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Russian Foundation for Basic Research
Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics of Russian Academy of Sciences
Saint-Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation
IMODERN INFORMATION SOCIETY FORMATION:
PROBLEMS, PERSPECTIVES, INNOVATION APPROACHES
XVIII International Conference for Young Researchers
Wave Electronics and its Applications in the Information
and Telecommunication Systems
1–5 June, 2015
St. Petersburg
Proceedings of the international forum
volume 2
Saint-Petersburg, Russia
2015
ББК 32.85
УДК 621.38
Е36
Е36
XVIII International Conference for Young Researchers. Wave Electronics
and its Applications in the Information and Telecommunication Systems:
Preliminary program and abstracts. 1–5 June, 2015, St. Petersburg/
St. Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation,
St. Petersburg, 2015, 53 p.
ISBN 978-5-8088-1000-6
The submissions of the XVIII International Conference for Young Researchers,
reflecting the current state of wave electronics and its applications in information and
telecommunication systems.
Of interest to a wide range of researchers, teachers, graduate students and professionals in the field of acoustooptics and acoustoelectronics.
Editor’s committee:
Bestugin A., Professor, Russia
Kulakov S. Professor, Russia – chairman
Yakimov A., Professor, Russia
ISBN 978-5-8088-1000-6
© Saint-Petersburg State University
of Aerospace Instrumentation (Russia)
XVIII INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE
FOR YOUNG RESEARCHERS
WAVE ELECTRONICS AND ITS APPLICATIONS
IN INFORMATION AND TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
•
CONFERENCE ORGANIZERS
Saint-Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation (SUAI)
Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics of Russian Academy of Sciences (Moscow)
Russian Foundation for Basic Research
•
•
•
•
SPONSORED BY
University of Bergen (Norway), professor M. Postema
JSV «Morion», (Director General J. L. Vorohovsky)
RFFR
SUAI
•
•
3
Organizing Committee:
Bugaev A., Academician
Co-Chairmen, Russia
Co-Chairmen, Russia
%HVWXJLQ$ Professor
.XODNRY63URIHVVRU&R&KDLUPHQ5XVVLD
Organizing Committee Members:
Bely V., corresponded-member of the National Academy of Sciences, Belorussia
Declerq N., Professor, Belgium, France
Yakimov A., Professor, Russia
Besson R., Professor, France
Postema M., Professor, Norway
Nefedov V., PhD, Russia
Balakshy V., Professor, Russia
Voloshinov V., PhD, Russia
Moskaletz O., PhD, Russia
Balyshevа O., PhD, Russia
Nefedov V., Russia
Novikova O., Russia
Kursanova K., Russia
Kazakov V., Russia
Sokolova V., Russia
Working Group:
4
XVIII INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE
FOR YOUNG RESEARCHERS
WAVE ELECTRONICS AND ITS APPLICATIONS
IN INFORMATION AND TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
PRELIMINARY PROGRAM
2 June 2015
9:00 a.m.
OPENING CONFERENCE
Chair – Prof. S.V. KULAKOV (Russia)
SESSION 1 ACOUSTOOPTICS
Chair – Dr. O.D. MOSKALETZ (Russia)
1. REGIONS OF ACOUSTO-OPTIC INTERACTION IN BIAXIAL
CRYSTAL OF ALPHA-IODIC ACID
M.I. Kupreychik. V.I. Balakshy
Lomonosov Moscow State University, Physics Department, Moscow, Russia
e-mail: mir11@aviel.ru
2. ACOUSTO-OPTIC INVESTIGATION OF ACOUSTIC FIELD
STRUCTURE IN CRYSTALS WITH DIFFERENT TYPES OF BULK
WAVE EXCITATION
A.V. Muromets, V.B. Voloshinov
Lomonosov Moscow State University, Physics Department, Moscow, Russia
e-mail: anastasiagirl@mail.ru, volosh@phys.msu.ru
3. OPTIC AND ACOUSTIC WAVES IN CRYSTALS,
METAMATERIALS AND PERIODIC STRUCTURES
V.B. Voloshinov
Lomonosov Moscow State University, Physics Department, Moscow, Russia
e-mail: volosh@phys.msu.ru
5
WAVE ELECTRONICS AND ITS APPLICATIONS IN INFORMATION AND TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
4. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF TELLURIUM GLASSES TO BE
APPLIED IN ACOUSTO-OPTICS
V.S. Khorkin1, V.B. Voloshinov1, L.A. Kulakova2
1
Lomonosov Moscow State University, Physics Department, Moscow, Russia
e-mail: volosh@phys.msu.ru
2
Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, Saint Petersburg, Russia,
e-mail: L.Kulakova@mail.ioffe.ru
5. ACOUSTO-OPTIC FILTERS WITH ARBITRARY SPECTRAL
TRANSMISSION
K.B. Yushkov, V.Ya. Molchanov
National University of Science and Technology MISIS, Moscow, Russia
e-mail: aocenter@misis.ru
6. NONCOLLINEAR BRAGG DIFFRACTION OF BESSEL LIGHT
BEAMS BY ULTRASOUND IN UNIAXIAL GYROTROPIC CRYSTALS
V.N. Belyi1, P.I. Ropot1, S.V., Kulakov2, O.V. Shakin2, G.V. Kulak3, G.V. Krokh3
1
Insitute of Physics of NAS Belarus, Belarus,
e-mail: v.belyi@dragon.bas-net.by
2
Saint-Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation, Russia,
e-mail: oshakin@mail.ru
3
Mozur State Pedagogical University, Mozur, Belarus,
e-mail: g.kulak57@mail.ru
7. CORRELATION ANALYSIS IN THE RADIO AND OPTICAL
RANGE
A.A. Orlov1, D.O. Moskaletz2, O.D. Moskaletz1
1
Saint-Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation,
e -mail: weconf@guap.ru
2
Saint Petersburg State Electrotechnical University
8. TWO-LENS OPTICAL SCHEME AS LINEAR SYSTEM
V.I. Kazakov, O.D. Moskaletz
Saint-Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation,
e -mail: weconf@guap.ru
6
WAVE ELECTRONICS AND ITS APPLICATIONS IN INFORMATION AND TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
2 June 2015
2:30 p.m.
SESSION 2 ACOUSTOELECTRONICS
Chair – Dr. O.L. BALYSHEVA (Russia)
1. ANTIBUBBLES
Kristoffer Johansen1, Spiros Kotopoulis2, Albert T. Poortinga3, Michiel Postema1,4
1
Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway;
2
National Centre for Ultrasound in Gastroenterology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway;
3
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University Eindhoven, Eindhoven, Netherlands;
4
Department of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South
Africa,
e-mail: michiel.postema@uib.no
2. ACTIVE LEAKAGE DECTION BY SEARCHING FOR
ANTIBUBBLES
Kristoffer Johansen1, Spiros Kotopoulis2, Michiel Postema1,3
1
Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway;
2
National Centre for Ultrasound in Gastroenterology, Haukeland University
Hospital, Bergen, Norway;
3
Department of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South
Africa, e-mail: michiel.postema@uib.no
3. NOVEL MULTIPURPOSE, LOW COST, MODULAR,
ULTRASOUND TRANSDUCERS
S. Kotopoulis1, H. Wang2, T. Yddal1,3, S. Cochran2, O.H. Gilja1,4, M. Postema3
1
National Centre for Ultrasound in Gastroenterology, Haukeland University
Hospital, Bergen, Norway;
2
Institute of Medical Science and Technology, University of Dundee, Dundee,
United Kingdom;
3
Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway;
4
Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway,
e-mail: Spiros.Kotopoulis@uib.no
7
WAVE ELECTRONICS AND ITS APPLICATIONS IN INFORMATION AND TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
4. DEVELOPMENT OF TEMPERATURE SENSOR’S BASIC DESIGN
ON THE BASE OF TWO SAW RESONATORS
K.A. Trohimets1, A.P. Tihonov1, J.A. Kuzmova1, S.A. Zhgoon2, A.S. Shvetsov2
1
Joint Stock Company «Radar mms», Saint-Petersburg, Russian Federation;
2
National Research University MPEI, Moscow, Russian Federation,
e-mail: Trohimec_ka@radar-mms.com, Mob. tel.: +7-906-257-09-71
5. NEW MATERIALS AND PROVIDING OF OBJECTS STEALTH
Rudinskiy А.V., Кlenin V.L.
CJSC «SPC «Aquamarin» Saint-Petersburg, Russia,
e-mail:akvamarin@akvamarin-npc.ru
6. THE INVESTIGATIONS OF NEW STRUCTURES OF
ELECTRODES FOR SC-CUT CRYSTALS
A.O. Lozhnikov
PJSC «Omskiy Nauchno Issledovatelskiy Institut Priborostroeniya» (PJSC
«ONIIP»), Omsk, Russia, e-mail: lognikov@gmail.com
7. CONSTRUCTIONAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL PLATFORMS FOR
MODERNIZATION AND MASS PRODUCTION OF THE SAW
DEVICES
S.A. Doberstein
PJSC «Omskiy Nauchno Issledovatelskiy Institut Priborostroenia» (ONIIP),
Omsk, Russia, e-mail: info@oniip.ru
8. DESIGN FEATURES OF HYBRID TUNABLE LADDER TYPE
FILTERS WITH LC AND SAW RESONATORS
I.V. Veremeyev
PJSC «Omskiy Nauchno Issledovatelskiy Institut Priborostroenia» (ONIIP),
Omsk, Russia, e-mail: info@oniip.ru
9. MICROWAVE RESONATOR WITH A BRAGG REFLECTOR
BASED ON MOLYBDENUM AND ALUMINUM FILMS
T.N. Tanskaya1,2, V.N. Zima1, A.G. Kozlov1,2
1
PJSC «Omskiy Nauchno Issledovatelskiy Institut Priborostroenia» (ONIIP);
2
Omsk State University n.a. F.M. Dostoevskiy, Omsk, Russia,
e-mail: info@oniip.ru
8
WAVE ELECTRONICS AND ITS APPLICATIONS IN INFORMATION AND TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
3 June 2015
POSTERS
2:30 p.m.
1. SEM IMAGING OF BIOLOGICAL SAMPLES
A. Zhdanov
University of South Florida, Tampa, USA, e-mail: zhdanov@mail.usf.edu
2. DIFFRACTION OF LIGHT BY ACOUSTO-PHOTOREFRACTIVE
HOLOGRAPHIC GRATINGS IN GYROTROPIC PLANAR OPTICAL
WAVEGUIDES
G.V. Kulak, A.G. Matveeva
I.P. Shamiakin in Mozur State Pedagogical University, Mozur, Belarus, 28 Studencheskaia str., Mozur, 247760, Belarus,
e-mail: g.kulak57@mail.ru
3. WIDEBAND LIGHT DIFFRACTION ON BULK ACOUSTIC WAVES
IN TRIGONAL AND HEXAGONAL CRYSTALS UNDER
ELECTROINDUSED ANISOTROPY
V.N. Belyi1, P.I. Ropot1, G.V. Kulak2, O.V. Shakin3
1
Insitute of Physics of NAS Belarus, Belarus,
e-mail: v.belyi@dragon.bas-net.by;
2
Mozur State Pedagogical University, Mozur, Belarus,
e-mail: g.kulak57@mail.ru;
3
Saint-Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation, Russia,
e-mail: oshakin@mail.ru
4. PHOTOELECTRICAL AND OPTOACOUSTIC PROPERTIES OF
STRUCTURE ZnO – LiNbO3 FROM VISIBLE TO INFRARED RANGE
L. V. Grigoryev1, S. S. Rybin1, V.G. Nefedov2, O.V. Shakin2
1
University ITMO, Saint-Petersburg, Russia; e-mail: grigoryev@oi.ifmol.ru
2
SUAI, Saint-Petersburg, Russia, e-mail: nvg60@mail.ru
5. SPECTROSCOPIC INFORMATION OBTAINING IN OPTICAL
GRATTING SPECTRAL DEVICE
A.S. Paraskun, O.D. Moskaletz
Saint-Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation, SaintPetersburg, Russia,
e-mail: weconf@guap.ru
9
WAVE ELECTRONICS AND ITS APPLICATIONS IN INFORMATION AND TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
6. EVOLUTION OF OPRICAL PULSE IN THE OPTICAL FIBER, AS
BASIS OF SPECTRAL DEVICES
I.A. Osmakov, O.D. Moskaletz
Saint-Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation, SaintPetersburg Russia, e-mail: ilya.osmakov@gmail.com
7. ENERGY TRANSFER IN THE OPTICAL SYSTEM, INCLUDES A
LAYER OF FREE SPACE AND LENSES
S.N. Mosentsov, V.I. Kazakov, O.D. Moskaletz
Saint-Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation, SaintPetersburg, Russia, e-mail: weconf@guap.ru
8. FIBER OPTIC TEMPERATURE SENSORS
D.A. Micheev, L.N. Preslenev
Saint-Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation, SaintPetersburg, Russia, e-mail: weconf@guap.ru
9. THE RESEARCH OF OPTICAL SPECTRAL DEVICES BASED ON
ACOUSTO-OPTIC TUNABLE FILTER REGIMES
G.I. Korol, O.D. Moskaletz
Saint-Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation, SaintPetersburg, Russia, e-mail: weconf@guap.ru
10. DETERMINATION OF POLARIZATION JONES MATRIX OF THE
PROPAGATION MEDIUM
O.D. Moskaletz, A.S. Vershinina
Saint-Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation, SaintPetersburg, Russia, e-mail: weconf@guap.ru
11. DISCRETE REPRESENTATION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC
INTERACTIONS IN THE MICROWAVE BAND
A.N. Yakimov
Saint-Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation, SaintPetersburg, Russia, e-mail: ftor25@mail.ru
12. MONOCRYSTALS FOR SUBSTRATE OF MODERN SAW SENSORS
O. L. Balysheva
Saint-Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation, SaintPetersburg, Russia, e-mail: balysheva@mail.ru
10
WAVE ELECTRONICS AND ITS APPLICATIONS IN INFORMATION AND TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
13. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ENTERPRISES OF DEFENSE
INDUSTRY COMPLEX. THE QUALITY REQUIREMENTS OF THE
MILITARY REPRESENTATIVE OFFICE'S PRODUCTION
L.A .Barabanova
Joint-Stock Company "Research-and-production centre Akvamarin",
e-mail: milab91@bk.ru
14. SPECTRAL PLUME CHARACTERISTICS AND ITS DETECTION
D.A. Kazakov 1, O.D. Moskalez 2
1
Higher secondary school №362; 2Saint-Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation, Saint-Petersburg, Russia, e-mail: weconf@guap.ru
15. ACOUSTOELECTRONIC DEVICE FOR CONTROL THE
INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF OBJECTS
E. V. Kravetc, P. N. Petrov
Saint-Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation, SaintPetersburg, Russia, e-mail: weconf@guap.ru
16. PHOTO DETECTION PROCESS AND POWER SPECTRUM
ESTIMATION OF OPTICAL RADIATION BY THE MULTICHANNEL
RESONANT SPECTRAL DEVICE
A.S. Paraskun, O.D. Moskaletz, M.A. Vaganov
Saint-Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation, SaintPetersburg, Russia, e-mail: weconf@guap.ru
17. ACOUSTOOPTICAL TUNABLE FILTERS IN
TELECOMMUNICATIONS
G.I. Korol, L.N. Preslenev
Saint-Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation, SaintPetersburg, Russia, e-mail: weconf@guap.ru
3 June 2015
5:00 p.m.
CLOSING CONFERENCE
11
WAVE ELECTRONICS AND ITS APPLICATIONS
IN INFORMATION
AND TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
ABSTRACTS
WAVE ELECTRONICS AND ITS APPLICATIONS IN INFORMATION AND TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
ANTIBUBBLES
Kristoffer Johansen1, Spiros Kotopoulis2, Albert T. Poortinga3, Michiel Postema1,4
1
Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway;
2
National Centre for Ultrasound in Gastroenterology, Haukeland University Hospital,
Bergen, Norway;
3
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University Eindhoven, Eindhoven,
Netherlands;
4
Department of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
e-mail: michiel.postema@uib.no
We study the sonication of stable particles that encapsulate a liquid core, socalled antibubbles (see Figure 1). Acoustically active antibubbles can potentially be used
for ultrasound-guided drug delivery.
In this presentation, we derive the oscillating behaviour of acoustic antibubbles
with a negligible outer shell, resulting in a Rayleigh-Plesset equation of antibubble dynamics. Furthermore, we compare the theoretical behaviour of antibubbles to that of
regular gas bubbles. We conclude that antibubbles and regular bubbles are acoustically
active in a very similar way, if the liquid core is less than half the antibubble radius. For
larger cores, antibubbles demonstrate highly harmonic behaviour, which would make
them suitable vehicles in ultrasonic imaging and ultrasound-guided drug delivery.
Figure 1. Optical microscopy image of stable antibubbles with single and multiple cores
15
WAVE ELECTRONICS AND ITS APPLICATIONS IN INFORMATION AND TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
ACTIVE LEAKAGE DECTION BY SEARCHING FOR ANTIBUBBLES
Kristoffer Johansen1,4, Spiros Kotopoulis2, Michiel Postema1,3
Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway;
2
National Centre for Ultrasound in Gastroenterology, Haukeland University Hospital,
Bergen, Norway;
3
Department of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
e-mail: michiel.postema@uib.no
1
An antibubble consists of a liquid droplet, surrounded by a gas, often with an
encapsulating shell [1]. Antibubbles of microscopic sizes suspended in fluids are acoustically active in the ultrasonic range. In this study a Rayleigh-Plesset model for antibubble
encapsulated by a Newtonian viscous fluid shell is presented [2]. Theoretical behavior of
encapsulated antibubbles is compared to that of antibubbles without an encapsulating
shell, free gas bubbles, and encapsulated gas bubbles. Trends in the theoretical radial
dynamics, and generated echoes from a single bubble, are studied for antibubbles with
droplet core sizes in the range 60% – 90% of equilibrium inner antibubble radius. The
resonance frequency, the phase between the incident acoustic wave with respect to both
the radial dynamics and the generated echo, and the presence of higher harmonics, in
both the radial dynamics and the echoes are strongly dependent of the core droplet size.
The contribution from an encapsulating shell is dependent on both the initial radius, and
the shell thickness. At high acoustic amplitudes antibubbles oscillate highly nonlinearly
independent of core droplet size. Hence, antibubbles may be actively searched for in
subsea production facilities to secure active leakage detection.
Figure 1. Schematic drawing of liquid containing and antibubble cosisting
of a droplet core, surrounded by a gas layer and with a thin shell
16
WAVE ELECTRONICS AND ITS APPLICATIONS IN INFORMATION AND TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
REFERENCES
1. S. Kotopoulis, K. Johansen, O.H. Gilja, A.T. Poortinga, M. Postema. Acoustically
Actve Antibubbles. Journal "Acta Physica Polonika A", Vol 127, 2015, p. 11151118.
2. K. Johansen, S. Kotopoulis, M. Postema. Ultrasonically Driven Antibubbles Encapsulated by Newtonian Fluids for Active Leakage Detection. Lecture Notes in Engineering and Computer Science: Proceedings of The International MultiConference
of Engineers and Computer Scientists 2015, IMECS 2015, 18-20 March, 2015,
Hong Kong, p. 750-754.
NOVEL MULTIPURPOSE, LOW COST, MODULAR,
ULTRASOUND TRANSDUCERS
S. Kotopoulis1, H. Wang2, T. Yddal1,3, S. Cochran2, O.H. Gilja1,4, M. Postema3
National Centre for Ultrasound in Gastroenterology, Haukeland University Hospital,
Bergen, Norway
2
Institute of Medical Science and Technology, University of Dundee, Dundee,
United Kingdom
3
Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
4
Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
e-mail: Spiros.Kotopoulis@uib.no
1
The uses of ultrasound have been rapidly increasing since the early 80’s and as
a result, ultrasound-based testing and treatment has become a commonplace worldwide.
Nevertheless the current cost of commercial transducers still remains prohibitive, inhibiting potential exploration in the field of ultrasonics. Here we discuss some new fabrication techniques that allow for extremely low cost, easy-to-make, high power, reliable,
and adaptable ultrasound transducers.
Two types of ultrasound transducers were designed; (a) a high frequency, single and multi-element, harmonic, LiNbO3 devices, and (b) a single element, broadband,
low frequency, PZT based, optically transparent device. Device (a) was built using a
multilayer adhesive stacking technique and large aperture elements. The device was
backed using a glass-balloon/epoxy composite, aimed to enhance the mechanical and
operational stability of the device without impeding on the acoustic power output. Performance was evaluated using radiation force balances, hydrophone measurements, and
ablation efficacy. Device (b) was built in a similar manner as device (a), but consisted of
PZT rings, bonded to glass discs, to create an optical window. No backing material was
used. Performance was also evaluated using radiation force balances & 4D hydrophone
measurements. Output was compared with 4D simulations results.
Figure 1 shows photographs of several of the completed devices. Device (a)
showed strong narrowband but harmonic response, i.e., we were able to use the same
device at resonance and 3rd and 5th harmonics (from 10–55 MHz). Multi-element focused
devices proved to be capable of ablating tissue in <30 s, as shown by thermal MRI meas-
17
WAVE ELECTRONICS AND ITS APPLICATIONS IN INFORMATION AND TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
urements. Several design variation of device (b) were evaluated. Results showed that all
devices were capable of high acoustics pressures that result in ultrasonically induced
interval cavitation in tap water. Small variations in designs had a significant impact on
the acoustic propagation profile as verified by the field scans and simulations. Even
though these devices had no backing, we were able to achieve bandwidths of up to 77%.
Unfortunately these devices were thermally unstable when not actively cooled; hence
sustained high-power operation was not currently possible. Active cooling would solve
this issue.
In conclusion we were able to fabricate several high-power ultrasound transducers with a modular and flexible design at extremely low cost. Our results show that it
is easy to vary the acoustic propagation profile to suit the experimental needs.
Figure 1. Photographs of several low cost, high-power, ultrasound transducers
SEM IMAGING OF BIOLOGICAL SAMPLES
A. Zhdanov, PhD student
University of South Florida,
Tampa, USA
e-mail: zhdanov@mail.usf.edu
Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) uses a focused electron beam as a probe
to scan the surface of a sample. For imaging, samples for the SEM should have a conductive surface to stop buildup of static charge. When scanned, the sample emits secondary
electrons, which are being detected. The energy of the secondary electrons and the location of the beam during the raster scan forms a topographic image on the display.
The problem with biological samples is they are usually nonconductive. Nonconductive samples are likely to accumulate charge when probed by the electron beam.
That causes blurred areas, low resolution and image distortion. To acquire a good image,
nonconductive samples are usually coated with an ultrathin layer of electrically conducting material, such as gold, gold/palladium alloy, tungsten, chromium and carbon.
In this paper we used a single hair coated in gold/palladium as a sample. A thin
layer was deposited on the sample using low-vacuum sputter coating. It was imaged us-
18
WAVE ELECTRONICS AND ITS APPLICATIONS IN INFORMATION AND TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
ing a Hitachi S-800 SEM with accelerating voltage 24kV. Conducting coating allows
seeing distinguished features of the hair such as keratin structures and follicle bulb.
Figure 1. SEM image of a hair follicle coated in gold/palladium
DEVELOPMENT OF TEMPERATURE SENSOR’S BASIC DESIGN
ON THE BASE OF TWO SAW RESONATORS
K.A. Trohimets1, A.P. Tihonov1, J.A. Kuzmova1, S.A. Zhgoon2, A.S. Shvetsov2
1
Joint Stock Company «Radar mms», Saint-Petersburg, Russia
2
National Research University MPEI, Moscow, Russia
E-mail: Trohimec_ka@radar-mms.com
Mob. tel.: +7-906-257-09-71
Currently a lot of different methods of measurement objects temperature are
used. For biomedical applications temperature sensor must work in narrow temperature
range with high accuracy. And it must be wireless.
The general strategies in this work are to develop passive temperature sensor design based on surface acoustic waves. It make possible to develop wireless sensor without needs power supply. Properties of quartz wafer depend from orientation crystallographic axis. In the design of temperature sensor would choose the quartz cut with highest temperature coefficient of frequency. Design of the sensor from two resonators on a
single chip was taken.
Value of temperature coefficient depends from angle resonator’s rotation. A lot
of different cuts of quartz, like Y, YXl/-40°, YXl/-30°, YXl /70°, X-cut, XYl/±14°,
XYl/±32°, XYl/±78° were analyzed. For that cuts resonators were designed and tested.
Design of sensor on the YXl /70°-cut have one resonator on Gulyaev-Bluestein wave and
one – on Rayleigh wave. The measured difference of TCF is about 138 ppm/°C on 70°Ycut.
19
WAVE ELECTRONICS AND ITS APPLICATIONS IN INFORMATION AND TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
NEW MATERIALS AND PROVIDING OF OBJECTS STEALTH
Rudinskiy А.V., Doctor of Engineering, Deputy Director General
Кlenin V.L, Deputy Technical Director
CJSC «SPC «Aquamarin»
Saint-Petersburg, Russia
e-mail: akvamarin@akvamarin-npc.ru
Increasing of objects stealth is the actual problem for militaries, who act in any
environment: ground, ocean and air.
Evidently, that during the solving of the problem of increasing of acoustic
stealth of the submarine from active and passive sonic classifiers via active suppression
of generation of primary and secondary acoustic fields within the range of relatively low
frequencies, utilized transducers and projectors must provide the solution of the problem and constructively be acceptable for submarine hull coating.
The technological basis for the creation of perspective complexes of providing
of acoustic stealth for submarines consists of three parts: creation of new generation of
piezocomposite convertrators, high-speed data transmission facilities and highperformance computers. At the same time, achievements in terms of these convertrators
can be characterized as «breakthrough».
A variety of piezocomposite panels (transducers and actuators), also called “intellectual panels”, with different extent of toughness and geometry for diverse applications in hydroacoustics and in problems of providing of acoustic stealth, was invented by
the US company - Materials Systems Inc. (MSI).
However, up to the present moment there were no attempts in our country to
evaluate the significance of this technology for the problems of hydroacoustics and
providing of objects stealth. As the result, relevant pilot projects were not carried out, the
workpieces are absent.
The same situation is registered with materials that make the bodies invisible
(“Elvish cloak”), for example, metamaterials, i.e., substances, that possess optic features,
that are non-existent in nature. The characteristics of meta-materials are based on their
capability to manage such parameter like «refraction index». If it is possible to manage
the refraction index in the meta-material in such a manner that the light passes around
certain object, then the object becomes invisible.
The generation of such effect is possible only in the cases when the refraction
index in metamaterial is negative, that contradicts to basic principles of optics, which
state that it is impossible. Meanwhile, it has been succeeded to demonstrate the negative
refraction index only for the red light, and it is necessary to continue activities in this
direction and for other colors of spectrum.
As physicists claim, invisibility can become already a prosiness in the nearest
decades or at least to the end of the century.
20
WAVE ELECTRONICS AND ITS APPLICATIONS IN INFORMATION AND TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
SPECTROSCOPIC INFORMATION OBTAINING
IN OPTICAL GRATTING SPECTRAL DEVICE
A.S. Paraskun, Student
O.D. Moskaletz, Candidate of technical sciences, Associate Professor
Saint-Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation, Saint-Petersburg, Russia
e-mail: weconf@guap.ru
The estimating problem of power spectrum in optical range via new type of optical spectral device constructed on the basis of resonance phenomenon in narrow-band
interference filters which performs parallel analysis of the optical spectrum is solved.
Such device is based on phenomenon resonance in narrowband interference filters. Spectral decomposition of the optical radiation is performed by multichannel resonant optical
system. That device includes forming optics, fiber-optic bundle; optical system of narrowband interference filters, each filter is connected in series with the photodetector. One
of main aspects from statistical measurement is power spectrum assessment of stationary
random processes. Optical radiation is the one such process. Therefore, main attention is
given to photodetection and properties of power spectrum resulting estimates. However,
since all channels spectral device are identical, the process for estimation of power spectrum is considered in one channel. Two detection modes of photodetection operations are
considered [1].
The equivalent circuit of the first mode includes a quadratic photodetector and
integrator completed by system of integration result reset. It has been established that the
thus obtained evaluation is good. In the case of the second mode equivalent circuit includes quadratic photodetector and low-pass filter. Thus, this system operates in continuously mode evaluating of power spectrum. The comparison of photodetection on two
modes is completed.
REFERENCES
1. Moskaletz O. D. Classical and quantum approaches to power spectrum measurement by diffraction methods. Proc. SPIE Vol. 3900. 1999. P. 297-308.
EVOLUTION OF OPRICAL PULSE IN THE OPTICAL FIBER,
AS BASIS OF SPECTRAL DEVICES
I.A. Osmakov, Assistant
O.D. Moskaletz, Candidate of technical sciences, Associate Professor
Saint-Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation,
Saint-Petersburg, Russia
e-mail: ilya.osmakov@gmail.com
An optical analogue of the variance-time method of measurement of radio
spectrum [1]. Research technique based on the study of the pulse evolution in the form
21
WAVE ELECTRONICS AND ITS APPLICATIONS IN INFORMATION AND TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
cutting monochromatic optical radiation at it’s propagation in optical fiber as dispersive
system is considered. Ratio between the duration of the input pulse, and differential
group delay in a dispersive system which provides that distorted form of the input pulse
which is proportional to its spectrum is determined. This result defines a complex spectrum spread function of the optical device. That complex spectrum spread function is its
exhaustive characteristic of spectral device. Complex spectrum spread function is the
kernel of the integral operator witch sets the ratio of the input-output spectral device for
complex spectra. In the process of researching the evolution the deviation of pulse distortion of the spread function from the ideal spectral device performing the Fourier transform of the segment monochromatic oscillations is investigated.
Analysis method using a single segment of optical fiber provides a spectrum
non-real-time, which leads to loss of information about the analyzed optical radiation.
For this loss information excluding the question of multi-channel fiber-optic system to
measure the optical spectrum for a long period of time by forming a sequence of short
optical pulses is considered. The optical fiber must have a different length.
Result of the measurement in the optical range is power spectrum of optical radiation. To obtain an estimate of the power spectrum of optical radiation in each optical
fiber channel, which is part of the spectral device, photodetection is applied. After then
the total sum from photodections results is preformed.
REFERENCES
1. V.I. Tverskoy. Precipitation-time measurement methods of radio spectrum. "Soviet
radio". Moscow. 1974.
CORRELATION ANALYSIS IN THE RADIO AND OPTICAL RANGE
1
A.A. Orlov, Student
D.O. Moskaletz, Senior Lecturer
1
O.D. Moskaletz, Candidate of technical sciences, Associate Professor
1
Saint-Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation, Saint-Petersburg, Russia
2
Saint Petersburg State Electrotechnical University, Saint-Petersburg, Russia
e-mail: weconf@guap.ru
2
tion are:
Three variants of the measurement time correlation functions of optical radia-
– multichannel correlation measurements with delay lines in the optical fiber
cuts form;
– refined consideration in the Michelson’s interferometer form correlator;
– correlation measurement on the basis of instantaneous complex spectra
analysis.
Mathematical basis for calculating of correlation functions of pulsed optical radiation on the basis of its instantaneous complex spectrum analysis is given. Corresponding algorithm includes two complex spectrum analyzers measurement, summation,
22
WAVE ELECTRONICS AND ITS APPLICATIONS IN INFORMATION AND TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
squaring, spatial integration. Instantaneous complex spectra are measured by diffraction
spectral devices of optical range.
Algorithm for computing of correlation functions of pulsed optical radiation is
based on the basis of calculating the instantaneous complex spectrum of optical radiation.
These instantaneous spectra can be obtained using diffractive optical spectral devices.
New definition of the instantaneous spectrum is given into account the specifics of measuring diffraction spectral devices.
The estimation of advantages and disadvantages for each option of possible
implementation of measurements time correlation functions of optical radiation is discussed. Method of calculating the correlation function on the basis of analysis of instantaneous spectra is especially important in the context of intense development of physics
and technology of femtosecond pulses.
REFERENCES
1. LANGE F. Correlations electronic. Leningrad. 1963.
ENERGY TRANSFER IN THE OPTICAL SYSTEM, INCLUDES
A LAYER OF FREE SPACE AND LENSES
S.N. Mosentsov, Student
V.I. Kazakov, Junior research assistant, Post-graduate student
O.D. Moskaletz, Candidate of technical sciences, Associate Professor
Saint-Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation, Saint-Petersburg, Russia
e-mail: weconf@guap.ru
Any optical information system is characterized by the size of the input aperture, the length of the layers of space and an aperture lens systems [1, 2].
In terms of the construction, an important issue is the relationship between the
size of the input aperture and aperture lens systems.
We consider a simple optical system comprising:
– input aperture of finite size, which receives optical signal;
– a layer of free space, the influence of whose is determined by Fresnel diffraction;
– lens system with its own finite aperture is larger, than the size of the input
aperture.
This simple optical system is a link in a complex optical information systems.
Known mathematical analysis of optical systems involves the lens system of infinite size.
However, the actual construction of any optical system involves the installation of a lens
system with an aperture of finite size. This gives rise to errors that affect the further processing of the diffracted optical field. Error estimates based on the proportion of optical
radiation, which partially extends beyond the lens system.
The transfer of the optical signal with a finite aperture lens system is expressed
in terms of Fresnel integrals. Mathematical modeling of such a system is bases on the
23
WAVE ELECTRONICS AND ITS APPLICATIONS IN INFORMATION AND TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
decomposition of the Fresnel integrals in asymptotic expansion at large values of the
argument. The results of the calculation is to determine the minimum size of the lens
aperture, while the share of the allowable loss of optical radiation due to the finite size of
the aperture.
REFERENCES
K.I. Tarasov, Spectral instruments. L.: Mechanical engineering. 1968.
Y.M. Belyakov, N.K. Pavlycheva, Spectral instruments. Kazan: Publishing House
Kazan. state tech. Univ.. 2007.
1.
2.
FIBER OPTIC TEMPERATURE SENSORS
D.A. Micheev, Student
L.N. Preslenev, Candidate of technical sciences, Associate Professor
Saint-Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation, Saint-Petersburg, Russia
e-mail: weconf@guap.ru
Fiber optic sensors are used to measure different parameters in many applications. They are lightweight and small in size. They аге immune to electric hindrance and
do not interact with electromagnetic fields. The important advantage is their fire- and
blast- safety. Fiber optic sensors are usually divided on point, distributed and quasidistributed.
In the report fiber optic quasi-distributed sensors are considered. In the measuring equipment of systems of fiber-optical communication a wide circulation has received
optical reflectometer, carrying out fast and exact diagnostics of a fiber-optical highway.
The principle of his action is based on pulse distance measurement reflected or absorbed
optical radiation of object as a part of an optical fiber. Now reflectometer the serial device having rather small dimensions, wide functionality, reasonable cost. Advantage of
the reflectometer is possibility of realization of address system in which structure hundreds the sensitive elements which are carrying out measurement in various points of
object at one device to processing - reflektometer can enter. It is brought devices scheme.
They are considered possible realizations of the detector elements, their value and defects.
In the report realization possibilities quasi-distributed the sensor on the basis of
the reflectometer on temperature and pressure measurement are considered. The estimation of parameters, such as sensitivity and the spatial permission is executed. Preliminary
experimental results are brought. It is used reflectometer FTB-200 firms EXFO with
single mode module on length of a wave λ=1.3 µm. Sensitive element was micro bending the device which was used as an element of pressure or a temperature element of
threshold type.
Other variant of such sensor is a device witch fiber optic reflective Bragg gratings. The reflection wavelength of the grating occurs when the Bragg condition holds.
When the temperature changes near оnе of the fiber Bragg gratings, its central reflective
24
WAVE ELECTRONICS AND ITS APPLICATIONS IN INFORMATION AND TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
wavelength changes. and then at оnе point in the sweep it will match the wavelength of
the light source. Аt this moment а light pulse will bе reflected bу the grating. It will bе
fed to the photodetector through the fiber coupler. Output electrical signal of the photo
detector is considered as а signal of temperature change of grating.
Possibilities of the using of the sensor as well as variants of processing of output signals
are considered. Results of preliminary computer modeling of the sensors are brought.
THE RESEARCH OF OPTICAL SPECTRAL DEVICES BASED
ON ACOUSTO-OPTIC TUNABLE FILTER REGIMES
G.I. Korol, Student,
O.D. Moskaletz, Candidate of technical sciences, Associate Professor
Saint-Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation, Saint-Petersburg, Russia
e-mail: weconf@guap.ru
Optical spectral device, based on acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF), is very
promising to spectral analysis problems solving, where analyzed optical radiation is very
narrow-band emission approximate to monochromatic. Spectral analysis problem is the
optical harmonics resolution and their levels measuring. With particular interest is spectrum spread function width of the spectral device, which determines its resolution. This
spectrum spread function is expressed in terms of Fresnel integrals and contains complex
depending on the following parameters: average frequency and rate of change of frequency control of electrical oscillations, the deviation of frequency of the optical radiation from the average mean of band of analyzed frequencies[1]. These parameters determine the form of spectrum spread function depending on the mode analysis of the optical
spectrums.
.
The purpose of this paper is broad mathematical modeling of the spectrum
spread function of spectral device on the basis of AOTF in various modes of analysis to
solve the problem of optimizing the process of spectral measurements.
REFERENCES
1. G.I. Korol, D.O. Moskaletz, O.D. Moskaletz. Effect of rate of change of frequency
characteristics of the optical spectral device based on acousto-optic tunable filter:
Proc. of SPIE Vol. 9216 92161F-1-11, 2014.
25
WAVE ELECTRONICS AND ITS APPLICATIONS IN INFORMATION AND TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
DETERMINATION OF POLARIZATION JONES MATRIX
OF THE PROPAGATION MEDIUM
O.D. Moskaletz, Candidate of technical sciences, Associate Professor
A.S. Vershinina, post-graduate student
Saint-Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation, Saint-Petersburg, Russia
e-mail: weconf@guap.ru
The propagation medium brings polarization distortions in structure of vector
electromagnetic (EM) signals. It leads to deterioration of signal detection. The polarization structure of signals is completely described by polarization spectrum. Frequency
dependent polarization properties of the propagation medium, according to Jones method, 2х2 look are described by a countable set of Jones matrixes [1]
 I (ω ) I12 (ω ) 
I (ω ) =  11
.
 I 21 (ω ) I 22 (ω ) 
(1)
In turn, polarization structure of an input and output signal are described by a
bounded countable set of Jones vectors:
J
вх , вых
 Sхвх ,вых (ω ) 
(ω ) =   вх,вых  ,
(ω ) 
 S у
(2)
where Jвх,вых(ω) - bounded countable set of Jones vectors of an input and output signals,
вх , вых
Sxвх ,вых , S у
- spectral horizontal wave components of an input and output signals,
spectral vertical wave components of an input and output signals.
For finding of polarization characteristics of the propagation medium it is possible to use the theory of two-port networks. By analogy with method of measurement of
parameters of the two-port network, elements of a polarization matrix are measured as
follows:
I11 (ω ) =
Sхвых (ω )
S вх (ω )
х
S увх (ω ) = 0
,
S вых (ω )
I12 (ω ) = хвх
,
S у (ω )  вх
S х (ω ) = 0
вых
S у (ω )
,
I 21 (ω ) =  вх
S х (ω )  вх
S у (ω ) = 0
26
(3)
(4)
(5)
WAVE ELECTRONICS AND ITS APPLICATIONS IN INFORMATION AND TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
S увых (ω )
.
I 22 (ω ) =  вх
S у (ω )  вх
S х (ω ) = 0
(6)
Expressions (3) – (6) formed the basis of the patent for invention [2].
REFERENCES
1. Vershinina A. Polarization characteristics of the propagation medium /XV International Forum «Modern information society formation - problems, perspectives, innovation approaches»: Proceeding of the Forum. St. Petersburg, 1–5 June/ SUAI,
SPb., 2014.– p. 66-69.
2. Вершинина А.С., Москалец Д.О., Москалец О.Д., Овсов Д.А. Заявка на изобретение «Способ определения поляризационных характеристик среды распространения» № 20131335568/07(050264) от 18.07.2013 г. Положительное
решение о выдаче патента от 07.07.2014 г.
TWO-LENS OPTICAL SCHEME AS LINEAR SYSTEM
V.I. Kazakov, Junior research assistant, Post-graduate student
O.D. Moskaletz, Candidate of technical sciences, Associate professor
Saint-Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation, Saint-Petersburg, Russia
e-mail: weconf@guap.ru
This paper is devoted to investigation of two-lens optical scheme as linear system. Two-lens optical system consists of a series sequentially arranged elements: collimating lens and focusing lens. But compared with double Fourier transform scheme, this
model has important feature: the distance between two lenses is arbitrary.
Some principles of the theory a system approach to the analysis of spatial optical lens systems were applied. Firstly, the relation between input and output of system is
well known and can be written in form:
=
U out ( y )
∞
∫U
in
( x) ⋅ h( x, y )dx,
(1)
−∞
where h( x, y ) – impulse response of system.
Secondly, the whole system can be represented as simple series-connected elements, whose impulse response is certainly known. In case of two-lens system it is: layer
of free space (f); collimating lens (L); layer of free space (z); focusing lens (L); layer of
free space (f). For further analysis, a well-known relation that sets the general impulse
response of two series-connected elements A and B was taken as a basis [1]:
hВА ( x, y )
=
∞
∫ h ( y, ξ) ⋅ h (ξ, x)dξ,
В
A
−∞
where
hВ ( y, ξ), hA (ξ, x) – impulse response of В и А elements respectively.
27
(2)
WAVE ELECTRONICS AND ITS APPLICATIONS IN INFORMATION AND TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
It should be mentioned that this relation uses for dynamic systems. For spatial
systems such transition is based on the use of radio-optical analogies [2], and such analysis is made for the first time for the two-lens optical system.
The main result of our research is establishing input-output relation of two-lens
system. It allows us by using convolution operation of input optical field distribution u(x)
with general impulse response of system to obtain output distribution of field u(y). For
two-lens optical system it can be written as:

β2 
h=
( x, y ) exp(i  y 2 (β − )  ) ⋅ exp(iβx 2 ) ⋅ δ( x + y ),
(3)
μ 

where β = k , μ = k , k = 2π , f – the focal length of the lens, z – the distance beλ
2z
2f
tween lenses, λ – wavelength of optical radiation.
Thus, the obtained ratio depends from several variables: the focal length of the
lens (f) and the distance between lenses (z).
REFERENCES
1. Zadeh L., Desoer Ch. Lynear system theory (The State space approach). – М.:
Nauka, 1970.– 704 p.
2. Papoulis A. Systems and transforms with applications in optic. – М.: Mir, 1971. –
495 p.
DISCRETE REPRESENTATION
OF ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERACTIONS
IN THE MICROWAVE BAND
A.N. Yakimov, Doctor of technical sciences, Professor
Saint-Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation, Saint-Petersburg, Russia
e-mail: ftor25@mail.ru
A rigorous mathematical description of electromagnetic processes in the devices of complex spatial configuration, such as antennas, it is not possible. In this case usually use approximate methods of solving problems of radiation and diffraction of electromagnetic waves. To describe the processes of radiation and electromagnetic interactions in devices prospectively discrete representation, which is in the microwave range
has the specifics. Emitting surface in this range typically have a size much larger than the
wavelength λ , so many methods of diffraction theory for mathematical modeling of
radiation (scattering) it is advisable to use a combination of radial methods of representing fields, laws of physical optics, based on the principle of Huygens-Fresnel and methods of the physical theory of diffraction, taking into account edge effects.
Quality sampling radiating surface largely depends on the shape and dimensions of the elements of the discretization. The best results are obtained when the shape
of these elements is not too different from the ideal equilateral triangles, because of the
28
WAVE ELECTRONICS AND ITS APPLICATIONS IN INFORMATION AND TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
danger of degeneration of the solution, and the size of the sampling rate does not exceed
half a wavelength λ . With smooth radiant surface is replaced by a polyhedral surface
approximation, flat triangular faces.
In accordance with the electrodynamic formulation, the radiating surface S
N
can be represented as a set N of independent elementary parts S i , and S = ∪ Si . The
i =1
components of the total field is obtained by a simple summation of spherical components
of the field Eϕ i and Eθ i each finite element discretization, component Ej j and Eθ j
each edge radiating surface relative to the global coordinate system:
Eϕ =
∑E
i
ϕi
+
∑E
ϕ ϕ
ϕ
,
Eθ =
∑E
i
θi
+
∑E
θ j
.
j
For component scores Eϕ i and Eθ i the best method of Gordon, is sensitive to
the spatial position of nodal points of the model and allows to estimate the characteristic
radiation (scattering) of the triangular element surface along its outline [1]. Components
Ej j and Eθ j most adequately modeled as forming an uneven part of the exciting current in the form of Michaeli [2].
The proposed approach allows to estimate the radiation field of a curved surface, to take into account the electromagnetic interaction of its fragments, as well as to
evaluate the influence of deformations arising from external influences.
REFERENCES
1. Gordon W.B. Far-Field Approximations to the Kirchhoff-Helmholtz Representations of Scattered Fields/ W.B. Gordon // IEEE Trans. on Antennas and Propagat. –
1975. – Vol. AP-23. – No. 4. – P. 590 – 592.
2. Michaeli A. Equivalent Edge Currents for Arbitrary Aspects of Observation/
A. Michaeli// IEEE Trans. on Antennas and Propagat. – 1984. – Vol. AP-32. –
No. 3. – P. 252 – 258.
THE INVESTIGATIONS OF NEW STRUCTURES OF ELECTRODES
FOR SC-CUT CRYSTALS
A.O. Lozhnikov
PJSC «Omskiy Nauchno Issledovatelskiy Institut Priborostroeniya» (PJSC «ONIIP»),
Omsk, Russia
e-mail: lognikov@gmail.com
Double-rotated SC-cut quartz crystals have several advantages relative to AT –
cut resonators: lower value of the force - frequency factor, which noticeably reduces the
effect of temperature fluctuations (both external and due to thermal heating by the excita-
29
WAVE ELECTRONICS AND ITS APPLICATIONS IN INFORMATION AND TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
tion current) on the oscillation frequency; less value of temperature-frequency second
order coefficient in extremum points, which reduces the requirements for temperature
stabilization accuracy; less sensitive to the excitation power; etc. But SC - cut resonators
have some disadvantages: increased sensitivity to the change of pressure inside the case
(change of the Q-factor and frequency), increased difficulty of blanks manufacturing, the
high activity of the temperature oscillation mode, in some cases exceeding the activity of
the main mode of vibration. The last factor causes to complicate excitation circuit and to
introduce additional frequency-dependent elements. This has a negative affects to the
noise parameters, manufacturability and temperature sensitivity of the oscillator.
The aim of this work is to study the influence of the electrode structures of contoured SC-cut resonator to the active resistance of main and temperature oscillation
modes.
In [1, 2] showed that the distribution of surface charge density in the contoured
SC-cut resonators is not centrally symmetric. Based at these calculations was manufactured and measured parameters of few constructions standart – A, and new – B, C, D
(fig. 1).
A
C
B
D
Figure 1. Electrodes structures
Measured results showed that the effect of the asymmetry of the surface current
density is undoubtedly holds and must be considered in the electrode design. Such temperature oscillation mode can be almost completely suppressed (design D), but resistance
of main mode have big value in this case. Proposed in this paper design B (Fig. 1) allows
you to create resonators with partly suppressed B-mode, with resistance of main mode
similar standart construction – A. This gives the ability to not use the resonant circuits in
oscillator [3].
REFERENCES
1. Lepetaev A., Kosykh A., Khomenko I., “Numerically-analytical calculation method
for vibration amplitude distributions of inharmonic modes of double rotated cuts
thickness-shear resonators”, Proceedings, 2007 IEEE Ultrasonics Symp., New
York, USA, 2007. pp. 1393 -1396.
2. Lepetaev A.N., Kosykh A.V., “New method of multy-mode oscillations control in
crystal resonators”, Proceedings, 2012 IEEE International Frequency Control
Symp. Baltimore, MD, USA. May 21-24, 2012, pp. 146 – 149.
3. Lozhnikov A., Lepetaev A., “Experimental investigations of SC-cut resonators with
B-mode reduction”, Proceedings, 2014 IEEE International Frequency Control
Symp. Taipei, Taiwan, 19 – 22 May, 2014, p. 341 – 344.
30
WAVE ELECTRONICS AND ITS APPLICATIONS IN INFORMATION AND TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
CONSTRUCTIONAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL PLATFORMS
FOR MODERNIZATION AND MASS PRODUCTION
OF THE SAW DEVICES IN THE DOMESTIC SMD PACKAGES
S.A. Doberstein
PJSC «Omskiy Nauchno Issledovatelskiy Institut Priborostroenia» (ONIIP),
Omsk, Russia
e-mail: info@oniip.ru
Until the present time the low frequency (LF) 30-80 MHz surface acoustic
wave (SAW) filters were assembled in the cumbersome glass-and-metal dual in-line
packages. These packages are not compatible with surface mount technology. The suggested constructional and technological solutions for the LF SAW filters with a wide set
of the fractional passbands allow the use of the domestic metal and ceramic packages
“Mak-28” (29.0x18.9x4.4 mm) compatible with surface mount technology (SMD packages). The developed designs and manufacture technologies of the LF SAW filters in the
SMD packages provide the fractional passband width of 1.5-8 %, insertion loss of 1–
3 dB, stopband attenuation of 28-60 dB in a frequency range of 30-80 MHz. With the
obtained results a constructional and technological platform has been created for the
modernization and mass production of the 30-80 MHz SAW filters in the large SMD
packages. In prospect, this platform will allow to combine the SAW filters with the electronic devices (amplifiers, switches, etc.) in a single package and to realize an advantage
in the size and performances of the VHF electronic equipment.
Up to now, the high frequency (HF) 150-500 MHz modules with the SAW filters and amplifier are assembled in the outdated SMD packages DLCC 10/10-1 with the
contact pads arranged lengthwise. These packages have the inadequate electromagnetic
isolation and low manufacturability. The suggested constructional and technological
solutions for the HF SAW modules with a wide set of the fractional passbands allow the
use of the new miniature domestic SMD packages QLCC 14/15-1 (15.3x6.45x1.9 mm).
These packages have the butt contact pads allowing to improve the electromagnetic isolation and manufacturability. The developed designs and manufacture technologies of the
HF SAW modules in the new miniatured SMD packages provide the fractional passband
width of 1.5-7%, gain of 10-16 dB, stopband attenuation of 80-90 dB in a frequency
range of 150-500 MHz. With the obtained results a constructional and technological platform has been created for the modernization and mass production of the HF 150-500
MHz SAW modules in the miniature SMD packages allowing to provide a unified series
of the high selectivity SAW preselectors for the front-end of the VHF transceivers. The
created platform gives a possibility to develop the high selectivity switchable SAW preselectors with the frequency tuning up to 100 % using the set of these SAW modules for
the planar, packet or drum configuration with an external electronic switching.
The presented constructional and technological platforms allow to extend a nomenclature
of the domestic electronic component base in the light of the import substitution problem
solution for promising market of the VHF electronic equipment.
31
WAVE ELECTRONICS AND ITS APPLICATIONS IN INFORMATION AND TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
DESIGN FEATURES OF HYBRID TUNABLE LADDER TYPE FILTERS
WITH LC AND SAW RESONATORS
I.V. Veremeyev
PJSC «Omskiy Nauchno Issledovatelskiy Institut Priborostroenia» (ONIIP),
Omsk, Russia
e-mail: info@oniip.ru
Tunable SAW filters used in the front-end of modern multiband communication systems are one of the perspective directions of microelectronics. Among the known
approaches to development of tunable SAW filter, researching of hybrid tunable ladder
type filters [1, 2] is of greatest interest. Tuning frequency band is reached by adjusting
the LC-resonator in one of the arms of the filter, and the SAW resonator in the other arms
remains fixed. Such a multiband filter construction with tuning of frequency band has the
ability to design a desired number of channels (tuning range) and the ability to tune the
center frequency and bandwidth of the filter independently.
This paper discusses the design features of the hybrid tunable ladder filters
based on LC and SAW resonators and methods of increasing their selectivity. SAW resonator has a great influence on the frequency response of a tunable filter. 42º YX LiTaO3
was selected as the material of the SAW resonator substrate for filter with low insertion
loss, high selectivity and good temperature coefficient. Parameters of the topology of the
SAW resonator were optimized in order filter response was as smooth as possible [3].The
experimental results of the optimization of SAW resonators in the frequency range 200400 MHz were presented.
Various configurations of tunable filter are proposed: with the tunable LCresonator in the serial arms and the SAW resonator in parallel arms, and vice versa; combination of different types of sections ladder filter. The influence of the ratio of capacitances of the resonators in the parallel and series arms of the filter selectivity is examined. Effective methods of increasing rejection second channel in the tunable hybrid filter
are considered. The calculated and experimental results of different configurations of the
tunable ladder SAW filter are presented. The 260-329 MHz experimental sample of one
section tunable dual-channel hybrid filter with tuning range > 20%, relative bandwidth of
5.7% shows the insertion loss of 2.5 dB, second channel rejection of 10 dB. To reduce
the insertion loss it is required to use of a high-Q LC-resonator, and to increase the selectivity of the filter it is required to use cascading.
REFERENCES
1. N. Fenzi et al. Proc. IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium. – 2010. - pp. 864-867.
2. V. Veremeyev. Proc. XV International conference for young researches Wave
electronics and Its Application in the Information and Tel. Systems – 2014.
3. O. L. Balysheva et al. Acoustoelectronic devices for signal processing and generation. Principles of operation modeling and development / Edited by Yu. V. Gulyaev
– Moscow, 2012. – pp. 242-258.
32
WAVE ELECTRONICS AND ITS APPLICATIONS IN INFORMATION AND TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
MICROWAVE RESONATOR WITH A BRAGG REFLECTOR
BASED ON MOLYBDENUM AND ALUMINUM FILMS
T.N. Tanskaya1,2, V.N. Zima1, A.G. Kozlov1,2
PJSC «Omskiy Nauchno Issledovatelskiy Institut Priborostroenia» (ONIIP),
2
Omsk State University n.a. F.M. Dostoevskiy, Omsk, Russia
e-mail: info@oniip.ru
1
Thin film bulk acoustic wave resonators with a Bragg reflector are widely used
in wireless communication systems. It is named a Solidly Mounted Resonator (SMR). A
Bragg reflector serves for acoustic isolation of a thin-film transducer from a substrate. It
consists of a system of N pairs of quarter-wave (λ/4) layers with the greater difference
between the acoustic impedances (Z) of these layers. This paper presents the influence of
the surface roughness of thin-film layers and the top electrode area on the electrical characteristics of SMR. The Bragg reflector is formed of five pairs of molybdenum (Mo) and
aluminum (Al) films, for which ZMo/ZAl ≈ 3.7. The transducer consists of the piezoelectric
oxide zinc (ZnO) film and the aluminum electrodes. The thin films of Mo, Al and ZnO
were formed by magnetron sputtering. Fig. 1 shows a cross-sectional SEM image of the
structure of the SMR.
Figure1. The cross-sectional SEM
image of SMR
It was known that the surface roughness of the films influences on the work of
a thin-film SMR [1]. The surface roughness of the films Mo and Al was investigated by
AFM and was evaluated by the standard deviation (Sq). It was established that the standard deviation for Mo films is less than 2 nm while for Al and ZnO films it is less than
4 nm. The total surface roughness of the SMR structure was Sq = 15 nm. Fig. 2 presents
the measured electrical characteristics of SMR. The maximum value of conductance (G)
SMR is 10.4 mS at 2.91 GHz (Fig. 2(a)). The frequency dependence of electrical impedance module of SMR has series resonance at 2.91 GHz and parallel resonance at
2.92 GHz (Fig. 2(b)). Quality factors (Q) of the SMRs were equal to 300-350. The Butterworth Van Dyke model, which describes the work of SMR, was considered [2]. By the
result of measurements of Q, G, Z the equivalent parameters, which are static capacitance
(C0), motional resistance (Rm), motional inductance (Lm) and motional capacitance (Cm),
were calculated. Their values are presented in Table 1. The changes of top electrode area
(Sel) 4 times lead to the changes of equivalent parameters 3 – 4 times.
33
WAVE ELECTRONICS AND ITS APPLICATIONS IN INFORMATION AND TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
Figure 2. The frequency dependences of conductance and susceptance (B) curves (a),
electrical impedance module (b) SMR
Table 1
Sel, mm2
(f0=2,85 GHz)
0.01
0.0225
0.04
C0, pF
Rm, Ohm
Lm, nH
Cm, fF
Q
0.78
1.75
3.03
161
73
29
676
432
218
4.60
7.38
14.43
351
306
350
The presented results show the perspective of using the Bragg reflectors based
on molybdenum and aluminum films in SMR.
REFERENCES
1. C.J. Chung et al. IEEE Trans. Ultrason., Freq. Contr., V.54, №4, 2007, pp. 802-808.
2. D. Chen et al. Sensors and Actuators A. V. 165, 2011, pp. 379-384.
ACOUSTO-OPTIC FILTERS
WITH ARBITRARY SPECTRAL TRANSMISSION
K.B. Yushkov, V.Ya. Molchanov
National University of Science and Technology MISIS, Moscow, Russia
e-mail: aocenter@misis.ru
Acousto-optical filter (AOF) is usually considered as a tunable monochromator
which is driven with single-frequency RF signal. Multiple transmission windows of
AOFs can be obtained using multi-frequency RF control signals, however the performance of that method is restricted because of intermodulation products. We developed a
novel method for synthesis of arbitrary spectral transmission functions of AOFs. The
essence of the method consists in making the spectral transmission function complexvalued and further calculating RF waveform that provides the desired spectrum. As well
34
WAVE ELECTRONICS AND ITS APPLICATIONS IN INFORMATION AND TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
as all AOFs have limited temporal windows and only finite waveforms can be synthesized by the driver, it is assumed that the RF waveform has a fixed duration τ0.
We consider the problem of arbitrary transmission function synthesis as follows: the user defines any real-valued nonnegative transmission function T(λ) on a wavelength interval [λmin, λmax], i.e. the spectral intensity at the output of the AOF equals to
Iout(λ) = Iin(λ)T(λ), where it is assumed that T(λ) < 1. Using the tuning relationship of the
AOF λ(F), correspondent RF spectrum equals to H(F) = T(λ(F))1/2. The complex spectrum of the RF waveform is defined as [1]:
S(F) = H(F)exp[iπ(F–F0)2τ0/∆F],
where F0 and ∆F are the central frequency and the full width of the AOTF tuning range
corresponding to the interval [λmin, λmax]. The complex-valued RF waveform s(t) is calculated as a discrete Fourier transform of S(F). The magnitude of s(t) stands for amplitude modulation of the RF waveform, while the argument of s(t) stands for phase modulation. Quadratic argument of S(F) results in quasi-linear frequency modulation of the RF
waveform. The proposed method can be also used for spectral equalization of the emission. The transmission function can be defined as T(λ) ~ Iin(λ)–1M(λ), where M(λ) is the
spectral modulation function. Thus, the output spectrum is proportional to the product of
rectangular window function and M(λ).
For the experimental studies we used a quasi-collinear paratellurite AOF and a
Ti:sapphire femtosecond laser as a source of broadband emission. The AOTF was driven
with an arbitrary waveform generator and the RF waveforms were calculated as described above. In Fig. 1, the sequence of output spectra is shown. First, the transmission
was defined as a rectangular window, and Iout(λ) ~ Iin(λ). Second, the output spectrum
was equalized so that Iout(λ) = const on an interval [λmin, λmax]. Third, the equalized spectrum was coded with a pseudo-random binary sequence.
Figure 1. Spectral equalization and modulation of emission with an AOF:
(a) spectral transmission function T(λ); (b) output emission spectrum Iout(λ)
Experimental plots in Fig. 1 show that after one iteration of spectral equalization the variation of output intensity was less than 1.5 dB whereas the input spectrum
varied over 13 dB on the same wavelength interval. Further binary modulation retained
the flatness of the output spectrum. Spectral resolution of the AOF with dispersive controlling can be made using modulation transfer function in spectral domain [2].
The proposed method for running AOFs with arbitrary transmission function is
an advanced technique of spectral light processing, usable both for coherent and incoher-
35
WAVE ELECTRONICS AND ITS APPLICATIONS IN INFORMATION AND TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
ent broadband emission. Sophisticated spectral functions can be useful in many applications such as matched filtering or spectral encoding.
REFERENCES
1. V.Ya. Molchanov and K.B. Yushkov, Opt. Express 22, 15668 (2014).
2. K.B. Yushkov and V.Ya. Molchanov, Opt. Lett. 38, 3578 (2013).
MONOCRYSTALS FOR SUBSTRATE OF MODERN SAW SENSORS
O. L. Balysheva, Candidate of technical sciences, Associate professor
Saint-Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation, Saint-Petersburg, Russia
e-mail: balysheva@mail.ru
Miniature passive SAW sensors are widly used in modern systems of environmental monitoring and technical objects, security systems and logistics, the system of
protection of human health. The increased interest in SAW sensors is caused by the development of high temperature (above 300–500ºC) wireless measurements.
The choice of constructive materials and especially the choice of piezoelectric
substrate are very important for technical characteristics of the sensors. The choice of
substrate material depends on the type and purpose of the sensor, its structure, usage
conditions and the operating frequency.
This report presents a list of requirements applied to substrates for different
types of SAW sensors. The review of modern monocrystals substrates is given. Monocrystals of the langasite family and latest investigation results of the temperature characteristics and substrate long-term stability are discussed.
THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ENTERPRISES
OF DEFENSE INDUSTRY COMPLEX.
THE QUALITY REQUIREMENTS
OF THE MILITARY REPRESENTATIVE OFFICE'S PRODUCTION
L. A. Barabanova, post-graduate student, quality engineer
JSC "Research-and-production centre Akvamarin" Russia, Saint-Petersburg
e-mail: milab91@bk.ru
Accelerated technological development of the Defense Industry complex is the
necessary condition of the decision of the problems, facing Russia in the field of Defense
and safety.
36
WAVE ELECTRONICS AND ITS APPLICATIONS IN INFORMATION AND TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
The purpose of the development of the Defense industry complex till 2025 is
equipping of the Military forces and other security agencies with new samples and types
of weapons, military and special equipment.
Defense industry complex has special place in Russian economics. It provides
30% of gross production in machine industry, 45% of the machine-technical export. This
complex involves 1300 enterprises and organizations, it accumulates big intellectual
capabilities, concentrates the most modern technologies. All this must provide safety of
Russia up to the mark and the development of our economics on the whole.
The quality of the arming and military technologies is one of the main factors,
influencing on fighting capability of any army. The problems of the decline in the quality
of Russian arms and military technologies appeared in recent years.
One of the special aspects of the quality control on the enterprises of the Defense industry complex is the Military representative office's capture.
It is necessary to have military representatives on such enterprises, which will
control all the production cycle.
The report will consider the problems of the coordination of the Military representatives and Complex's enterprises based on the requirements of the guidelines and
military standards.
DIFFRACTION OF LIGHT BY ACOUSTO-PHOTOREFRACTIVE
HOLOGRAPHIC GRATINGS
IN GYROTROPIC PLANAR OPTICAL WAVEGUIDES
G.V. Kulak, doctor of phisics-mathematical science, Professor
A.G. Matveeva, post-graduate student
I.P. Shamiakin in Mozur State Pedagogical University, Mozur, Belarus
e-mail: g.kulak57@mail.ru
The surface photorefractive (PR) holographic gratings are widely used for creating the systems of optical information recording and reading [1]. Recording and reading of PR gratings in gyrotropic cubic crystals upon interacting of light waves with different frequencies diffracted by running volume ultrasonic waves (USWs) in an alternating electrical fields by the synchronous-detection mechanism was considered in [2, 3].
The peculiarities of the technology for construction the waveguide structures from sillenite-type crystals have been published in [4].
In the present work, we study the recording of surface photorefractive holographic gratings (HGs) in photorefractive cubic crystals upon interference of light beams
formatted as a result of Bragg diffraction by surface acoustical waves (SAW) in an alternative electric field according to the synchronous detection mechanism. Reading of the
recorded acousto-photorefractive holographic gratings was studied in the intermediate
diffraction regime closed to the Bragg diffraction.
In the region of the intersection of the based waveguide modes of planer optical
waveguides a space-time light-intensity distribution is formed with modulation depth
37
WAVE ELECTRONICS AND ITS APPLICATIONS IN INFORMATION AND TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
changing with USW frequency Ω according to a harmonic low. Under the conditions
described static PR grating can be recorded only with creation in the crystal of an alter-


nating electric field strength vector E e of which changes along grating wave vector K
with frequency equal to the frequency difference of recording beams (frequency

Ω ~| K | ). It is shown that the diffraction efficiency decreases with increasing τ due to a
decrease in PR grating field strength Esc determined by drift strength Eµ [3].
Numerical calculations of the relative intensity of light diffracted into the +1
order have been performed for bismuth silicate crystal (Bi12SiO20) using the system of
coupled wave equations [3]. We studied the dependences of relative diffracted light η+1
on recorded Rayleigh SAW intensity Ia at different amplitudes of external alternating
electric field strength E0e . All the possible cases of polarizations of the recording and
reading light based waveguides modes are considered.
It is shown that, using gyrotropic and nongyrotropic (for example gallium arsenide crystals) PR crystals, it is possible to record and read SAW signals by a holographic
method in an external alternating electric field by the synchronous detecting mechanism
with moderate SAW power and reasonable strengths of external higher-frequency electric fields in the pulsed regime. At the lowest SAW intensity, the maximum diffraction
efficiency is achieved in the case of TM 0 → TM 0 regime of recording and reading
HGs. For other regimes, i. e. TM 0 → TE0 , TE0 → TE0 , TE0 → TM 0 the diffraction
efficiency is lower then for TM 0 → TM 0 regime. At optimal polarization conditions for
recording of a holographic grating, the maximum diffraction efficiency is less for gyrotropy crystal then for nongyrotropy crystals. This peculiarities are connected with non-

homogeneous distribution of HG amplitude across the wave vector K in gyrotropic
crystal and more smooth grating for nongyrotropic crystal.
Taking into account that the sillenite type crystals, in contrast to the other materials, have a higher sensitivity to the recording light and simultaneously are reversible for
holographic recording the SAW information signal.
REFERENCES
N.I. Burimov, S.M. Shandarov // Fiz. Tverd. Tela. 2006. V.48, No3. PP.491 – 496.
G.V. Kulak // Pis’ma Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 2001. V.27, No 13. PP. 22 – 29.
G.V. Kulak, A.G. Matveeva // Opt. and Spectroscopy // 2013. V. 115, No 3. PP.
445 – 448.
4. V.M. Abusev, E.N. Leonov, A.A. Lipovskii and et. al. // Techn. Phys. Lett. 1988.
V. 14, No 17. PP. 1555 – 1560.
1.
2.
3.
38
WAVE ELECTRONICS AND ITS APPLICATIONS IN INFORMATION AND TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
NONCOLLINEAR BRAGG DIFFRACTION
OF BESSEL LIGHT BEAMS BY ULTRASOUND
IN UNIAXIAL GYROTROPIC CRYSTALS
V.N. Belyi, doctor of physico-mathematical sciences, Professor
P.I. Ropot, candidate of physico-mathematical sciences, Associated Professor
Insitute of Physics of NAS Belarus. Belarus, Minsk
e-mail: v.belyi@dragon.bas-net.by
S.V. Kulakov, doctor of technical sciences, Professor
O.V. Shakin, doctor of technical sciences, Professor
Saint-Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation, Saint-Petersburg, Russia
e-mail: oshakin@mail.ru
G.V. Kulak, doctor of physico-mathematical sciences, Professor
G.V. Krokh, post-graduate student
I.P. Shamiakin in Mozur State Pedagogical University, Mozur, Belarus
e-mail: g.kulak57@mail.ru
Light beams in the form of Bessel function of the zeroth and higher orders have
attracting considerable interest for second harmonic generation and parametric frequency
conversion [1]. The possibility of the polarization-independent acoustooptical (AO) light
diffraction in paratellurite (TeO2) crystals on the slow shear ultrasonic wave have been
investigated theoretically [2]. А novel acoustooptic holography system has been demonstrated by the generation of optical Bessel beams of different orders in cylindrical acoustical resonators [3].
In this work the features of the acoustooptical diffraction of Bessel light beams
(BLB) propagating near the optical axis of the uniaxial gyrotropic paratellurite and quartz
(α-SiO2) crystals are investigated theoretically and experimentally. It is shown that in a
paratellurite and quartz crystals polarization-independent modulation of BLB is possible,
i. e. Bragg diffraction efficiency is independent of the polarization state of the incident
beam. It has stated that the physical reason of such modulation is simultaneous realization of two processes of anisotropic diffraction under which Bragg synchronism conditions are realized for orthogonally polarized elliptical Bessel beams. Using the equations
of coupled waves and method of overlap integrals the dependencies of the diffraction
efficiency on the acoustooptical length, ultrasonic power and polarization state of incident Bessel light beams are investigated. The experimental modal of the polarizationindependent modulators are realized on the base of TeO2 and α-SiO2 crystals.
Polarization-independent AO modulation of the nondiffracted BLB of infrared
spectral range, traveling at the vicinity of tellurium optical axis on the slow shear ultrasonic waves is investigated theoretically. It is shown that under any ultrasonic intensity
for XZ-cut of tellurium crystals it taken place slight dependence of diffraction efficiency
of BLB from the light polarization. Polarization-independent modulation of BLB under
the Bragg diffraction by ultrasound in YZ crystal plane on the shear ultrasonic wave polarized under -630 to Z axis in a YX plane is established.
The total theoretical model of light diffraction in intermediate regimes have
been formulated and analyzed theoretically under conditions of light diffraction on the
39
WAVE ELECTRONICS AND ITS APPLICATIONS IN INFORMATION AND TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
shear ultrasonic waves. The dependences of the relative intensities different diffraction
orders from ultrasonic intensity, length of the AO interaction and polarization incident
light azimuth is investigated. It is shown that relative intensities of the different diffraction orders for quartz is significantly less then that for a paratellurite crystal. For intermediate regime closed to the Bragg one the diffracting efficiency experience polarizationindependent diffraction also.
REFERENCES
1. V. N. Belyi, N.S. Kazak, N.F. Khilo // Opt. Commun. 1999. V. 162. PP. 169 – 176.
2. V. N. Belyi, G.V. Kulak, G.V. Krokh, O.V. Shakin // J. of Appl. Spectrosc. V. 81,
No 1. PP. 83 – 88.
3. A. Grinenko, M.P. MacDonald, C.R.P. Courtney et. al. // Optics Express. 2014. V.
23, No 1. PP. 26 – 32.
WIDEBAND LIGHT DIFFRACTION ON BULK ACOUSTIC WAVES
IN TRIGONAL AND HEXAGONAL CRYSTALS
UNDER ELECTROINDUSED ANISOTROPY
V.N. Belyi, doctor of physico-mathematical sciences, Professor
P.I. Ropot, candidate of physico-mathematical sciences, Associated Professor
Insitute of Physics of NAS Belarus. Belarus, Minsk
e-mail: v.belyi@dragon.bas-net.by
G.V. Kulak, doctor of physico-mathematical sciences, Professor
I.P. Shamiakin in Mozur State Pedagogical University, Mozur, Belarus
e-mail: g.kulak57@mail.ru
O.V. Shakin, doctor of technical sciences, Professor
Saint-Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation, Saint-Petersburg, Russia
e-mail: oshakin@mail.ru
Among the known acoustooptical (AO) deflection devices, diffraction deflectors possessing high resolution and fast action occupy a special place [1]. The majority of
deflector applications requires the use of high frequency modes of AO diffraction on
shear (us) and longitudinal (ul) ultrasonic (US) waves [2, 3]. The antiphase highfrequency voltage applied onto the electrodes of interdigital transducers (IDTs) with
period (number) d (N) make it possible to excite higher-frequency bulk US waves (us,l)
on which AO diffraction occurs. We study diffraction of light on ultrasonic waves, excited by a system of IDTs, in uniaxial crystals. We show that wideband acoustooptical diffraction in trigonal and hexagonal crystals in the presence of additional electroindused
anisotropy differs significantly from the diffraction in the absence of it. We establish that
an exact Bragg angle correction in a wide frequency tuning range is achieved owing to
electrically induced anisotropy in the external electric field. It is noteworthy that in the
deflector, exact self-tuning at the Bragg angle is achieved based on electroindused anisotropy. As well, for additional normalized anisotropy [3]: ∆n = F , where
40
WAVE ELECTRONICS AND ITS APPLICATIONS IN INFORMATION AND TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEMS

∆n = no2l 0lf 02 reff Ee / υ2s , F = ( f − f 0 ) / f 0 and f 0 is the central US frequency of
AO deflector, f is the US frequency, λ is the light wave length, ~
υ is the phase ves
0
locity of US wave taking into account piezoelectrical effect,
no
is the ordinary refrac-
tion index, Ee is the external electrical field strength, l is the length of AO interaction,
reff is the effective electrooptical constant. The bandwidth of deflector on the basis of
trigonal LiNbO3 crystal reaches the value of ∆f = 700 MHz under following parameters: Ee=11,2 kV/cm; l=1cm, f 0 = 1,75 GHz , λ0=0,63µm in the conditions of longitudinal electrooptical effect when reff=r22. For deflector on the basis of hexagonal ZnO crystal
the bandwidth reaches the value of ∆f = 456 MHz under following parameters:
Ee=6,5 kV/cm, l=1cm, f 0 = 1,14 GHz , λ0=0,63µm in the conditions of transversal electrooptical effect when reff=r13.
REFERENCES
1. V.I. Balakhii, V.N. Parygin, L.E. Chirkov. Physical Principls of Acousto-optics.
Radio i Svyas’. Moscov. 1985. 280 P.
2. D. P. Volik, V. V. Razdobud’ko // Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 2009. V. 79, No 6. PP. 124 – 128.
3. Anisimova A.E., Kulak G.V.//Opt. and Spectrosc.//2011. V.110, No2. PP.302 – 305
PHOTOELECTRICAL AND OPTOACOUSTIC PROPERTIES OF
STRUCTURE ZnO – LiNbO3 FROM VISIBLE TO INFRARED RANGE
L.V. Grigoryev, S.S. Rybin
University ITMO, Saint-Petersburg, Russia
V.G. Nefedov, O.V. Shakin
Saint-Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation, Saint-Petersburg, Russia
e-mail: grigoryev@oi.ifmol.ru
The development of modern telecommunication facilities is based on new
components for equipment systems and communication networks. Unlike silicon VLSI
technology which is leading in information processing systems, electronics based on
semiconductor – ferroelectric structures offering the best potential in the direction of
increasing the speed and bandwidth of communication systems, including fiber-optic
systems. In addition, semiconductor – ferroelectric heterostructure comes the basis for
design of elements of modern acoustoelectronics and acousto-optics. Acousto-electronic
and acousto-optical devices allow complex signal processing in real time with a large
dynamic range and high noise immunity, low power consumption and have a small
weight and size unique characteristics. They are used in acousto sensors of temperature,
pressure, gas composition, acceleration, systems identification of objects and personalize
41
WAVE ELECTRONICS AND ITS APPLICATIONS IN INFORMATION AND TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
access. Also, semiconductor – ferroelectric thin film structures used to create acoustooptic filters, modulators, compressors in an integrated optical performance and are compatible with existing fiber-optic communication lines and fiber lasers.
We need to develop technology to create thin-film ferroelectric ZnO with good
photovoltaic and acoustoelectric properties for creation elements of acoustoelectronics
and acousto-optic in an integrated optical performance. In order to reach these aims it is
necessary to improve the technology of creation ZnO – ferroelectrics thin films by laser
ablation, as well as optimize the technology of ion-plasma synthesis of ZnO on the surface of the ferroelectric film. We also need to improve the technology of creation ZnO –
ferroelectric structures using a monocrystal substrate of LiNbO3.
This paper presents experimental results of a study of photoconductivity and
photocapacitance of nanostructured ZnO film – monocrystal LiNbO3 system. Thin films
of nanostructured ZnO were synthesized by ion-plasma sputtering of a metal target in an
atmosphere of strong oxidant gas. [1, 2]. The temperature dependence of photoconductivity measuring were conducted in the temperature range 100 - 600 K in the spectral range
300 - 3000 nm have established form of the distribution of traps on the activation energy
and the value of their capture cross section. Photostimulated capacity research was conducted in frequency range from infra-low frequency to high frequency (10 MHz –
120 MHz) allowed to establish the form and the surface charge density, located in the
surface region of the semiconductor located near the interface semiconductor - ferroelectric.
Studies the structure of semiconductor-ferroelectric demonstrated the possibility of using them to create acousto-optic and acousto-electronic devices in an integrated
optical performance and are compatible with existing fiber-optic communication lines
and fiber lasers.
REFERENCES
1.
Е. С. Бочкарева, В. Г. Нефедов, О. В. Шакин. Формирование поликристаллических пленок ZnO ионно-плазменным методом для МДП-фотоэлектрических приборов УФ диапазона.// Датчики и системы, 2015, №2,
с. 15-18.
2.
Л. В. Григорьев, В. Г. Нефедов, О. В. Шакин, А. В. Михайлов, Е. Н. Елисеев,
Иcследование структурных оптических свойств поликристаллических пленок оксида цинка, полученных ионно-плазменным методом.// Оптический
журнал, 2015, т. 82, №5, с 66-70.
42
WAVE ELECTRONICS AND ITS APPLICATIONS IN INFORMATION AND TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
SPECTRAL PLUME CHARACTERISTICS AND ITS DETECTION
D.A. Kazakov1, O.D. Moskalez 2
Higher secondary school №362, Saint-Petersburg, Russia
2
Saint-Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation,
Saint-Petersburg, Russia
e-mail: weconf@guap.ru
1
One of the major problems of the present time, the near and distant future is a
global problem of fire and environmental safety, it has huge economic and social importance. The problem of fire and ecological security is a multifaceted and highly
knowledge-intensive, it requires a complex approach based on the versatile research.
One of the most important ways of fighting fires is the creation of instruments for early
detection of fires, which are characterized by different factors: the appearance of
smoke, heat propagation in solids, the emergence of electromagnetic radiation in a very
broad range of frequencies, the allocation of specific gas components, the appearance
of acoustic emission, the changing characteristics of the flow of gas-air mixture.
The diversity of factors of a fire requires the construction of instrumentation for
detection of fire based on various physical phenomena and effects.
The flame generates electromagnetic radiation, which is characterized by pronounced ”bursts “ in the wavelength ranges 2.8; 4.2; 4.4 nm.
In this work as a physical principle of spectral equipment uses the resonance
phenomenon, and its implementation is considered as a unit, consisting of three cavities,
each tuned for long waves 2.8; 4.2; 4.4 nm.
For transmission of flame radiation using fiber optic line.
Figure 1 shows the possibility of application of optical spectral devices [1] for
the solution spectrum of flame radiation
Figure 1. Block diagram of the flame detection
The structure of the proposed detector includes: L – focusing lens; 2 – photodetector; R(1, 2, 3) – resonators; S.N. – sound notification; OF – optical fiber wiring.
REFERENCES
1. Vaganov M. A. abstract of Cand. Diss. Resonance contactless method of analysis of
optical spectra and technique for solving problems of control of combustion processes. St. Petersburg 2014.
43
WAVE ELECTRONICS AND ITS APPLICATIONS IN INFORMATION AND TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
ACOUSTOELECTRONIC DEVICE FOR CONTROL
THE INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF OBJECTS
E. V. Kravetc, P. N. Petrov
Saint-Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation, Saint-Petersburg, Russia
e-mail: weconf@guap.ru
Аcoustoelectronic signal processing devices with scaling of speed signal propagation for ultrasonic nondestructive control is considered in this paper. Specific range of
problems solved by these devices affects their topology and parameters: a range of operating frequencies, bandwidth and range of working distances, the resolution in the angle
and distance, focus on range [1].
There are much in common in the problems of development control devices of
the internal structure of objects in spite of the different areas and the specifics of their
application. We restrict ourselves to the device to control the structure of objects in the
coordinates of the corner-distance (so-called B-scan mode) [2]. In this case, the main
difficulty is to provide a high resolution in the near field of the antenna array. Acoustoelectronic devices with temporal compensation can be used to solve this problem. For
these devices, the resolution of the distance is not related to the wave size of the aperture
of the antenna array, as in the phase compensation devices [3].
Angular resolution at formation of ultrasound images is determined by the aperture of the antenna and the distance resolution is determined by the frequency range of
the signal. In forming the ultrasound images by acoustoelectronic devices of this type
angular resolution is determined by the aperture antenna arrays and distance resolution
band signal. The paper suggested acoustoelectronic device for control of the internal
structure of the objects allows to process broadband signals, both in the near and far-field
AR with high angular resolution and distance.
This work was supported by the Russian Federation President Project № 15-07-04720.
REFERENCES
1. Системы акустического изображения. Пер. с англ. / Под ред. Уэйда. Л.: Судостроение, 1981. 240с.
2. Ремизов, А.Н. Медицинская и биологическая физика / А.Н. Ремизов. М.:
Высш. шк., 1996. 607 с.
3. Kravetc, E. V. Expansion bandwidth of acoustoelectronic signal processing devices
for linear antenna arrays / E. V. Kravetz // XV international conference for young
researchers. Wave Electronics and Its Applications In Information and Telecommunication Systems. St. Petersburg. 2012. P. 39.
44
WAVE ELECTRONICS AND ITS APPLICATIONS IN INFORMATION AND TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
REGIONS OF ACOUSTO-OPTIC INTERACTION
IN BIAXIAL CRYSTAL OFALPHA-IODIC ACID
M.I. Kupreychik, student
V.I. Balakshy, professor
Lomonosov Moscow State University, Physics Department, Moscow, Russia
e-mail: mir11@aviel.ru
Presently different crystalline materials are usually employed at designing
acousto-optic (AO) devices, such as paratellurite (TeO2), lithium niobate (LiNbO3),
quartz (SiO2), lead molybdate (PbMoO4), germanium (Ge), calomel (Hg2Cl2), etc. [1] All
these materials are either optically isotropic or belong to the uniaxial class. However
biaxial crystals are of undoubted interest as well, in spite of great difficulties of their
calculations. One of these biaxial crystals is alpha-iodic acid ( α − HIO3 ) which was a
subject of research in this work.
Acoustic and acousto-optic characteristics of this crystal have been investigated
only for directions along crystallographic axes [2]. The aim of this work was a comprehensive study of the crystal in order to determine the optimal geometry of AO interaction. Most attention is given to the anisotropic diffraction which occurs with the change
of the optical mode [1]. Necessary values of elastic and photo-elastic coefficients were
taken from the literature [2].
One of the main characteristics of the AO interaction is the frequency dependence of the Bragg angle. Great variety of these dependences (in comparison with uniaxial
crystals) makes it possible to choose optimal cuts at creating AO devices. Interesting
results are obtained when the AO interaction plane forms a small angle with the plane
XZ, wherein the optical axes lie. The case, when the direction of ultrasound is almost
normal to one of the optical axes and the incident and diffracted light beams propagate
near the optical axis, are of special interest. In this case frequency dependences of the
Bragg angles are strongly deformed. The calculations fulfilled have allowed us to find
areas that are very convenient for creation of wide-aperture filters and deflectors.
When light falls at the Bragg angle, the phase matching condition is satisfied
and the maximum diffraction efficiency is reached. However it is also important to know
permissible frequency and angular ranges where the diffraction efficiency falls no greater
than by 3 dB. In the course of this work we have created an original program for calculating AO interaction regions for arbitrary cuts of biaxial crystals. Using this program one
can easily produce optimization of AO cell parameters that is necessary at designing AO
devices.
This study was supported by the Russian Scientific Fund, project 14-12-00380.
REFERENCES
1. V.I. Balakshy, V.N. Parygin, L.E. Chirkov "Physical bases of acousto-optic" Radio
and communication, 1985.
3. D.A. Pinnow, R.W. Dixon // Appl. Phys. Lett. 1968. V. 13. № 4. P. 156.
45
WAVE ELECTRONICS AND ITS APPLICATIONS IN INFORMATION AND TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
OPTIC AND ACOUSTIC WAVES IN CRYSTALS, METAMATERIALS
AND PERIODIC STRUCTURES
V.B. Voloshinov, Philosophy Doctor, Associate Professor
Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
e-mail: volosh@phys.msu.ru
In recent years there has been increasing interest in analysis of natural and artificial media demonstrating unusual physical properties. In the media, propagation of
plane and bulk electromagnetic, optic as well as acoustic waves takes place in a rather
unusual manner. As for the electrodynamics, such media include the so-called “lefthanded” materials first proposed in the reference [1]. The general idea of the cited paper
was based on the prediction that in the medium, both the electric permittivity magnitude
ε and the magnetic permeability µ are negative.
Publications related to experimental verification of the proposed concept stimulated impact to analysis of physical phenomena taking place in the so-called “metamaterials” [2,3]. Since then, a metamaterial is defined as an artificial periodic structure with
dimensions of elements that are shorter than the wavelength of propagating electromagnetic radiation. In the microwave range of electromagnetic spectrum, the radiation wavelengths are relatively long as compared to the wavelengths belonging to the optic spectral
domain. It made it possible to satisfy in the experiments, the condition of small dimensions without great difficulties.
One of the peculiar physical properties of the new materials is the effect of opposite directions of wave vectors and energy flow vectors. The opposite directions of
Poynting vector and phase velocity vector of a propagating wave are typical not only of
the electromagnetic and optic media but also of acoustic media. These acoustic media are
defined as “double negative” structures [4]. As found, unusual mutual directions of the
phase velocity vector and the group velocity vector is characteristic not only of metamaterials and double negative crystals but of some other periodic structures including
optic and acoustic crystals [4]. We found that the angles between the phase and group
velocities of bulk waves in many optic and acoustic single crystals are not opposite but
directed at very wide angles with respect to each other. This orientation of the wave vectors and the group velocity vectors indicates that in the anisotropic media, there exist a
number of new effects principally not observed in isotropic materials.
A few of these effects are described in the presentation. Single crystals such as
calomel, tellurium, mercury bromide, mercury iodide, etc., demonstrating extremely
large birefringence, provide observation of peculiar propagation and reflection phenomena to be discussed in the presentation.
The support of the grant N 14-12-00380 of the Russian Science Foundation is greatly
appreciated.
REFERENCES
1.
V.G.Veselago, Usp. Phys. Nauk, 1967, v. 92, p. 517, (Sov. Phys. Usp., 1968,
v. 10, p. 509).
46
WAVE ELECTRONICS AND ITS APPLICATIONS IN INFORMATION AND TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
2.
3.
4.
J.B. Pendry, Phys. Rev. Letters, 2000, v. 85, p. 3966.
J.B. Pendry, D. Schurig and D.R. Smith, Science, 2006, v. 312, p. 1780.
V.A. Burov, V.B. Voloshinov, K.V. Dmitriev and N.V. Polikarpova, Usp. Phys.
Nauk, 2011, v. 181, p. 1205, (Sov. Phys. Usp., 2011, v. 181, p. 5).
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF TELLURIUM GLASSES
TO BE APPLIED IN ACOUSTO-OPTICS
V.S. Khorkin, Graduate Student
V.B. Voloshinov, Philosophy Doctor, Associate Professor
Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
e-mail: volosh@phys.msu.ru
L.A. Kulakova, Doctor of Sciences, Professor
Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, Saint Petersburg, Russia
e-mail: L.Kulakova@mail.ioffe.ru
We investigated tellurium-based glasses and their physical, optic, acoustic and
acousto-optic properties. In particular, we examined solid-state alloys of the compounds
including silicon, selenium and tellurium (Si-Se-Te) as well as germanium, selenium and
tellurium (Ge-Se-Te). These materials have a relatively wide bandwidth of transparency
in the infrared region of electromagnetic spectrum and demonstrate good acousto-optic
efficiency. We measured refractive indexes of the materials at a fixed wavelength of
radiation. We also determined experimentally photoelastic constants of the solid-state
alloys and the wavelengths of optical transparency of the glasses. As for acoustic parameters of the compounds, we experimentally evaluated velocity of longitudinal acoustic waves and density of the alloys. During the research, we also determined, at the wavelength of light λ = 3.39 μm, the figure of merit of the solid-state solutions on base of
tellurium.
We proved that the transparency bandwidth of the glasses was included in the
wavelength domain λ = 1.5 – 20 μm. The bandwidth was dependent on mutual concentrations of the chemical elements in a glass. Growth of tellurium concentration in the range
35 % - 75% was accompanied by increase of the refractive index from n = 2.8 to n = 3.3,
while the photoelastic coefficients and the density of the glasses correspondingly increased from от p = 0.23 to p = 0.27 and from ρ = 2.6 g/cm3 to ρ = 2.9 g/cm3. On the
other hand, the velocity of longitudinal acoustic waves decreased with the concentration
of tellurium from V = 5.4 km/c to V = 4.9 km/c.
The report summarizes technical parameters of acousto-optic modulator fabricated on base of a silicon-tellurium compound and tested at the wavelength of radiation λ
= 3.39 μm. We measured dependences of diffraction efficiency on frequency of ultrasound and on angle of light incidence. Finally, we also discuss advantages and drawbacks
of application of the glasses in acousto-optic devices.
47
WAVE ELECTRONICS AND ITS APPLICATIONS IN INFORMATION AND TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
The research was supported by the grant of the Russian Scientific Fund RSCF № 14-1200380.
REFERENCES
1. L.A. Kulakova, B.T. Melekh, S.A. Grudinkin, A.P. Danilov, Semiconductor Science and Technology, 2013, v. 47, N 10, pp. 1435-1439.
2. V.S. Khorkin, V.B. Voloshinov, L.A. Kulakova and G.A. Knyazev, Proceedings of
the IV-th International Conference on Photonics and Information Optics, Moscow,
National Research Nuclear University “MIFI”, 2015, pp. 38-39.
ACOUSTO-OPTIC INVESTIGATION OF ACOUSTIC FIELD STRUCTURE
IN CRYSTALS WITH DIFFERENT TYPES OF BULK WAVE EXCITATION
A.V. Muromets, Post Graduate Student
Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
e-mail: anastasiagirl@mail.ru
V.B. Voloshinov, Philosophy Doctor, Associate Professor
Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
e-mail: volosh@phys.msu.ru
Development of optoelectronic technology has intensified research on acoustooptic (AO) devices. Acousto-optic Q-switches, modulators, deflectors and frequency
shifters find many applications in optical communications, optical spectrum analysis,
signal processing, etc. [1, 2]. Improvement of the devices required fabrication of large in
size piezoelectric transducers and new methods of bulk wave excitation.
Generation of ultrasound from surface of a crystal using its piezoelectric effect
decreases high cost of AO cells and simplifies manufacturing technology. Prototype of a
fast AO modulator of non-polarized light with surface generation of ultrasound was proposed in [3]. It was shown that excitation mechanism and structure of a generated acoustic field has great influence on characteristics of AO interaction in crystals [4]. Experimental investigation of the structure was carried out using AO method described in [5].
We analyzed acoustic beams cross sections orthogonal to direction of propagation of
ordinary and extraordinary light.
Application of transducers with extended lengths, e.g., longer than 2 cm significantly increases diffraction efficiency of a device [1,2]. A transducer of such design
includes a number of sections connected in series. The acoustic beam structure was examined in a paratellurite based filter with 7 transducer sections and for a KDP based filter
with 24 sections. The experimental analysis of ultrasound intensity and Bragg matching
characteristics was carried out in the wide range of optical wavelengths 400-1150 nm. A
slight variation of Bragg matching angle at different optical wavelengths obtained in the
experiment may be explained by influence of dispersion of refractive indices in the crystals [6] and also by phase shifts of acoustic wave front [7] . Quantitative impact of each
factor was analyzed. It is evident that the variation of the incident angle caused by dis-
48
WAVE ELECTRONICS AND ITS APPLICATIONS IN INFORMATION AND TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
persion of refractive indices and by beam steering should be considered in design of AO
devices.
Support of the grant 14-12-00380 of the Russian Science Foundation is greatly acknowledged.
REFERENCES
1.
V.I. Balakshy, V.N. Parygin, L.E. Chirkov, Physical Fundamentals of Acoustooptics, “Radio i Svyaz”, Moscow, 1985 (in Russian).
2.
J. Xu, R. Stroud, Acousto-Optic Devices, Wiley, New York, 1992.
3.
V.I. Balakshy, L.I. Mikheev, Acousto-optic modulation of unpolarized radiation,
Proceedings of 12-th Russian School-seminar "Wave phenomena in inhomogeneous medium", 2010, V. 5, pp. 18–21 (in Russian).
4.
A.S. Trushin, P.A. Nikitin, A.V. Muromets, AIP Conf. Proc., 2012, V. 1433, pp.
102-105.
5.
A. Korpel, Appl. Phys. Lett., 1966, V. 9, p. 425.
6.
T.V. Yukhnevich , V.B. Voloshinov, I.G. Pritulenko, Acta Physica Polonica A,
2015, V. 127, N 1, pp. 78-80.
7.
V.B. Voloshinov, A.V. Muromets, A.S. Trushin, IEEE International Ultrasonics
Symposium Proceedings, 2012, pp. 2474-2477.
PHOTO DETECTION PROCESS AND POWER SPECTRUM
ESTIMATION OF OPTICAL RADIATION BY THE MULTICHANNEL
RESONANT SPECTRAL DEVICE
A.S. Paraskun, Student,
O.D. Moskaletz, Candidate of technical sciences, Associate Professor,
M.A. Vaganov, Candidate of technical sciences, Senior lecture
Saint-Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation, Saint-Petersburg, Russia
e-mail: weconf@guap.ru
The estimating problem of power spectrum in an optical range by new type of
optical spectral device is solved. This device carries out spectral decomposition based on
the resonance phenomenon, i.e. the spectral decomposition is implemented by the principle of the narrow-band optical filtration in n parallel channels.
The multichannel device consists of: an input lens, fiber-optical bundle; optical
system of narrow-band interference filters, each filter is connected in series with the photodetector. One of main aspects from statistical measurement is power spectrum assessment of stationary random processes. Optical radiation is the one of such processes.
Therefore, main attention is given to photo detection and properties of power spectrum
resulting estimates. However, since all channels spectral device are identical, the process
of power spectrum estimation is considered in one channel. Two detection modes of
photo detection operations are considered.
49
WAVE ELECTRONICS AND ITS APPLICATIONS IN INFORMATION AND TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
The equivalent circuit of the first mode includes a quadratic photodetector and
integrator completed by system of integration result reset. It has been established that the
thus obtained evaluation is good. In the case of the second mode equivalent circuit includes quadratic photodetector and low-pass filter. Thus, this system operates in continuously mode evaluating of power spectrum. The comparison of photo detection on two
modes is completed.
This research was performed under the grant of RFBR (Russian foundation for basic
research) number 15-37-20446.
REFERENCES
1. Moskaletz O. D. Classical and quantum approaches to power spectrum measurement by diffraction methods. Proc. SPIE Vol. 3900. 1999. P. 297-308.
ACOUSTOOPTICAL TUNABLE FILTERS
IN TELECOMMUNICATIONS
G.I. Korol, Student,
L.N. Preslenev, Candidate of technical sciences, Associate Professor
Saint-Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation, Saint-Petersburg, Russia
e-mail: weconf@guap.ru
Currently, much attention is paid to the development of high-speed fiber-optic
networks and transmission lines. Along with the increase in speed of a separate in used
union wave channel when separate digital streams are transmitted through the fiber at
different wavelengths. This allows to considerably increase the data capacity of the system. In operation, there is a need of separating one or more channels of common information stream. For this purpose, can be used quickly tunable in a certain wavelength
range optical filters.
Promising tunable spectral-selective device is acoustooptic tunable filter that
quickly can allocate a predetermined range of wavelengths. The main parameters are
acoustooptic tunable filter: tuning range, which employs a filter; minimum spectral
range, allocated filter or spectral resolution, which provides a filter 3) insertion loss 4)
the rate of adjustment. This parameter indicates how fast proceeds acoustooptic tunable
filter from one wavelength to another.
In the report considered scheme the acoustooptic interaction on isotropic material, the peculiarities and limitations of such a filter, marked its advantages and disadvantages.
A comparison with similar filters using anisotropic interaction, as well as the
characteristics of each interaction geometry and switching circuits acoustooptic tunable
filter. The high efficiency and selectivity acoustooptic tunable filter on collinear interaction. The results of experimental studies on acoustooptic tunable filter on collinear interaction, working in the visible region of the spectrum.
50
B
Balakshy V.I. 45
Balysheva O.L. 36,
Barabanova L.A 36
Belyi V.N. 39, 40
AUTHOR INDEX
N
Nefedov V.G. 41
O
Orlov A.A. 22
Osmakov I.A. 21
C
Cochran S. 17
P
Paraskun A.S. 21, 49
Petrov P. N. 44
Poortinga A. T. 15
Postema M. 15, 16, 17
Preslenev L.N. 24, 50
D
Doberstein S.A. 31
G
Gilja O.H. 17
Grigoryev L. V. 41
R
Ropot P.I. 39, 40
Rudinskiy А.V. 20
Rybin S.S. 41
J
Johansen Kr. 15 ,16
K
Kazakov D.A. 43
Kazakov V.I. 23, 27
Кlenin V.L. 20
Kozlov A.G. 33
Korol G.I. 25, 50
Kotopoulis S. 15, 16, 17
Khorkin V.S. 47
Kravetc E. V. 44
Krokh G.V. 39
Kulak G.V. 37, 39, 40
Kulakov S.V. 39
Kulakova L.A. 47
Kupreychik M.I. 45
Kuzmova J.A. 19
S
Shakin O.V. 39, 40, 41
Shvetsov A.S. 19
T
Tanskay T.N. 33
Tihonov A.P. 19
Trohimets K.A. 19
V
Vaganov M.A. 49
Veremeyev I.V. 32
Vershinina A.S. 26
Voloshinov V.B. 46, 47, 48
W
Wang H. 17
L
Lozhnikov A.O. 29
Y
Yakimov A.N. 28
Yddal T. 17
Yushkov K.B. 34
M
Matveeva A.G. 37
Micheev D.A. 24
Molchanov V.Ya. 34
Mosentsov S.N. 23
Moskaletz D.O. 22
Moskaletz O.D. 21, 22, 23, 25, 26, 27, 49
Muromets A.V. 48
Z
Zhdanov A. 18
Zhgoon S.A. 19
Zima V.N. 33
51
CONTENTS
PRELIMINARY PROGRAM ........................................................................................... 5
ABSTRACTS................................................................................................................. 13
Johansen Kr., Kotopoulis S., Poortinga A. T., Postema M. ANTIBUBBLES ............... 15
Johansen Kr., Kotopoulis S., Postema M. ACTIVE LEAKAGE DECTION BY
SEARCHING FOR ANTIBUBBLES ............................................................................ 16
Kotopoulis S., Wang H., Yddal T., Cochran S., Gilja O. H., Postema M. NOVEL
MULTIPURPOSE,
LOW
COST,
MODULAR,
ULTRASOUND
TRANSDUCERS ........................................................................................................... 17
Zhdanov A. SEM IMAGING OF BIOLOGICAL SAMPLES ........................................ 18
Trohimets K. A., Tihonov A. P., Kuzmova J. A., Zhgoon S. A., Shvetsov A. S.
DEVELOPMENT OF TEMPERATURE SENSOR’S BASIC DESIGN ON
THE BASE OF TWO SAW RESONATORS ................................................................ 19
Rudinskiy А. V., Кlenin V. L. NEW MATERIALS AND PROVIDING OF
OBJECTS STEALTH .................................................................................................... 20
Paraskun A.S.,
Moskaletz O. D.
SPECTROSCOPIC
INFORMATION
OBTAINING IN OPTICAL GRATTING SPECTRAL DEVICE ................................. 21
Osmakov I. A., Moskaletz O. D. EVOLUTION OF OPRICAL PULSE IN THE
OPTICAL FIBER, AS BASIS OF SPECTRAL DEVICES ........................................... 21
Orlov A. A., Moskaletz D. O., Moskaletz O. D. CORRELATION ANALYSIS
IN THE RADIO AND OPTICAL RANGE ................................................................... 22
Mosentsov S. N., Kazakov V. I., Moskaletz O. D. ENERGY TRANSFER IN
THE OPTICAL SYSTEM, INCLUDES A LAYER OF FREE SPACE AND
LENSES ......................................................................................................................... 23
Micheev D. A., Preslenev L. N. FIBER OPTIC TEMPERATURE SENSORS .............. 24
Korol G. I., Moskaletz O. D. THE RESEARCH OF OPTICAL SPECTRAL
DEVICES BASED ON ACOUSTO-OPTIC TUNABLE FILTER REGIMES .............. 25
Moskaletz O. D., Vershinina A. S. DETERMINATION OF POLARIZATION
JONES MATRIX OF THE PROPAGATION MEDIUM .............................................. 26
Kazakov V. I., Moskaletz O. D. TWO-LENS OPTICAL SCHEME AS LINEAR
SYSTEM ........................................................................................................................ 27
Yakimov A. N. DISCRETE REPRESENTATION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC
INTERACTIONS IN THE MICROWAVE BAND ....................................................... 28
Lozhnikov A. O. THE INVESTIGATIONS OF NEW STRUCTURES OF
ELECTRODES FOR SC-CUT CRYSTALS ................................................................. 29
Doberstein S. A.
CONSTRUCTIONAL
AND
TECHNOLOGICAL
PLATFORMS FOR MODERNIZATION AND MASS PRODUCTION OF
THE SAW DEVICES .................................................................................................... 31
Veremeyev I. V. DESIGN FEATURES OF HYBRID TUNABLE LADDER
TYPE FILTERS WITH LC AND SAW RESONATORS ............................................. 32
Tanskaya T. N., Zima V. N., Kozlov A. G. MICROWAVE RESONATOR WITH
A BRAGG REFLECTOR BASED ON MOLYBDENUM AND ALUMINUM
FILMS ............................................................................................................................ 33
Yushkov K. B., Molchanov V. Ya. ACOUSTO-OPTIC FILTERS WITH
ARBITRARY SPECTRAL TRANSMISSION.............................................................. 34
52
Balysheva O. L. MONOCRYSTALS FOR SUBSTRATE OF MODERN SAW
SENSORS ...................................................................................................................... 36
Barabanova L. A. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ENTERPRISES OF
DEFENSE INDUSTRY COMPLEX. THE QUALITY REQUIREMENTS OF
THE MILITARY REPRESENTATIVE OFFICE'S PRODUCTION............................. 36
Kulak G. V., Matveeva A. G. DIFFRACTION OF LIGHT BY ACOUSTOPHOTOREFRACTIVE HOLOGRAPHIC GRATINGS IN GYROTROPIC
PLANAR OPTICAL WAVEGUIDES........................................................................... 37
Belyi V. N., Ropot P. I., Kulakov S. V., Shakin O. V., Kulak G. V., Krokh G. V.
NONCOLLINEAR BRAGG DIFFRACTION OF BESSEL LIGHT BEAMS
BY ULTRASOUND IN UNIAXIAL GYROTROPIC CRYSTALS ............................. 39
Belyi V. N., Ropot P. I., Kulak G. V., Shakin O. V. WIDEBAND LIGHT
DIFFRACTION ON BULK ACOUSTIC WAVES IN TRIGONAL AND
HEXAGONAL CRYSTALS UNDER ELECTROINDUSED ANISOTROPY ............. 40
Grigoryev L. V., Rybin S. S., Nefedov V. G., Shakin O. V. PHOTOELECTRICAL
AND OPTOACOUSTIC PROPERTIES OF STRUCTURE ZnO – LiNbO3
FROM VISIBLE TO INFRARED RANGE .................................................................... 41
Kazakov D. A., Moskalez O. D. SPECTRAL PLUME CHARACTERISTICS
AND ITS DETECTION ................................................................................................. 43
Kravetc E. V., Petrov P. N. ACOUSTOELECTRONIC DEVICE FOR
CONTROL THE INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF OBJECTS ........................................ 44
Kupreychik M. I.,
Balakshy V. I.
REGIONS
OF
ACOUSTO-OPTIC
INTERACTION IN BIAXIAL CRYSTAL OF ALPHA-IODIC ACID ........................ 45
Voloshinov V. B. OPTIC AND ACOUSTIC WAVES IN CRYSTALS,
METAMATERIALS AND PERIODIC STRUCTURES ............................................... 46
Khorkin V. S., Voloshinov V. B., Kulakova L. A. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF
TELLURIUM GLASSES TO BE APPLIED IN ACOUSTO-OPTICS ......................... 47
Muromets A. V., Voloshinov V. B. ACOUSTO-OPTIC INVESTIGATION OF
ACOUSTIC FIELD STRUCTURE IN CRYSTALS WITH DIFFERENT
TYPES OF BULK WAVE EXCITATION .................................................................... 48
Paraskun A. S., Moskaletz O. D., Vaganov M. A. PHOTO DETECTION
PROCESS AND POWER SPECTRUM ESTIMATION OF OPTICAL
RADIATION BY THE MULTICHANNEL RESONANT SPECTRAL
DEVICE ......................................................................................................................... 49
Korol G. I., Preslenev L. N. ACOUSTOOPTICAL TUNABLE FILTERS IN
TELECOMMUNICATIONS ......................................................................................... 50
AUTHOR INDEX ...................................................................................................... 51
53
The scientific edition
MODERN INFORMATION SOCIETY FORMATION:
PROBLEMS, PERSPECTIVES, INNOVATION APPROACHES
XVIII International Conference for Young Researchers
Wave Electronics and Its Applications in the Information
and Telecommunication Systems
Proceedings of the international forum
Volume Responsible for issue
A. N. Yakimov
Computer imposittion V. N. Sokolova
Papers are published in author’s edition
Department of operative polygraphy
SUAI
190000, St. Petersburg, st. B. Morskaya, 67
Редакционно-издательский отдел ГУАП
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