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ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ АГЕНТСТВО ПО ОБРАЗОВАНИЮ
Государственное учреждение высшего
профессионального образования
САНКТ-ПЕТЕРБУРГСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ
АЭРОКОСМИЧЕСКОГО ПРИБОРОСТРОЕНИЯ
ADVERTISING AND PROMOTION
Методические указания по развитию навыков
профессионально-ориентированного чтения
Санкт-Петербург
2006
Составители: Е.Г. Гультяева, О.В. Злобина, Д.С. Исаева, С.А. Кудрина,
В.О. Перминов, Е.В. Юдина
Под редакцией канд. филол. наук доц. В.О. Перминова
Рецензент: И.И. Громовая
В системе массовой коммуникации и обучения чтение выступает как
индивидуализированная форма деятельности человека. Чтение стало
важнейшим средством развития теоретического мышления и способом
достижения человеческого знания.
Указания
позволяют
раскрыть
специфику
обучения
чтению
в
процессе преподавания иностранных языков и предназначены для
студентов 1 и 2 курсов экономического факультета по специальности
«Реклама».
Основная цель выпуска состоит в совершенствовании основных
навыков речевой деятельности (чтения, произношения и общения).
Подготовлены к публикации кафедрой иностранных языков и
рекомендованы к изданию редакционно-издательским советом СанктПетербургского
приборостроения.
государственного
университета
аэрокосмического
© ГОУ ВПО «СПбГУАП» 2006
Компьютерная верстка: И.Н. Хвостова
_____________________________________________________________________
Подписано к печати 30.08.06 Формат: 60х84 1/16.
Бумага офсетная.
Печать офсетная. Усл. печ. л. 4,0. Тираж: 200. Заказ №
Редакционно-издательский центр ГУАП
190000, Санкт-Петербург, ул. Б. Морская, 67
1
UNIT I
LESSON ONE
Exercise 1. Pronounce the following words and word combinations
correctly:
advertisement [ ǝd'və:tısmənt] - реклама
advertising ['ædvətaızıŋ] - рекламирование
to be assessed [ǝ'sest] – оцениваться
coincidence [kǝu'ınsıdǝns] – совпадение
daily fluctuations ['deılı 'flʌktju'eıʃnz] – ежедневные колебания
to deteriorate [dı'tıǝrıǝreıt] – ухудшаться, портиться
obsolete ['obsǝlıt] – вышедший из употребления
subconscious ['sʌb'konʃǝs] – подсознательный
surplus goods ['sǝ:plǝs gudz] – оставшиеся товары,
невостребованные товары, товарные излишки
Exercise 2. Memorize the following word combinations:
by-products – побочные продукты
to exceed costs – превысить стоимость
to pander one’s egos and one’s vanities – потворствовать чьемулибо самолюбию и тщеславию
subliminal advertising – реклама, действующая на подсознание;
рекламирование с помощью внушения
Read and translate the text:
ADVERTISING
Businesses need to advertise. If they did not advertise no one would
even learn of the existence of their wares. In part, advertising is
aimed at conveying information to potential customers and clients,
but it is also used to persuade the public to buy. This is the area in
which advertising is often criticized. Advertisements are sometimes
2
misleading. Although it is illegal for advertisers to make untrue
statements about their goods, services or prices, they still make their
wares seem unduly attractive. They pander to our egos and our
vanities. They create a demand which would not otherwise exist.
It is easy to say, “I’m not influenced by the adverts!” Everyone is
influenced to a certain extent. There was recently some research on
subliminal advertising. The word ‘coffee’ was flashed on to the
television screen. It happened so quickly that no one was aware it
had happened. For just a fraction of a second it registered on the
viewers’ subconscious. The result? A surprising number of people
chose to make coffee at that precise moment. Of course, it could
have been a coincidence but it was highly unlikely.
Yet, for the typical manufacturer advertising is a form of insurance.
The nature and extent of consumer’s needs have to be constantly
assessed 1 . If the needs are overestimated it is possible, through
advertising, to soak up the surplus goods 2 which have been
produced. As a demand for a product sags, it can be stimulated.
There are all sorts of useful by-products. Without the possibility of
advertising, workforces would have to be laid off when sales fell. The
warehouses
would
become
overfilled
and
the
stocks
would
deteriorate, perhaps even becoming obsolete.
An alternative to advertising would be to lower prices when sales fall.
This would suit the purchasers but introduce an element of
uncertainty for the manufacturers. They are always concerned to
ensure that their revenue exceeds their costs, and where would they
be if there were daily fluctuations in the prices of their products?
Advertising goes far beyond television and hoardings 3 , newspapers
and magazines. The manager of clothes store is advertising by
putting models wearing the store’s clothes in the window. A bicycle
have to be constantly assessed – нужно постоянно оценивать
to soak up surplus goods – распродать оставшиеся товары
3
hoardings – рекламные щиты
1
2
3
manufacturer is advertising when he sends a new price-list through
the post to his retailers. How could trading be carried on without
such devices?
Some would even go so far as to say that advertising actually
enriches our lives. Commercial television is able to provide us with
free programmes thanks to its advertising revenues. National
newspapers derive much of their revenue from advertising. Look at a
typical newspaper and you will discover the proportion of the pages
devoted to advertisements. We also have advertisers to thank for the
free colour supplements accompanying the Sunday newspapers.
Exercise 3. Answer the following questions:
1. What is meant by informative advertising?
2. Why is persuasive advertising criticized?
3. What is subliminal advertising?
4. What should be done to counter a fall in sales?
5. How do national newspapers benefit from advertising?
6. How can window-dressing be seen as a form of advertising?
7. How does advertising help the workforce?
Exercise 4. Discuss the following:
1. Advertising is aimed at persuading the public to buy.
2. All people are influenced by the adverts.
3. Subliminal advertising can be dangerous.
4. Without advertising life would be dull.
Exercise 5. Complete the following sentences:
1. For the typical manufacturers advertising is … .
2. When sales fall, an alternative to advertising … .
3. The purchasers are always concerned … .
4. Free programmes are available on commercial television thanks
….
5. Ads pander to our egos and our vanities to create … .
4
Exercise 6. Give the synonyms to the following words from the text.
The initial letters of the words are given to you:
1) buyers – c… 2) producers – m … 3) goods – w …
Exercise 7. Give the English equivalents to the following words and
word combinations:
1)
рекламировать;
2)
реклама;
3)
люди,
занимающиеся
рекламой.
LESSON TWO
Exercise 1. Pronounce the following words correctly:
enthusing [ın'fju:zıŋ] – приводящий в восторг
pertinent ['pə:tınǝnt] – уместный, подходящий
purchase ['pə:tʃəs] – покупка
Exercise 2. Memorize the following words and word combinations:
to achieve business goals – добиться цели в бизнесе
cost-effective way – зд., наиболее экономно
first-rate economic solutions – первоклассные решения в сфере
рекламы
to run advertising campaigns – проводить рекламные кампании
target audience – потенциальные клиенты
Read and translate the text:
THE ADVERTISING BUSINESS
According to the Advertising Association, the advertising business
covers three main types of employer organizations:
ƒ advertisers (who use it)
ƒ agencies (who make it)
ƒ the media (who display it)
5
The
IPA
(Institute
of
Practitioners 1
in
Advertising)
says
that
advertising is promoting, informing and enthusing. Even, when
appropriate, pleading … to deliver pertinent and, hopefully, first-rate
advertising solutions to help clients achieve their business goals.
All advertisements offer information, but many also encourage an
action – often the purchase of a product or service. We see
advertising in the press, on television and on hoardings, and hear it
on commercial radio. What each ad attempts to do is to emphasize to
its target audience the clear benefits of its product or service, in the
most cost-effective way.
Like it or hate it, advertising can influence what we buy and when.
The Advertising Association says advertising is generally recognized
to have practical benefits for everyone; e.g. large-volume sales keep
prices down.
Exercise 3. Answer the following questions:
1. What types of employer organizations does the advertising
business cover?
2. What does each ad attempt to do?
3. How can the principles and techniques of advertising be clearly
seen?
Exercise 4. Discuss the following:
1. The characteristics of advertising.
2. The places of advertising.
3. The purpose of advertising.
Exercise 5. Complete the sentences:
1. Advertising can be seen in … .
2. The aim of advertising is … .
3. The three main types of employer organizations are … .
1
practitioners – зд. профессионалы в области рекламы, рекламные агенты
6
Exercise 6. Find the equivalents from the texts to the following words
and word combinations:
1) great sales; 2) encouraging; 3) practical skills; 4) relevant; 5)
first-class
LESSON THREE
Exercise 1. Pronounce the following words and expressions correctly:
enviable ['envıǝbl] – завидный
invariably [ın'vɛǝrıǝblı] – неизменно
to liaise effectively [lı'eız ı'fektıvlı] – эффективно поддерживать
связи
personnel [ˌpǝ:sǝ'nel] – персонал, личный состав
persuasion [pǝ'sweıʒǝn] – убеждение
Exercise 2. Memorize the following words and word combinations:
to devise a campaign - создать рекламную кампанию;
to make up an advertisement - составить рекламу
Read and translate the texts:
ADVERTISING AGENCIES
An agency offers a service to companies or organizations wanting to
tell consumers and interested parties about their products or
services. The agency, using a combination of people with specific
skills, will look at the product or service, identify its most desirable
and believable benefits, and devise a campaign to communicate them
to the target audience. It will offer the client a proposal suggesting
the best “media” to use (press, television, radio, in-store promotion,
exhibitions and so on) and the “message” that they have decided
would be the most successful.
Some agencies are “full service”, offering a range of services,
including account management, creative work, media planning,
7
marketing research, sales promotion and PR. Other agencies may
specialize in direct marketing or market research.
ACCOUNT MANAGEMENT
This is the overall running of the account (the business with the
client) and it can be stressful! You need to be sensitive to the needs
of your client, taking the brief (description of their objectives and
ideas) and explaining it to those inside your agency who need to
translate that into advertising. You also need to be able to liaise
effectively with the agency team working on the account. The client
needs regular updates on progress and will want to know how well
the campaign is doing.
THE CREATIVE DEPARTMENT
This is where ideas and plans are translated into visual images and
words. There will be copywriters and graphic/visual artists assigned,
often working in teams, to different accounts.
Copywriters 1 think up slogans, voice-overs 2 and any wording 3 that
will go to make up the advertisement. Whilst copywriting is a skill
that can be improved with practice and training, good copywriters
have a knack for finding that clever, arresting phrase and for hitting
the nail on the head when it comes to stressing the benefits of this
type of aftershave or that sort of personal savings account. There is
much clever psychology in good advertising copy: copywriters must
understand their audiences and be able to supply just the right words
in the right way. Examples of copy that has proved almost timeless
would be “Roses grow on you” (for Roses chocolates) or “Naughty but
nice” (for cream cakes). It might seem as if copywriters spend much
of their time gazing into space for inspiration, but there is no doubt
that top copywriters have an enviable skill which can be worth a
fortune.
copywriters - копирайтеры, авторы рекламных текстов
voice-overs – звуковое сопровождение рекламы, голос диктора за кадром
3
wording - формулировка, словесное выражение, зд. оформление
1
2
8
Exercise 3. Answer the following questions:
1. Which services can some agencies offer?
2. What is the function of copywriters?
3. What should an agency take into account working with a client?
4. Is copywriting a skill? Do you agree with it?
5. How can copywriters make a fortune?
Exercise 4. Discuss the following:
1. The functions of agencies.
2. Creative work of copywriters.
3. Work of agencies with clients.
Exercise 5. Complete the sentences:
1. ”Full service” that agencies provide is…
2. The client needs regular updates …
3. Ideas and plans are translated into…
4. The overall running of the account means …
5. The agency, using a combination of people with specific skills,
identifies …
Exercise 6. Give the Russian interpretation of the following word
combinations:
1) arresting phrase; 2) desirable and believable benefits; 3) overall
running of the account
Exercise 7. Choose the variant that best suits the English phrase:
1. to have a knack for something
a) to be responsible for something
b) to be talented at something
2. to hit the nail on the head
a) to do something right
b) to make a supposition
9
3. enviable skills
a) technical mastership
b) skills that everybody wants to have
LESSON FOUR
Exercise 1. Pronounce the following proper names correctly:
Guinness - ['gınıs]
Renault - [rı'nɔ:]
Vauxhall - ['vɔkshɔ:l]
Van den Bergh – ['vʌnde'bǝ:g]
Exercise 2. Memorize the following word combinations:
to approach creatively - подходить к чему-либо творчески
avid analyzer – скрупулезный аналитик
distinct advantage – особое преимущество
qualification in market research – подготовленность в сфере
исследований рынка
well-structured workforce – хорошо стуктурированный персонал,
имеющий специалистов разного профиля
Read and translate the text:
AGENCY PRODUCERS
Agency producers are responsible for the production of a television
or film ad. This is very much like making a mini-film, and if the client
is spending a great deal of money (launching a new car, for example),
the sum involved has been known to be more than the cost of an
entire feature film! The recent Guinness ad with the horses coming
out of the ocean, for instance, cost more than a million pounds to
make. The agency producer will invariably be working with an outside
film company, and he or she will coordinate all the production
personnel, location, choice of director and so on. In this area of
10
advertising, the agency itself is buying in services from another
supplier and has to obtain the best deal possible for its client.
The Economist says the top TV advertisers are:
ƒ BT;
ƒ Procter and Gamble;
ƒ Procter and Gamble Health and Beauty;
ƒ Kellogg’s;
ƒ Van den Bergh Foods;
ƒ Mars;
ƒ Ford;
ƒ Elida Fabergé;
ƒ Renault;
ƒ Vauxhall.
WHAT KIND OF PEOPLE WORK IN ADVERTISING?
Many of the qualities for marketing apply equally in advertising. Staff
moves between these two areas during their careers. If you are an
avid analyzer of advertisements, approach tasks creatively and enjoy
the gentle art of persuasion, advertising might be the profession for
you.
Here is a senior account planner in a leading advertising agency
talking: Each agency is different and demands different type of
people. While a large agency might have a well-structured workforce
with a plenty of administrative support, a smaller company might
expect to employ all-rounders 1 who would be closely involved in
most stages of a campaign. This is, without doubt, an industry where
getting in is extremely difficult but where you can really get noticed
once you arrive.
The important thing is to get the right balance between working on
your own initiative and learning from other people. At first, you know
very
1
2
little
and,
although
experienced
creatives 2 and
all-rounders – разносторонние специалисты, мастера на все руки
experienced creatives – опытные творческие работники
account
11
handlers 1 can get things right first time through instinct and
expertise, it takes a lot of hard work to get to that stage.
For account managers, in particular, the importance of financial skills
cannot be overestimated. In addition, advertising research work is
extremely technical and a qualification in market research would be a
distinct advantage. You have to be able to get on with clients; if you
don’t suffer fools gladly 2 , keep your thoughts to yourself until you
own the agency, like the legendary Colin Millward of Collett
Dickenson Pearce. He paid his executives more than any other
agency, then expected world-class work.
Exercise 3. Answer the questions:
1. What are the responsibilities of the agency producers?
2. What are the top TV advertisers?
3. Which spheres of life do these advertisers represent?
4. Why are they so popular?
5. What is the difference between the agency producer and the
advertising agent?
Exercise 4. Discuss the following:
1. The most typical qualities of advertising agents.
2. Kinds of people who can make a career in the sphere of
advertising.
3. The work of agency producers.
Exercise 5. Complete the sentences:
1. Agency producers coordinate …
2. The agency is buying in services from another supplier to …
3. Advertising research work is …
4. When Colin Millward paid his executives more than any other
agency, he …
account handlers – работники, ответственные за проведение рекламной кампании
для какого-то клиента
2
suffer fools gladly – относиться терпимо к дуракам
1
12
5. Advertising might be the profession for you if you …
Exercise 6. Give the English equivalents to the following Russian word
combinations:
1) этапы кампании; 2) работать по своей инициативе; 3) лучшая
сделка; 4) ведущее рекламное агентство; 5) тонкое искусство
убеждения.
Exercise 7. Work in pairs. Ask one another what spheres of
advertising you would choose, what company you would work for
most creatively, what qualities would help you become a good
advertiser.
LESSON FIVE
Exercise 1. Pronounce the following word combinations correctly:
budget ['bʌʒıt] – бюджет
extensive research [ıks'tensıv ri'sǝ:tʃ] – обширные исследования
Exercise 2. Memorize the following word combinations:
creative
constraints
of
the
campaign
–
творческие
рамки
кампании
media
planner
–
работник,
планирующий
проведение
рекламных операций в средствах массовой информации
newspaper circulation figures – цифровые данные о тираже газет
readership profiles – сведения о читателях
targеting possibilities – зд. возможности продвижения рекламы к
потенциальным потребителям
up to the minute market information – новейшая, точная,
подробная информация о рынке
13
Read and translate the text:
MARKETING RESEARCH AND PLANNING
These
areas
are
closely
connected.
Agencies
are
becoming
increasingly involved in the research stage of the advertising process.
Sometimes, a client will have carried out extensive research to
produce statistics and market analysis and will present the agency
with its findings, so the agency ensures its work focuses on the type
of customer, age group, demographic type and so on. In other
instances, the agency will carry out the research on behalf of the
client. The planner has to understand consumers and use research
information in the best way possible. A good planner will have
experience of analyzing research and tries to keep ahead of the client
by supplying them with up to the minute market information. This all
contributes to good client-agency relationship.
The ‘media planner’ will be the person responsible for booking
advertising across the range of media available. Using magazine and
newspaper circulation figures and readership profiles, viewer and
listener figures, and profiles for television and radio programmes, he
or she will draw up a media plan matching budget and creative
constraints of the campaign. He or she will be making comparisons
between the different types of media:
ƒ Television
Wide
audiences,
which
can
be
targeted
geographically 1 . Product can be demonstrated visually and
through sound. High cost.
ƒ Commercial radio Easy to target geographical locations 2 .
Smaller audiences than television. Because it is only audio,
messages may not be readily retained.
to target geographically – нацеливать рекламу на потенциальных потребителей по
географическому признаку
2
to target geographical locations – нацеливать рекламу на потребителей, живущих в
определенных странах, регионах, местностях
1
14
ƒ Cinema Benefit of sound and vision, but smaller audiences and
more unpredictable that television.
ƒ Hoardings Depending on location, many people have the
opportunity to see (OTS). There are reasonable targeting
possibilities (e.g. inner-city versus rural site). A good site can
cost over £100.000 a year to hire – and there is the cost of the
posters!
Exercise 3. Answer the following questions:
1. How important is research in the advertising process?
2. What factors does a media planner take into account?
3. What information about a client is important for the agency?
4. Does a good planner try to keep ahead of the client?
5. What type of media is described as:
ƒ most expensive;
ƒ most unpredictable;
ƒ having reasonable targeting possibilities;
ƒ being only audio?
Exercise 4. Discuss the following:
1. The ways the agency carries out research.
2. The work of a media planner in marketing research.
3. Different types of media and their advantages.
Exercise 5. Complete the sentences:
1. Good client-agency relationships depend on …
2. A good planner has experience of …
3. Extensive research is used …
4. The agency carries out the research …
5. A media plan is drawn up …
Exercise 6. Give the English equivalents to the Russian words and
word combinations:
1)
отношения
между
клиентом
и
агентством;
сравнения; 3) задержать; 4) высокая стоимость.
2)
делать
15
Exercise 7. Give examples of ads to each type of media. What field
do the ads belong to?
Exercise 8. Explain the meaning of the word combination ‘marketing
research’. What other kinds of research do you know?
LESSON SIX
Exercise 1. Pronounce the following word combinations correctly:
benefit entitlement ['benıfıt ın'taıtlmǝnt] – право на какое-то
преимущество, выгоду, скидку
highest disposable income ['haıǝst dıs'pǝuzǝbl 'ınkʌm] – самый
высокий чистый доход
Exercise 2. Memorize the following words and word combinations:
brand-new product – совершенно новый продукт
company’s overall image – общий образ компании
product launch campaign – кампания по запуску продукта
Read and translate the text:
ADVERTISING IS AIMED AT DEMOGRAPHIC CLASSES, WHY ADVERTISE?
An advertisement can have various objectives. Here are just a few:
ƒ Establish, maintain or enhance a company’s overall image. An
example might be ads for major petrol companies or banks.
ƒ Increase demand for a type of product or service. For example,
‘Tea. Best drink of the day’ or ‘Meat to live’.
ƒ Increase sales of a particular product or service.
ƒ Inform the public (of, for example, a home hazard or benefit
entitlement).
ƒ Tell customers about a brand-new product (a ‘product launch
campaign’).
16
WHO IS ADVERTISING AIMED AT?
ƒ Consumers (the end-user)
ƒ Wholesalers or retail outlets
ƒ Official agencies, associations, etc. (e.g. lobbying)
THE PROCESS OF ADVERTISING
This is a complicated subject that would need a complete book on its
own just to scratch the surface. You could start by thinking about
how advertising affects you, your family and friends.
ƒ Higher managerial, administrative or professional staff.
ƒ Intermediate managerial, administrative or professional staff.
ƒ Supervisory or clerical, junior manager, administrative or
professional staff.
ƒ Skilled manual workers.
ƒ Semi-skilled and unskilled manual workers.
ƒ State pensioners, widows, casual or lowest-grade workers, etc.
When agencies talk of ads aimed at Abs, this means those with
highest disposable income. Compare the ads in the papers and
magazines you read, such as The Sun compared with The Times.
(Incidentally, it was The Times that ran the first full-page nude ad.)
Read Campaign and Marketing Week, etc. and suggested books, and
ask your local library if they have Confessions of an Advertising Man
and Ogilvy on Advertising by David Ogilvy, one of the most famous
figures in advertising. Ogilvy hated pomposity, believing that the
business of advertising was to sell, and warned his staff that ‘the
consumer is not a moron – she is your wife’. He devised many
famous campaigns such as ‘Schhh… you know who’. To promote
Hathaway shirts in the States, he used a male model with a dashing
eye patch 1 . Everyone was soon talking about ‘the man in the
Hathaway shirt’.
1
with a dashing eye patch – с экстравагантной глазной повязкой
17
Ogilvy made his first career mark selling Aga cookers. Realising that
boarding-school headmasters would probably buy Agas when reequipping schools, he wrote a sales letter in Latin to pander to their
scholarship. He then wrote Aga’s sales guide which Fortune Magazine
described as ‘the best sales manual ever written’.
In 1948 he started a company that was to become one of the most
successful advertising agencies in the world. His company helped
British business trying to break into the American market and within
three years he was regarded as one of the best copywriters in the
world.
Exercise 3. Answer the following questions:
1. What demographic classes is advertising aimed at?
2. How do you understand the word combination ‘to scratch the
surface’?
3. What is the general purpose of advertising?
4. Why was Ogilvy an outstanding personality in advertising?
5. What did Ogilvy advertise?
6. Have you read books written by Ogilvy?
Exercise 4. Discuss the following:
1. Classes of people advertising is aimed at.
2. Positive and negative sides of various objectives.
3. David Ogilvy and his role in advertising.
Exercise 5. Complete the sentences:
1. Ads aimed at Abs mean …
2. Ogilvy used a male model with a dashing eye patch to …
3. Analysing the process of advertising you could start by …
4. Ogilvy wrote a sales letter in Latin to pander to their scholarship
…
18
Exercise 6. Give the English equivalents to the following Russian word
combinations:
1) руководство
по
продаже;
2)
увеличить
спрос;
3)
неквалифицированные рабочие; 4) розничная торговая точка; 5)
поддержать имидж компании.
LESSON SEVEN
Exercise 1. Pronounce the following words correctly:
to compartmentalise [ˌkɔmpa:t'mentǝlaız] – делить на группы,
располагать по группам
machination [ˌmækı'neıʃn] – махинация
possession [ pǝ'zeʃǝn] – владение, имущество
psychology [saı'kɔlǝʒı] – психология
squirrel ['skwırǝl] – белка
Exercise 2. Memorize the following words and word combinations:
to be satisfied – быть удовлетворенным
financial security – финансовая обеспеченность, гарантии
финансового благополучия
fulfillment – чувство удовлетворения (после достижения какойлибо цели, выполнения какой-то задачи)
egocentricity – эгоцентричность, любовь к себе
ultimate need – самая высшая потребность
Read and translate the text:
THE ART OF ADVERTISING
The art of advertising is to persuade people to buy your product or
service. This requires a basic understanding of psychology, the needs
of human beings and how those needs can be satisfied. An American
psychologist, Abraham Maslow, has suggested those needs can be
19
compartmentalized 1 and arranged in the form of hierarchy. At the
lowest level people need food, shelter, warmth and sex. When these
needs are largely satisfied, people begin to think about the safety of
themselves and their personal possessions. Squirrels, when they have
their fill of nuts, begin to bury nuts in their winter larders. Human
beings have the same tendency, much to the relief of the insurance
companies. Insurance appeals to those who would feel the loss of
personal possessions, through burglary, flood and fire, and those
who seek pensions and financial security generally.
Even when a human being does not feel under threat at the safety
level, a new need emerges according to Maslow. There is now a need
to be approved by other people, a need for love and respect. The
advertising industry finds this a very useful area for its machinations.
‘If you want people to look at you admiringly, or enviously, you have
to wear Jayboy Jeans – no one else will do!’ That is the message, in
effect.
Or the advertiser might be trying to persuade you to buy a new car.
‘This is the latest and the best sports car in the market. It is faster,
sleeker, more enviable, than anything else in the world. If you haven’t
got one, or don’t get one pretty soon, the rest of the world is going
to see you as a dead duck!’
And when we are largely satisfied at this social level, according to
Maslow we simply move on to egocentricity. We all have egos, but
what is an ego? It is a love of self. We look into the mirror and
hopefully like what we see. Of course, not only in physical terms. We
hunger for 2 self-respect now that our lower needs have been largely
satisfied.
Another
happy
hunting-ground 3
for
the
advertising
agencies, for example, ‘Diamonds are forever’, or ‘Use Real Results
from Diana Cosmetics – fights wrinkles fast!’
to compartmentalise – делить на группы, располагать по группам
to hunger for – страстно желать, жаждать чего-либо
3
hunting-ground – охотничьи угодья; места, где можно охотиться
1
2
20
According to Maslow the ultimate need is for fulfillment. This would
no doubt come when we have all that the advertisers say we so
desperately need. For the most of us it seems that day will never
come!
Exercise 3. Answer the following questions:
1. Why are people easily influenced by ads?
2. Which of the needs mentioned in the text are affected by the
advertising industry?
3. What makes people buy the goods that are greatly advertised?
4. What are advertising agencies aimed at?
Exercise 4. Discuss the following:
1. The levels of Maslow’s hierarchy.
2. Needs for fulfillment as the ultimate need.
3. Machinations of the advertising industry according Maslow’s
hierarchy.
Exercise 5. Complete the sentences:
1. A need to be approved by other people is …
2. When we are largely satisfied at social level, we …
3. The art of advertising is …
4. Insurance helps those …
5. At the lowest level …
Exercise 6. Give the English equivalents to the Russian word
combinations:
1) потребности людей; 2) страховые компании; 3) чувствовать
себя под угрозой; 4) смотреть на кого-то с восхищением; 5)
морщины.
Exercise 7. Find some samples of TV-ads to show their influence on a
customer.
Exercise 8. Make up a scheme of Maslow’s hierarchy.
21
UNIT II
LESSON EIGHT
Exercise 1. Pronounce the following words correctly:
audience ['ɔ:djǝns] – аудитория; публика
campaign [kæm'peın] - кампания
exposure [ıks'pəuʒǝ] – показ (рекламного ролика)
media ['mi:dıə] – средства массовой информации
prestige [pres'ti:ʒ] - престиж
prior to ['praıǝ] – предшествующий, зд. до, перед
specifying ['spesıfaııŋ] - определяющий
threshold ['Ɵreʃhǝuld] - порог
variety [və'raıətı] – разнообразие; многообразие
Exercise 2. Memorize the following words and word combinations:
advertising account – контракт на разработку и проведение
рекламной кампании
brief – зд. основные задачи рекламной кампании в кратком
изложении
commercial – рекламный ролик на ТВ, рекламное объявление на
радио
comparative-parity method – метод сравнительного паритета
(равенства)
counter-cyclical
advertising
–
ацикличная
(не
в
форме
повторяющихся циклов) реклама
counter-productive – непродуктивный, неэффективный
current sales revenue – текущие поступления, доходы от продаж
exposure – показ (рекламного ролика)
media – средства массовой информации, рекламные носители
to persuade – убедить, склонить (к чему-либо), заставить
target customers – целевые потребители (на которых нацелена
реклама)
22
turnover – оборот, обращение, смена
word-of-mouth
advertising
неоплачиваемая
устная
–
реклама,
«сарафанное
передаваемая
радио»,
одним
потребителем другому
Read and translate the text:
HOW COMPANIES ADVERTISE
Advertising informs consumers about the existence and benefits of
products and services, and attempts to persuade them to buy them.
The best form of advertising is probably word-of-mouth advertising,
which occurs when people tell their friends about the benefits of
products or services that they have purchased. Yet virtually no
providers of goods or services rely on this alone, but use paid
advertising instead. Indeed, many organizations also use institutional
or prestige advertising, which is designed to build up their reputation
rather than 1 to sell particular products.
Although large companies could easily set up their own advertising
departments, write their own advertisements, and buy media space
themselves, they tend to use2 the services of large advertising
agencies. These are likely to have 3 more resources, and more
knowledge about all aspects of advertising and advertising media
than a single company. The most talented advertising people
generally prefer to work for agencies rather than individual companies
as this gives them the chance to work on a variety of advertising
accounts (contracts to advertise products or services). It is also easier
for a dissatisfied company to give its account to another agency than
it would be to fire its own advertising staff.
The client company generally gives the advertising agency an agreed
budget; a statement of the objectives of the advertising campaign,
rather than - а не
they tend to use - они, как правило, пользуются
3
these are likely to have - у них, скорее всего
1
2
23
known as a brief; and an overall advertising strategy concerning the
message to be communicated to the target customers. The agency
creates advertisements (the word is often abbreviated to adverts or
ads), and develops a media plan specifying which media - newspapers,
magazines, radio, television, cinema, posters, mail, etc. -will be used
and in which proportions. (On television and radio, ads are often
known as commercials.) Agencies often produce alternative ads or
commercials that are pre-tested in newspapers, television stations,
etc. in different parts of a country before a final choice is made prior
to a national campaign.
The agency's media planners have to decide what percentage of the
target market they want to reach (how many people will be exposed
to the ads) and the number of times they are likely to see them 1 .
Advertising people talk about frequent or 'OTS' (opportunities to see)
and the threshold effect - the point at which advertising becomes
effective. The choice of advertising media is generally strongly
influenced by the comparative cost of reaching 1,000 members of the
target audience, the cost per thousand (often abbreviated to CPM,
using the Roman numeral for 1,000). The timing of advertising
campaigns depends on factors such as purchasing frequency and
buyer turnover (new buyers entering the market).
How much to spend on advertising is always problematic. Some
companies use the comparative-parity method - they simply match
their competitors' spending, thereby avoiding advertising wars.
Others set their ad budget at a certain percentage of current sales
revenue. But both these methods disregard the fact that increased ad
spending or counter-cyclical advertising can increase current sales. On
the other hand, excessive advertising is counter-productive because
after too many exposures people tend to stop 2 noticing ads, or begin
to find them irritating And once the most promising prospective
1
2
they are likely to see them - они, вероятно, увидят эту рекламу
people tend to stop - люди, как правило, перестают
24
customers have been reached, there are diminishing returns, i.e. an
ever-smaller increase 1 in sales in relation to increased advertising
spending.
Exercise. 3. Answer the questions:
1. What is the main aim of advertising?
2. Why do companies use services of advertising agencies instead
of establishing their own departments?
3. What is an advertising account?
5. How does an advertising agency work on advertising a product
or a service?
6. What for is the pre-testing of the commercials in different parts
of the country done?
7. Why do advertising people talk about frequency or ‘OTS’ and the
threshold effects? What are these?
8. What factors determine the timing of an advertising campaign?
9. How do companies decide how much to spend on advertising?
10.
What is the disadvantage of the both methods used to fix
advertising expenses?
11.
How can excessive advertising be counter-productive?
Exercise 4. Complete the following sentences:
1. The best form of advertising is word-of-mouth advertising
which is…
2. The main idea of institutional or prestige advertising is…
3. The chance to work on a variety of advertising accounts is a
reason…
4. …are to be provided by the company to its advertising agency.
5. The media plan states the proportions and the media…
6. The choice of advertising media depends on…
7. Comparative-parity method used by some companies allows…
1
an ever-smaller increase - все меньшее увеличение
25
8. Another
way
used
by
companies
for
fixing
advertising
expenditures is…
9. Current sales can be increased …
10.
The returns begin to diminish…
Exercise 5 (а). Give the Russian equivalents:
1) free advertising, when satisfied customers recommend product
to their friends; 2) advertising that mentions a company's name
but not specific products; 3) companies that handle advertising for
clients; 4) a contract with a company to produce its advertising; 5)
the amount of money a company plans to spend in developing its
advertising and buying media time or space; 6) the statement of
objectives of an advertising campaign that a client works out with
an advertising agency; 7) the advertising of a particular product or
service during a particular period of time; 8) a defined set of
customers whose needs a company plans to satisfy; 9) the people
who choose where to advertise, in order to reach the right
customers; 10)
the fact that a certain amount of advertising is
necessary to attract a prospective customer's attention; 11)
choosing to spend the same amount on advertising as one's
competitors; 12) advertising during periods or seasons when sales
are normally relatively poor.
Exercise 5(b). Give the English equivalents from exercise 5(a):
1) рекламная кампания; 2) рекламное агентство, компания; 3)
контракт на рекламу; 4) бюджет рекламной кампании; 5)
«сарафанное радио»; 6) имиджевая реклама; 7) потенциальный
потребитель; 8) основные задачи рекламной кампании; 9)
специалисты по рекламе в СМИ; 10) эффект частотности или
эффект «вероятности просмотра»; 11) метод сравнительного
паритета (равновесия); 12) ацикличная реклама
26
Exercise 6. Discuss the following:
1. Advertising is essential for business, especially for launching
new consumer products.
2. A large reduction of advertising would decrease sales.
3. Advertising often persuades people to buy things they don't
need.
4. Advertising often persuades people to buy things they don't
want.
5. Advertising lowers the public's taste.
6. Advertising raises prices.
7. Advertising does not present a true picture of products. 8.
Advertising has a bad influence on children.
Exercise 7. Choose the suitable explanations:
1) segments
a) concerned with non-luxury goods that
sell in large quantities
2) kiosks
b) a place in a television schedule
3) mass
c) small open-fronted shops in the street for
market
selling newspapers, etc.
4) TV slot
d) parts of a larger market or category of
customers
Exercise 8. Complete the following sentences:
1. The cost of a prime-time … is very high.
2. However, advertising on … is cheap.
3. Outdoor advertising is one of the fastest growing … in the
market.
4. … is a market with millions of customers in it.
27
Read the text without using a dictionary:
OUTDOOR ADVERTISING – A BREATH OF FRESH AIR
The world of outdoor advertising – billboards (рекламные
щиты), transport, and ‘street furniture’ (things like bus shelters
(автобусные остановки) and public toilets) – is worth about $18
billion a year, just 6% of all the world’s spending on advertising.
But it is one of the fastest-growing segments – its market share
has doubled in recent years.
Outdoor advertising’s attractiveness is growing as TV and print
(печать, пресса) are loosing theirs. The fast-growing costs of
TV persuade clients to consider alternatives. Some advertising
people call outdoor advertising ‘the last true mass-market
medium’. It is also cheap. In Britain, a 30-second prime-time TV
slot costs over £60,000, while placing an ad on a bus shelter for
2 weeks is only £90.
A revolution in the quality of outdoor displays has added to
their popularity. Famous architects are designing arty bus
shelters and kiosks with backlit displays. Backlighting (фоновая,
задняя
подсветка)
and
plastic
poster
skins
(пластиковые
полотнища) have greatly improved colour and contrast.
Movement is possible too. Smirnoff used new multi-image
printing to make a spider, seen through a vodka bottle, appear
to crawl up (ползти по) a man’s back. And Disney advertised its
“101 Dalmatians” video on bus shelters with the sound of
puppies barking (лай щенков).
This sort of innovation has attracted a new class of advertiser.
Recent data from Concord , a poster buyer, shows that in Britain
alcohol and tobacco ads have been replaced by entertainment,
clothing and financial services. Some carmakers run advertising
campaigns on bus shelters only.
28
Particularly attractive to the new advertisers is street furniture,
the fastest growing segment of the outdoor market. It accounts
for some 20% in Europe and 5% in America.
Exercise 10. Choose the correct sentences based on the text:
1. The outdoor advertising has increased its market share
only a little, which makes it one of the slow-growing
segments in the market.
2. The costs of TV ads and outdoor ones cannot be compared.
3. The outdoor advertising is sometimes called ‘the last true
mass-market medium’ as it is cheap and reaches a lot of
people.
4. The fact that famous architects design bus shelters and
kiosks persuades the advertisers to look for another
advertising medium.
5. Colour
and
contrast
improved
significantly
with
the
introduction of backlighting and plastic poster skins.
6. In Britain, they advertise the same goods and services as,
say, 15 years ago.
7. Street furniture is a promising area of development of
outdoor advertising.
Exercise 11. Retell the above text.
LESSON NINE
Exercise 1. Pronounce the following words correctly:
behaviour [bı'heıvjə] - поведение
competitive [kəm'petıtıv] – конкурирующий, соревновательный
competition [ˌkɔmpı'tıʃn] - соревнование
to determine [dı'tə:mın] - определять
magazine [ˌmægǝ'zi:n] - журнал
monopoly [mə'nɔpəlı] - монополия
persuasion [pǝ'sweıʒən] - настойчивость
29
persuasive [pə'sweısıv] - настойчивый
potential [pəu'tenʃıǝl] - потенциальный
privacy ['prıvəsı] - уединение
to synchronize ['sınkrənaız] - синхронизировать
Exercise 2. Memorize the following words and word combinations:
to affect – влиять на, воздействовать на что-либо
to appeal to v - прибегать, взывать
appeal n - призыв, обращение; привлекательность
available – доступный, имеющийся в наличии
employment – занятость
to have an impact on – оказывать воздействие на что-либо,
влиять
means (= medium – pl media) – средство, средства
pervasiveness – распространение, повсеместность
public – общество
public relations – связи с общественностью
sales promotion – увеличение сбыта
skill – мастерство, умение
substitute – заменитель, субститут
unit cost – стоимость единицы товара
well-being – благосостояние, благополучие
Read and translate the text:
ADVERTISING IN MODERN MARKETING
1. THE PERVASIVENESS OF ADVERTISING
It is not possible to live in any modern western country, and know
nothing of advertising. In the streets, in buses and trains, even, with
commercial television, in the privacy of our own homes, the
advertisers reach us with their ads. The level of artistic and technical
skill in advertisements is often very high. The use of colour and
design is so forceful that it has a great impact on our behaviour.
30
2. ADVERTISING AND PUBLIC RELATIONS
Public relations officers (P.R.O.s) and public relations counsellors
help corporations and individuals to maintain acceptable and
attractive «images». They perform a valuable service for their
employers and sometimes for the public. However, public relations
activities are not usually considered as advertising.
3. THE FUNCTION OF ADVERTISING
Advertising affects the consumer in the following ways:
(a) Information A distinction is often made between informative
and persuasive advertising. Informative advertising announces a
product and gives potential buyers the details they need. Much
advertising in the technical press is informative since it is directed at
an expert, trained readership 1 . If consumers are to choose a
particular product, informative advertising is necessary so that they
can know what goods are available and where they can be bought.
(b) Persuasion Human memory is short and fallible and repetition
is necessary to keep customers aware of 2 a product. Excessive
repetition, however, is intended to persuade, not to inform. The
borderline is indefinable 3 and all advertisements contain both
persuasive and informative elements. The advertising of many
consumer goods is almost entirely persuasive in character. The
information given is small, but all possible pressure is put on the
consumer to buy the advertised product rather than other goods.
(c) Maintenance of demand It is arguable that 4 advertising is
necessary to maintain demand at a sufficiently high level to
provide full employment. Without advertising, consumers would be
since it is directed at an expert, trained readership - поскольку она предназначена для
профессионально подготовленных читателей
2
to keep customers aware of - чтобы покупатели не забывали о
3
the borderline is indefinable - между ними трудно провести границу
4
it is arguable that - можно поспорить с тем, что
1
31
quite happy with a lower standard of living and far less energy would
be put into the task of increasing material well-being.
(d) Creating mass markets The use of mass-production methods
often results in lower unit costs. Mass production requires large
markets, however, and forceful advertising and sales promotion can
provide lower costs and lower prices.
(e) Quality The fact that a good has been widely advertised may
persuade a manufacturer to maintain high standards of quality.
4. ADVERTISING AND COMPETITION
Advertising may be used as a weapon of competition, particularly in
a situation where there are only a few sellers, each of whom is trying
to increase his share of the market. It may also serve to reduce
competition and to reach a degree of monopoly. Advertisements
that try to persuade consumers that there is no substitute for their
product are attempting to create a sub-market in which they will
be free from competitive pressures.
5. PLANNED ADVERTISING
Advertising today is not carried out in hit-or-miss way 1 . An
advertising campaign is planned with a certain market in mind. If
the product must be sold to young married people in the 25—35
age group, then the campaign will be directed towards that group,
using methods that will attract the group and appeal to instincts
and emotions that are dominant within it.
The means through which the advertisement is presented to the
public is known as the advertising media. A campaign is normally
based not on a single medium, but on a selection of media. The
choice of appropriate media is the subject of careful study and
1
hit-or-miss way – наугад
32
analysis and their use is carefully synchronized 1 to achieve the
maximum effect.
6. APPEAL ADVERTISING
The combination of the product advertised and the market at
which the campaign is directed will determine the «appeal».
Different appeals will be used for different products. If foodstuffs
are being advertised, the appeal will probably be to the appetite and
illustrations will show attractively prepared, hotly-steaming meals 2 .
For other products, the appeal may be through the emotions of
parental love, sex or fear.
7. THE ADVERTISING MEDIA AVAILABLE
An advertising campaign will be designed to make a specific appeal
to some particular segment of the public through carefully chosen
media. The main advertising media are:
ƒ The press: national and local newspapers, general magazines,
specialist magazines, trade press
ƒ Television and radio
ƒ Outdoor and transport advertising (posters): public places,
trains, buses, underground trains, etc
Exercise 3. Answer the questions:
1. Why can we call modern advertising “pervasive”?
2. How is advertising different from PR?
3. What are the main functions of advertising?
4. Is modern advertising informative or pervasive or both?
5. How is multiple repetitiveness of advertising connected with the
human nature?
6. In what way does advertising improve our living standards?
8. How is advertising used in competition?
9. What are the principles of planning an advertising campaign?
1
2
is carefully synchronized - должно точно совпадать по времени
hotly-steaming meals - блюда с пылу, с жару
33
10.
Does an advertising appeal changes with the product
advertised? Why does this happen?
11.
What determines the choice of the media used in the
campaign?
Exercise 4. Complete the following sentences:
1. To know nothing of advertising …
2. Acceptable and attractive “images” of companies …
3. Information in advertising is very important because…
4. Excessive repetition of ads persuades…
5. To maintain a sufficiently high level of demand …
6. Large markets are necessary…
7. If a producer wants to increase his market share …
8. Methods that will attract the group and appeal to instincts
and emotions that are dominant within it …
9. The company should study carefully and analyse…
10.
”Appeal” in advertising …
Exercise 5. Give the English equivalents using the text:
1) pеклама (рекламирование); 2) рекламодатели; 3) влияние;
4) поведение; 5) работодатель; 6) консультант; 7) образ; 8)
ценная услуга; 9) убеждение; 10) человеческая память; 11)
убеждающий;
благосостояние;
12)
конкуренция;
13)
производитель; 14) заставить (вынудить); 15) попытка; 16)
давление конкурентов; 17) увеличение сбыта; 18) средства
распространения рекламы; 19) рекламная кампания; 20)
пищевые продукты; 21) привлечь особое внимание; 22)
тщательное изучение; 23) достичь; 24) определять.
Exercise 6. Discuss the following:
1. Some people consider advertising and public relations to be the
same, and they really do not differ a lot.
2. In the modern world almost all advertising is persuasive, not
informative.
34
3. Advertising is beneficial for both the producers and the
consumers.
4. Advertising is a powerful tool in the struggle with competitors.
5. Any advertising campaign should be carefully planned.
Read and retell the text:
ETHICAL CHALLENGES IN ADVERTISING
VOLVO’S UNETHICAL ADVERTISING
Twenty years ago, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled 1 that it is unethical
to use «any form of mock-ups 2 or deception 3 » in advertisements.
There
were
investigations 5
two
of
other
Federal
national
Trade
Commission
advertisers
whose
(FTC 4 )
product
demonstrations were misrepresentative 6 . One case 7 was against the
Colgate-Palmolive Co. for a commercial demonstrating how quickly
Rapid Shave could smoothly shave a piece of sandpaper 8 ; what TV
viewers didn't know was that the «sandpaper» was really Plexiglas.
More recently, a Texas attorney general's 9 investigation discovered
that Volvo AB produced and released a deceptive advertisement.
In the Volvo ad, a giant «monster» truck named «Bear Foot» rolls over
the tops of several different cars, demolishing all but the Volvo. The
ad aired 10 mostly on cable networks, such as ESPN and CNN, and a
photo of the intact 11 Volvo with the caption 12 «Can you spot 1 the
to rule – постановить
mock-ups – зд. имитация
3
deception – обман, жульничество
4
FTC – Федеральная комиссия по торговле
5
investigation – расследование
6
misrepresentative - не соответствующий действительности
7
case – дело, иск
8
sandpaper – наждачная бумага
9
attorney general – прокурор
10
to air – показывать, демонстрировать
11
intact – целый, неповрежденный
12
caption - титр, надпись на экране
1
2
35
Volvo?» appeared as an ad in Time, Newsweek, Sports and other
publications. Claiming 2 to be a film of the real event, the ad was
actually staged 3 . Hoping for better success the next time, workers
from Perretti Productions cut the roof supports on the other cars
but put steel reinforcements 4 inside the Volvo. Some angry
spectators recognized the trickery and reported it to the Texas
attorney general's office, demanding a state probe.
Investigators concluded that Volvo's ads were deceptive, and ordered
the company to remove the ad and to reimburse 5 the state of Texas
more than $ 300,000 to pay for the investigation. Volvo's president
published a letter in nineteen Texas newspapers, apologizing for his
company's inaccurate characterization of the event as a carcrushing exhibition when in fact it was a dramatization. Recently the
FTC issued an unofficial letter to ad agencies and auto marketers
warning against deceptive advertising and listing the federal
penalties. Network executives 6 are worried that consumers will be
less trusting from now on 7 .
Exercise 7. Discuss the following:
1. What problem of modern advertising does this text concern
with?
2. Is it the same in our country?
3. Can you say that you trust advertisements?
4. What should be done to avoid deceptive advertising?
5. Do you think it is possible to make advertising absolutely
accurate?
Exercise 8. Give a brief summary of the above text.
to spot - увидеть, узнать
to claim – претендовать
3
to stage – инсценировать, поставить
4
steel reinforcements – стальные укрепления
5
to reimburse – компенсировать, выплатить
6
Network executives – руководство телевидения
7
from now on – с этих пор
1
2
36
UNIT III
LESSON TEN
Exercise 1. Pronounce the following words correctly:
accessible [ǝk'sesıbl] – доступный, достижимый
to authenticate [ɔ:'Ɵentıkeıt] – удостоверять,
свидетельствовать, устанавливать подлинность
awareness [ǝ'wɛənǝs] – знание, осведомленность
to publicize ['pʌblısaız] – рекламировать, извещать, оглашать
technique [tek'ni:k] – технические приемы; методика
to yield [ji:ld] – производить, приносить (урожай)
Exercise 2. Memorize the following words and word combinations:
compatible – совместимый
to
be
concerned
with
–
быть
связанным
с
чем-либо,
заинтересованным в чем-либо
cost-effective – экономичный
to cover – давать в прессу материалы, извещать
coverage – информация, сообщение, освещение в СМИ
to gain visibility – привлечь внимание, дать представление
medium ( pl. media) – средство массовой информации (СМИ)
merchandise – товары
news release – рекламное сообщение для печати
publicity – реклама, гласность, освещение в СМИ
target customer – целевой покупатель
Read and translate the text:
PUBLIC RELATIONS AS ONE OF THE PROMOTIONAL TOOLS
The basic idea behind the ‘marketing concept’- that you make what
you can sell rather than sell what you make- does not mean that your
product will sell by itself. Even a good, attractively-priced product
37
that clearly satisfies a need has to be made known to its target
customers. During the introduction and growth stages of the
standard product life cycle, the producer (or importer, and so on) has
to develop product or brand awareness, i.e. inform potential
customers (and distributors, dealers and retailers) about the
product’s existence, its features, its advantages, and so on.
According to the well-known ‘Four Ps’ formulation of the marketing
mix (product, place, promotion and price), this is clearly a matter of
promotion. Since budgets are always limited, marketers usually have
to decide which tools – advertising, public relations, sales promotion,
or personal selling – to use, and in what proportion.
Advertising and promotion have one important element in common:
money. Companies pay, one way or another, to advertise their
products or to engage in promotional activities. Organizations have
other ways to gain visibility for their products and services without
paying. They achieve this by generating interest in the product or
service in the media. The departments that do this are called
Marketing Communications or Product Public Relations.
Public relations (often abbreviated to PR) is concerned with
maintaining, improving or protecting the image of a company or
product. The most important element of PR is publicity which (as
opposed to advertising) is any mention of a company’s products that
is not paid for, in any medium read, viewed or heard by a company’s
customers or potential customers, aimed at assisting sales. Many
companies attempt to place stories or information in news media to
attract attention to a product or service. Publicity can have a huge
impact on public awareness that could not be achieved by
advertising, or at least not without an enormous cost. A lot of
research has shown that people are more likely to read and believe
publicity than advertising.
Publicizing your company’s products or services can be the most
persuasive and cost-effective of all marketing techniques. Product
38
publicity has tremendous impact because articles and broadcasts
convey a great deal of information about your merchandise or
services. It’s cost-effective because one news release can yield many
more marketing messages than costly ads.
Are PR and advertising compatible? News and press coverage of
products and services lay a foundation of credibility that makes
advertising more believable. Fair and accurate coverage of goods and
services produces articles that can be used by a company’s sales
force to authenticate the firm’s claims.
Exercise 3. Answer the following questions:
1. What is product or brand awareness?
2. How can businesses gain visibility for their products and
services without paying?
3. What are public relations concerned with?
4. What is publicity?
5. What are the advantages of publicity?
6. In which way are PR and advertising compatible?
Exercise 4. Discuss the difference between ‘advertising’ and
‘publicity’ and the role of publicity.
Exercise 5. Complete the following sentences:
1. To develop product awareness means to inform potential
customers about the product’s …, …, …
2. Organizations gain visibility to their products by …
3. PR is concerned with the … of a company or product.
4. Product publicity has a tremendous impact because …
5. Product publicity is cost-effective because …
6. Press coverage of products can lay a foundation of…
39
Exercise 6. Give the Russian equivalents to the following word
combinations:
1) to satisfy a need; 2) to develop product/brand awareness; 3)
one way or another; 4) to engage in promotional activities; 5) to
generate interest; 6) to assist sales; 7) to have a huge impact on
public awareness; 8) at an enormous cost; 9) to convey
information; 10) to lay a foundation of credibility; 11) fair and
accurate
coverage;
12)
company’s
sales
force;
13)
to
authenticate the firm’s claims.
Exercise 7. Find the synonyms among the following words and word
combinations:
1) potential customer; 2) persuasive; 3) to be concerned with; 4)
goods; 5) news release; 6) to provoke interest; 7) to draw
attention; 8) impact; 9) to deal with; 10) to gain visibility; 11)
convincing; 12) to generate interest; 13) press release; 14)
influence.
LESSON ELEVEN
Exercise 1. Pronounce the following words correctly:
to augment [o:g'mǝnt] – увеличивать, прибавлять
to constitute ['konstıtju:t] – составлять
competitor [kǝm'petıtǝ] – конкурент
to dilute [daı'lu:t] – ослаблять
to distinguish [dıs'tiŋgwıʃ] – различать, отличать
to evaluate [ı'væljueit] – оценивать
item ['aitǝm] – отдельный предмет (в списке)
to manufacture [ˌmænju'fæktʃǝ] – изготавливать, производить
manufacturer [ˌmænju'fæktʃǝrǝ] – изготовитель, производитель
niche [ni:ʃ] – ниша
objective [ǝb'dʒektiv] – цель, задача
to utilize ['ju:tılaiz] – использовать
40
Exercise 2. Memorize the following words and word combinations:
brand name - торговая марка
brand
switcher
-
покупатель,
склонный
приобретать
аналогичные товары разных торговых марок
delivery - доставка
line-filling - добавление новых продуктов в линию
line-stretching - удлинение продуктовой линии
maintenance - техобслуживание
product line - серия продуктов, продуктовая линия
product mix - ассортимент товаров, продуктов
profit - прибыль
profitable - прибыльный
profitability - прибыльность
warranty - гарантия
up-market - (выпускать на рынок) товары более высокого
качества
down-market - (выпускать на рынок) товары более низкого
качества
multi-brand strategy – стратегия продаж с использванием
нескольких торговых марок
Read and translate the text:
PRODUCTS AND BRANDS
1.
Marketing theorists tend to give the word product a very broad
meaning, using it to refer to anything capable of satisfying a need or
want. Thus services, activities, people (politicians, athletes, film
stars), places (holiday resorts), organizations (hospitals, colleges,
political parties), and ideas, as well as physical objects offered for
sale by retailers, can be considered as products. Physical products
can usually be augmented by benefits such as customer advice,
delivery, credit facilities, a warranty or guarantee, maintenance,
after-sales service, and so on.
41
2.
Some manufacturers use their name (the ‘family name’) for all
their products, e.g. Philips, Colgate, Yamaha. Others, including
Unilever and Procter & Gamble, market various products under
individual brand names, with the result that many customers are
unfamiliar with the name of the manufacturing company. The major
producers of soap powders, for example, are famous for their multibrand strategy which allows them to compete in various market
segments, and to fill shelf space in shops, thereby leaving less room
for competitors. It also gives them a greater chance of getting some
of the custom of brand-switchers.
3.
Most manufacturers produce a large number of products, often
divided into product lines. Most product lines consist of several
products, often distinguished by brand names, e.g. a range of soap
powders, or of toothpastes. Several different items (different sizes or
models) may share the same brand name. Together, a company’s
items, brands and products constitute its product mix. Since different
products are always at different stages of their life cycles, with
growing, stable or declining sales and profitability, and because
markets, opportunities and resources are in constant evolution,
companies are always looking to the future, and re-evaluating their
product mix.
4.
Companies whose objectives include high market share and
market growth generally have long product lines, i.e. a large number
of items. Companies whose objective is high profitability will have
shorter lines, including only profitable items. Yet most product lines
have a tendency to lengthen over time, as companies produce
variations on existing items, or add additional items to cover further
market segments. Additions to product lines can be the result of
either
line-stretching
or
line-filling.
Line-stretching
means
lengthening a product line by moving either up-market or downmarket, i.e. making items of higher or lower quality. This can be
carried out in order to reach new customers, to enter growing or
more profitable market segments, to react to competitors’ initiatives,
42
and so on. Yet such moves may cause image problems: moving to the
lower end of a market dilutes a company’s image for quality, while a
company at the bottom of a range may not convince dealers and
customers that it can produce quality products for the high end.
Line-filling – adding further items in that part of a product range
which a line already covers – might be done in order to compete in
competitors’ niches, or simply to utilize excess production capacity.
Exercise 3. Answer the following questions:
1. What can be considered a product?
2. How can producers augment their products?
3. Why do producers use the multi-brand strategy?
4. Why do companies regularly change their product mix?
5. What does the length of a product line depend on?
6. How can producers lengthen a product line?
7. What are the potential dangers of line-stretching?
Exercise 4. Discuss the following:
1. The advantages of a multi-brand strategy.
2. The concept of a product mix.
3. The difference between line-stretching and line-filling.
Exercise 5. Complete the following sentences:
1. Products can be augmented by …
2. Customers might be unfamiliar with the name of the
manufacturing company because …
4. Multi-brand strategy allows …
5. Product mix is made up of …
6. Companies re-evaluate their product mix because …
7. A long product line means that the company’s objective is …
8. A short product line means that the company’s objective is …
9. Product lines have a tendency to lengthen over time because …
43
Exercise 6. Give the Russian equivalents to the following word
combinations:
1) credit facilities; 2) after-sales service; 3) to be unfamiliar with;
4) to cover market segments; 5) to enter market segments; 6) to
react to competitors initiatives; 7) at the bottom of a range; 8) to
utilize excess production capacity.
Exercise 7. Find words or word combinations in the text which mean
the following:
1) the possibility of paying for a product over an extended period;
2) a promise by a manufacturer or seller to repair or replace
defective goods during a certain period of time;
3) a surface in a store on which goods are displayed;
4) consumers who buy various competing products rather than
being loyal to a particular brand;
5) the standard pattern of sales of a product over a period that it is
marketed;
6) the extent to which an activity provides financial gain;
7) possibilities of filling unsatisfied needs in sectors in which the
company can produce goods or services effectively;
8) the sales of a company expressed as a percentage of total sales
in a given market;
9) the set of beliefs that the public at large holds of an
organization;
10) a small, specialized, but profitable segment of a market.
Exercise 8. Discuss the following:
1. Give three examples of brands to which you are loyal (i.e. which
you buy without giving it a moment’s thought). Why are you
loyal to them?
2. Are there any products for which you have no brand preference
or loyalty?
44
3. Can you think of any products for which the name of the brand
is totally unimportant, so that you do not even notice it? (There
may be some in your bag or briefcase.)
4. Give an example of a product line (group of related products
made by the same company). Think of clothes, cosmetics food,
and so on.
UNIT IV
LESSON TWELVE
Exercise 1. Practice the pronunciation of the following words:
accessible (to) [ək'sesǝbl] - доступный
advantage [ad'va:ntıdʒ] - преимущество; выгода, польза
equally ['i:kwǝlı] - равно, в равной степени, равным образом
extremely [ık'stri:mlı] - чрезвычайно, крайне, очень
feature ['fi:tʃə] - особенность, признак, свойства
initial [ı'nıʃl] - начальный; отправной, первоначальный
major ['meıdʒə] - значительный, главный, крупный
strategy ['strætədʒı] – стратегия
temporary ['temprərı]- временный
Exercise 2. Memorize the following words and word combinations:
promotion – содействие продаже, сбыту; продвижение товара
according to - в соответствии с, согласно, по
related to - cвязанный, имеющий отношение к
customer – покупатель, клиент, заказчик
retailer - розничный торговец
competition – конкуренция
extensive advertising – широкая реклама
specific items – специфические, отдельные предметы
45
to reduce prices – снизить цены
to aim at - стремиться к; нацеливать, направлять
to encourage - ободрять; поощрять, поддерживать
to gain entry to - получить доступ
Read and translate the text:
PROMOTION
PROMOTING A NEW PRODUCT
Сompanies have to develop good products or services, price them
attractively, and make them accessible to their target customers. But
this is not enough: they also have to use various promotional tools to
generate sales. According to a classification used in most marketing
textbooks, advertising is only one of four standard promotional
tools. The others are sales promotions, public relations 1 , and
personal selling.
MAJOR PROMOTING TOOLS
Even a good, attractively-priced product that clearly satisfies a need
has to be made known to its customers. Companies (producers,
importers, and so on) have to inform potential customers (and
distributors, dealers and retailers) about the product's existence, its
features, its advantages, and so on. This is clearly a matter of
promotion. Since budgets are always limited, marketers usually have
to decide which tools - advertising, public relations, sales promotion,
or personal selling - to use, and in what proportion.
Sales promotions such as free samples, coupons, price reductions,
competitions, and so on, are temporary medium designed to
public relations - связи с общественностью ( профессиональная деятельность,
касающаяся формирования положительного общественного мнения относительно
продукции фирмы путем организации презентаций, семинаров, публикаций в
прессе и т. п. )
1
46
stimulate sales of a product. Free samples, for example, (combined
with extensive advertising), may generate the initial channel of a new
product. Reduced-price packs in super- markets, for example, can
be used to attract customers. Stores also often reduce prices of
specific items which bring customers into the shop where they will
also buy other goods. Sales promotions can also be aimed at
distributors, dealers and retailers, to encourage them to stock new
items or larger quantities, or to encourage off-season buying, or the
stocking of items related to an existing product. They might equally
be designed to strengthen brand loyalty 1 among retailers or to gain
entry to new markets.
Personal selling is the most expensive promotional tool. Spreading
information about a company's products and services, selling these
products and services, and assisting customers with possible
technical problems, salespeople have another important function.
Since they are often the only person from a company that customers
see, they are an extremely important medium of information. It has
been calculated that the majority of new product ideas come from
customers via 2 sales representatives.
Exercise 3. Answer the following questions:
1. What do companies have to do for generating sales?
2. What standard promotional tools do you know?
3. What do companies have to inform their potential customers
about?
4. What media stimulate sales of a product?
5. Why can sales promotions be aimed at distributor and retailers?
6. What functions do salespeople have?
1
2
brand loyalty- привязанность к марке товара
via - через, посредством чего-либо
47
Exercise 4. Complete the following sentences to summarize the text
above.
1. When a new product is launched, the producer has to …
2. Promotion is one of the four …
3. Reasons to offer temporary price reductions include …
4. Sales promotions need not only be aimed at customers; …
5. Apart from selling a company's products, sales representatives
…
6. Extremely important medium of information…
7. The majority of new product ideas come from…
Exercise 5. Give the Russian equivalents:
1) target customers; 2) to satisfy a need; 3) product's existence; 4)
a matter of …; 5) proportion; 6) initial channel; 7) reduced-price
packs; 8) free samples; 9) temporary medium 10) to attract
customers; 11) to stock new items; 12) off-season buying; 13) to
spread information; 14) attractively-priced product; 15) various
promotional tools; 16) public relations; 17) personal selling; 18)
to strengthen brand loyalty; 19) to gain entry to new markets.
Exercise 6. There is a logical connection among three of the four
words in each of the following groups. Which is the odd one out, and
why?
advertising - competitors - publicity - sales promotion
after-sales service - guarantee - optional features - points of sale
brand awareness - brand loyalty - brand name - brand preference
credit terms - discount - list price - packaging
decline - growth - introduction - product improvement
packaging - place - product - promotion
Exercise 7. Imagine that you, in a team of three or four people, are
responsible for promoting one of the following:
ƒ a new taxi company in your town;
ƒ a new, up-market health and fitness club;
48
ƒ a new brand of jeans, manufactured by a new (and therefore
unknown) company;
ƒ a new, fashionable but inexpensive range of quartz watches;
ƒ potatoes, to be sold in supermarkets.
Decide exactly what your product is, what is special about it, and
which tools you would use to promote it. Imagine that you have a
generous budget, and are thus able to employ several different
tactics.
Read the text without consulting a dictionary and render it in
Russian:
Promotion consists of several methods of communicating with and
influencing customers. The major tools are sales force, advertising,
sales promotion, and public relations.
Sales representatives are the most expensive means of promotion,
because they require income, expenses, and supplementary benefits.
Their ability to personalize the promotion process makes salespeople
most effective at selling complex goods and highly personal goods –
for example, those related to religion or insurance.
Salespeople are trained to make presentations, answer objections,
gain commitments to purchase, and manage account growth. Some
companies have successfully reduced their sales-force costs by
replacing certain functions (for example, finding new customers) with
less expensive methods (such as direct mail and telemarketing).
The use of promotions has risen considerably during the late 20th
century. This is due to a number of factors within companies,
including an increased sophistication in sales promotion techniques
and greater pressure to increase sales. Several market factors also
have fostered this increase, including a rise in the number of brands
(especially similar ones) and a decrease in the efficiency of traditional
advertising due to increasingly fractionated consumer markets.
49
LESSON THIRTEEN
Exercise 1. Practice the pronunciation of the following words:
to absorb [ǝb'sɔ:b] - поглощать (внимание); впитывать (знания),
понимать, постигать
concisely [kən'saıslı] – кратко, сжато, лаконично; выразительно
to
emphasize
['emfəsaız]
-
придавать
особое
значение;
подчеркивать; акцентировать
exactly [ıg'zæktlı] - в точности; точно; как раз; аккуратно; ровно
length [lenƟ] - продолжительность; длина
objective [əb'dʒektıv] - цель; стремление (тж. objective point)
particular [pə'tıkjulǝ] - особенный, особый, специфический,
отдельный
psychological [saıkə'lɔdʒıkl] - психологический
quantity ['kwɔntıtı] – количество
sequence ['si:kwəns] – последовательность, очередность
specific [spə'sıfık] - особенный, особый, специфический
technique [tek'ni:k] - техника, технические приемы; метод;
методика, способ
various ['vɛǝrıəs] - различный, разный, разнообразный
worth [wǝ:Ɵ] - стоящий, достойный, заслуживающий
Exercise 2. Memorize the following words and word combinations:
accordingly - соответственно
background - исходные данные; истоки, происхождение
benefit - выгода; польза; прибыль; преимущество
to claim - заявлять, утверждать
to concern - касаться, относиться; описывать, говорить (в
произведении)
to convey a message - передавать сообщение
to hоld an audience's attention - удерживать, приковывать
внимание публики
to increase production - увеличить производство
to introduce - вводить, знакомить, представлять
50
to make a profit - получать прибыль
to reduce - снижать, сокращать
reliable - надежный
presentation - представление, способ представления, подача
информации
Read the following text and identify at least six
recommendations about speaking technique which can help
to make the message in a presentation clear:
YOU'RE LOST IF YOU LOSE YOUR AUDIENCE
Clear objectives, clear plan, clear signals: the secrets of presentation
success
Any presentation requires a clear strategy or plan to help you reach
your objectives. The aim is not to pass away twenty minutes talking
non-stop and showing a lot of nice pictures. It is to convey a
message that is worth hearing to an audience who want to hear it.
However, how many speakers really hold an audience's attention?
What is the secret for those who do? First, find out about the
audience and what they need to know. Plan what you're going to say
and say it clearly and concisely.
A good speaker uses various signals to help hold the audience's
attention and make the information clear. One type of signal is to
introduce a list with a phrase like: “There are three things we have to
consider”. The speaker then says what the three things are and talks
about each one at the required level of detail. For example: “There
are three types of price that we have to think about: economic price,
market price and psychological price. Let's look at each of these in
more detail”. First, economic price. This is based on production costs
and the need to make a profit... and the speaker goes on to describe
this type of price. After that, he goes on to talk about the market
price and so on.
51
Another signaling technique is to give a link between parts of the
presentation. Say where one part of the talk finishes and another
starts. For example, a well organised presentation usually contains
different parts and progression from one part to the next must be
clear, with phrases like: “That's all I want to say about the
development of the product. Now let's turn to the actual marketing
plan”. This technique is very helpful to the audience, including those
who are mainly interested in one part only.
Another type of signaling is sequencing of information. This usually
follows a logical order, perhaps based on time. So a project may be
described in terms of the background, the present situation and the
future. Keywords in sequencing information are first, then, next, after
that, later, at the end, finally, etc.
Still another technique which helps to emphasize key points is careful
repetition. Examples are: “As I've already said, there is no alternative
but to increase production by 100 per cent” or “I'd like to emphasize
the main benefit of the new design — it achieves twice as much 1
power with half as much fuel”.
A
final
point
concerns
timing
and
quantity
of
information.
Psychologists have suggested that concentration is reduced after
about twenty minutes without a break or a change in activity.
Furthermore 2 , audiences should not be overburdened 3 with technical
details or given too many facts to remember. It is claimed that to ask
people to remember more than three things in a five minute talk is
too much. Some say that seven is the maximum number of any
length of presentation. Any such calculations are probably not very
reliable, but every speaker needs to think about exactly how much
information of a particular type a specific audience is likely to absorb
and to plan accordingly.
twice as much - вдвое больше
furthermore - к тому же, кроме того; более того
3
to overburden – перегружать
1
2
52
Exercise 3. Answer the following questions:
1. What does any presentation require?
2. What signals does a good speaker use?
3. What does a well organized presentation contain?
4. What are key words in sequencing information?
5. What does careful repetition mean?
6. Why is it so important to plan timing and quantity of
information?
Exercise 4. Complete the following sentences:
1. A good speaker uses …
2. Key words in sequencing information are …
3. Plan what you are going to …
4. One type of signal is …
5. Another signaling technique is to give a link between …
6. A project may be described in terms of …
7. Psychologists have suggested …
8. Every speaker needs to think about …
5. Give the Russian equivalents:
1) to reach one’s objectives; 2) to pass away; 3) to convey a
message; 4) to find out; 5) clearly and concisely; 6) in more detail;
7) production cost; 8) to make a profit; 9) to go on; 10) to give a
link; 11) to turn to; 12) sequencing of information; 13) logical
order; 14) to emphasize key points
Exercise 6. Work in pairs. Each of you should suggest a possible
phrase for each of the prompts below. Use the phrases below:
Greet your audience.
Introduce yourself.
Give the title of your talk.
Describe the structure of your talk.
Explain that the audience can interrupt if they want.
Say something about the length of your talk.
53
Say a colleague will be showing a video later.
ADDITIONAL PHRASES
Greeting:
Good morning / afternoon ladies and gentlemen. (Ladies and)
Gentlemen ...
Subject:
I plan to say a few words about ...I'm going to talk about ...
The subject of my talk is ...The theme of my presentation is ...
I'd like to give you an overview of ...
Structure:
I've divided my talk into (three) parts. My talk will be in (three)
parts.
I'm going to divide ... First ... Second ... Third...
In the first part ... Then in the second part ... Finally ...
Timing:
My talk will take about ten minutes.
The presentation will take about two hours ...
but there'll be a twenty minute break in the middle.
We'll stop for lunch at 12 o'clock.
Policy on questions / discussion:
Please interrupt if you have any questions.
After my talk there'll be time for a discussion and any questions.
Exercise 7. Read the comments from the audience who are listening
to a presentation at an international conference. What caused the
problem in each case.
'What on earth is he talking about?' I’ve no idea!'
'Hey, Sarah! Wake up! He's finished!'
'Read that! I can't read that! I'd need a pair of binoculars!'
'Speak up! I can't hear a thing!'
'Summarize four main points? I only noticed one! Have I been
asleep?'
54
Exercise 8. Look at the following situations. Imagine you have to give
a brief presentation in two of the above situations.
1. An international meeting of administrative staff to discuss a new
accounting procedure.
2. The Purchasing and Product Managers of a Taiwanese company
interested in buying some production equipment from your
company.
3. A staff meeting to discuss a charity event for earthquake
victims.
Examples:
Presentation 1
Good
morning
everyone,
on
behalf
of
myself
and
Focus
Advertising, I'd like to welcome you. My name's Sven Larsen, I'm
Commercial Director. This morning, I'd like to outline the
campaign concept we've developed for you. I've divided my
presentation into three pans. First, the background to the
campaign, next the results of our market study, thirdly, the
concept itself. If you have any questions, please don't hesitate to
interrupt me.
Presentation 2
Hi, I'm Dominique Lagrange. Good to see you all. As you know, I'm
Creative Director of DMK. I'm going to tell you about the ideas
we've come up with for the ad campaign. I'll give you the
background and talk you through the results of the market study
and tell you all about our concept. If you're not clear about
anything, go ahead and ask any questions you want.
Read the following text and identify the following:
a) the relationship between the main body of the presentation and
the introduction;
b) a recommendation on one way to divide the main body of a talk.
55
INTRODUCTION AND MAIN BODY OF PRESENTATION
In any presentation the beginning is crucial. Certainly some things
are essential in an introduction and others are useful. Here is a list of
what could be included in an introduction:
subject / title of talk,
introduction to oneself, job title, etc. , reference to questions and /or
discussion, reference to the program for the day, reference to how
long you are going to speak for, reference to the visual aids you plan
to use, the scope of your talk: what is and is not included, an outline
of the structure of your talk, a summary of the conclusions.
The main body of the presentation contains the details of the subject
or themes described in the introduction. All the above techniques are
especially useful in making the main body easily understood. They
help the audience to follow the information and to remember it. They
also help the speaker to keep to the planned structure and to know
exactly what stage has been reached at all times during the
presentation. Clear structure doesn't just help the audience! In many
presentations the main body can be usefully divided into different
parts. Clearly there are many ways to divide the main body of a
presentation and often different parts will themselves be divided into
smaller sections of information:
ƒ Introduction
ƒ Main body of information
ƒ First part - a, b, c, d
ƒ Second part - a, b, c
ƒ Third part - a, b
56
This article, from the Financial Times, is about presentation
technique. Scan the text to identify seven examples of bad
technique and five characteristics of good technique:
WHEN INCOMPETENCE IS “TANTAMOUNT TO FRAUD” 1
by John Kirkman
Not long ago, I went to a two-day conference. The fee, travel, and
hotel accommodation cost nearly £300. The conference offered 20
papers.
Of
those,
nine
were
rendered
partly
or
wholly
incomprehensible by poor design or inept 2 handling of visual aids. Of
the 20 speakers, 12 overran their allotted 3 time, so the program on
both days fell behind schedule. To cope with this, the chairpersons
asked some speakers to cut short their planned presentations. They
did. With the other paying customers, I shall never know what I
missed. I do know, however, that I did not get the full 20
presentations I was entitled to expect. Incompetent presentation is
tantamount to fraud. Here are extracts from my notes on that
conference.
Speaker 1. Got slides out of sequence with talk, distractingly putting
them up before she reached the relevant point in her script. Read
inexorably through the script, stumbling over written word-clusters
she could not articulate.
Speaker 2. Put up transparencies on overhead projector, with
comment: “You won't be able to read these.” Correct! Had an
electronic watch that beeped at 15 minutes; commented that the
beep meant time was up; went on speaking. Overran by 10 per cent.
Speaker 3. Used first five of allocated 15 minutes to tell an anecdote
relevant to talk. Overran by 27 per cent.
tantamount to fraud = almost the same as dishonestly taking someone's money
inept = incapable, amateurish
3
allotted = made available, given
1
2
57
Speaker 4. Was warned twice by the chair about time to stop; so he
spoke twice as fast to try to finish with slides whistling to and fro at a
rate that made reading impossible. He confused himself as well as us
by putting up a slide that “should not have been there”. Overran by
almost a third.
Speakers 2, 3 and 4 all began by stressing what they could not do in
15 minutes, thereby reducing substantially what they could do.
Things got worse. One speaker began by belittling himself and
insulting us: “I will just put up this slide to keep you occupied while I
go through the boring facts.” He offered an example, but could not
find it: “I have some figures somewhere ... but I can't find them, never
mind.”
Day two brought no relief. We were offered overhead transparencies
made by photocopying A4 pages in a small typeface. One illustration,
11 columns, five rows of figures was put up with no comment other
than: “There are the figures.” I was sitting about halfway back, 50-60
feet from the screen. The figures were utterly unreadable. The edifice
of the speaker's argument came crashing down. My comprehension
never emerged from the rubble 1 . .One speaker's monotone mumble
defeated even the halter microphone he was asked to wear because
we could not hear him. He misunderstood the chair's warning about
time, and stopped three minutes early. Blessed relief!
Another speaker did not know whether or not he had a slide to
illustrate his point: “I think we have a slide for this. It is slide six. Oh
no, sorry. Well, we will go on.” How were we supposed to follow, if he
himself was lost?
My notes have favourable comments on only three speakers, and
those notes make an important point: the value of being simply
competent. My comments on speaker eight illustrate that point:
“Vigorous, organised, enthusiastic, clear. Content not new or
1
rubble = broken bits or pieces of anything demolished; brash
58
exciting, but mere competence of presentation made it seem easily
the best so far.”
I knew before I went to the conference that the presenters were not
professional lecturers, so was I expecting too much? I was not
looking for outstanding oratory, merely for competent presentation,
constructed for the periods allocated, and delivered with simple
clarity.
It is possible to learn to be a competent speaker. Competence (not
brilliance, but competence) rests more on acquired skills than on
inherited flair. But most presenters at this conference had made little
effort to learn how to protect their own reputations and those of their
employers.
The Financial Times, 23rd May, 1986
UNIT V
SUPPLEMENTARY READING
ТEXT 1
ADVERTISEMENTS
Advertisements have come into an Englishman's life to such a degree,
that he no longer protests. He gets them by radio, by TV, in the daily
press, by posters everywhere, by neon lights all over the city and
countryside. He is bombarded by advertisements from the moment
he can understand anything in childhood to his death.
Here is an example: you are watching TV, it may be a football match,
an opera, a film or a news-report, all of a sudden on your TV screen
59
appears a cartoon strip 1 with Mighty Mouse or Donald Duck singing a
song about what a wonderful drink Pepsi Cola is and how it quenches
your thirst 2 or if you want to be a well-dressed man, wear Stetson
Hats. In this manner hundreds of advertisements are introduced
every day. At the end of each program the TV viewer is told that
Cadbury Chocolate Co. makes the finest chocolates in the world or
that Spearmint Co. makes the finest chewing gum on our planet.
Every fifteen minutes you are introduced to your benefactor 3 in the
form of a toilet Soap Co., which will make your skin as white and
smooth as a lily even if you are 80, etc.
All the information you get is stored 4 , somewhere in you and when
you go shopping and see one of the advertised articles 5 you are sure
to recognize it as an old friend and you buy it without a second
thought as the finest in the world.
True not all advertisements are brain killers 6 , some, indeed, are very
handy like the While-you-wait (while-u-wait) service. You may have
your photograph taken or your suit or dress ironed, mended or
cleaned while you wait. While-u-wait includes hundreds of excellent
services that the population is glad to have.
One must have in mind that advertisements are the main form of
competition and it is necessary to have a lot of money to advertise.
Every 15 minute program costs tens of thousands of pounds and a
company must be very rich to advertise daily.
It is interesting to know that once a Scotsman Sir Thomas Lipton who
was a small tea merchant and who knew the power of advertisements
thought of a cunning thing.
cartoon strip - мультфильм
it quenches your thirst – это утоляет жажду
3
benefactor – благодетель, благотворитель
4
is stored — откладывается, хранится (в памяти)
5
advertised articles —разрекламированные товары
6
brain killer — то, чем забивают голову
1
2
60
It was at the turn of the century in the centre of London. Three large
vans stopped in Piccadilly Circus. Each van had on board a hundred
two-month old rosy pigs. Each of the 300 rosy pigs had words
printed on it in green paint — "Drink Lipton's Tea". When they were
let out, it created a traffic jam unheard of in London. Policemen were
trying to catch them, photographers of the press were working over
an hour. Every large newspaper in England and in the world had the
photographs of the traffic jam in the centre of London, the rosy
piggies and Thomas Lipton who was fined £ 10 for obstructing
traffic. Lipton’s name and tea became famous overnight. As he said
later those 300 pigs and £ 10 fine had given him a million pound
sterling worth of advertisements.
TEXT 2
STRANGE ADVERTISEMENTS
Strange advertisements are sometimes to be read in American
newspapers.
Jane, a young typist, often looked through them just for fun. One day
she came across a very strange advertisement indeed. It was as
follows:
«A young man, clever, easy to get on with and good-looking, wishes
to marry but has no means to support a wife. To get one and the
necessary money to support her he has had the following idea:
One thousand numbered tickets will soon be printed and sold for
fifty dollars each at the kiosk in Lincoln's Square. Only pretty girls,
easy to get on 1 with and no older than twenty-five, can buy a ticket.
When all the tickets have been bought, the young man will draw one
number and it will be printed in another advertisement together with
1
to get on – уживаться, ладить (with somebody)
61
his address. In this way the lucky girl will get a good husband and the
necessary means to start life together with him».
Jane laughed at the strange advertisement and wondered how it was
possible to have such a crazy idea. Suddenly she thought of George
and stopped laughing. Could it be? Yes, it could. It was just like him.
She had known George for many years. They had been schoolmates
and after leaving school they had often met. He had asked her several
times to marry him but though she was very fond of him she had
refused as he was not reliable. The strange advertisement made her
think of him now because he had always been full of crazy ideas
about making money in the easiest possible way. She had told him
time and time again to stop being silly and get a steady job but it had
done no good. She had not seen him for over a year and she
wondered where he was and what he was doing now. She missed him
badly and worried about him but she was sure she had been right in
refusing to marry him. Every sensible 1 girl wants a reliable husband
and Jane was a sensitive girl indeed. Suddenly the telephone rang.
She answered it.
«Jane Taylor speaking.»
«Hallo, honey! How are you? Remember me?»
«George!»
«Yes, of course. May I come and see you?»
«But where have you been all this time?»
«I'll tell you everything. Wait for me, I won't be long.»
And before Jane could say anything more he had rung off. He must
have been quite near because in a few minutes he was with her
telling the story:
«When you refused me last time I couldn't stand this town any longer.
I wanted to disappear, but didn't know where to go. Then I met Fred
Johnson - you know Fred, he was at school with us. His father has
1
sensible – благоразумный, здравомыслящий
62
that big department store 1 in Lincoln Square. At first Fred laughed at
me when I told him I'd like to leave and get a job anywhere but here.
He knew of my crazy ideas and that I had gone from job to job,
always looking for the easiest possible way of making money. He
spoke to me just as you would have done. He said that only a steady
job and hard work meant making good money and that it was high
time I stopped being silly and acted like a sensible man. I asked him
to give me a chance and promised I'd do my best if he helped me and
he did. He got me a job in New York in the department store of his
father's business friend. They made me work from early morning till
late at night. I had never worked hard before, I was dead tired and at
first I thought I couldn't stand it. But I had promised Fred. I was
grateful to him and I kept thinking of you all the time, so I kept my
promise. They saw I was doing my best and they were pleased with
me. Little by little I began to enjoy my work, going from department
to department and learning everything about the business of buying
and selling. I saw it was good to have a steady job and to be doing
something useful. When I had been there for a year, Mr. Ford, the
assistant sales manager, fell ill and they said I could try my hand at
his job. I was delighted, of course, and did my very best to show that
I could manage. Then one day I got a letter from Fred. He wrote that
his father knew everything about me and would like to give me that
job of assistant sales manager at his department store here. By that
time I was missing you so badly that I wanted to come back more
than anything. Of course I couldn't leave at once, but as soon as Mr.
Ford was well again I did. So here I am, honey. Will you marry me
now? I've got a good, steady job at last. You wanted a reliable
husband, didn't you? »
At first Jane was too happy to speak. She only showed him the
strange advertisement in the newspaper and waited until he had read
1
department store – универмаг
63
it. Then she said: «And I thought it was yours. You used to have such
crazy ideas».
He laughed and answered: «Not that crazy as this one. Besides, it's all
over. Well, honey, will you marry me?»
TEXT 3
COMMERCIALS IN THE USA
You can't escape from the radio here. Radios are switched on early in
the morning and go on all day as a permanent background noise. So
you hear them wherever you go - in houses, cars, restaurants, taxis.
You don't pay for a license, as you do in England, to have a radio. The
money for the program is provided by the manufacturers of cars,
soap, cigarettes, who "buy time" in which to advertise their products.
Every few minutes the program is interrupted to give a commercial
advertising of something.
American TV follows much the same pattern set up for the radio
system.
Unlike many other countries, broadcasting in the United States is
predominantly 1 commercial, owned by private corporations with three
giant networks controlling the industry: the Columbia Broadcasting
System (CBS), the American Broadcasting System (ABS), the National
Broadcasting Corporation (NBC).
Since the viewer does not pay directly for the broadcast, the source
of profit for TV companies is advertising. Major corporations buy
time on TV programs to advertise their goods and services.
The commercials take up approximately 8 minutes of an average
television hour, appearing during it as short advertising breaks
interfering with whatever program is shown. Naturally, the aim of the
1
predominantly – преимущественно, в основном
64
sponsors is to support the most popular programs. These include
films featuring well-known stars, westerns, comedies, movies, spy
films and soap operas. A special feature in American broadcasting is
the "soap opera". Practically all stations broadcast them between 12
noon and 4 p.m. on every week day from Monday to Friday. They last
fifteen minutes each. Originally 1 they were sponsored by soap
advertisers. These TV-serials and radio shows are called operas
because they present highly emotional situations like many European
operas of 19th century.
ТEXT 4
APPOINTING THE NEW ADVERTISING MANAGER
Harper & Grant is a growing company. It is necessary for a growing
firm to advertise. Up till now the Sales Manager, John Martin has dealt
with the advertising. He employs an «Advertising Agency» to design
the advertisements and place, or put, them in certain newspapers or
magazines. An «Advertising Agency» is an organization which
undertakes advertising on behalf of 2 the advertiser. It employs
artists, copywriters, etc. who are specialists in the field. Its staff are
specialists in buying space in newspapers 3 or time on radio and
television as well. They are usually able to do by far more
professional job than the advertising manager who belongs to the
company and who therefore has a limited experience 4 . However,
many firms now employ an advertising manager as well to liaise 5 with
the agency.
At Harper & Grant John Martin is now too busy on the sales side to be
able to handle the work involved. He needs an expert to supervise an
originally – сначала, первоначально
on behalf of - от имени
3
space in newspapers - место в газете
4
limited experience - ограниченный опыт
5
to liaise - поддерживать связь
1
2
65
advertising campaign, check proofs 1 , make sure that the agency uses
the media which best suit the company's interests. The media are the
various means, by which one can advertise, for example in
newspapers, magazines, on television, on large display boards, etc.
John Martin also cannot cope with the increasing public relations
work. This side of the business involves contacts with the public at
large through newspapers, magazines and television, giving editors
correct information about the company and its products when such
information is necessary.
The Managing Director, Mr. Grant has agreed that they should
appoint a new advertising manager who will relieve John Martin of his
work but still be ultimately accountable to him for advertising. In
fact, the new department will be a branch of his Sales Department.
However, Mr. Grant is very interested in public relations and insists
that the new adman will be under 2 him for this side of the job.
An advertisement has been inserted in the «situations vacant»
column of several appropriate newspapers, giving details of the new
appointment and inviting applicants for the job.
John Martin has the work of going through the written applications
and deciding which of the applicants have the right qualifications for
the post. He will then interview the selected applicants from his short
list 3 and send his candidate or candidates to Mr. Grant for the final
interview.
Answer the question: What are the main functions of John Martin?
ƒ Firstly...
ƒ
ƒ
Secondly...
Then...
to check proofs – проверять корректуру, гранки
to be under… - в подчинении у кого-либо
3
short list – сокращенный после предварительного рассмотрения список возможных
кандидатов
1
2
66
ТEXT 5
AMERICAN RADIO AND TELEVISION
Mass media (that is the press, television and radio) play an important
part in the life of society. They inform, educate and entertain people.
They also influence the way people look at the world and make them
change their views. "After all," say American media men, "news is not
what happens — it is what you see or read about in mass media." In
other words, mass media shape public opinion.
Millions of Americans in their spare time watch TV and read
newspapers. The daily paper dominates family life at breakfast; TV
dominates the life of the family most of the time. The TV set is not
just a piece of furniture. It is someone who is “one of the family”. It is
also a habit-forming drug impossible to resist. The radio is turned on
most of the time, creating a permanent background noise. It does not
interfere with your activities. You can listen to the radio while doing
some work about the house, reading a book or driving a car.
On the radio one can hear music, plays, news, and various
commentary and discussions called forums. At a forum several
authorities exchange views on social, economic and political
problems, as well as on books of common interest. A number of
sides are represented so that the listeners can hear various opinions.
Such broadcasts are popular with the listeners.
Various radio and TV games, such as a panel 1 game on the radio and
a quiz program on television, also attract a large audience. During a
radio panel game the listeners send questions to the studio to be
answered by the members of the panel, who compete for the best
results. During TV quiz programs the questions are answered by the
viewers.
panel – группа специалистов, собравшихся для обсуждения важных
вопросов
1
67
Then there is a daily TV serial known as a soap opera. It is a
sentimental drama featuring domestic problems of a group of
people. (A soap opera was originally a radio program meant for
housewives and broadcast in the daytime.) Some people find it
boring, others consider it to be good entertainment and relaxation.
There is a lot of advertising on American TV and radio. Most of the
TV and radio stations are owned by big corporations. The owners
advertise whatever they choose. They sell TV and radio time to
commercial firms which buy it to advertise their goods. So most of
the TV and radio time is taken up by advertisements. Commercial
firms sponsor shows and programs that make people buy their
goods. For instance, to attend a show or to take part in a quiz
program you have to send to the studio the required number of
empty cartons, boxes or wrappings (depending on what product the
sponsoring firm is selling). People are attracted by such programs
not only because they provide entertainment. A valuable prize is
usually promised for the correct answer to the main question.
Americans are optimistic. Their optimism makes them believe in luck
and buy things which they may not need at all. The sponsoring firm
makes a great profit on such programs. The more people attend the
show, the greater is the profit of the firm.
Advertising promotes business and benefits businessmen but often
annoys the general public. The play you are watching on TV may be
interrupted several times by an appeal to use a new perfume or
detergent, or drink a certain beer. Though Americans are used to
everything being advertised, watching such programs gives one a
headache instead of providing relaxation. Sometimes the patience of
the watcher snaps and he turns off the television without ever
learning who murdered the innocent old lady, stole the jewels,
hijacked the plane, forged the cheques, poisoned the wife of the
millionaire, kidnapped his daughter or committed some other crime.
The viewer will never know if the police caught the burglar who broke
68
into the house of a rich businessman and robbed the bank or if the
criminal escaped being punished.
To convince the viewer that a certain product is the best and to
persuade him to buy it takes not only a lot of imagination but also a
lot of time. The same advertisements are repeated dozens of times
every day, which bores the viewers.
According to some critics the immense cultural possibilities of
American mass media are used mainly for the purpose of selling
people more things that they really need. Freedom of speech, as
some critics declare, allows great commercial firms to pull the rest of
the people down to their own intellectual level.
But it is hardly fair to say that American media do not try to raise the
cultural level of the people or to develop their artistic taste. Many of
the TV programs are excellent; they are made in good taste and with
great professional skill. Radio and television bring into millions of
homes not only entertainment and news but also cultural and
educational programs. Radio stations broadcast about ten thousand
hours of musical programs weekly. Many programs are made up
almost entirely of classical music.
There is a lot of education both on television and radio, For instance,
you can take a TV course in history, political economy, management,
banking and in many other subjects, or learn a foreign language by
TV and radio. Educational TV films and programs are shown at
schools and colleges as part of the curriculum 1 .
The opinion that all commercial programs are of little artistic value
can also be disputed.
1
curriculum – учебный план, программа, курс обучения
69
ТEXT 6
CREATING THE PUBLIC RELATIONS/MEDIA PLAN
1.
Define the goal or problem and set objectives. The planning
process starts with an understanding of current public perceptions of
your business. It develops from overall marketing plan and uses
marketing objectives for setting PR objectives. Your PR objectives
should be specific and measurable.
2.
Start from defining the problem you want to solve, set realistic
goals and establish a realistic budget to achieve them.
3.
Conduct research to obtain insights into the target audience you
want to reach.
4.
Determine strategies (action plan) to achieve your objective.
Decide what the message will be, and to whom the message will be
communicated, and a set of communication guidelines including
objectives, priorities, tone and manner of communication.
5.
Develop tactics to implement strategies. Possible avenues of
communications are:
ƒ press releases;
ƒ feature articles 1 ;
ƒ press conferences;
ƒ parties;
ƒ interviews;
ƒ seminars and symposiums;
ƒ radio and/or TV publicity;
ƒ event sponsorship;
ƒ publicity stunt 2 ;
ƒ media tour 1 .
feature article – статья, создающая благоприятное впечатление о каком-то человеке
или событии
2
publicity stunt – мероприятие или трюк, проводимые для привлечения внимания
публики
1
70
6.
Evaluate the plan’s effectiveness and make recommendations
for the future. Ask the following questions:
ƒ was the quality of media exposure acceptable?
ƒ did our message effectively reach the target audience?
ƒ did we communicate our message clearly and did the target
audience understand it in a proper way?
ƒ did the message have the desired effect on the target audience?
ONLINE PUBLIC RELATIONS
One of the cheapest ways to market your business is to take
advantage of the many opportunities that exist for free or low cost
public relations. The exponential growth of the Internet provides
constantly expanding virtual public relations resources.
INTEGRATING YOUR PR MESSAGE
One key factor is that your total message and corporate image
should be consistent both in real world and online. Used effectively,
public relations activities in the traditional media can draw traffic to
your web site, and conversely, articles on your web site can generate
business. Jesse Weeks (‘Professional speaker’ magazine) said: For
each article I print, at least one inquiry for services results, often
many’.
PROMOTE YOUR ARTICLES!
If you have any published articles, (or even unpublished ones),
consider putting each one on a separate page of your web site.
This has several advantages:
ƒ it plays to the web philosophy that ‘content is king’, and
showcases your expertise and the breadth of your knowledge;
ƒ you can construct keywords and descriptions specifically for
each article, and promote them individually in the search
media tour – пресс-тур, т.е. организованная фирмой поездка корреспондентов для
сбора информации, благоприятной для этой фирмы
1
71
engines. This allows you to further differentiate yourself, and
significantly improves your chances of being found online.
Don’t just put the plain text into your site as it is on paper. The
article should be formatted to be read well on the screen, and has
good navigation both within the page, and back to other areas of
your site.
There are ever expanding numbers of newspapers, newsletters, and
e-zines (electronic magazines) online, and also reporters looking for
stories. Since web sites have to be constantly updated (even more
than in the real world), they are hungry for your news!
PRESS RELEASE WEB PAGES
There are some major advantages to using press releases on your (or
other’s) web sites. You can include:
ƒ hyperlinks to related stories, or further background information;
ƒ sound and video clips to enhance your presentation; and
ƒ buttons to access your release in different languages (great for
international speakers!)
You can also easily track your press releases are published and how
many people read them. If they are included on your site, you can
find this information from your own access logs. If you submit press
releases for other publications, consider using different e-mail
contact addresses for each. Often your Internet Service Provider will
supply multiple e-mail boxes as part of their web hosting service,
which is a great way to quantify your responses.
ТEXT 7
BUT HOW CAN I GET MY PRODUCT OR SERVICE ON TV?
If you can ATTACH your product, service, or idea to a topic that the
news wants to cover- you’re in!
72
Just like the person promoting an issue that wanted to get their
position on the news, you can get your business on TV news by
finding some way to attach your biz to a topic that TV would cover.
Can your business get involved in a community service program that
will be news-worthy?
Not long ago two boys decided to camp out on top of their house in
hopes that someone would notice them and give them tickets to a
hot NBA basketball game. It was just goofy enough to get the TV
cameras out. Everyone laughed. One sharp business person – Mr.
McKenzie called a TV station and explained he was on his way over to
the boy’s house to offer them his tickets and bring them down off
the roof. The TV news director Mr. Blanc immediately saw a story
happening. He ordered a camera crew to meet Mr. McKenzie as he
arrived at the boy’s house.
Did the guy with the tickets get on TV? Yes! Did he look good to
people watching? Yes! Did lots of new customers arrive at his store
the next day to tell him what a great guy he was and buy a few
things? Of course!
ƒ And now imagine that you are Mr. McKenzie. You are going to
tell this exciting story to a major TV channel in the city. Your
interviewer is Mr. Blanc, TV news Director. Your personal goal
during the interview is to mention your store and advertise your
goods. What do you say to Mr. Blanc?
ƒ Your interviewer – Mr. Blanc is going to prepare interesting
material to be the main item in the evening program. Mr. Blanc
needs the interview with Mr. McKenzie very much, however Mr.
Blanc knows very well that Mr. McKenzie will try to promote his
department during the conversation. Mr. Blanc must avoid it.
What will his question be?
ƒ You may either choose one of the following variants of the Role
play or invent your own variant.
73
5. Mr. McKenzie and Mr. Blanc are sitting in the TV studio and
the interview is being broadcasted alive from a major TV
channel.
2. Mr. Blanc is interviewing Mr. McKenzie just after the incident.
Mr. Blanc will have the opportunity to cut out the phrases he
doesn’t like. Mr. McKenzie understands it very well.
ТEXT 8
Coca Cola, Cadbury, McDonald’s, Lux, Colgate, BMW, Viagra and even
Australia’s own Foster’s are among the league of powerful brands
that have worldwide recognition. They are an ingrained 1 part of
people’s consumer memory and thereby 2 can strongly influence
people’s buying behaviour. Their status almost guarantees higher
success in achieving acceptance of new products, preferred shelf
space 3 , unsolicited distributor orders, the perception of higher
quality and premium pricing.
The value of these brands lies in more than the bricks and mortar
and equipment used to manufacture the product. And it is not only
the big players which are coming to recognize how valuable a brand
can be.
A brand, of course, is not simply made up of the brand name, the
associated packaging and the product formula, but also the
trademarks, copyrights 4 and designs which protect these brand
elements.
By protecting their brand, companies can further enhance their
wealth or that of their shareholders. In other words, brand names –
through building a relationship between the brand owner and the
ingrained - глубоко укоренившийся
thereby - таким образом
3
preferred shelf space - наилучшие места на полках магазинов
4
copyright - авторское право
1
2
74
consumer – and other intangible assets create a long-term business
strength that can add tangible long-term value to the business.
It is for this reason that the value of a company can easily exceed its
stated book value or its tangible assets by three to four, or even
more, times. The difference in value between a company’s normal,
tangible assets - land, buildings, equipment, stock – is its intangible
assets or intellectual capital.
Intellectual capital is the sum of everything everyone in an
organisation knows or develops that gives it a competitive edge. It is
the intellectual capital of a company that differentiates it from
another and, in this the Information Age, creates wealth.
Brands and trademarks – along with such things as knowledge,
product formulations, patents, customer relationships – form part of
the package that comprises intellectual capital.
The experience of global 1 giants such as Coca Cola and McDonald’s –
companies which do not manufacture their own product – tells us
that it is more important to own markets than to own factories.
As intellectual capital accounts for more and more of a company’s
value, it will become critical to own market dominant brands and
trademarks. The potential for creating wealth through brands and
trademarks is enormous, but they require the right development,
management and exploitation.
1
global - всемирный, мировой
75
ТEXT 9
БРЕНДА НЕДОЛГАЯ ЖИЗНЬ
или как некоторым удается оставаться на пике моды долгие годы
Психология современного покупателя меняется. Если швейцарские
часы будут в моде еще как минимум сто лет, то йогурт люди во
всем мире чаще всего покупают все время разный.
Современному человечеству, которое желает постоянно меняться,
все успевать и быть на гребне волны 1 , постоянно подавай чтонибудь
новенькое.
Конечно,
есть
предметы
(обычно
это
имиджевые, престижные 2 вещи), для которых имя со столетней
историей – это главное. Например, украшения от «Тиффани». Но в
быту люди все чаще отказываются придерживаться одной и той же
марки
товара.
Да
и
конкуренты
не
дремлют 3 :
зазывают
покупателя, как только могут. Значит, надо «менять лицо».
Для
того,
чтобы
это
сделать
успешно,
нужно
вникнуть
в
психологию. Так, дела концерна Chrysler в середине 90-х шли
неважно. Было решено наладить выпуск новой модели. Какой?
Исследование
показало,
глобализации
и
привычной
что
сверхновых
градации
средний
американец
технологий,
«плохое
–
хочет
хорошее»,
устал
вернуться
чувствует
от
к
себя
беззащитным 4 , но больше всего на свете боится это показать. А
лучшими временами считает Америку 30-х годов. В итоге был
создан
PT
Cruiser
–
исключительно
комфортная
машина,
очертаниями напоминающая автомобили знаменитых гангстеров.
Продавались и специальные наклейки, имитирующие дырки от
пуль. В течение трех лет машина расходилась влет. Как только
продажи начали падать, ее сняли с производства.
быть на гребне волны - to be on a cutting edge
престижный - prestigious
3
не дремать - to be on the alert
4
беззащитный - defenseless, unprotected
1
2
76
Впервые вслух о краткосрочных брендах заговорил израильский
маркетолог Дан Герман. Да, сказал он, такой бренд живет мало,
но зато эффект какой!
Его раскрутка отличается тем, что
рекламная кампания очень активна в начале, зато не имеет почти
никакой поддержки потом. Да и сам бренд не рассчитан на
долгую жизнь.
По данным консалтинговой компании Bain & Co, клиентская база
западных операторов сотовой связи каждые три-четыре года
обновляется. Помогают выжить краткосрочные бренды – новые
тарифы,
которые
обычно
существуют
около
года,
затем
закрываются для подключения. Та же история с марками машин,
моделями
сотовых
телефонов,
молочными
сырками,
компьютерными играми и так далее. Потребители всего этого
дела не успевают скучать.
Наши
кустари,
в
принципе,
первыми
по-своему
освоили
технологию краткосрочных брендов: когда в начале 90-х в моде
было все импортное, а символом красивой жизни считался
‘Adidas’, заветный 1 трилистник 2 глядел даже с таких товаров,
которые владельцу ‘Adidas’ не приснится выпускать даже в
страшном сне. Сегодня в моде, скажем, мультфильм «В поисках
Немо»,
и
человекообразные
рыбки
улыбаются
с
футболок,
карандашей и с детских наборов в McDonald’s. Уйдет мода на
мультик – исчезнут и рыбки.
Правда, иногда краткосрочному бренду везет и его жизнь
продлевается.
Так,
прошедшее
300-летие
Санкт-Петербурга
эксплуатировали многие. Вот и на заводе «Вена» выпустили
праздничное пиво «Триумф». Акцент рекламной кампании был
сделан на то, что эта марка будет продаваться только несколько
месяцев. Но, неожиданно для самих производителей, «Триумф»
стал популярным, и ему было решено продлить жизнь.
1
2
заветный - cherished
трилистник - trefoil
77
CONTENTS
UNIT I................................................................................................................................................1
LESSON ONE .............................................................................................................................1
LESSON TWO.............................................................................................................................4
LESSON THREE .........................................................................................................................6
LESSON FOUR ...........................................................................................................................9
LESSON FIVE ...........................................................................................................................12
LESSON SIX..............................................................................................................................15
LESSON SEVEN........................................................................................................................18
UNIT II.............................................................................................................................................21
LESSON EIGHT........................................................................................................................21
LESSON NINE ..........................................................................................................................28
UNIT III ...........................................................................................................................................36
LESSON TEN ............................................................................................................................36
LESSON ELEVEN .....................................................................................................................39
UNIT IV ...........................................................................................................................................44
LESSON TWELVE.....................................................................................................................44
LESSON THIRTEEN.................................................................................................................49
UNIT V ............................................................................................................................................58
SUPPLEMENTARY READING ................................................................................................58
ТEXT 1 ......................................................................................................................................58
TEXT 2 ......................................................................................................................................60
TEXT 3 ......................................................................................................................................63
ТEXT 4 ......................................................................................................................................64
ТEXT 5 ......................................................................................................................................66
ТEXT 6 ......................................................................................................................................69
ТEXT 7 ......................................................................................................................................71
ТEXT 8 ......................................................................................................................................73
ТEXT 9 ......................................................................................................................................75
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