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Федеральное агенТство по образованию
Государственное образовательное учреждение
высшего профессионального образования
САНКТ-ПЕТЕРБУРГСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ
АЭРОКОСМИЧЕСКОГО ПРИБОРОСТРОЕНИЯ
LAW IS LAW
Методические указания и задания
для студентов III курса
юридических специальностей
Санкт-Петербург
2009
Cоставители: С. А. Кудрина, М. В. Левченко, С. В. Скалецкая,
Е. В. Юдина
Рецензент кандидат философских наук доцент В. О. Перминов
Методические указания предназначены для работы студентов
III курса юридического факультета, изучающих английский язык
на дневном отделении.
Материал составлен в виде набора лексико-грамматических
упражнений к профессионально-ориентированным адаптированным текстам, развивающим навыки перевода и ведения дискуссии
по проблемам юриспруденции.
К методическим указаниям прилагается глоссарий.
Корректор Т. В. Звертановская
Верстальщик А. Н. Колешко
Сдано в набор 31.08.09. Подписано к печати 02.09.09. Формат 60×84 1/16.
Бумага офсетная. Печать офсетная. Печ. л. 3,75. Уч.-изд. л. 3,5.
Тираж 500 экз. Заказ № 516.
Редакционно-издательский центр ГУАП
190000, Санкт-Петербург, Б. Морская ул., 67
© ГУАП, 2009
UNIT I
LAW AND ORDER
Lesson 1
1. Before reading think about the subject in general:
1. What is law?
2. What kind of laws do you know? Give some examples.
3. What are informal rules of social and moral behavior?
2. Pronounce the following words and word-combinations, try
to remember their meaning. You’ll come across these words while
reading the text:
law (n) — закон; право; юриспруденция; суд, судебный процесс;
профессия юриста
behaviour (n) — поведение, манеры
descriptive and prescriptive laws — описывающий и
предписывающий законы
consistent — последовательный
penalty (n) — наказание, штраф
order (n) — 1. порядок; 2. приказ
maintain (v) — поддерживать
property (n) — собственность
predator (n) — хищник (тж. перенос)
steal (v) — (stole, stolen) — красть, воровать
benefit (n) — выгода; польза
community (n) — общество
self-protection (n) — самозащита
kidnap (v) — похитить с целью выкупа
kidnapper (n) — похититель
kidnapping — похищение
rob (v) — грабить
3
robber (n) — грабитель
robbery (n) — кража, грабеж
murder (v) — убить (умышленно)
murder (n) — убийство
murderer (n) — убийца
rely on / upon (v) — полагаться на кого-либо/что-либо,
доверять
кому-либо
the law of jungle — закон джунглей
3. Read the text and translate it:
WHAT IS LAW?
The English word ‘law’ refers to limits upon various forms of behaviour. Some laws are descriptive: they simply describe how people,
or even natu­ral phenomena, usually behave. An example is the rather consistent law of gravity; another is the less consistent laws of
economics. Other laws are prescriptive — they prescribe how people
ought to behave. For example, the speed limits imposed upon drivers
that prescribe how fast we should drive. They rarely describe how
fast we actually do drive, of course.
In all societies, relations between people are regulated by prescriptive laws. Some of them are customs — that is, informal rules
of social and moral behaviour. Some are rules we accept if we belong
to particular social insti­tutions, such as religious, educational and
cultural groups. And some are precise laws made by nations and enforced against all citizens within their power.
Customs need not to be made by governments, and they need not
be written down. We learn how we are expected to behave in society
through the instruction of family and teachers, the advice of friends,
and our expe­riences in dealing with strangers. Sometimes, we can
break these rules with­out suffering any penalty. But if we continually break the rules, or break a very important one, other members
of society may ridicule us, act violently toward us or refuse to have
anything to do with us. The ways in which people talk, eat and drink,
work, and relax together are usually called cus­toms.
Order is rich with meaning. Let’s start with “law and order”.
Maintain­ing order in this sense means establishing the rule of law
to preserve life and to protect property. To the seventeenth-century
philosopher Thomas Hobbes (1588—1679), preserving life was the
4
most important function of law. He described life without law as life
in a ‘state of nature’. Without rules, people would live like predators,
stealing and killing for personal benefit.
Members of every community have made laws for themselves in
self-pro­tection. If it were not for the law, you could not go out in daylight without the fear of being kidnapped, robbed or murdered. There
are far more good people in the world than bad, but there are enough
of the bad to make law necessary in the interests of everyone. Even if
we were all as good as we ought to be, laws would still be necessary.
How is one good man in a mo­torcar to pass another good man also in
a motorcar coming in an opposite direction, unless there is some rule
of the road?
Suppose you went to a greengrocery — and bought some potatoes
and found on your return home that they were moldy or even that
some of them were stones, what could you do if there were no laws on
the subject? In the absence of law you could only rely upon the law of
the jungle.
Every country tries, therefore, to provide laws, which will help its
peo­ple to live safely and comfortably. This is not at all an easy thing
to do. No country has been successful in producing laws, which are
entirely satisfac­tory. But the imperfect laws are better than none.
4. Translate parts of the text, which are of greatest interest to
you, in writing.
5. Pick out from the text all the word combinations with the
following words (terms) and give their Russian equivalents:
— law
— rule
— behaviour
— society
— institution
6. Give the Russian equivalents to the following words:
prescriptive laws, informal rules of social and moral behavior, to
act violently, to be successful in producing laws, experiences, penalty, to rely on the law of the jungle, stealing and killing for personal
benefit, to refer to, order is rich in meaning, state of nature
7. Find the English equivalents in the text:
постоянно нарушать правила, оберегать имущество, наказание,
страх быть похищенным, ограбление, члены сообщества, в
интересах каждого, социальные организации, противоположное
направление, гражданин, жить в безопасности
5
8. Match the following words and translate the expressions into
Russian:
speed
property
to provide
order
to protect
satisfactory
maintaining
benefit
entirely
phenomena
personal
institutions
natural
laws
social
limits
9. Find in the text words and phrases that mean:
1) A set of norms, which can be seen both in a sociological and in
a philosophical or semantic sense.
2) The established patterns of behaviour that can be objectively
verified within a particular social setting.
3) Establishing the rule of law to preserve life and protect property.
4) The act of defending oneself, one’s property or the well-being of
another from physical harm.
5) A group of people that is organized around common.
10. Decide whether the following statements are true or false.
Explain why:
a) Customs need to be made by the government.
b) Without rules people would live like predators.
c) In all societies relations between people are regulated by laws.
d) The English word “order” refers to limits upon various forms
of behaviour.
e) Sometimes people can break rules without suffering any penalty.
f) Prescriptive laws tell people how they ought to behave.
11. Refer to the text to answer the following questions:
1) What is the meaning of the English word “law”?
2) How are relations between people regulated in different societies?
3) What is the difference between customs and orders?
4) Is self-protection the main purpose in making laws?
5) Can you give any examples of the problems that can only be
solved with the help of law?
6) Are the laws of different countries of the world the same?
6
7) What conclusion does the author come to?
12. Fill in every missing notional word:
1) He went beyond the...
2) Every country has its own...
3) The boy was on his best...
4) Murders should receive the death...
5) The police prevent and detect...
6) The … faced prosecution for robbing the central bank.
7) A civil action can be brought by one … against another.
8) Courts are legal … for applying laws.
penalty, behaviour, law, institutions, crime, citizen, robbers, penalty
13. Translate the sentences from Russian into English:
1) Описывающие законы отражают то, как люди или даже
природные явления себя ведут.
2) Предписывающие законы указывают на то, как люди
обязаны себя вести.
3) Английское слово “law” трактуется как ограничения
различных форм поведения.
4) Гражданские законы создают основу для взаимоотношений
между гражданами.
5) Всякий, кто нарушает закон, должен понести наказание.
6) Законы, созданные правительством одной страны, часто
очень отличаются от законов, созданных правительством другой
страны.
14. Discussion: «Mercy killing should be punished». Give two
points for and two points against this statement. Discuss your point
of view with other students.
Lesson 2
1. Read the text and translate it:
OTHER TIMES — OTHER MANNERS
In order to understand why a particular country has a particular
legal system, it is necessary to look at its history, political structure
and social values. When there is political and social upheaval, one
of the main con­cerns of a new government is to revise the legal system. Britain has had an unusual degree of political continuity. De7
spite civil wars in the fifteenth and seventeenth centuries and enormous social changes associated with industrialization, England and
Wales have retained many laws and legal principles that originated
eight centuries ago. On the other hand, most of the law of Japan,
which experienced the rapid upheaval of the Meiji Res­toration and
foreign occupation after the Second World War, was developed within the last century.
Each country in the world, even each state of the United States,
has its own system of law. However it is generally true to say that
there are two main traditions of law in the world. One is based on
English Common law, and has been adopted by many Commonwealth
countries and most of the United States. The other tradition, sometimes known as Continental, or Roman law, has developed in most of
continental Europe, Latin America and many countries in Asia and
Africa, which have been strongly influenced by Europe. Continental
law has also influenced Japan and several socialist countries.
Notes:
upheaval — переворот
continuity — постоянство
Commonwealth — содружество
2. Find in the text words and phrases that mean:
a) правовая система
b) общественные ценности
c) сохранить
d) юридические принципы
e) возникать (появляться)
f) общее право
3. Give Russian equivalents for the following words and
phrases:
1) the main concern
2) to revise the legal system
3) enormous social changes
4) to experience
5) to be adopted
6) to be strongly influenced by
4. Give the synonyms to the following words and expressions:
a) a law system
b) the main task
c) great
d) to save
8
e) case law
f) continental law
g) to affect
5. Match the following phrases:
the main concern of
political continuity
to revise
legal principles
an unusual degree of
Commonwealth countries
to retain
the government
to be adopted by
legal system
6. Decide whether the following statements are true or false:
1) To understand a legal system of a political country you should
study its political and social structure as well as its history.
2) When there is a political or social upheaval the main task of the
Government is to try to retain its legal system.
3) After many wars and numerous changes in a social and political life Britain’s law system underwent many reforms.
4) The law system of Japan is based on ancient traditions which
survived throughout the history.
5) Common Law is adopted in England and most of the United
States as well as in many countries of Commonwealth.
7. Answer the following questions:
1. Why is it necessary to know the history of the country in order
to understand its legal system?
2. Why is Britain unique regarding its legal system?
3. What are two main traditions of law in the world?
4. Which countries adopted Common law?
5. Which countries adopted Continental (Roman) law?
6. Which law is adopted in our country?
8. Translate into English:
1) История и политическое развитие любого государства
влияют на его политическую систему.
2) Задача правительства — пересмотреть правовую систему в
случае политических и социальных переворотов.
3) Англия уникальна, так как сохранила большинство
правовых принципов, возникших ещё восемь веков назад.
4) Правовая система Японии быстро развивалась в прошлом
столетии.
5) Общее право — это прецедентное (case) право, создаваемое
поколениями судей.
9
6) Римское право оказало большое влияние на многие страны
Азии, Африки и Латинской Америки.
9. Discussion: “Different generations or eras have different
customs”. Prove it. Discuss your point of view with other students.
10
UNIT II
LAW SYSTEMS
Lesson 1
1. Before reading think about the subject in general:
1. Is there a unique legal system in the world?
2. Why do different countries have different legal systems?
3. What do you know about the “doctrine of precedent”?
4. How do continental systems usually differ from common law
systems? What are the main traditions of law in the world?
5. What traditions is the legal system in your country based on?
2. Pronounce the following words and word-combinations, try
to remember their meaning. You’ll come across those words while
reading the text:
juror (n) — присяжный, член суда присяжных
judge (n) — судья
case (n) — судебное дело
to be guilty of smth — быть обвиняемым в чем-либо
find (found, found) smb guilty/ not guilty — признать кого-то
виновным/невиновным
punishment (n) — наказание
bribe (v) — давать взятку, подкупать
briber (n) — тот, кто дает взятку
bribe-taker (n) — взяточник
trial (n) — судебный процесс, слушание дела
e.g. The trial takes place next month at Wood Green Crown
Court.
stand (stood, stood) trial — предстать перед судом
court (n) — суд (здание суда)
e.g. The American Supreme Court — Верховный Суд
Соединенных Штатов
deal (dealt, dealt) with — вести дело, иметь дело с кем-то,’
рассмат­ривать вопрос
Juvenile Courts — Суды по делам несовершеннолетних
magistrate (n) — мировой судья
make (made, made) a mistake — ошибаться
appeal (n) — апелляция
appeal (v) — подавать апелляционную жалобу
11
High Court — Верховный Суд (в Великобритании)
prosecution (n) — обвинение
prosecutor (n) — обвинитель
Public prosecutor — прокурор
severe (adj) — суровый
House of Lords — палата лордов (в Британском Парламенте)
3. Read the text and translate it:
INTERNATIONAL COMPARISONS
In some countries such as France (where there are 9 jurors), the
judges and jurors decide the case together. In the United States juries decide if the defendant is guilty but sometimes also have to say
what punishment he should receive. Before World War II, Japan also
had a jury system, but it was often criticized for the ease with which
jurors could be bribed. Now Japan, like South Korea, is a rare example of a modern industrialized coun­try where jurors are not used: all
decisions are made by professional judges.
Most countries have special rules for young defendants. Children un­der ten cannot stand trial at all under English law. Juveniles
(those under seventeen) uk deals with special Magistrates Courts
known as Juvenile Courts.
A defendant found guilty by the magistrates may appeal against
the find­ing or against the punishment to the local Crown Court, and
the Crown.
Court judge will hear the appeal without a jury. If a defendant has
good reason to believe the magistrates have made a mistake about a
point of law, then he may appeal to the High Court. The appeal system is mostly for the benefit of the defendant, but there are cases
of the prosecution successfully appealing for a more severe punishment. In Japan it is even possible for the prosecution to appeal that a
non-guilty decision can be changed to guilty.
Appeals from the Crown Court go first to the High Court and, in
spe­cial cases, to the Court of Appeal. Occasionally, a case is carried
through this system of appeal all the way to the House of Lords.
In many countries, such as Japan and United States, the highest
jurid­ical decisions are made by a Supreme Court. Its members are appointed from the lower courts by the government.
4. Translate parts of the text, which are of greatest interest for
you, in writing.
12
5. Give Russian equivalents for the following words and
phrases:
a) professional judges
b) to stand trial
c) Juvenile Courts
d) the highest juridical decision
e) to decide the case
f) to receive punishment
g) to hear the appeal
h) for the benefit for
i) a point of law
j) cases of the prosecution
6. Find the English equivalents in the text:
a) суд присяжных
b) подавать апелляцию
c) в пользу ответчика
d) совершить ошибку
e) Верховный суд
f) иметь вескую причину
g) Палата Лордов
h) судебные решения
i)  вести дело
j) современная индустриальная страна
7. Match the words and translate them into Russian:
to stand
courts
court
system
magistrates
appeal
appeal
defendant
court of
judge
non-guilty
Lords
House of
trial
young
decision
8. Decide whether the following statements are true or false:
1) Every country has its own rules for young defendants.
2) Court judge always hears the appeal without a jury.
3) Children under fourteen cannot stand trial at all under English law.
4) Jurors are not used in Japan. All decisions are made by professional judges.
13
5) Appeals from the High Court go first to the Crown Court.
6) In some cases non-guilty decisions can be changed to guilty.
9. Discussion. Draw a plan of the court system in Russia. Discuss
your plan with other students.
Lesson 2
1. Pronounce the following words and word-combinations, try
to remember their meaning. You’ll come across these words while
reading the text:
civil (adj) — гражданский, обычный
criminal (adj) — уголовный
jurisdiction (n) — 1. юрисдикция; 2. сфера полномочий
distinguish (v) — проводить различие, различать
offence (n) — преступление, правонарушение
indictable (adj) — подлежащий рассмотрению в суде,
уголовный
non-indictable (adj) — не подлежащий рассмотрению в суде
indictment (n) — обвинительный акт
be charged with — быть обвиненным в чем-либо
charge (n) — 1. обвинение; 2. заключительная речь судьи к
присяж­ным
preliminary inquiry — предварительное расследование
preside (v) over/at — председательствовать
Justice of the Peace — Мировой Судья
Quarter Sessions — ежеквартальные судебные сессии
legally qualified — юридически правомочный
chairman (n) — председатель
Assizes — выездные сессии суда присяжных, выездные сессии
Верховного суда
2. Read the text and translate it:
GREAT BRITAIN
British law is divided into two parts — civil and criminal. There
are also two types of courts — dealing with civil jurisdiction and the
other, with crim­inal jurisdiction. The law of Britain distinguishes
offences into main cate­gories: a) indictable offences and b) non-indictable offences. Indictable offences are the more serious crimes,
which must be tried before a jury. Non-indictable offences are all the
14
rest and they are tried by the Magis­trates’ Court. However, nowadays there are many offences which may ei­ther be treated on indictment by a jury or by a Magistrates’ Court. When a person is brought
before the magistrates’ Court charged with one of the overlapping
offences, the court may in many cases treat the charge as be­ing for
a non-indictable offence. The principal courts of ordinary criminal
Jurisdiction in England and Wales include:
a) Magistrates’ Courts, which try the less serious offences and
conduct preliminary inquiries into the more serious offences. They
are presided over by Justices of the Peace;
b) Quarter Sessions which take place at least four times a year.
They deal with more serious offences and are presided over either
by a legally qualified chairman with a group of magistrates or by a
single lawyer;
c) Assizes which are branches of the High Court and are presided
over by High Court Judges. They deal with the most serious offences
and cases presenting special difficulties.
3. Find in the text words and phrases that mean:
a) гражданская (уголовная) юрисдикция
b) подразделять право на…
c) подлежащий преследованию в судебном порядке
d) рассматривать дело в суде
e) мировой судья
f) предстать перед судом
g) проводить предварительное расследование
h) иметь дело с… (рассматривать)
i) иметь юридическое образование
j) представлять особую трудность
4. Match the following phrases:
to be presided over
with the offence
to be brought
before a jury
to deal with
before the court
to distinguish
preliminary inquiries
to be tried
civil / criminal jurisdiction
to charge smb
offences into
to conduct
special difficulties
to present
by the JPs
5. Explain the meaning of the following:
1) indictable / non-indictable offences
15
2) a Magistrate (a JP)
3) jury
4) Quarter Session
5) Assizes
6. Agree or disagree with the following statements:
1. In Britain there are two kinds of courts: of civil and of criminal jurisdiction.
2. Non-indictable offences are normally tried before a jury.
3. Magistrates’ courts never try indictable offences.
4. Magistrates’ courts can conduct preliminary inquiries of serious offences.
5. Quarter Sessions are presided over by legally trained lawyers.
7. Answer the following questions:
1) What are two parts of British law?
2) What are two types of courts in Great Britain? What is the difference between them?
3) Who usually try different types of offences?
4) How can a court treat the charge if a person is charge with one
of the overlapping offences?
5) What legal activities are Magistrates’ Courts involved in? By
whom are they presided?
6) What are the functions of Quarter Sessions and Assizes? By
whom are they presided?
8. Translate into English:
1. Британские суды — это суды гражданской либо уголовной
юрисдикции.
2. Правонарушения,
подлежащие
преследованию
в
судебном порядке, это наиболее серьезные преступления,
рассматривающиеся судом присяжных.
3. Мелкие правонарушения обычно рассматриваются в
мировых судах, где заседают мировые судьи. Также мировые
суды проводят предварительное расследование более серьезных
правонарушений.
4. Мировые судьи, как правило, не имеют юридического
образования и не получают жалованья.
5. Ежеквартальные судебные сессии возглавляет юридически
правомочный председатель вместе с мировыми судьями.
6. Выездные сессии суда присяжных рассматривают серьезные
правонарушения и дела, представляющие особую трудность.
9. Read the following text and make a summary of it:
16
Solicitors and Barristers
England is almost unique in having two different kinds of lawyers, with separate jobs in the legal system. The two kinds of lawyers
are solicitors and barristers.
If a person has a legal problem, he will go and see a solicitor.
Almost every town will have at least one. In fact there are at least
50,000 solicitors in Britain, and the number is increasing.
Many problems are dealt with exclusively by a solicitor. For instance, the solicitor deals with petty crimes and some matrimonial
matters in Magistrates’ Courts, the lowest Courts. He prepares the
case and the evidence. He actually speaks in Court for you.
In a civil action he can speak in the County court, when the case
is one of divorce or recovering some debts. In the County Court the
solicitor wears a black gown over his ordinary clothes.
A solicitor also deals with matters outside Court. He does the legal work involved in buying a house, for instance. He writes legal
letters for you and carries on legal arguments outside Court. If you
want to make a will the best man to advise you is a solicitor.
To qualify as a solicitor, a young man or woman joins a solicitor as
a “clerk” and works for him whilst studying part time for the “Law
Society” exams. Interestingly enough, it is not necessary for you to
go to university. When you have passed all the necessary exams, you
can “practice”, which means you can start a business on your own.
Barristers are different from solicitors. Barristers are experts in
the interpretation of the Law. They are called in to advise on really
difficult points. The barrister is also an expert on advocacy (the art
of presenting cases in Court). Indeed, if you desire representation in
any Court except the Magistrates’ Court, you must have a barrister,
with one or two exceptions.
Barristers are rather remote figures. If you need one, for instance,
you never see him without your solicitor being with him. Barristers
do not have public offices in any street. They work in what are known
as chambers, often in London. They all belong to institutions called
Inns of Court, which are ancient organizations rather like exclusive
clubs. In many ways the remoteness they and the job they have do are
medieval in conception.
To qualify as a barrister you have to take the examinations of
the Bar Council. These are different from solicitors’ examinations.
There are over 5,000 barristers in England. A good one can earn
30,000 pounds a year. Only barristers can became judges in English
Court above a Magistrates’ Court.
17
Barristers are also found in South Africa and New South Wales
(Australia).
10. Answer the following questions:
1. What is almost unique about the English legal system?
2. What kind of problems does a solicitor deal with?
3. How do you qualify as a solicitor?
4. What are barrister’s experts in?
5. When must you have a barrister?
6. What reasons are there for saying a barrister is rather remote?
7. How do you qualify as a barrister?
11. Prepare a list of eight-ten questions to ask about the text
“Judges in Great Britain”. Be ready to interview the students in
your group:
In Britain, the vast majority of judges (that is, the people who decide what should be done with people who commit crimes) are unpaid.
They are called “Magistrates”, or “Justices of the Peace” (JPs). They
are ordinary citizens who are selected not because they have any legal training but because they have “sound common sense” and understand their fellow human beings. They give up time voluntarily.
A small proportion of judges are not Magistrates. They are called
“High Court Judges” and they deal with the most serious crimes,
such as those for which the criminal might be sent to prison for more
than a year. High Court Judges, unlike Magistrates, are paid salaries by the State and have considerable legal training.
Magistrates are selected by special committees in every town and
district. Nobody, not even the Magistrates themselves, knows who is
on the special committee in their area. The committee tries to draw
Magistrates from as wide a variety of professions and social classes
as possible.
Lesson 3
1. Pronounce the following words and word-combinations, try
to remember their meaning. You’ll come across these words while
reading the text:
determine (v) — определять, устанавливать
in accordance with — в соответствии с чем-либо, согласно чемулибо
fix (v) — четко устанавливать, закреплять
approve (v) — одобрять
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establish (v) — основывать, создавать, учреждать
judicial review — судебный пересмотр
declare (v) —1. признавать, объявлять. 2. провозглашать
2. Read the text and translate it:
THE USA
The third branch of government is the federal judiciary. Its main
instrument is the Supreme Court, which watches over the other two
branches. It determines whether or not their laws and acts are in accordance with the Constitution. Congress has the power to fix the
number of judges sitting on the Court, but it cannot change the powers given to the Supreme Court by the Constitution itself. The Supreme Court consists of a chief justice and eight associate justices.
They are nominated by the President but must be approved by the
Senate. Once approved, they hold office as Supreme Court Justices
for life. A decision of the Supreme Court cannot be appealed to any
other court. Neither the President nor Congress can change their decisions. In addition to the Supreme Court, Congress has established
11 federal courts of appeal and, below them, 91 federal district
courts. (The federal courts system is organized like a pyramid. At
the bottom of the pyr­amid are the U.S. district courts. In the middle
are the U.S. of appeals. At the top is the U.S. Supreme Court.)
The Supreme Court has direct jurisdiction in only two kinds of
cases: those involving foreign diplomats and those in which a state
is a party. All other cases which reach the Court are appeals from
lower courts. The Su­preme Court chooses which of these it will hear.
Most of the cases involve the interpretation of the Constitution. The
Supreme Court also has the “power of judicial review,” that is, it has
the right to declare laws and ac­tions of the federal, state, and local
governments unconstitutional. While not stated in the Constitution,
this power was established over time.
3. Find in the text words and phrases that mean:
a) федеральная судебная власть
b) иметь полномочия
c) занимать должность
d) апелляционный суд
e) окружной суд
f) сторона (в судебном процессе)
g) толкование Конституции
19
4. Give Russian equivalents for the following words and
phrases:
a) Supreme Court
b) chief Justice
c) associate Justice
d) to appeal
e) direct jurisdiction
f) to reach the Court
g)  to declare unconstitutional
5. Match the following phrases:
in accordance with
by the President
to fix
for life
to be nominated
the Constitution
to be approved
of judicial review
to hold office
the number of judges
to have the power
by the Senate
6. Decide whether the following statements are true or false:
1. The main instrument of the judicial branch of power in the
USA is the Supreme Court.
2. The judges of the Supreme Court are elected by the Senate.
3. The judges of the Supreme Court can hold the office for 5
years.
4. A decision of the Supreme Court cannot be appealed to any other court.
5. The Supreme Court cannot declare laws and actions of the federal, state and local governments unconstitutional.
7. Answer the following questions:
1) What are 3 branches of power?
2) What members does the Supreme Court consist of?
3) Can Congress or President influence the Supreme Court?
4) What does the pyramid of federal court system in the USA represent?
5) What is the main function of the USA Supreme Court? In what
cases does it have a direct jurisdiction?
6) What power of the Supreme Court was established over time
though not stated in the Constitution?
8. Translate into English:
1. Верховный суд США является главным инструментом
федеральной судебной власти.
20
2. Верховный суд рассматривает апелляции из нижестоящих
судов, а также рассматривает дела иностранных дипломатов и
дела, в которых одной из сторон является государство.
3. Верховный суд определяет, соответствуют ли законы
Конституции и имеет право объявлять неконституционными
федеральные законы и законы штатов.
4. Судьи Верховного Суда назначаются президентом и
должны быть одобрены Сенатом. Они занимают эту должность
пожизненно.
5. Конгресс имеет право устанавливать количество судей
Верховного Суда, но не может отменить полномочия, данные
Верховному Суду Конституцией.
6. Система федеральных судов США представляет собой
пирамиду, на вершине которой находится Верховный Суд, в
центре — апелляционные суды и у подножия пирамиды —
окружные суды.
9. Read and translate the text:
US Attorneys
The Justice Department is responsible for faithful execution of
the laws under the president’s authority. The main administrators of
federal law enforcement are the ninety- four US attorneys, appointed by the president with the advice and consent of the Senate. Unlike
federal judges, these appointees serve at the pleasure of the president and are expected to relinquish their positions when the reins of
government change hands.
There is a US attorney in each federal judicial district. Their
staffs of assistant attorneys vary in size with the amount of litigation in the district. US attorneys have considerable discretion, which
makes them powerful political figures in any community. Their decision to prosecute or not affects the wealth, freedom, rights, and
reputation of individuals and organizations in the district.
US attorneys are political appointees who often harbour political
ambitions. Their position commands media attention and can serve
political goals. In 1983 President Reagan appointed Rudolph Giuliani as US attorney for the Southern District of New York (covering
a large portion of the New York metropolitan area). Over the next
five years, Giuliani notched his briefcase with dozens of successful prosecutions of elected officials, judges, organized crime figures, and Wall Street inside traders. Giuliani’s activities generated
21
reels and reams of favourable press coverage, he even appeared on a
Newsweek cover. This kind of public exposure can help a US attorney
launch a successful career in elected office. As a powerful prosecutor or potential opponent, Giuliani’s name must make some politicians shudder.
10. Read the following expressions and make up your own
sentences with them:
Attorney — юрист, адвокат, поверенный, прокурор, атторней
Attorney General — генеральный прокурор (англ.), министр
юстиции (амер.)
attorney’s license — лицензия, дающая право на адвокатскую
практику
by attorney — по доверенности, через поверенного
defense attorney — защитник
11. Paraphrase the following expressions:
a) faithful execution of laws;
b) under somebody’s authority;
c) consent;
d) appointee;
e) to relinquish;
f) amount of litigation;
g) to prosecute;
h) elected office;
i) inside traders;
j) press coverage;
k) to harbour political ambitions;
l) to launch a career.
12. Answer the questions:
1 What is an attorney in the US? How is he appointed?
2 When does an attorney resign?
3 What does the number of assistant attorneys in federal judicial
districts depend on?
4 What makes attorneys so important in American communities?
5 How do attorneys in the US realize their political ambitions?
6 What example in the text proves that US attorneys harbour political ambitions?
13. Work in pairs. Discuss the difference between the American
and British lawyers.
22
UNIT III
CRIMINAL AND CIVIL CASES
Lesson 1
1. Before reading think about the subject in general:
1. What are the main categories of law?
2. What disputes does civil law concern?
3. What disputes does criminal law concern?
4. What is the difference between civil and criminal procedures?
5. What is the party brining a criminal / a civil action called?
What is the other party in both kinds of action known?
2. Pronounce the following words and word-combinations, try
to remember their meaning. You’ll come across those words while
reading the text:
violation (n) — нарушение закона
violate (v) — нарушать закон
forbid (v) (forbade; forbidden) — запрещать
rape (n) — изнасилование
rapist (n) — насильник
rape (v) — насиловать
arson (n) — поджог
arsonist (n) — поджигатель
to set on fire — поджигать
claim (n) (for) — 1. требование, претензия, заявление; 2. иск
claim (v) — 1. требовать (возмещения убытков); 2. заявлять
права, подавать иск
claimant (n) — предъявляющий права, истец
distinction (n) — различие
force (v) — заставлять, принуждать
defendant (n) — ответчик, подсудимый, обвиняемый
fine (n) — штраф
victim (n) — жертва, пострадавший
pursue (v) — 1. предъявлять иск; 2. преследовать
compensation (n) — возмещение убытков, компенсация
procedure (n) — процедура
action (n) — судебный процесс, обвинение, иск
plaintiff (n) — истец
road accident — дорожно-транспортное происшествие
23
injure (v) — причинить вред, ранить
damage (n) — убыток, ущерб (мн.ч. — компенсация за убытки)
trial (n) — судебное разбирательство
to bring to trial — привлекать к суду
evidence (n) — улики, свидетельские показания
evidence (v) — служить доказательством, доказывать
to stem (v) — происходить
3. Read the text and translate it into Russian:
CRIMINAL AND CIVIL CASES
Crime is a violation of a law that forbids or commands an activity. Such crimes as murder, rape, arson are on the books of every
country. Because crime is a violation of public order, the government
prosecutes criminal cases.
Courts decide both criminal and civil cases. Civil cases stem from
dis­puted claims to something of value. Disputes arise from accidents, contrac­tual obligations, and divorce, for example.
Most countries make a rather clear distinction between civil and
crimi­nal procedures. For example, an English criminal court may
force a defen­dant to pay a fine as punishment for his crime, and he
may sometimes have to pay the legal costs of the prosecution. But the
victim of the crime pursues his claim for compensation in a civil, not
a criminal, action.
Criminal and civil procedures are different. Although some systems, in­cluding the English, allow a private citizen to bring a criminal prosecution against another citizen, criminal actions are nearly
always started by the state. Civil actions, on the other hand, are usually started by individuals.
Some courts, such as the English Magistrates Courts and the Japanese Family Court, deal with both civil and criminal matters. Others, such as the English Crown Court, deal exclusively with one or
the other.
In Anglo-American law, the party bringing a criminal action
(that is, in most cases the state) is called the prosecution, but the
party bringing a civil action is the plaintiff. In both kinds of action
the other party is known as the defendant. A criminal case against a
person called Ms. Brown would be described as “The People vs. (versus, or against) Brown” in the United States and “R. (Regina, that
is, the Queen) vs. Brown” in England. But a civil action between Ms.
24
Brown and Mr. Smith would be “Brown vs. Smith” if it was started
by Brown, and “Smith vs. Brown” if it was started by Mr. Smith.
Evidence from a criminal trial is not necessarily admissible as
evidence in a civil action about the same matter. For example, the
victim of a road accident does not directly benefit if the driver who
injured him is found guilty of the crime of careless driving. He still
has to prove his case in a civil action. In fact he may be able to prove
his civil case even when the driver is found not guilty in the criminal trial.
Once the plaintiff has shown that the defendant is liable, the main
ar­gument in a civil court is about the amount of money, or damages,
which the defendant should pay to the plaintiff.
4. Give Russian equivalents for the following words and
phrases:
A violation of a law, to forbid or command an activity, murder,
rape, arson, to be on the books of every country, accident, contractual obligation, divorce, civil and criminal procedure, to force a defendant, to pay a fine, punishment for crime, to pay legal costs, to pursue one’s claim for compensation in a civil action, to bring a criminal
prosecution against somebody, criminal or civil action, to be guilty
of, to be guilty in, victim of a road accident, plaintiff, defendant is
liable, damages.
5. Fill in the gaps with the given prepositions and translate the
resulting expressions:
on, from (3), of (3), against, with, in, to
to be … the books of every country, to stem … disputed claims,
violation … a law, to arise … accidents, to bring criminal prosecution … another citizen, to deal … both civil and criminal matters, to
be guilty … the crime, to be guilty … the criminal trial, to pay … the
plaintiff, victim … a road accident, evidence … a criminal trial
6. Make nouns of the verbs as in the model:
to proceed (v) — procedure (n)
to violate, to rape, to set on fire, to claim, to pursue, to prove, to
damage, to murder, to prosecute
7. Give the words of the same meaning as in the model:
distinction — difference
plaintiff, claim, to murder, accident, obligation, to stem
8. Match the verbs from a) and noun phrases from b), translate
the expressions into Russian:
25
a) to force, to be on, to make, to pay (2), to pursue, to bring, to
deal with, to be known
b) the legal costs, a defendant, one’s claim, the books, a criminal
prosecution, clear distinction, a fine, as a defendant, both criminal
and civil matters
9. Give English equivalents for the following words and
phrases:
нарушение закона, поджог, убийство, насилие, нарушение общественного порядка, права и обязанности, платить штраф, жертва
преступления, наказание за преступление, судебное разбирательство, улика, привлекать к суду, судебные издержки, быть виновным
в уголовном преступлении, истец, подсудимый, ущерб, суд
10. Translate into English:
1. Суды рассматривают как уголовные, так и гражданские дела.
2. В большинстве стран имеются четкие различия между уголовными и гражданскими процедурами. Но, например, Английский Королевский Суд рассматривает как уголовные, так и гражданские иски.
3. Английский Уголовный Суд может принудить подсудимого
выплатить штраф в качестве наказания и оплатить судебные издержки.
4. Почти всегда уголовные процессы возбуждаются государством, но некоторые судебные системы, включая английскую, позволяют частному лицу возбудить уголовное дело в отношении
другого частного лица.
5. Уголовное дело против мистера Брауна в Соединенных Штатах будет рассматриваться как «народ против мистера Брауна», а
в Англии как «Королева против мистера Брауна».
6. Гражданское дело между мистером Брауном и мистером
Смитом рассматривалось бы как «Браун против Смита», если бы
оно было возбуждено Брауном или «Смит против Брауна», если
бы оно было возбуждено Смитом.
7. Если истец доказал, что ответчик виновен, то суд выносит
решение о размере штрафа или компенсации за ущерб, которые
следует оплатить ответчику.
11. Answer the following questions referring to the text:
1) What is the crime? Who prosecutes criminal cases?
2) What is the distinction between criminal and civil cases? How
does English Court decide them?
26
3) Who usually is started the criminal and civil actions by?
4) What courts usually deal with both criminal and civil matters?
5) What is known as a defendant in Anglo-American law?
6) How would a criminal case against some person be described in
the United States and in England?
7) Is evidence from a criminal trial necessarily admissible as evidence in a civil action about the same matter? If not, explain.
12. Do the following assignments:
A. Say what you have learnt from the text about the distinction
between civil and criminal cases.
B. Speak about the Anglo- American law and its peculiarities.
C. Discuss the situation when evidence from a criminal trial is
not necessarily admissible as evidence in a civil action about the
same matters.
D. Select the topical sentences in each paragraph of the text.
E. Summarise the text.
13. Read and translate the text without using the dictionary:
CRIME AND PUNISHMENT
The most common question in any discussion on crime is “Why
do they do it?” In cases like the Great Train Robbery it’s quite clear
what the motive is — enormous greed. In cases of murder or violence
it’s easy to see that emotions can get out of control, and the crime
is not really intentional. But why should a housewife steal a loaf of
bread? Why do rich tourists steal clothes from London shops?
There seems to be comparison with the attraction of gambling,
lotteries, football pools — you risk a certain amount of money (or
here freedom) in order to get what you hope will be big prizes. And it
seems that not only the big prizes are attractive — even the risk, the
gamble itself has an attraction to it.
What causes crime? It has always been with us, form darkest history to the present day. People have always been ready to rob or murder in order to get something they wanted. The best example is warfare — when a whole nation sets out to kill, rob and destroy in order
to gain control of another country.
There are many who claim that society causes its own crime — in
a materialist society, everybody wants to get as much as they can,
and the border between legal and illegal methods seems very diffi27
cult to define. There are many normal business methods which could
be seen as a sort of robbery — for example when one company has a
monopoly of the supply of some product, and uses this power to keep
the price very high so that there is more profit.
14. Think and answer the following questions and discuss your
point of view with other students:
1) What is the definition of the crime? Is it an absolute definition? Or can crimes be justified if they are for the State, or for the
Church?
2) If people are motivated by greed to commit a crime, why do
they often steal little things from shops?
3) What sort of business methods can be seen as criminal?
4) How do criminals justify crime? Do they think it is right? Or
think it is wrong but profitable?
5) It has often been said that criminals or murderers cannot be
blamed for their actions because they had a bad education, or a broken home, or other problems. Is it a good argument?
6) What is the purpose of prison? Should it punish the criminals?
Protect society? Or make the criminals better people?
7) Should capital punishment be allowed? If so, should there be
public execution (as in some Arab countries) as a warning?
Lesson 2
1. Pronounce the following words and word-combinations, try
to remember their meaning. You’ll come across these words while
reading the text:
interchangeably (adv) — равнозначно, взаимозаменяемо
declare (v) — 1) объявлять, заявлять; 2) называть
provide (v) — обеспечивать, предоставлять
vote (v) — голосовать (за / против — (for / against)
elect (v) — 1) избирать, выбирать (голосованием); 2) назначить
на
должность
election (n) — выборы
overlap (v) — (частично) совпадать
belong (v) — принадлежать
(to) concern (v) — касаться, иметь отношение
attempt (n) — попытка
equality (n) — равенство
adjust (v) — улаживать, регулировать
28
resolve (v) — 1) принимать решение; 2) выносить резолюцию
exist (v) — существовать
recognize (v) — 1) признавать; 2) узнавать
distinguishable (adj) — отличимый (от — from)
inherent (adj) — присущий, неотъемлемый
(syn.) inalienable (adj) = inherent
resistance (n) — сопротивление, противостояние
enforce (v) — 1) оказывать давление, принуждать; 2) приводить
в жизнь, придавать силу
2. Read and translate the text:
CIVIL RIGHTS AND LIBERTIES
Sometimes they use two terms, civil liberties and civil rights,
inter­changeably, although their meanings are different.
Civil liberties are freedoms that are guaranteed to the individual. Civil liberties declare what the government cannot do; in contrast, civil rights declare what the government must do or provide.
Civil rights are powers or privileges that are guaranteed to the
individu­al and protected from arbitrary removal at the hands of the
government or other individuals. The right to vote and the right to
jury trial in criminal cases are civil rights.
Civil rights and civil liberties overlap with individual rights and
liberties, but belong more to the area of social and public interests
than do individ­ual rights, which belong mainly to the area of individual interests. They are concerned essentially with what individuals and groups may do within the law, e.g. stand for election to a public authority, rather than with what they may exact, e.g. social security. Civil rights may be regarded as attempts to give meaning to the
ideal of equality under laws, and civil liberties as flow­ing from the
ideal of freedom.
Civil rights protect certain general human needs and interests,
but some­times conflict with other human needs and interests, conflict which has to be adjusted and resolved in the courts or by legislation. A civil right or liberty exists only in so far as it is legally recognized and protected, not merely if it is asserted or even proclaimed
by a government or political party.
Civil liberties are distinguishable from moral liberty or freedom
of the will; from political liberties, such as the right to elect and to
stand for elec­tion; from ‘human rights’ or ‘natural rights’; from eco29
nomic liberties, such as freedom of contract, trade, competition, of
organizing, and of striking; from religious liberties, such as freedom of belief and of worship; and from academic freedom; though
there is considerable overlapping, and as law in general protects each
of these groups of liberties, some would class all of these within the
general group of civil liberties. Civil liberties were justi­fied by seventeenth — and eighteenth-century philosophers as inherit or inalienable rights. Historically most of them arose by way of successful re­sistance to kings, harsh employers, unrepresentative parliaments, and the like.
The question what civil rights or liberties citizens enjoy under a
partic­ular system of government and law, depends partly on what
rights or liber­ties are conferred by constitution, code, statute, and
case, but also, and frequently more particularly, on how these rights
or liberties are actually interpreted, and how far they can be and are
secured and enforced, partic­ularly by minority groups.
3. Translate the 6th paragraph in writing.
4. Give Russian equivalents for the following words and phrases
from the text:
civil liberties and civil rights; interchangeably; powers or privileges; are guaranteed and protected from arbitrary removal at the
hands of; the area of social and public interests; equality under laws;
flowing from the ideal of freedom; to be adjusted and resolved in the
courts or buy legislation; is asserted or proclaimed by a government
or political party; distinguishable from moral liberty or freedom of
the will; “human rights” or “natural rights”; freedom of belief and
worship; academic freedom; competition; to class all of these within the general group of civil liberties; inherit or inalienable rights;
harsh employer; unrepresentative parliament; to be conferred by
constitution, code, statute and case; to be secured and enforced
5. Choose the proper preposition and translate the resulting
expressions into Russian:
with (3), to (2), from, within, under (2)
To concern … what individuals and groups may do within the law,
to be guaranteed … individuals, to overlap … individual rights and
liberties, to give meaning … the equality under laws, to conflict …
human needs, distinguishable … moral liberty or freedom of will, to
class liberties … the general group, to enjoy … a particular system of
government and law.
6. In the text above find words and phrases referring to:
30
• Difference of civil rights and civil liberties.
• Distinction of civil liberties from other kinds of freedom.
• What civil rights and liberties depend on.
7. Match the below given words and phrases; translate the
resulting expressions into Russian:
1. to declare(2)
a. Constitution, code, statute
b. a government or political party
2. to protect from
c. what the government must do or
provide
3. the right
d. election to a public authority
4. to overlap with
e. as attempt
5. to stand for
f. in the courts or by legislation
6. to regard
g. arbitrary removal at the hands
of the government
7. to be adjusted and resolved h. individual rights and liberties
8. to be asserted or proclaimed i. as inherit or inalienable right
by
9. to be justified
j. what the government cannot do
10. to be conferred by
k. to jury trial
8. Give English equivalents for the following words and
phrases:
гражданские права и свободы; равнозначно; гарантировать
привилегии; со стороны кого-либо; право на суд присяжных;
социальная безопасность; рассматривать как попытку; равенство
перед законом; урегулировать и разрешить конфликт в суде
или законодательно; отличимый от; конкуренция; свобода веры
и вероисповедания; теоретическая свобода; присущий и
неотъемлемый; возникать путем противостояния; жестокий
работодатель; непредставительный парламент; закон (2); кодекс;
конституция; гарантировать и приводить в жизнь.
9. Refer to the text to answer the questions:
1. What are civil liberties and civil rights?
2. How do civil rights and civil liberties overlap and differ from
individual rights and liberties? (give your examples)
3. How do civil rights and civil liberties protect or conflict with
human needs and interests?
4. What kinds of freedom are distinguishable from civil liberties?
31
5. What does the question what civil rights and liberties citizens
enjoy under a particular system of government and law depend on?
10. Translate into English:
1) Гражданские права и свободы принадлежат более к
социальным и общественным интересам, нежели к личным
правам.
2) Гражданские права защищают определенные основные
человеческие потребности и интересы, но иногда входят в
конфликт с другими человеческими потребностями и интересами.
Этот конфликт должен решаться в суде или законодательно.
3) Гражданские
свободы
отличаются
от
моральной,
политической, экономической, религиозной, теоретической
свобод, хотя существует их некоторое совпадение.
4) Гражданские права и свободы даны конституцией, кодексом
и законом, но зависят от того, насколько они гарантированы и
осуществляются (приводятся в жизнь) на практике.
11. Discuss civil rights and civil liberties in our society.
12. Read and translate the text without using the dictionary:
Women’s rights
It is undeniable that women in most human societies have been
exploited and treated as inferior. In our own society, discrimination
is still in existence, although progress has been made. It is much easier for women to enter the world of medicine, law and finance than it
was before the war. Even the ancient universities of Oxford and Cambridge are allowing women into their colleges. In politics, a woman
leads the Conservative party for the first time in history. New laws
to protect women’s rights have recently been passed. The Equal Pay
Act makes it illegal for an employer to pay a woman less money than
a man for the same job. Unfortunately, it is often the jobs that only
women do which are badly paid. The Sex Discrimination Act makes
it illegal to refuse to give a woman a job because she is a woman. This
also means that jobs cannot be advertised as for men or women only.
They must be open to both sexes. The Act also makes it illegal to refuse women any services offered to men. So all-male pubs and clubs
will have to change.
Working opportunities for women really began in the First World
War. With the men away at war, women had to become engineers,
32
drivers, bakers, secretaries, etc. Their traditional jobs had been
cooking, cleaning or working in the textile factories.
Now women are again taking over what were thought of as “men’s
jobs”. And the logical consequence of this is that some men are choosing to stay at home to look after the house and the family while their
wives go out to earn the money. This trend has spread more and more
over the last few years, above all because of the rising unemployment problem. It is also the case where the husband is a writer, and
can also work at home. And it enables many women to continue the
career they had before they were married.
13. Think and answer the following questions and discuss your
point of view with other students:
1) Why have women always been treated as inferior?
2) Some jobs are still closed to women — mining, being a priest,
an airline pilot, etc. Should women be allowed to do any job?
3) Some feminists refuse to use words like “barman” or “chairman” because they feel these discriminate against women. Is this a
reasonable attitude?
4) Should women have some privileges? Do you think women
should have a shorter working day? Do you think that man should
share the household duties? Who, do you think, are more socially active, men or women?
5) Do you think that gender roles will change in the near future?
Does being male or female do a difference in your life?
6) What are women’s problems in Russia? Are there any women’s
organizations?
33
UNIT IV
LEGAL PROFESSION
Lesson 1
1. Pronounce the following words and word-combinations, try
to remember their meaning. You’ll come across these words while
reading the text:
Law Faculty — юридический факультет
to provide insight — обеспечивать понимание
society — общество
invaluable — неоценимый
training — обучение, подготовка
reasoning power — способность рассуждать
verbal — устный
skill — навык
background — опыт; фон; предыстория
research — исследование
link — связь
self-contained — изолированный
legal rules — правовые нормы
a range of subjects — ряд предметов
major — главный
remainder — остаток
substantial — значительный
access — доступ
appropriate — подобающий; подходящий
defend a graduation thesis — защищать дипломный проект
common program(me) me of study — общая программа
обучения
optional course — дополнительный курс
compulsory — обязательный
tutorial — семинар
benefit — выгода
avenue of employment — сфера занятости
to pursue rational argument — приводить разумный аргумент
graduate — выпускник
side of an argument — спорящая сторона
opposite — противоположны
ability — способность
34
tool — инструмент; орудие
forensic — судебный
subsequent — последующий
critical awareness — критическое мышление
essence — сущность
employer — работодатель
post-graduate studies — обучение в аспирантуре
2. Check up if you remember the meaning of the following verbs.
If not, consult a dictionary:
— to operate;
— to upgrade;
— to award;
— to offer;
— to contain;
— to achieve;
— to increase;
— to enable;
— to pursue;
— to enter;
— to develop;
— to be able to;
— to value;
— to organize;
— to present;
— to stretch;
— to hold;
— to respond;
— to teach;
— to complete;
— to appreciate;
— to create;
— to pass;
— to choose;
— to apply;
— to defend;
— to favour.
— to explore;
— to follow;
— to spend;
— to focus;
— to house;
— to include;
3. Read the text and translate it:
LAW FACULTY OF THE ST-PETERSBURG STATE
UNIVERSITY OF AEROSPACE INSTRUMENTATION
The study of Law provides an insight into how one of the central
institutions in our society operates. It also offers an invaluable intellectual training that should increase reasoning powers and verbal
and written skills. As well as providing a background for entry into
the legal profession, Law degrees are highly valued by many employers in all areas of working life.
The St-Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation
has a tradition of teaching and research in the field of law stretching
to the foundation of the Law Faculty.
The Law Faculty academic staff teach and research across a broad
range of subjects: Civil Law, Criminal Law, Environmental Law, International Law, Financial Law, Administrative Law, etc.
The Faculty has excellent links with legal profession (both locally
and nationally), and with lawyers living and working in the city.
35
Like other subjects at the University, law is not taught as an isolated and self-contained discipline. Rather it is studied against the
broad social, political and economic background in which legal rules
are created and applied. The students have the opportunity to explore a range of subjects alongside the main Law subject. Around
60 percent of their time is spent on their Major subjects, and the remainder on courses which provide the context in which they study
Law: History, Foreign languages, Philosophy, Economics, History
of State and Law and others.
A Law Library is housed in the same building as the Law Faculty.
The library is constantly upgrading and contains a substantial collection of law books and materials.
Access to on-line materials is good at the University Internet Centre and this, together with wide — ranging periodicals and books,
enables students to get appropriate professional training and develop research skills.
The third-year students have the opportunity to focus on areas
of especial interest by taking optional courses. There is a wide selection of options, including: Administrative Law, Commercial Law,
Consumer Law, Criminology, Environmental Law, Family Law, Employment Law, International Law, etc.
The compulsory and optional subjects are taught both in large
lecture groups and in seminar groups and in small tutorials of approximately 10 or so students.
The training and education for law studies is of benefit in the
practice of Law and other avenues of employment.
During their degree the students develop their intellectual skills
for understanding and pursuing rational argument. The graduates
when they have completed their degree are able to understand how
to make a case for one side of an argument and how to present this so
that it can be seen in its best light; they also know how to make the
best opposite case.
The graduates of the faculty develop the ability to listen and respond intelligently to others. All importantly, they develop the tools
with which they will learn and appreciate other intellectual and forensic ideas in the subsequent world of work and further education.
Whether or not a student is thinking about a career in legal practice his Law degree serves him well when it comes to choosing a career. The combination of good knowledge and critical awareness
that is the essence of the Faculty Law programme is increasingly favoured by employers.
36
The Law Faculty graduates have gone to successful careers in the
legal profession and in commerce and industry. They have also been
successful in post-graduate studies and research.
4. Find the equivalent:
society
обязательный
invaluable
закон
compulsory
обучение
skill
подходящий
research
сфера занятости
appreciate
последующий
law
значительный
training
приводить довод
post-graduate studies
неоценимый
subsequent
противоположный
appropriate
общество
pursue an argument
исследование
opposite
оценить
avenue of employment
навык
substantial
обучение в аспирантуре
5. Find the words close in meaning:
to operate
now
to train
faculty
to offer
to give
area
to use
at present
chance
academic staff
to teach
discipline
field
to apply
to work
opportunity
to research
to explore
subject
6. Read the definitions and try to guess the words which
correspond to them:
1. department or a group of relating departments (at a university);
2. all the teachers, lecturers, professors (at a university);
3. investigation undertaken in order to discover new facts, get
additional information;
37
4. a person who employs others;
5. a person who holds a University degree;
6. occupation that needs advanced education and special training;
7. progress through life;
7. Choose the right words for the following sentences:
1. The study of Law provides how one of the central (institutions,
institutes) operates.
2. It also offers an invaluable (physical, intellectual) training that
should increase reasoning powers.
3. Law degrees are highly valued by many (employers, employees)
in all areas of working life.
4. Law is studied against the broad social and political (background, rules).
5. The students have the (right, opportunity) to explore a range of
subjects alongside the main Law Subject.
6. A Law Library is (housed, constructed) in the same building as
the Law Faculty.
7. The library is (slowly, constantly) upgrading.
8. Students must complete a course with (passing, taking) state
exams and defending a graduation thesis.
9. The compulsory and optional subjects are taught both in large
lecture (halls, groups) and in seminar groups.
8. Fill in the blanks with appropriate words:
1. I am a third-year student of the … Faculty.
2. The study of Law offers an invaluable … training that increases reasoning powers.
3. Law degrees are highly … by many employers working in different areas of life.
4. There is a wide … of optional subjects at the Law Faculty.
5. The graduates of the Law Faculty are able to understand how to
present a case in its best …
6. The essence of the Faculty Law … is the combination of good
knowledge and critical awareness.
7. The Law Faculty … have gone to successful careers in legal profession, commerce and industry.
(graduates; intellectual; programme; light; law; selection; valued)
9. Say whether the following statements are true or false:
a) One can understand how our society operates with the help of
the study of Law.
38
b) The study of law decreases one’s verbal and written skills.
c) Law degrees are highly valued only by employers working in
the field of jurisprudence.
d) Legal rules are created and applied against the broad social,
political and economic background.
e) During the period of study the students spend all their time at
studying law subjects.
f) A Law library is situated in the main teaching block.
g) To develop research skills the students use on-line materials
and wide-ranging periodicals.
h) A law career serves everyone well when it comes to choosing a
career.
10. Add some details to the statements using the information
from the text:
1) Law is not taught as an isolated and self-contained discipline.
2) The students have the opportunity to explore a range of subjects.
3) During their degree the students develop their intellectual
skills.
4) Law degree serves a graduate well when it comes to choosing a
career.
11. Answer the following questions:
1. What does the study of Law provide?
2. What skills does the study of Law increase?
3. Are Law degrees highly valued by many employers? Why?
4. What subjects do the Law Faculty academic staff teach and research across?
5. Law is not taught as an isolated and self-contained subject,
isn’t it?
6. Does the Faculty have excellent links with the lawyers working
in the city all over the country?
7. What courses provide the context in which the students study
Law?
8. What facilities do the students have an access to?
9. How is teaching organized at the Law Faculty?
10. In what way are the compulsory and optional subjects
taught?
11. What abilities and tools do the graduates of the Faculty develop?
12. What is the essence of the Faculty Law programme?
39
13. What fields have the Law Faculty graduates been successful
in?
12. Ask your group-mate questions using one of the following
expressions:
I’m sorry; May I ask you; Will you tell me.
Example: May I ask you? What University do you study at?
— На каком факультете ты учишься?
— Сколько студентов учится на твоем факультете?
— Какие предметы студенты изучают на твоем факультете?
— Когда был создан факультет, на котором ты учишься?
— Какими профессиональными навыками должны обладать
выпускники факультета?
— Почему ты выбрал профессию юриста?
— Как организовано обучение на твоем факультете?
— Каковы перспективы в карьерном росте?
13. Discuss your faculty and future specialty in dialogues, based
on the following situations:
1. Your friend is a Law Faculty student. Ask him to tell you about
the Faculty academic staff and departments.
2. You belong to the Law Faculty. Tell your friend how you learn
Law at the Faculty and what you like and dislike.
3. Discuss with your friends your career prospects.
Lesson 2
1. Pronounce the following words and word-combinations, try
to remember their meaning. You’ll come across these words while
reading the text:
degree (n) — звание, степень
insufficient (adj) — недостаточный
pass (v) — зд. сдавать (экзамены)
requirement (n) — требование
take a course — пройти учебный курс
finals (n) — выпускные экзамены
clerk (n) — 1) секретарь суда; 2) солиситор-практикант
articled clerk — клерк-стажер (без жалования)
supervise (v) — наблюдать (за кем-то), руководить (кем-то)
outpace (v) — опережать, превышать
salary (n) — заработная плата, получаемая ежемесячно
strengthen (v) — усиливать, укреплять
40
2. Read and translate the text:
ENTERING THE PROFESSION
How does someone become a lawyer?
As with doctors and other professionals enjoying a high level of
trust because of the specialized knowledge, lawyers are subject to
standardized examination and other controls to regulate their competence. In some countries in order to practice as a lawyer it is necessary to get a University degree in law. However, in others, a degree
may be insufficient; professional examinations must be passed. In
Britain, it is not in fact necessary to have a degree, although nowadays most people entering the profession do. The main requirement
is to pass the Bar Final examination* (for barristers) or the Law Society Final examination* (for solicitor). Someone with University degree in a subject other than law needs first to take a pre­paratory
course. Someone without a degree at all may also prepare for the final examination, but this will take several years. In most countries,
law­yers will tell you that the time they spent studying for their law
finals was one of the worst periods of their life! This is because an
enormous number of procedural rules covering a wide area of law
must be memorized. Even after passing the examination, though,
a lawyer is not necessarily qualified. A solicitor in England, for example, must then spend two years as an arti­cled clerk, during this
time his work is closely supervised by an experienced lawyer, and he
must take further courses. A barrister must spend a similar year as
a pupil.
In most legal systems, conversations between a lawyer and his client are privileged: the client should know that what he says will not
be passed on to someone else without his permission. In theory, this
could pose difficult ethical problems for a lawyer; for instance, what
should he do in a criminal case if he believes his client is guilty? The
lawyer must first decide how sure he is of the client’s guilt. It can
happen that someone thinks he has committed a crime when in fact
he lacked the necessary mental state to be guilty. In any case, it is
the prosecution’s job to prove guilt, not the defense’s to prove innocence. A lawyer could therefore defend his client simply by trying to
point out weaknesses in the prosecution case.
Another ethical problem for a lawyer arises when he has two clients whose stories contradict each other; for example, each says that
41
he is innocent and the other person is guilty. In such a case a lawyer
must transfer one of the clients to another lawyer.
The rate at which the legal profession grows is terrific. In the 21st
cen­tury the number of lawyers will probably outpace the rate of population growth.
Why is the career in law so popular? In the USA the average salary
of experienced lawyers in private practice is more than $100,000.
Lawyers’ salaries are substantially greater than those of many
other pro­fessionals. The glamour of legal practice strengthens the
attraction of its financial rewards.
Notes:
* the Bar Final examination — экзамен, который сдается при
поступ­лении в Коллегию Адвокатов
* the Law Society Final examination — экзамен, дающий право
быть членом Общества юристов (профессионального союза солиси­
торов)
3. Translate the following expressions into Russian:
become a lawyer, a high level of trust, specialized knowledge,
standardized examination, in order to practice as a lawyer, a University degree in law, a degree may be insufficient, professional examinations, to take a pre­paratory course, to spend two years as an arti­
cled clerk, to be closely supervised by an experienced lawyer, to take
further courses, to spend a year as a pupil, to pose difficult ethical
problems for a lawyer, transfer to another lawyer, lawyers’ salaries,
financial rewards.
4. Fill in every missing proper word:
a) Don’t sign anything until you have consulted a ...
b) In the USA the main administrators of federal law enforcement
are the ninety-four US ...
c) To qualify as a solicitor, a young man or woman joins a solicitor as a … and works for him whilst studying part time for the “Law
Society” exams.
d) Many … make a will before their death containing their instructions regarding what is to happen to their property when they die.
e) The clerk who sits right below the … keeps tracks of all documents and exhibits and notes down important events in the trial.
f) In criminal cases the verdict of jurors must be unanimous, that
is all … must agree that the defendant is guilty in order to overcome
the presumption of innocence.
(clerk, lawyer, jurors, attorneys, judge, people)
42
5. Answer the following questions:
1) What is it necessary to get in order to practice as a lawyer in
some countries?
2) What is it necessary to get in order to practice as a lawyer in
Great Britain?
3) What are the main requirements for barristers and solicitors?
4) Is a lawyer necessarily qualified after passing the examination? What ethical problems may a lawyer face?
5) Why is the career in law so popular?
6) How does someone become a lawyer in your country?
6. Translate the sentences from Russian into English.
1. В большинстве стран существуют различные типы юридической специальности.
2. Чтобы получить квалификацию, необходимо сдать определенный вид экзамена.
3. В Великобритании основными юридическими специализациями являются барристер и солиситор.
4. Во многих странах, чтобы заниматься юридической практикой, необходимо получить университетскую степень по праву
или сдать специальный профессиональный экзамен.
5. Даже после сдачи экзамена юрист не считается достаточно
квалифицированным специалистом. Например, в Великобритании солиситор должен проработать 2 года в качестве солиситорапрактиканта под наблюдением опытного юриста.
6. Существует две этические проблемы, с которыми может
столкнуться юрист; например, как он должен поступить, если он
считает, что его клиент, проходящий по уголовному делу, виновен. Другая этическая проблема возникает у юриста в случае, если версии двух его клиентов по одному и тому же делу противоречат друг другу. В этом случае юрист должен передать дело одного
из своих клиентов другому юристу.
7. Discussion:
Read the situation. “Ted writes out a will leaving all his property
to his wife. He phones his friends Al and Bill to come over and witness the will. While he is waiting for them to arrive he signs his will.
When Al and Bill arrive he shows them the will and says, “You see
I’ve signed it at the bottom”. Al signs his own name and then leaves.
While Ted is out of the room saying goodbye to Al, Bill signs the
will. When Ted comes back in Bill says, “Look, here’s my signature”.
Do you think Ted’s will would be valid under English law? Discuss
this with other students.
43
UNIT V
SUPPLEMENTARY READING
Text 1
Interpol
Interpol is an international corporation founded in 1923 as a service organization devoted to coordinating actions against international criminals. Its clients are 174 agencies throughout the world.
This organi­zation is not under the control or supervision of any government.
Interpol is a recognized intergovernmental police force whose
task is to hunt down the international criminal. A multinational
force, much like the United Nations, Interpol is made up of police of the Free World and a bona fide law enforcement agency in
its own right. Among the first to fight international terrorism
and sky-jacking, Interpol still leads the war on narcotics, assists
a number of nations in the continuing search for wanted Nazi war
criminals. One of the most highly respected groups in the world,
Interpol, like any other police force is under gov­ernmental control
to safeguard the basic rights of every citizen. It oper­ates according to a strict code of behaviour and adheres to the highest ethical standards.
Interpol has never been recognized or established by any interna­
tional charter or treaty and has no police powers. Because of Interpol’s cooperation with the UN particularly in the area of drugs, Interpol was recognized as an intergovernmental organization.
Interpol members are, for the most part, police and not govern­
mental representatives, although certain governments have sent ob­
servers from their military, intelligence, customs, post office, and
im­migration departments.
Interpol does not have powers of arrest or any investigative
rights. Its function is to disseminate information. Today 80 percent
of the per­manent staff is French. Interpol is much like any large corporation with bureaus in various countries and with representatives
from these offices also stationed at the main office. Information is
exchanged between the many national bureaus, but the police forces
themselves are subject to the laws and policies of their respective nations.
44
Interpol is divided into four main bodies — the General Assembly, the Executive Committee, the General Secretariat and the National Central Bureau.
The General Assembly is composed of the delegates from each
member country. It is «the Supreme Authority». The General Assembly controls the policy of the organization.
The Executive Committee is a nine-member board made-up of the
president, two vice-presidents, and six delegates chosen by the General Assembly.
The General Secretariat, the permanent body, located in Lion, is
Interpol’s business division. It contains the permanent departments
four of which specialize in certain crimes: one handles murder, burglary assault, larceny, car theft, and missing persons; another deals
with bank frauds and other types of embezzlement; a third with
drug traffic and morals offenses; and a fourth deals with forgery
and counterfeiting.
Other divisions are the general records department, where files
are kept, and a special records department, where fingerprints and
other methods of identification are used.
The National Central Bureaus are the Interpol offices in various
countries. Each NCB is empowered to communicate directly with
and exchange information with any other NCB.
Text 2
THE INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE
The International Court of Justice, whose seat is at the Hague (г.
Гаага) the Netherlands, is the principal juridical organ of the United
Nations. Its Statute is a part of the United Nations Charter.
The Court is open to all Members of the United Nations. The Court
is not open to private individuals.
The jurisdiction of the Court covers all questions which Sta­tes
refer to it.
The Court consists of 15 Judges selected by the General Assembly
and the Security Council. They are chosen on the basis of their qualifications, not on the basis of nationality, and care is taken to ensure
that the principal legal systems of the world are represented in the
Court. The Judges serve for a nine-year term and may be reelected.
They cannot engage (занимать) in any other occupation during their
term of office. All questions are decided by majority. The hearing of
the cases is under the control of the president or Vice-Presi­dent.
45
Text 3
Police Force in the United States
Historians suggest that the first modern police in the United States did not come into existence until 1833 in the city of New
York.
The first municipal police agencies consisted of night watchmen
whose responsibility was to protect property during the evening and
early morning hours. Crime continued to increase, however, and
gradually there were demands to hire men to provide similar protection during the daylight hours as well. Thus, by the 1830s and 1840s
these two types of police were combined to form a unified, more effective municipal police agency. The modern police departments
came into existence, especially in the years following World War
1. Since 1920 municipal police agencies have increasingly grown in
personnel and re­sponsibilities. Special training and more selective
recruitment practices have been developed to go hand in hand with
the use of such techno­logical developments as the automobile, the
individual police radio, and the computer. The great part of police
work does not involve crime-fighting situations but rather consists
of both service and peacekeeping activities.
Service functions include directing traffic and enforcing traffic
regulations, answering accident calls, aiding the sick, helping find a
lost child or rescue a lost pet, recovering stolen property, and reporting fires. These are all services performed to assist the public.
Peacekeeping functions of the police are designed to maintain
public order.
Text 4
CRIMINAL JUSTICE PROCESS IN THE USA
Basically, the steps in the criminal court processes are as follows:
arrest and booking, arraignment, trial and appeals (if any).
A person who comes into contact with the criminal courts must
initially be arrested. The arrest may take place with or without using a warrant (e.g. when an offense takes place in the presence of the
officer, or when there is probable or reasonable cause to believe that
a felony or misdemeanor has been committed. A felony is a serious
offense punish­able by death or imprisonment. A misdemeanor is a
less serious offense punishable by a fine or up to one year in jail, or
both. Even after an arrest the suspect may be released without being
46
prosecuted for a variety of reasons: mistaken identity, lack of proper
evidence, etc.
After the arrest is made, the suspect is booked. The booking card
of the law enforcement agency contains information such as the date
and time of arrest, the charge or crime for which the person was ar­
rested, the name of the arrested person, the name of the arresting
offi­cer. Here the accused is photographed, fingerprinted, and temporarily released on bail, if possible. The record or booking card is
permanently kept in the files of the police department. On important cases, the prosecutor may be present at the booking, but usually
he will enter the case during the arraignment or initial appearance
of the suspect before a magistrate’ or other judicial officer. Before
turning to the prosecution of the suspect, it must be remembered
that the investigative work of the police may continue even though
the accused is involved with the prosecution or court phases of the
criminal justice system.
At arraignment, summary trials can be held for petty offenses
with­out further processing. During the initial appearance before a
magis­trate1, judge or justice of the peace, the accused is to answer
the charges against him. During the arraignment procedure, the
charge may be dismissed by the court for a legal reason or the prosecutor may re­quest to have the charges dropped2. The initial appearance may also serve as the trial for minor offenses that have payment of a fine or a relatively short time in jail as punishment. Once
the judge finds a verdict of guilt3, the accused is sentenced to jail
or payment of a fine. The de­fendant may also be placed on probation
for a specified length of time. If sentenced to jail, he may be granted
parole.
The purpose of preliminary hearing in the lower court is to de­
termine whether there is a reasonable cause to believe that a felony
was committed and whether there is a reasonable cause to believe
that the accused committed the crime. It is here that a preliminary
testing of the evidence takes place. As a result the accused may be
released because of having been arrested not for probable cause, or
he may be placed on bail or moved back to jail until his case is tried
by the higher court.
If there is a reasonable belief that a crime has been committed the
accused, the prosecutor is given statutorily defined number of days
to file formal charges against the defendant. The charge is filed on
the basis of information from citizen complaints and police investigations.
47
Then another arraignment is held. If the defendant pleads guilty
a date for him to be sentenced is set by the judge. If the defendant
pleads not guilty, he may request to have a jury trial or be tried by
the court without a jury. At the trial, if the defendant is convicted, a
date for sentencing is set.
Before imposing the actual sentence an investigation by the proba­
tion officer takes place to assist: the judge in deciding on a penalty.
The defendant may be fined, sentenced to jail, or placed on probation. During this period the defendant can appeal his conviction. As
a rule, the appeal stays the execution of the sentence. If the appeal
is unsuc­cessful or the defendant decides not to appeal, the penalty is
imposed.
The defendant is then involved in the corrections of the criminal
justice system. It is here that rehabilitation of offenders is supposed
to occur4. This is the purpose of correctional establishments.
To reduce the risk of convicting an innocent person, there are
checks and reviews at all stages of the criminal justice system.
Notes:
1) a magistrate — магистрат; судья полицейского суда
2) have the charges dropped — прекратить дело
3) once the judge finds a verdict of guilt — как только судья вы­
носит обвинительный приговор
4) is supposed to occur — как полагают, происходит
Text 5
THE FIRMS AND ITS ATTORNEY
With the advent of increased government regulation, business
has become more apt to call upon lawyers to assist them through the
“red tape”. In the past a business usually did not contact lawyers until a problem arose, for example when it was sued or when a distributor would not pay an outstanding debt. However, more and more
businesses are concerned with preventive law, attempts to avoid the
unfavorable consequences that accompany uniform business practices. Business managers today have a more ongoing relationship with
the lawyers than they had in the past thus needed to know exactly
how lawyers function.
Lawyers have a common base of training: law school. In law school a
lawyer receives generalized training enabling him or her to adapt to a
wide range of tasks. The average person thinks lawyers know the law.
It is more accurate however, to say that lawyers are generally versed
48
in an array of legal principles and they know how to find the relevant
law to apply it to particular circumstances. It is this general training
and ability that equip a lawyer for various specialized tasks.
Counselor
The lawyer practices preventive law by counseling the business
client. Wise counsel can avoid a host of problems; for example, advising a corporation regarding the legal consequences of a merger
might avert potential antitrust problems. As a counselor, the business lawyer must be imaginative and perceive the range of alternative courses of action and foresee the probable legal consequences
that attach to each. To do this the business lawyer must be versed the
multidimensional operations and of the business firm.
Investigator
The role of investigator is often preliminary to the role of counselor or advocate. The lawyer needs to accumulate potentially useful information and to extract the data pertinent to the particular
task. This takes cooperation with the business client who knows the
intrafirm operations and where to find specific documents. During
the course of the investigation the attorney may uncover damaging
information or even evidence of criminal activity. The attorney owes
an allegiance to the client. Although an attorney is deemed an officer of the court and cannot counsel a client to participate in illegal
activities, nonetheless the canons of ethics, as constituted at present, do not require the attorney to “blow the whistle”.
Drafter
The business lawyer drafts documents for the firm. Contracts,
deeds, corporate instruments, and securities registration statements
are just a few of the documents that are commonly prepared by lawyers. Good drafting is important to avoid adverse consequences. In
this respect drafting is a form of preventive law.
Negotiator
The lawyer possesses negotiating skills. The role of the negotiator is akin to that of the advocate. The lawyer presents the client’s
strongest arguments in order to achieve the best result possible. Negotiation may be necessitated by a dispute with a regulatory agency,
another business, or the customer. Successful negotiation resulting
in a settlement often avoids costly suits, work stoppages, and other
undesirable economic consequences.
Advocate
In the capacity of an advocate, the lawyer is called upon to represent the client’s interest. This may occur in a court, before an ad49
ministrative agency or a legislative body, or in another arena. The
lawyer’s duty, as an advocate, is to present the fact and the law in the
light most favorable to the client. Of course, the opponent’s lawyer
will be doing the same. This is the adversary system which enables
the judge or other hearing officers to examine the full range of arguments before arriving at a reasoned decision.
Text 6
CAPITAL PUNISHMENT
The ultimate penalty is death (capital punishment). It is carried
out by hanging (Kenya, for example); electrocution, gassing or lethal injection (U.S.); beheading (Saudi Arabia); or shooting (China).
Although most countries still have a death penalty, 35 (including almost every European nation) have abolished it; 18 retain it only for
exceptional crimes such as wartime offences; and 27 no longer carry
out executions even when a death sentence has been passed. In other
words, almost half the countries of the world have ceased to use the
death penalty. The UN* has declared itself in favor of abolition, Amnesty International actively campaigns for abolition, and the issue is
now the focus of great debate.
Supporters of capital punishment believe that death is a just punishment for certain serious crimes. Many also believe that it deters
others from com mining such crimes. Opponents argue that execution is cruel and uncivi­lized. Capital punishment involves not only
the pain of dying but also the mental anguish of waiting, sometimes
for years, to know if and when the sentence will be carried out. Opponents also argue that there is no evidence that it deters people from
committing murder any more than imprisonment does. A further argument is that, should a mistake be made, it is too late to rectify it
once the execution has taken place. In 1987, two academics published
a study showing that 23 innocent people had been executed in the
United States. Research has shown that capital punishment is used
inconsistently.
In addition while in some countries young people are not sent to
prison hut to social juvenile detention centers, in Nigeria, Iran, Iraq,
Bang­ladesh, Barbados and the United States children under 18 have
been legally out to death.
As the debate about capital punishment continues, the phenomenon of death row (people sentenced but still alive) increases. In 1991,
50
no one was executed in Japan, but three people were sentenced to
death, bringing the total number on death row to fifty.
The debate also involves the question of what punishment is for.
Is the main aim to deter? This was certainly the case in 18th century
England when the penalty for theft was supposed to frighten people from stealing and compensate for inabilities to detect and catch
thieves. Is it revenge or retri­bution? Is it to keep criminals out of society? Or is it to reform and reha­bilitate them?
*The UN — ООН (Организация Объединенных Наций)
Text 7
Capital punishment: historical background
Capital punishment is the infliction of death by an authorized
public authority as a punishment. It was recognized by ancient legal
system. Ancient Hebrew law prescribed death for homicide and for
some religious and sexual offences, including bearing false witness,
kidnapping, sexual immorality, witchcraft, idolatry, blasphemy, and
sacrilege. Greek law generally regarded homicide, treason, and sacrilege as capital. Roman law rec­ognized the death penalty but regarded hard labor and banishment as lesser capital punishments, as
banishment involved serious loss of civil status.
In republican times death was mainly imposed for military
crimes. Under the dominate and the empire it became more common
as the pen­alty for a wider range of offences.
In Anglo-Saxon England murder was punishable by a fine of
which part went to the King and part to the relatives.
In early modern English law, the law imposed the death penalty
for a wide range of offences, some quite petty, and a major change
effected in the nineteenth century was to restrict it to treason and
murder. In 1957 the United Kingdom restricted it to treason and
capital murder.
Various methods of inflicting the death penalty have been utilized.
The Greek might allow a free man to take poison but a slave would
be beaten to death. In medieval and early modern Europe hanging
and be­heading were the usual ways; burning at the stake was used
for religious heretics. In modern times in the U.K. only hanging was
used, though the punishment for treason is hanging, or, if the Crown
thinks fit, beheading. In some states of the U.K. the electric chair or
the gas chamber has been used.
51
VOCABULARY
1. Юридические выражения, имеющие в своем составе глагол to be:
be under an accusation of …— быть обвиненным в …
be against — возражать против
be of age — быть совершеннолетним
be under age — быть несовершеннолетним
be alive — быть живым
be alleged — обвиняться в чем-либо
be authorized — быть уполномоченным
be empowered — иметь право
be entrusted — иметь полномочия
be aware — сознавать, понимать
be accounted to be guilty — быть признанным виновным
be accountable for one’s action — отвечать за свои поступки
be at the bar — быть барристером
be under ban — находиться под запретом
be bound to (be obliged to) — быть обязанным
be under care — находиться под опекой
be charged with — быть ответственным за …
be concerned with — быть связанным с …
be contrary to — противоречить чему-л. (кому-л.)
be convinced of — быть убежденным в чем-либо
be out of court — потерять право на иск
be in custody — находиться под арестом
be different from — отличаться от
be on duty — дежурить
be eligible — подлежать избранию
be entitled to — иметь право на
be equal — быть равноправным
be excused from — освобождаться от
be fit for — соответствовать чему-либо
be in force — действовать
be free from bias — быть беспристрастным
be found guilty — быть признанным виновным
be guilty — быть виновным
be heard by counsel — вести дело через адвоката
be hostile to — быть враждебно настроенным
be included in the amnesty — подпадать под амнистию
be innocent — быть невиновным
52
be involved — быть замешенным
be invalid — быть недействительным
be null and void — не иметь юридической силы
be liable — подлежать ответственности
be married — состоять в браке
be in office — занимать должность
be out of business — обанкротиться
be prone to — иметь склонность (к правонарушениям)
be on remand — находиться под следствием
be reasonable for — нести ответственность за …
be reluctant to (be unwilling to) — неохотно (что-то делать)
be in session-заседать
be subject to- подчиняться
be sued — отвечать по иску
be on the track — преследовать, нападать на след
be on the wanted list circular — быть в списке разыскиваемых
полицией
be tried at the bar — быть судимым в открытом суде
2. Некоторые глаголы нейтрального стиля, имеющие широкое употребление в юридической литературе:
to break — ломать, разрушать, нарушать (закон), расторгать
(соглашение):
b. into premises — проникать в помещение со взломом
b. into a door — взломать дверь
b. a law — нарушать закон
b. a marriage — расторгать брак
b. an oath — нарушать клятву
b. off relations — разрывать отношения
b. out — начинаться (война, забастовка)
b. the peace — нарушать общественный порядок
b. out of prison — совершать побег из тюрьмы
b. sanctuary — нарушать право убежища
b. up — расформировать
to bring — приносить, доставлять, возбуждать (дело),
предъявлять (доказательства)
b. an action (a charge against smb; a case before the court) —
возбуждать уголовное дело
b. an accusation against — обвинять
b. before the bar, (to justice; trial) — передавать суду; предстать
перед судом
53
b. the charge — предъявлять обвинение
b. forth a confession — делать признание
b. forward a proof — представлять доказательства
b. in a bill — вносить законопроект
b. in a verdict — выносить вердикт
b. into being — вводить в действие (закон)
b. into the court — представлять в суд (дело)
b. in the evidence to trial — представлять в суд вещественные
доказательства
b. an indictment — предъявлять обвинительное заключение
b. a prosecution — возбуждать уголовное преследование
b. a suit — возбуждать тяжбу
b. to an account — призывать к ответу
b. to the light — раскрыть
b. to terms — приводить к соглашению
to call — созывать, призывать, вызывать (в суд), требовать
(уплаты)
c. back (off) — отзывать (судью), отменять (решение)
c. for (on, upon)- требовать, призывать
c. forth — изымать из обращения денежные знаки
c. of the House — перекличка в алфавитном порядке членов
палаты представителей (США)
c. of the roll — поименное голосование
c. smb. in testimony — призывать кого-л. в свидетели
c. Parliament — созывать парламент
c. to an account — призывать к ответу
c. to the bar — принимать в корпорацию барристеров
c. to order — призывать к порядку
c. to testify — вызывать для дачи свидетельских показаний
to come — приходить; достигать, принимать (решение),
вступать (в силу)
c. after вступать (в наследство)
c. before the court — представать перед судом
c. into force (effect, operation) — вступать в силу
c. into an inheritance — получать наследство
c. into office — вступать в должность
c. of age достигать совершеннолетия
c. to an agreement (understanding) — приходить к соглашению
c. to the book — приносить присягу перед исполнением
обязанностей судьи
54
c. to a decision — выносить решение
c. to harm — потерпеть
c. within the jurisdiction — подпадать под юрисдикцию
c. within the purview of …— попадать под действие (закона)
to enter — вступать, входить, заключать (договор); приобщать
(к делу), регистрировать
e. an action — возбуждать дело
e. the appearance — регистрировать явку
e. a case — заниматься делом (о преступлении)
e. a caveat — делать письменное предупреждение
e. an event — зафиксировать (происшествие)
e. a judgement — выносить решение с занесением его в
e. into a contract — производство
e. into a treaty — заключать договор
e. into a marriage — вступать в брак
e. into undertaking (into obligations) — принимать на себя
обязательства
e. in the reference — принимать дело к производству
e. in the register — заносить в журнал регистрации
e. the legal profession — становиться юристом
e. a motion — подавать ходатайство
e. a plea — предъявлять в суд объяснения
e. a protest — заявлять протест
e. the satisfaction — вносить компенсацию
e. upon — вступать во владение
e. upon the record — приобщать к делу
to hold — держать, владеть, признавать, выносить (решение),
проводить (совещание), содержать (в тюрьме)
h. the affirmative — нести бремя доказывания
h. a brief for smb. — выступать в суде на стороне кого-либо
h. the bag — принимать на себя (ответственность)
h. back information — скрывать сведения
h. court — вершить суд
h. for court — отдавать под суд
h. criminally responsible — считать уголовно-ответственным
h. an election — проводить выборы
h. an office — продолжать осуществлять должностные функции
по истечении срока полномочий
h. an office during pleasure — занимать должность, находиться
в должности в течение времени по усмотрению назначавшего лица
55
h. pleas — рассматривать дело
h. to bail — выпускать на поруки
h. a threat of disclosure — держать под угрозой разоблачения
h. to terms — настаивать на выполнении условий
h. up — налет, ограбление
h. up man — налетчик
to keep — держать, хранить, соблюдать
k. apart — содержать раздельно
k. in custody — содержать под стражей
k. the peace — охранять общественное спокойствие
k. in prison (under observation) — содержать в тюрьме
to make — делать, производить, заставлять, понуждать
m. accountable — привлекать к ответственности
m. an agreement — заключать соглашение
m. an alteration — вносить изменения
m. an ambush — устраивать засаду
m. an appeal — подавать аппеляцию
m. one’s appearance — являться на судебное заседание
m. an arrangement — договариваться
m. an award — выносить решение
m. an call — наносить визит
m. a charge — возбуждать обвинение
m. the compensation — возмещать, компенсировать
m. a complaint — приносить жалобу
m. conditions — ставить условия
m. a contract — заключать договор
m. a deal — заключать сделку
m. default — не исполнять обязанности, не являться в суд
m. disturbances — вызывать беспорядки
m. good a loss — возмещать убытки
m. a house — составлять кворум
m. an inquiry — проводить расследование
m. laws — издавать законы
m. an oath — приносить присягу
m. an order — издавать приказ
m. a payment — производить платеж
m. peace — заключать мир
m. penal — объявлять уголовно наказуемым
m. a protest — заявлять протест
m. a revolt — поднимать мятеж
56
m. a will — делать завещание
to put — класть, ставить
p. an action — предъявлять иск
p. an affront — наносить оскорбление
p. under arrest — арестовать
p. under ban — налагать запрет
p. to death — лишать жизни, казнить
p. in a claim — подавать иск
p. in fear — устрашать
p. in force — вводить в силу
p. into court — подавать жалобу
p. on probation — назначать систему “испытания”
p. on trial — назначать дело к слушанию
p. on the torture — подвергать пытке
p. to vote — ставить на голосование
to set — ставить; класть, помещать; устанавливать
s. aside — аннулировать, расторгать
s. at liberty — освобождать
s. at naught — ликвидировать, аннулировать
s. down — заносить (дело) в список
s. free on ball — освобождать под залог
s. precedent — устанавливать прецедент
s. out leads — выдвигать версии
s. up a defence (plea) — выдвигать возражение
to take — брать; захватывать, овладевать
t. an affidavit — получать письменные показания под
присягой
t. an appeal — подавать аппеляцию
t. a ballot — ставить вопрос на голосование; проводить
голосование
t. the blame upon oneself — взять на себя вину
t. a brief — принимать ведение дела в суде
t. business — рассматривать дела
t. chair — открывать заседание, председательствовать на
заседании
t. cognizance (of) — принимать к рассмотрению (дела)
t. a concert action — предпринимать согласованные действия
t.
criminal
proceedings
—
возбуждать
уголовное
преследование
t. down verbatim — вести стенограмму
57
t. effect — вступать в силу
t. evidence — получать свидетельские показания
t. a formal note — составлять акт
t. in the act of — заставать на месте совершения
t. into custody — брать под стражу
t. judicial notice of — принимать без доказательства
t. a law off the books — отменять закон
t. legal advice — запрашивать заключение юриста
t. legal steps — возбуждать иск
t. life — лишать жизни
t. minutes — вести протокол
t. an oath — приносить присягу
t. off an embargo — снимать запрещение
t. the poll — подавать голос
t. possession — завладевать
t. proceedings — совершать процессуальные действия
t. reasonable care — проявлять разумную осторожность
t. a risk — рисковать
t. statements — проводить допрос
t. testimony — снимать свидетельские показания
t. to court — предавать суду
t. verdict — выносить приговор (вердикт)
58
CONTENTS
UNIT I. LAW AND ORDER........................................ Lesson 1.............................................................. Lesson 2.............................................................. UNIT II. LAW SYSTEMS........................................... Lesson 1.............................................................. Lesson 2.............................................................. Lesson 3.............................................................. UNIT III. CRIMINAL AND CIVIL CASES...................... Lesson 1.............................................................. Lesson 2.............................................................. UNIT IV. LEGAL PROFESSION.................................. Lesson 1.............................................................. Lesson 2.............................................................. UNIT V. SUPPLEMENTARY READING....................... Text 1................................................................. Text 2................................................................. Text 3................................................................. Text 4................................................................. Text 5................................................................. Text 6................................................................. Text 7................................................................. 3
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