title has ever since distinguished the eldest sons of the monarchs of
England.
In Scotland, where the governors appointed by Edward I behaved very
tyrannically towards the Scots (who took advantage of the king’s absence in
France), the brave chieftain, Wallace, took the lead; thousands of his countrymen
gathered round him, and after many attempts, they gained a complete victory over
the English at Stirling, and Wallace was made regent of Scotland. When King
Edward I heard of this defeat, he hastened back to England, and collected a large
army than had ever before, and marched against the Scots. Wallace was betrayed
by a false friend, made a prisoner, and brought to London, where he was executed
on Tower-hill.
***
The civil war in England known by the name of the ‘Wars of the Roses’
(1455-1485) , spread misery and sufferings throughout the country, lasted for the
long period of thirty years. Twelve pitched battles were fought in various parts of
the kingdom during the unhappy contest, which cost the lives of no less than eighty
princes and almost annihilated the ancient nobility.
The war was occasioned by the claim of the duke of York to the throne of
England, on the ground of that he was descended from an elder branch of the
family of Edward III. To explain this you will observe that Edward II had several
sons one of whom, the duke of Lancaster, was the father of Henry IV,
consequently great grandfather of the reigning sovereign Henry VI.
It happened, however, that an elder brother of the duke of Lancaster, had left
an only daughter, Philippa, married to Mortimer, earl of March, and of their
descendants only one male heir was left, and he was Richard, duke of York, who
now laid claim to the English throne.
In all such quarrels each party is sure to find supporters. The duke of York
was married to the daughter of Ralph Neville, the great earl of Westmoreland, by
which alliance he had gained many powerful friends among the English nobility.
11
He was, in fact, the next heir to the crown if Henry VI (1422 to 1461) should die
without children; but as the young king married soon after he came of age, the
duke thought it wise to assert his claim at once; and coming over from his
government of Ireland, collected an army in Wales, and at length he declared the
king a usurper, and began to take measures for his own elevation to the throne.
Such was the commencement of the civil war, which was called the War of
the Roses, because the adherents of the house of York chose for their ensign or
badge a white rose; while those of the house of Lancaster adopted a red one; and
thus the most delicate flowers that adorn the face of nature were converted into
emblems of strife and bloodshed.
***
When Elizabeth ascended the throne of England (1558-1603), Mary queen
of Scots was living happily in France where she had been educated and had been
married to the dauphin, who was now King Francis the Second; therefore Mary
was queen of France as well as of Scotland, and there were many persons who
thought she had a better title to the English crown than its possessor and who
persuaded her to assume the arms of England; an offence that was never forgiven
by the proud and jealous Elizabeth.
The two queens disliked each other, and when Mary in consequence of her
husband’s death was obliged to return to Scotland, Elizabeth refused to let her pass
through England; therefore, she went by sea from France to Scotland.
Mary never treated her royal sister with confidence or affection; hence, she
was kept in confinement and closely watched. She was sent by Elizabeth to Bolton
castle in Yorkshire, where she was treated exactly like a state prisoner and
afterwards removed to other castles on the plea that she had conspired with others
to take the life of her second husband, Lord Darnley, who had been murdered in
Scotland. This charge was never clearly proved; nevertheless, for eighteen years
the Scottish queen was kept a prisoner in England.
During that time several persons of rank were put to death on suspicion of
attempting to liberate her; for Elizabeth knew very well that all the Catholics in the
12
kingdom would much rather have Mary to reign over them than herself, and it was
very difficult at this period to distinguish who were Catholics and who were not;
for a great number of people concealed their true beliefs for the sake of preserving
their land and liberty.
At length the dreadful massacre of the Protestants in Paris on St.
Bartholomew’s eve mane Elizabeth more anxious than ever to destroy her unhappy
rival; especially as the duke of Guise, who was at the head of the Catholic party in
France, was Mary’s uncle, and his power was so much strengthened by the cruel
event in Paris that the queen began to think that Mary might yet be released and
become a dangerous rival. She therefore kept her in closer confinement than
before; and after some years found a reason for putting her to death – she was
accused of being concerned in a plot against the life of the Queen. The execution
of Mary queen of Scots took place on the 7-th of February, 1587.
***
James I was succeeded by his son the unfortunate Charles I, who suffered
death in consequence of attempting to exercise a too absolute power over his
subjects.
Charles (1625-1644) thought that as a king he ought to have unlimited
authority that no one should dare to say that he did wrong. These principles of
absolute government led to the civil wars that for a time destroyed all the domestic
happiness of the country. He was supported by many of the nobility and gentry;
but the people of the towns and the yeomen and farmers in general joined with the
parliament. Such was the commencement of the civil wars between the Royalists
and Roundheads. The leaders of the parliamentary forces were the earl of Essex,
General Fairfax, and Oliver Cromwell, the last of whom was a country gentleman
of great talent as a military commander, a politician, and a ruler; for after the death
of the king he took the helm of the state and governed as a sovereign under the
title of ‘Protector.’
Cromwell, having now attained to the height of power, resolved to support
his authority by a military force. The authority of Cromwell over the soldiers was
13
unlimited, and one of the most extraordinary instances of their implicit obedience
to his will, and also of his own determined, and energetic character, was the
manner in which he dissolved the ‘Long Parliament,’ so called because it had sat
without interruption for twelve years. It was one of the most daring acts in the
history ever performed. Oliver Cromwell then issued writs to summon another
parliament, composed of men on whom he believed he could rely and over whom
he exercised almost absolute control; so that the government was entirely in his
own hands, and he was shortly afterwards made ‘Protector of the Commonwealth,
he became in fact a sovereign.’
But although the power of the English was increasing abroad they were not
happy at home; for Cromwell, like all usurpers, was obliged to be a tyrant in order
to support his authority. He had spies everywhere to watch the proceedings of all
who were suspected of being royalists; many were imprisoned in the tower; and
some, particularly the prisoners taken at the battle of Worcester, were transported
or sold as slaves to the planters in America.
Nevertheless, the Protector made many good laws with regard to trade and
commerce. During the Commonwealth coffee was first introduced into England by
a Turkish merchant; sugar in small quantities was imported from West India.
Besides, in the year 1655 the island of Jamaica was taken from the Spaniards by
Admiral Penn, and several other conquests were made both in the east and West
Indies.
Oliver Cromwell died in the year 1658, and was succeeded by his son
Richard who soon discovered that to be great is not to be happy; therefore he
resigned his dignities, and returned to his former peaceful life.
***
King George II (1727-1760) was involved in the German war (1742),
protecting his own German territories; at the same time, a formidable rebellion
burst forth in Scotland in support of the cause of the exiled Stuarts. While the king
of England was engaged in the German war, the young Pretender, as Charles Stuart
was usually styled, having received great encouragement from Louis of France,
14
embarked for Scotland and landed in the Hebrides with a few Irish and Scottish
gentlemen, who were ready to devote their lives to his service. He was joined by
the Highland chieftains, and speedily found himself at the head of some thousands
of mountaineers, who were delighted with his affable manners, graceful person,
and adoption of the Highland costume. The king was still in Germany, but as soon
as the news reached him, he sent the duke of Cumberland (the son of George II) to
England to take measures for suppressing the rebellion. In the mean time the
Prince Charles Edward had taken possession of Holyrood-house, at Edinburgh, the
ancient place of his forefathers, where he held a kind of court and proclaimed his
father king of Great Britain, and himself regent of the kingdom, treating those who
surrounded him as his subjects, while they rendered to him the homage due to a
king.
Having gained a complete victory over the king’s troops at Preston Pans,
near Edinburgh, the rebels elated with success entered England, and proceeded as
far as Derby without encountering any opposition. Here, however, they learned
that the duke of Cumberland had arrived from Germany, and was making active
preparations to oppose them with an overwhelming force, therefore they would
not venture nearer London; and on hearing that the royalists were advancing
northward they thought it prudent to retreat into Scotland.
On the 16th of April, 1746 a decisive battle was fought at Culloden, an
extensive moor near Inverness, in which the Scottish forces were totally defeated
and the unfortunate prince was obliged to save himself by fleeing from the field
and concealing himself as he could. Moreover, he found an opportunity of
embarking for France.
A great many persons of high birth were seized and some of them were
executed for the part they had taken in this rebellion, while numbers of unfortunate
men of inferior rank, many of whom no doubt had been misled by their superiors,
were transported for life as slaves to the colonies of America. Thus ended the
famous rebellion of 1745. Some time afterwards peace was restored to Europe by
the treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, which put an end to the war in Germany and restored
15
the Empress Maria Theresa to her throne. The Prince Charles Edward, according to
the terms of peace between the French and English, was banished from France and
spent the rest of his life in Italy.
***
About seven years after the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748) a war was
broke out between the French and English in America, respecting the boundaries of
their several possessions in that country. The vast territory of Canada belonged to
France, and with its chief towns, was peopled by French subjects and garrisoned
by French soldiers, who friequently tried to make enroachments on those English
settlements which are now called the United States of America. The French
government also refused to give up four of the West India islands, although this
was part of the agreement made at the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle. Troops were sent
out both by France and England to carry on the war, which lasted till the end of the
reign of George II (1760), when General Wolfe, a brave Englishman, gained a
complete victory over French at the battle of Quebec; and the whole of Canada was
surrendered to the English and has ever since formed a part of the British
dominions. During this war some Indian kings, or chiefs, were brought to London
to tender their submission to the king of England. They belonged to the tribe
called the Cherokees, who were in alliance with the English, and were highly
delighted with the novelty of the scenes they witnessed in the country. They
remained there a few months, and then returned laden with handsome presents to
their native woods, to astonish the Indians with an account of the many wonders
they had seen.
George II died at Kensington palace on the 25-th of October, 1760, in the
twenty-third year of his reign. His queen, the amiable and accomplished Caroline
of Brandenburgh, had been dead many years, and he had never formed another
matrimonial engagement. One of the most remankable circumstances that
occurred in England during the reign of George II was the introduction of the New
Style. The New Style means an alteration that was made in the calendar, by act of
16
parliament in the year 1752, by which the days were put back, as you would put
back a clock that had gone too fast.
The news of the conquest of Canada arrived in England only a few days
before the death of George II; but the joy it would otherwise have occasioned was
clouded by the news of the death of Generak Wolfe, who was killed in battle at the
very moment of victory. The french inhabitants of Canada were well treated after
the conquest. They were not deprived any property, but were allowed to sell their
land and leave the country or to remain as English subjects; and most of them
chose the latter alternative. Canada was of importance on account of its fur and
timber trade, as well as for its large tracts of land which were capable of
cultivation. A great many English families have gone thither to reside; and in fact,
the English residents became as numerous as the French.
While conquests were thus being made adroad various improvements were
doing at home: new institutions were being formed, new buildings errected, and all
the arts and sciences were making rapid progress.
***
On the 20-th of June, 1837, died William IV, a sovereign who was highly
respected for his many good qualities, both in public and private life, and whose
reign had been marked by peace and prosperity. The manufactures of the country
were in a more flourishing state than they had been in the time of his
predecessors; new railways were in progress, and in many parts of London
improvements were effected, which have been going on to an amazing extent ever
since.
Immediately on the death of William IV the Privy Council, according to
custom, were summoned to the presence of the new sovereign at Kensington
Palace, where the Princess Victoria was then residing, and as early as five o’clock
in the morning Her Royal Highness was ready to receive that body.
Victoria, Queen of Great Britain and Ireland, and Empress of India, was the
only child of Edward Duke of Kent, fourth son of George III, who married in 1818
Victoria Mary Louisa, Princess of Saxe-Coburg. Alexandra Victoria, his daughter,
17
was born on the 24-th of May, 1819, and, having become heir-apparent in her
eighteenth year, through the death of the Duke of York who had no issue, she
ascended the throne on the 20-th of June, 1837.
On the 28-th of June, 1838, Her Majesty was crowned in Westminster
Abbey, amidst the general rejoicings of her subjects; and on the 10-th of February,
1840, her Majesty was married to Francis Albert Augustus Charles Emmanuel, son
of the reigning Duke of Saxe-Coburg, who was first cousin of Her Majesty.
Many changes took place during the sixty-four years of Queen Victoria’s
reign. The greatest change of all was the growth of the British Empire. Canada and
India were won. South Africa was also won at the end of the century. It was first
settled by the Dutch, butduring the wars with Napoleon the English seized it. Many
of the Dutch settlers disliked British rule. The first battles of the war were fought
in Natal. In a few weeks a large British army was in South Africa; but it was
beaten time after time, and some people thought South Africa would be lost
altogether. Nevertheless, many volunteers came forward, and the largest army was
gathered and attacked the enemy. Thus South Africa was won.
1B. BUSINESS
Read and translate the text:
“Business of business is business”
The Economy and Business in Britain
Britain’s economy is based primarily on private enterprise which accounts
for 75% of output and nearly 70% of employment. The UK has around 3, 7 million
businesses. They include many big companies. According to a Financial Times
survey of the top 500 European companies, 146 are UK-based. A number of large
companies and their subsidiaries are responsible for a substantial proportion of
total production in some sectors. This is true for chemicals, pharmaceuticals, motor
vehicle assembly and aerospace.
18
Businesses employing more than 1000 people, 0, 4% of all businesses,
account for 55%. Just over 2% of the British workforce is engaged in agriculture,
services contribute 65% of production, while manufacturing accounts for 21%. The
average manufacturing company is fairly small. Four-fifths employ few than 20
people.
These make up 10% of the manufacturing workforce.
International trade plays a vital role in Britain’s economy. Exports of goods
and services make up around 25% of national output. Britain is the world’s ninth
largest oil producer and the fifth largest gas producer. Developing North Sea oil
and gas has created a huge support industry offering equipment and services to
oil and gas companies at home and abroad. The two leading British oil companies
are BP and Shell (the latter is part Dutch). British Petroleum (BP) is the eleventh
largest industrial grouping in the world and the second largest in Europe.
Producing about 80% of Britain’s crude steel, British Steel is the fourth
biggest company in the Western world. Just under half of total output is exported.
The major areas of steel production and processing are Wales, Northern and
Eastern England, and the English Midlands.
Around 250 British industrial companies each have an annual turnover of
more than 500 million pounds. The ten largest manufacturing concerns are BAT
Industries (tobacco products, food, etc.), Grand Metropolitan (food, drinks),
Hanson Trust (various), Ford, British Aerospace, General Electric Company (GEC
– electronics), British Steel, and Smith Kline Beecham (pharmaceuticals),
Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI), Unilever (Chemicals). Britain’s chemical
industry is the third largest in Western Europe. The country’s fourth biggest
manufacturing industry, it exports nearly 50% of production, and is one of the
Britain’s biggest export earners. The most rapid growth in recent years has been
in pharmaceuticals, pesticides and cosmetics.
An extensive range of computer hardware systems and associated
equipment and software is produced in Britain. Amstrad is Britain’s best-selling
personal computer firm. Several leading overseas manufacturers – such as ICL,
19
IBM, Unisys and Compaq – have manufacturing plants in Britain. British firms
and research bodies have been active in developing new semiconductor
materials, which can help computers work much faster.
Car output is dominated by Rover (which is British), Ford, Vauxhall,
Peugeot Talbot and Nissan. Two other Japanese manufacturers have also
established themselves in Britain – Honda and Toyota. The motor components
industry, consisting of over 2000 firms, is an important employer.
Britain has a large food processing and drinks manufacturing industry,
which supplies well over half of the nation’s needs. Convenience foods, yogurts,
other dairy desserts and instant snacks have formed the fastest growing sector in
recent years. The market for organic and other “healthy” products (low fat, low
salt, preservative-free and so on) continuous to grow. Scotch whisky is one of
Britain’s top five export earners. There are over 110 distilleries in Scotland.
Britain’s wool textile industry is one of the largest in the world and is centered in
Northern England. The linen industry is based in Northern Ireland. Britain is one
of the world’s leading producers of woven carpets.
Private sector firms predominate in the economy. Small firms play an
important part in the UK economy: around 44% of the workforce work for
companies employing fewer than 50 people. Around 2, 3 million businesses are
sole traders or partners without employees. The public sector has become much
less significant following the privatization since 1979 of many public businesses,
including gas, electricity supply, coal and telecommunications. The remaining
major nationalized industries are the Post Office, British Nuclear Fuels and the
Civil Aviation Authority. These are expected to act as commercial enterprises and
achieve a required rate of return on new investment.
The Government looks forward to improving work incentives by reducing
corporate and personal income tax rates, and by increasing share ownership
among employees. Direct controls on pay, prices, foreign exchange, dividend
payments and commercial credit have been abolished. The Department of Trade
and Industry (DTI) promotes enterprise and innovation through encouraging
20
successful business start-ups and offering businesses a number of support
services. Most support is designed to assist business, especially small and mediumsized enterprises, to expand and invest, and adopt best practice. Small businesses
employ more than a third of the private sector workforce and are responsible for
one-sixth of total turnover.
The Government provides financial assistance and guidance to help with
problems affecting small companies.
The Small Business Service (SBS) established in April 2000. Its main tasks
are to:
- act as a strong voice for small businesses within government
- simplify and improve government support for small firms
- help small businesses deal with regulation, and ensure that their interests
are considered in future regulations
The SBS is responsible for the future development of the “Business Link”
network of local partnerships that are the main mechanism for delivering business
information, advice and support in England. The network has nearly 1000 personal
business advisers and specialist counsellors for export development, design,
innovation and technology.
Thus the Government’s economic strategy is centred not only on promoting
British exports and encouraging market regulation, but also on:
- consulting business and consumers when developing policy (businessgovernment interface)
- stimulating innovation
- encouraging competition
- improving the flow of information to business
On top of everything, Britain is considered an attractive location for inward
investment, because of its membership of the EC and proximity to the other
European markets, and low corporate and personal taxation. Foreign-owned firms
are offered the same incentives by the Government as British-owned ones.
21
Vocabulary
private enterprise – частное предприятие
to account for - насчитывать
subsidiaries - филиалы
substantial proportion – существенная часть
national output – национальный объем производства
support industry – вспомогательная отрасль
crude steel – необработанная сталь
annual turnover – годовой оборот
pharmaceuticals – фармацевтические товары
export earner – доходный экспорт
pesticides - удобрения
extensive range – широкий ассортимент
hardware – компьютерное оборудование
software – программное обеспечение
semiconductor materials - полупроводники
establish themselves – зарекомендовать себя
motor components industry – производство запасных частей
convenience foods – пища быстрого приготовления
instant snacks - полуфабрикаты
low fat – низкая калорийность
preservative-free – без консервантов
distilleries – заводы, производящие алкогольные напитки
linen industry – льняное производство
woven carpets – ткацкое производство
sole trader – частный предприниматель
nationalized industries – национализированные отрасли промышленности
Post Office – правительственная организация, занимающаяся не только
почтовыми перевозками, но и выплатой пенсий и пособий
incentives - стимулирование
22
income tax rates – доходы от налогов
share ownership – долевая собственность
to abolish – отменять
start-ups – начинания
total turnover – общий оборот
guidance – руководство
counselor – психолог, консультант
inward investment – внутренние капиталовложения
proximity – близость
Ex. 1. Translate into English
1.
Широкий
ассортимент
компьютерного
оборудования
и
необходимого программного обеспечения производится в Великобритании.
2. Шотландский виски входит в пятерку основных экспортных товаров,
приносящих стране доход.
3. В последнее время становится популярной пища быстрого
приготовления, йогурты, молочные продукты, полуфабрикаты.
4. Малый бизнес в Британии поддерживается правительством. Об этом
свидетельствует создание в апреле 2000 года «Службы Поддержки Малого
Бизнеса».
5. Торгово-промышленный департамент продвигает успешные деловые
начинания
и
оказывает
предпринимателям
помощь
и
финансовую
поддержку.
6. С 1979 года, после приватизации большинства государственных
предприятий
в
экономике
Британии
доминирует
частный
сектор.
Национализированными остались ядерная энергетика, гражданская авиация т
сфера социального обеспечения.
7. В связи с тем, что Британия является членом Экономического
Сообщества и находится в непосредственной близости от мирового
европейского рынка, она привлекает иностранные инвестиции, тем более, что
23
зарубежным компаниям предоставляются такие же правительственные
льготы, что и местным фирмам.
Ex. 2. Choose A, B or C?
1. The British workforce engaged in manufacturing accounts for__.
A. 2%
B. 21%
C. 65%
2. British Steel is the _____ biggest company in the Western World.
A. fourth
B. first
C. fifth
3. Britain’s chemical industry is the _____ largest in Western World.
A. first
B. second
C. third
4. ______ is Britain’s best-selling personal computer firm.
A. Amstrad
B. IBM
C. Unisys & Compaq
5. The _____ is responsible for the development of the “Business Link” network of
local partnerships.
A. Government
B. SBS
C. DTI
24
Ex. 3. Tick the correct box
England
Scotland
Wales
N. Ireland
steel
oil
gas
wool
textile
linen
whisky
Ex. 4. Match the firms to the products they manufacture
1. British Aerospace
a) cars
2. Ford
b) planes
3. BAT
c) chemicals
4. Unilever
d) tobacco, food
5. Smith Kline Beecham
e) various
6. Grand Metropolitan
f) electronics
7. Hanson Trust
g) pharmaceuticals
8. GEC
h) food &drinks
9. British Steel
i) steel
10. ICI
j) chemicals
Ex. 5. Write a discursive (opinion) essay on the topic:
“Small Business. To Do or Not to Do?”
1C. CULTURE
Reading
‘Saxon or Dane or Norman we,
Teuton or Celt or whatever we be.’
W. Tennyson
25
MULTICULTURAL BRITAIN
I
The British Government’s general arts policy is the
responsibility of the Department of National Heritage. The arts
budget is set for a three-year period so that arts bodies can plan
ahead. Funds are distributed to arts organizations indirectly through
bodies such as the Arts Council of Great Britain. Sixty-four companies receive
subsidies from the Arts Council. Moreover, the Government also encourages arts
bodies to seek funds from the private sector, including business sponsorship.
The broad range of cultural interests, including theatres, museums, art
galleries, opera, ballet and concert venues can be found in all major cities of the
UK. There are about 2500 museums and art galleries in Britain. The major national
museums, many of which are in London, have world-famous artistic,
archeological, scientific and historical collections. They include the British
Museum, the Natural History Museum, the Victoria and Albert Museum, the
Science Museum, the National Gallery and the Tate Gallery (Modern Tate).
Scotland possesses excellent collection of the fine and applied arts, notably in the
National Galleries, associated Art Galleries, Royal Museums. Northern Ireland’s
heritage is displayed by the Ulster Museum and the Ulster Folk and Transport
Museum.
Britain has about 300 theatres intended for professional use, of which about
100 are in London, including the Royal Opera, Covent Garden, and the English
National Opera. “The Globe” Theatre on the Bank-side of the River Thames, is one
of the greatest tourist attractions in London. The theatre was built in the sixteenth
century. That was a great idea – to build a prolific theatre where the actors could
work. The playhouse was called “The Globe”, because the building was round. The
galleries and the stage have a roof over them to be protected from rains and hot
sun. But the pit is open to the sky. All the performances continue whatever the
weather, though “The Globe” is an Open Air Theatre. Nowadays Shakespeare’s
26
Theatre produces the new crafts in acting and costuming to suit Shakespeare’s
playhouse, to create the unique atmosphere of those times.
Not far from “The Globe”, on the South Bank of the River Thames, opposite
Big Ben, is located British Airways London Eye – the world’s tallest observation
wheel. London Eye offers unrivalled views of the City’s most famous landmarks.
Its gradual 30 minute 360 degrees rotation gives passengers a bird-eye view
usually accessible only by helicopter or plane. Spectacular, unencumbered
panoramic views are enjoyed from 32 fully enclosed, high-tech capsules, each
accommodating up to 25 people.
The other tourist attractions in England charging for admission are the
Tower of London, and Madame Tussaud’s Waxworks in London. In the 1770s
Madame Tussaud (Marie Grosholtz) began making her wax portrait figures, and
since then many wax exhibitions have appeared around the world, but none
compare with the original Madame Tussaud’s. Employing the best sculptors to
create the most lifelike reproduction, Madame Tussaud’s is particularly famous
for its attention to detail – you won’t, for instance, find a velcro fastening on a
dress worn by Queen Victoria. Most figures are sculpted from sittings with the
actual person, and each takes about six months to complete. All the historic
characters have been created after meticulous study of old portraits and sculptures,
the costumes are re-created as accurately as possible. For example, Oscar Wilde,
Irish writer who was famed for his flamboyant style is dressed in a green smoking
jacket, knee breeches and evening shoes. The figure’s pose is based on
photographs taken during his lecture tour of the USA in 1882. The figure was
unveiled on 16th October 1997 – the date of Oscar’s birth 143 years earlier and the
UK premiere of the film “Wilde”.
For more than 200 years Madame Tussaud’s has entertained and amazed
people of all ages, nationalities and from all walks of life. After all, where else can
you mingle with movie stars, be counted amongst world leaders, or line up
alongside your sporting heroes. Getting close to the stars has never been easier or
more fun. Today, a place in Madame Tussaud’s is one of the ultimate accolades
27
of fame, and the current celebrity list includes around 400 stunningly lifelike
figures. Add to this the dazzling “Spirit of London” time travel ride and chillingly
eerie Chamber of Horrors, and you have a truly original and memorable
experience, enjoyed by over 2 million visitors every year.
Vocabulary
National Heritage – национальное достояние
arts bodies – культурные организации
Arts Council – совет по культуре
broad range – широкий ассортимент
venue – место проведения
fine and applied art – изящно-прикладное искусство
associated – связанный, объединенный
tourist attractions - достопримечательности
prolific theatre – плодовитый (зд. доходный) театр
pit – яма (оркестровая)
craft – ремесло, искусство
to suit – соответствовать
observation wheel – колесо обозрения
unrivalled – непревзойденный
rotation - вращение
bird-eye view – с высоты птичьего полета
accessible – доступный
unencumbered – необремененный (зд. необъятный)
accommodating up – вмещающий
charging for admission – платный вход
Madame Tussaud’s Waxworks – музей восковых фигур мадам Тюссо
lifelike reproduction – точные копии
velcro – «липучка» (материал)
from sittings with the actual person – с натуры
28
meticulous – тщательный
flamboyant – яркий
knee breeches – бриджи
to unveil – открывать
walk of life – стиль жизни
to mingle with – смешиваться c…
to be counted amongst – быть в числе
to line up – присоединяться, выстраиваться
ultimate accolades of fame – предел желаемого
celebrity – знаменитость
stunningly – великолепно
dazzling – ослепительный
chillingly eerie – холодящий душу, жуткий. мрачный
II
Artistic and cultural activity in Britain ranges from the highest professional
standards to a wide variety of amateur involvement. Some 650 professional arts
festivals take place each year. The biggest street Carnival in England is Notting
Hill area of London come from the West Indies – a group of islands in the
Caribbean. And for two days in August, Notting Hill is the West Indies. There’s
also a big parade and people dance day and night.
Special festivals, known as Eisteddfods, encourage Welsh literature and
music. People sing and read their poetry in the Welsh language. The Welsh name
for these poets is “bards”. People also play music. The harp is very popular in
Wales. You can hear harp music at an Eisteddfod. But Eisteddfods aren’t just
festivals. They’re also competitions to find the best singers, musicians and poets in
Wales. The largest is the annual Royal National Eisteddfod, consisting of
competitions in music, singing, prose and poetry entirely in Welsh. The town
Llangollen attracts International Musical Eisteddfod. The Welsh people also have
29
strong musical traditions; the country is well known for its choral singing and the
Welsh National Opera has an international reputation.
Local festivals in the Northern Ireland are an important feature of the arts
calendar, for example, the Belfast Festival is based at Queen’s University. The land
is strong and rich in music. The harp, a national emblem of Ireland, was very
popular in the seventeenth century. One very famous Irish harper was Turlogh
O’Carolan, who was blind, and who for fifty years went round the country and
played the harp for a living. He also wrote poetry and music for the harp, and
harpers in Ireland still play O’Carolan’s beautiful songs. Harpers in Ireland used to
be as popular as bagpipers in Scotland. However, nowadays harp is not the main
musical instrument in Ireland. Irish pipes and violin have taken its place. Irish
people play them for dances like the jig, the hornpipe and the reel. Today there
are many fine Irish musicians known all over the world, for instance, the flute
player James Galway, the singer Bernadette Gillen, the pianist John O’Conor.
Ireland also has its great pop and rock musicians. A very popular rock group from
Ireland is U2. The group started in Dublin in 1979. They sing about the feelings
and wishes of the young people.
But the leading cultural event in Britain is the annual Edinburgh
International Festival. Moreover, it is the largest of its kind in the world. Every
August, Edinburgh in Scotland has the biggest art festival in Europe. There are
plays, concerts and exhibitions from countries all over the world. That’s the
“official” festival. But there’s an “unofficial” festival too. This is called the
Edinburgh “Fringe”. At the Fringe, visitors can see cheaper concerts and plays by
students. Every day in August for three weeks, visitors and Edinburgh people can
enjoy the events. They listen to music and watch the fireworks in the sky above the
Edinburgh castle.
On other evenings there is the Tattoo – a military parade. Soldiers
from different countries march inside the castle. There is music from Scottish
pipers and other bands. Soldiers, seamen and airmen show their different skills. At
the end of the evening, one piper plays his pipes on the walls of the castle. The
30
piper blows air into a bag. He holds this bag under his arm and presses the air into
the other pipes. In this way the music never stops. The bagpipes make a very loud
noise sound and you can hear the pipes a long way away.
Vocabulary
amateur involvement - художественная самодеятельность
Eisteddfods – название фестиваля в Уэльсе
harp – арфа
entirely – всецело
choral singing – хоровое пение
bagpipers – волынщик
pipes – волынка
violin – скрипка
jig – джига
hornpipe – народный танец (сольный)
reel – рил (быстрый шотландский танец)
flute player – флейтист
“Fringe” – «Окраина»
Tattoo – название военного парада, проходящего в Эдинбурге в рамках
международного фестиваля в августе каждого года
III
Numerous literary events, such as Summer Reading Festivals, meetings with
modern prolific novelists, poets and playwrights are held in England (in the British
Museum, British Library, London), in Scotland (in the Writers’ Museum, National
Library, Edinburgh). In Wales Summer Reading Festivals are also popularized.
Today the British Library holds a wide range of books, relating to modern
literature. There are free “Meet the Author” events specially organized in the
British Museum in London. No tickets are required for attendance. Derek Wilson
has recently presented his new book about the story of six men, all called Thomas,
31
whose ambitions brought them face to face with the violent death in the court of
Henry VIII. The book “In Lion’s Court” shows how dangerous life and career can
be. Myths and mysteries of the Celtic countries attract the writers’ attention to a
great extent. The Welsh writer Rhiannon Ifans produced his “Tales from the Celtic
Countries”, Wales, Brittany, Scotland, Ireland, Man and Cornwall. The tales
revolve around the fair, folk, mermaids, ghosts and giants.
One of the big names of modern Scottish literature is Stewart Conn, a poet
and playwright who has been actively and significantly involved in Scotland’s
cultural life for several decades. A number of his essays are character studies of
writers and their work. The main themes of his “Distances: A Personal Evocation
of People and Places” are devoted to communication of different people, cultures
and continents. The Writers’ Museum in Edinburgh also holds a series of literary
events with the authors. All sessions are held at the Writers’ Museum Lady Stair’s
Close Lawnmarket, built in 1622 for Sir William Grey of Pittendrum, an
Edinburgh merchant. The house had many subsequent owners, including Elizabeth,
Countess of Stair, after whom the house was named. In 1907 the building became a
museum.
A series of small temporary exhibitions allows the Writers’ Museum
to celebrate the anniversaries and work of the writers who have contributed to the
development and diversity of Scottish Literature, as well as to promote literary
organizations and literary themes.
Nowadays all the Scottish writers keep in touch with all aspects of social
life. The authors participate in “The Writer Events”. The programme consists of
talks, interviews, and discussion, book presentation, poetry and song. Dumfries
and Galloway in Southwest Scotland is a culturally diverse region with a
fascinating and extraordinary literary story to tell. Modern Scottish writers are
influenced by great writers, such as Sir Walter Scott and R. L. Stevenson. The
literary life of Scotland is reflected in one of the intelligent and outspoken Quality
Literary Magazine “Chapman”, founded in 1970.
The UK is a multicultural country. Today only about ten percent of people in
England speak standard English. The Irish people speak English in their special
32
way. Their accent is strong, but musical. Many fine writers have come from
Ireland: James Joyce and W.B. Yeats, Oscar Wilde and G.B. Shaw. English is one
of the two official languages not only in the Northern Ireland, but also in Scotland
and Wales, where people have their own manners and purposes, language and
traditions. The Secretaries of State for Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland are
responsible for many cultural matters in their countries. Local government
authorities support the arts by maintaining more than 1000 local museums and art
galleries and some 5000 free public libraries. Their support is estimated at around
hundreds million pounds a year. Furthermore, the British Council promotes
knowledge of British culture overseas and maintains libraries in many of the 95
countries in which it is represented. It initiates and supports tours by British arts
companies and artists.
Vocabulary
to revolve around – вращаться
mermaid – наяда
temporary – временный
to keep in touch with – соприкасаться, быть в курсе
diverse – разнообразный
outspoken – откровенный
estimated at – оценивать(ся) в…
After-reading tasks
Ex.1. Translate into English
1. В течение трех недель в августе в Эдинбурге проходит
международный фестиваль искусств, в котором участвуют не только
профессиональные коллективы со всего мира, но и любительские,
выступающие на «Окраине» Эдинбурга.
33
2. В конце военного парада волынщик взбирается на стену замка и
начинает играть на волынке, издающей громкие, протяжные звуки,
разносящиеся по всей округе.
3. Летние чтения в рамках фестиваля проводятся во всех частях страны:
в Лондоне – в Британском музее, в Британской библиотеке, в Эдинбурге – в
Писательском музее, в Национальной библиотеке, а также на территории
Уэльса и Северной Ирландии. Вход на «Встречи с писателями» бесплатный.
4. Арфисты в Ирландии были когда-то также популярны, как
волынщики в Шотландии. Однако сегодня арфу заменили волынка и
скрипка, сопровождающие и сольный народный танец, и быстрый
шотландский танец (рил) и джигу.
5. Постепенно вращающиеся 32 кабины – капсулы, вмещающие до 25
человек, позволяют обозревать всю панораму лондонского Сити с высоты
птичьего полета.
6. Все исторические персонажи музея восковых фигур мадам Тюссо
создаются после тщательного изучения их портретов и скульптур. Восковые
фигуры современных знаменитостей делают, как правило, с натуры – на это
уходит, приблизительно, полгода.
Ex.2. Complete the sentences with the words given below
estimated at, responsible for, keep in touch with, mingle with, line up, revolve
around, relating to, counted amongst, accommodating up
1. Today the British Library holds a wide range of books, _____ modern
literature.
2. The tales _____ the fair, folk, mermaids, ghosts and giants.
3. After all, where else can you _____ movie stars, be _____ world leaders,
or _____ alongside your sporting heroes.
4. Spectacular, unencumbered panoramic views are enjoyed from 32 fully
enclosed, high-tech capsules, each _____ to 25 people.
5. Their support is _____ around hundreds million pounds a year.
34
6. Nowadays all the Scottish writers _____ all aspects of social life.
7. The Secretaries of State for Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland are
many cultural matters in their countries.
Ex.3. Tick the correct item in the questionnaire
England
Scotland
Wales
N. Ireland
The Globe
Writers’Museum
Ulster Museum
harp
Eisteddfod
The Tower
Dublin
bagpiper
Oscar Wilde
Edinburgh
Waxw.Tussaud’s
The British Libr.
Walter Scott
hornpipe
choral singing
Covernt Garden
Tattoo
“Chapman”
U2
Phiannon Ifans
Llangollen
“Fringe”
35
London Eye
Dumfries
Notting Hill
Belfast Festival
reel
Ex.4. Writing
1. Write a descriptive essay on the topic “Multicultural Britain”.
2. Make up a brochure on a guided tour round Britain.
3. Promote one of the tourist attractions.
4. Advertise the International Edinburgh Festival.
1D. ENVIRONMENT
Reading
“Sustainable development meets the needs of the present without compromising
the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”
THE NATURAL AND BUILT HERITAGE
For more than a century Britain has been developing policies to conserve the
natural and built heritage and protect the environment against pollution from
industry and other sources. Britain supports international cooperation on
environmental protection. Increasingly, much of Britain’s legislation on pollution
control is being developed in collaboration with other European Community(EC)
member states and organizations such as the United Nations (UN) and the
European Union (EU). Legislation sets out a wide range of powers and duties for
central and local government, including controls over waste, air pollution, litter,
noise, and water pollution. The government is committed to meeting EC
requirements concerned with the protection and improvement of the water supply,
and with the quality of water needed to support freshwater fisheries and bathing.
36
The EU has now issued a new directive which intends to cut carbon dioxide
emissions from residential buildings by 45 m tons before 2010. Remember!
Residential buildings are responsible for consuming 27% of the total amount of
energy consumed within Europe and are the biggest source of global warming in
the world, and thus the threat for global environment. People can block up
draughts, switch off unnecessary lights or use energy efficient light bulbs.
Although these bulbs are expensive to buy, they last much longer than
conventional light bulbs and consume less than half the energy of standard bulbs.
More than that, people should erect new buildings which can incorporate much
more energy saving features in their design. They can have a timber structure,
extensive insulation, electronic environmental controls, triple glazing, a nonpolluting heating system and a turf.
Britain supports measures that help improve the global environment. Along
with its European partners, it has agreed major cuts in emissions from large
combustion plants (such as coal-fired power stations) of the main gases that lead
to acid rain. It stopped incinerating waste at sea after 1990. In June 1992 Britain
participated fully in the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro and signed the conventions
negotiated there to protect biological diversity and to guard against global climate
change through the greenhouse effect. In Rio Declaration much responsibility was
given to local governments. It set out a framework of objectives and activities for
governments, civil society and businesses, on sustainable development necessary
for the 21-st century which recognizes the needs of everyone as well as effective
protection of the environment, prudent use of natural resources, and maintenance
of high and stable levels of economic growth and employment. Sustainable
development requires international cooperation especially in Europe by making it a
requirement for environmental protection concerns to be integrated into EU
policies. The conference also adopted Agenda 21, a statement of principles
designed to promote environmentally sustainable development, and a declaration
of forestry.
37
Sustainable forestry should preserve the landscape, cultural values and the
historical heritage of rural areas. Besides, production methods should not threaten
human or animal or degrade the environment including biodiversity. Ross Finnie,
minister for environment and rural development announced that more
encouragement should be provided for farmers and crofters to look after the
environment and more help for organic farmers. The kernel of the announcement
was that farmers and crofters now completing an environmentally sensitive area
(ESA) scheme can transfer to a rural stewardship scheme, which has been made
more flexible. Speaking during a visit to a farm on Shetland which has received
ESA and organic support, the minister said that key changes to the organic scheme
would be a revised rate for conversion and a new payment for conversion to
organic vegetable or fruit production, where much present consumer demand is
met by imports. Meanwhile, George Lawrie, chairman of Scotland’s environment
and land use committee, said: “The 3,000 farmers involved in environmentally
sensitive areas (ESA) agreements have helped protect and improve biodiversity in
some of Scotland’s most sensitive environmental areas.” Britain tries to observe
the principles of sustainable development. In 1994, the UK published a
Biodiversity Action Plan, which combines new and existing nature conservation
initiatives with its emphasis on partnership approach. It contains objectives for
conserving and enhancing plants, animals and habitats, promoting public
awareness and contributing to international conservation efforts. The UK
Biodiversity Group advises the Government on implementation, representing a
partnership of statutory, voluntary and private sectors. By the start of 2000 action
plans for 391 species and 45 habitats had been established in the UK and over
biodiversity action plans were at various stages of development. Current work
involves analyzing the reports from lead partners (a range of statutory and
voluntary conservation groups) on progress towards species and habitat targets.
Sustainable development aims at consultancy improving the living and
working conditions for people. This is done through sustainable management of
natural resources and through the protection of environment.
38
In 1996 the UK published a set of approximately 120 indicators of
sustainable development, and in the revised sustainable development strategy,
published in May 1999, these were expanded to just 150 indicators. This report
includes a subset of 15 key headline indicators, which are intended to give a broad
overview and to focus attention on what development means. Progress is reported
annually and informs decision-making.
The main indicators, covering environmental concerns are:
1.
Emissions of greenhouse gases.
2.
Road traffic.
3.
Days when air pollution is moderate or high.
4.
Homes judged unfit to live in.
5.
New homes built on previously developed land.
6.
Rivers of good or fair quality.
7.
Populations of wild birds.
8.
Waste arising and management.
In light of the internationally agreed development targets to halve the
proportion of people living in extreme poverty by 2015, and associated targets for
the creation of sustainable livelihoods for people in poverty and the protection of
the environment, projects funded in the last few years have focused on the
relationship between biodiversity and poverty.
Recreational access to the wildlife and countryside is promoted in England
by four non-departmental public bodies:
- the Countryside Agency;
- English Nature;
- the Joint Nature Conservation Committee;
- the National Forest Company.
The Countryside Agency is the statutory body whose stated aims are to
conserve and enhance the countryside, promote social equality and economic
opportunity for the people who live there; and help everyone, wherever they live,
to enjoy this natural asset. The purpose of English Nature is to promote the
39
conservation of England’s wildlife and natural features and provide advice to the
Government on nature conservation. English Nature works closely with Scottish
Natural Heritage (SNH) and the Countryside Council for Wales (CCW), which
have responsibilities in Scotland and Wales for landscape, habitats and species and
also has an environmental protection role.
The Countryside Agency recognizes over 200 country parks and more than
250 picnic sites in England. A further 35 country parks in Wales are recognized by
the CCW, and there are also 36 country parks in Scotland. Northern Ireland has
eight Forest Parks, three Forest Drives and over 40 minor forest sites. There are 17
forest parks in Great Britain which are administrated by the Forestry Commission.
Many of the Royal palaces and all the royal parks are open to the public; their
maintenance is the responsibility of the Secretary of State for Culture, Media and
Sport, and Historic Scotland.
A government body, English Heritage, is charged with protecting and
conserving England’s architectural and archeological heritage. It manages some
400 ancient monuments, most of which are open to the public. In Scotland and
Wales similar functions are performed by Historic Scotland, which cares for 330
monuments, and by Welsh Historic Monuments (Cadw), which manages 127.
Voluntary organizations are well represented in conservation work.
Although they are funded largely by subscription, private donations and
entrance fees, many receive government support and grants, sometimes in
recognition of statutory responsibilities they perform.The Government supports the
work of voluntary bodies in the protection of Britain’s heritage by making grants
available. The National Trust, a charity with over 2 million members, owns and
protects 319 properties open to the public, in addition to over 230,000 hectares
(568,000 acres) of land in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. Scotland has its
own National Trust.
Britain supports the work of agreements such as the Convention on
International Trade in Endangered Species, and the Ramsar Convention, an
intergovernmental treaty which aims to stem the progressive encroachment on, and
40
loss of, wetlands. The Convention covers all aspects of wetland conservation and
use, recognizing wetlands as ecosystems that are extremely important for
biodiversity conservation and for the well-being of human communities. By March
2000, 147 Ramsar sites covering 680,000 hectares had been established within the
UK. In addition, there are a further ten sites in the British Overseas Territories:
seven in Bermuda and one each in the British Virgin Islands, the Cayman Islands
and the Turks and Caicos Islands, collectively covering over 55,000 hectares. The
UK has 18 sites in the World Heritage, which was established under the United
Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization’s (UNESCO) 1972
World Heritage Convention to identify and secure lasting protection for sites of
outstanding universal value.
Vocabulary
legislation – законодательство
collaboration – смешение
carbon dioxide – углекислый газ
residential buildings – жилые здания
draught – ветер, сквозняк
light bulb – электрическая лампочка
conventional – традиционный
to erect – возводить
timber structure – древесная структура
triple glazing – тройные стеклопакеты
turf – дерн
combustion – горение, возгорание
incinerating – сгорание, выжигание
sustainable – продолжительный, стабильный
prudent use – рациональное, рачительное использование
biodiversity – среда обитания (флора и фауна)
crofter – фермер
41
kernel – ядро
rural stewardship – сельская управа
habitat – среда обитания
public awareness – общественное мнение
implementation – воплощение
statutory – юридический
livelihood – жизнеобеспечение, пропитание, средства к жизни
recreational – восстановительный
subscription – подписка
private donations – частные пожертвования
entrance fees – входная плата
endangered species – исчезающие виды животных
Translate into English
Каждый европеец скоро будет обязан платить за свои выбросы в
атмосферу?
Предложение от экологов Великобритании может стать политикой
британского правительства. Каждый человек в стране получит разрешение на
выброс в атмосферу определенного количества углекислого газа за год.
Ученые Великобритании работают над разработкой экспериментальной
программы,
которая
национальную
Согласно
за
программу
этой
пять
лет
превратится
нормирования
программе
каждый
во
выбросов
раз,
всеобъемлющую
углекислого
покупая
газа.
продукцию,
подразумевающую эмиссию углекислого газа (например, покупая билет на
самолет) с вашей кредитной карты будут удерживаться условные единицы
углекислого газа.
Однако если вы путешествуете не так много, а ездите на велосипеде –
экологически чистом виде транспорта – вы сможете продать свои
неиспользованные единицы самой системе. И наоборот, если вы используете
42
свою
норму
до
конца
года,
вам
придется
покупать
у
системы
дополнительные единицы.
Во
всех
предыдущих
системах
торговли
квотами
на
выброс
предусматривалось участие больших промышленных организаций или стран,
заключающих сделки. Самый яркий пример – система торговли нормами
выбросов на национальном уровне между развитыми странами, которые
ратифицировали Киотский протокол.
Министр окружающей среды Великобритании Дэвид Милибанд (David
Miliband) собирается распространить эту систему вплоть до каждого
конкретного жителя. Он поддерживает разработку этой программы,
обосновывая это тем, что, как он сказал в интервью газете «Гардиан»: «Мы
сейчас в опасной ситуации, которая, более того, постепенно ухудшается.
Страны знают о проблеме загрязнения окружающей среды, но разделяют
огромное расхождение во мнениях о том, как это сделать».
«Развивающиеся страны, - подчеркивает министр, – не примутся за
план уменьшения выделения углекислого газа, пока они не поверят, что
страны, создавшие эту проблему, тоже за него принялись. Глобальный
выброс в атмосферу, считают они, должен быть уменьшен за счет
промышленно развитых стран.
43
MODULE 2 THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
2A. BACKGROUND
American life across the United States
The United States! America’s full name held the clue all along, for America,
it has often been said, is not one country, but fifty. If I wanted to avoid all the
clichés, all the cheap shots and stereotypes and really see what America was, then
why not make a series about those fifty countries, the actual states themselves? It is
all very well to talk about living and dying, hoping and dreaming, loving and
loathing ‘as an American’, but what does that mean when America is divided into
such distinct and diverse parcels? To live and die as a Floridian is surely very
different from living and dying as a Minnesotan? The experience of hoping and
dreaming as an Arizonan cannot have much in common with that of hoping and
dreaming as a Rhode Islander, can it?
With the exception of Louisiana and Alaska whose administrative districts
are called parishes and boroughs respectively, all the American states are divided
into counties. These are much like their British counterparts, but with sheriffs who
are real live law-enforcement officers rather than our ceremonial figure-heads in
silly costumes. Every US county has its chief town and administrative
headquarters, known as the County Seat. The number of counties in each state will
vary. Florida, for example, has 67, Nebraska 93 and Texas 254.
New England and the East Coast
MAINE Capital: Augusta
Squeezed by Canada on two sides and connected to the rest of America by a
straight-line border with New Hampshire, Maine is home to a million and a quarter
citizens who roam roomily around a land larger than all of Scotland.
The southeast half of the state is where the urban action is. Portland and
Bangor are the big towns; the former is the birthplace and home town of Stephen
44
King, the novel laureate of Maine, whose prolific output has stayed loyal to the
state for over thirty years.
The most obvious physical features of the Down East scenery are forest and
ocean. But then this is true of the whole state. Before the British, before the
French, before any Europeans came to Maine there were the tribesmen, the ‘First
Nations’ or Native Americans
The word Maine goes before the word lobster much as Florida goes before
orange juice, Idaho before potato and Tennessee before Williams. Three out of
four lobsters eaten in America, so I am told, are caught in Maine waters. There are
crab, and scallop and innumerable other molluscs and crustaceans making a living
in the cold Atlantic waters, but the real prize has always been lobster.
NEW HAMPSHIRE Capital: Concord
If the word lobster is forever yoked to Maine then who can separate from
New Hampshire the word ‘primary’? But what the heck is a primary, let alone a
New Hampshire one? Something to do with politics one is almost certain but what,
precisely?
Primaries in the USA are election races for the presidential nomination.
There are two parties in American politics: the Democrats (symbol, a
donkey or jackass) and the Republicans (the Grand Old Party, symbol an elephant).
When the time for presidential elections comes, each party must field a candidate:
and who that candidate might be is decided by the outcome of primaries. Only
registered members of the Republican Party can vote for Republican candidates
and only registered Democrats for theirs. Like many American institutions it
makes sense, is very democratic, transparent and open but comes down,
fundamentally, to race, religion, media and–most of all–money.
The people of New Hampshire, one of the smallest states in physical size
and population, although also one of the most prosperous, are treated every four
years to more political speeches, sincere promises, sunny compliments and rosy
blandishments than any other citizens in America…in the world possibly.
45
The presidential election takes place every four years, 2004, 2008, 2012 and
so on. The primaries begin in the preceding years, 2003, 2007, 2011.
MASSACHUSETTS Capital: Boston
The idea that the Puritans came to New England to avoid persecution is
lodged firmly in the American psyche: they came, ‘not to be free from persecution,
but on the contrary, to be free to persecute’.
The Mayflower, was the ship that carried a boatload of Puritans from
Plymouth, Devon to the coast of America in 1620–21. These Pilgrim Fathers have
been given, almost arbitrarily one might think, the iconic status of nation-builders;
it is almost as if Plymouth Rock is the very rock on which America itself was built.
The turkeys those pilgrims killed for food and the sour cranberries they ate with
them in their first hard winter are annually memorialised on the third Thursday of
every November in the great American feasting ritual known as Thanksgiving.
Those who can trace their ancestry back to the pilgrims count themselves almost a
kind of aristocracy.
Massachusetts prides herself on being a commonwealth rather than a state. It
is a meaningless distinction constitutionally but says something about the history
and special grandeur of this, the most populous of the New England states. Cape
Cod, Martha’s Vineyard, the Kennedys, Harvard University, Boston…
Boston, ‘Cradle of the Revolution’, filming around the docks where the
Boston Tea Party took place.
Harvard University is America’s Cambridge. So much so that the town it is
in, over the water from Boston, is actually called Cambridge.
RHODE ISLAND Capital: Providence
Wedged between Massachusetts and Connecticut and very much the
smallest state in the union, the anchor on Rhode Island’s seal and its official
nickname of the ‘Ocean State’
46
From about the middle of the nineteenth century wealthy plantation families
from the South began to build themselves ‘cottages’ along the clifftops of
Newport, where they could escape the insufferably humid heat of the Southern
summer and enjoy the relatively bracing and comfortable breezes rolling in from
the Atlantic.
Rhode Island is known to most Americans as a unit of size,’ he says. ‘You
hear news stories like “an iceberg broke off Antarctica bigger than the state of
Rhode Island”. The Rhode Island charter of 1663 is an amazing document. It
contains all of the concepts of freedom of speech and freedom of religion.
CONNECTICUT Capital: Hartford
The name derives from the Mohican word quinnitukqut, which Scrabblewinning entry apparently means ‘place of long tidal river’.
The whole of Connecticut’s shoreline faces Long Island and the body of
water is therefore Long Island Sound rather than open Atlantic Ocean. This
geography leads to a calm climate.
Only Delaware and neighbouring Rhode Island are smaller than the
Constitution State. As it happens, the seven smallest states in mainland America
are all in New England and most, like Connecticut, make up in history, wealth,
population density and dazzling scenery what they lack in size.
VERMONT Capital: Montpelier
If you ask the average American what they know of Vermont, the first thing
they will mention is maple syrup. You will notice that the sugar maple is the State
Tree of Vermont–it is also more or less the state industry. The maple brings
tourists who come to marvel at the blazing colours of the autumn leaves and it
brings cash dollars in the form of the unctuous, faintly metallic syrup that
Americans like to pour all over their breakfast, on waffles and pancakes certainly,
but on bacon too.
47
Montpelier is the smallest of all the state capitals, with a population of
barely eight thousand. The nickname Green Mountain State suggests pastureland,
and pasture suggests cows and sheep and goats, and cows and sheep and goats
suggest dairy produce–milk, cream and cheese.
NEW YORK STATE Capital: Albany
New York State is bigger than England. Despite this, it is only the twentyseventh largest state in America, not even halfway up the list.
The lakes and wilderness here are all part of the Adirondack mountain chain.
New York State also contains the Appalachians and the Catskills, with the Rivers
Hudson, Allegheny, Susquehanna, Niagara and Delaware too. This is one of the
most remarkable and diverse adventure playgrounds on earth. And that is before
you even consider the delights of Broadway, Central Park, Greenwich Village and
Long Island.
New York is nearly always called New York State, so as to distinguish it
from New York City. This is true of Washington State too.
There is no living creature here that cannot, in its right season, be hunted or
trapped.
The world famous Niagara Falls are known to any American tourist, after all
this one of the main sights of the northern continent - 43 °04′41 ″ for NL 79 °04′33
″ WL. All know, on what river Niagara Falls are located, but not all possess
information that actually it is the whole complex of falls on the Niagara River
which divides the State of New York with the Canadian province of Ontario. The
country where there are Niagara Falls — is the USA, but much more effectively
48
the falls look from the Canadian coast. This district is extremely popular among
tourists for whom even constructed special observation decks from which it is
possible to admire beauty of water falling down.
The Niagara falls — one of the most beautiful sights of America
So, there are only three Niagara falls: it is "Veil", "Horseshoe" (Canadian)
and American falls. Falls height in the highest part makes 51 m. However because
of existence in the bottom of sharp rocks from the American coast water is in a free
fall only throughout 20 m. The roar of falling water in this district is audible on
many miles, and near falls it is even stronger. The name "Niagara" occurred from
the Indian word meaning "roaring water".
NEW JERSEY Capital: Trenton
New Jersey is, let’s be honest, the Essex of America. Jersey girls and Jersey
boys will forever be mocked in jokes and songs for their dumbness, illiteracy,
vulgarity and sexual availability. The industrial ugliness of much of the state where
it borders the Hudson and looks across the river to Manhattan is hard to deny:
Jersey City, Newark, Brunswick, Elizabeth and the chemical factories and choking
pollution they bring have conferred great prosperity, but also a damningly negative
image. It can call itself ‘The Garden State’ as much as it likes but it makes no
difference; for all the beauties of Princeton and much of the coastline, Jersey will
always, it seems, suffer from being looked on as something of a dump. About as
far from Newport, RI as you can get, culturally and demographically.
DELAWARE
Capital: Dover
“Soft and slow” is the Delaware way.’
Poor old Delaware is a beautiful state. Only Rhode Island is smaller, but
Delaware can make greater claims to history. Being the First State to ratify the US
constitution is her proudest boast. Being home to the DuPont empire another.
DuPont invented nylon, polymers and Teflon and is still the second-biggest
chemical company in the world.
49
For most Americans the word Delaware conjures up the painting by
Emanuel Leutze, ‘Washington Crossing the Delaware’. It commemorates an
important moment in the colonial wars–or the Revolutionary Wars as Americans
prefer to call them.
On Christmas Day 1776 Washington led his army, which had been twice
defeated by the British, across the river and, making landfall in Pennsylvania, led
them up to Trenton, New Jersey where they surprised the British and won a
famous victory.
Delaware is in a kind of middle area. This is not yet the South. The
countryside is beautiful. Dutch barns, Dutch gabled houses, softly rounded hills.
Wilmington is the biggest town in the state, very nearly in Pennsylvania.
PENNSYLVANIA Capital: Harrisburg
The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania is the only state to be named after a
person. Oh, apart from Washington of course. And New York, because that was
named not after the city of York, but after James, Duke of York. Oh, and the
Carolinas were named after King Charles I. And Virginia after Elizabeth, the
Virgin Queen. And Maryland after Henrietta Maria, wife of Charles I…all right.
All right. So actually lots of states have been named after people. Pennsylvania is
just one. It gets its name from William Penn, the Quaker who was the founder and
absolute controller of what was in its day the largest of the colonial states.
Although in strict fact it was named after his father, Admiral Sir William Penn,
who had lent Charles II a great deal of money and received in return the rights to
the land west of the Delaware River on behalf of his son. The Admiral himself was
not a Quaker (you cannot really have a Quaker with a military rank, it doesn’t
compute) and did not like the fact that his son was, but William Jnr, a remarkable
man who had braved much contempt, imprisonment and persecution for his
pacifist, heterodox beliefs, used the family money, his father’s favour with the
King and his own intelligence and natural leadership skills to carve out this great
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tract of land, which functioned independently under a democratic constitution long
before independence came.
In July of 1863 the Union forces had won a great victory over Lee’s
Confederate army at Gettysburg, PA, a victory that was believed at the time to be a
potentially decisive turning point. The losses were staggering, the largest number
of any battle in that war: over 50,000 casualties in two days of dreadful fighting.
It was decided that a great and grand National Cemetery should be created to
house the dead of both sides. A dedication ceremony was planned for November
and, almost at the last minute, Abraham Lincoln was asked to say a few words, as
President. The main oration was to be made by one Edward Everett.
Came the day and Everett spoke for two hours. Lincoln then rose to deliver a
ten-sentence address in his ‘high-pitched Kentucky accent’. When he sat down it is
unlikely he knew that he had delivered one of the greatest speeches in political
history, a speech memorised by generation after generation of American
schoolchildren. A speech whose final sentence is so well known it is in danger of
landing on one’s ears like an inelegant cliché. I am keen to hear it again. Jim
naturally knows it by heart and gives me a private performance.
‘Four score and seven years ago…’ Jim’s voice is sharp and clear. He is
speaking the words in exactly the same place where Lincoln first spoke them. The
gravestones have heard them before. ‘…our fathers brought forth on this continent
a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men
are created equal.
MARYLAND (& WASHINGTION D.C.) Capital: Annapolis
So neat, so pretty
Maryland (pronounced something like ‘murlan’) is, like Delaware, a Middle
State, not quite South and certainly not Yankee.
Maryland’s elegant and graceful capital city Annapolis was originally named
Anne’s Town (the city fathers dedicated to the then young Princess Anne, later of
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course the last of the Stuart monarchs). Queen Anne, after whom it was named,
wasn’t too hacked off about it.
One of the minor but interesting linguistic differences that one meets along
the way in America is that they say ‘named for’ where the British would say
‘named after’. So they might say Annapolis was named for Queen Anne and
Baltimore, Maryland’s biggest town, was named for the English peer Cecil
Calvert, Lord Baltimore.
South East and Florida
VIRGINIA Capital: Richmond
It is appropriate that the Commonwealth of Virginia (as with Massachusetts
and Pennsylvania the title is not constitutionally significant), named for the Virgin
Queen, should claim perhaps the most impressive roll of female achievers of any
state so far. This state, this Old Virginny Home, could regard herself as the Cradle
of the Revolution, the Birthplace of the Republic. And she does. The three great
heritage sites of Colonial Williamsburg, Jamestown and Yorktown form one of the
most popular tourist destinations in the world.
Virginia,
like
Maryland,
snuggles right up to Washington, DC. So much so that it is a relatively short walk
from the White House to Arlington, VA, where the National Cemetery has its
home.
WEST VIRGINIA Capital: Charleston
The Eastern Continental Divide is a ridge of land which separates two
watersheds.
Any drop of water that falls on the eastern side of the divide will eventually
drain into the Atlantic Ocean, any water that falls on the western side will drain
into the Gulf of Mexico. Further west lies the Great Continental Divide, to the west
of which all waters flow into the Pacific, to the east of which all waters flow into
the Gulf of Mexico, and therefore, in reality, into the Atlantic.
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In the popular imagination the Mason–Dixon line is what separates the
North from the South. In reality it is a boundary line that was created before
Independence by two British surveyors, Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon, in
order to settle a border dispute between Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland and
West Virginia (although actually at the time there was only one Virginia). The line
was marked by stones every mile and ‘crownstones’, in honour of King George,
every five. They still exist.
KENTUCKY Capital: Frankfort
The Commonwealth of Kentucky (the last of the four Commonwealths we
shall meet on our travels) seems to be bordered by more states than any other. You
might say the Kentucky spirit is part Missouri, part Illinois, part Indiana, part Ohio,
part West Virginia, part Virginia and part Tennessee. In other words as much
Midwest as Southern.
The Kentucky Derby, America’s most prestigious, glamorous and celebrated
horse race.
TENNESSEE Capital: Nashville
Memphis is the biggest city in Tennessee and is of course home to
Graceland, one of America’s most popular tourist attractions, indeed after the
White House the second most visited residence in America. The capital Nashville,
with its legendary music hall the Grand Ole Opry, styles itself the Home of
Country Music, but I am headed to the mountains of Tennessee to fulfil a lifelong
ambition and hear another kind of American music. I want to hear the Appalachian
mountain men play. This music is made by stringed instruments only. It derives,
and my word you can hear it in the five-note plaintiveness of the melodies, from
Celtic folk music, the jigs and reels of Scotland and Ireland. Guitar, bass,
mandolin, fiddle and banjo–there you have your basic bluegrass combo. All the
percussion comes from hard driving strums, plucks, picks, slaps and scrapes.
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NORTH CAROLINA Capital: Raleigh
One of the original thirteen British colonies in North America, North
Carolina’s capital city Raleigh is named after Sir Walter, who famously (in popular
legend and comedy at least) introduced potatoes and tobacco to the Old Country.
The very first English child to be born on American land, Virginia Dare, drew her
first breath a year before the Spanish Armada on what is now North Carolinian
soil. The area where she was born is still called Dare County in her honour. Near to
her birthplace is a town called Kitty Hawk which became very famous 316 years
after her birth, when Wilbur and Orville Wright succeeded, one winter’s afternoon
in 1903, in making the world’s first controlled, powered flight in a heavier-than-air
machine. Well not the first, as it happens, but the one that everyone celebrates.
SOUTH CAROLINA Capital: Columbia
In West Virginia, Tennessee, Kentucky and North Carolina the accents tell
clearly enough which side of the Mason–Dixon line they are from, but a landscape
dominated by the Appalachians and their daughter ranges indicate that South
Carolina is a whole other world.
Something else is different too: the architecture – great plantation houses,
ordinary houses, shops. They are so unusually low and squat and new and metallic.
Here, close to the Atlantic shore in South Carolina – the heart of hurricane country
– in 1989 Hugo caused billions of dollars’ worth of damage and many lives were
lost. Buildings have to take account of the great tropical cyclones that are
generated out in the South Atlantic and scream their way towards the coastline.
The lower the profile they present to the storms the better.
Everywhere in Beaufort and the Low Country there are bodies of water and
islands connected by bridges and cause-ways, Lemon Island, Bluff Island, Goat
Island, Horse Island, Otter Island, and the very piratical Morgan Island and Port
Royal.
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GEORGIA Capital: Atlanta
The Savannah River forms the boundary with Georgia and gives its name to
an extraordinary town.
Savannah is perhaps the most perfectly preserved of all the Southern cities,
certainly the most glamorous and upscale. Famed for its twenty-four residential
squares, its grand antebellum townhouses, lush gardens, eccentric charm and
bohemian atmosphere, the ‘Hostess City of the South’ leapt to popular
consciousness in 1994 with the publication of John Berendt’s Midnight in the
Garden of Good and Evil, a book that went straight to the top of the New York
Times bestseller list and stayed there for most of the year. It charted real-life
steamy and deadly goings-on amongst Savannah’s social elite; there was a hustler,
an antiques dealer, a drag queen called the Lady Chablis and a cast of sundry other
wild and exotic blooms.
ALABAMA Capital: Montgomery
Alabama will probably take many, many decades to recover from the sorry
reputation it earned for itself during the 1960s. Images linger of buzz-cut racists in
short-sleeved white shirts screaming hatred at black children on their way into
school, shouting That Word in the streets and defying the Federal government’s
attempts to abolish the segregation that had stained the South since the Civil War.
The judicial and penal systems of the South have always had a quality of
their own. Cinema, literature, music and folklore have long revelled in the special
cruelties and indignities of crime and punishment, Southern style. That mixture of
vengeful Christianity, social conservatism and racial disharmony combined with a
record of dreadful violent crime leaves little room, it seems, for mercy or
progressive thinking.
Many years ago, Alabama’s state legislature brought into being in the
capital, Montgomery, an institution called the Board of Pardons and Paroles whose
job it is to hear both sides of an appeal for parole petitions. Both the
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representatives of the convicts and the representatives of their victims get the
chance to speak.
FLORIDA Capital: Tallahassee
‘Strange how the young of such warty and frightening creatures can be so
adorable.’
The Spanish conquistador Juan Ponce de Léon landed on the shores of the
tropical peninsula that forms the southernmost part of the Northern American
landmass in April 1513, during the festival of Pascua Florida, or ‘flowery Easter’,
and thus the twenty-second largest state of the union was christened.
The year-round sunshine that gives Florida the nickname that adorns its
licence plates, its thousands and thousands of miles of coastline, the Disney resorts
and other family-friendly attractions of Orlando, the Latin vibrancy and
cosmopolitan chic of Miami and the tropical beauty of the Keys have caused
Florida to be one of the most visited states in America. Certainly one of the most
visited by Britons.
There are two of the most popular activities available in Florida.
Swimming with Dolphins and the airboat trip around the Everglades
The Deep South and the Great Lakes
LOUISIANA
Capital: Baton Rouge
Southern Louisiana is dominated by New Orleans, a city of such distinctness
and quality that it has earned more nicknames than New York: The Big Easy, the
Crescent City, 504, NOLA, The City That Care Forgot. I came here once before,
sent by Paramount Studios in 1997 to get background for a screenplay adaptation
of John Kennedy Toole’s great New Orleans novel A Confederacy of Dunces.
Since that visit one catastrophic event in late August 2005 has reshaped everything
we think about this enchantingly seductive town: Hurricane Katrina. For New
Orleans, time is divided into pre-Katrina and post-Katrina.
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MISSISSIPPI Capital: Jackson
‘…good Southern soul food, fried catfish, fried chicken, fried potatoes, fried
coleslaw, fried salad and fried Coca-Cola…’
You only have to look at its list of well-known residents and natives to see
that music is Mississippi’s dominant product. Cotton may once have been King,
but Mississippian native Elvis Presley took that title for rock and roll back in the
fifties. Elvis was born here, in the town of Tupelo, but he was raised in Tennessee,
just as the blues were born here and raised into more popular, commercial forms
outside the state. For lovers of the true Delta blues, however, Mississippi will
always be home. Look at the names: B.B. King, Howlin’ Wolf, Muddy Waters,
John Lee Hooker and, above all, Robert Johnson.
What is a delta exactly? Well, it derives from the Greek letter delta, whose
majuscule is shaped like an equilateral triangle. A river’s delta is the area towards
the mouth where sediment builds up into a triangular piece of land. It can also be
called an alluvial fan. The Mississippi Delta is not a true delta at all, but a giant
alluvial plain that lies between the Mississippi and Yazoo rivers. It is an enormous
region, said to begin in the lobby of the Peabody Hotel up in Memphis, Tennessee
and to end down in Catfish Row, in Vicksburg, Mississippi. The word ‘plain’
should alert one to the fact that the Delta is astoundingly, remorselessly flat.
Plumb through the middle of the Delta runs Highway 61, the legendary road
that, like the Mississippi River itself, flows all the way from Minnesota down to
New Orleans.
ARKANSAS Capital: Little Rock
‘Considering that the Mississippi is one of the largest and most unspoiled
rivers in the world, it is astonishing how alone we are.’ As a matter of fact, the
Mississippi is not the longest river in the United States of America. At 2,320 miles,
it is some twenty or so miles shorter than its great tributary the Missouri.
The border of Arkansas with Tennessee is marked by the course of the
Mississippi. The Mississippi has in United States lore, literature and art. The river
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has exercised a grip on the American imagination from the earliest days of
European settlement, finding its apotheosis in Huckleberry Finn, Moby Dick’s only
serious contender for the title Great American Novel. The Mississippi divides east
from west, so in the imagination it becomes the frontier that separates civilisation,
law and authority from free-spirited, maverick pioneering. It is also a symbol of the
American obsession with journeying, with moving on. America is a nation
composed of people whose ancestors moved on, who had the restless desire to up
sticks and leave their European homes. The itchy-footed need for the endless
journey is in the American DNA and while it is now most often presented in its
twentieth-century fictional form, the road movie, it found its first expression in
Huck Finn and legends of Ole Man River. But the Mississippi also stands for a
connection between north and south. With Chicago at one end and New Orleans at
the other, so much of America’s traffic, cultural as well as commercial, has
travelled down or up.
Arkansas, rhyming with ‘Darken Saw’, calls its citizens Arkansans. Bill
Clinton will probably remain the best known of these for many generations.
MISSOURI Capital: Jefferson City
Missouri is bordered by three Southern states, Arkansas, Kentucky and
Tennessee, but by five true Midwestern states too: Nebraska, Iowa, Illinois,
Oklahoma and Kansas. If any state could lay claim to being the middle of middle
America then perhaps it is Missouri. And what a splendid mixture of distinguished
natives and residents she can boast: a range of literature from Laura ‘Little House
on the Prairie’ Wilder to T.S. Eliot and Tennessee Williams by way of Mark
Twain; an impressive roster of writers plus two of America’s most venerated fivestar generals. Corrupt businessmen, powerful industrialists and innovators of
ragtime and rock and roll: the picture is pleasingly mixed. The city of St Louis
calls itself the ‘Gateway to the West’ and it is hard to avoid the concrete
manifestation of this nickname in the shape of Danish architect Eero Saarinen’s
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enormous 1930s concrete construction, the ‘Gateway Arch’, which dominates the
downtown and riverside townscape.
IOWA Capital: Des Moines
Iowa’s best known fictional native is probably James Tiberius Kirk of the
Starship Enterprise. In several Star Trek episodes he is called, or calls himself, an
Iowa farmboy. Indeed, most Iowan natives will be called that or something similar
when they leave the state to start at university or a new career. There is corn in the
state seal and there is corn in the state’s image and reputation. The seal also shows
a riverboat, although in truth Iowa is wedged between the Mississippi and the
Missouri, those rivers making up the border with Illinois and Wisconsin to the east
and with Nebraska and South Dakota to the west. Iowa is known for illimitably
huge flat cornfields, for Midwestern dullness: it is a place to escape from, as did
Marion Morrison–wisely changing his name to John Wayne–and the two
Supermen, George Reeves and Brandon Routh. The state’s reputation for sameness
and tedium makes me determined to like it. Circumstances do not lend a hand in
this well-meaning enterprise.
We have come to Fairfield, the county seat and principal town of Jefferson
County, which lies somewhere between Iowa City and the Missouri state line.
There is nothing much to mark it out from other small prairie towns in this part of
the Midwestern United States: a square, a convention centre, a fine red-brick
courthouse that looks like a mini St Pancras Station, a centre for the performing
arts (notable for being the first named in honour of the composer Stephen
Sondheim), remnants of the old railway lines that used to connect Fairfield to the
greater world–all the amenities and municipal edifices you would expect in any
medium-sized county seat.
OHIO Capital: Columbus
Although maybe Ohio is to blame for bordering so many states in such a
contradictory fashion. That is why it calls itself ‘The Heart Of It All’, I suppose. It
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isn’t a state so much as a connective tissue, joining the east, north, south and
Midwest. It is technically designated an East North Central state, which tells you
just how confused it is. It touches Canada to the north, Kentucky to the south and
Pennsylvania to the East. There are big towns, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Columbus
(so much begins with C…even its state bird and flower) and there are Akron and
Dayton, all big enough to make the state the seventh most populous in the union.
Ohio’s State Beverage really is tomato juice. Not a word of a lie. I have not
included the other states’ choice of beverage because all but five choose milk
(mostly because they are states that have cattle in them) and the lists would
become repetitive. Only Ohio goes for tomato juice. Maine has Moxie listed, a
weird fizzy potion composed of gentian root and other bitter herbs. It claims to be
America’s first soda pop. Alabama is the only state to elect an ardent spirit,
Conecuh Ridge Whiskey. California has wine, predictably enough, while Florida
and Massachusetts each opt for their native orange and cranberry juices. Indiana,
pathetically, chooses water. Twenty-three states do not have a State Beverage at
all.
MICHIGAN Capital: Lansing
Google, breakfast cereals, the motor car, Diana Ross, Madonna, Eminem–
Michigan seems to have done a great deal to help create the twentieth century. Its
rather schizophrenic plenitude of nicknames hints at a state that cannot quite
decide upon a stable identity. Cold in winter and blessed with an abundance of
lakes (‘Water Winter Wonderland’), the home of the Big Three car manufacturers
(‘The Automotive State’) and–as a sop to nature perhaps–a place where you might,
if you weren’t busy, seek and find wolverines. Also, nature has decreed that the
main peninsula is in the shape of a mitten, hence the final nickname. Like Chicago,
which lies just over the water to the west of the state, Michigan is one of those
places whose French presence in its history is betrayed by the soft ‘ch’ sound in its
name. It would have been spelled Mishigan if the British had got there first, just as
the city would have been Shicago, for they are both approximations of Native
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American names that were never written down. To a Frenchman, the Ojibwe
Indian ‘mishigami’, meaning ‘big water’, was most naturally spelled michigami,
which in its turn became Michigan.
The longest freshwater shoreline in the world of which Michiganders (for so
they style themselves) are justly proud, is often frozen. When I arrive at the hotel
in Dearborn, a town some eight miles west of Detroit, there is snow on the ground
and a crisp snap in the air that tells me I had better dress up good and warm for the
next day’s open-topped motoring.
Dearborn
is
Michigan’s
most
popular
tourist
destination.
An
unprepossessing city of some 100,000 souls, it has no shoreline amenities, no
fishing, hunting or kayaking on offer, but only the fruits of one man’s vision.
The museum, known as The Henry Ford, is fantastically popular and
successful: it is hard not to note the melancholy contrast between it and its
founding corporation. Where once nine out of every ten cars owned in America
were Fords, the Ford Motor Company is now struggling desperately, posting a
recent loss than ran into the billions.
Not so General Motors, the company that overtook Ford in the thirties and
has been the largest motor-car manufacturer in the world ever since. It is just
managing to hold off Toyota, but its brands–Cadillac, Chevrolet, Buick and
Pontiac (not to mention Saab, Opel and Vauxhall)–consistently outsell those of
Ford and of the other member of the Detroit gang of three, Chrysler.
INDIANA Capital: Indianapolis
Hoosier (INDIANA) - is one of the best-known state nicknames in America.
And yet no one knows what the word means or where it comes from. Some
versions are:
- It’s a corruption either of ‘Who’s yer’ as in ‘Who’s yer friend?’ or ‘Who’s
here?’ Both are said to be anxious equivalents of the kind of ‘Who goes there?
Friend or foe?’ cry that is familiar in other cultures.
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- Hoosa is an Indian word for corn. Research has not found a single one of
the hundreds of Native American languages or dialects in which there is such a
word for corn. It may be that the word was once in one of the many languages that
has become extinct since the 1830s, but it’s all a bit suspicious.
- Hoose is an old English word for a disease suffered by cattle, which gives
them a wild look consonant with the Indianan self-image.
Citizens here are called Hoosiers more often than Indianans; every bar,
realtor, lawyer’s office and insurance company contrives to work the word into its
name or its advertising. The 1954 Indiana State Champion basketball team had a
film made about them called Hoosiers, starring Gene Hackman, Barbara Hershey
and Dennis Hopper. It was nominated for two Oscars.
Indianapolis is the capital. It is Indiana’s biggest city. The second-largest,
Gary, like much of the northern part of Indiana, is overshadowed by the vastness of
the Chicago metropolitan area
ILLINOIS Capital: Springfield
Music is not the only cultural product that Chicago has exported around the
world. Most people who have visited it would agree that the quality of Chicago’s
skyscrapers is every bit as good, if not better, than New York City’s. Mies van de
Rohe, Frank Lloyd Wright and Buckminster Fuller are just the best-known
architects to have lived and worked in Illinois; they and their reputations attracted
hundreds of others. From its completion in 1973 until the erection of the Petronas
Towers in Kuala Lumpur, the tallest building in the world was the Sears Tower in
Chicago’s Loop, the historic heart of downtown. The view from the Sears Tower
Sky Deck at night shows that Chicago is still a heartstoppingly beautiful city, one
of the greatest in the world.
WISCONSIN
Capital: Madison
One of Wisconsin’s major products is cheese. You will notice that as well as
calling itself The Badger State, Wisconsin considers herself ‘America’s
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Dairyland’. In Wisconsin they gather their cheese into a ball, cover it in
breadcrumbs and deep-fry it. That is how little they regard their premier export.
Westby is in the centre of Vernon County, Wisconsin, a place of rolling hills
and rich farmland worked by scattered Amish communities and the descendants of
the large numbers of Norwegians who settled here in the nineteenth century.
Viking paraphernalia and Scandinavian names are in evidence everywhere. Only
hardy Norsemen can survive these dreadful temperatures.
MINNESOTA Capital: St Paul
The enclosed pedestrian bridges in the Twin Cities of St Paul and
Minneapolis link buildings across the streets at first-or second-storey level and
there seem to be scores of them.
They are called skyways and exist for one reason only. It is so unbearably
freezing in winter that no one, no one, no matter how well wrapped up, wants to
venture out onto the streets. The skyways allow the citizens to travel the city
centre, shop, eat and work, without once exposing themselves to the arctic
temperatures without. The car is in a heated garage at home, they drive to an
underground car park (heated) and ascend by elevator to the office where they
work or to the shopping centre they have come to visit. It means that in the coldest
city in America most of the citizens go out in temperatures of -40 without gloves
or a hat. The smart ones keep something in the trunk/boot, however. Just in case.
One of the most popular activities in the state is ice-fishing. In a ‘land of
10,000 lakes’, as Minnesota proudly calls itself, with winters in which the
temperature often stays below freezing for months, you can devote almost half the
year to an ice culture. Camper vans, tented villages, whole encampments grow up
on the bodies of water that surround Minneapolis and St Paul. You can drive tenton trucks onto the ice, so thickly frozen it is.
Viewed from the air these encampments can be seen to number in the
hundreds. Mostly men. All devoted to fishing. And here we come close to the heart
of the American character and its self-contradictory mosaic of oddities.
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Ice-fishing, as imagined by you and me, is a traditional sport, passed
down from the Eskimos and Indians (we eschew the incorrect political correctness
that would have us say ‘Inuit’ and ‘Native American’–they don’t say it themselves
and they think we’re silly for trying). A traditional sport, but a simple one. A small
hole is made in the ice. A little rod and line with a baited hook at the end is
dangled in and we wait for our quarry to bite…
The Rockies, the Great Plains and Texas
MONTANA Capital: Helena
There is a lot of space here. A lot of space.’
Not the most effulgent list of prominent citizenry, but while only Alaska,
Texas and California may be larger in size than Montana, it is also true that only
Alaska, Delaware and the Dakotas have lower populations. There is a lot of space
here. A lot of space. And there is a line…a very famous line:
No chain of forts, or deep flowing river, or mountain range, but a line drawn
by men upon a map, nearly a century ago, accepted with a handshake, and kept
ever since. A boundary which divides two nations, yet marks their friendly meeting
ground. The 49th parallel: the only undefended frontier in the world.
From the prologue to the film 49th Parallel
The phrase ‘49th Parallel’ is often used to describe the entire border between
the US and Canada. Further east, cities like Toronto and Montreal are actually
quite a long way south, on the 44th and 46th parallels. But here in Montana, all
550 miles of northern border are shared with Canada and follow–so much as the
mapping technology of the nineteenth century allowed–the 49th line of latitude.
As for the film’s claim that it is ‘the only undefended frontier in the
world’…well, poor dear Canada may not have a reputation as a hotbed of
insurgency and terrorism or arms, people and drug smuggling, but all American
frontiers in the post-9/11 era are now guarded with a new and implacable urgency,
so undefended it is not. Since 2002 the US Customs and Border Protection Service
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has been part of an overarching government body, the fearsome Department of
Homeland Security. This status is reflected in new uniforms, a bigger budget and
an even higher sense of patriotism and moral purpose.
IDAHO Capital: Boise
‘I pour water on the Idaho side and it will make its way to the Pacific…I
pour it a tad on the Montana side, and it will flow to the Mississippi.’
The entire continental United States is divided in two, for fluvial or river-ish
purposes. Water will either flow into the Atlantic or into the Pacific. If it flows
south into the Gulf of Mexico, that counts as the Atlantic of course.
Any water that falls from the sky or tumbles from the melting snow of the
mountains must end up somewhere. Given that America is not, despite
appearances, a flat bowl in the middle, the water follows gravity and makes it to
the sea. The sea is at a lower level than the land and therefore all water must
inevitably end up there.
The Great Divide, the name given to the continental divide in the United
States, is surprisingly far west. Part of it runs down between Idaho and Montana
before it makes its way a little further eastwards and down through Wyoming,
Colorado and New Mexico.
WYOMING Capital: Cheyenne
‘It was the French who discovered the Grand Tetons…they gave them the
name that the French just would: The Three Tits. Les Trois Tétons.’
Why oh why, oh ming? Land of Laramie and Cheyenne, true cowboy
country at last. I remember as a boy watching westerns and being confused by the
fact that, while they were usually shot in deserts dotted with scrub and cactuses
and bleached cattle skulls, the cowboys were often shown riding through ice and
snow too. It seemed contradictory to me that a country could be both burning hot
and freezing cold. Like picturing snow in the Sahara or palm trees in Antarctica.
But that is the true west for you. A land of extremes.
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Wyoming has it all: the Rocky Mountains, the Range and those High Plains
where Clint Eastwood so famously drifted. It is the least populous state in
America, containing less than half a million citizens, each having, on average,
more than five square miles to play in all by themselves. Wyoming shares with its
neighbour Colorado the distinction of being one of only two states which are
entirely rectangular. Looking at them in an atlas you can picture bearded
nineteenth-century politicians and surveyors in Washington leaning over a map of
the United States with a ruler and a set square in their hands.
But for all its wilderness and maverick spirit, Wyoming is becoming an
increasingly popular destination for the well-heeled. Jackson Hole in the Grand
Teton National Park is one of the swankiest skiing resorts in the world, up there
with Gstaad and Aspen.
NORTH DAKOTA
Capital: Bismarck
The highest and lowest temperatures ever recorded in North Dakota are 121º
and -60º F (49º and -51º C) respectively. I don’t know if anywhere else in America
can match that for extremes–in fact I can’t think of many places on earth that can.
And yet the primary occupation of your North Dakotan is farming.
They call it ‘Norse’ Dakota (ho, ho) on account of the large number of
Scandiwegians in the state, but in fact it is those of German ancestry who make up
most of the population. Two and half per cent of all North Dakotans speak German
at home. In the capital, Bismarck more than half the citizens are of German stock.
Since you cross over from Minnesota to Montana you have been wondering at the
large number of roads, schools and commercial establishments named after two
men called Lewis and Clark. The capital, named Bismarck in 1873 after the great
European statesman who had just succeeded in forging a dozen disparate states and
kingdoms into the new nation of Germany. Incidentally, the town of Bismarck
didn’t give itself that name because it was full of patriotic Germans who loved
their Chancellor, but rather because it wanted to attract Germans over to the
Dakotas. The total population of the entire state back then was around 3,000. The
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renaming ploy worked: Bismarck was soon flooded with hard-working, Godfearing Teutonic farmers who put up with temperatures that they could never have
experienced back home. I cannot but wonder how the Dakota Territory as it was
known back then (it wasn’t divided into North and South until 1889) was sold to
those Germans? Was there a brochure promising lush, fertile countryside and
balmy weather? And were the Germans who arrived bitterly disappointed? For
North Dakota, although by no means unpleasant, is neither notably lush nor even
slightly balmy. Scraggy scrub and featureless plateaus characterise much of the
state.
I was always a little hazy about the Louisiana Purchase, mistakenly
believing that it involved America buying the state of Louisiana. In fact it was the
sale, in 1803, by France of its entire Louisiane territory, a massive swathe of midwestern America, including Arkansas, Missouri, Iowa, Oklahoma, Kansas,
Nebraska, Minnesota and the Dakotas, not to mention a healthy chunk of New
Mexico, Texas, Montana, Wyoming, Colorado and Louisiana. It cost the United
States about twenty-three million dollars which added up in the end to about three
cents an acre. Something of a bargain for doubling the size of the country. This
was land occupied by American Indians. Naturally they were not informed about
the sale.
The President at the time, the nation’s third, was Thomas Jefferson, the
author of the Declaration of Independence and perhaps the most revered of all the
founding fathers. He determined that more ought to be discovered concerning this
enormous tract of land, since neither the French who sold it nor the Americans
who bought it really knew much about it. Jefferson was a great believer in what
was already known as the ‘manifest destiny’–America’s right to expand westwards
to the Pacific, and to hell with the Indians or anyone else.
A very short time after the purchase had been concluded, therefore,
President Jefferson appointed a man called Captain Meriwether Lewis to undertake
an expedition which would obtain more knowledge about the new territory,
principally its rivers, for this was an age in which the only way commerce and
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traffic could be managed in such terrain was by water. The idea was to track the
Missouri River to its source. The aim was specifically, and in Jefferson’s own
words, to explore ‘for the purposes of commerce’.
Lewis and his fellow expedition leader Clark with their ‘Corps of Discovery’
travelled thousands of miles to the Pacific Ocean and back, reporting to Jefferson
some three years after setting out. Now written indelibly into American history and
legend, the expedition mapped most of the new territory with surprising accuracy
and contributed to the making of the modern United States. Only when you have
travelled in some of the lands they covered can you appreciate what a gigantic
achievement it was. I have a London taxi, modern highways, air conditioning,
heating and all the conveniences of the twenty-first century and I still feel like a
hero when I’ve completed a four-hundred-mile leg of my journey. Lewis and Clark
had canoes and horses and no idea into what hostile Indian lands or impenetrable
ravines their journey would take them.
In Montana, Wyoming, Idaho and here in the Dakotas many diners, streets,
hotels, dry goods stores and lakes are named after Lewis and Clark. Their camp
sites are national shrines and their navigational routes, or parts thereof, annually
reproduced by hardy canoeists and kayakers in all the states of the Midwest.
SOUTH DAKOTA
Capital: Pierre
Merely to list the legendary landmarks of South Dakota gives everyone a
kind of thrill. A thrill in which hero-worship and dread are painfully mixed. The
wide skies of Texas and New Mexico, the cactus deserts of Arizona and the High
Plains to the north–these have light and space and optimism built in. But the very
names of South Dakota’s Badlands and Black Hills and Deadwood and Wounded
Knee carry within them heavy hints of the tragic, the cruel, the bloody and the lost.
At Wounded Knee, the US 7th Cavalry disgraced itself and its name
eternally with the cruel and savage massacre of three hundred men, women and
children of the Sioux Nation. The Lakota Sioux tribes were enclosed within
reservations where, denied their traditional hunting grounds and historically
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nomadic way of life, their morale and social structure disintegrated: disease,
poverty, unemployment and alcoholism stalk these reservations to this very day.
The Lakota Sioux tribes are divided into seven ‘council fires’, such as Oglala,
Hunkpapa and Miniconjou. Lakota also refers to their language, which is not to be
confused with Dakota or Nakota…but that is another story.
In 1868 the Lakota were granted by the Treaty of Laramie all rights of
possession over the Black Hills, which they held sacred. In fact some scholars,
including some Indian historians, are a little cynical about this as there is evidence
that the Lakota had driven out by force other Indian tribes from the hills less than a
hundred years earlier. In any event, it was the Lakota’s arch nemesis, General
Custer, who returned from the Black Hills in 1874 bearing talk of gold which
resulted in an instant betrayal of the treaty. The Lakota got their final revenge on
‘Yellowhair’ at the Battle of Little Big Horn two years later, a victory that soon
turned into defeat as the US Army exacted its own revenge the following year,
capturing and killing Chief Crazy Horse.
The state itself would tell you that its National Parks and tourist attractions
make it one of the most amiable and desirable destinations in all of America.
National memorial is the mountain Rashmor – a place of pilgrimage of
tourists. Here in the granite rock huge portraits of four well-known U.S. Presidents
— George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Theodor Roosevelt and Abraham
Lincoln are cut. More than 400 masons under the leadership of the sculptor Gadson
Borglum created this grandiose sculptural composition in 1927-1941. Bas-relief
height – apprx. 18 m that exceeds height of the six-storied house. Despite the
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enormous sizes of the persons cut in a stone (a nose – apprx. 6 m, eyes – apprx. 3,3
m, companies – apprx. 5,5 m), portrait similarity of sculptural images doesn't raise
doubts. At a memorial Lincoln's museum — Bohr is open. Visitors are met not by
the guide, and the instructor who conducts them on a track of Presidents to a
monument. In the evening at two o'clock there is mountain illumination. They had
to remove apprx. 450 thousand tons of rock! Rocks blew up dynamite, and then
worked with hammers and chisels. Very interesting fact the Place name of the
mountain of Presidents — the mountain Rashmor. It is called after the New York
businessman Charlz E. Rashmor who in 1884 organized expedition to this
mountain area. The bas-relief in the rock Rashmor became the National memorial
of the USA. It symbolizes history of development of the American democracy and
greatness of her leaders.
Certainly Mount Rushmore attracts an average of nearly six thousand people
a day, there is another monument: the largest sculpture in the world, a South
Dakotan attraction quite as preposterous as Mount Rushmore but a little less well
known – Crazy Horse. a romantic warrior chief, whose tragic and noble life
should be remembered by all.
The vision of a sculptor called Korczak Ziolkowski who had himself worked
on Mount Rushmore, this giant and unfinished enterprise carved out of the rock of
Thunderhead Mountain features Crazy Horse astride his stallion, pointing out over
the land below.
Ziolkowski embarked on the project in 1948 after receiving a letter from
Chief Henry Standing Bear in 1939 which said, in reference to work Ziolkowski
was doing on Rushmore, ‘My fellow chiefs and I would like the white man to
know that the red man has great heroes, too.’ The old man himself died in 1982,
leaving his widow and children to complete the work – the 87-foot-high head of
Crazy Horse (the heads on Mount Rushmore are ‘only’ 60 foot high), which was
completed and dedicated in 1998, fifty years after the project began. The face looks
good in profile, but a little less dramatic full on. The scale of the enterprise is
astounding, daunting, mind-boggling.
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The monument is also controversial.
Some would dismiss it on the grounds of taste alone, for it must be admitted it does
resemble–the horse especially–those tacky designs in rock crystal advertised every
week in the Sunday supplements and celebrity gossip magazines; a more serious
criticism is levelled by some Lakota Indians who believe that the very idea of
carving a human sculpture into a mountain is degrading and insulting. They call
attention to the fact that in his lifetime, Crazy Horse refused to be photographed. It
is all very difficult.
NEBRASKA Capital: Lincoln
They call this country the sandhills, where the plains undulate gently and the
grey-green grass heaves and swells like the sea.
Nebraska is a farming state: it was born of the great land grabs of the midnineteenth century when the federal government offered free land to whomever
could scramble to it and claim it for their own. These homesteaders grew corn and
raised cattle and lived a Great Plains life. Then came the Union Pacific railroad,
which passed right through Grand Island, giving it quite a reputation as a place of
high living and loose morals. In the 1950s, President Dwight D. Eisenhower and
his administration released the budget and set in motion the creation of an
enormous network of major roads, connecting all the great metropolitan areas of
America. Those who fought in Europe had been mightily impressed by the German
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autobahn system and the American automobile industry, amongst other pressure
groups, was desperate for the United States to have something similar. In today’s
money the whole project can be estimated as having cost something in the region
of half a trillion dollars: $500 billion. A bargain. America could never work the
way it does without these roads: 46,000 miles of high quality, federally funded
roadway connecting east to west, north to south in a vast network. The great days
of the railroad are over of course, but Grand Island has since benefited, if that is
the word, from having one of the great Interstate Highways run plumb spang
through it.
KANSAS
Capital: Topeka
If you were asked to look at a map of America and stab your finger down in
the middle, the chances are it would land in Kansas. Authoratitive sources tell me
however that ‘the geographical centre’ of the United States is in fact seventeen
miles to the west of the town of Castle Rock in Butte County, South Dakota.
What comes to mind when we say ‘Kansas’? Tornadoes of course, thanks to
Dorothy and The Wizard of Oz. Kansans suffer on average more than fifty serious
episodes a year. Sunflowers–Kansas is America’s leading producer. ‘I’m as corny
as Kansas in August,’ Nellie sings in South Pacific, revealing that corn too is a
major crop, although in fact Kansas grows more wheat than maize. The state, like
Noël Coward’s Norfolk, is very flat. Perfect for planting cereal crops no one can
deny, but perhaps not the most geographically dramatic or aesthetically enticing
experience that America has to offer.
OKLAHOMA Capital: Oklahoma City
Gore Vidal’s grandfather, the blind Thomas Pryor Gore, was a founding
senator when it finally achieved statehood in 1907. Before that time it had been a
territory for the displaced American Indians who had been booted out of their
ancestral lands in the southern states. Their enforced journey is known in Indian
lore as the Trail of Tears. As agricultural real estate became more valuable in the
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latter part of the nineteenth century, however, the tribes were ejected yet again
when white settlers came over for the famous Land Run, a first-come first-served
scramble for farmland. Those who broke the rules and grabbed their land before
the official time were known as ‘sooners’, which gave the state its nickname. Out
went the Indians, in came the homesteaders and statehood for okla humma, which
means, with cruel irony, ‘land of the red man’.
Nature exacted a harsh revenge on those white homesteaders in the early
1930s when drought, high winds and poor agronomy came together to curse the
land and create the notorious dustbowl. Thousands and thousands of poor farmers
upped sticks and headed for California.
It is no coincidence that around the time of the dustbowl, Lynn Riggs wrote
the play Green Grow the Lilacs, which looks back to a time when the Oklahoma
Territory, just before statehood in 1906, seemed like a kind of agricultural
paradise. In 1943 Rodgers and Hammerstein turned the play into the hit Broadway
musical Oklahoma! Coming only three years after the John Ford film, Oklahoma
must have felt like the most examined state in the union around this time.
But it wasn’t all dustbowl, depression and doom for the Okie. Oil made
Tulsa one of the richest cities in the country from the 1920s onwards and today the
state is amongst the most prosperous in America.
COLORADO
Capital: Denver
A vast rectangular slab, the boundaries of Colorado were determined not by
its rivers, valleys, mountains or other natural features, but by mankind’s arbitrary
lines of latitude and longitude. For all that, one cannot but think of natural features
when contemplating this grand and beautiful state. Here the Rocky Mountains
climax into their highest peaks, indeed Colorado is everywhere above 1,000 feet,
the capital Denver being at an elevation of precisely 5,280 feet, thereby accurately
earning its nickname of the ‘Mile High City’.
One of Denver’s regular events, the annual March Powwow (that’s March
the month, not march the military strut or political demonstration). A powwow is a
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Native American gathering, any kind of intra-tribal or inter-tribal conference.
These days, large-scale powwows like Denver’s are opportunities to celebrate
American Indian music, costume, history and culture. From all over North
America the tribes people come: Black Foot, Crow, Cree, Apache, Comanche,
Cherokee, Choctaw, Ojibwa, Lakota, Navajo, Hopi, Passamaquoddy and dozens
and dozens of others.
Denver’s downtown Coliseum Convention Center is enormous and at the
climax of the powwow its main arena is entirely filled with thousands of men,
women and children in their traditional buckskins, beads and feathers. The
whooping and stamping are precisely like the ‘war path’ scenes of cowboy movies.
Hollywood used ‘real live Indians’ in its movies of course, so there is no reason for
the authentic dances and moves to be any different from what I’ve seen in
westerns, but nonetheless it gives me a shock.
Fort Collins is an attractive college town sixty miles or so due north of
Denver. Fort Collins was voted Best Place To Live by Money magazine in 2006.
Perhaps the presence of Colorado State University helps: certainly the profusion of
pleasant, cheap restaurants and coffee shops bespeaks the student town.
TEXAS
Capital: Austin
Texas is big. Texas is very big. Everyone knows that. Nonetheless the Lone
Star State likes to remind itself of this at all times. Commercials on TV and
advertising hoardings talk of ‘Texan-size servings of beef’, ‘Enough space in the
trunk of this car even for a Texan’, ‘Only one toilet paper is big enough for
Texans…’ and so on. If ever a place mythologises itself that place is Texas.
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With its size, that tendency to self-mythologise, its iconography, its accent,
its props, its cuisine and its history, Texas is able (and willing) to think of itself as
a land apart more than any other state in the union (‘It’s a whole other country’ is
the current state slogan). The Republic of Texas was a sovereign nation for the best
part of ten years in the nineteenth century–its embassy in London was in St
James’s and it remains memorialised to this day by a ‘cantina’ restaurant just off
Trafalgar Square called The Texas Embassy.
When Mexico won its independence from Spain in 1821 it immediately
claimed those lands we know today as Texas. Over the succeeding years European
settlers and landowners, led by Steve Austin and Sam Houston (whose names live
on in Texas’s capital and largest city respectively), prepared to secede from
Mexico and claim independence. One day in 1835 Will Travis, Davy Crockett, Jim
Bowie (of knife fame) and over a hundred other volunteers and regular soldiers
came to defend the Alamo Mission in San Antonio from Mexico’s Generalissimo
Santa Anna. A massacre and a defeat for the defenders, this action led to the Battle
of San Jacinto in which the Mexicans were soundly beaten and Santa Anna was
captured. The independent Republic of Texas was declared. By 1845 her
experiment with nationhood was over and she joined the Union as the twentyeighth state.
The Southwest, Pacific Northwest, California, Alaska and Hawaii
NEW MEXICO Capital: Santa Fe
It is something of a surprise to learn that New Mexico, a land that is mostly
flat, arid, sparse and scrubby, should also be so ethnically diverse, so culturally
rich. America’s largest Hispanic and fifth-largest Indian populations bestow unique
characteristics upon the state. There is a brand of ‘New Mexico Spanish’ with its
own words, a blend of archaic colonial Castilian and Native American
vocabularies. There are pueblos in New Mexico as old and as continuously
inhabited as the oldest European villages. This mix of cultural integrity and
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diversity has attracted over the years hundreds of thousands of countercultural,
alternative lifestyle Americans–hippies, peaceniks, eco-warriors, artists and
musicians.
Santa Fe, the capital - a town that has kept its historic feel like few other
American cities. In fact it is all very false and more than a little self-conscious. The
city was originally laid out by the first Spanish settlers (it had been a series of
Indian pueblos since the eleventh century) with streets radiating from a central
square, or plaza. By the time New Mexico was admitted to the Union in 1912
(despite the Oscar-winning Judy Garland song, the Atchison, Topeka and the Santa
Fe railroad never actually reached Santa Fe, which was served by a branch line)
this system had been overrun by standard American architecture and the City
Fathers determined that Santa Fe, which had precious few other routes to
prosperity, should be made over in the traditional style and become a tourist centre.
To that end the city was–wait for a gorgeous new verb–pueblofied.
Pueblo is a word which does so much service in so many directions as to
need a little clarification. It is the Spanish word for town or village. When the
Spanish arrived in Nuevo México they saw that the Native American populations
lived in villages, unlike their more nomadic brothers and sisters in the Plains for
example. The colonists therefore called these tribes pueblo Indians. The kinds of
house the tribes built–dried mud adobes–were called pueblo also. Thus pueblo
means:
A Native American people
The villages lived in by the above (there are twenty-one federally recognised
pueblos)
The style of architecture of the above
The decision to pueblofy Santa Fe has resulted in an artful city. Literally. It
is artful in its artifice and it is filled with artists and their work. Indeed it has the
third-largest art market in America, after New York and Los Angeles. The adobes
are attractive, no question: in a climate like New Mexico’s you can dry mud, fill it
with a few husks and straws and you have a magnificent building material. The
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classic pueblo colour is brown, which sounds dull but suits the landscape well.
Pinks, yellows and whites are also common, giving a pleasant marzipan and icingsugar feel.
The Los Alamos site, a converted school high up on a mesa twenty miles
from Santa Fe, is now even bigger and busier than it was in 1944 when Robert
Oppenheimer led his team of physicists and engineers towards the nuclear age. The
Nobel Prizewinning Richard Feynman worked in Los Alamos in the late forties as
a very, very young man.
Los Alamos today remains one of the most important centres for scientific
research (Director of Science Terry Wallace Terry) in the world.
They
still
manipulate the atom here, but in less sinister ways than those of Oppenheimer and
his colleagues.
UTAH Capital: Salt Lake City
Utah’s Mormon settlers wanted to call the territory deseret, which in their
founder Joseph Smith’s sad, silly madey-uppy language meant ‘honey-bee’.
However, the name Utah is derived from the Ute, a tribe of Shoshone-speaking
Indians once resident in the area around the Colorado River.
The silver river of
time that is the Colorado River, it might be argued, has done more wonders than
any other river in the world. It carved out the Grand Canyon, that alone is
achievement enough. As a reward it has been staunched and stemmed on a scale
like no other. It all began with the Hoover Dam in 1930 and it ended with the
completion of Lake Powell in 1980. Poor silver ribbon of time that was the
Colorado River, be-dammed and diverted to be-buggery.
Imagine that someone was so peculiar as to seal up the ends of the Grand
Canyon and then fill it with water. Well, that is more or less what has happened in
the case of Lake Powell, a vast artificial reservoir created in 1956. That is to say,
the damming started in 1956–it actually took almost a quarter of a century to fill
Glen Canyon and create Lake Powell.
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It was considered by many at the time to be a disaster, a wanton act of
greedy, brutal destruction. Glen Canyon, though less well known than the Grand
Canyon, was held by many to be more beautiful.
Utah, southern Utah especially, contains some of America’s most dazzling
spectacles: Bryce, Moab and Zion national parks and their canyons and gorges are
familiar to millions of tourists. Goulding’s Lodge must be a contender for the
motel with the best view in the world for it overlooks one of nature’s greatest and
most insane achievements, Monument Valley.
But how do the elements of nature come together to create these Gothic
cathedrals, Norman keeps, Moghul palaces, Cambodian towers, modernist statues,
elegant terraces and alien settlements, all marooned in a parched red desert? The
answer, although ultimately convincing, is as mad and unlikely as the features
themselves. We are reduced, as ever, to the geologist’s explanation for everything:
time and pressure, water and wind.
The first game you play when confronted with the contortions of rock that
make up the major pieces of the Valley is to force them to fit something we know.
It is an irresistible part of being human, we can’t help looking for the familiar even
in random abstract wind formations. The Indians got there first of course, and then
the Christian missionaries and other Europeans. Hence there is the Totem Pole, the
Ear of the Wind, the Three Sisters, the Thumb, the Mittens, Elephant Butte, a
‘Saviour’ which looks like Jesus and a great system of rocks in the shape of the
letters W and V, the W of which has also been interpreted as Mary, Jesus and
Joseph.
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ARIZONA Capital: Phoenix
The name derives from the Spanish arida zona–‘arid zone’…or at least so
people used to think. But it now seems that this is what etymologists call a false
friend, for a Spaniard would always say zona arida. The more likely derivation is
from the Basque aritz onac meaning ‘good oaks’. Apparently the first silver camp
in the territory was called Arizonac, later shortened to Arizona, which seems to
clinch it.
For once, the state capital here is also the largest city. Arizonans will tell you
that the city of Mesa, part of the ‘Phoenix Metropolitan Area’, is the fastestgrowing city in America. There is Scottsdale too, the ritzy resort part of Phoenix,
and Chandler and Glendale and Peoria–over four million people in an area which is
growing too fast for statisticians to keep count. Interestingly, the only state with a
comparable rate of growth is also a desert state–Nevada.
You may think a desert would be too hot for comfort, but the heat here is so
dry that the atmosphere is entirely pleasant, you can move around easily in
temperatures close to 100º without sweating. Very different from the swampy,
sultry south in Louisiana and Alabama or the humid summers of New York and
Chicago.
Tucson’s Mountain Park. The Sonora desert. Cactus. The saguaro,
pronounced ‘sa-uaro’, is the iconic, tall, comically limbed giant beloved of
cartoonists. They often have holes in them where dedicated woodpeckers, finches
and a bird called the Golden Flicker make their homes. Their stunning blossom is
the state flower of Arizona and produces millions and millions of seeds, one of
which, if it is lucky, will sprout in the summer rain and, over fifty to eighty years,
grow a side arm and be tall enough to hit a ceiling. They have been known to live
for a hundred and seventy-five years and achieve heights above forty feet. They are
funny and noble and beautiful and silly and grand all at the same time.
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NEVADA Capital: Carson City
Early settlers on the Old Spanish Trail from Santa Fe to California liked to
stop off at a pleasant area in Nevada, a kind of oasis, naturally greened by its
underground artesian wells. The Meadows, they called it, Las Vegas. And what is
it now?
The extremity of Sin City, as it used proudly to call itself, is itself extreme.
A symbol of human kind’s perverse and remorseless will, a symbol of cupidity
exploiting stupidity, of capitalism taken to it its furthest limits, of gullibility,
fallibility, optimism, cruelty, vulgarity and greed. Some find themselves so grossed
out, so appalled and frightened by what Las Vegas is that they turn tail and run,
never to return. Some are so instantly grossed in, so entranced and seduced, that
they dive headfirst into it all, never to leave. Most amused, repelled, outraged and
enraptured.
A phrase that Europeans and Americans alike were fond of using in the early
days of the twentieth century was ‘the Can Do spirit’. America’s ability to solve
problems of civil engineering by designing bridges, roads and tunnels bigger and
better than any seen before, its habit of throwing up enormous skyscrapers,
inventing new gadgets, building whole new cities, devising new ways to serve
food, to entertain, to sell, to charm…this brand of energy, optimism, drive and
ingenuity was something quite new in the world. It is a quality still alive and
nowhere more so than in Las Vegas, where they prove every year that they Can Do
just about anything.
Trains, silver-mining, a quartz mill, snow-capped peaks, telegraph poles, a
wheat sheaf, a sickle and a plough in the foreground. Mineral resources,
agriculture, natural beauty, transportation and communications. This is Nevada.
CALIFORNIA
Capital: Sacramento
Statistically California has a habit of boggling the mind. At thirty-six and a
half million people, only thirty-four countries in the world can claim to have larger
populations. Come to that, only eight countries in the world can claim to have a
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greater gross domestic product or more powerful economy. As the home of Silicon
Valley and Hollywood, California probably exerts a greater cultural and
technological influence over the world than any nation. With its size, diversity,
power and reach California is a state like no other.
The miles of Pacific coastline and the great wildernesses of Sequoia and
Yosemite, Death Valley (the hottest place on earth) and the Sierra Nevada
Mountains (which contain Mount Whitney, the highest peak in all the forty-eight
contiguous states), the giant redwoods, the beaches, the lakes, islands, palms and
pastures–you can imagine why the pioneers who had struggled through the sparse
deserts of the west screamed with delight when they fell upon this lush, fertile
land. That it should have so much gold too…no wonder they call it the Eureka
State.
OREGON Capital: Salem
There is something in the Oregon air. On a bright clear day, when the sky is
as deep a blue as can be and the fragrant scent of pine invades your nostrils you
can tell for sure that this place is different even from neighbouring northern
California. We are in the Great Pacific Northwest. The edging of Douglas firs on
the hillside gives a hint. Then there is the atmosphere: it is as if you are looking at
a world with 500 megapixel resolution. Not a hint of graininess in the air, but the
kind of clarity that says larches, lumber and leaping salmon. Why, this could
almost be Canada.
What is prosperity compared to beauty? The streams and rivers are as clear
as the air, the mountains in their shawls of ragged spruce and fir reveal lower
slopes abundant with both broadleaf and conifer. Oregon, as it happens, produces
ninety-five per cent of all America’s hazelnuts.
Grants Pass is something of a centre for the caving and rafting that attract
thousands of people throughout the year.
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WASHINGTON Capital: Olympia
The forty-eighth and last of the contiguous states. Alaska and Hawaii are
disconnected states. Washington, like the northwest areas of Britain, is known for
its rainfall and Seattle, the city of Boeing, Microsoft, Starbucks and grunge, does
not disappoint. Seattle is a city in which so many disparate American threads come
together. Boeing and Microsoft typify as much as any two institutions could the
astounding power of American technology and corporate muscle. Without the
jumbo jet and Windows the world would be, for good or ill, a very different place.
And then there is Pike Place Market, one of the finest food markets in the
world where every horrible tenet of the American supermarket is disregarded:
processed, packaged and homogenised food has no place here; here all is freshly
and locally produced, laid out in European style stalls and free from the national
branding and corporate badging that prevails in the rest of America. The sight of
proper cheese and bread sends me wild with delirium. There are other street
markets in the USA, but mostly they are either ethnically specific or species of
small farmers’ market which, while growing yearly in popularity, do not come
close to Pike Place in permanence or quality. Pike Place Market alone is, according
to Seattle resident and media impresario Christoph Snell, reason enough to live in
Seattle.
ALASKA Capital: Juneau
Alaska, alone with Hawaii, does not border any other American state.
Texas is huge. From Amarillo in the northwest to Brownsville in the
southeast is a distance of over eight hundred miles. Yep, Texas is mighty big. Yet
Alaska is two and half times the size. The next two largest states in America are
California and Montana. Alaska is bigger than both of them and Texas combined.
Alaska is too enormous for the sane mind to grasp. You could comfortably fit
seven United Kingdoms inside, or thirteen Englands. You may remember that
Maine, the first state I visited on this trip, has three and half thousand miles of
coastline. Well, Alaska has more coastline than Maine and all the other American
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states combined. Alaska is unexplorably big. The capital city Juneau is
inaccessible by road: you have to take a ferry to get there. The interior regions in
winter regularly dip below -52ºC.
It is a three-and-half-hour flight from Seattle, Washington to Anchorage,
Alaska over British Columbia, Canada. From the mid-eighteenth century onwards
Alaska was part of the Russian Empire. By 1869, trappers and traders having
brought many fur species to edge of extinction, the Tsar was done with this
unprepossessing land and made it known to the United States that he was ready to
sell. The American Secretary of State, William Seward got a price of $7,200,000,
which worked out at about 1.9¢ an acre. You might think that the American people
would be pleased, but the general view at the time was that Seward had been sold a
pup, a ‘sucked orange’ as the New York World put it. ‘Seward’s Folly’ remained a
joke until gold was discovered in Alaska just thirty years later (too late for Seward
to have the last laugh: he died three years after the purchase). It was not until 1959
however that Alaska, with Hawaii, was finally admitted into the union as a full
state.
Signs of the Russian occupation are surprisingly easy to find in Kodiak
(Kodiak Island). Street names ending in -off and -inski are plentiful, but the most
obvious clues are the two Russian Orthodox churches.
HAWAII Capital: Honolulu
Hawaiian name (which means something like ‘cool ocean breeze’).
Honolulu and Waikiki Beach are in the south of the island of Oahu Here is
the beauty, the paradisiacal splendour, the botanical variety and the genuine warm
kindliness of the Aloha spirit.. From the moment you get on the plane to Honolulu
to the moment you leave, the word ‘Aloha’ is rammed down your throat. It is a
greeting of course, but it is supposed to mean a spirit of welcome and friendliness
and warmth. There is no evidence of this Aloha in Honolulu, despite seeing the
word everywhere, in neon, plastic and concrete.
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This is the southernmost part of America and behind me new bits of
America are being made. It seems the right moment to say goodbye. Fifty states.
Fifty cultures, societies, accents, cuisines, landscapes and more.
2B. BUSINESS
Read and translate the text:
”No gain without pain”
Ups & Downs of the American Economy
The American economy is a study in contrasts. They have poverty in the
midst of plenty. On the one hand, they have rapidly expanding industries like
computer software and medical technology; on the other hand, they have dying
industries like shipbuilding and consumer electronics. The American economy
created nearly 20 million new jobs in the 1990s. That’s the good news. The bad
news is that half of them paid less than $12000 per year. These so-called McJobs
are often low-level, minimum wage, dead-end positions with no social benefits.
Nevertheless, the United States has the world’s highest standards of living.
There are historical reasons why this is so. The USA became number one early in
the twentieth century. In the 1920s the era of mass consumption began. For
example, in 1920 there were fewer than one million cars on the road; by 1929 there
were close to 25 million. Electricity became commonplace during the 1920s. The
outlook was one of almost unbridled optimism. Suddenly, all things were
possible. Economic growth was rapid, unemployment low, and inflation
nonexistent.
But the prosperity of the 1920s gave way to a decade of economic
depression. Between 1929 and 1933 both prices and national output were cut in
half. By 1933 more than one-quarter of the U.S. labor force was unemployed.
President Roosevelt’s New Deal economic program got things moving again, but
they didn’t really recover from the depression until the early years of World War
II.
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The New Deal was an extremely important economic event through, because
it set the precedent for federal government economic intervention. It was the
massive government spending during World War II; to buy all the goods and
services that the economy could produce. The New Deal is best summarized by the
three Rs: relief, recovery, and reform. Relief was aimed at alleviating the suffering
of a nation that was, in President Roosevelt’s words, one-third “ill-fed, ill-clothed,
and ill-housed”. These people needed work relief, a system similar to today’s
workfare (work for your welfare check) programs. An average of about 6 million
people were put to work at various jobs ranging from raking leaves and repairing
public buildings to maintaining national parks and building power dams.
The government hoped that all of this spending would bring about economic
recovery, but the most lasting effect of the New Deal was reform. The Securities
and Exchange Commission (SEC) was set up to regulate the stock market and
avoid a repetition of the speculative excesses of the late 1920s, which had led to
the great crash of 1929. Also, an unemployment insurance benefit program was set
up to provide temporarily unemployed people with some money to tide them
over. The most important reform of all was the creation of social security. Thus,
the New Deal programmes were aimed at stimulating the economy and at solving
such persistent problems as poverty and economic insecurity.
Nevertheless, the New Deal alone failed to get the USA completely out of
the depression in spite of spending billions of dollars and putting a lot of people to
work. But they didn’t spend enough. Then, in 1937, before the economy was
completely back on its feet, spending was cut back, which meant there was a lot
less money available to business borrowers to finance new plant, equipment, and
inventory.
Immediately after World War II, however, the problem of inflation
appeared. The government had removed wartime price controls, and prices rose by
35% in three years. Inflation was not brought under control until 1949. Then the
outbreak of the Korean War brought with it another surge of inflation as people
scrambled to buy television sets and other appliances that they thought might
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become scarce if the war widened. By the late 1950s, a mixture of tight federal
budgets and low monetary growth brought inflation once again under control.
Suburbanization was the migration of tens of millions of middle-class
Americans – nearly all of them white – from the nation’s large central cities to
newly developed suburban towns and villages. By the late 1950s suburbanization
had changed the face of America. Instead of getting to work by public
transportation, these commuters now went by car. Millions of poor people – the
large majority of whom were African American or Hispanic – moved into the
apartments vacated by the whites who had fled to the suburbs. Throughout the
1950s, the 1960s, and early 1970s, a huge concentration of poor people was left in
the cities as the middle-class workers – both African-American and white –
continued to flee to the suburbs. By the mid-1970s, the inner cities were rife with
poverty, drugs, and crime, and had become socially isolated from the rest of the
country.
The consequences of suburbanization were the dependence on oil as the
main source of energy and, eventually, the dependence on foreign sources for more
than half their oil. Indeed, America’s love affair with the automobile has not only
depleted their resources, polluted their air, destroyed their landscapes, and clogged
their highways, but also has been a major factor in their imbalance of trade.
The 1960s was a time of almost uninterrupted economic expansion. Three
important things affected the economy during the 1960s:
- a high level of military spending in Vietnam
- the war on poverty
- a slowing of suburbanization
A major tax cut in 1964 and U.S. involvement in the war in Vietnam
stimulated the economy and brought down the unemployment rate below 4%. But
late in the decade the country had another bout of inflation that would not be
wrung out of the economy until the early 1980s.
The 1970s brought Americans crashing back to economic reality. In 1973
they were hit by the worst recession in over thirty years. This came on the heels of
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an oil price shock: The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
had quadrupled oil prices in the autumn of 1973. It was the period of stagflation
– the first part of the word is derived from stagnation (the rate of economic
growth had slowed down to a crawl). Usually when this happened prices would
stop rising, or would slow their rate of increase. But now the opposite had
happened: they had a bad case of inflation, which gave them the second part of the
word. The 1970s and early 1980s were a period of economic stagflation.
The 1990s were marked by three very positive economic trends. First, the
unemployment rate, which had long been around or over 6%, began to decline in
the mid-1990s, falling below 5% in 1997. Second, the inflationary trend of the late
1960s through the early 1980s had finally been reversed. By 1997 it was below
2%. And, finally, the massive federal budget deficits of the mid-1980s through the
early 1990s (which had reached a peak of $290 billion in 1992) had disappeared by
1998, with the prospect of budget surpluses into the early years of the new
millennium.
Nowadays the USA is the world’s number one economic power. In terms of
total output of goods and services, they turn out more than Japan, Germany,
China, and every other nation. What made the USA number one? There are a lot of
explanations – an endowment of natural resources, a free enterprise economic
system, American ingenuity, a huge nationwide market, geographical isolation,
immigration, a class-free society, to mention a few of the more prominent theories.
Which one is right? Perhaps all of them, as well as a few that weren’t mentioned.
Vocabulary
McJobs – низкооплачиваемый, низко квалифицированный труд
dead-end – бесперспективный
social benefits – социальные льготы
standards of living – жизненный уровень
unbridled optimism – необузданный оптимизм
economic growth – экономический рост
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economic depression –экономический упадок
national output – национальный объем производства
to cut in half – сократить вдвое
The New Deal –
правительственная экономическая программа помощи
нуждающимся и потерявшим работу во время Великой Депрессии (The Great
Depression) – в период экономического упадка страны
government economic intervention – правительственная экономическая
помощь
alleviating – облегчение страданий (временное)
workfare programme – трудоустройство в рамках социальной программы
economic recovery – экономическое возрождение
stock market – биржа ценных бумаг
to provide with – обеспечивать
to tide somebody over – поддержать (в тяжелый период)
to be back on its feet – вновь окрепнуть (встать на ноги)
inflation – инфляция (обесценение денег в виде роста цен на товары)
surge of inflation – волна инфляции
to scramble – сражаться
scarce – редкий, дефицитный
suburbanization – переселение на окраины городов
commuter – пассажир, имеющий сезонный билет
to flee to the suburbs – переселяться на окраины
to rife with – пронизывать, наполнять, наводнять
to deplete – сокращать (количество)
to clog – забивать, тормозить движение
tax cut – снижение налога
bout of inflation – скачок инфляции
to wring (wrung) out – выжимать (зд. исчезать)
to cоme on the heels (of) – повлечь за собой, следовать (по пятам)
to quadruple – вчетверо увеличиться, вырасти
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stagflation – сочетание экономического кризиса, застоя с инфляцией
stagnation – экономический кризис, застой
budget deficits – бюджетный дефицит
budget surpluses – бюджетный профицит
to turn out more – превышать
endowment – обладание
ingenuity – изобретательность
Ex. 1. Translate into English
1.В 1930-х годах правительственная программа экономической помощи
нуждающимся и потерявшим работу в период Великой Депрессии была
чрезвычайно важна.
2. В 1933 году национальный объем производства в стране сократился
вдвое, и только к началу 1940-х годов экономика страны вновь смогла
окрепнуть. Это повлекло за собой увеличение выпуска товаров и услуг для
населения.
3. В период экономического кризиса правительственная помощь была
направлена на облегчение тяжелого положения безработных.
4. Политические события внутри страны и война в Корее вызвали
новую волну инфляции, когда цены на телевизоры и бытовые приборы
увеличились вдвое.
5. Переселение из центральных городов на окраины охватило (involved)
десятки миллионов жителей средних слоев населения.
6. В начале 1970-х новый скачок инфляции привел к массовой
безработице и снижению жизненного уровня населения.
7. Осенью 1973 года цены на нефть возросли в четыре раза. Это был
период стагфляции.
8. К 1997 году уровень инфляции снизился до 2%, что привело к
исчезновению бюджетного дефицита.
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9. Сегодня в США объем выпуска товаров и услуг превышает
национальный объем производства в таких странах, как Япония, Германия и
Китай.
10. Ученые считают, что не только обладание богатыми природными
ресурсами, но в большой степени (to a large extent) креативность и
изобретательность
американцев
сделали
страну
экономической державой.
Ex. 2. Choose the right answer
1. What finally got the United States out of the depression?
a) The New Deal.
b) World War II.
c) It ended by itself.
2. Which statement about the New Deal is true?
a) It failed because it didn’t spend enough.
b) It failed because it spent too much.
c) It succeeded in ending the depression.
3. In the 1990s:
a) the unemployment rate began to increase.
b) the employment rate began to decrease.
c) the unemployment rate began to decrease.
Ex. 3. Cross the odd one
1. McJobs are:
a) low-level
b) well-paid
c) dead-end
2. In the 1920 there was no:
a) unemployment
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самой
мощной
b) inflation
c) rapid economic growth
3. The New Deal is summarized by:
a) relief
b) stagflation
c) reform
4. Three important things affected the economy during the 1960s:
a) the war on poverty
b) the Korean War
c) a slowing of suburbanization
5. By the mid-1970s, the inner cities were rife with:
a) prosperity
b) drugs
c) crime
Ex. 4. Fill in correct prepositions
1. The New Deal is best summarized ___ the three Rs: relief, recovery, and
reform.
2. The government hoped that all ___ this spending would bring
____economic recovery, but the most lasting effect ___ the New Deal was reform.
3. The New Deal programs were aimed ____stimulating the economy and
___ solving such persistent problems as poverty and economic insecurity.
4. The New Deal was an extremely important economic event through,
because it set the precedent ____federal government economic intervention.
5. The government had removed wartime price controls, and prices rose
____ 35% ____ three years.
6. The consequences ___suburbanization were the dependence ___ oil as the
main source ___ energy and, eventually, the dependence ___foreign sources ___
more than half their oil.
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7. An unemployment insurance benefit program was set ___ to provide
temporarily unemployed people ____ some money to tide them___.
Ex. 5. Match the words below to the correct prefixes.
1. employment
a) un
b) in
c) im
d) non
2. existent
a) in
b) mis
c) non
d) un
3. interrupted
a) dis
b) un
c) in
d) non
4. balance
a) in
b) dis
c) un
d) im
5. bridled
a) non
b) un
c) dis
d) in
6. security
a) un
b) in)
c) non
d) mis
Ex. 6. Match the words to their definitions
1. stagnation
a) work for welfare check
2. suburbanization
b) a continuing rise in prices
3. inflation
c) the rate of economic growth
has slowed down to a crawl
4. workfare
d) migration from the cities to the suburbs
5. stock market
e) stagnation + inflation
6. unbridled
f)a place where stocks and shares are bought
and sold
7. stagflation
g) skill in inventing or arranging things
8. ingenuity
h) not controlled and too active
Ex. 7. Tick the correct item according to the text
Years/Items
Economic growth
Economic
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20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
2000
depression
Employment
Unemployment
Inflation
Suburbanization
Stagflation
Budget deficit
Ex. 8. Write one of the following essays:
1. “The Failure of the New Deal”
2. “Relief, Recovery & Reform”
3. “Suburbanization & Stagflation”
4. “The Cause & Effect of Inflation”
5. “The USA is the World’s Number One Economy”
2C. CULTURE
•
Within the United States, the term Americanization refers to the
process of acculturation by immigrants or newcoming populations to American
customs and values.
Reading
“Before Elvis there was nothing.”
John Lennon
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FROM AMERICANIZATION TO GLOBALIZATION
I
The USA, the country which had been an importer of influences has become
in the twentieth century a major exporter of them. The whole world imports
products and services from the USA. The majority of the world’s best known
celebrities are from the USA. In many areas of life, American popular tastes and
attitudes have conquered the world. The United States became the first nation in
history to build its way of life. Culturally, Americans are in between “affective”
and “neutral” cultures – in some ways they are more open and in other ways they
are more reserved. However, the Americans tend to show feelings more, they
show how they feel quite openly – when they are happy, or when they are angry.
Over 60% would express anger openly in a work or formal situations.
The USA is a big democratic country, where the way of life is fast, the food
is fast, and thus, the trade mark features of America are the Statue of Liberty,
McDonalds and Coca-Cola. Most people spend their holiday in the USA, because
it’s so big, and there are so many spectacular places to visit. Besides, the
Americans go to the movies a lot. In the 1920s American movies filled the cinema
screens of the world. Most were made in Hollywood. By the 1920s it had become
the film-making capital of the world. Hollywood movies were made by large
companies called studios. The men who ran these studios were businessmen and
their main aim was to make as much money as possible. They soon found that one
way to do this was to standardize their films. The actors were turned into “stars”.
A famous star could make any movie a certain success, so the studios went to great
legends to make their actors into stars. They encouraged fan magazines. The
movies of the 1920s were silent. They spoke in pictures, not words, and so their
language was international. All over the world, from Berlin to Tokyo, from
London to Buenos Aires, tens of millions of people lined up every night of the
week to see their favourite Hollywood stars – and, without realizing, to be
Americanized.
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After the World War II the spreading of American influence was continued
by a powerful new force – television. In 1947 around 170000 American families
had television sets flickering in their living rooms. Comedy, fiction, westerns – all
these were popular. Nowadays, the Americans watch a lot of TV – there are
hundreds of channels on 24 hours a day. By the 1960s filmed television
programmes had become an important American export. Other countries found it
cheaper to buy American television production than to make their own. Soon such
exported programmes were being watched by viewers all over the world. Most TV
shows were concerned with entertainment. The global appeal of big entertainment
events is gained by “reality shows”, which combine the drama of life performance
with interactive participation. One of such shows is “American Idol” – the US
version of the huge British TV hit, “Pop Idol”.
Vocabulary
celebrity – знаменитость
affective – эмоциональный
reserved – сдержанный
movies – кино
to standardize – стандартизировать
to line up – стоять в очереди
flickering – светящийся
entertainment – развлечение
interactive participation – непосредственное участие
II
The USA has had the enormous influence on popular music in the last
hundred years. It all started with the “blues”. Things really began in a big way at
the beginning of the twentieth century, when the blues developed from black folk
music into popular music. George Gershwin’s “Rhapsody in Blue”, first performed
in 1924, was very innovative and succeeded in being both serious and extremely
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popular. Blues singers like Bessie Smith were popular with both blacks and whites.
It was also big business. The 1920s was known as the “Jazz Age”, and jazz music
was popularized by such great performers as the trumpet player Louis Armstrong,
and late the Duke Ellington Orchestra and singer Ella Fitzgerald. Side by side with
the blues was early “country and western” music, aimed at white audiences in the
south. Songs in both styles shared the same themes – poverty, homelessness and
hardships.
In music, the process of Americanization could be seen most clearly in the
huge international popularity of rock. In the middle of the 1950s pop music
returned to its black roots with the “rock-and-roll revolution”. Rock began as a
music that was first played in the American South and combined black blues with
the country music of working class whites to produce a heavily rhythmic –
“rocking sound” that appealed especially to young people. Many of rock-and-roll
first stars were black performers such as Chuck Berry and Little Richard. But the
unchallenged “king” of rock-and-roll was a young southern white named Elvis
Presley. The major exhibition of Elvis Presley’s personal belongings outside of the
USA has been organized in Liverpool, “the UK’s Capital of Pop”. A fascinating
exhibition “Fingerprints of Elvis” brings you closer to the man who has been the
biggest influence on popular music. At the “Fingerprints of Elvis” you can see
many of the “king’s” personal items including his 1976 Harley Davidson which he
was actually riding two days before his death and his unique Gold Mercedes SEL,
wonderful Stage Suits, Guitars and personal Jewellery as worn and owned by
Elvis. His private collection of Deputy Sheriff badges, Elvis’s sporting
paraphernalia and many more items including the actual set of Elvis’ fingerprints
taken for his gun license application are also on show. To rock-and-roll
enthusiasts, Presley came to symbolize a new culture of youth.
After Elvis Presley, American music rapidly splintered into a variety of
mixtures of styles. For example, there was a revival in American folk music,
popularized by Bob Dylan, which in turn led to a new style called “folk-rock”.
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Since then we’ve had “hard rock”, “soft rock”, “country rock” and even rock
operas and musicals.
By the 1970s rock-and-roll had blended with the protest songs of the 1960s
to become rock, a harder music than rock-and-roll. However, rock became an
international as well as American phenomenon, one that millions of younger
people worldwide saw as their natural cultural language. A larger part of its appeal
was that it symbolized opposition to officially approved ideas and standards even
more strongly than its ancestor (rock-and-roll) had done in the 1950s.
A phenomenon of the 1940s and 1950s was the “musical”. Composers
wrote songs for Broadway theatres which were often adapted for Hollywood. A
classical composer who turned his hand to musicals was Leonard Bernstein.
Nowadays, “Chicago” is the most popular one. Music can be a powerful weapon.
In 1966, a song “Banana Boat Song” recorded by a truck driver from Buffalo, New
York, helped force a Dutch retailer, (the CEO of Royal Dutch Ahold, the largest
supermarket chain in the Easter United States) to the negotiating table over a
dispute with U.S. workers. The song managed to pressure the company to sign a
profitable contract. Many more well-known musicians are also working to raise
consciousness of globalization. In 2003, a group of diverse stars including
country singer Steve Earle, performed in thirteen U.S. cities to expose the negative
impacts of free trade and media concentration.
Vocabulary
innovative – новый, новаторский, инновационный
trumpet player – трубач, саксофонист
fascinating – очаровательный
Deputy Sheriff – помощник шерифа
paraphernalia – личное имущество, принадлежности
to splint – распадаться
revival – возрождение
to blend – смешивать(ся)
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ancestor – предок
phenomenon – явление
negotiating table – стол переговоров
to pressure – оказывать давление
consciousness of globalization – значение глобализации
diverse – разнообразный
to expose – обличать
III
The Americanization of popular taste and habits was
not restricted to entertainment. Not only did “fast food”
and blue jeans earn the popularity, but also supermarkets
and skyscrapers. The first supermarkets appeared in the
United States in the 1950s. They gave shoppers a much
wider range of choices of foods and other consumer goods.
They were the visible proof of the superiority of the American way of organizing a
nation’s economic life. When supermarkets proved a commercial success in the
USA they quickly spread to other prosperous countries, first in Europe and then in
other parts of the world. So did another feature of American cities in these years –
groups of tall, narrow buildings – “skyscrapers”. First skyscrapers appeared in
Chicago in 1880s. One of the earliest examples of the skyscrapers in New York
was Seagram Building, designed by Mies van der Rohe and Philip Johnson’s –
architects working in the USA. By the 1980s skyscrapers became office and
apartment buildings in cities all over the world.
In the early 1980s there was a real craze for graffiti art, which was no
longer found only in the subway and poor ghetto areas of the city as it used to be
in the 1970s. Graffiti came back with hip-hop music. “Hip-hop” culture grew up in
the black ghettos of big American cities in the early 1980s. When hip-hop music
suddenly got to the top of the American music charts, hip-hop culture was spread,
bringing graffiti with it. Hip-hop music is linked with “rap”, which is a style of
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talking/singing that is very popular. Today companies are starting to realize the
appeal of graffiti in advertising. Kel Rodriguez, who used to spray New York
subway trains, was the artist to design the Wall Street Journal’s website and it is
obviously, done in graffiti-style. Another artist, Blade has his own website devoted
only to the world of graffiti. This website has a “merchandise page” where Blade
sells things with his own original designs all over the world. Leonardo McGurr, a
street artist for 25 years, when from painting subway trains to designing and
marketing graffiti-inspired clothes for young people, says: “Graffiti has been a
story of survival”. Nowadays, it has the status of “street art” and you get graffiti
in advertisements, on clothes, on toys. Other examples of street art are street
musicians, known as “buskers”, “live-statues” – people who stand motionless like
a statue and pavement artists, chalking on pavements, often reproducing famous
works of art. Visual artistry and street theatre have helped globalization activists
reach new audiences and transformed demonstrations into festivals of colourful
and creative expression. Art can be powerful. On the eve of a major protest against
the World Bank in 2000, Washington, DC, police took actions and confiscated
gigantic papier-mache puppets, including a massive smiling sun that had been
constructed for the rally. Since 2000 a decentralized group of graphic artists and
educators, the Maine-based Beehive Collective has designed and distributed 45000
educational posters on globalization and other issues through “pollination tours”
on college campuses, high schools, at major demonstrations. In 2003 their featured
work was a portable sixteen-foot mural depicting images related to the proposed
Free Trade Area of the Americas. Presenters explain the mural’s details and facts,
helping to break down complex issues into smaller, digestible chunks. American
Mike Alewitz was the principle artist on a mural entitled “Trade Unionism
without Borders”, the mural depicts workers tearing up borders imposed by
bosses and feature heroes from both the U.S. and Mexican labour movements.
Cartoonists have lent their artistic skills to support educational efforts on
globalization throughout the world.
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Vocabulary
to restrict – ограничивать
skyscraper – небоскреб
consumer goods – товары широкого потребления
prosperous – процветающий
craze – мода, повальное увлечение
graffiti – граффити (рисунки и надписи на стенах)
subway – метро
ghetto – гетто (бедный квартал)
music charts – музыкальные рейтинги
to spray – распылять
merchandise page – торговая реклама
survival – выживание
visual artistry – наглядное мастерство
papier-mache puppet – кукла из папье-маше
rally – массовый митинг, сбор, собрание
pollination tour – агитационная кампания (акция)
campus – общежитие
mural – настенная живопись, фреска
Free Trade Area – свободная торговая зона
digestible chunk – удобоваримый кусок
“Trade Unionism without Borders” – «Профсоюзы без границ»
cartoonist – карикатурист
IV
Another phenomenon – “political theatre” is an effective way of educating
and mobilizing people around globalization issues, particularly in rural areas and
where literacy rates are low. For example, Nepali villagers gather around boom
boxes in tea shops to listen to a tape of a play about hydroelectric power, featuring
one of Nepal’s most famous comedians. Although the World Bank cancelled a
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large-scale dam project (Arun III) in 1995 in response to opposition from Nepali
and other nation’s nongovernmental organizations, the debate over such projects
continues. The play satirizes the World Bank’s comedy of errors over Arun III,
enabling the audience to laugh at the projects absurdities while raising important
questions about the rights of Nepali citizens in determining the country’s future
development path. The tapes and complementary comic books were produced by a
U.S. group “Media for International Development”. They have distributed 5000
tapes and 3000 comic books throughout the country.
A lot of people have emigrated from Europe to the USA, looking for jobs
and career opportunities. As the USA has become a “melting pot” and cultures
mix more and more, it’s necessary to become not only culturally sensitive and
tolerant, but also to make English, the official language of the United States, the
global language – the language of international communication, peace talks and
government negotiations. English is certainly a useful language to learn. So many
websites are in English, that it would be difficult to surf the net properly if you
didn’t know some English. More than 1000 universities and programmes in the
USA use the TOEFL exam to evaluate the English proficiency of applicants who
are not native speakers of English. Over 800000 applicants take the Test of English
as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) each year. American institutions want to be sure
that these candidates can read, write and comprehend spoken English so that they
can succeed in the USA.
English has become a global language. The world has become a “global
village”. The USA is the epicentre of the global world. Therefore, Americanization
of the world gradually leads to its Globalization in all spheres of social and cultural
life.
Vocabulary
rural – сельский
literacy – грамотность
boom box (ghetto blaster) – переносной магнитофон
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comedy of errors – «комедия ошибок»
“melting pot” – «котел» (прозвище получено из-за большого количества
наций и национальностей, проживающих на территории США)
to surf the net – «бороздить» Интернет, просматривать сайты
After-reading tasks
Ex. 1. Translate into English
1. 1920-е годы в Америке назывались «Эпохой джаза», яркими
представителями которой были саксофонист Луи Армстронг, джазовая
певица Элла Фитцджеральд и немного позднее оркестр Дюка Эллингтона.
2. В 1960-е годы «король» рок-н-ролла Элвис Пресли стал символом
новой молодежной культуры. Однако уже к середине 60-х, с появлением
«Битлс» в Британии в Ливерпуле, США потеряли монополию на поп-музыку.
3. После Элвиса Пресли рок распался на «хард-рок», «софт рок»,
«кантри рок», что привело к появлению многочисленных рок опер и
мюзиклов.
4. К 1970 годам ритмы рок-н-ролла, смешавшись с очень популярными
в 1960-е годы песнями протеста, превратили «хард-рок» в международное
явление – музыку, в которой молодежь той эпохи выражала свое отношение
к действительности, протест против всего традиционного и общепринятого.
5. Процесс «американизации» понятий и вкусов не ограничился
рамками шоу-бизнеса, – он проник во все сферы общественной жизни и
превратил Америку из страны, импортирующей зарубежную моду и влияние
в страну, экспортирующую свою моду, товары и услуги.
6. Супермаркеты, появившиеся в Америке в середине прошлого века и
небоскребы, построенные в Чикаго еще в 80-х годах девятнадцатого века и
завоевавшие мировое признание, доказали превосходство американского
пути развития общества.
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7. «Американизация» общественной жизни постепенно становится
примером для подражания
во всем мире и, таким образом, приводит к
глобализации, стандартизации вкусов и понятий.
8. Граффити зародилось в недрах беднейших кварталов в 1970-е годы.
Однако уже в 1980-е годы «искусство настенной живописи» вышло не только
на центральные улицы городов, но и стало модой в рекламе, одежде и
игрушках.
9. Городская живопись, реклама, уличные музыканты и многие другие
виды «городского искусства» помогают активистам-глобалистам привлекать
внимание публики и превращать обыкновенные демонстрации в яркие,
красочные манифестации и фестивали.
10. Такое явление, как «политический театр», стало еще одним
эффективным способом воспитания масс, привлечения их внимания и
консолидации усилий в интересах глобализации.
Ex. 2. Divide the following words into two columns
murals, blues, soft rock, posters, rap, musicals, live-statues, studios, graphic
artists, jazz, rock-and-roll, pavement artists, chalk, hard rock, buskers, country
rock, folk-rock, musicians, singers, advertisements, composers, papier-mache
puppets, political theatre, street theatre, graffiti, visual artistry, rock operas,
trumpet player, protest songs, hip-hop music, boom box, music charts, festivals
MUSIC
STREET ART
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Ex. 3. Match the words to their meanings
1. busker
a) shop
2. live-statue
b) demonstration
3. rap
c) motionless figure
4. graffiti
d) street musician
5. mural
e) tape-recorder
6. poster
f) tall building
7. supermarket
g) spraying wall-painting
8. rally
h) billboard
9. skyscraper
i) large-scale wall artistry
10. boom box
g) talking/singing
Ex. 4. Expand on the following
street art
political theatre
hip-hop culture
affective cultures
neutral cultures
reality show
rock-and-roll revolution
jazz age
rocking sound
pollination tours
visual artistry
melting pot
surf the net
merchandise page
global village
interactive participation
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Ex. 5. Tick the correct item
1920
1930
1940
1950
1960
1970
1980
1990
2000
rockand-roll
graffiti
murals
rap
jazz
rock
musical
movies
TV
supermarkets
Ex. 6. American or British?
movies – films
underground – subway
campus – hostel
apartment – flat
lorry – track
queue at – line up
epicentre – epicenter
programme – program
labor – labour
favourite - favorite
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Ex. 7. Match A to B
A. “American Idol”
B. song
A. “The UK’s Capital of Pop”
B. mural
A. “Fingerprints of Elvis”
B. bike
A. “Chicago”
B. reality show
A. “Banana Boat Song”
B. musical
A. Media for International
B. exhibition
Development
A. Arum III
B. dam project
A. Meine-based Beehive
B. Liverpool
Collective
A. “Trade Unionism without
B. U.S. media group
Boarders”
A. Harley Davidson
B. graphic artists
Ex. 8. Writing
1. Write a chronological essay on the topic “American Culture”.
2. Write a discursive essay on the topic “The USA is the epicentre of the
global world”. Do you agree or disagree?
3. Write a discursive essay to prove the fact that “Americanization” has
enhanced “Globalization”.
2D. ENVIRONMENT
Reading
“We cannot go back on globalization; it is here to stay.
The issue is how can we make it work”
(Joseph E. Stiglitz, winner of the Nobel Prize in Economics)
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GLOBALIZATION THREATENS THE ENVIRONMENT
Globalization puts multiple pressure on the environment. There are global
environmental issues, especially those that concern the oceans and atmosphere.
Global warming caused by the industrial countries’ use of fossil fuels, leading to
concentrations of greenhouse gases (CO2), affects those living in pre-industrial
economies, whether in a South Sea island or in the heart of Africa. The hole in the
ozone layer caused by the use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) similarly affects
everyone – not just those who made use of these chemicals. As the importance of
these international environmental issues has grown, international conventions have
been signed. Some have worked remarkably well, such as the one directed at the
ozone problem (the Montreal Protocol of 1987); while others, such as those that
address global warming, have yet to make a significant dent in the problem.
Rapid, uncontrolled development of export industries has vastly increased
pollution around the world. Some global companies deliberately choose
production locations where environmental enforcement is lax. Furthermore, the
World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF) pressure countries to pay off
loans through increased export earnings. This often means cutting down forests for
timber exports or plantation expansion, depleting fishing stocks, or expanding
open-pit mines.
Advocates of current globalization policies counter that expanded exports
provide economic growth, which, in turn, gives governments more resources to
invest in environmental clean-up. The record, however, suggests otherwise. All
four leading exporters in the developing world – China, Mexico, Malaysia, and
Brazil – have significant environmental problems linked to export-oriented
policies. For example, under the North American Free Trade Agreement
(NAFTA), Mexico’s exports to the United States have ballooned, but the
explosion of foreign-owned export assembly plants has intensified environmental
problems:
- Air pollution from Mexican manufacturing doubled during NAFTA’s first
four years.
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- During the same period, Mexican government investment in environmental
protection declined in real terms by about 45% despite rapid export growth.
By 2004, according to data released, 10,000 square miles of Amazon
rainforest were destroyed in Brazil, mostly by ranchers and farmers. The law
limits deforestation to 20% of privately owned rainforest, while a network of
reserves protects some public land. But in practice frontier law is feeble. So some
environmentalists have decided to cooperate with landowners rather than fight
them. This cooperation began in the logging industry. Furniture-makers who buy
wood that is harvested “sustainably” can now slap the seal of the Forest
Stewardship Council (FSC) on their wares, encouraging sales to green-minded
consumers.
However, Mr. Carter, a rancher, with 20,000 acres on the eastern edge of the
Xingu river, in a vast Amazonian state, like all Amazonian agriculturalists, thinks
that further deforestation is inevitable and that the 20% legal limit should be raised.
Greens should accept this because, he says, without cooperation of landowners
“every tree is going to be cut down”. He is the driving force behind Alianca da
Terra, a new non-governmental organization that aims to be a “bridge” between
producers and environmentalists, promoting standards and certification. Blairo
Maggi, one of the firm’s owners, is governor of Mato Grosso, where about half of
2003 year’s deforestation took place. Greenpeace has crowned him the “king of
deforestation”. Mr Maggi worries that as trade barriers fall Brazil’s competitors
will use such titles as an excuse to block imports. The answer, he thinks, is to
produce “totally within the law,” as his firm already does. His government has
asked Mr. Carter’s group to develop the criteria for certification. Mr. Carter has got
several powerful friends, who are appealing to greens: one of them is Andre
Maggi, the environmental director, co-founder of Alianca da Terra, the world’s
biggest soya grower. Yet Mr. Carter’s allies are not all producers. The head of
IPAM, one of the main Amazonian research institutes, believes that as Brazilian
agriculture becomes more corporate and internationally oriented it can be made to
behave more responsibly.
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Meanwhile, the Nature Conservancy, a non-governmental organization
announced an agreement by which Cargill, a huge American agriculture company,
would buy soya near its export terminal only from farmers who obey the law or
are clearly moving towards doing so.
Unfortunately, environmental laws are often overturned.
Environmental regulations are also subject to being challenged under trade
rules as “unfair barrier to trade”. World Trade Organization’s (WTO) first ruling
involved a successful challenge to an environmental law, the U.S. Clean Air Act.
Rather than face sanctions, the U.S. government weakened a part of the Act that
required foreign sources of U.S. gas imports to meet a certain cleanliness standard.
Many other environmental laws have since been challenged, including U.S.
dolphin and sea turtle protections, Japan’s species, and the European Union’s ban
on hormone-injected beef. Technically, the WTO allows exceptions for laws that
are “necessary to protect human, animal or plant life and health”. However, this
has proved virtually useless, since WTO tribunals have interpreted the language to
mean that laws must represent the “least trade-restrictive” way to achieve the
environmental goal.
Moreover, the World Bank has financed at least 550 dams valued at $ 86
billion during the past sixty years. These projects have displaced at least 10 mln.
people and often had devastating environmental effects. For example, the
independent World Commission on dams found that the World Bank-financed Pak
Mun Dam in Thailand resulted in a 60 to 80% decline in the fish catch upstream of
the dam. At least fifty fish species were eliminated from the area. The loss of
farming income, completely unforeseen by project designers, forced thousands of
villages to seek work in urban areas. Another 1,700 families were displaced by the
dam construction. World Bank lending for large dams declined after the mid1990s, largely due to public opposition. However, in 2003, the Bank announced
that it was planning to increase its funding for large infrastructure projects,
including dams.
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Furthermore, the World Bank has been a leading contributor to greenhouse
gas emissions. The Institute for Policy Studies has calculated that between 1992
and 2003, the World Bank financed fossil fuel extraction and power plant projects
that ultimately would release over 50 billion tons of carbon dioxide into the
atmosphere. This is the equivalent of more than twice the amount of carbon
dioxide emissions from energy consumption for the entire world in 2001. Almost
every project has benefited Northern fossil fuel corporations, especially those
based in the United States. The largest beneficiary has been Halliburton, the
company Richard Cheney led until he became vice president of the United States
in 2000.
Again, in June 2000, the World Bank helped financed a $ 3, 7 billion project
to develop oil infrastructure in Chad and build an oil pipeline from that country to
Cameroon’s Atlantic coast. The World Bank never produced a comprehensive
social and environmental impact assessment, despite widespread fears of
potential environmental damages such as water shortages and pollution due to oil
spills. Friends of Earth (environmentalists) estimated that even with the most
advanced technology, 2000 galloons of oil could leak undetected from the 600mile pipeline per day. In general, economic benefits for the local population will be
limited, since the European and U.S. companies that obtained the oil contracts are
exempt from paying taxes in Chad.
Besides breaking the laws there are some other threats that cause
environmental disruption, for instance, blackmail.
Mobile corporations can more effectively use threats of moving production
elsewhere in order to weaken U.S. environmental regulations. For example, a 2003
California rule limiting air pollution from lawnmowers was gutted under pressure
from one company, Briggs & Stratton. The company claimed that if the law went
into effect, it would raise production costs so much that the firm would have to
shut down its small-engine production plants in the United States. U.S.
Congressman Kit Bond, whose district is home to a Briggs & Stratton plant,
spearheaded an amendment in Congress that preempted the California law. He
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argued that the antipollution measures would force the firm to “rebuild these
facilities in China because they could do it so much more cheaply and use less
expensive labour”.
Another risk is pest invasion.
Growth of international trade has increased the number of exotic insects,
plants, and animals that enter the United States on imported goods. After habitat
loss, the invasion of non-native species is the second-greatest threat to native
American plants and animals and costs the U.S. economy more than $ 120 billion
annually in lost crops, forests, and home infestations.
Globalization has a disastrous impact on public health.
Inspectations of food imports have not kept pace with growth in trade
flows, increasing the risk of getting sick from eating non-inspected, contaminated
food. In addition, international trade rules prohibit governments from
discriminating against products on the basis of how they were produced. This
means that foreign producers can use pesticides and other chemicals banned in the
USA on products destined for the U.S. market.
To sum up, little attention is often paid to concerns about the environment.
To understand what goes wrong, it’s important to look at the three main
institutions that govern globalization: the IMF, the World Bank, and the WTO.
These international institutions should, of course, focus on issues where global
collective action is desirable, or even necessary. Unfortunately, if financial
interests have dominated thinking at the IMF, commercial interests have had an
equally dominant role at the WTO. However, the greatest challenge is not just in
the institutions themselves, which seem to pursue commercial and financial
interests above all else, but in mind-sets. The problem is that the institutions have
come to reflect the mind-sets of those to whom they are accountable. The trade
minister worries about export numbers, not pollution indices.
WTO puts trade over all else. Reforming the WTO will require thinking
further about a more balanced trade agenda – more balanced in treating the
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interests of the developing countries, more balanced in treating concerns, like
environment, that beyond trade.
Caring about the environment, making sure the poor have a say in decisions
that affect them, promoting democracy and fair trade are necessary if the potential
benefits of globalization are to be achieved. Otherwise globalization threatens the
environment both in developing and developed world.
Vocabulary
fossil fuels – природное топливо
ozone layer – озоновый слой
chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) – фреон, газ, используемый в холодильных
установках и аэрозолях
dent – брешь, дыра, прореха
deliberately – намеренно, обдуманно, нарочно
lax – бесконтрольный, неконтролируемый
timber exports – экспорт леса
depleting fishing stocks – исчезновение видов рыбы
open-pit mine – брошенная шахта
otherwise – иначе
to balloon – раздувать(ся), увеличивать(ся)
assembly plant – поточная линия, конвейер
rainforest – тропический лес
rancher – хозяин ранчо
deforestation – вырубка леса
feeble – слабый, зыбкий
logging industry – лесозаготовки, изготовление мебели и т.д.
sustainable – «поддерживающий жизнь»
to slap the seal – «шлепнуть» печать
Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) – Совет по охране леса
ware – изделие
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edge – край, берег
Nature Conservancy – охрана природы
terminal – граница, территория
to challenge – бросать вызов, оспаривать
to face sanctions – исполнять санкции, следовать инструкциям
sea turtle – морская черепаха
hormone-injected – гормональный
“least trade-restrictive” – без жестких торговых ограничений
dam – дамба
devastating – разрушительный
emission – выделение, выброс
fossil fuel extraction – добыча природного топлива
ultimately – в результате, в конечном итоге
carbon dioxide – углекислый газ
oil pipeline – нефтепровод
comprehensive social and environmental impact assessment – адекватная
оценка влияния … на окружающую среду
oil spill – утечка нефти, пятно нефти
to leak – протекать
exempt – изъятый, добытый
blackmail – шантаж
lawnmower – газонокосилка
to gut – подвергать
small-engine production – приборы, работающие на основе маломощных
(небольших) двигателей (моторов)
to spearhead – пробивать
amendment – поправка
to preempt – опережать
pest invasion – нашествие паразитов
habitat – среда обитания
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non-native – чужестранные (не местные), ввозимые
infestation – инвазия (заражение паразитами)
to keep pace (with) – успевать (за)
contaminated – зараженный
pesticide – пестициды
to destine – доставлять, ввозить
to pursue - преследовать
mind-set – менталитет, предубеждение
accountable – подотчетный
indices – (мн. ч. от index) - показатель
agenda – повестка дня
After-reading tasks
1. Translate into English
1. Выброс в атмосферу большого количества углекислого газа в
результате сжигания природного топлива вызвало глобальное потепление –
парниковый эффект – на всей планете.
2. Глобалисты считают, что ориентация стран на увеличения объема
экспортных поставок обеспечивает экономический рост, который, в свою
очередь, дает возможность правительствам этих стран финансировать
экологические проекты.
3. Вместо того чтобы следовать законам, направленным на защиту
окружающей среды, такие международные организации, как Всемирный
Банк и Всемирная Торговая Организация стараются обойти или свести к
минимуму любые торговые ограничения.
4. Несмотря на реальную опасность попадания нефти в воду,
Всемирный Банк продолжает финансировать строительство нефтепровода в
Чаде и по-прежнему не желает адекватно оценивать отрицательные
последствия этого проекта для окружающей среды.
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5. Калифорнийский закон ограничивает деятельность небольших
заводов, загрязняющих окружающие среду, выпускающих инвентарь и
садовое оборудование. Однако конгрессмен Кит Бонд, в чьем округе
находится компания Briggs & Stratton, занимающаяся производством
газонокосилок, внес поправку к закону в интересах компании.
6. Правила международной торговли запрещают правительству США
предвзято относиться к условиям и способам производства товаров,
ввозимых из-за рубежа, поскольку в каждой стране существуют свои
производственные стандарты, которые обязано уважать все мировое
сообщество. Однако из-за вторжения «чужестранных» удобрений, не
используемых на территории США, а также вследствие потребления
зараженной пищи, существует реальная угроза здоровью населению страны.
7. Всемирная Торговая организация ставит торговые интересы выше
экологических. Однако ВТО следует более внимательно отнестись к
проблеме охраны окружающей среды и сбалансировать свои интересы с
учетом угрозы глобального загрязнения атмосферы.
2. Which item below carries the most danger to the environment. Put each
item into most appropriate headings
challenged laws
oil pipelines
oil spills dams contaminated food
deforestation
fish elimination
gas emissions
pest invasion
holes in the ozone
layer
Large infrastructure projects
Export-oriented policies
Pollution indices
3. Choose the correct prefix
controlled
a) un
b) in
c) dis
forestation
a) in
b) de
c) anti
governmental
a) dis
b) un
c) non
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fair
a) de
b) un
c) in
placed
a) mis
b) dis
c) non
foreseen
a) in
b) un
c) anti
defected
a) un
b) dis
c) mis
pollution
a) anti
b) de
c) un
dependent a) mis
b) un
c) in
native
b) anti
c) in
a) non
4. Match A to B to make compound nouns FROM the TEXT
A. international
B. measures
A. cleanliness
B. conventions
A. carbon
B. laws
A. fossil
B. areas
A. face
B. sanctions
A. environmental
B. standard
A. antipollution
B. barrier
A. infrastructure
B. fuel
A. unfair
B. dioxide
A. urban
B. projects
5. Cross the odd one
- greens – Greenpeace – globalists;
- destine – import – lend;
- environmentalists – landowners – Friends of Earth;
- uncontrolled – feeble – lax;
- wares – goods – indices;
- measure – standard – certification;
- increase – growth – decline;
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- extraction – pollution – emission;
- contamination – infestation – invasion;
6. Continue the chain. Use the words and phrases from the box
Dam Construction ----- depleting the fish stocks ----decline in fish catch; people seek work in urban areas; people are displaced;
the loss of farming income; unforeseen losses;
7. Continue the chain. Use the words and phrases from the box
Trade Flows ----- imported goods ----pest invasion – exotic insects, plants, and animals – invasion of non-native
species – threat to native plants and animals – habitat loss – lost crops,
forests, and home infestations – disastrous impact on public health – the risk
of getting sick – eating non-inspected, contaminated food – banned pesticides
and other chemicals
8. Writing
Write an analytical essay on one of the following topics:
- “The Consequences of the Export-oriented Policies.”
- “Large Infrastructure Projects and the Environment.”
- “Why do World Bank and WTO Pay Little Attention to
Environmental
Regulations?”
- “Globalization Threatens the Environment Both in Developing and
Developed World.”
- “Environment is Beyond Trade.”
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MODULE 3 CANADA
3A. BACKGROUND
Reading
“The government will support and encourage the various cultures and ethnic
groups that give structure and vitality to our society.”
Pierre Elliot Trudeau
CROSS-CULTURAL CANADA
I
Like its neighbour to the south Canada is a spectrum of
cultures, a
hotchpotch of immigrant groups
who
supplanted the continent’s many native peoples. There is a
crucial difference, though. Whereas citizens of the United
States are encouraged to perceive themselves as Americans
above all else, Canada’s concertedly multicultural approach has done more to
acknowledge the origins of its people, creating an ethnic mosaic as opposed to
America’s “melting pot”. Alongside the French and British majorities live a host of
communities who maintain the traditions of their homelands – Chinese,
Ukrainians, Portuguese, Indians, Dutch, Polish, Greek and Spanish, to name just
the most numerous.
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Canadian culture is a product of Canada’s history and geography. Most of
Canada’s territory was inhabited and developed later than other European colonies
in the Americas, with the result that themes and symbols of pioneers, trappers,
and traders were important in the early development of Canadian culture. Hence, it
has historically been heavily influenced by British, French, and Aboriginal cultures
and traditions, and over time has been greatly influenced by American culture.
The British conquest of Quebec in 1759 brought a large francophone
population under British rule, creating a need for compromise and
accommodation. In Quebec, cultural identity is strong, and many Quebecois
commentators speak of a Quebec culture as distinguished from English Canadian
culture, but some also see Canada as a collection of several regional, aboriginal,
and ethnic subcultures. Canada’s historical ties to British culture help raise the
profile of Canadians in the area of literature and theatre, however.
French Canada’s early development was relatively cohesive during the 17th
and 18th centuries, and this was preserved by the Quebec Act of 1774, which
allowed francophone culture to survive and thrive within Canada. Canadian
television, especially supported by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, is the
home of a variety of locally-produced shows. French-language television, like
French Canadian film, is buffered from excessive American influence by the fact
of language, and likewise supports a host of home-grown productions. The relative
success of French-language domestic television and movies in Canada often
exceeds that of its English-language counterpart. The mid-1960s were marked by
increasing troubled English-French relations in Canada. The government appointed
a Royal Commission to study this problem and recommend solutions to these
problems. The Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism held
hearings across Canada. In 1969 the Bicultural and Bilingual act become a law.
The Royal Commission presented the government with this idea and
recommendations which would acknowledge the value of cultural pluralism to
Canadian identity and encourage Canadian institutions to reflect this pluralism in
their policies and programmes. The policy was accepted in 1971 while Pierre Elliot
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Trudeau was Prime Minister. When Policy was first announced, it was one of
multiculturalism within a bilingual framework. Multiculturalism affirmed English
and French as two official languages of Canada. But ethnic pluralism was declared
to be a positive feature of Canadian society worthy of preservation and
development. Many other provinces followed the federal lead by introducing
multiculturalism policies in their areas of authority. In 1982 it became a law and
later in 1988 Bill-C-93 was passed as the Multicultural Act. This broke the final
barriers of any racial laws and any ethnic problems.
Vocabulary
hotchpotch – смесь
to supplant – вытеснять
to perceive – чувствовать, ощущать
concertedly – согласованный
trapper – охотник-браконьер
francophone population – франкоговорящее население
cultural identity – национальная принадлежность
profile – акцент
cohesive – сплоченный
to thrive – процветать
to buffer – амортизировать, смягчать, тормозить
excessive – чрезмерный
to exceed – превышать
The Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism
framework – схема, структура
II
Loyalists from the Thirteen Colonies brought in strong British and American
influences, combined with a sense of anti-Americanism that survives to this day.
In 1867, the British North America Act was designed to meet the growing calls for
120
Canadian autonomy while avoiding the overly-strong decentralization that
contributed to the Civil War in the United States. However, the compromises made
by MacDonald and Cartier set Canada on a path to bilingualism, and this in turn
contributed to an acceptance of diversity than later led to both multiculturalism
and tolerance of First Nations culture and customs. Easy access to American
media has brought many American influences into Canadian culture since the mid20th century. Therefore, such access has allowed many Canadian performers and
entertainers to succeed internationally in the areas of music, comedy, movies, and
television. The Canadian film market was dominated by the American film
industry for decades, although that film industry has since inception seen a
prominent role for actors, directors, producers and technicians of Canadian origin.
In the 1960s Michel Brault, Pierre Perrault and other filmmakers from Quebec
began to challenge Hollywood by making innovative documentary and feature
films. Among the important English-speaking producers from nowadays are Allan
King and Robin Spry. Canadian filmmakers have been very successful in the field
of science fiction since the mid-1990s with such shows as The X-Files and The
Outer Limits, both filmed in Vancouver. As with its southern counterpart in
California, USA, many Canadians are employed in the film industry. Montreal has
served in a great variety of mainstream movies, attracting the loyalty of industry
people such as Bruce Wills; there are plants to build the world’s biggest film
studio.
Multicultural heritage is enshrined in Section 27 of the Canadian Charter of
Rights and Freedoms. It has a large influence on Canadian culture, which is postethnic and transnational in character. In parts of Canada, especially the major cities
of Montreal, Vancouver, and Toronto multiculturalism itself is the cultural norm
and diversity is the force that unites the community.
While French Canadian culture is the most obvious example, Celtic
influences have allowed survival of non-English dialects in Nova Scotia and
Newfoundland; however, the influence of Ulster immigrants to Toronto has had
the effect of minimizing Irish influences in Ontario’s culture, and highlighting
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British influences instead, until the 1980s. Canada’s Pacific trade has also brought
a large Chinese influence into British Columbia and other areas.
Vocabulary
to survive – выживать
acceptance – принятие
diversity – разнообразие
tolerance – терпимость
inception – начало
to challenge – оспаривать, бороться
to enshrine – хранить, лелеять
After-reading tasks
1. Translate into English
Современная Канада – страна не просто многонациональная, а очень
многонациональная.
Канада, возможно, самая многонациональная страна в мире, если
принять во внимание ее либеральную иммиграционную политику. США –
тоже страна иммигрантов, но там всех и вся стремятся «свести к общему
знаменателю» (“melting pot”), а в Канаде взят курс на создание
поликультурного общества. Причем это отнюдь не пустая декларация.
«Поликультурность» старательно насаждается и культивируется всеми
возможными способами.
Например,
существует
государственная
программа
поддержки
национальных школ. Действует масса самых разных религиозных общин,
землячеств, клубов, кружков, а на одном из канадских телеканалов по
воскресеньям идут национальные программы: один час – русская, другой –
индийская, третий – арабская и так далее.
Если на фотографии в журнале или на картинке в детской книжке
изображена группа людей, среди них непременно будут представители
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разных рас и национальностей. А самыми страшными грехами считаются
национализм, расизм и сексизм, то есть дискриминация и/или преследование
по признаку принадлежности к определенной национальности, расе или
полу. Причем борьба с ними идет не на словах, а на деле: любые проявления
чего-либо подобного пресекаются немедленно и очень решительно.
2. True or False?
1. Like the USA Canada is a hotchpotch of immigrant groups.
2. Canada’s concertedly multicultural approach has done more to
acknowledge the origins of its people, creating an ethnic mosaic as opposed to
America’s “melting pot”.
3. The relative success of English-language domestic television and movies
in Canada often exceeds that of its French-language counterpart.
4. Multiculturalism affirmed English and French as two official languages of
Canada.
5. Easy access to American media has allowed many Canadian performers
and entertainers to succeed internationally in the areas of music, comedy, movies,
and television.
6. In Montreal, Vancouver, and Toronto multiculturalism itself is the cultural
norm and diversity is the force that unites the community.
7. Canada’s early interactions with native populations were hostile.
(compared to the experience of native peoples in the United States).
8. The federal government has supported a multicultural policy, the rights
and privileges of any person, regardless of racial, ethnic, cultural, or religious
background.
3. Choose the correct answer
1. The British conquest of Quebec in … brought a large francophone
population under British rule.
a) 1669
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b) 1759
c) 1879
2. … Canada’s early development was relatively cohesive during the 17th
and 18th centuries, and this was preserved by the Quebec Act of 1774.
a) French
b) American
c) British
3. The … were marked by increasing troubled English-French relations in
Canada.
a) early 1960-s
b) mid- 1960-s
c) late 1960-s
4. In … the British North America Act was designed to meet the growing
calls for Canadian autonomy.
a) 1876
b) 1867
c) 1766
5. Multicultural heritage is enshrined in Section … of the Canadian Charter
of Rights and Freedoms.
a) 2
b) 7
c) 27
4. Derive the name of the country
British – Britain
French – …
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Chinese – …
Ukrainians – …
Portuguese – …
Indians – …
Dutch – …
Polish – …
Greek – …
Americans – …
Spanish – …
Canadians – …
English – …
5. What do the following figures mean?
2100 –
1774 –
27 –
6. Match the words with their Russian equivalents
1) hotchpotch –
а. охотник-браконьер
2) profile –
б. акцент
3) framework –
в. смесь
4) acceptance –
г. общение
5) diversity –
д. разнообразие
6) tolerance –
е. схема
7) inception –
ж. принятие
8) interaction –
з. начало
9) legacy –
и. терпимость
10) remains –
к. кухня
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11) inukshuk –
л. б/названия
12) cuisine –
м. останки
13) exemplary –
н. анклав
14) enclave –
о. фанатизм
15) lumberjacking –
п. открытость
16) zeal –
р. вырубка лесов
17) openness –
с. образец для подражания
7. Translate into Russian
The British conquest of Quebec
under British rule
cultural identity is strong
English Canadian culture
help raise the profile of Canadians
the Quebec Act of 1774
the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, French Canadian film
excessive American influence
the relative success of French-language domestic television
the Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism
the Bicultural and Bilingual act become a law
in 1988 Bill-C-93 was passed as the Multicultural Act
tolerance of First Nations culture and customs
multicultural heritage is enshrined in Section 27 of the Canadian Charter of
Rights and Freedoms
Canada’s Pacific trade has also brought a large Chinese influence into
British Columbia and other areas
a stack of rocks in human form
Inuit culture
Canada embraces its own clichés
maple-syrup festivals
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extraordinary zeal and openness
3B. BUSINESS
Reading
“The reason a country chooses to sign a treaty is that the expected benefits
outweigh the loss of sovereignty. If the expectation is not realized, a country can
terminate its membership.” (Reply Quote)
Strengths & Weaknesses of
Canada’s economy
I
As an affluent, high-tech industrial society, Canada today closely resembles
the US in its market-oriented economic system, pattern of production, and high
living standards. Since World War II, the impressive growth of the manufacturing,
mining, and service sectors has transformed the nation from a largely rural
economy into one primarily industrial and urban. Canada started the 1990s in
recession, and real rates of growth have averaged only 1.1% so far. Because of
slower growth, Canada still faces high unemployment – especially in Quebec and
the Maritime Provinces – and a large public sector debt. With its great natural
resources, skilled labor force, and modern capital plant, however, Canada will
enjoy better economic prospects in the future. Moreover, the continuing
constitutional impasse between English-and French-speaking areas is raising the
possibility of a split in the federation, making investors somewhat edgy.
Canada’s industry is characterized by significant foreign ownership, with
many companies being subsidiaries of large US aerospace and defense
corporations. Canadian-owned companies such as CAE Electronics and COM
DEV are small in comparison with the US aerospace and defense giants and do not
enjoy a commensurate level of support from large domestic defense and space
budgets. As a result, the range of design and manufacturing expertise as well as
system integration capability in the Canadian industry is more limited. Given the
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small Canadian market, Canadian companies’ successes have emanated from the
international marketplace as manufacturers of small systems and subsystems for
specialized niche markets. However, Canada’s niche industry and subsidiary
connections to the US defense industry partly explains why Canada’s share of
world investment in Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) R&D is
as high as 2.7%. Some of Canada’s industry is strongly independent and is situated
to do very well in the long term. For example, the wholly owned GM division in
London, Ontario, is set to sign a multibillion dollar contract to sell 2000 of its
Light Armored Vehicles to the US Army.
Vocabulary
affluent – богатый, состоятельный
rural - сельский
recession - упадок
to average – насчитывать в среднем
impasse - тормоз
to make edgy - заставлять нервничать, злить
subsidiary – дочернее предприятие, филиал
commensurate - соответствующий
to emanate – исходить, происходить, образовываться
niche market – небольшой сегмент рынка для сбыта определенного товара
II
Canada has an enormous resource base, and it has one of the highest
standards of living in the world. Since the mid-1980s, however, manufactured
exports have faced increasing competition, while prices for its primary exports
fluctuate. It is the world’s largest exporter of fish, furs, and wheat. Minerals have
played a key role in Canada’s transformation into an urban-industrial economy.
Alberta, British Columbia, Quebec, and Saskatchewan are the principal mining
regions. Ontario and the Northwest and Yukon Territories are also significant
128
producers. Canada is the largest producer of uranium and potash, the third-largest
of asbestos, gypsum, and nickel, and the fourth-largest of zinc. Oil and gas are
exploited in Alberta, off the Atlantic coast, and in the northwest – huge additional
reserves are thought to exist in the high Arctic. Canada is also one of the world’s
top hydroelectricity producers. Canada’s most important relationship is with the
USA. Though relations are on the whole good, there are tensions. Notably, Canada
has protested over US duties on its softwood timber more basic level. Canadians
are wary of the encroachment of US culture and of its social ills. Canada opposes
the US sanctions imposed on Cuba and protests over its environmental lapses:
there are concerns over the transportation of Alaska oil and US resistance to
international treaties (the USA refuses to sign the Kyoto Protocol, signed by
Canada in 2002). Canada has backed the US-led “war on terrorism”, but refused to
support the 2003 attack on Iraq.
A broad and rich resource base provides exports, raw materials for
manufacturing sector and massive cheap also large oil and gas reserves.
Agriculture and forestry contribute 2% of GDP, mining 4%. Successful
manufacturing sector, contributes of GDP, especially forestry products,
transportation equipment, and chemicals provides access to huge US and Mexican
markets through the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).
NAFTA, a hotly debated issue in Canada when it was being negotiated in
the early 1990s, produced a trade boom, especially for Ontario. However,
Canadians have problems competing for foreign investment with Mexico, where
labor costs, social welfare, and environmental standards are lower. Most Canadians
oppose such ideas as a currency union and ever closer integration with the USA.
Canada abrogated many prerogatives of its sovereignty and a large swath of
national interest to get the softwood lumber deal with America. The bait opened
the access to American markets – not only for trade but also for investment, since
“concentration of assets has brought about a few groups that now find the
Canadian ‘pond’ a bit small for them and, therefore, tend to go to the United
States.” NAFTA is a treaty between Canada, the United States, and Mexico.
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According to the US Constitution, treaties have the force of domestic law, meaning
America’s tax on Canadian softwood is illegal even according to America’s rules.
Vocabulary
to fluctuate – колебаться
fur(s) – мех(а)
potash – поташ (углекислый калий)
tension - напряжение
softwood timber – мягкая древесина (вечнозеленых растений)
to be wary – быть осторожным
encroachment – вторжение, посягательство, поползновение
social ills – социальное зло (несправедливость)
to impose - налагать
lap – промах, просчет
to back – поддерживать
softwood lumber deal – лесопромышленная сделка
to abrogate – отменять, аннулировать
swath – ряд
bait - наживка, приманка. искушение
III
The Harper-Bush agreement on softwood lumber appears to be rapidly
unraveling. Although the Conservative government is trying to salvage it, the deal
is threatened not only by its own shortcomings but also the changing economic
fortunes of forest companies. In part, the pact signed on July, 1, 2006 in Geneva is
collapsing under its own weight. Hastily agreed on and rushed through, it has
failed to withstand the scrutiny of Canadian industry stakeholders, especially the
companies that must agree to give up a portion of the $5.2 billion (U.S.) they paid
in duties and tariffs, and to withdraw outstanding legal challenges.
130
International Trade Minister David Emerson and industry representatives
tried to tweak the deal enough to make it acceptable to enough firms that
something can be salvaged in time for its legislation supporting. But the agreement
that Prime Minister Stephen Harper and Mr. Emerson signed is also victim of bad
timing. Almost before the ink was dry, the U.S. Court of International Trade ruled
that the American protectionist measures that sparked the lumber dispute are
illegal. The court ordered the U.S. government to pay back the money it has
received since November of 2004, and promises to rule soon on the fate of the
remainder of Canadian firm’s remissions since May of 2002. Canadian industry
leaders expect the court to rule that it must all be returned.
Prime Minister Stephen Harper’s softwood deal directly abrogates NAFTA.
The US government simply refused to accept the NAFTA rulings that it is not
allowed to tax Canadian lumber. Harper’s “deal” essentially legitimates America’s
refusal to follow the rules it helped draft, under the excuse that by accepting this,
“we’re just being realistic.” The U. S. Court of International Trade ruling that the
U.S. duties are illegal and that money must be refunded should drive a wooden
stake through the heart of Mr. Emerson’s and Mr. Harper’s bad deal.
Harper’s “deal” is an admission that NAFTA is a failure. The ‘sleeping
elephant’ can still twitch whenever it pleases. As Gordon Ritchie, Canada’s
principal negotiator for the original NAFTA, later wrote, “The American position
was simple: if you want to sell in our markets, you have to play by our rules. If our
rules give our own producers an enormous home advantage, that is just too bad. It
would be unthinkable, politically, for us to propose that we change any of these
laws in any respect just to accommodate Canada.”
Canada gave up very much to get its FTA/NAFTA: control over the energy
and water, control over the form that foreign investment takes in Canada (since
NAFTA, nearly all foreign investment has been either short-term speculation or
wholesale purchase of Canadian firms, not FDI as promised), control over
taxation and spending, control over whether and how public services are provided
(NAFTA includes a clause stating that if a public service – say, health care – is
131
delivered privately for profit, it reverts automatically to the private sector and
comes under NAFTA rules), and control over investment flows.
Vocabulary
to unravel – прояснять
to salvage - спасать
scrutiny – рассмотрение, изучение
to spark – зажигать
to refund – компенсировать, возмещать
to twitch - двигаться
wholesale purchase – оптовая покупка
After-reading tasks
1. Circle the right word in italics
1. Canada today closely resembles the US in its transitional/market
economic system and low/high living standards.
2. The nation has transformed from a largely urban/rural economy into
agricultural/industrial one.
3. With its poor/rich natural resources, Canada will enjoy better/worse
economic prospects in the future.
4. Canada’s industry is characterized by significant domestic/foreign
ownership.
5. Canadian-owned companies such as CAE Electronics are large/small in
comparison with the US giants.
6. Canada is the world’s largest importer/exporter of fish, furs, and wheat.
7. Oil and gas are exploited in Alberta, off the Atlantic/Pacific coast.
8. Canada’s most important relationship is with Japan/the USA.
9. Canada supported/backed the US attack on Iraq in 2003.
10. Harper’s “deal” is an admission that NAFTA is a failure/victory.
132
11. Canadians have problems competing for foreign investment with
Mexico, where environmental standards are lower/higher.
12. Most Canadians oppose/support such ideas as a currency union and ever
closer integration with the USA.
13. According to the US Constitution America’s tax on Canadian softwood
is legal/illegal.
14. The court ordered the US/Canadian government to pay back the money
it has received since 2004.
15. Canada gave up/took up very much to get its NAFTA.
2. Match A to B
A
B
Foreign
measures
Labor
lumber
Environmental
costs
Social
resources
Softwood
flows
Protectionist
investment
Investment
standards
Market
welfare
Natural
oriented
3. Match the two halves of the compound word
1. Short
a. wood
2. Stake
b. stand
3. With
c. coming
4. Market
d. sale
5. Hydro
e. place
6. Soft
f. electricity
7. Whole
g. holder
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4. Translate the following expressions and use them in the sentences of your
own
a/ play by our rules
b/ collapsing under its own weight
c/ victim of bad timing
d/ spark the dispute
e/ rule on the fate
f/ before the ink is dry
g/ pay back the money
5. Translate into English
Влияние НАФТА на темпы роста международной торговли
Значительные шаги были предприняты странами-членами НАФТА в
сфере либерализации торговли с помощью снижения тарифов. Кроме того,
НАФТА дает возможность ускоренного снятия тарифов по соглашению
заинтересованных стран. Этот процесс зависит от промышленного развития
и включает в себя открытые обсуждения с участием потребителей и других
заинтересованных сторон.
Рассмотрение вопроса о снижении тарифов основывается на поддержке
заинтересованного сектора промышленности. Предварительно полученные
цифры и исследования показывают размер влияния, оказанного снижением
тарифов, согласно НАФТА, на темпы роста торговли.
3C. CULTURE
Read the text
There were, and are, many distinct Aboriginal peoples across Canada, each
with its own culture, beliefs, values, language, and history. However, Canada’s
early interactions with native populations were relatively peaceful (compared to
the experience of native peoples in the United States). Combined with relatively
134
late economic development in many regions, this peaceful history has allowed
Canadian native peoples to have a relatively strong influence on the national
culture while preserving their own identity. Much of this legacy remains
celebrated artistically, and in other ways, in Canada to this day. Part of the emblem
of the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympics is an inukshuk, a stack of rocks in
human form that is part of Inuit culture, although this is seen as inappropriate by
many Vancouverites.
The multicultural Policy states that under Canadian law,
these equalities are the rights and privileges of any person, any ensure that they
may participate as a member of the society, regardless of racial, ethnic, cultural, or
religious background. Multiculturalism promotes gaining an understanding of
people from all cultures, despite language, religious beliefs, political and social
views, or national origins. It does not require people to shed their own values and
beliefs, in order to accept one another. Instead, multiculturalism acknowledges
there are many ways in which the world can be viewed and lived in.
Since 1972 the federal government has supported a multicultural policy to
reflect the varied influences that make up the mosaic of Canadian life, including
the culture of aboriginal peoples. The National Museum Policy has encouraged and
supported the growth of regional museums. Of Canada’s more than 2100
museums, archives, and historic sites, the most important are in the National
Capital Region. These include, in Hull, Quebec, the Canadian Museum of
Civilization, which celebrates Canada’s multicultural heritage; in Ottawa, the
Canadian Museum of Nature and the National Gallery of Canada; and in Toronto
the Royal Ontario Museum. The performing arts in Canada are supported by
government and private grants. The National Arts Centre, in Ottawa, opened in
1969, has a resident symphony orchestra and theatre companies in French and
English. A number of major theatre, opera, dance, and musical groups are found in
the large cities; these groups also tour the provinces and travel abroad. The chief
theatrical centres are the cities of Quebec, Montreal, and Toronto. Canadians and
visitors also enjoy summer festivals, such as the Stratford Shakespeare Festival in
Ontario; the Shaw Festival at Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario; and Cultures Canada,
135
a series of multicultural events in Ottawa. Local traditions are preserved in the
Highland Games on Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia; the Sherbrooke Festival de
Cantons (Quebec), celebrating French-Canadian culture and cuisine; and the
Ukrainian Festival in Dauphin, Manitoba. Discovery Day in Dawson, Yukon
Territory, marks the 1896 discovery of gold. A large variety of smaller festivals are
held throughout the country.
For the visitor, the mix that results from the country’s exemplary tolerance
is an exhilarating experience, offering such widely differing environments as
Vancouver’s huge Chinatown and the austere religious enclaves of Manitoba.
Canada embraces its own clichés with an energy that’s irresistible, promoting
everything
from
the
Calgary
Stampede
to
maple-syrup
festivals
and
lumberjacking contests with an extraordinary zeal and openness.
The typical Canadian might be an elusive concept, but you’ll find there’s a
distinctive feel to the country. There’s the overwhelming sense of Canadian pride
in their history and pleasure in the beauty of their land.
Vocabulary
interaction – общение
legacy – наследство
remains – останки
inukshuk – б/перевода
stack of rocks – куча камней, нагромождение
Inuit culture – эскимосская культура
to shed – распространять
cuisine – кухня (стиль приготовления)
exemplary – образец (для подражания)
exhilarating – возбуждающий, вдохновляющий
austere – аскетический, суровый
enclave – анклав (клан)
irresistible – невыносимый
136
lumberjacking – вырубка лесов
zeal – пристрастие, фанатизм
openness – открытость
elusive – неуловимый
Task 1
Part of the emblem of the Vancouver … Winter Olympics is an inukshuk, a
stack of rocks in human form that is part of Inuit culture.
a) 2010
b) 2012
c) 2014
Task 2
Translate into Russian
tolerance of First Nations culture and customs
multicultural heritage is enshrined in Section 27 of the Canadian Charter of
Rights and Freedoms
Canada’s Pacific trade has also brought a large Chinese influence into
British Columbia and other areas
a stack of rocks in human form
Inuit culture
Canada embraces its own clichés
maple-syrup festivals
extraordinary zeal and openness
3D. ENVIRONMENT
Reading
ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN CANADA
Responsibility for environmental management in Canada is a shared
responsibility
between
the
federal
government
and
provincial/territorial
137
governments. For example, the federal government is responsible for the
management of toxic substances in the country (benzene), while the provincial
governments are in charge of industrial waste (to the air). The lead department
within the federal government is the Department of the Environment or
Environment Canada with responsibility for coordinating environmental policies
as well as preserving and enhancing the natural environment and conservation of
wildlife. The department is also responsible for meteorology as well as research
and education on climate change, as well as international environmental issues
(Canada – USA air issues).
As with other forms of pollution, the full social costs of air pollution in
Canada continue to be borne by the public through damage to the environment and
public health. For example, the Ontario Medical Association has estimated that air
pollution costs more than $1 billion a year in hospital admissions, emergency
room visits, and absenteeism. There are also costs to reducing air pollution
though. Reducing emissions by cutting production, switching fuels or installing
scrubbers can cost producers money. Developing and enforcing instruments such
as regulation also costs government’s money. To a varying degree, costs to
producers and governments are ultimately paid for by Canadians through higher
taxes and prices. Although the costs of reducing air pollution can be high at times,
most recent cost-benefit studies such as Cost-Benefit Analysis: Replacing
Ontario’s Coal-Fired Electricity Generation (2005) demonstrate that at current
pollution levels, the potential benefits to Canadians of air pollution reductions are
much greater than the costs of those reductions.
Reducing air pollution would lead to significant benefits to the socioeconomic well-being of Canadians. Reductions in illness and mortality have
direct social benefits and also improve the productivity of Canadian industry and
decrease health care costs. Air pollution reductions have potential to directly
increase the productivity of the forestry, agriculture, fishing, and tourism industries
by decreasing environmental damages suffered by these industries. Being among
138
the world leaders in reducing air pollution may also lead to innovative new
industries and economic spin-offs related to green technology in Canada.
Thus the impacts of air pollution on the economy include direct economic
impacts as well as indirect economic impacts such as human health and
environmental effects of air pollution. Moreover, clean air will also contribute
substantially to the long term competitiveness of the Canadian economy, by
improving worker productivity, and increasing the productive capacity of several
key Canadian industries. Environmental regulations and partnerships is being used
to encourage activities that support both the environment and economy. For
instance, new technologies, cleaner fuels, science and research, electricity
production and conservation, alternative transportation, and new forms of
infrastructure can stimulate economic growth in a way that also helps the
environment.
The Economic and Regulatory Affairs (ERA) Directorate, an Ottawa-based
group within Environment Canada founded in 1998, was created to provide
consolidation of economic and policy analysis within the department. The ERA is
made-up of economists, some engineers and other social science experts. The goal
of the group is to support the development and implementation of strategic
policies that will benefit Canadians by integrating considerations for the economy
with the environment, to create “win-win” conditions, achieving both social and
economic development objectives, as well as environment protection. In reality,
proper social costing of production inputs can place domestic producers at a
competitive disadvantage with foreign producers who are not required to
internalize environmental costs. In recent years, increasing attention has been
given to the kind of public policy and support needed to ensure that economic
development proceeds in a sustainable manner and is not negatively impacted by
environmental activities. The traditional concern has been focused on the growth
of the aquaculture sector in order to realize economic and social objectives, such as
generation of income and employment, foreign exchange earnings and rural
development for food supply and poverty alleviation.
139
The work of the ERA touches on several areas including trade, fiscal and tax
policy, and a variety of related economic instruments. On the policy front, the
Directorate contributes substantially to the development of federal climate change
policy, which assesses the long-term impact of greenhouse gases; the development
of Canada-Wide Standards for air and water pollutants, and the management of
toxins in the environment. Concerns about the environmental sustainability of
certain aquaculture activities relate to the degradation or removal of ecologically
valuable habitats, the waste production levels that exceed the assimilation capacity
of near-shore waters and freshwater aquifers, the capture of wild post larvae for
stocking and high by-catch mortalities, and the transmission of pathogens and
genes between cultured and wild stocks.
Another Branch of the Department of the Environment Canada is the
Environmental Economic Branch, working with the Environmental Protection
Service and Environmental Conservation Service, as well as other federal
departments, to further develop and analyze the number of economic incentives
and instruments for implementing environmental policy. The idea of incentives is
not to strictly forbid/allow, but rather to provide signals on public objectives while
leaving some room for individual and collective decision-making to respond to
them. Incentives play indirectly through the determinants of individual/collective
choices, such as the profit motive or normative values. Market or social forces can
be very efficient vectors to force the global outcome of individual actions towards
collectively set objectives. Different kinds of incentives can be developed in
isolation or in combination:
- improving the institutional framework;
- developing collective values;
- creating non-market economic incentives;
- establishing market incentives.
So rather than two different approaches, incentives plus command and
control should be seen as a continuum of policy means, having relative
advantages or disadvantages depending on what they are supposed to achieve.
140
Presently, the diversity of available incentive instruments is probably under-used,
with a continuing bias towards command and control.
Economic instruments, as with all instruments, need some monitoring and
enforcement capacity. To be efficient, the authority should be able not only to
collect the tax or fee but also to monitor the phenomena on which tax calculation is
based. Such control is difficult at the very decentralized level of the individual
farm, so taxed may be imposed directly at the pollution source or at the level of
production outputs, where taxes can be more conveniently collected. The
consequence, however, is that the tax becomes a much less fine-tuned policy
instrument, as all kinds of economic activities using such inputs will be taxed in a
similar fashion irrespective of actual damage caused. At the worst, a tax may have
unintended effects that could potentially worsen rather than lessen environmental
damage. Consider the imposition of a tax on pellet feed to incite farmers to adopt
more efficient feeding strategies that result in low feed conversion ratios and low
organic effluent loading per unit of production. While some farmers may indeed be
incited to economize on pellet feed, other farmers may shift to alternative nontaxed low-quality feeding materials with high conservation ratios.
The difficulty in applying economic instruments is to design the levy or tax
in such a way that it gives a clear economic signal to producers and consumers
about the objective it seeks to attain. Economic instruments including fees,
charges, taxes and subsidies seek to “get prices right” for proportion inputs and/or
outputs. Absent or inadequate markets as well as government price controls/ price
support schemes, may all distort real social and environmental costs or benefits of
goods and services. Economic instruments explicitly affect private costs and
benefits. They seek to induce individuals and firms to change their behaviour to
more socially and environmentally desirable alternatives. On the other hand, a
well-designed and implemented environmental tax that, for example, reduces water
pollution, can result in a more stable and higher production level for all farms.
On top of everything, eco-labelling schemes have been introduced in various
sectors and for different objectives by non-governmental organizations (NGOs),
141
private industry and governments. Their common feature is that the consumers’
purchasing behaviour is directed to take into account attributes of the products
other than their price and mandatory quality and health standards. Environmental
organizations generally advocate eco-labelling schemes based on health-related
product quality objectives, in addition to environmental and ecological ones. The
potential usefulness of eco-labelling schemes to create market-based incentives for
environmentally friendly products and production processes was internationally
recognized at the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and
Development in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, where governments agreed to “encourage
expansion of environmental labeling and other environmentally related product
information programmes designed to assist consumers to make informed choices.”
Consumers are provided with the opportunity to express their environmentalecological concerns through their choice of products. The consumers’ preferences
are expected to result in price and/or market share differentials between ecolabelled products and those that either do not qualify to be eco-labelled or those
whose producers do not seek to obtain such labeling. The label is obtained through
a certification process based on a set of criteria. Potential price and/or market share
differentials provide the economic incentives for firms to seek certification of
their products.
Therefore, Environment Canada policies cannot be made in isolation, and
that trade, investment and environment policies can and should be mutually
supportive. To achieve this goal the Trade and Environment Department should
observe the following strategies:
- to shape environmental regulations and policies in a manner that is
sensitive to Canada’s trade obligations;
- to integrate environmental considerations into multilateral, regional and
bilateral trade and investment negotiations;
- to provide advice on the environmental implications of trade and
investment policies + Eco-labelling.
142
Vocabulary
admission – поступление
emergency – первая помощь
absenteeism – невыход на работу
emission – выброс
scrubber – зд. газопромыватель
ultimately – в конечном итоге
well-being – благосостояние
mortality – смертность
spin-off – побочный продукт
substantially – существенно, значительно
worker productivity – производительность труда
implementation – воплощение
sustainable – продолжительный
alleviation – снижение, ослабление, облегчение
to assess – оценивать
to exceed – превышать
aquifer – водоносный слой
larva (larvae) - личинка
pathogen – патоген
incentive – стимул, поощрение
continuum (continua) – продолжительность (во времени)
bias – предрассудки
fine-tuned – настраивать
pellet – комок (кромка)
to incite – провоцировать, побуждать
ratio – доля
to shift – менять
to attain – достигать, добивать
explicitly – явно
143
attribute – свойство
mandatory – обязательный
differential – разница
After-reading tasks
1. Translate into English
Опасные загрязнители окружающей среды
Согласно информации нового вебсайта, созданного специально для
того, чтобы отследить самых главных вредителей окружающей среды,
правительственная
теплоэлектростанция
в
Nanticoke
выбрасывает
в
атмосферу столько вредных веществ, сколько ни одна подобная станция по
всей стране. Вебсайт PollutionWatch.org использует для своих выводов
правительственные факты и сведения, которые выглядят пугающе: тепловая
электростанция выбрасывает в воздух более 6 миллионов кг вредных
веществ.
Ontario Power Generation также попала в ряды загрязнителей природы:
она выбрасывает в воздух 10,3 миллиона килограммов вредных веществ,
почти в два раза больше, чем все остальные организации из черного списка.
Также в числе загрязнителей окружающей среды указаны: предприятие
рядом с городом Сарния как самое опасное за извержение веществ,
вызывающих рак и дефекты плода и завод в Калгари, наносящая огромный
вред окрестным водоемам.
Инициативная группа, создавшая сайт PollutionWatch.org, отслеживает
подобные компании с 1985 года и заявляет, что за последние восемь лет
количество заводов-загрязнителей увеличилось на 20%.
Загрязнение природы и воздуха с каждым годом становится все
опаснее, - подтвердил министр по защите окружающей среды Канады доктор
Рик Смит. - И для того чтобы очистить нашу землю, воздух и воду,
недостаточно одного только желания, надо действовать.
(Русский Экспресс)
144
Общие меры по предотвращению загрязнения Великих озер
Великие Озера расположены на территории Канады и США. Пять
больших озер составляют более 18% мирового водного пространства.
Бассейн Великих Озер является индустриальным сердцем двух стран - одна
пятая промышленной базы США и половина промышленной базы Канады. С
ростом населения и экономической активности возникали различные
напряженные ситуации, до тех пор, пока в середине прошлого столетия обе
страны не осознали необходимость проведения мер по защите экологии
Великих Озер.
Начиная с 50-х годов, обе страны выработали внутреннюю и
двухстороннюю программы по острым проблемам загрязнения Озер, а также
по трудноразрешимой проблеме улучшения качества воды в них, а именно,
подписали в 1972 году Соглашения о Повышении Качества Воды Великих
Озер (GLWQA). В Соглашении были выдвинуты меры по уменьшению
выбросов моющих средств, обогащенных фосфором. В соглашении также
была определена необходимость сокращения выброса токсичных химических
элементов в озера от промышленных предприятий и других источников, а
также уменьшение выбросов канализационных стоков.
В результате предпринятых действий, вода Великих Озер стала
визуально значительно чище, чем она была в середине столетия, значительно
уменьшилось содержание токсичных элементов, а уровень заражения рыб и
птиц резко снизился. Успех совместных действий США и Канады по
восстановлению и защите Великих Озер обеспечил модель совместного
сотрудничества по управлению ресурсами, однако, экологические проблемы
все еще продолжают оставаться. Для достижения долгосрочной цели
ликвидации устойчивых токсичных веществ из Больших Озер, власти по
охране окружающей среды, отрасли промышленности и другие акционеры
этого региона должны разработать новые подходы и программы по охране
окружающей среды.
145
Канадский экспорт в США рос быстрее, как в денежном выражении,
так и в объектах, в секторах, либерализованных согласно НАФТА
(машиностроение, текстиль и т.д.), чем в секторах, где тарифы уже были
низкими либо равнялись нулю. Импорт из США отражает схожие тенденции
(производство
одежды,
пищевых
продуктов
и
напитков,
мебели,
транспортного оборудования и товаров домашнего обихода).
В
ценовом
отношении
канадский
экспорт
в
США
товаров,
подвергшихся либерализации согласно НАФТА, вырос приблизительно на
140% . импорт товаров такого рода из США вырос почти на 100%.
Привлекательность Канады для инвесторов обеспечивает канадцам
больше возможностей осуществления вложения в экономики партнеров по
соглашению.
Положение
соглашения
обеспечивает
инвесторам
значительную уверенность и стабильность в принятии решения, что
гарантирует справедливое, прозрачное и объективное
отношение к
инвесторам.
Подписание НАФТА привело к более значительным изменениям
движения капитала между Канадой и Мексикой. Канадские инвестиции в
Мексике значительно увеличились, концентрируясь в таких областях, как
горнодобывающая промышленность, банковское дело и телекоммуникации.
2. Expand on the following
1. Canada’s industry is mostly foreign-owned.
2. A broad and rich resource base of Canada.
3. The Harper-Bush agreement consequences.
146
MODULE 4 AUSTRALIA
4A. BACKGROUND
Interesting Facts
Captain James Cook discovered Australia in 1770. He was sent to discover
the huge land that many people believed was south of the equator. He landed south
of present day Sydney in New South Wales. He claimed this part of the land for
the King of England.
The flag of Australia is the only one to fly over a whole continent. The small
Union Jack represents the historical link with Britain, the large seven-pointed star
represents the six States and Territories, and the small stars from the Southern
Cross – a prominent feature of the southern hemisphere night sky.
Australia's coat of arms – the official emblem of the Australian Government
– was granted by George V in 1912. The arms consist of a shield containing the
badges of the six states. The supporters are native Australian fauna – a kangaroo
and an emu. A yellow-flowered native plant, wattle, also appears in the design.
In 1851 gold was discovered about 300 km west of Sydney. People rushed to
the gold fields to find their fortunes. This attracted robbers called bushrangers.
About 40 thousand years ago, the continent was more than 300 thousand
natives. Currently Indigenous Australians have less than 1.5%.
147
Australia receives less than 500 mm of rainfall per year, which makes it the
driest inhabited continent in the world.
Over the past 200 years on the territory of the continent came 160 thousand
prisoners. Interesting fact is that in Australia the smallest total violate laws
Voting in elections to all adult residents of Australia is mandatory. Charged
a penalty for failing to appear!
Approximately 21% of Australians smoke. The greatest number of smokers
among people who are on the verge of poverty. About 30% of disadvantaged
people smoke, and smoking rates in the rich strata of the population is 16% - a
very interesting fact Australia.
Australia became the second country in the world where women have the
right to vote
The Great Barrier Reef has its own post office with its own license and
stamp.
Australia is the third country in the world that has sent its own satellite into
Earth orbit. British rocket "Blue Streak" launched the first Australian satellite.
Australian experts estimate that half of all adolescents 14 to 20 years
regularly use cannabis.
Interesting fact that Australians spend on museums, exhibitions and
galleries, no less than in most developed European countries.
Australia ranks first in the world by the number of sheep (over 700
thousand) and first in the production of wool.
In 1838 a law was passed that forbade people to swim at public beaches! It
existed as much as 44 years before 1902.
Any immigrants to get Australian citizenship should be lived in Australia for
at least 2 years.
148
Read and translate the text:
Australia at a Glance
Australia is one of the most cost competitive countries in the developed
world. The Australian economy has been ranked the most resilient in the world for
the third year in succession. This strong performance is set to continue, with
forecast growth higher than the OECD average. The International Monetary Fund
applauds Australia for its strong performance, with six years of budget surpluses,
falling public debt, low inflation, high and rising productivity and a long period of
uninterrupted growth underpinned by a dynamic job market.
Against this impressive backdrop sits South Australia, a dynamic state
economy that offers many cost competitive advantages for foreign direct
investment and is classed as one of the best places in the country to conduct
business.
The facts speak for themselves: Adelaide, the capital of South Australia, was
found to be the most cost competitive of five Australian capital cities surveyed by
KPMG, an the 10th most competitive of the 98 cities surveyed worldwide. Its low
set-up and operating costs are a significant draw card.
Adelaide offers well-developed modern industry, a highly skilled,
productive and flexible workforce, and world-class education and health systems.
With the greatest expenditure on research and development of all regions in
Australia, the city ranks highest in innovation and new product development.
South Australia is also a high-technology centre for much of Australia’s
growing defence industry and has leading-edge capability in other thriving
industries such as automotive, ICT, engineering, bioscience, electronics, financial
services, environmental and renewable energy, and wine and food.
South Australia is also making a mark in developing emerging niche
industries, including new media.
Supported by first-class infrastructure, Adelaide is strategically located at
the junction of Australia’s major north-south and east-west road, rail and air
corridors.
149
If this isn’t enough, Adelaide is one of the world’s least expensive cities in
which to live, being less costly than many in Asia, Europe and North America.
These features and more have already inspired many forward thinking,
well-known multinational companies to make the move to Adelaide including
BAE Systems, Schefenacker and United Utilities.
(from “The Economist”2006)
Vocabulary
resilient - эластичный, имеющий запас жизненных сил
succession - последовательность, преемственность
forecast growth - прогнозируемый рост
budget surplus - нераспределенный бюджетный капитал
public debt - государственный долг
underpin - поддерживать
backdrop - фон, на котором развертываются события
survey - обозревать, исследовать, изучать
drawcard - гвоздь программы
expenditure - расходование, статья расхода
thrive - процветать, преуспевать
renewable energy - возобновляемый источник энергии
junction - соединение, пересечение
inspire - внушить, вдохновить
Ex. 1. Here are some words and word combinations. Give a description of
each of them without translating
Model: to inspire means to encourage in someone the ability to act,
especially with good result.
Competitive
country;
infrastructure; budget surplus.
150
developed
world;
public
debt;
innovation;
Ex. 2. Find word combinations in the text that can be translated in the
following way:
Факты говорят сами за себя; образование и здравоохранение мирового
класса;
оборонная
промышленность;
первоклассные
возможности;
первоклассная инфраструктура.
Ex. 3. Translate the following word combinations, taken from the text:
Сost competitive countries; job market; direct investment; to conduct
business; flexible workforce; to make a mark; less costly; strategically located;
forward thinking; to make the move to.
Ex. 4. Agree or disagree on the statements:
1.
Adelaide ranks highest in innovation and new product development.
2.
The Australian Government simplifies to start a business.
3.
Australia is one the most cost competitive countries in the developing
world.
4.
Conducting business in this country is complicated: increasing public
debt, high inflation and political instability.
5.
Adelaide is one of the most expensive cities of Australia.
6.
South Australia
offers many
advantages for foreign direct
investment.
Ex. 5. Make up a discussion. Work in pairs
A. One of you is an investor interested in exploring new opportunities at the
right price.
B. The second one is a representative of the Australian Government’s
Investment Agency, who wants to inspire A. to invest his money in Australian
business.
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Ex. 6. You are a representative of the Adelaide Authority
1. Make up a plan on the attracting of money, businesses and brains to the
country.
2. Make a speech for the businessmen about the advantages of starting
business
a) in your city;
b) in South Australia;
c) about the advantages for young capable scientists to work in South
Australia.
Ex. 7. Translate the sentences from English into Russian, paying special
attention to the words from vocabulary notes
1. St. Laurent made good use of his talent for making quick and sober
decisions, and he proved to have one of the most forward-looking and resilient
minds in the political history of Canada. 2. Enemy war industries proved far more
resilient than strategists expected. 3. Human history consists merely of a
succession of energy phases. 4. The chief government and religious official of
Saudi Arabia is a king. Succession to the office is not hereditary, and the crown
prince, who succeeds the king, is chosen from among the Saud royal family by the
family in consultation with religious and government leaders. 5. Marketing
research involves the use of surveys, tests, and statistical studies to analyze
consumer trends and to forecast the quantity and locale of a market favourable to
the profitable sale of products or services. 6. Several organizations, however, have
developed good systems for gathering data and estimating national and world food
production, and geostationary satellites that monitor croplands by means of sensors
have enormously improved annual forecasts and surveys. 7. The world's banking
system played a key role in the recycling of petrodollars, arising from the surpluses
of the oil-exporting countries and the deficits of the oil-importing nations. 8. If
government revenue is more than government expenditure, a country is said to be
running a budget surplus. 9. The depression of 1929 cut deeply into the health of
the Australian economy, increasing public and private debts at a time of massive
152
unemployment. 10. The Constitution did give Congress wide powers in such
matters as taxation, payment of the public debt, coining of money, and regulation
of commerce. 11. Underpinning this myth was a concept of the nation that blended
romantic notions about national history and character with pseudo-scientific
theories of race, genetics, and natural selection. 12. The new shah's reign began
against a backdrop of social and political disarray, economic problems, and food
shortages.
Ex. 8. Translate the sentences from Russian into English, paying special
attention to the words from vocabulary notes
1. Сорняки имеют огромный запас жизненных сил, и поэтому требуются
различные технологии для борьбы с ними. 2. Эластичность этого материала
позволяет использовать его
для производства различных товаров. 3.
Последовательная политика правящих партий позволила создать сильную и
жизнеспособную систему социальной защиты граждан. 4. История дает
много примеров религиозных конфликтов следующих один за другим. 5. Его
сломила череда неудач. 6. Суперкомпьютеры используются для создания
автомобилей, летательных аппаратов, а также для прогнозирования погоды и
климатических изменений. 7. К концу прошлого года нераспределенный
бюджетный капитал города составлял несколько миллиардов долларов. 8.
Проценты по государственному долгу были установлены законодательно. 9.
Государственный долг – это общая сумма государственных финансовых
обязательств, результат займа денег у населения, у других стран,
международных
организаций.
10.
Фермерские
хозяйства
сильно
поддерживают экономику этой маленькой страны. 11. Его произведения
описывают жизнь народа на фоне политических и социальных событий того
времени.
Australia, n. A country lying in the South Sea, whose industrial and
commercial development has been unspeakably retarded by an unfortunate dispute
153
among geographers as to whether it is a continent or an island. (Ambrose Bierce
"The Devil's Dictionary")
4B. BUSINESS
Reading
Business ethics is the study of business moral
Australia in Business
I
Australia has an enviable Western-style capitalist economy, with a per
capita GDP on par with the four dominant West European economies. Rising
output in the domestic robust business and consumer confidence, and rising
exports of raw materials and agricultural products are fueling the economy.
Australia’s emphasis on reforms, low inflation, and growing ties with China are
other key factors behind the economy’s strength. The impact of drought, weak
foreign demand, and strong import demand pushed the trade deficit up from $8
billion in 2002, to $18 billion in 2003, and to $13 billion in 2004. One other
concern is the rapid increase in domestic housing prices, which have raised the
prospect that interest rates will need to be raised to prevent a speculative bubble.
One of the most significant financial events in the business life of the country is
the fact that Australia Bank West is being snapped up by the Edinburgh bank
HBOS. The Edinburgh bank is trying to take control of the Perth-based lender on
the cheap. HBOS is going to expand the bank across Australia. Under the guidance
of George Mitchell, HBOS’s head of corporate banking, Bank West will be
expanded into the more populous eastern states. But in reality, it is already there,
selling financial products through finance brokers and affinity partnerships. It is
also has offices in Adelaide, Brisbane, Melbourne and Sydney. According to the
group’s website, the interstate markets account for almost 45% of Bank West’s
total lending. Sure, Australia does not hold the same promise as the US to a
Scottish banking group, but in some small way Perth could be to HBOS what New
154
England has proved to be for Royal Bank of Scotland – a useful jumping-off point
for its international ambitions.
Vocabulary
enviable – очень желанный, завидный
per capita GDP – ВВП на душу населения
on par – на одном уровне
drought - засуха
speculative bubble – рискованное предприятие, «мыльный пузырь»
to snap up – перехватывать
populous - населенный
affinity - близкий
II
Business ethics and political diplomacy are two very interrelated things. The
first one should take into consideration the second one, and vice versa. The
following example, concerning the details of new chief executive’s contract in the
BHP Billiton – Australian mining group, will prove such a statement. BHP
Billiton, formed through the merger of Australia’s Broken Hill Proprietary with
Billiton of South Africa several years ago, has a history of losing chief executives
quickly. Mr. Paul Anderson, Mr. Brian Gilberson and Mr. Chip Goodyear change
each other within the few years. Mr. Goodyear, who was formerly the group’s
chief development officer, has been put on a one-year contract of the type
preferred by major institutional investors rather than the two-year deal enjoyed by
his predecessor Mr. Gilbertson. The company took the unusual step of disclosing
the contract details of his replacement, Mr. Goodyear, to the London Stock
Exchange. Mr. Goodyear, a 44-year old American who has been at the helm is on
a pay deal under which he could earn $3,7 m a year if he meets all of his
performance criteria. Investors said they were surprised by the level of detail in
the contract released to the stock exchange.
155
The Association of British Insurers (ABI), whose members control about a
quarter of the London stock market, congratulated the company for the level of
detail being revealed. “It’s great they have given this disclosure at this stage and in
such detail in advance of the annual general meeting,” the ABI said. At the
previous meeting, shareholders were advised by the National Association of
Pension Funds of concerns about Mr. Gilbertson’s two-year contract which helped
ratchet up the size of his final pay cheque to an estimated more than $16 m. BHP
Billiton tried to demonstrate to investors that the contract terms for Mr. Goodyear
could not be described as rewarding failure should he suddenly leave. BHP Billiton
appears to be trying to avoid any criticism from investors that they do not know
what Mr. Goodyear would receive if he were to leave. Mr. Goodyear could still
walk away with $5, 2 m if he were to leave on friendly terms after three years and
met all of the performance criteria set out for share awards granted in previous
years. The terms require him to have served as chief executive for three years and
seem to try to limit the amount of cash that he would immediately walk away with.
The company insists that any shares and options subject to performance
criteria would not automatically vest. He would be allowed to keep his entitlement
to certain performance shares until their performance criteria have been reached.
Mr. Goodyear, who has received two annual installments of $150,000 to relocate
from Australia to Britain, is now to receive $125,000 to move to Melbourne. He is
on a basic salary of $1,250,000 plus retirement benefits of $600,000 and, if he
meets his performance criteria, will receive an annual short-term bonus in cash and
shares of $227,500. The performance criteria relate to the budget set for the
company at the start of the year. Therefore, the mining group BHP Billiton tries to
head off further protests by putting its new chief executive on a contract designed
to help avoid rewards for failure.
Vocabulary
vice versa (лат.) - наоборот
merger – слияние компаний
156
chief executive – руководитель
to be at the helm – быть «у руля»
to meet all of his performance criteria – отвечать всем производственным
требованиям
disclosure – разоблачение
to ratchet up – направлять вверх, повышать
to vest – переходить
entitlement – разрешение
installment(s) – вклад, часть
retirement benefit – пенсия по старости
III
Australia is far from the rest of the world. It takes 24-hours to get there by
plane. Much attention is paid to the national airline business. However, Australia’s
national airline Qantas, has suffered its first six-month loss since its floating more
than 10 years ago as it struggles to plunge in the number of people visiting the
antipodes. The carrier was planning to deal with the squeeze by setting up a lowcost domestic operation to challenge Sir Richard Branson’s Virgin Blue – despite
skepticism from analysts, who suggested that could cannibalize its existing
market. Qantas, which is part-owned by British Airways, made on A$9 m loss for
the second half of its financial year. But a stronger first half kept it in the black for
the full year. With profits down by a fifth to A$502 m. The airline was badly hit by
the Sars virus, which caused a slump in traffic to its key East Asia destinations.
Along with other international carriers, it was also hurt by the war in Iraq and
constant terrorist alerts, which have weakened the market for global travel. Geoff
Dixon, Qantas’s chief executive, has slashed nearly 3,000 staff and frozen all nonessential spending. He insisted that the airline’s finances remained relatively
healthy, given the state of the industry. “I’m not going to sit here and say we’re out
of the woods, but in some ways I’m quite bullish on what we’re seeing at the
157
moment,” he said. “Our domestic profitability has to improve, and we’re working
on that.”
Mr. Dixon said Qantas was well advanced with plans to launch an EasyJetstyle budget carrier within Australia. The group has already set up an international
offshoot, Australian Airlines, which carries tourists to Bali and Malaysia. Some
industry commentators pointed out that other national airlines had seen low-cost
offshoots eat into their core market, citing BA’s Go and KLM’s defunct Buzz.
“They’ll definitely cannibalize their own market share unless they’re planning to
set that up and phase out the existing Qantas operations,” said Bruce Low, an
analyst at ABN Amro in Sydney. “I’m very cynical about whether or not they can
actually set up a low-cost carrier in the first place” Qantas said visitors to Australia
had fallen by a fifth over the year; revenues from the UK and mainland Europe fell
1% to A$904 m, while those from Japan dropped 19% to A$574m.
Australia is one of the most cost competitive countries in the developed
world. The Australian economy has been ranked the most resilient in the world for
the third year in succession. This strong performance is set to continue, with
forecast growth higher than the OECD average. The International Monetary Fund
applauds Australia for its strong performance, with six years of budget surpluses,
falling public debt, low inflation, high and rising productivity and a long period of
uninterrupted growth underpinned by a dynamic job market.
These features and more have already inspired many forward thinking,
well-known
multinational
companies
to
do
business
in
Australia.
(From the Guardian)
Vocabulary
to plunge – погружаться, внедряться
to squeeze – жать, сжимать, выжимать
to cannibalize – разбирать на части
Sars virus – Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (острое респираторное
заболевание)
158
slump (in) - снижение
terrorist alerts – террористические атаки
to slash - резать
bullish – радужный, оптимистичный
offshoot – ветвь, филиал
to cite – ссылаться, вызывать
to defunct – более не существующий
resilient - эластичный, имеющий запас жизненных сил
Succession - последовательность, преемственность
forecast growth - прогнозируемый рост
budget surplus - нераспределенный бюджетный капитал
public debt - государственный долг
underpin - поддерживать
inspire - внушить, вдохновить
After-reading tasks
1. Match each business term to its meaning
1.stock exchange
a/a person or organization that invests
money in order to make a profit
2.stock market
b/an extra amount of money added to
an employee’s wages, usually as a
reward for doing difficult or good
work
3.shareholder
c/continuing increase in the prices of
goods and services
4.contract terms
d/money provided by the government
to people who leave a job because of
the end of their working life
5.pay cheque
e/your salary before extra money such
159
as bonuses and commission is added to
it
6.interest rate
f/one of a series of regular payments
that are made until all of the an agreed
amount of money has been paid
7.chief executive
g/the degree to which a company is
profitable
8.performance criteria
h/the person who has the highest
position in a company or other
organization and who makes all the
important decisions about how it is run
9.annual installments
i/the
percentage
rate
used
for
calculating interest over a particular
period of time, usually one year
10.investor
j/the amount of money someone earns
11.basic salary
k/an occasion when two or more
companies join together to form a
large company
12.retirement benefits
l/a person or organization that buys
and
sells
securities,
currencies,
property, insurance
13.bonus
m/money
that
a
business
or
organization receives over a period of
time, especially from selling goods or
services
14.inflation
n/the state of producing a profit, or the
degree to which an activity, company,
etc. is profitable
15.merger
160
o/a stock market a market where
company shares are traded
16.broker
p/someone who owns shares in a
company
17.revenue
q/an agreement in a contract between
two or more people or groups which
says what each must do for the other,
or must not do
2. Fill in the gaps with the appropriate preposition
1. Another concern is the rapid increase … domestic housing prices.
2. The Edinburgh bank is trying to take control … the Perth-based lender …
the cheap.
3. According … the group’s website, Australia does not hold the same
promise as the US to a Scottish banking group.
4. Mr Gilbertson’s two-year contract helped ratchet … the size of his final
pay cheque.
5. Mr Goodyear could still walk … with $ 5, 2 m if he were to leave …
friendly terms after three years and met all of the performance criteria set … for
share awards granted in previous years.
6. The mining group BHP Billiton tries to head … further protests … putting
its new chief executive … a contract designed to help avoid rewards … failure.
7. Australia Bank West is being snapped … by the Edinburgh bank HBOS.
3. Match A to B
A
B
HBOS
a. Association of British Insurers
Quantas
b. Royal Bank of Scotland
BHP
c. Broken Hill Proprietary
Bank West
d. Australia’s National Airline
161
ABI
e. Bank of Australia
Billiton
f. South African mining group
4. Put the sentences in the correct order
1. Bank West was snapped up by HBOS, on the cheap.
2. The first chief executive of BHP Billiton was Mr Paul Anderson.
3. BHP Billiton is a merger of Australia’s Broken Hill Proprietary with
Billiton of South Africa.
4. After that Mr Chip Goodyear was appointed.
5. The association of British Insurers (ABI) congratulated BHP Billiton for
the details of the replacement.
6. Then Mr Brian Gilberson was put on a two-year contract.
5. Open the brackets
1). Australia has an (envy) Western-style capitalist economy.
2). The rapid increase in domestic housing prices provokes a (speculation)
bubble.
3). He would be allowed to keep his (entitle) to certain performance shares.
4). Mr Goodyear has received two annual (install) of $ 150,000.
5). He is on a basic salary plus (retire) benefits.
6). The airline was (bad) hit by the Sars virus.
7). Geoff Dixon has slashed (near) 3,000 staff.
6. Match A to B
A
B
1/meet all of his performance criteria
a/сдерживать обещание
2/take control on the cheap
b/быть во главе
3/hold the promise
c/отвечать профессиональным
требованиям
4/put (smb.) on a contract
162
d/быть вне опасности
5/keep it in the black
e/по очень низкой цене
6/be out of the woods
f/заключать контракт
7/be at the helm
g/иметь деньги на счете
7. Use the expressions from Ex. 6 to complete the sentences below
1.
Mr Gilberson was … of the BHP Billiton before Mr Goodyear.
2.
Mr Goodyear … can earn $ 3, 7 m a year if ….
3.
BHP Billiton tries to … its new chief executive … designed to help
avoid rewards for failure.
4.
Geoff Dixon said that Qantas was relatively healthy and ….
5.
The first half of Qantas’s financial year was strong and … for the full
6.
HBOS is going to expand the bank across Australia and … under the
year.
guidance of George Mitchell.
7.
Australia didn’t …as the US to a Scottish banking group.
8. Translate into English
Австралийский реестр бизнесов
Несколько лет назад в Австралии прошла крупная налоговая реформа,
которая заставила многие компании с большим вниманием отнестись к своей
деятельности и движению денежных средств.
Первым шагом к предоставлению частному сектору интегрированных
и ориентированных на клиента услуг стало введение Австралийского номера
бизнеса (Australian Business number, ABN) – уникального идентификатора
для всех коммерческих структур. Теперь у каждой из 4 млн. австралийских
компаний
имеется
свой
номер,
который
принимается
любыми
государственными службами для выполнения тех или иных операций.
В сотрудничестве с компаниями Accenture и Microsoft Австралийское
налоговое управление разработало австралийский реестр бизнесов (Australian
163
Business
Register,
общенациональное
ABR).
значение;
Австралийский
он
реестр
существует
не
бизнесов
только
для
имеет
нужд
Австралийского налогового управления, но и в интересах многих других
государственных органов.
Австралийский
реестр
бизнесов
предназначен
для
безопасного
хранения всех АВN – номеров и является интерактивным средством
взаимодействия со всеми федеральными, региональными и местными
органами связи, которые обслуживают бизнес-сообщество и управляют им.
Австралийский реестр бизнесов осуществляет обмен информацией с
государственными учреждениями с помощью веб-служб XML (XML Web
Services). Реестр бизнесов сам является веб-службой.
После того как та или иная организация регистрируется в реестре,
данные о ней посылаются по сети государственным учреждениям, которые
уже записаны в этом реестре. Информация также пересылается обратно в
реестр, когда в ведомствах происходят какие-либо изменения.
9. Expand on the following
1. Australia is far from the rest of the world.
2. Australia has a Western-style capitalist economy.
3. Business ethics and political diplomacy are two interrelated things.
4C. CULTURE
Reading
“In a nutshell, the land and identity are inseparable.”
(Stories from Australia’s Culture and Recreation Portal)
AUSTRALIA’S ABORIGINAL HERITAGE
CULTURAL DIVERSITY
I
Before Europeans came to Australia, the very distinctive and culturally
unique groups that made up Aboriginal Australia shared a number of common
164
traits. They all shared an intimate understanding of, and relationship with, the land.
It was the basis of their spiritual life. For Aboriginal people all that is sacred is
localized in the landscape. All of Australia’s Aboriginals were semi-nomadic
hunters and gatherers, with each clan having its own territory from which they
“made their living”. These territories or “traditional lands” were defined by
geographic boundaries such as rivers, lakes and mountains. The relationship
between a clan and its “territory” involves certain rights, such as the right to use
the land and its products. With these rights comes a duty to tend the land through
the performance of ceremonies. Individuals within the clan also have special
relationships with places in their territory. Where a person’s mother first became
pregnant may mean an ongoing responsibility, in terms of right and duties,
towards that place.
There were coastal and inland tribes. Their “territories” ranged from
lush woodland areas to harsh desert surroundings. Different groups needed to
develop different skills and build a unique body of knowledge about their
particular territories. Their tools reflected the geographical location of these
different groups. For example, it is known that coastal tribes used fishbone to tip
their weapons, whereas desert tribes used stone tips. While their tools varied by
groups and location, Aboriginal people all had knives, scrapers, axe-heads, spears,
various vessels for eating and drinking, and digging sticks. Not all groups had
didgeridoos and, contrary to people belief, many did not have boomerangs.
Moreover, some groups developed more tools than others. It was this affinity with
their surroundings that goes a long way to explaining how Aboriginals survived for
so many millennia. They were supremely expert in adapting to their environments.
Aboriginals understood and cared for their different environments, and adapted to
them.
Australian Aboriginal culture is complex and extraordinary diverse. It is one
of the world’s longest surviving cultures, which goes back at least 50,000 years.
There were 500 different clan groups or “nations” around the continent, many with
distinctive cultures and beliefs. Hundreds of languages and dialects existed
165
(although many are now extinct), as well as a variety of different customs and
rituals, art forms, styles of painting, forms of food, and hunting habits.
There were between 200 and 250 Aboriginal languages spoken, with many
different dialects, producing up to 700 varieties. This makes Aboriginal Australia
one of the most linguistically diverse areas on the planet. Within the space of 80
kilometers you can still pass through the territories of three languages “less closely
related than English, Russian and Hindu.” Language is vitally important in
understanding Aboriginal heritage as much of their history is an oral history.
Interestingly, various oral histories have been backed up by geological data, such
as the flooding of Port Phillip Bay which occurred about 10,000 years ago.
Australian Indigenous art is the oldest ongoing tradition of art in the world.
Initial forms of artistic Aboriginal expression were rock carvings, body painting
and ground designs, which date back more than 30,000 years. Art has always been
an important part of Aboriginal life, connecting past and present, the people and
the land, and the supernatural and reality. Aboriginal art has come to the forefront
of Australia’s national identity in recent years, celebrated by Australians and the
world in the opening ceremony of the 2000 Olympic Games. The prominence of
Indigenous art is due in part to the motivation and considerable effort of
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander artists, particularly painters, who have played
a major role in introducing both Australia and the rest of the world to Australia’s
Indigenous cultures. Indeed, the country’s Indigenous artists have had a major
impact on the art world with exhibitions in major galleries around the globe.
Indigenous art has embraced technology and new media. Indigenous Art Online
and Maningrida art and culture are but two examples. There are also many galleries
and exhibitions of Indigenous Art on the Internet, which have enhanced the
international popularity and awareness of Aboriginal and Torres Trait Islander art.
Vocabulary
semi-nomadic – кочевой
pregnant – беременный
166
lush woodland – богатый лес
harsh desert – суровая пустыня
scraper – скребок
vessel – судно
didgeridoo – длинный деревянный инструмент Австралийских аборигенов
boomerang – бумеранг
extinct – вымирающий
Hindu – хинди
indigenous – местный
rock carvings – наскальная живопись
prominence – важность, значимость
to enhance – увеличивать, укреплять
awareness – осведомленность
II
Albert Namatjira (1920 – 1959) is one of Australia’s best-known Aboriginal
artists, and the first Aboriginal painter to receive international recognition for his
art. A Western style painter, he spent part of his youth at the Hermannsburg
Lutheran Mission, about 130 kilometres west of Alice Springs, Northern Territory,
and was introduced to watercolour painting by a non-Aboriginal artist, Rex
Batterbee, in the 1930s. Namatjira’s landscape paintings are predominantly of
areas he knew throughout his life in the tribal land of Western Aranda, Central
Australia. His art captured the vibrant colours of the Western MacDonnell and
Krichauff Ranges, the tributaries of Ellery Creek and Hugh River, and in many
works the broad bed of the Finke River that ran through the heart of his tribal
land. In 1957 Namatjira was the first Aborigine to be granted Australian
citizenship. While he died in 1959 disenchanted with white society, Namatjira did
much to change the prevailing negative view of Aborigines at the time. He also
paved the way for the Papunya art movement, which emerged a decade after his
death.
167
While Aboriginal painting traditions are many thousands of years old it was
not until the 1970s that Indigenous artists began to receive widespread recognition
in the West. The National Gallery of Australia’s collection includes bark
paintings, weaving and sculpture. The Gallery is also proud of the large number of
works in its collection produced by the Torres Strait Islanders, who are known for
their artistic sculptures and headdresses. The National Gallery of Australia has in
its collection what is arguably one of the most powerful works of art yet to be
created in Australia. The Aboriginal Memorial (1987 – 1988) is an installation of
200 painted hollow log coffins by the artists of Ramingining in Arnhem Land. The
Memorial, a collaborative work involving 43 artists, is dedicated to all Indigenous
Australians who lost their lives defending their country since European settlement.
Aboriginal culture and its intricate links with the Australian landscape has
become a growing fascination to a global audience. Australia’s original inhabitants
occupy a unique place where a rich heritage of traditional knowledge, practice and
belief underpin a dynamic contemporary society. For most people this is
superficially presented through stereotypical images of the painted dancers,
silhouetted noble hunters and laughing children, usually from northern Australia.
Increasingly people want to go beyond this veneer of mainstream travel to seek a
greater contact and understanding of what Australian Aboriginal culture and meet
the people often find this a difficult and frustrating task. Aboriginal involvement
in tourism is in its infancy and there is only a small number of Aboriginal travel
operations scattered throughout Australia. Few of these are in mainstream tourism
and most are specialized niche market offerings that often find it difficult to
connect to the interested traveler.
Vocabulary
tributary – приток
broad – широкий
to disenchant – разочаровывать
to pave – прокладывать, мостить
168
bark paintings – рисунки на дереве
hollow log coffin – полые бревна (гробы)
collaborative – коллективный
intricate – сложный
to underpin – поддерживать, подкреплять
veneer – внешний лоск (покрытие)
frustrating – разочарованный
to scatter – разбрасывать
niche market – сегмент рынка для маркетинга определенного товара
After-reading tasks
1. Translate into English
1. Австралийские аборигены – коренное население Австралии,
названное так от латинского “ab origene” – «от начала». Аборигены
Австралии – самая древняя и одна из наименее изученных из живущих на
Земле цивилизаций, о происхождении которой существует не одна гипотеза.
2. В то время как историки, археологи и другие ученые, исследующие
проблему происхождения аборигенов, по сей день так и не пришли к
единому мнению и не могут ответить на вопрос ни откуда изначально
появились аборигены, ни как давно они проживают в Австралии, сами же
аборигены не имеют сомнений на этот счет и их традиции, уходящие
корнями глубоко в прошлое, являются тому живым подтверждением.
3.
Традиционное
искусство
аборигенов
Австралии
дарит
нам
уникальную возможность глубокого проникновения в культуру древнейшей
из дошедших до нас цивилизации. В то время как европейская цивилизация
отмечает начало третьего тысячелетия своего существования, австралийские
аборигены отмечают (по меньшей мере) начало пятидесятого.
4. Археологические исследования свидетельствуют, что наскальные
рисунки, к примеру, в Арнем-Ленд на севере Австралии имеют возраст 50
169
000 лет, а наскальным гравюрам в южной Австралии, по крайней мере,
30 000 лет – что древнее наскальных рисунков Альтамира и Ласко времен
Палеолита, обнаруженных в Европе. Аборигены обладают развитой и
многогранной культурой, которая и формирует их деликатный и в то же
время динамичный и насыщенный образ жизни.
5. Современное направление «Живопись пустыни» также является
продолжением древнейших религиозных традиций аборигенов Австралии. В
большинстве произведений присутствует созерцательный момент, вне
зависимости от того, создано ли оно одним автором или группой
художников. Коллективное творчество включает в себя совместное пение,
ритуальные прикосновения, повествования и обучение. Создание серьезных
религиозных произведений находится под пристальным наблюдением
«хранителей»,
старейшин,
предназначены
для
Кутунгулу,
широкого
круга
и,
если
эти
произведения
зрителей, Кутунгулу стремятся
принимать в этом участие не как художники, а как беспристрастные судьи в
области религиозных знаний.
2. Answer the questions in a note form (short answers)
1.
What kind of country was Aboriginal Australia?
2.
What was sacred for Aboriginal people?
3.
How did Australia’s Aboriginals “make their living”?
4.
Were “traditional lands” defined geographically?
5.
Did the relationship between a clan and its territory involve no rules?
6.
How many types of tribes were there in Aboriginal Australia?
7.
Why did different groups need to develop different skills?
8.
Who used fishbone to tip their weapons?
9.
Did all the tribes have knives, scrapers, axe-heads, spears, digging
sticks, various vessels for eating and drinking?
170
10.
Did all the tribes have didgeridoos and boomerangs?
11.
How did Aboriginals manage to survive for so many millennia?
12.
They were supremely expert in adapting to their environments,
weren’t they?
13.
Was Australian Aboriginal culture complex and diverse?
14.
How many different clan groups or “nations” were there around the
continent?
15.
What is Hindu?
16.
What art is the oldest ongoing tradition of art in the world?
17.
When were the Olympic Games held in Australia?
18.
What enhances the international popularity and awareness of
Aboriginal and Torres Trait Islander art?
19.
Who was Albert Namatjira (1920 – 1959)?
20.
What does the National Gallery of Australia’s collection include?
21.
What is The Aboriginal Memorial (1987 – 1988)?
3. Translate into Russian
Australian Indigenous art is the oldest ongoing tradition of art in the world.
Initial forms of artistic Aboriginal expression were rock carvings, body painting
and ground designs, which date back more than 30,000 years. Art has always been
an important part of Aboriginal life, connecting past and present, the people and
the land, and the supernatural and reality. Aboriginal art has come to the forefront
of Australia’s national identity in recent years, celebrated by Australians and the
world in the opening ceremony of the 2000 Olympic Games. The prominence of
Indigenous art is due in part to the motivation and considerable effort of
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander artists, particularly painters, who have played
a major role in introducing both Australia and the rest of the world to Australia’s
Indigenous cultures. Indeed, the country’s Indigenous artists have had a major
impact on the art world with exhibitions in major galleries around the globe.
Indigenous art has embraced technology and new media. Indigenous Art Online
and Maningrida art and culture are but two examples. There are also many
galleries and exhibitions of Indigenous Art on the Internet, which have enhanced
171
the international popularity and awareness of Aboriginal and Torres Trait
Islander art.
4. Fill in the gaps with prepositions
While their tools varied … groups and location, Aboriginal people all had
knives, scrapers, axe-heads, spears, various vessels … eating and drinking, and
digging sticks. Not all groups had didgeridoos and, contrary … people belief,
many did not have boomerangs. Moreover, some groups developed more tools
than others. It was this affinity … their surroundings that goes a long way …
explaining how Aboriginals survived … so many millennia. They were supremely
expert … adapting … their environments. Aboriginals understood and cared …
their different environments, and adapted … them.
Australian Aboriginal culture is complex and extraordinary diverse. It is one
of the world’s longest surviving cultures, which goes back … least 50,000 years.
There were 500 different clan groups or “nations” around the continent, many …
distinctive cultures and beliefs. Hundreds … languages and dialects existed
(although many are now extinct), as well … a variety … different customs and
rituals, art forms, styles of painting, forms … food, and hunting habits.
4D. ENVIRONMENT
Reading
The mission statement of the Institute for Applied Ecology in Canberra is putting
ecology to work in natural resource management.
WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT
There are loads of spectacular places to see in Australia. The Great Barrier
Reef is the biggest structure on Earth made by living things. Then there’s the
outback – the desert and semi-desert area in the middle of the country. It’s a great
place for trekking, or what we call bushwalking. The wildlife in Australia is rich
and wonderful. The continent is full of rare plants and animals. You can see some
172
amazing animals – koalas, emus, platypuses, echidnas, possums, dingoes – and
kangaroos, of course. The red kangaroo is the largest living marsupial: an old
male may weigh as much as 70 kg. Red kangaroos live on grassland on the edge of
the desert in small herds, which consist of an adult male and several females.
During the heat of the day they shelter in the shade of rocks or trees and come out
in the evening to feed and drink. Only the male has the famous deep red coat; the
female has a blue-grey coat and is often called the “blue-flier.”
Red kangaroos breed all through the year and the gestation period is thirty
to forty days. The young kangaroo spends about 240 days in the pouch and then
stays with its mother for another four months. If there is a severe drought, most
young kangaroos that are still in their mother’s pouches will die. Thus they need
protection. Besides, there are lots of illegal hunters and pirates in the rainforests
and waters of Australia. Until recently red kangaroos were hunted all over central
Australia, but hunting is now strictly controlled and the red kangaroo’s future
seems assured.
Everybody’s favourite is koala. The name “koala” comes from the aborigine
language which means “I don’t drink.” Even though they can drink water;
however, they get most of the liquid they need from the leaves they eat. Koalas are
rather interesting. They are active at night and because of this, spend most of the
daytime asleep in the trees. They don’t have tails, which is strange for animals
which live in the trees but they have a hard pad of skin which lets them sit for
hours. They have pouches for their youngsters like kangaroos but theirs open
downwards. Baby koalas spend about six months in the pouches before riding on
their mothers’ back.
Unfortunately, koalas were hunted for their fur, and in 1924 two million
koala skins were exported. Now they are no longer hunted, but there are other
dangers. Koalas eat enormous amounts of leaves from gum trees, but since many
of the forests have been cut down food is getting scarce. Disease and cars are two
other major threats. Luckily people are aware of the problems and are trying to
protect koalas; so their future doesn’t look too bad.
173
One of the most peculiar Australian creatures treasured for its delicate white
flesh is tooth-fish, a toothy two-yard long sea creature. The tooth-fish – more
prosaically known as the Chilean sea bass – can grow up to seven feet long, lives
for up to 50 years, and does not breed until it is at least aged ten. Demand for its
white, flaky flesh has soared in the past decade, driven by its popularity in Japan
and the USA, sparking a black market and leading to the fish becoming known as
“white gold”. An Australian-South African operation in 2002 led to the seizure of
two Russian fishing vessels poaching tooth-fish. The country defends its Southern
Ocean waters from illegal fishing.
A cargo of poached Patagonian tooth-fish has provoked an extraordinary
chase across the stormy waters near Antarctica. Uruguayan-registered long-line
trawler was detected in Australian waters. An Australian fisheries patrol ship, the
Southern Supporter, has pursued the trawler Viarsa for eleven days, dodging
icebergs as the two vessels have pounded at full speed through heavy seas. While
there was no confirmation it had tooth-fish in its hold, the Viarsa ignored repeated
radio orders to stop as the chase moved into international waters. The race may
have been running out for the Viarsa, however. South Africa was ready to join the
chase, with two vessels reported to be about 1,200 miles south of Cape Town.
South Africa’s deputy director general of the environment, Horst Kleinschmidt,
said his country’s helicopter-equipped Antarctic supply ship, the MV Agulhas, was
ready to join the operation. “If there are two vessels, it would find it extremely
difficult to escape,” he said. The Viarsa would be warned that it was to be boarded
by ship or helicopter, he pointed out. If the crew resisted, they would face
criminal charges and the seizure of the ship and its contents.
At stake is Australia’s determination to stop illegal fishing of the tooth-fish
in its Southern Ocean waters off the Heard and McDonald Islands, 2,200 nautical
miles from the Australian coast. Australia has had little success in stopping the
pirates for whom the financial gains outweigh the threat of heavy fines.
According to conservationists warning the fish could be commercially
extinct within several years; therefore, Australia’s four licensed fishing companies
174
have to abide by an annual catch quota of just 2,900 tones. Poachers in Australia
are accused of pulling in more than 2,000 tones a month, however (adapted from
“The Scotsman”).
Many research organizations of the country are well represented in
conservation work. The Institute for Applied Ecology in Canberra undertakes
broadly based research in the areas of conservation biology, wildlife management,
wildlife genetics, environmental chemistry in aquatic ecosystems and natural
resource policy. Moreover, the Institute for Applied Ecology is an interdisciplinary
group of academic staff, postdoctoral fellows, postgraduate students and adjunct
fellows at the University of Canberra. Academic Staff have a range of skills and
backgrounds which is uncommon within most other university departments.
Besides, formal training covers zoology, botany, genetics, molecular biology,
agriculture, resource management, geography, law, policy studies, mathematics
and biometry. Therefore, the group also brings together a unique blend of personal
skills and experience in experimental and field research, contract work, statistical
analysis, policy development, government liaison and resource survey and
management.
The Group is well-equipped. Facilities include vehicle fleet, field equipment,
camping equipment, computer facilities and laboratory equipment. On top of
everything, an ecology laboratory and an environmental chemistry laboratory
provide many opportunities for project work. Key strategies encourage the
researchers to:
- openly discuss ideas and approaches to future research;
- seek substantive project funds from competitive schemes, involving
rigorous evaluation of proposals;
- promote strong collaborative linkages with other organizations with
complementary capacity;
- present at international conferences and to present seminars at institutions
other than their own;
175
- publish findings in peer-reviewing journals of the highest international
standing, appropriate to their work.
Thus the mission of the Institute for Applied Ecology in Canberra is putting
ecology to work in natural resource management. The goal is achieved by
undertaking high quality research to improve their understanding of ecology and so
improve the basis for decision-making in natural resource management and
sustainable development. It is their aim to maintain excellence in this research and
to build national and international recognition for it.
Vocabulary
trekking – переход пустыни или какой-либо труднопроходимой местности
bushwalking – см. trekking
platypus - утконос
possum – опоссум
marsupial – сумчатое животное
herd - стадо
gestation period – период беременности
pouch – сумка, карман, мешочек
severe drought – сильная засуха
rainforest – тропический лес
pad of skin – кожная складка
gum tree – эвкалипт
scarce – редкий
tooth-fish – зубатка
sea bass – морской окунь
flaky flesh – слоистое мясо
sparking – искрящийся
trawler – траулер
dodging – увиливающий, исчезающий
deputy director general – помощник командира
176
to resist – сопротивляться
to face criminal charges – подвергаться штрафным взысканиям
at stake – быть в опасности, быть поставленным на карту
nautical – морской
extinct – вымирающий
abide – придерживаться, соблюдать
to blend - смешивать
liaison – связь взаимодействия
rigorous – суровый, строгий
collaborative linkages – взаимосвязь
peer-reviewing – быть под пристальным вниманием
Translate into English
В Австралии найдены кенгуру-хищники
На севере Австралии, в Квинсленде, палеонтологи Университета
Нового Южного Уэльса (University of New South Wales - UNSW), в ходе
двухнедельной экспедиции под руководством профессора Майкла Арчера
(Michael Archer) сумели обнаружить окаменевшие останки по крайней мере
20 ранее неизвестных видов животных, в том числе хищного кенгуру,
двоякодышащих рыб и больших хищных птиц, напоминающих уток.
Всего было обнаружено две разновидности плотоядных сумчатых:
первый вид Ekaltadeta обладал большими клыками вроде волчьих, прекрасно
приспособленными
для
разрывания
мяса
и,
возможно,
даже
для
размалывания костей, удлиненные передние части конечностей второго
свидетельствуют о том, что он не прыгал, как современные травоядные
кенгуру, а скорее всего бегал галопом. Подобные существа населяли
Австралию 10-20 миллионов лет назад.
Арчер уверен в том, что древние кенгуру были совершенно непохожи
на их современных потомков: "Поскольку они не прыгали, а бегали, они
177
обладали очень развитыми конечностями, почти такие же длинными, как у
собак или волков", - поясняет ученый.
"Эту группу животных мы нежно называем "кенгуру-убийцы" (killer
kangaroos). У них были мощные зубы и клыки, служившие, возможно, для
разрезания плоти", - говорит доктор Сью Хэнд (Sue Hand), специалист по
вымершим позвоночным. По ее словам, последние открытия показывают, что
кенгуру-убийцы были не единственными пугающими существами 10
миллионов лет назад. Найдены также останки очень большой (весом свыше
200 килограммов) птицы, которую палеонтологи называют "утка - демон
смерти" (demon ducks of doom). Вероятно, она тоже была плотоядной.
Останки остальных животных еще ждут своего детального изучения.
178
MODULE 5 NEW ZEALAND
5 A. BACKGROUND
Interesting Facts
The first European to reach New Zealand was Dutch explorer Abel Janszoon
Tasman in 1642. The Maori killed many of the ship’s crew and no European
returned to New Zealand until Captain James Cook in 1769.
One in five deaths in New Zealand is caused by smoking.
The indigenous Maori people migrated to New Zealand sometime in the last
700 to 2,000 years.
The indigenous Maori people make up about 15% of the population.
Agriculture is the main export industry in New Zealand. Dairy products
account for about 20% of all of New Zealand’s exports.
There are about 4 million people living in New Zealand, and about 40
million sheep! That’s 10 sheep per person!
Rugby union is the most popular sport in New Zealand. Other popular sports
are netball, cricket, bowls, soccer (football), golf, swimming, tennis and rugby.
English is spoken by 98% of the population.
The countries where English is an official language
In 2012, there were 88 states in total (60 sovereign states and 28 nonsovereign states).
In many countries English is the dominant language, but does not have
official status.
In Australia, English is spoken by the vast majority of the population and is
the only language used in government institutions, but Australia does not have an
official language.
The case is the same in the United Kingdom and the United States, though
many states and regions within the U.S. do have English as an off English is the
dominant language of New Zealand.
179
English is the dominant language of New Zealand and an official language
of Canada (along with French)
Also English is the dominant language in India (along with Hindi and
several other languages),
Ireland (along with Irish),
and the Philippines (along with Tagalog).
English is the sole official language of the Commonwealth of Nations
and the Commonwealth Games
English is one of the official languages of the United Nations, the European
Union and the International Olympic Committee.
Many of these countries are current or former colonies or dependencies of
the United Kingdom (see also British Empire), or of the United States, itself a
former colony of the UK.
There is a neologism Anglosphere which refers to a set of English speaking
nations with a similar cultural heritage, based upon their source in colonial
settlement by populations originating from Anglo-Saxon England and its Celtic
neighbouring populations within the British Isles from Wales, Scotland, Ireland
and Ulster, from the sixteenth century onwards, and which today maintain a close
political and military cooperation.
While the nations included in different sources vary, the term Anglosphere
usually does not include all countries where English is an official language,
although commonly included nations were all once part of the British Empire. In
its most restricted sense the term covers the United Kingdom, United States,
180
Canada, Australia and New Zealand, which have integrated various military
functions under the 1946 UKUSA Agreement, and the 1947 ABCA Armies
program, and post British Empire maintain a close affinity of cultural, familial and
political links with one another.
South Africa and Rhodesia were until the latter part of the twentieth century
considered a part of this group, but, having been subsequently governmentally
taken over by their indigenous continental populations, are no longer.
Definitions of the Anglosphere vary: countries in which English is the first
language of the majority of the population are shown in blue; other countries with
substantial adoption of English are shown in light blue.
The US businessman James C. Bennett, a proponent of the idea that there is
something special about the cultural and legal traditions of English-speaking
nations, writes in his 2004 book The Anglosphere Challenge
The Anglosphere, as a network civilization without a corresponding political
form, has necessarily imprecise boundaries. Geographically, the densest nodes of
the Anglosphere are found in the United States and the United Kingdom. Englishspeaking Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Ireland, and English-speaking South
Africa (who constitute a very small minority in that country) are also significant
populations. The English-speaking Caribbean, English-speaking Oceania, and the
English-speaking educated populations in Africa and India constitute other
important nodes.
5B. BUSINESS
Reading
Fortune favors the brave!
New Zealand Economy
Banking Interdependence
I
Over the past 20 years the government has transformed New Zealand from
an agrarian economy dependent on concessionary British market access to a mass
181
industrialized, free market economy that can compete globally. This dynamic
growth has boosted real incomes (but left behind many at the bottom of the
ladder), broadened and deepened the technological capabilities of the industrial
sector, and contained inflationary pressures. Per capita income has risen for six
consecutive years and is now more than $23,000 in purchasing power parity
terms. New Zealand is heavily dependent on trade – particularly in agricultural
products (diary products, meet), wood and wood products, fish, machinery – to
drive growth. Its imports involve machinery and equipment, vehicles and aircraft,
petroleum, electronics, textiles, plastics. Exports are equal to about 20% of GDP.
Thus far the economy has been resilient, and the Labor Government promises that
expenditures on health, education, and pensions will increase proportionately to
output.
New Zealand exports goods to: Australia – 21%, the USA – 14,4%, Japan –
11,3%, China – 5,4% , the UK – 4,7%.
New Zealand imports from: Australia – 22, 4%, the USA – 11,3%, Japan –
11,2%, China – 9,7%, the UK – 5,2%.
Therefore, the main trade partner (export-import) of New Zealand is
Australia.
Moreover, business contacts between New Zealand and Australia are too
close. Westpac, one of Australia’s big four clearing banks, joined the race to buy
the National Bank of New Zealand from Lloyds TSB for an estimated $ 3.9 billion.
The sale, although hardly significant in terms of earnings, had to bring in plenty of
capital. Interest in a bid for Lloyds TSB’s National Bank of New Zealand grew as
Westpac Banking Corporation, reported that it has put a request to New Zealand’s
competition authorities to acquire the country’s largest bank. Lloyds NSB has
been off form for some time. Shares lagged behind the other runners in the
banking sector, weighed down by fears over the dividend and the demands of its
life assurance subsidiary (Scottish Widows) in Scotland. Mr. Daniels, the new
boss, decided that drastic action was needed. So the widespread interest in the
operation New Zealand – Westpac – was welcome.
182
Vocabulary
сoncessionary – концессионный, льготный
to boost – повышать, поднимать
inflationary pressures – инфляционный прессинг
six consecutive years – шесть последних лет
vehicle – транспортное средство
petroleum - бензин
resilient – способность восстанавливаться, возрождаться
expenditures - затраты
bid – предложение цены (сделка)
to be off – менять положение, местонахождение
to lag behind – отставать
assurance subsidiary – надежный филиал
drastic action – сильное воздействие, крутая мера
II
A disposal at $ 3.9 billion had to go some way to restoring Lloyds’s
depleted balance sheet. Lloyds needed a more robust balance sheet for several
reasons:
- Rules, due for implementation in 2005, required banks to set aside more
capital to support life assurance operations. Mr. Daniel made it clear that he
wanted to retain Scottish Widows.
- Better finances had to ease the need for a dividend cut Lloyds TSB, whose
shares yield nearly 8%, distributed more than 90% of available profits. Many
shareholders, particularly the army of private investors, liked it to continue doing
so.
- The bank also had a large pension fund deficit to finance. Lloyds had to
upper its contributions to help to close the $3,5 billion gap. If equity markets
failed to rally sufficiently, the deficit would to be recorded as a capital liability
under new accounting standards.
183
- More importantly, Lloyds TSB had to improve its capital base if Mr.
Daniels’s ambitions were to be fulfilled. He wanted to return to the bread and
butter of banking using capital to lend to individuals. In the mortgage market,
Lloyds began to act more aggressively.
At first its share of the market doubled to 9,5%. However, it will take a
while to see whether this strategy is working. In the meantime, Lloyds is unlikely
to pull ahead of the pack. The Lloyds is to catch up with HOBS (the Edinburgh
bank), it must compete for business in mortgages and credit cards. HOBS,
meanwhile, is going after a greater share of the life and pensions market.
James Crosby, the CEO (chief executive) of newly merged HOBS (in 2001)
made clear that the group’s focus was on the UK. His now well-worn argument
was that argument was that HOBS created a “fifth force” in high street banking to
take on the might of Royal Bank of Scotland and Lloyds TSB. To a large extent, it
has succeeded.
Under Mr. Daniels, Lloyds is gradually pulling back from its international
operations to form on its core national market following the increased competition.
HOBS has offices in Adelaide, Brisbane, Melbourne and Sydney. According to the
group’s website, the interstate markets account for almost 45% of BankWest’s
total lending. Under the guidance of George Mitchell, HOBS’s head of corporate
banking, BankWest will be expanded into the more populous eastern states. But in
reality, it is already there, selling financial products through finance brokers and
affinity partnerships.
Vocabulary
depleted balance sheet – истощенный баланс
robust – мощный, полный
gap – пропасть, разрыв
equity market – рынок ценных бумаг
to rally – повышаться в спросе
capital liability – финансовое обязательство
mortgage market – рынок недвижимости
184
to merge – поглощать, соединять(ся), сливать(ся)
core – ключевой
populous - населенный
broker – брокер
affinity – близкий
III
New Zealand is a part of the global world. It is worth mentioning that
serious talks about cross-border bank mergers are getting under way. Italy’s largest
bank, UniCredit, and Germany’s second largest, HVB Group, confirmed that they
were in talks about a “potential business combination”. Two smaller takeover
attempts in Italy seem to be slipping away from the foreign bidders, Spain’s
Banco Bilbao Vizcaya Argentaria and the Netherland’s ABN Amro. But a study by
A. T. Kearney, a consulting firm, suggests that domestic mergers are the only ones
worth doing. Its analysis of 2002 year’s takeover of Abbey, a British bank, by
Spain’s Santander Central Hispano (SCH) concludes that it “does not create
value”. The least bad cross-border deals, the firm’s analysis suggests, would
involve the French, putting BNP Paribas with Deutsche Bank, Germany’s largest
Bank, with Switzerland’s UBS. But these would still destroy value. An all-British
affair involving Barcbys and Lloyds TSB, would be a winner. Such skepticism,
both sides could gain from a deal, revealing in cutting costs and raising
profitability. Moreover, their interests in corporate banking, general insurance and
wealth management could be pulled together, the cross-border mergers (whollyowned bank) would be a useful jumping-off point for its international ambitions.
New leadership could bring new vitality. Such mergers can work sufficiently if the
buyer (Westpac-Australia) brings more sophisticated information (technology
and risk management) to the target. That has happened to some extent at Lloyd
N.Z. since it was bought by Westpac. Then, the clear plus-point of the New
Zealand – Australia deal, however, is that Lloyds & Westpac’s assets would make
a good fit. Nevertheless, it will take a while to see whether this strategy is working.
185
Vocabulary
takeover – поглощение
bidder – участник торгов (сделки)
sophisticated information – необходимая (достоверная, свежая) информация
After-reading tasks
1. Choose the correct definition for each word
1/consecutive (years)
a/recent years
b/a century ago
2/expenditures
a/goods
b/costs
3/vehicles
a/cars
b/wheels
4/bid
a/deal
b/price
5/drastic (action)
a/severe
b/urgent
6/to rally
a/to race
b/to demonstrate
2. Match the term with its definition
Bid
a/the buying and selling of shares
Equity market
b/causing price increases
186
c/the total amount of money which is
Subsidiary
spent during a particular period of time
Mortgage market
d/a price offered to buy smth.
Liability
e/a company that is at least half-owned
by another company
Expenditures
f/one
of
the
parts
into
which
Inflation pressure
ownership of a company is divided
Domestic mergers
g/when two or more companies join
together to form a larger company
Finance brokers
h/an amount of money owed by a
Share
business to a supplier, lender
i/a market for loans to people and
organizations buying property
j/a person (organization) that buys and
sells securities, property, shares
3. Use the following idioms to complete the sentences below
lag behind; the bread and butter; make a
good fit; pull ahead; catch up with;
1). Shares … the other runners in the banking sector.
187
2). The Lloyds is to … HOBS.
3). He wanted to return to the … of banking using capital to lend to
individuals.
4). It will take a while to see whether the strategy is working, therefore,
Lloyds is unlikely to ….
5). Lloyds & Westpac’s assets would ….
4. Match A to B
A
B
Well-worn
deal
Clear-plus-point
banking
Jumping-off
argument
Been off
point
High street
form
5. Complete the chart “New Zealand partners” according to the text
Australia
export
Japan
21%
China
UK
5, 4%
import
11, 2%
USA
14, 4%
5, 2%
6. Translate into English
Иммиграция
специалистов
и
предпринимателей
в
Новую
для
выезда
Зеландию.
Новая
Зеландия
стремится
создать
преимущества
предпринимателей из других стран. Различия в процессе иммиграции
специалистов и предпринимателей весьма существенны и требуют особого
подхода. Прежде всего, это разные типы людей. Специалист привык на кого-
188
то работать, поэтому он верит в фатальную неизбежность бюрократических
процедур и готов им подчиняться.
Предприниматель, напротив, привык быть хозяином своей судьбы и
склонен искать собственные решения. Ему кажется, что сложности
иммиграционной процедуры можно обойти. Информационные потребности
специалиста
достаточно
универсальны
–
экономико-географические
особенности страны, работа и социальное обеспечение – поэтому их легко
удовлетворить. Предпринимателя интересуют деловая инфраструктура:
налоги, таможня, банки и т.д., а также детали конкретного бизнеса.
Для предпринимателя, подающего заявление на долгосрочную бизнесвизу, главным документом является реалистичный и хорошо обоснованный
бизнес-план будущего делового проекта в Новой Зеландии. Это отнюдь не
формальный документ, и его разработка требует проведения маркетинговых
исследований именно в Новой Зеландии, а не теоретических измышлений на
родине. Сопроводительные документы, демонстрирующие опыт в бизнесе и
легитимное происхождение денег клиента, также непросто подготовить,
учитывая известные особенности специфики страны.
Таким образом, иммиграционная фирма в вашей стране должна
привлечь новозеландского специалиста по бизнес планированию, чтобы
сделать анализ рынка для будущего проекта и разработать бизнес-план, а
лишь затем подготовить необходимый пакет документов.
Для решения финансовых вопросов нужна третья инстанция –
специалист по инвестиционному и финансовому планированию, а позже
понадобится и четвертая – консультант по организации и старту бизнеса в
Новой Зеландии.
7. Expand on the following
1. Business contacts between New Zealand and Australia are too close.
2. New Zealand is a part of a global world.
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5C. CULTURE
Reading
“All people think that New Zealand is close to Australia, or Asia, or somewhere,
and that you cross it on a bridge. It is not close to anything but lies by itself out in
the water.”
Mark Twain.
NEW ZEALAND CULTURE
I
Distance from other land masses and isolation from other human
communities have shaped New Zealand’s human culture. It was
the last major habitable land area anywhere in the world to be
reached by people. The first Polynesian seafarers stepped ashore on a New Zealand
beach about 1000 years ago, by which time many other countries already had long
histories.
The people who call themselves New Zealanders came from a great variety
of ethnic backgrounds: the indigenous Maori; European, mostly British but also
Dalmatians who arrived last century and Dutch who came afterwards: Chinese,
who came to work the goldfields in the XIX th century; Pacific Islanders, who
have come in sufficient numbers in recent decades to make Auckland the city with
the largest number of Polynesians of any city in the world, and, finally, the
representatives of a great number of other races – Indians, Vietnamese, Poles,
Chileans, North Americans, Greeks, Cypriots. What the Maori first-comers share
with those who descended from the XIX century immigrants from Europe, is that
their ancestors, to reach New Zealand, undertook long and often perilous
voyages.
Today, New Zealanders are largely sophisticated and highly educated
urban dwellers. Members of a unique and vibrant multicultural society, New
Zealanders are embracing 21st century technology and culture in record numbers.
But New Zealanders also have a background of quiet but rugged individualism,
190
self-reliance, and a genius for invention. The relatively isolated South Pacific
location and rugged landscapes still make many New Zealanders quiet and
independent, yet resourceful. Their isolation and exposure to the elements forced
these early New Zealanders to become hardy and multi-skilled. This
resourcefulness and ingenuity has greatly contributed to the New Zealand
character. The same qualities can be seen today in the new pioneers – a generation
of young Kiwi business executives, computer software builders, film-makers,
fashion designers, and sportspeople making waves around the world. New
Zealanders are also responsible for the tranquilliser gun, seismic ‘base’ isolators
(rubber and lead blocks which minimize earthquake damage), electric fences, the
fastest motorbike in the world, freezer vacuum pumps, stamp vending machines
and electronic petrol pump.
New Zealand has a low population density and spectacular scenery. As a
result, many New Zealanders have a love of their landscape and the outdoors.
Hiking, mountaineering, and kayaking are enjoyed by many New Zealanders,
while many more will explore their landscape with a trip to the beach or a bush
walk. They are following in the footsteps of perhaps the most adventurous Kiwi,
Sir Edmund Hillary, who conquered Mount Everest, the world’s highest mountain,
in 1953. With so much coastline, it is little wonder New Zealanders love the water.
They have a passion for ocean-going craft, and they were at the forefront of yacht
design and racing during much of the 20th century. New Zealanders have also won
many Olympic medals for yachting, windsurfing, kayaking, and rowing.
Vocabulary
indigenous – местный
ancestor – предок
perilous – рискованный, опасный
sophisticated – опытный, искусный, изощренный
urban dweller – городской житель
vibrant – сильный, будоражащий. яркий
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rugged – грубый
self-reliance – самостоятельность
resourceful – изобретательный
hardy – сильный, выносливый
ingenuity – находчивость, ловкость, умение
earthquake – землетрясение
pump – насос
density – плотность
kayaking – каноэ
to bush walk – прокладывать путь
II
The first New Zealanders, the Maori, voyaged thousands of miles across the
vast unknown Pacific Ocean in small ocean-going canoes. The Maori people are
the indigenous people of New Zealand (Aotearoa) and first arrived there in
voyaging canoes (waka hourua) from their homeland of Hawaiki over 1000 years
ago. Today, Maori make up over 14% of the population.
They live throughout New Zealand, and many are actively involved with
keeping their culture and language alive. Maori people define themselves by their
tribe (iwi), sub-tribe (hapu), mountain (maunga) and river (awa). In recent years,
the introduction of Maori language nests (kohanga reo) has revived the Maori
language. At kohanga reo, preschool children are encouraged to speak in Maori.
Primary and secondary schools build on this early immersion by including Maori
in the curriculum.
Maori culture is a rich and varied one, and includes traditional and
contemporary arts. Traditional arts such as carving, weaving, group performance
(kapa haka), oratory (whaikorero) and tattoo (moko) are practiced throughout the
country. Practitioners following in the footsteps of their ancestors (tipuna)
replicate the techniques used hundreds of years ago, yet also develop exciting new
techniques and forms. Traditional carvers also help to keep Maori culture alive by
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creating intricate works that pay respect to the past. Every piece carved tells a
story, which can be read by those who know how. The shape of the heads, position
of the body as well as the surface patterns work together to record and remember
events.
The ancient beliefs of Maori culture are recognized and respected by New
Zealand’s leaders today. Recently, a North Island road project was modified to
avoid disturbing a water monster (taniwha). In its original form, the road project
would have encroached on a swamp which is the home of a one-eyed taniwha,
Karutahi. The local tribe, Ngati Naho, believes the taniwha spends half the year in
the swamp. It has a second home in the Waikato River, to which it swims during
floods. To ensure that the swamp is undisturbed, Transit New Zealand has altered
its plans so that this historic site is preserved. Today Maori culture also includes
art, film, television, poetry, theatre and hip-hop.
Vocabulary
immersion – погружение
to weave – ткать
to replicate – дублировать, повторять
intricate – сложный, запутанный
to encroach on a swamp – вторгаться, захватывать
III
The arts in New Zealand reflect an exciting blend of cultural influences
including Maori and Pacific Island, as well as European and Asian. From haka to
hip-hop, fashion to film-making, New Zealand artists are making their mark at
home and around the world. Whether you are interested in Maori carving or
abstract painting, you’ll find lots of art in New Zealand. Traditional Maori arts
such as carving and weaving are alive and well. You’ll find excellent examples in
museums, shops, and on meeting groups (marae) throughout the country.
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New Zealand has a fine tradition of painting. C. Goldie (1870 – 1947) and
Gottfried Lindauer (1839 – 1926) were two early artists who painted portraits of
Maori subjects. Frances Hodgkins (1869 – 1947) is one of New Zealand’s most
acclaimed and influential painters. She was associated with a number of avantgarde British movements including Neo Romanticism. Rita Angus (1908 – 1970)
is a much-loved New Zealand artist who painted beautiful New Zealand landscapes
and a large number of self-portraits. Colin McCahon (1919 – 1987) painted a large
number of landscapes and used text, often of a religious nature, in many of his
works.
New Zealand has a vibrant contemporary art scene and most New Zealand
towns have interesting art galleries and shops. Maori and Pacific, as well as
feminist influences, are strong in contemporary New Zealand art. Artists such as
Ralph Hotere, John Pule, Michael Parekowhai and Robyn Kahukiwa, not only
create striking and dramatic images, but also provoke reactions from their
audience. Katherine Mansfield (1888 – 1923) is the giant of early New Zealand
literature. Regarded as being one of the finest short-story writers in English, she is
the first in a long line of excellent New Zealand short-story writers. Stories such as
“The Doll’s House”, “At the Bay”, and “The Garden Party” are superb examples of
Mansfield’s depiction of turn-of-the-century colonial New Zealand.
The twentieth century saw the emergence of many fine New Zealand
novelists including John Mulgan (“Man Alone”), Robert Hyde (“The Godwits
Fly”) and Janet Frame (“Owls do Cry”). Born in 1924, Janet Frame is one of New
Zealand’s mostly highly regarded novelists. Frame’s books include devastating
accounts of the treatment of mental patients in New Zealand during the 1950’s and
60’s. Her best-selling three-part autobiography was made into a top-rating
television series and film “An Angel at my Table”.
It should come as no surprise that much of New Zealand’s best poetry is
about the country’s landscape. However, major New Zealand poets including
James K. Baxter, Denis Glover and Sam Hunt also reveal a keen social conscience
and wry sense of humour.
194
As well as supporting a thriving local theatre scene, New Zealand
performers regularly appear at festivals abroad, including the Edinburgh and
Adelaide Festivals. Maori and Pacific Island writers and performers have had a big
impact on the New Zealand theatre, giving it a unique and colourful Polynesianinfluenced identity. Then, a competitive exchange rate, excellent scenery, and
highly skilled workforce make New Zealand the perfect place to shoot a movie.
New Zealand has produced many top directors, including Roger Donaldson
(“Cocktail”), Jane Campion (“The Piano”), and Peter Jackson, who filmed his
massive “Lord of the Rings” trilogy in New Zealand. These movies have proved
that New Zealand can produce unique and intelligent movies equal to the best in
the world.
New Zealand fashion has come of age in the last few years. Exciting
designers such as Karen Walker, World, and Zambesi have put the country on the
fashion map, frequently exhibiting in London and Sydney. New Zealand fashion
used to be largely a copy of European styles. Now it is a vibrant and dynamic
industry with a range of influences, including those of Maori and Pacific Islands.
New Zealand has three professional symphony orchestras, including the highly
acclaimed NZSO (New Zealand Symphony Orchestra). There are also a large
number of excellent choirs, such as the National Youth Choir, which recently won
a number of prestigious international events. Recent co-productions between
European-style groups, such as the Royal New Zealand Ballet and the NZSO, and
Maori music and dance groups, are currently making waves.
On top of everything, New Zealand is not just a distinctive country. It is also
one of the strange contrasts and contradictions. It is an inland nation, but its
geology and many of its landscapes are continental rather than insular. The
country has an international image as one of the “greenest” countries on earth, yet
in the past 1000 years, people have caused enormous changes in the New Zealand
environment. To come to understand New Zealand you will have to learn that New
Zealand is “something different, something nobody counted on.”
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Vocabulary
emergence – появление, выход
devastating – разрушительный
thriving – процветающий
insular – островной
After-reading tasks
1. Translate into English
1. Культура Новой Зеландии богата и разнообразна. В ней отразились
элементы европейских, полинезийских и азиатских культурных традиций,
привнесенные выходцами из многих стран мира, поселившимися здесь. В то
же время, она однородна, как однородно и само новозеландское общество
сегодня.
2. Народ маори населял территорию Новой Зеландии задолго до
появления
здесь
первых
европейцев.
Предполагается,
что
первые
представители маори поселились на этих островах порядка 1000 лет назад,
совершив длительное океанское путешествие от берегов Хаваики (Hawaiki).
3. Традиционная культура маори богата и разнообразна и включает в
себя искусство вырезания по дереву и другим природным материалам,
плетение, искусство татуировки (moko), групповые танцы и боевые ритуалы
(kapa haka), легенды, сказания и мифы.
4. Сегодня культура и язык маори являются неотъемлемой частью
жизненного уклада страны. Современная культура маори также ярко
представляется в кинематографе, поэзии, театре и литературе.
5. Любой человек впервые приезжающий в Новую Зеландию,
практически сразу сталкивается с языком маори, так как многие населенные
пункты и иные места носят названия на этом языке: Whangarei, Te Papa
Tongarewa и сотни других.
6. Но не только культурными традициями богата жизнь Новой
Зеландии. Архитектура, симфоническая и современная музыка, театр и кино,
196
изобразительное искусство и литература – все это в Новой Зеландии
заботливо развивается и поддерживается на уровне высочайших стандартов.
2. Find five factual mistakes in the following passage from the text
The people who call themselves New Zealanders came from a great variety
of ethnic backgrounds: the indigenous Maori; European, mostly Dutch but also
Dalmatians who arrived last century and British who came afterwards: Chinese,
who came to work the goldfields in the XIX th century; Pacific Islanders, who
have come in sufficient numbers in recent decades to make Dublin the city with the
largest number of Polynesians of any city in the world, and, finally, the
representatives of a great number of other races – Indians, Vietnamese, Poles,
Chileans, North Americans, Greeks, Cypriots. What the Maori first-comers share
with those who descended from the XX century immigrants from America, is that
their ancestors, to reach New Zealand, undertook long and often perilous voyages.
3. Match the words in Maori to their synonyms in English
1.
Aotearoa
a)
mountain
2.
waka hourua
b)
ancestor
3.
iwi
c)
language nest
4.
hapu
d)
river
5.
maunga
e)
New Zealand
6.
awa
f)
oratory
7.
kohanga reo
g)
voyaging canoe
8.
kapa haka
h)
meeting group
9.
whaikorero
i)
tattoo
10.
moko
j)
tribe
11.
tipuna
k)
sub-tribe
12.
taniwha
l)
group performance
13.
marae
m)
water monster
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4. Expand on the sentence below
To come to understand New Zealand you will have to learn that New
Zealand is “something different, something nobody counted on.”
5. Complete the chart
short-story writer
Katherine
“The … House” “The …
Party”
…
John Mulan
“… Alone”
novelist
… Hyde
“The Godwits …”
…
…
“Owls Do cry”
top director
Roger Donaldson
…
…
…
“The Piano”
…
Peter Jackson
…
6. Match the two parts of the sentence
C.F. Goldie (1870 – 1947) –
artist who painted portraits of Maori
subjects
Gottfried Lindauer (1839 – 1926) –
most acclaimed and influential painter
Frances Hodgkins (1869 – 1947) –
one of the finest short-story writers
Rita Angus (1908 – 1970) –
artist who painted portraits of Maori
Colin McCahon (1919 – 1987) –
subjects used text, often of a religious
nature
Katherine Mansfield (1888 – 1923) –
painted
beautiful
New
Zealand
landscapes and a large number of selfportraits
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7. Render the first part of the text
5D. ENVIRONMENT
Reading
AIR SAFETY IN NEW ZEALAND
A NEW WAY OF STOPPING “BIRD STRIKES” ON AEROPLANES
Aircraft are not the only things that fly around airports. Birds love them, too,
because they often have large expanses of grass that provide food. But birds and
aircraft do not mix. Aircrafts are especially at risk because their high speed gives
birds less time to react. Most bird strikes (a collision between a bird and an
aircraft) happen close to the ground, where the majority of birds are found. Hence
bird strikes happen most often during take off or landing, or during low altitude
flight. However, bird strikes have also been reported at high altitudes, some as
high as 20,000 to 30,000 feet above ground level.
If a large bird such as a goose or a flock of small ones such as starlings, get
sucked into an aircraft engine, the result is not merely terminal for the birds, it can
be pretty bad for the engine as well. The force of the impact depends on the weight
of the animal and the speed difference and direction at the impact. The weight of
the vehicle can usually be ignored since it usually much larger than the weight of
the animal. The energy of the impact increases with the square of the speed
difference. High speeds, however, as for example with modern jet engine aircraft
will produce considerable energy and may cause considerable damage or even total
catastrophic failure to the vehicle. Depending on the force of the impact, the bird
strike may damage or even destroy components of the vehicle, or injure people in
the vehicle. Depending on the damage aircraft at low altitudes or during take off
and landing often cannot recover in time and crash. Such “bird-strike” damage is
reckoned to cost several billion dollars a year in repairs and delays. Especially
flocks of birds are dangerous, and can lead to multiple strikes, and damage, within
a very brief period. The animals most frequently involved in bird strikes are large
birds with big populations, with geese and gulls causing most serious incidents.
199
There are three basic approaches to reduce the effect of bird strikes. The
vehicle can be designed to be more bird resistant, the birds can be moved out of
the way of the vehicle, or the vehicle can be moved out of the way of the birds.
Most large commercial jet engines include design features that ensure they can
safely shut-down after “ingesting” a bird weighing up to 1.8 kg. Multiple or large
strikes require emergency action to control damage. This limit is also applied to the
rest of a modern commercial aircraft – it must be able to safely land after a 1.8 kg
strike. At first bird strike testing by manufacturers involved firing a bird carcass
was a gas cannon and sabot system into the tested unit. The carcass was soon
replaced with suitable density blocks, often gelatin, to ease testing. Currently
testing is mainly conducted with computer simulation, although final testing
usually involves some physical experiments.
To reduce bird strikes on take off and landing, airports invent changes to
terrain around the airport to reduce its attractiveness for birds like landfill sites,
water areas, and trees around airports. Other approaches try to scare away the
birds using frightening devices, pyrotechnics, radio-controlled airplanes, decoy
animals/corpses and other approaches to scare away birds and wildlife. Another
alternative is bird capture and relocation. Falcons are also sometimes used to cut
down the bird population, as for example on John F. Kennedy International
Airport. An airport in New Zealand uses electrified mats to reduce the number of
worms that attracted large numbers of sea gulls. But the obvious answer – scare the
birds away – is not as easy as it sounds. Birds are cussed creatures, and even if
scared off briefly by loud noises or threatening objects, return quickly to the place
they came from if it has been providing them with food. And the second-most
obvious answer, pave over the grass at hundreds of airports, is even more
expensive than “bird-strike” damage. So Chris Pennell, of AgResearch, a
government-owned research firm in New Zealand, is trying to provide a third way.
He proposes to make the grass itself unpalatable.
Chris Pennell and his colleagues at AgResearch New Zealand have been
working on particular types of fungi that coexist with grass. These fungi, called
200
endophytes, live in the spaces between plant cells. By choosing the right
combination of endophyte and grass, the researchers hope to produce turf with
unique properties. “Some endophytes repel insects and others are toxic to livestock
that graze on them”, Dr Pennell says. Over the past two decades, he and his
colleagues have been working to find the right combinations of grass and fungus to
offer the benefits without the toxic side-effects. “We’ve been looking for the
friendly endophytes”, Dr Pennell says of the research, which has mostly been for
the livestock industry.
More recently, the researchers have also begun designing grass and fungus
combinations to keep birds away. Insects can’t eat these grasses, which deprives
some birds of their food source. They can also give grass-eating birds such as
Canada geese an illness the researchers call “post-ingestion malaise”. “When
herbivorous birds eat this grass they get sick and then they don’t come back
again”, says Richard Curtis, business development manager at AgResearch New
Zealand. The idea is that for airports, planting grass that keeps insects and birds
away could help reduce dangerous bird strikes where our feathered friends collide
with aircraft.
In the past few months, the team has planned test plots of the grasses at
Christchurch International Airport. The early results are promising, Curtis says of
the research, which the airport helped to fund. “It won’t solve all problems with
birds around airports, but it’ll be a part of the overall bird management armoury”,
he says. “There is a lot of interest from airport companies around the world.”
Meanwhile, the scientists are also applying the technology to golf courses, where
fouling from birds like Canada geese can spoil a day on the greens. Early trails on
New Zealand golf courses shows that planting a 10 metre strip of the smart grass
around waterways keeps geese and other birds away, Curtis says. “They just
packed up and went to other parts of the golf course”.
Ironically, when Dr Pennell started the research that led him in this direction
he was trying to do the opposite. Many species of grass form symbioses with fungi.
The grass provides the fungus with food, and the fungus provides the grass with
201
protection, in the form of poisonous chemicals that discourage herbivores. In New
Zealand, the herbivores of interest to most people are sheep, so Dr Pennell was
trying to eliminate these symbioses in the sorts of grass that sheep like eating.
Then, one day, a plane he was traveling on was hit by a bird and he started
pondering the idea that by increasing the toxicity of grass, rather than reducing it,
it might be possible to persuade birds to go elsewhere.
Despite their appearance of monotonous uniformity, grasses come in
surprising variety, and so do their symbiotic fungi. A symbiotic relationship is one
in which two organisms of different species interact in ways that profoundly affect
their livelihoods and reproductive success. Such interactions range from mutual
beneficial to antagonistic and are considered to be of major ecological and
evolutionary important in shaping plant and animal communities. Matching the
best grass to the best fungus was no easy task. In nature, fungus and grass travel
together through the generations. Adult grass plants cannot form new symbioses.
Instead, Dr Pennell had to inoculate embryonic grasses with promising fungal
strains and hope that the two would get on together. He then had to grow enough
adult plants to see just how unacceptable they were.
He now has two symbiotic grasses that seem to do the business. One of these
is cold-tolerant and grows fastest in the winter, the other is heat-tolerant and
grows best in the summer. Canada geese – large, grass-eating birds that cause a lot
of problems at airports – learn from a single exposure that these grasses are nasty,
and will not return to them. Grass-eating insects get the message, too, so
insectivorous birds such as starlings have no reason to hang around the new
grasses. At least, that is the result of small-scale trials. Dr Pennell has now made an
arrangement with the airport in Christchurch, New Zealand, to see if it works in the
real world. If it does, there will be some hungrier, but longer-lived birds around,
and passengers will be less likely to be delayed by avian puree in the engines.
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Vocabulary
expanses – просторы
bird strikes – атаки птиц
low altitude flight – полеты на низкой высоте
flock – стая
starling – ласточка
to get sucked – втягивать, засасывать
impact – влияние
vehicle – транспортное средство
jet engine – реактивный двигатель
to injure – повреждать, причинять увечье
to reckon – предполагать, догадываться
to multiple – умножать
gull – чайка
resistant – стойкий
to ingest - глотать
firing a bird carcass – сжигание трупов птиц
gas cannon – газовая пушка
sabot system – уничтожающая установка
density block – объемный блок
terrain – местность (земля)
landfill sites – свалка
to scare away – отпугивать
decoy – манок, подсадная утка
falcon – сокол
electrified mat – электрический коврик
cussed creature – ненавистное создание
to pave (over) – покрывать
unpalatable – непригодный
fungus (fungi) – грибы
to coexist – сосуществовать
203
endophytes – эндофиты
plant cell – клетка растения
to repel – отталкивать, отражать
to graze – пастись
livestock industry – животноводство
to deprive (of) – лишать, не допускать
post-ingestion malaise – недомогание после еды
herbivorous – травоядный
to collide – сталкиваться
plot – участок (земли)
armoury – вооружение, доспехи
fouling – грязь, загрязнение
trails – следы
to ponder – внедрять, погружать
uniformity – единообразие
inoculate embryonic – вакцинация эмбрионов
cold-tolerant - холодоустойчивые
heat-tolerant - теплолюбивые
nasty – ненастный, противный
insectivorous – насекомоядное
avian puree – куриное пюре
Translate into English
1. Ранее мы рассказывали о траве, которая останавливает свой рост по
приказу генетиков, и некоторых любопытных средствах для отпугивания
птиц: интеллектуальном чучеле, специальном программном обеспечении и
механических птицах.
2. Исследователи из новозеландской компании AgResearch под
руководством Криса Пеннелла в результате двадцатилетних исследований
создали траву, отпугивающую насекомых и травоядных птиц.
204
3.
Для
того,
чтобы
трава
стала
несъедобной,
исследователи
использовали эндофитные грибы, живущие внутри растений. Долгое время
они искали правильную комбинацию, перебирая виды эндофитов, так как
действуют они все по-разному: некоторые отпугивают насекомых, другие
ядовиты для скота, третьи грозят недугом травоядным птицам.
4. В результате нужная комбинация с уникальными свойствами, но без
ядовитых побочных эффектов была найдена. Трава не ядовита для человека,
скота и птиц, но неприятна на вкус. Птицы быстро учатся ее избегать.
Насекомые не могут есть эту траву, и это лишает некоторых птиц их
источника пищи. Да и самим птицам, вроде канадских гусей, поедание этих
растений грозит заболеванием, не слишком опасным, но все же – однажды
вкусив такой травки, птицы к ней больше, как правило, не возвращаются.
5. Последние несколько месяцев AgResearch испытывала свои травы в
международном аэропорту Крайстчерча (Christchurch International Airport),
который отчасти и финансирует исследования, и первые результаты выглядят
многообещающе. Так же, как и предварительные тесты на новозеландских
полях для гольфа показали, что 10-метровая полоса «перепроектированной»
травы держит гусей и других птиц на расстоянии.
6. Компания признает, что ее трава не решит всех проблем с птицами,
но некоторые новые способы контроля над пернатыми даст. Разработка
новозеландских генетиков найдет применение в аэропортах, где птицы
являются большой помехой, на площадках для гольфа и при выращивании
газонов.
205
Послесловие
THE IMPORTANCE OF CULTURAL AWARENESS
It is useful to define culture as a system of shared symbols, beliefs, attitudes,
values, expectations and norms of behavior. All members of
a certain culture have similar assumptions about how people
should think, behave and communicate; therefore, cultures
vary in their attitudes towards outsiders. Some are openly
hostile or maintain a detached aloofness. Others are friendly and cooperative
toward strangers. Such nations as Italians and Spanish (Spaniards) are affective
and very emotional; Chinese and Japanese – on the contrary – are too reserved and
neutral while Americans and Russians are mixed because of their multinational
basis. As we know, misunderstanding is especially likely to occur when the people
who are communicating have different backgrounds. Thus, cultural awareness is a
key to communication.
Our awareness of intercultural differences is both useful and necessary in
today’s world of business. Having a poor understanding of the influence of crosscultural differences in such areas as management, PR, advertising and negotiations
can eventually lead to blunders that can have damaging consequences. It is crucial
for today’s business personnel to understand the impact of cross-cultural
differences on business, trade and internal company organisation. The success or
failure of a company, venture, merger or takeover is essentially in the hands of
people. If these people are not cross-culturally aware, then misunderstanding,
offence and break down in communication can occur. The need for greater crosscultural awareness is heightened in our national and global economies. Crosscultural differences in matters such as language, etiquette, non-verbal
communication (body language), norms and values can, do and lead to crosscultural blunders. To illustrate this we have provided a few examples of
intercultural blunders that could have been avoided with appropriate cross-cultural
awareness training.
206
Take the case of the computer sales representative who was calling on a
client in China. To make a good impression, the salesperson brought along a gift to
break the ice – an expensive clock. Unfortunately, the Chinese client was deeply
offended because in China, giving clocks as gift is considered bad luck for the
recipient.
Pepsodent tried to sell its toothpaste in South East Asia by emphasizing that
it “whitens your teeth.” They found out that the local natives chew betel nuts to
blacken their teeth which they find attractive.
A company advertised eyeglasses in Thailand by featuring a variety of cute
animals wearing glasses. The ad was a poor choice since animals are considered to
be a form of low life and no self-respect. Thai would wear nothing worn by
animals.
When Pepsico advertised Pepsi in Taiwan with the ad “Come Alive With
Pepsi” they had no idea that it would be translated into Chinese as “Pepsi brings
your ancestors back from the dead.”
We shouldn’t ignore the fact that people from other cultures differ from us
in many ways: in their language, religion and values, use of space, attitude toward
time, decision-making habits, body language. Gestures help us clarify confusing
messages, so differences in body language are a major source of misunderstanding.
Take the signal for “No”. North Americans shake their heads back and forth;
Japanese move their right hands; Sicilians raise their chins.
Or take eye contact. Keeping your eyes lowered is a sign of respect among
many Latin Americans.
Concepts of status also differ; therefore, people establish their credibility in
different ways. North Americans, for example, send status signals that reflect
materialistic values: the big boss has the corner office on the top floor, deep
carpets, an expensive desk, and exquisite accessories; the most successful
companies are located in the most prestigious buildings. In other countries, status
is accepted in other ways. For instance, the senior executives in France sit in the
middle of an open area, surrounded by the lower-level employees. In the Middle
207
East, fine possessions are reserved for the home, and business is conducted in
cramped and modest quarters. Cultures also differ in terms of who makes the
decisions. In China and Japan, decision making is a shared responsibility. No
individual has the authority to commit the transaction without first consulting
others. In Japan, for example, the negotiating team arrives at a consensus through
an elaborate, time-consuming process. In North America, they try to reach
decisions as quickly and efficiently as possible. Latin Americans prefer to make
their deals slowly, after a lengthy period of discussion. British and US negotiators,
for example, found themselves at a standstill when the American company
proposed that they “table” particular key points. In the US it means “not to
discuss” while the same phrase in Britain means “bring it to the table for
discussion.”
It is a must that in the national and global economies cross-cultural
awareness is taken into consideration to avoid intercultural blunders. The best way
to prepare yourself to do business with people from another culture is to study their
culture in advance!
208
Библиография
1.
Акимова О. В. Международный экзамен по английскому языку.
Устный ответ. СПб, Каро, 2009. - 224 с.
2.
Жулидов С. Б. Travel and Tourism Industry. Special English for
universities. М: Юнити, 2007. – 205 с.
3.
Шкваря Л. В. Мировая экономика в схемах и таблицах. – Москва:
Эксмо. Мирбис, 2005.
4.
Columbus and the New World. Footprint Reading Library (интернет-
ресурс: www.pdffactory.com)
5.
Eyewitness Travel Guides. Penguin Books, London , 2008 . – 416с.
6.
Hans Peter Lankes. – Market Access for Developing Countries. – Finance
and Development/ A quarterly magazine of the IMF//Vol. 39, № 3. – September,
2002
7.
Joseph E. Stiglitz. Globalization and its Discontents. – W.W. Norton and
Company, New York. – 2005.
8.
Melyantsev V. A. East and West in the Second Millennium: Levels, Rates
and Factors of Long-term Comparative Economic Development. – Moscow:
Moscow state University Press, 1996.
9.
Parshakov Y. A. – Economic Development of the Primitive-communed
Societies. Chapter 6. On-line publication: official site parshakov,com.2005.
10.
Parshakov Y. A. – Economic Laws and Economic Contradictions. Chapter
14. On-line publication: official site parshakov,com.2005.
11.
Sarah Anderson and John Cavanagh with Thea Lee. Field Guide to the
Global Economy. – The New Press. – 2005.
12.
Sean Masaki Flynn, Ph.D. Economics for Dummies. – Wiley Publishing,
Inc. – 2005.
13.
Shiskov Yu. V. – Globalization and Anti-globalization in the Modern World.
On-line publication, 2005-2006.
14.
Steve Slavin, Ph.D. Economics. A Self-Teaching Guide. Second Edition,
209
USA. – John Wiley & Sons, Inc. – 2005.
15.
Robert S. Rycroft, Ph.D. Research & Education Association. – USA. – 2005.
16.
Ralph Bauer. The Cultural Geography of Colonial American Literatures:
Empire, Travel, Modernity. Cambridge studies in American Literature and Culture,
London, 2009. – 309 с.
17.
Stephen Fry in America, epub.ru (интернет-ресурс от 16.10.2013)
18.
Walter J. Wessels. Economics. – USA: Barron’s. – 2000.
19.
Longman Business English Dictionary. England, Longman. – 2006.
210
ПРИЛОЖЕНИЕ
TEST: Can you run your own business?
For each of the following questions, tick the closest answer
1.
Do you enjoy taking risks?
a)
Yes, I like taking risks.
b)
No, I prefer safety.
c)
I try to evaluate the exact danger of it.
2.
Can you make decisions?
a)
Yes, I often make quick decisions.
b)
No, I don’t like making decisions.
c)
Before making a decision I need time to think it over.
3.
Can you take responsibility?
a)
Yes, I can. I am not afraid of being responsible.
b)
No, I don’t like taking charge.
c)
I am not afraid of taking responsibility, but I prefer to share it with
someone else.
4.
Are you a good organizer?
a)
I plan exactly what I am going to do.
b)
I can’t cope with unexpected problems.
c)
I am quite disorganized.
5.
How do you get on with other people?
a)
Very well. I like contacts, meetings and etc.
b)
I am reserved. People annoy me.
c)
I am outgoing if I want.
6.
Can you lead?
a)
Yes, I can persuade most people to follow me.
b)
I am quite happy to execute other people’s decisions.
c)
Leadership isn’t for me.
211
7.
Do you delegate?
a)
I always delegate everything.
b)
I prefer to do everything by myself.
c)
I delegate only the least important tasks.
8. Are you motivated by…?
a) Money.
b) Job satisfaction.
c) Money and job satisfaction.
9. Can you cope with stress?
a) I can live with stress.
b) I try to avoid stressful situations.
c) Stress stimulates business.
10. What are your chances?
a) I am sure everything depends on me.
b) I believe everything depends on outside factors.
c) I can’t foresee my future success.
11. What would you do if your business failed?
a) Carry on.
b) Give up.
c) Start a new one.
Use the key to calculate your total score.
212
1. a) 1
b) 0
c) 2
6. a) 2
b) 1
c) 0
2. a) 1
b) 0
c) 2
7. a) 0
b) 1
c) 2
3. a) 2
b) 0
c) 1
8. a) 1
b) 0
c) 2
4. a) 2
b) 1
c) 0
9. a) 0
b) 2
c) 1
5. a) 2
b) 0
c) 1
10. a) 2
b) 1
c) 0
11. a) 1
b) 0
c) 2
20 or above: Go ahead! You can run your own business. You are a good
leader and organizer.
Between 20 and 10: You have some skills for running your own business,
but you are to think before.
Below 10: Running business is not your business.
Intellectual Quiz. Match (1, 2, 3) to (a, b, с)
1
a
Then Robin Hood put his horn to
«Я знаю, что хозяин твой
mouth,
Великий Саладин – герой.
And blew out blasts two or three;
Он оказал услугу мне.
Then four-and-twenty bowmen bold
И вот я снова на коне!»
Came leaping over the lea.
Так
Ричард
восхвалял
всегда
Когда-то своего врага.
Он постоянно говорил,
Как благороден Саладин.
2
«Thy master’s kingly heart I
know;
О, если б жизнь, любовь и ты
Все время были молоды,
My thanks to Saladin the Great,
То жил бы я с тобой вдвоем,
In sooth he is a noble foe!»
Движимый страстью и огнем.
And when the weary war was
o’er,
And Richard feasted with his kin,
He loved to tell the tale, and
praise
The сhivalry of Saladin.
213
3
c
If all the world and love were
Потом Робин Гуд дунул раз
young
или два
В свой рог. И тут же на зов его
And truth in every shepherd’s
tongue,
рога
These pretty pleasures might me
move
Все двадцать четыре отважных
стрелка
To live with thee and be thy
Явились в мгновение ока.
love.
TEST on BRITAIN
1.
The UK is…
a/ England, Wales, Northern Ireland, Scotland
b/England, Wales, Scotland
c/Scotland, Wales, England, Ireland
2.
The symbol of England is…
a/ shamrock
b/rose
c/thistle
3.
St. Andrew’s Cross is … flag
a/ Walsh
b/English
c/Scottish
4.
Britain was occupied by the Romans in…
a/55 B.C
b/54 B.C.
c/ 5 century A.D.
5.
214
Anglo-Saxons invaded Britain in…
a/55 B.C
b/54 B.C.
c/ 5 century A.D.
6.
William the Conqueror became…
a/William I
b/William the Great
c/Alfred the Great
7.
The Union Jack is…
a/The Flag of the UK
b/The Saint of Britain
c/The king of Scotland
8.
What is wrong?
Populations in 1995 in the UK
England 58mln
Scotland 8mln
Wales 7mln
Northern Ireland 1,6mln
9.
Primary school is at the age of…
a/6
b/5
c/7
10. There are … national holidays in Britain
a/12
b/8
c/4
11.King Arthur struggled against…
a/Anglo-Saxons
b/Romans
c/ Vikings
215
12.
Stonehenge was built around…
a/ 5989 – 4567
b/3050 -2300
c/3433-2667
13.
Hadrian’s Wall was built by the…
a/Romans
b/Anglo-Saxons
c/Celts
14.
The Medieval Period
a/876-289
b/1066-1485
c/1234-1890
15.
Robin Hood
a/was a legendary hero
b/was king’s friend
c/was pagan
16.
Henry VIII had… wives
a/4
b/5
c/6
17.
There were … queens in Britain
a/4
b/3
c/2
18.
Civil War was between…
a/puritans and royalists
b/Anglo-Aaxons and Celts
c/Irish and English
19.
Oliver Cromwell became…
a/the king of England
216
b/Lord Protector
c/ the head of the church
20.
Queen Victoria reigned…years
a/46 years
b/64 years
c/54 years
TEST ON THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
STATE
CHOOSE the
CROSS the ODD
YOUR
CORRECT
ONE
ANSWER
ONE
ALABAMA
The capital is:
1/Montgomery
2/Richmond
3/Salt Lake City
ALASKA
Three times more
than:
1/The UK
2/France
3/The
Netherlands
ARIZONA
Famous for:
1/Westerns
2/cactus
3/fish
ARKANSAS
1/the Mississippi
2/the Colorado
3/the Potomac
CALIFORNIA
The Pacific or
the
Atlantic
ocean?
217
COLORADO
What
ASPEN?
CONNECTICUT
Famous for:
1/thick forests
2/high mountains
3/submarines
DELAWARE
Battle took place
in:
1/1676
2/1776
3/1767
FLORIDA
1/paradise state
2/resorts
3/the
Great
Canyon
GEORGIA
1/the pearl of the
south
2/the heart of the
south
3/the capital of
the south
HAWAII
from Alaska :
1/3550 km
2/4550 km
3/5550 km
IDAHO
Is it true?
1/potato state
2/Continental
Divide
3/precious
stones
218
is
ILLINOIS
1/New York
2/Chicago
3/London
INDIANA
What
is
it
famous for?
IOVA
Does it have its
own
constitution?
KANSAS
What is White
Cloud?
KENTUCKY
Has the city:
1/ Chicago
2/London
3/New-York
LOUISIANA
1/New Orleans
2/Alabama
3/Washington
MAINE
Famous for:
1/Shrimps
2/Lobsters
3/crabs
MARYLAND
What
is
it
famous for?
MASSACHUSETTS
Famous for:
1/Boston
Tea
Party
2/Niagara Falls
3/Great Canyon
219
MICHIGAN
1/Henry Ford
2/ General Motors
3/Angola - prison
MINNESOTA
1/warm
2/hot
3/very cold
MISSISSIPPI
1/cotton
2/slavery
3/coffee
MISSOURI
The point where
the Mississippi
unites
with
the…
MONTANA
1/potato state
2/hot
3/very cold
NEBRASKA
Small
or
territory?
NEVADA
1/Niagara Falls
2/Great Canyon
3/
Lincoln
memorial
NEW HAMPSHIRE
Is on the border
with:
1/Mexico
2/Canada
3/Brazil
220
big
NEW JERSEY
AtlanticCity:
1/набережная
развлечений
2/азартные игры
3/паб
NEW MEXICO
Was founded by:
1/Mexicans
2/Spanish
3/Indians
NEW YORK
Is equal to:
1/The UK
2/Russia
3/New Zealand
NORTH CAROLINA
The
place
where…
were
brought:
1/slaves
2/hoses
3/ships
NORTH DAKOTA
1/Chicago
2/Detroit
3/Bismarck
OHAIO
Is it “innocent
farming state”?
OKLACHOMA
1/gold
2/wool
3/corn
OREGON
What
is
it
famous for?
221
PENNSYLVANIA
What
is
it
famous for?
RHODE ISLAND
What
kind
of
sport is popular:
1/skating
2/sailing
3/skiing
SOUTH CAROLINA
What
is
famous for?
SOUTH DAKOTA
Memorial to:
1/Washington,
Jefferson,
Roosevelt,
Lincoln
2/
Jefferson,
Roosevelt,
Lincoln, Kennedy
3/
Washington,
Nixon, Jefferson,
Roosevelt,
1/country music
TENNESSEE
2/anthropological
lab
3/Harvard
University
TEXAS
Is in size like:
1/The UK
2/Mongolia
3/France
222
it
UTAH
What
is
it
famous for?
VERMONT
Russian
equivalent to the
name:
1/зеленая гора
2/зеленая долина
3/зеленый штат
VIRGINIA
Is rich in:
1/coal
2/gold
3/iron
WASHINGTON
Famous for:
1/Microsoft
2/Boeing
3/Westerns
WEST VERGINIA
What
is
it
famous for?
WISCONSIN
Means:
1/cream
2/cheese
3/milk
WYOMING
1/grizzly
2/wolves
3/crocodiles
223
Учебное издание
ȺɤɢɦɨɜɚɈɥɶɝɚȼɥɚɞɢɦɢɪɨɜɧɚ
Anglosphere: history, economy
and culture
Учебное пособие
Печатается в авторской редакции
Верстальщик Н. Н. Караваева
Сдано в 4. Подписано к печати 29.09.14.
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