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МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ
Федеральное государственное автономное
образовательное учреждение высшего образования
ГУ
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И. А. Ленькова
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САНКТ-ПЕТЕРБУРГСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ
АЭРОКОСМИЧЕСКОГО ПРИБОРОСТРОЕНИЯ
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АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНОГО ОБЩЕНИЯ
Advertising and public relations
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Учебное пособие
Санкт-Петербург
2015
УДК811.111(075)
ББК 81.2Англ.я73
Л42
Рецензенты:
кандидат филологических наук, доцент И. В. Зайцева;
кандидат филологических наук, доцент И. И. Громовая
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Утверждено
редакционно-издательским советом университета
в качестве учебного пособия
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Ленькова, И. А.
Л42 Английский язык профессионального общения. Advertising and
Public relations: учеб. пособие. – СПб.: ГУАП, 2015. – 60 с.
ISBN 978-5-8088-1051-8
Приведены оригинальные тексты из периодической печати,
Интернета и специальной литературы на английском языке. Издание направлено на развитие навыков чтения и ведения дискуссии
на базе отобранного языкового материала по темам «Связи с общественностью», «Этика и PR», «Брэндинг».
Предназначено для работы со студентами III курса, обучающихся по направлению «Реклама и связи с общественностью».
УДК 811.111(075)
ББК 81.2Англ.я73
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Учебное издание
Ленькова Ирина Анатольевна
АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНОГО ОБЩЕНИЯ.
Advertising and public relations
Учебное пособие
Публикуется в авторской редакции.
Компьютерная верстка С. Б. Мацапуры
Сдано в набор 21.10.15. Подписано к печати 09.12.15.
Формат 60×84 1/16. Бумага офсетная. Усл. печ. л. 3,49.
Уч.-изд. л. 3,75. Тираж 100 экз. Заказ № 513.
Редакционно-издательский центр ГУАП
190000, Санкт-Петербург, Б. Морская ул., 67
ISBN 978-5-8088-1051-8
©
©
Ленькова И. А., 2015
Санкт-Петербургский государственный
университет аэрокосмического
приборостроения, 2015
ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ
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Настоящее учебно-методическое пособие по английскому языку
профессионального общения предназначено для студентов третьего курса, обучающихся по направлению «Реклама и связи с общественностью».
Целью настоящего пособия является обучение практическому
овладению английским языком в профессиональной коммуникации — рекламе и связям с общественностью, критерием которого
является умение употреблять языковые средства в профессиональной сфере в различных видах речевой деятельности. В задачи пособия также входит формирование и совершенствование навыков
и умений говорения и понимания устной и письменной речи в профессиональной деятельности. Аутентичные материалы данного пособия позволяют помимо отработки, закрепления и обобщения лексического материала расширить кругозор студентов и ознакомить
их с интересными аспектами и новыми инструментами современной деятельности в области рекламы и связей с общественностью.
Поскольку спектр деятельности специалиста по рекламе и PR
невероятно широк, то данное пособие охватывает самые актуальные направления работы: сотрудничество со средствами массовой
информации, маркетинговые коммуникации, инструменты рекламы и маркетинга и пр. Кроме того, в пособии уделяется вниманию
историческим аспектам становления и развития связей с общественностью как профессиональной области и самостоятельной отрасли науки.
Пособие состоит из двух разделов. Тексты в первой части снабжены развернутой системой упражнений, направленных на освоение специальной лексики, стилистическое использование терминологии, понимание текстов и повторение грамматики. Во второй
части содержатся дополнительные текстовые материалы для обсуждения, устного или письменного перевода.
Основной методологической базой настоящего учебного пособия
является коммуникативный подход к обучению и творческая работа студентов.
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PART ONE
Text 1. Early Public Relations Experience
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Although we think of public relations as a twentieth-century
phenomenon, its roots are ancient. For example, the Babylonians of 1800
B. C. hammered out their messages on stone tablets so that farmers
could learn the latest techniques of harvesting, sowing, and irrigating.
Later on, the Greeks put a high premium on communication skills.
Occasionally, aspiring Greek politicians enlisted the aid of Sophists to
help fight verbal battles. Sophists would gather in the amphitheaters
of the day and extol the virtues of particular political candidates.
Often, their arguments convinced the voters to elect those candidates.
Thus, the Sophists set the stage for today’s lobbyists, who attempt to
influence legislation through effective communication.
The Romans, particularly Julius Caesar, were also masters of
persuasive techniques. When faced with an upcoming battle, Caesar
would rally public support through assorted publications and staged
events. Similarly, during World War I, a special U. S. public information
committee, the Creel Committee, was formed to channel the patriotic
sentiments of Americans in support of the U. S. role in the war. According
to a young member of the Creel Committee, Edward L. Bernays (later
considered by many to be the father of public relations), «This was the
first time in our history that information was used as a weapon of war».
Even the Catholic Church had a hand in the beginnings of public
relations. In the 1600s, under the leadership of Pope Gregory XV, the
Church established a college of propaganda to «help propagate the
faith». In those days, the term propaganda did not have a negative
connotation; the Church simply wanted to inform the public about the
advantages of Catholicism.
Later Thomas Paine, early practitioner of public relations, wrote
periodic pamphlets that urged the colonists to band together. In one
issue of Common Sense, Paine wrote poetically, «These are the times
that try men’s souls. The summer soldier and the sunshine patriot will,
in this crisis, shrink from the service of their country». The people
listened, were persuaded, and took action – testifying to the power of
early American communicators.
The creation of the most important document, the Constitution,
also owed much to public relations. Federalists, who supported the
Constitution, fought tooth and nail with Anti-Federalists, who
opposed it. Their battle was waged in newspaper articles, pamphlets,
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and other forms of persuasion, in an attempt to influence public
opinion. To advocate ratification of the Constitution, political leaders
like Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay banded
together, under the pseudonym Publius, to author letters in leading
newspapers. The practice of public relations continued to percolate in
the nineteenth century. Among the more prominent – yet negative –
antecedents of modern public relations that took hold in the 1800s was
press agentry. Three of the better-known practitioners of this art were
A. Kendall, P T. Barnum and I. Lee.
In 1829, President Andrew Jackson selected Kendall, a writer and
editor living in Kentucky, to serve in his administration. Within weeks
Kendall eventually became one of Jackson’s most influential assistants.
Kendall performed just about every White House public relations task.
He wrote speeches, state papers, and messages and turned out press
releases. He even conducted basic opinion polls. Although Kendall is
generally credited with being the first authentic presidential press
secretary, his functions and role went far beyond that.
Most PR-professionals would rather not talk about Phineas
T. Barnum, who was a huckster – pure and simple. His end was to make
money, and his means included publicity. He remained undaunted
even when the facts sometimes got in the way of his promotional ideas.
«The public be fooled» might well have been his main motto.
Ivy Ledbetter Lee was a former Wall Street newspaper reporter
who plunged into publicity work in 1903. To Lee the key to business
acceptance and understanding was that the public be informed. Instead
of merely appeasing the public, Lee thought a company should strive
to earn public confidence and good will. Hired by the anthracite coal
industry in 1906, Lee set forth his beliefs in a Declaration of Principles
to newspaper editors. Moreover, he urged the American Tobacco
Company, for example, to initiate a profit-sharing plan. He advised
the Pennsylvania Railroad to beautify its stations. He educated
the American public about ocean travel to overcome the negative
impressions of the Titanic and Lusitania disasters. In addition, he
was instrumental in working with Admiral Richard Byrd and aviator
Charles Lindbergh to combat the public’s fear of flying.
1. Answer the questions.
1) Without referring back to the article, can you remember in what
context Julius Caesar is mentioned?
2) In what way did the Constitution influence PR?
3) Having read the article, what can you now say about Amos
Kendall, Phineas T. Barnum and Ivy Lee?
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2. Match the verbs below to the verbs used in the text.
Pitch out, tie together, immerse, forge, carry on, impel, evade,
muster, increase, support, strain.
3. Correct the four factual mistakes in the following summary.
In the 1700s, under the leadership of Pope Gregory XV, the Church
established a college of propaganda to «help propagate the faith». In
those days, the term propaganda had a negative connotation; the Church
simply wanted to inform the public about the advantages of Catholicism.
In 1829, President Andrew Jackson selected Ivy Lee, a writer and editor
living in Kentucky, to serve in his administration. Kendall thought a
company should strive to earn public confidence and good will.
Text 2. The Growth of Modern Public Relations
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During World War I President Woodrow Wilson established the
Creel Committee under journalist George Creel. It proved to be an
effective force, mobilizing public opinion in support of the war effort
and stimulating the sale of war bonds through Liberty Loan publicity
drives. Not only did the war effort get a boost, but so did the field of
public relations.
During World War II, the public relations field received an even
bigger boost. With the Creel Committee as its precursor, the Office
of War Information (OWI) was established to convey the message of
the United States at home and abroad. Under the directorship of Elmer
Davis, a veteran journalist, the OWI laid the foundations for the United
States Information Agency as the voice of America around the world.
World War II also saw a flurry of activity to sell war bonds, boost the
morale of those at home, spur production in the nation’s factories and
offices, and, in general, support America’s war effort as intensively as
possible. By virtually every measure, this full-court public relations
offensive was an unquestioned success.
The first public relations firm, the Publicity Bureau, was founded
in Boston in 1900 and specialized in general press agentry. The first
Washington, DC, agency was begun in 1902 by William Wolff Smith,
a former correspondent for the New York Sun and the Cincinnati
Inquirer. Two years later Ivy Lee joined with George Parker to begin a
public relations agency that was later dissolved. Lee reestablished the
agency in New York in 1919 and brought in T. J. Ross as a partner.
One public relations pioneer who began as a publicist in 1913
was Edward L. Bernays, nephew of Sigmund Freud and author of
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the landmark book Crystallising Public Opinion. Bernays was a true
public relations scholar, leaching the first course in public relalions in
1923. Bernays’s seminal writings in the field were among the first to
disassociate public relations from press agentry or publicity.
Other leading public relations educators included Milton Fairman, a
Chicago news reporter and corporate public relations practitioner who
later served as president of the Foundation for Public Relations Research
and Education; Rex F. Harlow, who formed the American Council on
Public Relations in 1939 and later presided over its merger with the
Public Relations Society of America (PRSA) in 1947; and W. Howard
Chase, a founding member of the PRSA, who advocated that public
relations professionals should concern themselves with public issues
management rather than with more narrow communications problems.
Ironically, the public relations profession received perhaps its most
major forward thrust when business confidence suffered its most
severe setback. The economic and social upheaval caused by the Great
Depression of the 1930s provided the impetus for corporations to seek
public support by telling their stories. Public relations departments
sprang up in scores of major companies, among them Bendix, Borden,
Eastman Kodak, Eli Lilly, Ford, General Motors, Standard Oil, Pan
American, and U. S. Steel. The role that public relations played in
helping regain public trust in big business helped project the field into
the relatively strong position it enjoyed during World War II.
Disenchantment with big institutions reached a head in the
1960s. The conflicts during the early part of the decade between
private economic institutions, especially large corporations, and
various disenfranchised elements of society arose from longstanding
grievances. As one commentator put it, «Their rebellion was born out
of the desperation of those who had nothing to lose. Issues were seen
as black or white, groups as villainous or virtuous, causes as holy or
satanic, and leaders as saints or charlatans».
The 1970s brought a partial resolution of the problems that
afflicted society in the 1960s. Many of those solutions came through
the government in the form of affirmative action guidelines, senior
citizen supports, consumer and environmental protection acts and
agencies, aids to education, and a myriad of other laws and statutes.
This new policy of social responsibility became corporate gospel in the
1970s and has continued to the 1990s. Corporations have come to realize
that their reputations are a valuable asset, to be protected, conserved,
defended, nurtured, and enhanced at all times. In truth, institutions in
the 1990s have had little choice but to get along with their publics.
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The spread of worldwide democracy in the 1990s underscored the
impact of public opinion as a force in society. People everywhere in
the 90’s were «being heard». In Russia, for example, the totalitarian
teachings of Karl Marx and Josef Stalin and Nikita Khrushchev were
giving way to the more moderate, democratic dialogue of 1990 Nobel
Peace Prize winner Mikhail Gorbachev. And while the world in the
1990s became more open to democratic ideas, the public relations
challenge increased significantly.
The scope of modem public relations practice nowadays is vast. Press
relations, employee communications, public relations counseling and
research, local community relations, audiovisual communications,
contributions, and numerous other diverse activities fall under the
public relations umbrella. Because of this broad range of functions, many
public relations practitioners today seem preoccupied with the proper
title for their calling – public relations, external affairs, corporate
communications, public affairs, corporate relations, ad infinitum. They
argue that the range of activities involved offers no hope that people will
understand what the pursuit involves unless an umbrella term is used.
Practitioners also worry that as public relations becomes more
prominent, its function and those who purportedly practice it will be
subject to increasingly intense public scrutiny.
1. Answer the questions:
1) Why are Ivy Lee and Edward Bernays considered two of the
«fathers» of public relations?
2) Identify and discuss the main stages of public relations
development in the second part of the 20th century.
3) What are some of the yardsticks that indicate public relations
has «arrived» in the 1990s?
4) What do you think of the tendencies of PR development in Russia
nowadays?
2. Explain the meaning of the words in bold in the text.
3. Fill in the correct prepositions:
a) Problems ___ the perception ___ corporations and their leaders
dissipated ___ the United States ___ the wake ____ World War II.
b) Page’s five principles ___ successful corporate public relations
are ___ relevant now ___ they were ____ the 1930s.
c) The Truman years marked a challenging period ___ public
relations practitioners and that era was characterised ___ controls
___ information ___ the name ___ national security.
d) __ big business became more and more cognizant ___ the
vulnerable public role it played, so too did corporate managers become
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increasingly aware ___ the important role that could be played ___
skilful public relations practitioners.
e) Today approximately 200 journalism or communication
programs offer concentrated study ___ public relations ____ nearly
300 others offering ____ least one course dealing ____ the profession.
4. Fill in the gaps with the correct form of the verb in brackets.
a) From its gradual beginnings, the practice of public relations
(emerge) in the 1990s as a potent, persuasive force in society.
b) Clearly, the public relations field today – whatever (call) and by
whomever (practice) – is in the spotlight.
c) Garrett once reportedly (explain) that the essence of his job (be)
to work with the public.
d) Many professionals (recognize) that Ivy Lee (be) the individual
who (bring) honesty and candor to PR.
e) The 20th century (begin) with small mills and shops, which (serve)
as the hub of the frontier economy, (give) way to massive factories.
Text 3. Public Relations Marketing
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Public relations is different from marketing. But elements of public relations, among them product publicity, special events, spokespersons, and similar activities–can enhance a marketing effort.
A new discipline – marketing communications – has in fact emerged
that uses many of the techniques of public relations. While some may
labor over the relative differences and merits of public relations vs.
advertising vs. marketing vs. sales promotion, the fact remains that a
smart communicator must be knowledgeable about all of them.
Marketing, literally denned, is the selling of a service or product
through pricing, distribution, and promotion. Public relations, liberally defined, is the marketing of an organization. Most organizations
now realize that public relations can play an expanded role in marketing. In some organizations, particularly service companies, hospitals,
and nonprofit institutions, the selling of both individual products and
the organization itself are inextricably intertwined.
In the past, marketers treated public relations as an ancillary part
of the marketing mix. They were concerned primarily with making
sure their products met the needs and desires of customers and were
priced competitively, distributed widely, and promoted heavily through
advertising and merchandising. Gradually, however, these traditional
notions among marketers began to change for several reasons:
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• Consumer protests about both product value and safety and
government scrutiny of product demands began to shake historical
views of marketing;
• Product recalls – from automobiles to tuna fish – generated
recurring headlines;
• Ingredient scares began to occur regularly;
• Advertisers were asked to justify their messages in terms of social
needs and civic responsibilities;
• Rumors about particular companies – from fast-food firms to pop
rock manufacturers – spread in brushfire manner;
• General image problems of certain companies and industries –
from oil to banking – were fanned by a continuous blaze of criticism
in the media.
The net impact of all this was that, even though a company’s products
were still important, customers also began to consider a firm’s policies
and practices on everything from air and water pollution to minority
hiring.
Beyond these social concerns, the effectiveness of advertising itself
began to be questioned. The increased number of advertisements in
newspapers and on the airwaves caused clutter and posed a significant
burden on advertisers to make the public aware of their products. In
the 1970s, the trend toward shorter TV advertising spots contributed
to three times as many products being advertised on TV as there were
in the 1960s. In the 1980s, the spread of cable added yet another
multichanneled outlet for product advertising. Against this backdrop
the potential of public relations as an added ingredient in the marketing
mix became increasingly more credible.
Indeed, marketing professor Philip Kotler has suggested that,
in addition to the traditional four Ps of product, price, place, and
promotion, two additional Ps be added to define the marketing
concept today: (1) political power and (2) public opinion formation
through public relations. Said Kotler, «Marketers are always looking
at economic factors and rational factors. They should examine
the conflicts, the special-interest and pressure groups, the vested
interests, the political realities, and create appeals in those arenas».
1. Match the words with the correct definition on the right.
1) Impact
a) an unofficial interesting story or piece of news that might
be true or invented, which quickly spreads from person to
person
2) Rumour
b) the general situation in which particular events happen
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c) something difficult or unpleasant that you have to deal
with or worry about
4) Image
d) activities to advertise something
5) Notion
е) the way that something or someone is thought of by other
people
6) Burden
f) the force or action of one object hitting another
7) Backdrop
g) a belief/an idea
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3) Promotion
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2. Explain the meaning of the words in bold in the text and find the
appropriate synonyms to them.
3. Insert the correct preposition.
1) __ the decade of the 1990s, PR, like most other organizational
pursuits, must compete ___ its survival ___ an atmosphere____ rising
manpower costs, shrinking markets and volatile public opinion.
2) PR practitioners are increasingly expected to have mastered a
wide variety ___ technical communication skills such ___ writing,
editing, placement ____ articles etc.
3) PR professionals also become systems managers, knowledgeable
___ and able ___ deal ___ the complex relationships inherent ___ the
organization.
4) Like research, planning in public relations is essential not only
to know where a particular campaign is headed, but also to win the
support ____ top management.
5) Setting objectives, formulating strategies, and planning are
essential if the PR function is to be considered ____ equal stature
____ other organizational components.
4. Fill in the gaps with the correct form of the verb in brackets.
1) Marketing Professor Philip Kotler (say) that the days of
traditional product marketing (give) away to a more subtle, social or
PR marketing.
2) Although Kotler’s radical marketing (blossom) in the 1990s yet,
his thesis (underscore) the importance of marketers.
3) Managers a decade ago (recognize) that PR programmes (add)
another dimension to a marketing offensive.
4) If the entrepreneur (decide) that public relations support (be)
helpful, the following rules (help) secure added recognition to a small
firm.
5) An agency unfettered by internal corporate politics (trust) to
present management with an objective reading of the concerns of its
publics.
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Text 4. The Marketing Plan
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For public relations to be effective as a tool in marketing, it must be
introduced early in the marketing plan rather than as an afterthought.
The plan should carefully lay out the organization’s objectives, strategies,
and tactics for promoting and selling a product. Public relations may be
used in the marketing plan to realize a number of objectives:
1. Helping a company and product name become better known.
2. Helping introduce new or improved products.
3. Helping increase a product’s life cycle (i. e., complementing
advertising and sales promotion with additional product information).
4. Seeking out new markets and broadening existing ones at reduced
costs.
5. Establishing an overall favorable image for the product and
company.
Basically, public relations can play a critical role in positioning a
product appropriately in the market. A product’s position is the image
the product conveys in the public mind. For example, if the public
truly believes that Colonel Sanders’ chicken is «finger-licking good»
then the firm’s product-positioning strategy has worked. When the
public really believes that the folks at Allstate are «the good hands
people» or that the group from Avis really does «try harder», that’s
effective product positioning. Companies spend millions of dollars
trying to position their products in the public mind.
Public relations offers a practical and inexpensive device for conveying
product messages and helping position a firm’s products. About 8 of 10
new products fail to catch on, and the cost of these annual failures has
been estimated in the billions of dollars. Public relations, then, should be
involved early and integrated fully into the marketing plan. Whether in
helping market a new product or enhancing the staying power of an old
one, public relations can make a telling difference in product success.
1. Answer the questions:
1) What are the main sections of a marketing plan?
2) What are the main stages of a product life-cycle?
3) Prepare your own marketing plan for a product/service you like.
2. Insert the correct prepositions.
___ light ___ the difficulty today ___ raising advertising awareness
above the noise ___ so many competitive messages, marketers are
turning increasingly ___ product publicity as an important adjunct____
advertising. Although the public is generally unaware ___ it, a great
deal ___ what it knows and believes about a wide variety ___ products
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comes through press coverage. Articles ___ the newspaper’s «living»
section – describing the attributes ____ a brand ___ Burgundy or the
advantages ___ down coats or enriched dog foods – often arise ___
product-publicity information distributed____ the manufacturer.
3. Complete the text with the following words from the box.
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Product publicity, lure, remove, self-serving, sanctified, generated,
disservice, tacit, counselors stigma, intrinsic
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Perhaps more than anything else, the _____ of third-party
endorsement is the primary reason smart organizations value
________________________ as much as they do advertising. Thirdparty endorsement refers to the _______ support given a product by
a newspaper, magazine, or broadcaster who mentions the product as
news. Advertising often is perceived as __________. People know
that the advertiser not only created the message, but also paid for it.
Publicity, on the other hand, which appears in news columns, carries
no such _________. When a message is __________ by third-party
editors, it is more persuasive than advertising messages, where the
self-serving sponsor of the message is identified.
Editors have become sensitive to mentioning product names in
print. Some, in fact, have a policy of deleting brand or company
identifications in news columns. Public relations ___________ argue
that such a policy does to readers, many of whom are influenced by
what they read and may desire the particular products discussed.
Counselors further argue that journalists who accept and print public
relations material for its ________ value and then ________ the source
of the information give the reader or viewer the false impression that
the journalist the _________ facts, ideas, or photography.
Text 5. Public Relations Marketing Activities
Once an organization has received product publicity in a newspaper
or magazine, it should market the publicity further to achieve
maximum sales punch. Marketing can be done through article reprints
aimed at that part of a target audience – wholesalers, retailers, or
consumers – who might not have seen the original article. Reprints
also help reinforce the reactions of those who read the original article.
As in any other public relations activity, reprints should be
approached systematically, with the following ground rules in mind:
1. Plan ahead, especially if an article has major significance to the
organization. Ideally, reprints should be ordered before the periodical
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goes to press, so that customers can receive them shortly after the
article hits the newsstands.
2. Select target publics and address the recipients by name and title.
This strategy will ensure that the reprint reaches the most important
audience.
3. Pinpoint the reprint’s significance, either through underlining
pertinent information in the article, making marginal notes, or
attaching a cover letter. In this way the target audience will readily
understand.
4. Integrate the reprint with other similar articles and information
on the same or related subjects. Often, several reprints can be combined
into a single mailing piece. Also, reprints can be integrated into press
kits and displays.
Trade show participation enables an organization to display its
products before important target audiences. The decision to participate
should be looked at with the following factors in mind:
1. Analyze the show carefully. Make sure the audience is one that
can’t be reached effectively through other promotional materials,
such as article reprints or local publicity. Also be sure the audience is
essential to the sale of the product. For example, how responsible are
the attendees for the actual purchase?
Select a common theme. Integrate public relations, publicity,
advertising, and sales promotion. Unify all elements for the trade
show and avoid, at all costs, any hint of interdepartmental rivalries.
3. Make sure the products displayed are the right ones. Decide well
in advance exactly which products are the ones to be shown.
4. Consider the trade books. Often, trade 5 magazines run special
features in conjunction with trade shows, and editors need photos and
publicity material. Always know what special editions are coming up,
as well as their deadline schedules.
5. Emphasize what’s new. Talk about the new model that’s
being displayed. Discuss the additional features, new uses, or
recent performance data of the products displayed. Trade show and
exhibitions should reveal innovation, breakthrough, and newness.
6. Consider local promotional efforts. While in town during a trade
show, an organization can enhance both the recognition of its product
and the traffic at its booth by doing local promotions. This strategy
means visiting trade magazine editors and local media people to stir up
publicity for the product during the show.
In recent years, the use of spokespersons to promote products has
increased. Spokespersons shouldn’t disguise the fact that they are
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advocates for a particular product. Their purpose is to air their sponsor’s
viewpoint, which often means going to bat for a controversial product.
One example is the tobacco industry. In the early 1970s, with
cigarette and cigar ads banned on television and radio, the Tobacco
Institute, funded by the major tobacco companies, launched a farreaching speakers campaign to get its story to the public. During the
first three years of the campaign, tobacco speakers appeared in 350
cities in 48 states and received coverage on 1,300 television and radio
shows and in almost 300 newspapers.
Spokespersons must be articulate, fast on their feet, and thoroughly
knowledgeable about the subject. When these criteria are met, the use
of spokespersons as a marketing tool can be most effective.
Today, spokespersons come in a variety of sizes, shapes, and
occupations. The corporate chairmen of firms as diverse as Chrysler
cars, Eastern Airlines, and Wendy’s hamburgers take the lead in
promoting their companies. One local New York chicken supplier,
Frank Perdue, single-handed y put his company on the map through
advertising and publicity appearances. Celebrities from Bob Hope
(Texaco) to Jay Leno (Doritos brand corn chips) to Michael J. Fox
(Pepsi-Cola) regularly endorse products for huge sums.
Special public relations events also help to market products. Grand
opening celebrations, for example, are a staple in the public relations
arsenal. They present publicity opportunities and offer businesses a
chance to meet customers face-to-face. With the cost of print and broadcast
advertising going up each year, companies increasingly are turning to
sponsorship of the arts, education, music, festivals, anniversaries, sports,
and charitable causes for promotional and public relations purposes.
There are no particular rules for special events. They range from
media extravaganzas, such as Coca-Cola’s sponsorship of Hands Across
America in 1986 with more than six million Americans participating
in raising $35 million for the homeless, to simple groundbreaking and
open-house ceremonies for businesses, hospitals, schools, and the like.
Special events can be risky, however, especially when the party is held
and no one from the media attends.
In the 1990s, «cause-related marketing» is popular. Cause-related
marketing brings together the fund-raising needs of nonprofit groups
with the business objectives of sponsoring companies. Some companies
have been called to task for questionable tactics to promote their
products by ostensibly «doing good». Perhaps the most blatant example
came in the winter of 1990, when Coca-Cola Co. donated 20,000 cases of
Coke to American troops in Saudi Arabia. It then promoted the gesture
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to the national media, which questioned the company’s aggressive
efforts to seek publicity. Later, Anheuser-Busch donated 22,000 cases
of a nonalcoholic beer to the troops in Saudi Arabia and decided, in
light of Coke’s experience, to soft-pedal the announcement.
1. Answer the questions:
1) What factors should be considered in assessing trade-show
participation?
2) Discuss the phenomenon of the «spokesperson».
3) Describe the pros and cons of using someone well known as a
spokesperson.
4) What is cause-related marketing?
5) What is the benefit of staging a special event?
2. Complete the text using the correct forms of the words in
brackets.
In (plan) special events, public relations professionals (advise)
well to seek outside help, even though it usually doesn’t come cheap.
Practitioners can find just about any type of assistance by (consult)
local directories and industry source books, which periodically (update)
to include an ever-changing variety of external services that (support)
public relations work – from fund raising to sky writing to blowing up
balloons. Done sparingly and (conceive) thoughtfully, special events
can significantly enhance the marketing of a product or institution.
Public relations also helps market products through appeals to
consumer demands. (Sponsor) nutritional recipes, (publish) consumer
information advice, and (lobby) for consumer-oriented legislation all
(help) market a company’s products. If consumers believe a company
sincerely (concern) about their welfare, their trust may translate into
purchase decisions.
More companies today (seek) marketing benefits from their
goodwill activities. An ideal match (raise) funds for the nonprofit
group, while (offer) a business visibility among prospects.
For the small entrepreneur starting out in business, public relations
sophistication can be a great advantage. A small operation can effectively
use public relations techniques to enhance the marketing of its products
and itself. The key to using public relations techniques to market a small
company is the same as it is in promoting a large company: before any
public relations program (consider), solid results must be (achieve). In
other words, performance must always (precede) publicity.
3. Insert the correct prepositions.
In the 1990s, the most lucrative field ___ product spokespersons
is sports. In 1990, the 30 highest-paid athletes ___ the world earned
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a total ___ about $230 million – ___ one-third the income coming
_____ pitching products, not balls. Golfers Jack Nicklaus and Arnold
Palmer each made $8 million ___ endorsements. Basketball superman
Michael Jordan and tennis star Boris Becker each made $6 million
___ endorsements. Hockey great Wayne Gretzky and football legend
Joe Montana each pocketed $3 million. But the up-and-coming,
undisputed King ___ the Spokespersons was an all-everything athlete,
known simply ___ Bo.
Although celebrity spokesmanship is big business today, it is not
___ its pitfalls. The two co-stars ___ the hit TV show, «Moonlighting»,
both got into hot water ___ the products they represented. Bruce Willis
was spokesman ___ the liquor manufacturer, The Seagrams Company,
when the actor admitted he had a drinking problem. Cybil Shepherd
was dropped ___ spokeswoman ___ the National Beef Council when
she confessed that she shunned the product. Former U.S. Speaker ___
the House Tip O’Neill was roundly criticized ___ leaving office and
becoming spokesman _____ every shoe company, beer firm, hotel chain,
and airline ___ whom he could make a connection. Critics thought the
Tipster should have been a bit more selective ___ his endorsements.
Especially picky ___ marketing their images are rock stars. Indeed,
when Prince, the diminutive Minnesota rocker ___ the risque lyrics,
was asked ___ his photo ___ use _____ a certain public relations
textbook, the author received the following warning ___ the decidedly
unrocklike law firm ___ Manatt, Phelps, Rothenberg & Tunney.
4. Explain the meaning of the words in bold in the text and find the
appropriate synonyms to them.
Text 6. Meeting the press
Press interviews, news conferences, media tours and other kinds
of gatherings provide excellent opportunities to communicate your
message to a variety of audiences. They are more personal than just
sending written materials and allow reporters to get direct answers
from news sources.
Company executives prone to stage fright may view direct one-toone contact with the media as a nightmare. they fear that they will say
something stupid, be misquoted, or be “ambushed” by an aggressive
reporter who will slant the interview to imply that the organisation
is guilty of some wrong done. The role of press relations is to achieve
maximum publication or broadcasting of PR information in order to
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create knowledge and understanding. The press includes all news media –
press, radio, television and cinema newsreels. information published in
the mass media should be of interest to readers, newsworthy and is worth
publishing. These standards should always be used by the PR-specialist
to test all news releases, pictures and all press events organised.
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6.1. Press-release
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A press release creates an image of the organisation in the eyes of
the editors. A good press-release should answer the following questions
about your news:
• Who? Who are the key players – your company, anyone else involved
with the product? Who does your news affect/who does it benefit?
• What? What is new?
• Why? Why is this important news – what does it provide that is
different?
• Where? Where is this happening/is there a geographical angle/is
the location of business relevant?
• When? What is the timing of this? Does this add significance?
• How? How did this come about?
As a starting point, writing down the answers to these questions
can be helpful. It’s then a matter of putting them together in short
punchy sentences. That sounds simple, but can be quite challenging.
If you can’t get the words right straight away, keep trying. Most press
releases go through several drafts before they are right. It’s essential
that you get across the benefits that your news will bring. It’s helpful to look at the ‘news in brief’ section in newspapers.
If you can capture the essence of your story in 50 words or fewer, as
they do in newspapers, you are on the right track. You need to get
the essence of your story in the first paragraph. Often, once you have
crafted your first paragraph the rest will follow, with each paragraph
providing more information and explanation.
It is not uncommon for press releases to be printed in the publication
without any further follow-up with the sender. One point to bear in
mind is that editors edit from the bottom of a press release up so ensure
the most important points are at the top of the release.
The most important thing to think about when writing a press
release is the target audience. The angle that will interest the readers
of a specialist magazine will be very different to those that read the
local newspaper. In fact, you should write different versions of your
release for the different audiences you are targeting. 18
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When thinking about the audience, consider what knowledge they
have about your company and product and the type of language they
will understand. The language used to describe production processes,
for example, might be relevant for specialist engineering titles but not
for your local newspaper.
Key ways to structure and present your press release are below:
Timing – for immediate release or embargo?
You need to indicate at the top of the release whether it is for
immediate release or under embargo and if so, give the relevant date.
Generally, immediate release will be sufficient. It can be frustrating
for journalists to receive information under embargo that cannot be
published straight away. An embargo does not mean that journalists
can’t contact you about it however. It just means that you are asking
them not to use the information before a particular date.
Give the release a title
Under the immediate release or embargo heading, next give a title.
The job of the title is to grab attention and encourage the journalist
to read more. Don’t labour over what title might look good in print –
most journalists/editors will change the title anyway if the release is
to be used.
Use double spacing
It’s good form to use double spacing, with wide margins. This helps
the journalist in making notes and helps present your news clearly.
How many paragraphs?
The answer is as few as you need to get your points across. Avoid
waffle and lengthy explanation. Keep the copy as tight as possible.
If your release runs to three pages plus, this suggests it’s an article
rather than a press release.
So, you need to get all the information into the first paragraph. The
test of success is whether the story can be understood in its entirety if
only the first paragraph was reproduced in print.
The second paragraph expands on information in the first, giving a
bit more detail. Often, the third paragraph provides a quote. The fourth
paragraph outlines final information, such as referencing websites and
ordering, or mentions other products in development, for example.
How to end the press release
Signal the end of the press release with the word “Ends” in bold.
After “Ends”, write “For further information, please contact” and list
your details or those of an appointed person. Do give a mobile number
so that journalists can make contact out of office hours. The more
accessible you are, the better.
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If any further points of information are needed, these can go in
“Notes to editors” under the contact information. Examples might
include background information on the company (called a boilerplate),
or a note saying that photos are available. It’s helpful to number these
points to make the presentation of your release as clean as possible. A writing style with sentences that are 25 words in length, preferably
fewer, helps give your release ‘punch’. You don’t need to give lengthy
explanations. The release should give the journalist the essence of the
story. They will telephone you if they want more information. If you
get the news content right and write to the publication’s style, you
give yourself a good chance of getting your story across.
The release should take a factual tone and be short and concise.
If anything about your story needs further explanation, place this
additional information in ‘Notes to editors’.
For issuing to broadcast journalists, the same rules apply in terms
of writing and presentation. It is not uncommon to be invited for
interview and find that, particularly in live interview situations, the
interviewer has only read the first paragraph of the release or scanned
it in the 30 seconds before the interview. It’s wise to treat the subject
line on the email as the title, to grab the journalist’s attention. Any
release sent by email should be pasted into the email rather than
attached. Many press and media organisations have automatic blocks
on attachments. Also, it’s wise to avoid any jpeg logos. Journalists are
inundated by emails, so do follow up your emailed press release with a
telephone call to check receipt and help sell your idea.
It’s advisable to include in your press release, under ‘Note to
editors’, that photos are available on request rather than sending them
automatically with your email release. Clogging up in-boxes won’t win
you any friends. When you send through a photograph, always include a
caption. If people are included, state “Left to right…” then list the people
in the shot and any further detail that’s relevant (i.e. where, when, etc).
1. Answer the questions:
1) What questions should a good press-release answer?
2) What are the most important things to think about when writing
a press-release?
3) What are key ways to structure and present a press-release?
2. Read the text below and fill in the gaps from the words in the box.
tip off, newsworthy, deserves, cardinal, credibility, device, crush, state,
flexible, vehicle, concisely, reminders, evolve, stimulating, inverted
pyramid, announcing, ruin, basic, sloppy, overriding, verbatim, critical
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The news release, a valuable _________, is the granddaddy of
public relations writing. Everyone uses the release as the ___________
interpretive mechanism to let people know what an organisation is
doing. That’s why the news release ____________ special attention as
a public relations writing _________.
A news release may be written as the document of record to _______
an organization’s official position – for example, in a court case or
in ___________ a price increase. More frequently, however, releases
have one _____________ purpose: to influence a publication to write
favourably about the material discussed. Each day professionals send
releases to editors in the hopes of _________ favourable stories about
their organisations. Most of the time, news releases are not used
________. Rather, they may ________ editors to potential stories or
serve as editorial ________ about coming stories.
The style of a news release is almost as ______ as its content.
_________ style can break the back of any release and _____ its
chances for publication. Style must also be ______ and _______ as
language changes. The ________ rule in release content is that the
end product must be ___________. The release must be of interest to
an editor and readers. Issuing a release that has little chance of being
used by a publication serves only to ________ the __________ of the
writer. When a release is newsworthy and of potential interest to an
editor, it must be written clearly and _________, in proper newspaper
style. Moreover, it must follow _________ structure to its conclusion.
3. Read the example of a press-release and answer the questions below.
InterFood
10th International Exhibition for Food Products
Prodtech
International Exhibition for Food Processing
and Packaging Technology
10–13 April, 2006
Lenexpo
From 10 to 13 April, 2014, Lenexpo will host the largest food
exhibitions in North-Western Russia, InterFood and Prodtech.
InterFood, an international project launched in the pre-crisis year
1997, announced that this year it marks its 10th anniversary.
These two exhibitions cover the entire chain from the production
to the sale of foodstuffs and drinks. Due to their extensive coverage,
InterFood and Prodtech are an ideal venue for participants and visitors
to develop their business.
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The exhibitions are officially supported by the Ministry of Agriculture
of the Russian Federation, St. Petersburg Government, Government of
Leningrad region, Association of Trade Unions of the Agro-Industrial
Complex Enterprises (ASSAGROS), Union of Food Ingredients Producers
(SPPI), Committee on Industrial Development and High-Tech of the
Chamber of Commerce Industry of the Russian Federation.
Although the extensive coverage and the variegated business
program have since long become a tradition of InterFood and Prodtech,
this year the organizers (Primexpo and RESTEC) have carried out a
promotional campaign unprecedented in its scale and budget; from the
middle of March, all advertising media in the streets of St. Petersburg
(banners, posters, boards, light panels and electronic displays) have
been promoting the forthcoming exhibition.
The business program of the exhibitions is traditionally popular
with the industry’s professionals whose interests and wishes are
always taken into account by the organizers. The entire program is
covered by the title of the North-Western Food Forum. This year the
Forum will organize the traditional competitions for The Best Food
Product (InterFood award), Progressive Technologies and Equipment
for Food and Developing Industries, and Golden Ingredient: Northern
Palmyra. Alongside competitions and seminars, you can visit St.
Petersburg’s first workshop “Private label: food products released
under brands of trading networks” and conference “Recycling:
aluminium and polymeric materials reworking. Recycling of food
industry’s wasters”. The spring exhibitions of foodstuffs will become
an important event in the life of St. Petersburg.
4. Insert the prepositions.
1. The constant demand __ news means that journalists are
always___ the lookout __ an interesting press release.
2. Build up your press release like a pyramid ___ the most important
information ___ the very top and other facts supporting its structural
base.
3. Address the press release __ “Editor” __ the print media and
“News Director” __ broadcast media.
4. Start the press release __ dateline, which no longer carries the
date, but merely the name __ the company ___ which the news comes.
5. ___ the bottom __ the release indicate if the person named ___
the release is “available for phone interview” and provide the telephone
number.
6. The press release can’t be used ___ the private soapbox __ the
release writer.
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launch
announce
variegated
promotional campaign
take into account
competition
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7. Typically __ the press release, after the lead a spokesperson is
quoted ___ additional product or event information.
8. The press release must appear __ an accurate representation ___
the news that the organization wishes to be conveyed.
9. Editing the press release is the final touch ___ the public relations
writer, as each release paragraph should flow naturally __ the text of
any newspaper.
10. In our society press release remains one __ the best ways ___ the
company to transmit the information ______ mass media __ its publics.
5. Match the words which are close in their meaning:
multi-coloured
advertising campaign
set up
heed
contest
declare
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6. Match the words which are opposite in their meaning:
innovative
save
amateur
expert
typical
partial
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unprecedented
newcomer
traditional
entire
waste
professional
7. Underline the correct word.
1. Writing press releases is one of the most valuable/beneficial
skills of a PR practitioner.
2. Generally/occasionally exclamation points should be resisted in
the press release.
3. There are many guidelines/instructions for the spelling out of
numbers in the press release.
4. The press release forms the point of departure/outcome for an
original newspaper story.
5. Public relations ideas and releases are the integral/peripheral
part of newspaper content.
6. In the press release we must also remind/remember about the
punctuation.
8. Put the sentences of the press release in the correct order.
1. Hotel Chain and ex-American footballer
• Palmtree Hotels runs 150 small to medium sized hotels in different
towns and cities in the USA. It was started in 1930 by a shoe millionaire
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who, when he was a travelling salesman, had found it difficult to find
a decent place to stay.
• Chase, 49, played for the Boston Red Sox for 13 years before
going on to pursue hit passion for cooking. He attended the Louisiana
Culinary School and owns a restaurant in Cape Cod.
• Hotel chain appoints ex-American footballer to improve its menu
and the quality of the service.
• Chase said; "As a professional baseball player I discovered how
important it is to stay in a hotel that makes you feel at home. Good
food plays a vital part In making guests feel comfortable”.
• Palmtree Hotels has recruited Chase Gordon as a non-executive
director to improve the quality and variety of its menu.
• Phil Scrivener, managing director of Palmtree Hotels, said: "Our
new non-executive director combines business sense and culinary
knowledge with a competitive desire to be the best".
2. TOP 50 PR Firms
• The study exposes an apparent split of Top 50 PR agencies based
on the industry standard of fee billings into three categories: a "Bulge
Bracket" of giants, a "Big Middle" of 14 firms all trying to be among
the Top 10 agencies, and "Entrepreneurs," who are scrambling to
reach from $4–10 million in fees.
• Chester Burger Company, founded in 1963, is the oldest and largest
management consulting firm specializing in communications issues.
The firm's expertise is in defining objectives, developing strategies and
organizing communications functions. "The future of public relations
is bright," said James E. Arnold, president of the firm.
• New study of TOP 50 PR firms explorers challenges shaping
industry.
• The report, ISSUES AND TRENDS 1989: Top 50 PR Firms,
was developed from confidential, open-ended interviews with senior
executives of 26 of the Top 50 PR agencies conducted by Chester
Burger Company.
• Further, it brings to light the inherently different approaches of
agencies in each category to top the next rung or hold their position.
• New York, May 22, 1989 – A new study, widely praised by industry
opinion leaders, targets major issues and trends affecting the growth
of the $900 million fee based public relations industry.
• ISSUES AND TRENDS reports that the public relations industry
is healthy, with a compound growth rate of 20 percent per year among
the Top 50 agencies over the last five years.
9. Write a press release.
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Yesterday Group Bavaria acquired Berlin Cafes after two months
of a takeover battle. Group Bavaria is one of the leading restaurant
chain (35 restaurants) in Germany. Bernd Schneider, General director of Group Bavaria, stated: “Our purpose is to double our business
within the next three years”.
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6.2. Backgrounder
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A backgrounder is a document often provided with a press
release, press advisory or as part of a larger media kit that gives a
more detailed background of an issue, event, person of interest or
launch. It is provided because advisories and releases are necessarily
kept short and succinct. The backgrounder provides more information
to the journalist or media outlet without compromising the readability
or standard format of the advisory or release.
Typical sections of a backgrounder may include history of the
organization, event or topic at hand, applicable statistics or other data,
the names, descriptions and qualifications of important people within the
organization, direct statements about why the event or issue is applicable
and worth covering in today’s news cycle (and in general), geographical or
population data related to the issue, and a couple of emotive, interesting
stories that the journalist could use to create their story. Since most of your documents will be aimed at media
organizations, keep in mind that you’re writing for busy professionals,
so make ample use of subheads and easy-to-reference graphics, too.
Your research may involve interviewing your client or other members
of the organization; outside research should be heavily cited, as
journalists will often want to follow-up and verify your information.
Consider editing the backgrounder based on your targeted media
outlet. Think about who your ideal media outlet is for the event
or launch you’re working on, and then consider if they’d be more
interested in the history of your event, the roles of the people in the
organization, or the geographical applicability of the work at hand.
Despite the above suggestions, backgrounders--like all pieces aimed
at journalists – should be kept brief. The last thing a PR writer wants
to do is lose the interest of the media!
Backgrounder documents may be used as part of a media kit, such as
one stored on an organization’s website or given out in hard copy during
a press event. Note that this means it should render well in print and
electronically. They are often used in conjunction with press events,
such as staged rallies or press conferences. Again, they are generally
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provided with several other documents as part of a media kit. They can
be used other ways, too, such as a way to introduce a new organization,
issue or event to the media, or as a touch-base for talking points. 1. Mark the following statements as true or false.
1. The backgrounder provides additional information about the
organisation.
2. The backgrounder provides the information that could be found
in a press release.
3. Backgrounders are shorter than press-release.
4. Backgrounders are not a part of a media kit.
5. It makes no difference whether the information should be
interesting, newsworthy and useful.
6. The backgrounder shouldn’t be brief.
2. Read a sample backgrounder and answer the questions below.
Primexpo, one of the leading Russian organisers of specialised
exhibitions in St. Petersburg and Moscow, was founded in 1996. It
is a key member of ITE Group (London), which is a member of the
international exhibition association UFI. Since 2004, Primexpo is a
member of the International Union of Exhibitions and Fairs (IUEF).
Today, the company organises exhibitions and conferences in the
fields of construction (BalticBuild), healthcare (Hospital, Pharmacy,
Stomatology), aesthetic medicine (AestheticMed), packaging (UPEM),
equipment, technologies and packaging for the food industry (Prodtech,
Foodpack), food products, drinks, ingredients (InterFood, Drinks,
Ingredients), components and equipment for the electronic and electrical
industry (ExpoElectronica, ElectronTechExpo, Power Electronics),
measuring equipment and industrial automation (MERATEK), surface
treatment (ExpoCoating), power and energy saving (POWERTEK) as
well as industrial subcontracting (SUBCONTRACT).
For years of working Primexpo has proved that it is a reputable
company which maintains a policy of transparency regarding
exhibition statistics. Every year Primexpo hosts approximately 3,500
companies from over 60 countries and more than 180,000 visitorsspecialists, and statistical data is illustrating the stable growth of
exhibition space and the number of visitors and exhibitors.
Primexpo is committed to professionalism and is a keen contributor
to the development of the exhibition industry in Russia. The company
has a number of long-term cooperation agreements with many of
Russia’s largest exhibition complexes – Lenexpo, Crocus Expo,
Olympisky and others, as well as mutual projects in collaboration with
other first-rate exhibition organisers.
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Primexpo works actively with the offices of ITE throughout the
CIS and has also been working jointly with the St. Petersburg Chamber
of Commerce and Industry to assist with the participation of local
companies in exhibitions in neighbouring countries. The InterFood
Azerbaijan and Chemie exhibitions in Baku and Almaty, respectively,
were first events covered by this project.
Primexpo has received several awards for its work in recent years.
The BalticBuild and the Hospital St. Petersburg exhibitions were the
laureates of the “Best International Project of the Year” competition in
the category “Best St. Petersburg Exhibition with the Most Effective
International Participation”. In 2004, Primexpo was granted the
honorary title of “Trustworthy Partner” and received a special prize
in the 2nd “Made in St. Petersburg” city exhibition of commodities and
services held by the St. Petersburg Government’s Committee on the
Economical Development, Industrial Policy and Commerce. In 2005
Primexpo became the laureate of the 3rd “Made in St. Petersburg”
city exhibition of commodities and services for the high quality
performance, revival and image-building of the St. Petersburg brand. 
Primexpo is one of the largest contributors to the local economy and
actively participates in many charitable activities. The company donated
funds to disabled children (the Solnechnoye sanatorium) and aged people
under the care of governmental organisations (the Hospis No. 1).
One of the most significant factors behind the success of Primexpo
is skill, motivation, dedication and experience of its staff. The sheer
number of successful projects undertaken by the Primexpo is impressive
and underlines their professionalism. Primexpo exhibitions are amongst
the best in Russia and for a relatively young company, Primexpo has
proved that it is a solid and stable St. Petersburg enterprise.
1. What are the essential elements of this backgrounder?
2. What is the difference between a press release and a
backgrounder?
3. When might one use a backgrounder rather than a press release?
4. If you were a PR manager of this company, would you send every
editor the same backgrounder or would particular editors get different
versions?
5. What should an organisation benefit from a backgrounder?
3. Write a backgrounder using the following information.
• In the 1860s Henri Nestlé, a pharmacist, developed a food for
babies who were unable to breastfeed.
• In 1905 Nestlé merged with the Anglo-Swiss Condensed Milk
Company.
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• The 1920s saw Nestlé’s first expansion into new products, with
chocolate the Company’s second most important activity.
• Profits dropped from $20 million in 1938 to $6 million in 1939.
• In 1947 came the merger with Maggi seasonings and soups. Crosse
& Blackwell followed in 1960, as did Findus (1963), Libby's (1971) and
Stouffer's (1973). Diversification came with a shareholding in L'Oréal
in 1974.
• Nestlé divested a number of businesses1980 / 1984.
• The first half of the 1990s proved to be favorable for Nestlé:
trade barriers crumbled and world markets developed into more or less
integrated trading areas.
• There were two major acquisitions in North America, both in 2002:
in July, Nestlé merged its U.S. ice cream business into Dreyer’s, and in
August, a USD 2.6bn acquisition was announced of Chef America, Inc.
• The year 2003 started well with the acquisition of Mövenpick Ice
Cream, enhancing Nestlé’s position as one of the world market leaders
in this product category. In 2006, Jenny Craig and Uncle Toby’s were
added to the Nestlé portfolio and 2007 saw Novartis Medical Nutrition,
Gerber and Henniez join the Company.
4. Find the appropriate synonyms to the words in italics.
1. The organisation wants to have information in the hands of
media at the proper time.
2. The backgrounder follows a tendency to capitalise the name of
every little subcommittee or programme.
3. Every backgrounder needs students to use Associated Press style
manual, which gives form and usage for news writing.
4. When you have written enough, don’t be afraid to end neatly and
swiftly.
5. The readability tests will help you to find out whether you have
written simply for your audience.
6. The PR writer must check past articles about organisation and
find how the publics perceives the organisation.
7. PR writer should show the key elements to carry the story along.
Text 7. Purposes of Public Relations Advertising
Traditional public relations, or nonproduct, advertising – as
opposed to image or issue positioning – is still very much in practice
for specific purposes. Such advertising can be rather appropriate for a
number of mutually supportive activities.
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1. Mergers and diversifications. When a company merges with another,
the public needs to be told about the new business lines and divisions.
Advertising provides a quick and effective way to convey this message.
2. Personnel changes. A firm’s greatest asset is usually its managers,
its salespeople, and its employees. Presenting staff members in
advertising not only impresses a reader with the firm’s pride in its
workers, but also helps build confidence among employees themselves.
3. Organizational resources. A firm’s investment in research and
development implies that the organization is concerned about meeting
the future intelligently, an asset that should be advertised. The
scope of a company’s services also says something positive about the
organization.
4. Manufacturing and service capabilities. The ability to deliver
quality goods on time is something customers cherish. A firm that
can deliver should advertise this capability. Likewise, a firm with a
qualified and attentive servicing capability should let clients and
potential clients know about it.
5. Growth history. A growing firm, one that has developed steadily
over time and has taken advantage of its environment, is the kind of
company with which people want to deal. It is also the kind of firm
for which people will want to work. Growth history, therefore, is a
worthwhile subject for nonproduct advertising.
6. Financial strength and stability. A picture of economic strength
and stability is one that all companies like to project. Advertisements
that highlight the company’s financial position earn confidence,
customers, and corporate stockholders.
7. Company customers. Customers can serve as a marketing tool,
too. Well-known personalities who use a certain product may be
enough to win additional customers. This strategy may be especially
viable in advertising for higher-priced products, such as expensive
automobiles or sports equipment.
8. Organization name change. Occasionally, firms change their
names (Jersey Standard to Exxon, American Metal Climax to AMAX,
First National City Corporation to Citicorp). To stick in people’s minds,
a name change must be well promoted and well advertised. Only through
constant repetition will people become familiar with the new identity.
9. Trademark protection. Companies such as Xerox and Coca-Cola,
whose products are household names, are legitimately concerned about
the improper generic use of their trademarks in the public domain.
Such companies run periodic ads to remind people of the proper status
of their marks. In one such ad, a perplexed secretary reminds the boss,
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a)
to combine or join together, or to cause things to do this.
a name or a symbol which is put on a product to show that
2) Dilemma
b) it is made by a particular producer and which cannot be
legally used by any other producer.
a situation in which a difficult choice has to be made
3) Merge
c)
between two different things you could do.
the people who are employed in a company, organization
4) Investment d)
or one of the armed forces.
5) Trademark е) when something is not likely to move or change.
the act of putting money, effort, time, etc. into something
6) Scope
f) to make a profit or get an advantage, or the money, effort,
time, etc. used to do this.
7) Stability
g) the opportunity for doing something.
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1) Personnel
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«If you had ordered 40 photocopies instead of 40 Xeroxes, we wouldn’t
have been stuck with all these machines!»
10. Corporate emergencies. Occasionally, an emergency situation
erupts – a labor strike, plant disaster, or service interruption. One quick
way to explain the firm’s position and procedures without fear of distortion
or misinterpretation by editors or reporters is to buy advertising space.
This tactic permits a full explanation of the reasons behind the problem
and the steps the company plans to take to resolve the dilemma.
1. Fill in the correct preposition. Choose any four items and make
up sentences with them:
The quantity ___ advertising, ___ a period ___ contraction,
interest ___ the advertising, talks ___ social responsibility, focus ___
the general image, purchasing actions ___ the products, pressure ___
a reshaping advertising techniques.
2. Match the words with the correct definition on the right.
3. Answer the questions:
1) What are the general purposes of public relations advertising?
2) What rules must organizations keep in mind when attempting
PR advertising?
3) Provide the examples of image advertising.
Text 8. Advertising and Publicity Techniques
No matter whether you work for the largest manufacturing company,
the poorest politician, or the tiniest nonprofit organization, chances
are good that if you are engaged in public relations work, attracting
positive publicity will be among your primary responsibilities.
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Securing publicity is perhaps the best-known aspect of public relations
work. Certainly, it is the function most associated with public relations.
In fact, in most people’s minds, publicity is public relations.
Publicity, through news releases and other methods, is designed
to broaden knowledge and positive recognition of an organization, its
personnel, and its activities. Publicity is most often gained by dealing
directly with the media, either initiating the communication or
reacting to inquiries. Publicity differs dramatically from advertising,
despite the fact that most people confuse the two.
Advertising possesses the following characteristics:
1. You pay for it.
2. You control what is said.
3. You control how it is said.
4. You control to whom it is said.
5. To a degree, you control where it is put in a publication or on the air.
6. You control the frequency of its use.
Publicity, on the other hand, offers no such controls. Typically,
publicity is subject to review by news editors, who may decide to use
all of a story, some of it, or none of it. When it will run, who will see
it, how often it will be used – all such factors are subject, to a large
degree, to the whims of a news editor. However, even though publicity
is by no means a sure thing, it does offer two overriding benefits that
enhance its appeal, even beyond that of advertising.
First, although not free, publicity costs only the time and effort
expended by public relations personnel and management in attempting
to place it in the media. Therefore, relatively speaking, its cost is
minimal, especially when compared with the costs of advertising and
assessed against potential returns.
Second and most important, publicity, which appears in news rather
than in advertising columns, carries the implicit endorsement of the
publication in which it appears. In other words, publicity is perceived
as objective news rather than self-serving promotion, which translates
into the most sought-after of commodities for an organization:
credibility. And this is the true value of publicity over advertising.
Gaining access to the media is a common problem among organizations
wishing to attract positive publicity. People often complain that the media
are more interested in bad news than in anything positive. To a degree,
this complaint is valid. Although no two reporters or editors can agree
on what constitutes news, more often than not, news is the sensational,
the unusual, or the unexpected. And oftentimes for an organization,
this equals bad news. Indeed, in recent years, large multinationals like
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Mobil Oil and Kaiser Aluminum have taken the unprecedented step of
purchasing media air time to tell their side of a story.
Obviously, most organizations lack the resources to do this. But
clearly, every organization yearns to earn positive mentions in the media.
And this objective is indeed attainable. Overall, what’s required is a
basic, common sense knowledge of the media people with whom you’re
dealing and a sense of courtesy, responsiveness, and respect in dealing
with them. It bears repeating: journalists –or at least most of them – are
people, too. Treat them that way, and the goal of penetrating the print or
broadcast barriers lies within reach. The next several pages offer specific
suggestions for developing a positive relationship with the media.
Occasionally, events trigger an immediate need to disseminate
company news. A sudden change in management, a fire or explosion
at a plant, a labor strike or settlement – all engender the need for
news publicity. In a more controlled sense, news publicity is used
to announce plant openings, executive speeches, groundbreakings,
charitable donations, major appointments, and product changes.
1. Feature. Less news-oriented material provides the media with
features: personality profiles on management and company personnel,
helpful hints from company experts, case studies of ongoing and
successful company programs, innovative ways of opening up
production bottlenecks, or unusual applications of new products.
Practitioners also often help freelance writers in this task.
2. Financial. Generally, this material concerns earnings releases,
dividend announcements, and other financial affairs. The Securities
and Exchange Commission requires that all publicly held companies
announce important financial information promptly, through the
media and news wires.
3. Product. Publicizing new or improved products has enormous
potential to aid bottom-line profits. However, such publicity should be
used judiciously, so that the media do not feel that the organization is
going overboard in attempting to boost sales.
4. Picture. The old maxim «A picture is worth a thousand words»
is particularly true in public relations. Good photos can frequently tell
a story about a new product or company announcement without the
necessity of a lengthy news release. If an accompanying photo caption
of three or four lines is pointed and provocative, the photo has an even
greater chance of being used.
1. Insert the correct prepositions.
Even though television has become a major news disseminator,
newspapers continue to hold their own ___ a news source. A survey
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___ Audits & Surveys showed that television and newspapers were
_____ a par ___ terms ___ cumulative daily exposure. Any day ____
the week, ___ fact, almost 70 percent ___ the adult population watches
some television news and reads ___ least one newspaper.
Newspapers provide more diversity and depth ___ coverage than
television or radio. It may be ___ this reason that approximately 63
million copies _____ daily newspapers are sold each day. Newspapers
range ____ giant dailies ___ circulations approaching two million
___ small weekly papers, written, edited, and produced ___ a single
individual.
2. Fill in the gaps with the appropriate word from the box.
transmitted, loss, circulation, rewarding, cherished, complimentary,
abbreviated, ambitious, challenge, downplays, media relations
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In 1982, Gannett launched its most _________ project to date
with the publication of USA Today, a truly national newspaper,
__________ from Rosslyn, Virginia, to major American cities via
satellite. The paper costs Gannett upwards of $50 million per year.
The full-color newspaper lists daily news from all 50 states; offers
national weather, sports, and business; and __________ international
news. Gannett’s hope is that USA Today will become «America’s
hometown newspaper». Critics charge that USA Today’s ___________
articles are fast-food journalism and derisively label the publication
«McPaper». Nevertheless, its __________ has reached 1.3 million,
second only to the The Wall Street Journal.
Despite the _____ of journalistic competition in many cities,
the newspaper is still a primary target for __________________
activities. To practitioners and their managements, penetrating the
daily with positive publicity is a critical ____________. To many
corporate managements, favorable publicity in The New York Times
is a special achievement. To politicians, a _________ story in the
Washington Post is equally. In other communities, a positive piece in
the local daily is just as.
3. Put the words in brackets in the correct form.
In recent years, as operating costs (skyrocket) and many Americans
(leave) central cities for the suburbs, some urban papers (fold). In
such cities, traditional competition between the morning and evening
newspapers (diminish). Occasionally, the same publishing firm (own)
both papers. The huge Rochester-based Gannett chain, for example,
(own) 97 daily newspapers reaching 6 million readers as well as 8 TV
stations and 15 radio stations.
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One newspaper that (be) a frequent target for public relations
professionals, particularly those who (work) for publicly held firms,
(be) The Wall Street Journal. The Journal, commonly (call) the
business bible, (print) several daily editions for different geographic
regions. Although its circulation (be) nearly two million, more than
four million people a day (read) the paper because of high pass-along
readership. The paper (put) together by 500 reporters, 500 editors,
and bureau chiefs worldwide. The average annual income of a Journal
subscriber (be) close to $62,200. More than one-half of its readers
(employ) in professional or managerial occupations; 262,000 (be)
company presidents. Thus, The Wall Street Journal (be) a prime
target for public relations publicity initiatives, including all four U.S.
editions and the Asian and European editions, as well.
Not (overlook) in media relations (be) the suburban newspapers,
the small-city dailies, and the nearly 7,500 weekly newspapers. All
(be) targets for news releases and story ideas. When an organization
(have) a branch or plant in an area, these local media contacts can be of
critical importance, particularly for consumer product publicity.
Text 9. Ethics in PR
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The practice of public relations can present unique and challenging
ethical issues. At the same time, protecting integrity and the public
trust are fundamental to the profession’s role and reputation. Bottom
line, successful public relations hinges on the ethics of its practitioners.
To help members navigate ethics principles and applications, the Society
created, and continues to maintain, the PRSA Code of Ethics. Under
the Code, widely regarded as the industry standard, members pledge
to core values, principles and practice guidelines that define their
professionalism and advance their success. Building Principles on Core
Values The Code, created and maintained by the PRSA Board of Ethics
and Professional Standards (BEPS), sets out principles and guidelines
built on core values. Fundamental values like advocacy, honesty, loyalty,
professional development and objectivity structure ethical practice and
interaction with clients and the public. Translating values into principles
of ethical practice, the Code advises professionals to:
– Protect and advance the free flow of accurate and truthful
information.
– Foster informed decision making through open communication.
– Protect confidential and private information.
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– Promote healthy and fair competition among professionals.
– Avoid conflicts of interest.
- Work to strengthen the public’s trust in the profession.
Code guidelines, like tactics supporting strategies, values and
principles into play for working professionals facing everyday tasks
and challenges. Among them, professionals should:
– Be honest and accurate in all communications.
– Reveal sponsors for represented causes and interests.
– Act in the best interest of clients or employers.
– Disclose financial interests in a client’s organization.
– Safeguard the confidences and privacy rights of clients and
employees.
– Follow ethical hiring practices to respect free and open
competition.
– Avoid conflicts between personal and professional interests.
– Decline representation of clients requiring actions contrary to
the Code.
– Accurately define what public relations activities can accomplish.
– Report all ethical violations to the appropriate authority.
Addressing Practice Challenges Digging even deeper, BEPS takes
on current practice issues and challenges in periodic Professional
Standards Advisories (PSA’s). Applying the Code to specific scenarios,
BEPS has addressed practices including:
– Pay-for-play journalism.
– Anonymous Internet posting, “flogs” and viral marketing.
– Front groups.
– Disclosure of payment of expert commentators.
– Truth in wartime communications.
– Overstating charges or compensation for work performed.
Offering a Professional Model In the Code preamble, PRSA asserts
that “ethical practice is the most important obligation of a PRSA
member.” While the Code covers members, PRSA maintains that all
public relations professionals should look to it as a model of professional
behavior. Additionally, PRSA regards the Code as a “model for other
professions, organizations and professionals.”
1. Match the phrases with the definitions
1. Viral marketing a. an online video game that promotes a particular brand,
(advertising)
product, or marketing message by integrating it into the
game
2. Advergames
b. An organization which secretly acts as the public face
of a covert group
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3. Brandable
software
6. Pay-for-play
journalism
7. Flogs
g. dirty tricks in publications
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agency
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4. A front
organization
(group)
c. a governmental organization devoted to gathering
of information by means of espionage, communication
interception, crypto analysis and evaluation of public
sources
d. buzzwords referring to marketing techniques that
use pre-existing social networks to produce increases in
brand awareness or to achieve other marketing objectives
(such as product sales) through selfreplicating viral
processes, analogous to the spread of viruses or computer
viruses. It can be delivered by word of mouth or enhanced
by the network effects of the Internet. May take the form
of video clips, interactive Flash games, advergames,
ebooks, brandable software, images, or text messages
e. created by one company for the purpose of allowing
other companies to obtain resell rights or giveaway
rights to the software, change the brand associated with
it, and sell it as if it were their own
f. aggressive publications
2. Match the words with their synonyms. Find an appropriate
antonym.
Synonyms
Basic, fundamental
Achieve, carry out
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Words
Example: core values
honesty
advocacy
Faithfulness, fairness
loyalty
accurate
foster
trust
disclose
accomplish
violation
Accept, adopt, affirm
Aid, advancement,
encouragement
Belief, assurance
Abuse, break
Authentic, careful
Adherence, ardor
Exaggerate, amplify
overstate
Promote, advance
Antonyms
minor
Opposition, attack,
protest
Disbelief, distrust,
mistrust
Careless, faulty
Condemn, discourage
Deceit, fraud
Deny, confute, dispute
Obedience, observance
Diminish, reduce, lessen
Disloyalty,
unfaithfulness
Abandon, fail, give up
3. Find English equivalents in the text for the following phrases:
а) Отраслевой стандарт
б) Профессиональное развитие
в) Взаимодействие с аудиторией
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г) Сохранять конфиденциальную информацию
д) Избегать конфликта интересов
е) Повышать доверие целевой аудитории
ж) Находить спонсоров
з) Действовать в интересах клиента
и) Поддерживать открытую и свободную конкуренцию
к) Докладывать о всех нарушениях в соответствующую организацию.
4. Discuss the following questions:
1) Why is it so important to navigate ethics principles and
applications in PR?
2) What is the industry standard?
3) What defines the professionalism of a PR practitioner?
4) What is the PR Code of Ethics based on?
5) How do you understand open communication? Is it essential in
PR practice?
6) In what way can healthy and fair competition among professionals
be promoted?
7) What are everyday challenges of a PR practitioner?
8) How can conflicts between personal and professional interests be
avoided?
9) What violations of the PR Code of Ethics can you name?
Text 10. Branding
The term “branding” is a pretty common word in business circles
these days, but if you’re not involved in advertising, marketing or
public relations, I wouldn’t be surprised if you find its meaning to be
a bit hazy. One person might claim that a company’s logo is its brand.
Another might insist that you can’t have a real brand without a slogan.
Still another might assert that branding is about communicating the
company’s mission. These are all components of a brand, but they
don’t capture the whole package. Not by a long shot.
In reality, a brand is much more than a single image or string of
words. A brand is not tangible. A successful brand lives in the minds
and hearts of your customers. It is all of the things they think of when
they think of your company or your product.
Almost anything can be branded – manufactured goods, a service,
a location, even a person. Elvis. Paris Hilton. Amsterdam. Las Vegas.
IPod. Rolex. Fed-Ex. Kleenex. These are all established brands. For
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most people, they bring very specific 27 images to mind. The most
successful brands hold a powerfully positive position within our psyche.
Think Disney. What immediately comes to mind? For me, it is
family values, happiness, quality, a place where fantasies come to life.
Disney is one of the world’s most recognizable brands. The company
started with a good product that had strong appeal: wholesome
entertainment that enables the young and young at heart to enter a
world of fantasy. The company built, and continues to build, its brand
through an integrated approach utilizing advertising, marketing and
public relations. Do you remember the “We’re Going to Disneyland”
TV ads featuring Superbowl MVPs and other sports stars? This longrunning ad campaign created a lot of excitement for the Disney brand.
Or how about the 10-year exclusive marketing partnership Disney
forged with McDonald’s in 1995, enabling Disney to promote its
brand and the products associated with it in 30,000-plus McDonald’s
restaurants?
The company has also been very successful in utilizing public
relations to generate coverage for the Disney brand. Since the opening
of its first theme park in the early ‘70s, it has treated reporters to a
VIP preview of new parks, rides and other offerings through a special
media day. These events attract hundreds of journalists from around
the world and generate lots of press coverage.
The strength of the Disney brand has helped the company
successfully ride out the storm during turbulent times. You might
remember the Big Thunder Mountain Railroad accident in 2003, or
most recently, the downfall of Michael Eisner. Thanks to savvy crisis
management and its Teflon-like brand, the company’s image and
bottom line sustained no long-term damage despite the negative media
coverage generated by these events.
Advertising, marketing, and public relations are all part of
building a strong and sustainable brand. When all three tactics are
used together, you can hit your target market from all angles.
Advertising is buying space – on television, in a newspaper, on-line,
on a billboard, etc. – to promote a product. Marketing is about making
sure that you’re meeting your customers’ needs and getting value
in return. Marketing initiatives include market research, pricing,
promotions, and sales. Public relations helps the public understand a
company and its products. PR allows you to tell your story in a thorough
and authentic way. It helps a company achieve ‘transparency,’ which
is what customers demand in today’s economy. Working to generate
positive media coverage is a big part of public relations. Stories in the
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media are like third-party testimonials, and people are more likely to
believe what they read in a news story than in an advertisement.
If you have the resources to use the integrated approach to brand
building, advertising, marketing and public relations should have an
equal place at the table when formulating your strategy. The whole
creative team should work together to develop the key messages and
images that will compose the brand for your product or 28 service. Each
brings a different area of expertise to the table, and their combined
knowledge will help develop a sound brand image that will resonate
with all target audiences across a broad spectrum of mediums.
Marketing establishes who your customer is and what makes them
tick. Once the framework for the brand is established, public relations
starts the buzz going prior to the roll-out. Marketing devises the
packaging that’s going to make your brand stand out from the rest and
communicates directly with potential customers to promote it.
Public relations and marketing work together to devise innovative
promotional materials and a cutting-edge Web site that will catch
and keep your target market’s interest and enable them to interact
with the brand. They team up again to stage an unforgettable product
unveiling event that will generate direct sales as well as tons of glowing
media coverage. The advertising contingent continues the momentum
by developing attention grabbing ads that reinforce the brand image
and communicate brand value to the customer. The ads are placed in
strategic locations that attract your target market. After the roll-out
strategy is complete, the team continues to work together to ensure
communication of the brand remains clear, consistent and constant.
1. Decide if these statements are true or false.
1. A brand is a company’s logo.
2. Branding is about communicating the company’s mission.
3. A successful brand lives in the minds and hearts of your customers.
4. Disney brand couldn’t overcome the storm during turbulent times.
5. Savvy crisis management caused negative media coverage.
6. Advertising and public relations are the only parts of building a
strong and sustainable brand.
7. When formulating your strategy advertising, marketing and
public relations should have an equal place at the table.
8. A cutting-edge Web site can help catch and keep your target
market’s interest.
9. The ads are placed in unimportant locations that attract your
target market.
2. Use these word expressions to make up your own sentences.
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1. To communicate the company’s mission.
2. Not by a long shot.
3. To be branded.
4. To hold a powerfully positive position within smb’s psyche.
5. To be one of the world’s most recognizable brands.
6. To build the brand through an integrated approach utilizing
advertising, marketing and public relations.
7. A long-running ad campaign.
8. To resonate with all target audiences across a broad spectrum of
mediums.
9. To treat reporters to a VIP preview of new parks, rides and other
offerings through a special media day.
10. To ensure communication of the brand remains clear, consistent
and constant.
11. After the roll-out strategy is complete.
3. Find synonyms in the text for the following words.
Material, privileged, think out, long, endure, live through,
appreciation, contemporary, attract attention, modern, beneficial.
4. Give English equivalents for the following word combinations:
1. Достичь известности бренда 2. Повышенный интерес, внимание 3. Раскрутка 4. Стимулировать прямые продажи 5. Привлекающая внимание реклама 6. Укреплять имидж бренда 7. Сделать доступной и понятной ценность бренда покупателям.
5. Discuss these questions:
1. What does the term “branding” mean?
2. How has Disney managed to become one of the world’s most
recognizable brands?
3. What should a company do to created a lot of excitement for the
brand and generate lots of press coverage?
4. What types of advertising should you use to promote a product,
meet your customers’ needs and get value in return?
5. What do marketing initiatives include?
6. What should Public relations and marketing do to keep the target
market’s interest and enable customers to interact with the brand?
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PART TWO
Texts for written translation and discussion
Text 1. Communicating in a Crisis
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The key communication principle in dealing with a crisis is not to
clam up when disaster strikes. The most effective crisis communicators
are those who provide prompt, frank, and full information to the media
in the eye of the storm. Invariably, the first inclination of executives is
to say, «Let’s wait until all the facts are in». But as President Carter’s
press secretary, Jody Powell, used to say, «Bad news is a lot like fish.
It doesn’t get better with age». In saying nothing, an organization is
perceived as already having made a decision. That angers the media
and compounds the problem. On the other hand, inexperienced
spokespersons, speculating nervously or using emotionally charged
language, are even worse.
Most public relations professionals consider the cardinal rule for
communications during a crisis to be: TELL IT ALL AND TELL IT FAST!
As a general rule, when information gets out quickly, rumors are
stopped and nerves are calmed. A continuous flow of information
indicates that people are working on the problem. Messages should be
consistent, using a limited number of spokespersons – preferably only
one. Comparisons should be avoided: Don’t give people the opportunity
to link your accident with a worse one. Statements should be limited to
facts, not speculation or guesswork. But as a senior communications
manager for Dow Chemical put it: «The public must be fully informed
frequently and accurately through the media from the outset by
credible senior spokesmen accustomed to dealing with the media in
a responsible, respectful manner, who understand and can explain
clearly, in lay language, complex information».
Another key in intelligently communicating in a crisis is to evaluate
each media request separately, on the basis of several questions:
1. What do we gain by participating? If you have absolutely nothing
to gain from an interview, then don’t give one.
2. What are the risks? This is based on your level of comfort with
the medium, who the interviewer is, the amount of preparation time
available to you, legal liability, and how much the organization loses if
the story is told without the interview.
3. Can we get our message across? Will this particular medium
allow us clearly to deliver our message to the public?
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4. Is this audience worth it? Often, a particular television program
or newspaper may not be germane to the specific audience the
organization needs to reach.
5. How will management react? An important variable in assessing
whether to appear is the potential reaction of top management. In the
final analysis, you have to explain your recommendation or action to
them.
6. Does your legal liability outweigh the public interest? This is
seldom the case, although company lawyers often disagree.
7. Is there a better way? Key question. If an uncontrolled media
interview can be avoided, avoid it. However, reaching pertinent publics
through the press is often, the best way to communicate in a crisis.
In the final analysis, communicating in a crisis depends on a
rigorous analysis of the risks versus the benefits of going public.
Communicating effectively also depends on the judgment and
experience of the public relations professional. Every call is a close
one, and there is no guarantee that the organization will benefit, no
matter what course is chosen. One thing is clear: helping navigate the
organization through the shoals of a crisis is the ultimate test of a
public relations professional.
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Text 2. Communications Theory
Books have been written on the subject of communications theory.
Theoretical explanations of how people communicate vary as much
as do the definitions of public relations itself. In its most basic sense,
communication commences with a source, who sends a message
through a medium to a receiver.
One early theory of communication, the two-step flow theory,
had it that an organization would beam a message first to the mass
media, which would then deliver that message to the great mass of
readers, listeners, and viewers for their response. This theory, as
noted in Chapter 4, may have given the mass media too much credit.
People today are influenced by a variety of factors, of which the media
may be one, but not necessarily the dominant one. Another theory,
the concentric-circle theory, developed by pollster Elmo Roper,
assumed that ideas evolve gradually to the public-at-large, moving
in concentric circles from Great Thinkers to Great Disciples to Great
Disseminators to Lesser Disseminators to the Politically Active to the
Politically Inert. Broken down, as rapper M. C. Hammer would say,
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this theory suggests that people pick up and accept ideas from leaders,
whose impact on public opinion may be greater than that of the mass
media. The overall study of how communication is used for direction
and control is called cybernetics.
Although there are numerous models of communication, one of the
most fundamental is the S-M-R approach. This model suggests that the
communication process begins with the source, who issues a message
to a receiver, who then decides what action to take, if any, relative
to the communication. This element of receiver action, or feedback,
underscores that good communication always involves dialogue
between two or more parties.
The S-M-R model has been modified to include additional elements: (1)
an encoding stage, in which the source’s original message is translated
and conveyed to the receiver; and (2) a decoding stage, in which the
receiver interprets the encoded message and takes action. This evolution
from the traditional model has resulted in the S-E-M-D-R method,
which illustrates graphically the role of the public relations function in
modern communications; both the encoding and the decoding stages are
of critical importance in communicating any public relations message.
Words are among our most personal and potent weapons. Words can
soothe us, bother us, or infuriate us. They can bring us together or
drive us apart. They can even cause us to kill or be killed. Words mean
different things to different people, depending on their backgrounds,
occupations, education, or geographic locations. What one word means
to you might be dramatically different from what that same word
means to your neighbor. The study of what words really mean is called
semantics, and the science of semantics is a peculiar one indeed.
Words are perpetually changing in our language. What’s in today
is out tomorrow. What a word denotes according to the dictionary may
be thoroughly dissimilar to what it connotes in its more emotional
or visceral sense. Even the simplest words – liberal, conservative,
profits, consumer activists – can spark semantic skyrockets. Many
times, without knowledge of the territory, the semantics of words may
make no sense. Take the word cool. In American vernacular a person
who is cool is good. A person who is «not so hot» is bad: So cool is the
opposite of «not so hot». But wait a minute; «not so hot» must also be
the opposite of hot. Therefore, in a strange way, cool must equal hot.
In the 1990s, public relations professionals must constantly be alert
to alterations in the language. In 1990, when the august New York
Jockey Club restaurant offered a breakfast called the «Central Park
Jogger» – a term widely used as the identification of a woman brutally
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attacked the year before in a well-publicized rape case – the menu was
reprinted. On the other hand, when the term couch potato came into
vogue to signify an inveterate television watcher, a Pennsylvania
potato chip maker was quick to capitalize.
Even more confusing is the language used by various special publics
in society, which seems foreign to the uninitiated, to a computer analyst,
a bit and a bomb and a chip are commonplace. The rest of us might have
a hard time discerning that a bit is the smallest binary number, a bomb
is a piece of computer equipment that ceases to function, and a chip is a
tiny wafer of silicon or an equally tiny complete circuit.
To a human resources manager, a 401(k) is a salary deferral plan.
A Gantt chart is a bar chart used in project planning and scheduling. And
COBRA, of course, is the Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation
Act covering employers of 20 or more who offer group health plans.
And then there are teenagers, whose vocabularies defy description.
Sure, they know what they’re talking about; but do the rest of us have
any idea that fresh means cool, dweeb means nerd, gleek means spitting,
deaf means the same thing as fresh, and biter is another name for dweeb?
Finally, there are the dozen words – important for all communicators
to know – that, according to Yale University, are the most persuasive
in the English language: discovery, easy, new, proven, guarantee,
health, love, money, results, safety, save, and you. The point here is that
the words used in the encoding stage have a significant influence on
the message conveyed to the ultimate receiver. Thus, the source must
depend greatly on the ability of the encoder to accurately understand
and effectively translate the true message – with all its semantic
complications – to the receiver.
Text 3. Issues Management
Public relations pioneer W. Howard Chase, who helped coin the
term issues management, defined it this way:
Issues management is the capacity to understand, mobilize,
coordinate, and direct all strategic and policy planning functions, and
all public affairs/public relations skills, toward achievement of one
objective: meaningful participation in creation of public policy that
effects personal and institutional destiny.
Issues management is dynamic and proactive. It rejects the
hypothesis that any institution must be the pawn of the public policy
determined solely by others.
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The noblest aspect of freedom is that human beings and their
institutions have the right to help determine their own destinies. Issues
management is the systems process that maximizes self-express ion
and action programming tor most effective participation in public
policy formation.
Thus, issues management is the highest form of sound management
applied to institutional survival.
Issues management is a five-step process that (1) identifies issues
with which the organization must be concerned, (2) analyzes and
delimits each issue with respect to its impact on constituent publics,
(3) displays the various strategic options available to the organization,
(4) implements an action program to communicate the organization’s
views and influence perception on the issue, and (5) evaluates its
program in terms of reaching organizational goals.
Many suggest that the term issues management is another way of
saying that the most important public relations skill is counseling
management. This skill, in fact, was at the heart of the reputation
enjoyed by public relations pioneers such as Ivy Lee, Edward Bernays,
Carl Byoir, and John Hill. Today, issues management as a specialized
discipline has developed to the point where the Issues Management
Association, founded in the 1980s, has hundreds of active members.
In specific terms, organizations can manage their own response
lo issues and, therefore, influence issues development in the ways
identified here.
Anticipate emerging issues. Normally, the issues management
process anticipates issues 18 months to 3 years away. Therefore, it is
neither crisis planning nor postcrisis planning, but rather precrisis
planning. In other words, issues management deals with an issue that
will hit the organization a year down the road, thus distinguishing the
practice from the normal crisis planning aspects of public relations.
Selectively identify issues. An organization can influence only a
few issues at a time. Therefore, a good issues management process will
select several – perhaps 5 to 10 – specific priority issues with which to
deal. In this way, issues management can focus on the most important
issues affecting the organization.
Deal with opportunities and vulnerabilities Most issues, anticipated
well in advance, offer both opportunities and vulnerabilities for
organizations. For example, in assessing promised federal budget
cuts, an insurance company might anticipate that less money will
mean fewer people driving and therefore fewer accident claims. This
would mark an opportunity. On the other hand, those cuts might mean
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that more people are unable to pay their premiums. This, clearly, is a
vulnerability that a sharp company should anticipate well in advance.
Plan from the outside-in The external environment – not internal
strategies – dictates the selection of priority issues. This differs from
the normal strategic planning approach, which, to a large degree, is
driven by internal strengths and objectives. Issues management is
very much driven by external factors.
Profit-line orientation Although many people tend to look at issues
management as anticipating crises, its real purpose should be to defend
the organization in the light of external factors, as well as to enhance
the firm’s business by seizing imminent opportunities. Action timetable
Even as the issues management process must identify emerging issues
and selectively set them in priority order, it must also propose policy,
programs, and an implementation timetable to deal with those issues.
Action is the key to an effective issues management process.
Dealing from the top Just as a public relations department is
powerless without the confidence and respect of top management, so,
too, must the issues management process operate with the support of
the chief executive. The chief executive’s personal sanction is critical
to the acceptance and conduct of issues management within a firm.
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Text 4. Compare Oral Presentations
With Written Communication
Public speaking, like other methods of communication, is influenced by
the entire personality of the sender of the message, the particular situation,
and the receivers of the message. The ability to be a capable and convincing
speaker is important to your success and to your professional growth.
The principles of effective communication through written letters,
memorandums, and reports discussed in preceding chapters also
apply, for the most part, to effective oral presentations. Precise use of
language, clarity, empathy, knowledge of subject matter, appropriate
emphasis and organization – all these qualities are necessary for the
successful transmission of a message in either written or oral form.
Both written and oral reports begin with a careful and objective
analysis of data. As in other forms of communication, you consider the
probable reactions of the audience to ideas and recommendations. The same
principles that apply to objective interpretation and presentation of data in
written reports apply to oral presentations. Emphasis must be on data and
what they indicate, not on the writer’s or speaker’s beliefs and desires.
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Like written messages, oral presentations can be presented in
the direct or the indirect order. When presented in the direct order,
however, an oral report should have a specific, emphatic ending, often
in the form of a short summary.
Many people find speaking much easier than writing. For others,
facing an audience is terrifying. The best way to build confidence in
yourself – and to make your speech convincing and informative – is to
know your subject thoroughly and to understand that your purpose is
to inform and to convince, and perhaps to entertain, but not to impress
the audience with your cleverness and knowledge.
If you are completely familiar with all portions of the subject (even
though you don’t know all the answers) and if you sincerely want to
pass this knowledge on to your listeners, you are likely to express your
ideas clearly and convincingly.
An advantage of oral communication over written communication
is that you have instant feedback. Another advantage is that your
facial expressions, tone of voice, and gestures help to make spoken
words clear, convincing, and effective.
Graphic illustrations are used in oral reports and other
presentations, just as they are in written communications. They can
be used effectively, or, as in written reports, they can be misleading,
distracting, and unnecessary. The principles of graphic illustration
apply to both written and oral reports.
Moreover, when you use illustrations in an oral presentation,
remember that every member of the audience must be able to see the
entire illustration easily. And, as in written reports, the illustration
should not be expected to convey the most important elements of the
presentation, but to supplement the information presented through
words.
A difference between written and oral presentations is the extreme
importance of nonverbal messages in oral communication of all kinds.
Although non-verbal elements exist also in written material, nonverbal
communication is more obvious and important in oral interaction.
Another consideration is the extreme importance of delivery.
Material that wild be considered excellent in written form is far from
excellent if the speaker rumbles, if voice tone is monotonous and
unenthusiastic, if the speaker is uninterested in the subject, or if words
are mispronounced. Timing is essential; the audience must be given an
opportunity to understand a point before the speaker hurriedly moves
on to the next one, but speech must not be so slow that listeners’ minds
wander or they become bored.
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A good speaker can make even a routine topic interesting. A poor
speaker can ruin what could be an exciting, informative, and persuasive
talk.
A written message can be revised before it is mailed. Your talk
cannot be wised once it is delivered, but your planning of the talk can
be revised over and over until you get it right.
As with reports and many other kinds of written communication,
planning must include adequate research. Research will help you
choose the most important points to emphasize and the most effective
presentation of facts and ideas. Knowing your subject will also build
your self-confidence. Information and understanding beyond the
content of the speech itself is essential, particularly when answering
questions or responding to comments from the audience.
Mark Twain once said that it takes three weeks to prepare a good
ad-lib speech.
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Text 5. Business Etiquette
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Etiquette is related in some way to all aspects and forms of
communication discussed in the preceding chapters. (All elements
of communication are related to all others.) Etiquette is based on
consideration, or the well-known «you-attitude», which is in itself an
ethical consideration. We have considered etiquette with the study of
ethics, goodwill letters, word usage, letter arrangement, and other
subjects.
An authority on business and personal etiquette opens her 519page book, Letitia Baldrige’s Complete Guide to Executive Manners,
with these words:
This is a book about manners but also about the quality of excellence.
It is a book about the importance of detail and about how details linked
together can create the strong, effective executive presence that propels
an individual upward in his or her career. This is, therefore, a book
about success....
This book is based on the theory that good manners are costeffective because they not only increase the quality of life in the
workplace, contribute to optimum employee morale, and embellish the
company image, but they also play a major role in generating profit.
An atmosphere in which people treat each other with consideration
is obviously one in which a customer enjoys doing business. Also very
important, a company with a well-mannered, high-class reputation
attracts –and keeps – good people.
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As Baldrige emphasizes, etiquette is necessary for quality,
consideration, and even for profitability. Although she does not use
the word ethics, the meaning is implied in «people treat each other
with consideration».
Ethics is a broader term than etiquette, at least from its usual
meaning of following the rules of proper behavior in polite society.
Etiquette, however, consists of far more than knowing the exact
wording (there is none) of introductions and which fork to use at a dinner
party. Nevertheless, violating the usual and expected contentions of
behavior, either knowingly or because of lack of knowledge, is at least
inconsiderate and at most insulting and dangerous.
The «rules» of etiquette are based on consideration, first of all, but also
on common sense and a recognition of the usual customs and mores of the
society in which we live or work. This recognition of particular customs
is particularly troublesome when we travel or work abroad. Actions based
on goodwill alone can be misinterpreted as hostile or demeaning.
What you need to know about etiquette, regardless of your
experience or background, could not be fitted into this chapter or into
any book. Even if you have been taught etiquette since you were a child,
further study at the present stage of your career will be of benefit.
Perhaps the greatest advantage of all is that your self-confidence will
be increased. A complete book, such as Letitia Baldrige’s, would be a
valuable addition to your home library.
Some of the questions that arise regarding etiquette are greeting
visitors, making introductions, table manners, choice of clothing, the
etiquette of business letters, business entertaining, proper forms of
address, smoking, conversation, business relationships between men
and women in the office, gift giving, planning seminars and meetings –
and many, many more.
True etiquette increases the comfort, confidence, and self-esteem of
other persons. Words and actions that build these qualities, however,
must be sincere, as all communication must be.
Some of many possible guidelines are listed here:
1. Listen to the words of others instead of concentrating on your
own words.
2. Remember and use people’s names. Spell and pronounce them
correctly.
3. Make introductions promptly and correctly. Traditionally, a man
is introduced to a woman (saying the woman’s name first); a younger
person is introduced to an older person (saying the older person’s name
first); and other people are introduced to a guest (saying the guest’s
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name first.) Introduce a peer in your own company to a peer in another
company, a lower-ranking person to a higher-ranking person, and a
person in your company to a customer or client.
4. Be careful about using new acquaintances’ first names,
especially if they are older than you or in higher positions. This advice
is extremely important when addressing people from countries outside
the United States, where business people are far more formal than
most people in the United States.
5. Keep your promises.
6. Give sincere compliments.
7. Do not criticize others. If you are a supervisor and must reprimand
an employee, do so in private only, and then with fairness and courtesy.
8. Apologize when an apology is due, but do not apologize
unnecessarily or profusely.
9. Be especially considerate of newcomers or people alone, either in
an office environment or at a party.
Text 6. Concerns of Organisational Communication
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With the exception of innovations in communication technology,
these concerns are not new. They have existed throughout the history
of organizations; they existed long before business organizations
themselves, as we now use the term. All these areas are aspects of
human cooperation, understanding, responsibility, honesty, fairness,
and harmonious personal and professional relationships. All require
knowledge and the effective use of language.
These concerns are described as contemporary because they are
now receiving more attention in organizations of all kinds, including
government agencies and colleges and universities, than they did
in past decades. More and more students, managers, and workers
at all levels realize that true education, including preparation for a
vocation, consists of more than specialized details and technical skills.
In addition, ethics enters into all other topics discussed throughout
the book, along with accompanying questions and cases.
Many complete books have been written about ethics and about the
social responsibilities of organizations. Nevertheless, because these
topics are so closely interwoven with most if not all areas of business
communication, they must be included here.
Many letters, memorandums, and reports are composed from the
standpoint of how goods or services can be sold so that the company can
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make a profit. The question arises as to whether making a profit is the
only or even the principal purpose of organizations. Some people agree
with this assumption, saying that profit is essential if the company is
to continue to exist. Others say that this reasoning is similar to saying
that the purpose of life is to eat. Although we must eat to live, eating
is not the sole purpose of life. (For the very hungry, however, eating is
the sole purpose, at least until the hunger is satisfied.)
Legal considerations relate to numerous areas of business
communication, including employee rights, sales and advertising,
credit and collections, equal opportunity for job applicants, the right
to privacy, and avoiding defamation. Laws pertain to plagiarism and
copyright ownership. These legal topics and others are included in
relevant chapters, usually in separate sections.
The terms international and intercultural are not synonymous as they
are applied to communication. Much intercultural communication occurs
between people who have never left the United States (or any other country
in which the communication occurs) because differing cultures exist side
by side in the same city. Intercultural, a broader term than international,
describes communication that involves almost everyone at work, at
school, and in home communities. It is almost certain lo occur when we
travel abroad – an event that also involves international communication.
International is used in still another way, to describe official
communication between governments of nations – a meaning that is
not considered here. (Government officials, however, should be good
communicators at home and abroad.)
However the terms are defined, basic principles are the same. We
need in learn as much as possible about different cultures, including
their customs and value systems.
Although computers and other equipment speed the preparation,
transrnission, and reception of messages, human thought and written
and spoken words remain the most important elements of human
communication.
In many organizations, important communication projects are
planned or written by a group, not by individuals alone. Even if
material is individually written, it is often submitted to others for
evaluation or editing. Consideration of how to approach problems that
will eventually be solved by written or oral communication maybe done
by committees. Parts of long reports may be written by individuals,
then combined for the complete report.
Questions and problems at the end of every chapter in this book can
be used for collaborative planning and writing. Many are especially
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appropriate for group work, and are so designated with specific
instructions for work in process and the finished product. In addition,
students are asked to provide feedback on work previously done by other
students, similar to the way that an individual’s work would be read in an
organization before it is submitted to the final reader. Oral communication,
such as a meeting or an important speech, may also be planned by a group.
In addition to the benefits of combining efforts on an assignment or
project of some kind, participants practice communication skills while
working in groups.
Successful personal and professional relationships, first of all,
depend on ethical and open communication. Other factors enter in,
however. A person can be filled with good intentions and not «come
across» because of a lack of ability to relate to other people – or because
of a lack of effective communication.
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Text 7. Advertising Campaigns
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An advertising campaign is a series of advertisement messages that
share a single idea and theme which make up an integrated marketing
communication (IMC). Advertising campaigns appear in different
media across a specific time frame. Moreover, an advertising campaign
is a specific course of action designed to advertise a company, cause,
or product that employs an intentional and carefully coordinated
series of marketing tools in order to reach the target audience. The
end purpose of any ad campaign is to boost awareness of the subject
matter and generate demand. The exact structure of the advertising
campaign will often depend on the nature of the product or cause and
the target audience that the campaign is designed to reach.
While specifics vary from one advertising campaign to another,
some of the same tools are used in just about any campaign. Both
print and electronic media are often used to generate attention and
enthusiasm for the subject of the campaign, often with the logical
and timely launch of different tools at specific points in the overall
campaign. While in time past, electronic media referred more to
television and radio broadcasts, that component now includes tools
such as online banner ads, text messaging, and email advertisements.
In terms of print media used in an advertising campaign, ads placed
in newspapers and magazines are a time-honored method of reaching
the target audience. The ads usually are designed to pique the interest
of readers and entice them to learn more about the topic of the ad.
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In order to ensure that the desired consumers are reached, the print
advertisements will often appear in print media that is geared toward
those consumers. For example, software that is designed to keep track
of sales leads and existing clients may appear in a magazine that caters
to sales and marketing professionals.
With electronic media, television and radio commercials remain a
viable means of attracting the attention of buyers and creating demand
for various products and services. Short television commercials
designed to amuse as well as inform tend to make an impression on
the viewer and are highly likely to entice a significant number of
consumers to purchase the products displayed in the ad. In like manner,
an advertising campaign may also include short radio commercials
that catch the ear of the listener and help to conjure up visual images
that create demand for the product.
Along with traditional methods of creating an advertising campaign,
newer tools are making it possible to reach consumers in new ways.
Many companies design advertising campaigns to current clients that
rely on such tools as text messaging or email advertising. For example,
a telephone service provider may notify existing customers of upcoming
specials on bundled services by sending a text message to the client’s cell
phone. As an alternative, the service provider may notify the customer
of upcoming sales or new products and services via an email. When
coordinated with other tools as part of an overall advertising campaign,
it may be possible to upsell current clients to generate more revenue as
well as gain a significant number of new customers.
The critical part of making an advertising campaign is determining
a champion theme as it sets the tone for the individual advertisements
and other forms of marketing communications that will be used. The
campaign theme is the central message that will be communicated in
the promotional activities. The campaign themes are usually developed
with the intention of being used for a substantial period but many of
them are short lived due to factors such as being ineffective or market
conditions and/or competition in the marketplace and marketing mix.
Taking on your own advertising campaign is no easy task. You can
do it on your own but get ready to roll up your sleeves and get to work.
Nothing can help you identify your goals more than your marketing
plan. You learn a lot about your company, your competitors and your
long-term goals by creating and following your marketing plan. This is
crucial to knowing what type of advertising is best for you.
Once you have your marketing plan, you must create a plan of
action. This model shows you how freelancers and agencies put their
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own plan of action in place. Your plan of action also gives you crucial
info you can use in executing your ad strategy.
How you advertise depends on your ad budget. You need to
strategically use your advertising money. If you’re only allowing a
small portion of money to advertising, you wouldn’t want to throw it
all into the production of one commercial that runs at 2 a.m. Know
exactly how much you will spend on your advertising first so you can
make wise decisions in the creation and placement of all ad mediums.
Running your own ad campaign means you have to be your own
media director. You’ve got to find the best ad placement and the most
affordable opportunities to fit into your budget. If you’re limited to a
very small budget, you can find many ways to bypass high advertising
costs. You earn advertise effectively if you don’t hit your target
audience. Know who they are before you start creating your ads.
Of all the different advertising mediums you can use, you have
to be able to use these mediums to your benefit. Spending all of your
money on a direct mail campaign when your ad dollars would be better
spent on print ads is going to limit how many customers you could’ve
gained. Take a look at each medium, think about your target audience,
take a look at your marketing plan and your plan of action and decide
which medium(s) will be best for your ad dollars.
If you cam turn your advertising over to an agency, still
consider hiring a freelance copywriter and/or graphic designer.
These professionals know what makes a good advertisement. Many
freelancers have worked in advertising agencies so you get the benefit
of their expertise. Plus, freelancers can give you professional copy and
materials at an affordable cost.
If you’re running TV and radio commercials, print ads and a direct
mail campaign, keep them consistent. Use the same announcer and
music for your commercials. Print materials should use the same
colors and fonts. Use the same tag line. You want to keep everything
consistent so your potential customers start identifying your tag line,
your colors, your font, your announcer, jingle everything that relates
to your company’s ad campaign!
Buying space for one radio commercial that airs once at 4:30 in the
morning isn’t going to get much of a response. You want commercials to
have a larger frequency so you can increase your chances of hitting that
target audience. If you’re running a direct mail campaign, decide the
frequency of your materials up front. Once you send your initial materials
out, how many times will you send out follow up materials? Know the
answers before you begin to help maximize your strategy success.
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Text 8. Comparative Advertising:
European legislative framework
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Comparative advertising is governed by European Directive
2006/114/EC(Misleading and Comparative Advertising Directive),
the purpose of which is “to lay down the conditions under which
comparative advertising is permitted”:
a. The advertisement must not be misleading;
b. It must compare goods or services meeting the same needs or
intended for the same purpose;
c. It must objectively compare one or more material, relevant,
verifiable and representative features of those goods and services,
which may include price;
d. It must not discredit or denigrate the trade marks, goods,
services etc. of a competitor;
e. For products with a designation of origin (such as Champagne),
it must relate to products with the same designation;
f. It must not take unfair advantage of the reputation of a trade mark;
g. It must not present goods or services as imitations or replicas of
goods or services bearing a protected trade mark or trade name; and
h. It must not create confusion among traders, between the
advertiser and a competitor or between the advertiser’s trade marks,
goods, services etc and those of a competitor.
Before the Misleading and Comparative Advertising Directive,
comparative advertising in Europe had been permitted in a slightly
piecemeal fashion. Directive 84/450/EEC concerned misleading
advertising, but specifically made provision for comparative advertising
to be regulated at a later date. Directive 97/55/EC (1997 Directive)
fulfilled this task. The European legislature however felt that the
approach to comparative advertising was still somewhat disparate,
and so the Misleading and Comparative Advertising Directive was
adopted in order to “codify” what had gone before. Its effect was to
repeal and replace the previous two Directives, but as far as comparative
advertising is concerned, the conditions in the 1997 and 2006 Directives
are virtually identical. Indeed, Article 10 of the Misleading and
Comparative Advertising Directive states that “[r]eferences made to the
repealed Directive shall be construed as being made to this Directive”.
Accordingly, references in this article to the 1997 Directive should be
held as also referring to the Misleading and Comparative Advertising
Directive and vice versa (although note that the numbering differs
between directives); the body of law on the 1997 Directive remains good.
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Comparative advertising was further complicated in the UK by
section 10(6) Trade Marks Act 1994, which states:
(6) Nothing in the preceding provisions of this section shall be
construed as preventing the use of a registered trade mark by any
person for the purpose of identifying goods or services as those of the
proprietor or a licensee. But any such use otherwise than in accordance
with honest practices in industrial or commercial matters shall be
treated as infringing the registered trade mark if the use without due
cause takes unfair advantage of, or is detrimental to, the distinctive
character or repute of the trade mark.
The effect of this has been to permit comparative advertising in the
UK, but its status has been unclear as the wording is not derived from
the Trade Marks Directive. Given the clarifications of the law set out
below, this provision is now largely regarded as being redundant in the
UK (and indeed Jacob LJ expressed his strong belief that this should
be so in the O2 case discussed in more detail below).
Comparative Advertising: The O2 case.
Neither the 1997 Directive nor the Misleading and Comparative
Advertising Directive addressed the interplay between the comparative
advertising regime and the trade marks regime. This led to confusion
as to which rules applied in which circumstances, and several cases
across Europe have been referred to the European Court of Justice
(ECJ) for interpretation of aspects of the Directives.
The latest in this series is O2 Holdings and O2 (UK) Limited (together,
O2) v Hutchison 3G UK Limited (H3G)5. This is a UK case brought by O2
in respect of a televised comparative advertisement put out by H3G in 2004
using both O2’s name and images which were similar to O2’s “bubbles”
images in making a price comparison between the two companies’ services.
O2 owns UK registered trade marks for “O2” and for static bubbles
images. It brought trade mark infringement proceedings against H3G
in respect of the use of both the O2 mark and the bubbles marks. The
claim in respect of the O2 mark was refused in a preliminary hearing
because it fell within the defence provided by section 10(6) Trade
Marks Act 1994. O2 pursued the claim for infringement of its bubbles
marks on the grounds that the signs used were similar to its registered
trade marks and there was a likelihood of confusion, and that the
marks enjoyed an extensive reputation of which H3G was taking unfair
advantage and to which H3G was causing detriment (particularly as
it had used a distortion of O2’s bubbles marks rather than the marks
themselves) (i.e., infringement under the UK equivalent of Articles
5(1)(b) and 5(2) Trade Marks Directive respectively).
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At first instance O2’s claims were refused. It was held that O2 had
not made out the ground relating to extensive reputation. It had, on
the other hand, made out the ground relating to infringement under
Article 5(1)(b), but since the advertisement complied with the 1997
Directive, H3G had a defence to trade mark infringement.
O2 appealed in respect of the Article 5(1)(b) point, arguing that the
1997 Directive did not provide a defence to trade mark infringement.
Further, Recital 14 of the 1997 Directive states:
Whereas it may, however, be indispensable, in order to make
comparative advertising effective, to identify the goods or services of
a competitor, making reference to a trade mark or trade name of which
the latter is the proprietor6.
O2 therefore also argued that the recital added to the Comparative
Advertising Conditions a requirement that the use of the trade
marks must be indispensable in order to make the comparative
advertisement, and that using its secondary trade marks (the bubbles)
was not in fact indispensable; the comparative effect was achieved by
using “O2” alone. Therefore H3G had not in any event complied with
the Comparative Advertising Conditions.
H3G, for its part, argued that the Judge had been wrong to find that
its use of O2’s marks fell within Article 5(1) (b) Trade Marks Directive
at all, as its use of the marks was purely descriptive and was therefore
not trade mark use. It also argued that it had a separate defence to trade
mark infringement under Article 6 Trade Marks Directive (with which
the Court of Appeal agreed), and that the Comparative Advertising
Conditions did not on a proper interpretation require indispensability.
It is worth exploring at this point the difference between “purely
descriptive” use of a mark and “trade mark use”. As mentioned above,
in order to infringe, the mark must be used “in the course of trade”.
There has been substantial judicial and academic debate about the
precise meaning of this7 and it is now broadly accepted that use “in
the course of trade” means “trade mark use”, which in turn means use
which is liable to affect the essential function of the trade mark to
guarantee the origin of the goods or services. Where a mark is being
used in a purely descriptive manner, it does not affect that function of
the mark and therefore is not regulated by the Trade Marks Directive.
This reflects the fact that a registered trade mark does not give a total
monopoly over all uses of it even for the relevant goods and services,
but is intended instead to protect the proprietor’s legitimate business
interests. It is beyond the scope of this article to examine this issue in
any depth; it is sufficient for current purposes to say that the Court of
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Appeal was unsure whether or not the use in this case was trade mark
use and therefore whether it fell under the Trade Marks Directive. It
therefore referred a question on this to the ECJ:
Whether, where a trader, in an advertisement for his own goods
or services used a registered trade mark owned by a competitor for
the purpose of comparing the characteristics (and in particular the
price) of goods or services marketed by him with the characteristics
(and in particular the price) of the goods or services marketed by
the competitor under that mark in such a way that it did not cause
confusion or otherwise [jeopardise] the essential function of the trade
mark as an indication of origin, his use fell within either (a) or (b) of
Art. 5 of Directive 89/104 (the Trade Marks Directive).
In other words, does non-trade mark use in a comparative
advertisement infringe a trade mark? Jacob LJ, giving the lead
judgment for the Court of Appeal, gave his own view on this: he thought
the answer was “no”, and that the use of a competitor’s trade mark in a
comparative advertisement was not trade mark use as it was not being
used to indicate the origin of the advertiser’s goods, as distinct from
the proprietor’s goods. He therefore believed that trade mark law had
no role to play in regulating comparative advertisements.
Turning to the issue of indispensability, the Court of Appeal did not
believe that it was clear either way. Previous cases had asked the ECJ
the same question8, but the ECJ had declined to answer the question
directly. Accordingly, the Court of Appeal referred the following
questions, requesting the ECJ to answer them only if the answer to the
first question was “yes”:
Whether, where a trader used, in a comparative advertisement, the
registered trade mark of a competitor, in order to comply with Article
3a of Directive 84/450 [the Comparative Advertising Conditions] as
amended that use had to be ‘indispensable’ and if so the criteria by
which indispensability was to be judged;
In particular, if there was a requirement of indispensability,
whether the requirement precluded any use of a sign which was not
identical to the registered trade mark but was closely similar to it?
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Рекомендуемая литература
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1. Захарова Е. В., Ульянищева Л. В. Public Relations and
Advertising in Close-Up: учеб. пособие для студ. высш. учеб. завед.
М.: ИМПЭ-Паблиш, 2004, 272 с.
2. Коваленко П. И., Кудряшова Ю. А. English for Students of PR.
Ростов н/Д: Феникс, 2008, 285 с.
3. Легасова Т. А., Ходырева Е. Б. Связи с общественностью: Английский язык для PR-специалистов. Н. Новгород: Нижегород. гос.
ун-т, 2012. 31 с.
4. Aronson M., Spetner D. The PR Writer’s Handbook / N.-Y.,
1993. 411 p.
5. Seitel F. P. The Practice of Public Relations. N.-Y., 1992. 675 p.
6. Wilcox D. Public Relations Writing and Media Techniques / N-. Y.,
2004. 712 p.
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ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ
3
Part one..................................................................................... Text 1. Early Public Relations Experience.................................... Text 2. The Growth of Modern Public Relations ............................ Text 3. Public Relations Marketing ............................................ Text 4. The Marketing Plan....................................................... Text 5. Public Relations Marketing Activities............................... Text 6. Meeting the press.......................................................... 6.1. Press-release................................................................ 6.2. Backgrounder.............................................................. Text 7. Purposes of Public Relations Advertising.......................... Text 8. Advertising and Publicity Techniques............................... Text 9. Ethics in PR................................................................. Text 10. Branding................................................................... 4
4
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Part two. Texts for written translation and discussion........................ Text 1. Communicating in a Crisis.............................................. Text 2. Communications Theory................................................. Text 3. Issues Management........................................................ Text 4. Compare Oral Presentations With Written Communication... Text 5. Business Etiquette......................................................... Text 6. Concerns of Organisational Communication....................... Text 7. Advertising Campaigns.................................................. Text 8. Comparative Advertising: European legislative framework... Рекомендуемая литература .......................................................... 41
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