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МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ
Федеральное государственное автономное образовательное учреждение
высшего профессионального образования
САНКТ-ПЕТЕРБУРГСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ
АЭРОКОСМИЧЕСКОГО ПРИБОРОСТРОЕНИЯ
Е. А. Рудая
NEWSPAPER ARTICLES
IN ENGLISH
Учебное пособие
Санкт-Петербург
2014
УДК 811.112.2(075)
ББК 81.2 АНГЛя73
Р83
Рецензенты:
Кандидат филологических наук, доцент О. В. Акимова
Кандидат филологических наук, доцент А. Н. Цветкова
Утверждено
редакционно-издательским советом университета
в качестве учебного пособия
Рудая, Е. А.
Р83
Newspaper Articles In English: учеб. пособие / Е. А. Рудая. – СПб.:
ГУАП, 2014. – 66 с.
ISBN 978-5-8088-0931-4
Данное учебное пособие по английскому языку предназначено для
студентов, обучающихся по направлению «Международные отношения»
и «Экономика» в качестве дополнительного материала для проведения
занятий по дисциплине «Английский язык (профессиональный)». Оно
состоит из трех модулей, помогающих сформировать целостное
представление об обозначенных темах.
УДК 811.112.2(075)
ББК 81.2АНГЛя73
ISBN 978-5-8088-0931-4
© Рудая Е. А., 2014
© Санкт-Петербургский государственный
университет аэрокосмического
приборостроения, 2014
ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ
Данное пособие предназначено для студентов 2–3 курсов, обучающихся
по направлениям «Международные отношения» и «Экономика», и является
дополнительным дидактическим материалом, способствующим развитию
навыков профессиональной коммуникации.
Пособие включает три модуля, не связанных между собой, первый из
которых «Media Literacy» является вводным и помогает сформировать
«критическое мышление», так необходимое для знакомства с английской
газетной лексикой.
Каждый модуль состоит из аутентичных текстов на английском языке,
взятых из ключевых изданий английской качественной прессы, таких как
«The Herald Tribune», «The New York Times», «The Washington Post», «The
Independent» и т. д., а также материалов из интернет-источников
(официальных сайтов Всемирной Метеорологической Организации,
Организации Объединенных Наций, БиБиСи и т. д.).
Модули имеют четкую структуру. Сначала предлагаются задания
коммуникативного характера для обсуждения предлагаемой темы (при этом
важно увидеть, какими знаниями обладают студенты до начала
ознакомления с темой). Далее следуют оригинальные тексты
информационного характера, основная цель которых – расширить
имеющиеся знания, а также дать основу для изучения активного словаря по
теме. Упражнения к тексту предназначены для усвоения текстового
материала и закрепления изучаемой лексики. Помимо этого, в модуле
вводятся основные грамматические конструкции и лексические единицы,
которые в дальнейшем необходимо использовать при переводе газетных
текстов с английского языка на русский.
Модули завершаются чтением и переводом английских газетных статей,
содержащих изученную лексику, а также переводом газетных статей
с русского языка на английский по изученной тематике. Данные статьи
взяты с конкретных интернет-сайтов, приведенных в списке источников.
Такой подход обеспечивает возможность постоянного обновления текстов,
привлекаемых для чтения и перевода, в первую очередь, с русского на
английский язык.
3
MODULE 1 MEDIA LITERACY
STARTING POINT
1. How often do you read newspapers / magazines / journals? Why do you read
those particular papers?
2. Have you ever had your name mentioned in a newspaper? Have you ever
written articles or letters for a newspaper?
3. Write down 4 or 5 newspapers that are often published in your country.
Which are «tabloid» newspapers and which are considered to be «quality» press?
How can you distinguish them?
4. How many hours a day do you watch TV? Which TV programmes do you
usually watch? What programs would be interesting for the majority of people?
Why? Choose from: the news, reality shows, sitcoms, wildlife programmes,
quizzes, music channels, documentaries, cooking shows, series, other
programmes?
5. Do you tend to trust everything that you read in a newspaper or watch on TV?
6. Do you follow the news every day? Do you have your own opinion about
most of the current news issues?
NEWS LITERACY
1. Do you agree with the following statements about media? Use the
expressions below to discuss the statements with your partner.
1. The impact of the media on the society is huge.
2. Most people suffer from information overload.
3. In the modern digital age it is important to sort fact from fiction.
4. The Internet can’t give you any trustworthy information.
Expressing your opinion:
o I’m absolutely certain that…
o I’m convinced that…
o I personally think that…
o To my mind…
o From my point of view…
4
Agreeing:
•
I agree with you there.
•
That’s true!
•
Yes, I know what you mean!
Disagreeing:
 I don’t see it quite like that.
 I doubt it.
 I don’t think so.
 Yes, but on the other hand..
 Yes, but don’t you think…
 I quite agree with you, but…
2. Read
the
text
about
an
educational
program
from
thenewsliteracyproject.org and compare your answers.
The News Literacy Project (NLP) is an innovative educational program that
mobilizes seasoned journalists to help high school students sort fact from fiction
in the digital age. The project teaches students critical thinking skills that will
enable them to be smarter and more frequent consumers and creators of credible
information across all media and platforms. It seeks to light a spark of interest
in students to seek information that will make them more knowledgeable about
their communities, the nation and the world.
NLP shows students how to distinguish verified information from spin,
opinion and misinformation – whether they are using search engines to find
websites with information about specific topics, assessing a viral email, viewing
a video on YouTube, watching television news or reading a newspaper or a blog
post.
Students are being taught to seek news and information that will make them
well-informed and engaged students, consumers and citizens. They are also being
encouraged to produce news and information accurately, fairly and responsibly
to make their own voices as credible and powerful as possible.
Twenty-two news organizations are partnering with NLP. The project has
about two hundred journalists enrolled in its online directory, authors of bestselling books and winners of journalism’s highest honors.
5
Even as young people increasingly participate in the national conversation
through such forms of communication as text messages, blogs, Facebook and
Twitter, the concept of news literacy is not widely discussed in America’s public
schools. With the 24-hour news cycle and the explosion of online information,
today’s students have access to unprecedented amounts of information. Yet they
are also confronted with the daunting task of determining the reliability of myriad
sources of «news» – and surveys show that they are increasingly uninterested
in information with a civic purpose.
The News Literacy Project seeks to reverse these trends. In addition, at a time
when negative reports about the news media abound, it presents students and
their teachers with positive role models of journalists and insights into how news
is reported, edited and produced. But its biggest impact promises to be on the
nation’s civic life. When young people are exposed to information that is in the
public interest, the country’s democratic grass-roots are strengthened.
«Our goal should be that every American possesses the skills to discern news
from infotainment, fact from opinion, and trustworthy information from
untrustworthy,» said Michael Copps, a former member of the Federal
Communications Commission.
With today’s explosion of media content, young people are often
overwhelmed by information. A June 2012 study of American youth found that
84% of respondents are bombarded with information and «would benefit from
learning more about how to gauge what news is trustworthy.»
3. Complete these phrases to form adjective + noun collocations from the
text in 2.
1. ________________ thinking
5. _____________ purpose
2. _______ /________ information
6. _____________ information
3. ________________ e-mail
7. _____________ journalists
4. ________________ task
8. _____________ grass-roots
4. Match the collocations in 3 to these definitions:
a. facts that have been checked or proved
b. the aim that people have as citizens or members of the community
6
c. carefully considering things
d. facts that are believed or trusted
e. ordinary people in a society that are believed to be equal and able to share in
making decisions
f. messages spreading quickly on the Internet
g. the duty that makes you worried because you think it’s difficult to do
h. experienced reporter
5. Find the correct preposition in the text, then match phrases 1–4 with
definitions a–d.
Be exposed ___ information
Deal with something difficult
Present ____ an insight
Be attacked with a lot of facts
Confront ___ the task
offer useful information to be
considered
Be bombarded ___ information
not protected from facts about
something
6. Study the definitions. Say why it is important to distinguish these types of
information from verified information. Give examples to illustrate each
of them.
a. INFOTAINMENT – TV programs about real events or facts that are made
in a way that entertains people;
b. SPIN – a way of presenting information to make something seem good or less
bad);
c. OPINION – the attitude that you have towards something;
d. MISINFORMATION – false or incorrect information, especially when it is
intended to trick someone;
e. FICTION – a report, story or information that is not true.
7. Work in pairs. Make a list of questions that would help any news
consumer to sort fact from fiction / discern news from infotainment /
distinguish verified information from spin, opinion and misinformation.
7
8. Read the text and check your answers:
CRITICAL THINKING QUESTIONS
Asking critical thinking questions about information sources is fundamental
to the critical thinking process. The critical thinker has an insatiable curiosity and
doesn’t take things at face value. Two questions to ask when determining the
value of information are: does this information make sense? and what does my
common sense, intuition, experience and education tell me about this
information?
Critical thinking questions help to open your mind to look at written or
spoken information objectively. By not taking information as fact, just because it
has been written or spoken, you begin to discriminate information. This can lead
to sound opinions and decisions about the information.
There is a need to continually question information and information sources.
Information can come from a wide array of sources: books, magazines,
newspapers, experts and the Internet. This begs the next questions: what sources
can be believed and what information should be discarded. To help you find
worthwhile information ask the following critical thinking questions:
•
Where are the best sources of information? Reliable sources can be
found in books and articles from established experts, library resources and
magazines and newspapers that you have strong confidence in. You can use
unknown sources from the Internet, magazines and articles, but caution
is advised. The information isn’t governed and a great deal of it is biased and/or
wrong.
• Can the information be verified? Finding two more different locations
that have the same information is one of the best ways to verify information.
Your objective is to find unrelated sources. It needs to be noted that much
information is recopied today. One way of finding unrelated sources is to look for
information that verifies what you are investigating but is presented differently.
• Are my assumptions valid? Do I need to investigate more facts and data?
Assumptions about information are crucial. Assumptions are used instead of facts
and data when they are unavailable or time is limited. If you question your
assumptions it will help you think through them before using them as «fact».
8
• How can I interpret (comprehend) information? Continually questioning
how you are interpreting (comprehending) information is essential to critical
thinking. Some of the land mines to critical thinking such as group work,
intolerance or social conditioning can bias the interpretation of information.
The more critical the issue, the more important the information, and the more
time should be invested in verifying it. [1]
9. Match collocations in the left column with definitions in the right
column:
discriminate
interpret
govern
discard
bias
INFORMATON
a) get rid of info that
you no longer need
b) treat info as unfair
c) make info have
a special tendency
often in an unfair way
d) control and manage
info
e) understand info
in a particular way
10. Choose the correct definition for the adjectives in the following phrases.
You may need to refer back to the context.
a. Critical (thinking) 1. Very important, 2. Difficult to deal with, 3. Very
seriously injured, 4. Considering something carefully and deciding what good
and bad aspects are;
b. Critical (issue) 1. Very important, 2. Difficult to deal with, 3. Very seriously
injured, 4. Considering something carefully and deciding what good and bad
aspects are;
c. Sound (opinions) 1. Clearly heard, 2. Involving the use of good judgment,
3. Safe, in a good condition;
d. Worthwhile (information)
1. Expensive, 2. Good for some period,
3. Worth time and effort you spend on it;
e. Insatiable (curiosity)
1. Always wanting more and never feeling satisfied,
2. Needing to be protected, 3. Unusual
9
11. Study these collocations:
• Take someone/something at face value –
to accept someone/something without considering whether they really are what
they claim to be;
E.g. The critical thinker has an insatiable curiosity and doesn’t take things at face
value.
• Take something as fact –
to accept something as true or real;
E.g. By not taking information as fact, just because it has been written or spoken,
you begin to discriminate information.
• Think something through –
to consider facts about something in an organized and thorough way;
E.g. If you question your assumptions, it will help you think through them before
using them as «fact».
• Invest in –
to use something such as time and effort for a particular purpose;
E.g. The more critical the issue, the more important the information, and the more
time should be invested in verifying it.
12. Translate into English:
1. Он говорит то, что думает. Ты должен верить ему на слово.
2. Комитет понял доклад буквально и одобрил все предлагаемые
изменения.
3. Я не знаю, смогу ли я принять ее историю за чистую монету, но
предположу, что она не врет.
4. Почему многие люди считают теорию эволюции Ч. Дарвина неоспоримой?
5. Я все хорошенько обдумаю и позвоню тебе утром.
6. Мы не имеем права на ошибку, так что все обдумай до мелочей
и удостоверься, что все готово.
7. Мы много вложили в Тома, и у нас есть все основания многого ожидать
от него.
13. Discuss the following questions with a partner:
1. What impact do means of mass communication have on society? Why?
10
2. What happens to information consumers when they get overloaded with
information?
3. What is news?
4. What is news literacy?
5. Which information can be considered reliable? Which information can
be thought of as misleading?
6. How should we evaluate information sources?
7. How can we verify the information?
8. What is biased (slanted) information?
9. Why should news publishers and broadcasters be responsible for the
information they send to the public?
NEWSPAPER CONTENT
1. Work with a partner and make a list of typical sections in a newspaper.
2. Read the text and check your answers:
Newspapers demonstrate remarkable consistency both in what is considered
news and how it’s covered. A typical weekday U.S. newspaper – regardless of
size – offers a story mix emphasizing sports, politics/government/war,
police/crime, health/home/food/fashion/travel and business stories. These five
categories take up almost 75 percent of the typical weekday newspaper’s space.
The other 25 percent is a mix of entertainment, science, arts, disasters, etc.
Sunday newspapers are more diverse than weekday newspapers. The top five
topics still dominate, but their proportion in the paper shrinks to 50 percent.
Business, community news, arts and science and other topics get more emphasis
Sunday than on weekdays and make up the difference. This pattern holds true for
newspapers regardless of size. Sports and politics, the two most frequently
covered topics, can be described in more detail. Sports coverage includes
40 percent professional sports, 38 percent college (inflated because of the NCAA
basketball tournament, which fell during the study period), 13 percent high
school and 10 percent women’s sports (at all levels). Politics stories are
11
38 percent elections, 22 percent business (for example stories about the impact of
government on business), 11 percent crime (for example, stories about official
corruption) and 8 percent war with the balance spread out over a range of other
topics. Election coverage focused 60 percent of space on national elections
(because of the March presidential primaries during the time of the study),
20 percent local, 14 percent state and regional, and 6 percent international
elections. The quantity of local coverage is another important dimension of
what’s covered in the newspaper. A look at front page stories shows that smaller
newspapers put more emphasis on local stories than do larger papers – 58 percent
compared to 43 percent of front page space. Larger newspapers devote more
space to national and international stories on the front page. However, this greater
emphasis on local stories is confined to the front page.
Looking at the overall content picture, newspapers – regardless of size –
cover local news in the same proportion. Most newspapers devote 34 percent of
space to local news, 16 percent to state and regional news, 40 percent to national
news, and 10 percent to international. Larger papers devote slightly more space to
international events, but the difference is minimal. Some themes are primarily
written with a local geographic focus: community announcements, obituaries and
stories about ordinary people; education; crime; disaster and arts. (Not
coincidentally, newspapers that have a significantly higher percentage of stories
with a local angle emphasize these themes.) The themes least likely to be written
with a local angle are movies; television; politics, government, war and
international; and sports [2].
3. Match these newspaper headlines to corresponding sections:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
12
World News
Sports
Arts and Entertainment
Business
Local News
Opinion
Science and Technology
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
The Human Rights Watch Report
Generation Y Rebels
Killed in Volgograd Suicide Bombing
The Lessons of Japan Economy
Moscow Art Show Cancelled
Rafael Nadal Wins U.S. Open
U.S. Debt Jumps A Record
4. Define the types of the following newspaper extracts. What words and
phrases help you define them?
1. World news
5. Technology
2. Business
6. Obituaries
3. Sport
7. Local News
4. Arts and Ents
8. Opinion
A. Housebuilding is rising across the country as confidence returns to the
property market, according to the latest survey by the Royal Institute of Chartered
Surveyors (Rics). During the three months to September a positive balance of
41 per cent of construction firms questioned by Rics reported an increase in
housing projects on the preceding quarter. This was up from a positive balance of
31 per cent in the previous three-month period. The survey also showed activity
up in every part of the UK in the third quarter for the first time in six years [3].
B. In Tuesday night's final, we'll find out which baker Paul Hollywood and Mary
Berry have chosen as this year's Great British Bake Offwinner. No particular
contestant has stood head and shoulders above the rest in this fourth series,
meaning we're in for a tense hour of television. Here, our writers tell you who
should lift the Bake Off trophy [3].
C. Russia’s increasingly confident Muslims, who constitute a majority of 57 out
of the country’s 182 ethnic groups, have started to use the term Muslim Russia to
signal their ambitions. According to Muslim analyst Daniyal Isayev, this term
affirms that Islam is «an inalienable part of Russia» and that «Russia as a state
and civilization could not exist without Islam and the Muslims.» He notes that
Muslims preceded ethnic Russians in much of the territory that is now Russia.
His sweeping claims for Muslims include the exaggerations that they made
critical contributions to Russia’s culture and its military victories [4].
D. They’re China’s largest provider of telecoms equipment (this being the actual
hardware, mostly unseen, that makes global connections possible) and the second
largest in the world – only Swedish giant Ericsson are bigger. The phone calls of
13
three billion consumers around the world are routed through Huawei’s switches.
Unaudited revenue reports this July puts the company’s annual revenue
at 220.2 billion RMB ($35 billion) which represents a ten per cent rise year-onyear. Their carrier network group (these being the networks supporting
everything from mobiles to TVs) made up 73 per cent of this revenue [3].
E. London meeting of 11 Western and Arab nations, known as the Friends of
Syria group, ended today with the prospect of peace talks to end the country’s
conflict in jeopardy. Speaking to a panel that included Foreign Secretary William
Hague and US Secretary of State John Kerry, the leader of Syria’s moderate rebel
coalition said there could be no successful second conference in Geneva without
the removal of President Bashar al-Assad [3].
F. In terms of technique and creative ability, Paul Smith ranks with the great
jazz pianists like Oscar Peterson and Erroll Garner, but he never pushed himself
forward and was content accompanying jazz singers. He described Ella Fitzgerald
as «an accompanist's dream. She never did anything that wasn't musical. She
wasn't always the same but the general continuity was always very easy to
follow.» Fitzgerald, who employed Smith as a touring musician from 1960
to 1978, reciprocated the feeling [3].
G. Mo Farah is highly unlikely to compete at the Commonwealth Games in
Glasgow next year after deciding to prioritise the London Marathon. It is
a significant blow to Games organisers as the reigning Olympic and world
10,000 metres and 5,000m champion was expected to be one of the star
attractions [3].
H. The heatwave followed the launch of a Government-supported VisitEngland
holiday-at-home campaign which featured the cartoon characters. Today,
VisitEngland chief executive James Berresford released results of a survey which
showed that 55% of English accommodation and 66% of visitor attractions
reported increased visitor numbers for the period from mid-July to the end of the
school holidays. Mr Berresford said ice cream sales in the Royal Parks had
doubled this summer while Isle of Wight tourism receipts leapt by £21 million [3].
14
NEWSPAPER HEADLINES
1. Look through newspaper headlines and put them under the
corresponding grammar structure:
A. Noun phrases / Noun strings
B. Simple Tenses instead of Continuous and Perfect Tenses
C. Auxiliaries dropped in Passives
D. Articles dropped
E. Infinitive to indicate future
F. Present Simple Tense to indicate Past
1. Popular President
2. Russia preparing property restrictions for foreigners
3. Murder suspect identified
4. Russia’ income inequality
5. Smirnov to undergo surgery in attempt to salvage ‘Sochi Dream’
6. Olympic torch erupts in flames
7. Restaurant Review
8. Iron Lady Thatcher dies at 78
9. Deputy PM says Russia’s notorious top doctor may step down
10. Small border traffic
11. Ex-cop jailed
12. Russian woman detained for selling drugs
13. New business idol
14. Pluschenko training hard for Sochi Olympic gold
15. Russia denies visa to Dutch journalist
16. Moscow art show cancelled
17. Defense Minister rebukes officials for talking to media
18. Russian lawmaker calls for terrorists’ families to be thrown in prison
19. Russia’s judicial system: Summertime madness
20. Muslims gather for prayers in mosques
21. Horsemeat found in sausages
22. Putin addresses risks of terrorism
23. Russia calls UN report on Syria incomplete
24. Opposition leader Navalny given suspended sentence
15
25. Netherlands apologizes to Russia over diplomat unrest
26. Posh Rublyovka neighborhood loosing its appeal
27. Tverskoy Passazh shopping center to be turned into recreational complex
28. Shoping center closed on property dispute
29. City to sell off four markets
30. Muscovites asked to discuss kiosks
2. What other features of headlines can you notice?
3. Translate these headlines into English:
1. Российский авторынок сжимается на фоне плохой экономики
2. Лекарства без правил
3. Пентагон не собирается уходить из Европы
4. Российский гонщик Михаил Алешин начнет следующий сезон в СПб
5. Силовики заблокировали правительственный квартал
6. ФСБ вычислит недобросовестных работодателей
7. Федеральный резерв готовит новогодний сюрприз
8. РАН начала реорганизацию
9. Демонстранты пикетируют дом главы администрации города
10. Медведев: в России до 2020 года появятся 25 млн рабочих мест
11. Мать и двое детей найдены убитыми в своей квартире под Рязанью
12. ЕС снова вводит визы для балканских стран
13. Чиновники простили братской Кубе 32 млрд долларов
14. Сможем ли мы участвовать в новой битве за космос?
15. Тест на банкротство
16
MODULE 2 CLIMATE CHANGE. NATURAL DISASTERS
1. Discuss these questions with a partner:
•
What’s your favourite season? Why?
• Describe your favourite type of weather? Why do you like it? You can choose
adjectives from the following list:
Rainy, snowy, foggy, clear, cloudy, windy, stormy, humid, wet, cold, sunny, hot,
cool, warm
•
–
–
–
–
What do you usually do
On a cold winter day
In a hot summer evening
On a rainy spring day
In a cool autumn morning
•
–
–
–
–
What, in your opinion, is the ideal weather for
Christmas or the New Year celebration
Going on a hiking trip
Fishing
Sightseeing tour
2. Read the text and do the task:
Forecast summary:
A. Outbreak of rain and drizzle, along with hill fog, will move away
southeastwards, probably taking until early afternoon to clear Kent. Dry
conditions will follow, with initially large amounts of cloud, before some late
sunshine develops, especially north of London. Overnight under the clear skies
temperatures will fall quickly, allowing a slight frost to develop in some rural
locations.
B. The unsettled conditions will continue in the north with spells of wet and
windy weather, interspersed by brighter, colder interludes with showers falling as
snow on the hills. The wet and windy weather in the north is expected to drift
south at times, especially later in the week. The colder weather in the north will
17
also edge southwards at times with temperatures expected to be a little below
normal for the second half of November.
C. This will be a week where the weather switches between cooler air coming
down from Iceland and occasional bursts of milder air feeding up all the way
from the Azores. The week will start off with a band of rain crossing the Country.
The rain will continue in the southeast of England into Tuesday morning. The
second half of the week will be characterized by cold and windy weather with
showers. There will also be gales, possibly severe in the northwest on Wednesday
night. It will be a quieter period of weather in the south, mostly dry, breezy
at times with a touch of frost at nights and even a few fog patches.
D. On Wednesday daytime temperatures reached a warm 17 Celsius at Exeter
airport whilst Balmoral in Aberdeenshire was no higher than 5 Celsius. There
were similar contrasts in night time temperatures, down to minus 2 Celsius in the
Scottish Highlands while the south coast of England stayed up at a mild
10 degrees. By the end of the week there will be significant accumulations of
snow above about 800 meters.
Find in the text the following collocations and explain their meaning:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
A touch of…
Large amounts of…
Outbreak of…
A band of…
Occasional bursts of…
Fog…
Spells of…
3. Study the following grammatical patterns to predict the weather:
1. The verb ‘will’ + main verb:
Dry conditions will follow, with initially large amounts of cloud, before some
late sunshine develops, especially north of London.
18
Overnight under the clear skies temperatures will fall quickly, allowing
a slight frost to develop in some rural locations.
The unsettled conditions will continue in the north with spells of wet and
windy weather, interspersed by brighter, colder interludes with showers falling
as snow on the hills.
2. Construction ‘there will be’ + noun:
There will also be gales, possibly severe in the northwest on Wednesday
night.
By the end of the week there will be significant accumulations of snow
above about 800 meters.
3. Passive construction ‘the subject + is expected, said, believed, etc. +
infinitive’:
The wet and windy weather in the north is expected to drift south at times,
especially later in the week.
The colder weather in the north will also edge southwards at times with
temperatures expected to be a little below normal for the second half of
November.
4. This / It + will + be + noun:
It will be a quieter period of weather in the south, mostly dry, breezy at times
with a touch of frost at nights and even a few fog patches.
This will be a week where the weather switches between cooler air coming
down from Iceland and occasional bursts of milder air feeding up all the way
from the Azores.
4. Study the following lexical patterns to describe the changes in the
weather or ‘relocation’ of various types of weather:
1. Verbs of movement + direction (location):
Outbreak of rain and drizzle, along with hill fog, will move away
southeastwards, probably taking until early afternoon to clear Kent.
19
The wet and windy weather in the north is expected to drift south at times,
especially later in the week.
The week will start off with a band of rain crossing the Country.
The colder weather in the north will also edge southwards at times with
temperatures expected to be a little below normal for the second half of
November.
2. Verbs of change or continuation + direction (location):
Overnight under the clear skies temperatures will fall quickly, allowing
a slight frost to develop in some rural locations.
The unsettled conditions will continue in the north with spells of wet and
windy weather, interspersed by brighter, colder interludes with showers falling
as snow on the hills
The rain will continue in the southeast of England into Tuesday morning.
This will be a week where the weather switches between cooler air coming
down from Iceland and occasional bursts of milder air feeding up all the way
from the Azores.
5. Study the following time expressions:
Outbreak of rain and drizzle, along with hill fog, will move away
southeastwards, probably taking until early afternoon to clear Kent.
Overnight under the clear skies temperatures will fall quickly, allowing
a slight frost to develop in some rural locations.
The wet and windy weather in the north is expected to drift south at times,
especially later in the week.
The colder weather in the north will also edge southwards at times with
temperatures expected to be a little below normal for the second half of
November.
The rain will continue in the southeast of England into Tuesday morning.
The second half of the week will be characterized by cold and windy
weather with showers.
There will also be gales, possibly severe in the northwest on Wednesday
night.
20
It will be a quieter period of weather in the south, mostly dry, breezy at times
with a touch of frost at nights and even a few fog patches.
On Wednesday daytime temperatures reached a warm 17 Celsius at Exeter
airport whilst Balmoral in Aberdeenshire was no higher than 5 Celsius.
By the end of the week there will be significant accumulations of snow above
about 800 meters.
6. Make a written description of weather changes from early to late autumn
in your area. Use the main grammatical and lexical patterns studied above.
7. Translate into English and present the weather forecast to the group:
Новогодняя ночь в Петербурге ожидается морозной, но, поскольку
сильного ветра не будет, погода будет достаточно комфортной, сообщил
главный синоптик городского Гидрометцентра Александр Колесов.
По его словам всю неделю перед началом новогодних праздников
в городе будут держаться морозы, сохранится облачная погода. В дневные
часы будет –9–11 градусов, ночью местами 11–13 градусов ниже нуля.
Временами ожидается небольшой снег, более сильные снежные осадки
могут быть 29 и 30 декабря.
Такая же морозная погода сохранится и в первые дни новогодних
каникул. Более сильные морозы могут быть на севере и северо-востоке
Ленобласти. Там в ночные часы температура воздуха может опускаться
до 20 градусов ниже нуля, заключил представитель Гидрометцентра.
8. Read the text and do the exercises:
Antarctica
The continent of Antarctica is twice the size of the United States, is the
earth’s most southerly region, and is the largest area in the world with
a permanent ice cap. Glaciers covered with snow extend to the coast which
is fringed with large area of pack and drift ice.
Virtually, all precipitation in Antarctica is snow and this is frequently
whipped up from the surface in fierce blizzards. During the long Antarctic winter
conditions outdoors often reach or exceed the limits of human tolerance through
21
the combination of low temperatures and wind. This results in excessive wind
chill and frostbite [5].
Match the terms and their definitions and then study them:
A. Glacier
1. A large mass of ice that floats in the sea
B. Pack ice
2. The fact that the wind makes the air
temperature feel colder
C. Precipitation
3. A storm with a lot of snow and strong wind
D. Blizzard
4. Large mass of ice
E. Wind chill
5. A medical condition in which cold weather
seriously damages your nose, fingers, toes
F. Frostbite
6. Rain, snow, hail
G. Ice cap
7. Large area of ice that covers the land
9. Study the following adjectives:
Excessive – (adj) – 1. Much more than is reasonable or necessary; 2. Much
greater than is usual. E.g. This results in excessive wind chill and frostbite. Crops
were destroyed by the excessive rainfall last August.
Fierce – (adj) – 1. Very strong or severe; 2. Involving a lot of force or
energy. E.g. Virtually, all precipitation in Antarctica is snow and this is
frequently whipped up from the surface in fierce blizzards. A fierce storm forced
the crew to abandon the yacht.
Permanent – (adj) – happening or existing for a long time or for all time in
the future. E.g. The continent of Antarctica is twice the size of the United States,
is the earth’s most southerly region, and is the largest area in the world with
a permanent ice cap.
10. Translate into English:
a. Излишняя заостренность внимания на ч-л;
засилье корпораций;
избыточное потребление;
повышенная нервозность;
злоупотребление; заядлый курильщик;
22
b. Сильные бури;
жесткая критика;
острая дискуссия;
ожесточенная борьба;
нестерпимая жара;
яростная оппозиция;
c. Сотрудник в штате;
постоянное место жительства;
место постоянной работы;
коренные зубы;
несмываемый маркер.
11. Read the text and do the exercises:
Bermuda
Bermuda has a subtropical climate much influenced by the warmth of the
North Atlantic waters, fully in the path of the warm Gulf Stream. Summers are
warm to hot, and the winters mild with occasional warm, sunny days.
An abundant rainfall is distributed throughout the year. Bermuda has a sunny
climate with daily sunshine hours ranging from five to six in winter to nine to ten
in summer and is a popular tourist spot for visitors from North America.
Bermuda is occasionally affected by hurricanes which have moved north
from the Caribbean, but these violent tropical storms are usually in the decaying
stage by the time they reach this latitude [5].
Mark the statements as true or false. Correct those that are false:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Bermuda’s climate is changing to a continental one.
Storms which reach Bermuda islands are fierce and powerful.
There are more sunny days in winter than in summer.
The precipitations are occasional and scarce.
12. Make an internet research and give a short presentation about the
climate in different parts of the world.
You may choose from: Afghanistan. Australia, Belgium, Cuba, China, Denmark,
Falkland Islands, Gibraltar, Haiti, Iceland, Japan, Kenya, Morocco, Saudi Arabia,
Thailand, Zimbabwe. Your presentation should include:
23
1. Geographical location of the country
2. Typical geographical features (landmarks, such as mountains, steppes,
streams, etc.)
3. Typical weather patterns and average temperatures
13. Read the following text:
THE WORLD METEOROLOGICAL ORGANIZATION (WMO)
The World Meteorological Organization is a specialized agency of the United
Nations. It is the UN system’s authoritative voice on the state and behavior of the
Earth’s atmosphere, its interaction with the oceans, the climate it produces and
the resulting distribution of water resources.
WMO has a membership of 191 member states and territories (on 1 January
2013). Since its establishment, WMO has played a unique and powerful role in
contributing to the safety and welfare of humanity. Under WMO leadership and
within the framework of WMO programmes, National Hydrological and
Meteorological Services contribute substantially to the protection of life and
property against natural disasters, to safeguarding the environment and to
enhancing the economic and social well-being of all sectors of society in areas
such as food security, water resources and transport.
In the specific case of weather-, climate and water-related hazards, which
account for nearly 90% of all natural disasters, WMO’s programmes provide vital
information for the advanced warnings that save lives and reduce damage to
property and the environment. WMO also contributes to reducing the impacts of
human-induced disasters, such as those associated with chemical and nuclear
accidents, forest fire and volcanic ash. In collaboration with other UN agencies
and the National Hydrological and Meteorological Services, WMO supports the
implementation of a number of environmental conventions and is instrumental
in providing advice and assessments to governments on related matters.
In the light of its mission and the decision of its 191 members, the WMO is
focusing its strategic direction for the period of 2012–2015 on five strategic
thrusts to achieve expected results. The WMO recognizes that, despite significant
24
progress in improving services, many societies are increasingly vulnerable to
natural hazards and national economies are becoming more sensitive to climate
variability and change reaffirming the need to improve weather, climate, water
and related environmental services, as well as communications and emergency
response activities particularly in developing and least developing countries
(LDCs), small island developing States (SIDS) and other vulnerable countries.
The WMO strategic plan 2012-2015 underscores the importance of improving
service quality and service delivery by advancing scientific research and
application; strengthening capacity-building; building and enhancing partnerships
and cooperation; and strengthening good governance [6].
14. Think of only one statement that would summarize the main idea of each
paragraph in the text.
15. Find in the text English equivalents for the following phrases:
1. cтраны-члены и территории;
2. играть уникальную и влиятельную роль;
3. безопасность и благосостояние человечества;
4. вносить существенный вклад;
5. стихийные бедствия;
6. продовольственная безопасность;
7. заблаговременные предупреждения;
8. бедствия антропогенного характера;
9. быть уязвимым к опасным природным явлениям;
10. быть чувствительным к изменению климата;
11. реагирование на чрезвычайные ситуации;
12. наименее развитые страны;
13. малые островные развивающиеся государства;
14. наращивание потенциала;
15. налаживание партнерских отношений;
16. укрепление надлежащего руководства.
25
16. Translate the following phrases using the vocabulary from the text:
1. a specialized agency of the United Nations;
2. authoritative voice on;
3. under WMO leadership and within the framework of WMO programmes;
4. safeguarding the environment;
5. in the specific case of weather-, climate and water-related hazards;
6. provide vital information;
7. chemical and nuclear accidents;
8. volcanic ash;
9. in the light of its mission;
10. five strategic thrusts;
11. underscores the importance of;
12. improving service quality;
13. by advancing scientific research and application;
14. the WMO strategic plan.
17. Translate these sentences without referring back to the text:
1. Всемирная метеорологическая организация – специализированное учреждение Организации Объединенных Наций.
2. Она является авторитетным источником информации системы ООН
по вопросам состояния и поведения атмосферы Земли.
3. В
рамках
программ
ВМО
национальные
гидрологические
и метеорологические службы вносят существенный вклад в сохранение
окружающей среды и социального благополучия всех сегментов общества
в таких областях, как продовольственная безопасность и водные ресурсы.
4. Опасные явления, связанные с погодой, климатом и водой, являются
причиной около 90 % всех стихийных бедствий.
5. ВМО вносит вклад в сокращение воздействий бедствий антропогенного
характера (химические и ядерные аварии, лесные пожары).
6. Многие страны становятся все более уязвимы к опасным природным
явлениям и более чувствительны к изменению климата.
26
7. Наименее развитые страны и малые островные развивающиеся
государства должны особенно быстро реагировать на чрезвычайные
ситуации.
8. Необходимо продвигать научные исследования, наращивать потенциал,
налаживать партнерские отношения и укреплять надлежащее руководство.
18. Read the following text and answer the questions:
UNITED NATIONS FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE
The UNFCCC entered into force on 21 March 1994. Today, it has nearuniversal membership. The 195 countries that have ratified the Convention are
called Parties to the Convention.
The UNFCCC is a «Rio Convention», one of three adopted at the «Rio Earth
Summit» in 1992. Its sister Rio Conventions are the UN Convention on
Biological Diversity and the Convention to Combat Desertification. The three are
intrinsically linked. It is in this context that the Joint Liaison Group was set up to
boost cooperation among the three Conventions, with the ultimate aim of
developing synergies in their activities on issues of mutual concern.
Preventing «dangerous» human interference with the climate system is the
ultimate aim of the UNFCCC.
1. When and where was the Convention adopted?
2. What other Conventions are linked with a Rio Convention? What are their
main goals, in your opinion?
3. Why is the membership in this Convention called ‘near-universal’? How
many countries have ratified the Convention?
4. What is the main aim of the Joint Liaison Group?
19. Read the summary of the Convention and translate some phrases from
English into Russian:
The Convention in Summary
Recognized that there was a problem.
•
This was remarkable for its time. Remember, in 1994, when the UNFCCC
took effect, there was less scientific evidence than there is now. The UNFCCC
27
borrowed a very important line from one of the most successful multilateral
environmental treaties in history (the Montreal Protocol, in 1987): it bound
member states to act in the interests of human safety even in the face of scientific
uncertainty.
Translate into Russian:
– To take effect ________________________________
–
–
Multilateral environmental treaty ____________________________________
To borrow an important line from ____________________________________
–
–
To bind smb / smth to ___________________________________
To act in the interests of _________________________________
Sets a lofty but specific goal.
•
The ultimate objective of the Convention is to stabilize greenhouse gas
concentrations «at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic (human
induced) interference with the climate system.» It states that «such a level should
be achieved within a time-frame sufficient to allow ecosystems to adapt naturally
to climate change, to ensure that food production is not threatened, and to enable
economic development to proceed in a sustainable manner.»
Translate into Russian:
–
–
A lofty goal _______________________
To stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations ____________________________
–
–
To prevent anthropogenic interference with ____________________________
To achieve within a time-frame ______________________________________
–
–
To proceed in a sustainable manner _________________________________
To adapt to climate change _________________________________________
–
To threaten food production ________________________________________
Puts the onus on developed countries to lead the way.
•
The idea is that, as they are the source of most past and current greenhouse
gas emissions, industrialized countries are expected to do the most to cut
emissions on home ground. They are called Annex I countries and belong to the
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). They
include 12 countries with «economies in transition» from Central and Eastern
Europe. Annex I countries were expected by the year 2000 to reduce emissions to
28
1990 levels. Many of them have taken strong action to do so, and some have
already succeeded.
Translate into Russian:
– Put the onus on smb / smth ________________________________________
– To cut emissions on home ground ___________________________________
– The OECD _____________________________________________________
– Annex 1 countries _______________________________________________
– Economies in transition ___________________________________________
– To reduce emission to 1990 levels ___________________________________
– To take strong actions _____________________________________________
Directs new funds to climate change activities in developing countries.
Industrialized nations agree under the Convention to support climate change
activities in developing countries by providing financial support for action on
climate change – above and beyond any financial assistance they already provide
to these countries. A system of grants and loans has been set up through the
Convention and is managed by the Global Environment Facility. Industrialized
countries also agree to share technology with less-advanced nations.
Translate into Russian:
– Industrialized nations ___________________________
– To support climate change activities __________________________________
– Under the Convention ___________________________
– To provide financial support for _____________________________________
– Financial assistance _____________________________
– To set up a system of grants and loans ________________________________
– Global Environmental Facility ______________________________________
– Less advanced countries ___________________________________________
•
Keeps tabs on the problem and what's being done about it.
Industrialized countries (Annex I) have to report regularly on their climate
change policies and measures, including issues governed by the Kyoto Protocol
(for countries which have ratified it).
•
They must also submit an annual inventory of their greenhouse gas emissions,
•
including data for their base year (1990) and all the years since.
29
•
Developing countries (Non-Annex I Parties) report in more general terms on
their actions both to address climate change and to adapt to its impacts – but less
regularly than Annex I Parties do, and their reporting is contingent on their
getting funding for the preparation of the reports, particularly in the case of the
Least Developed Countries [7].
Translate into Russian:
–
To keep tabs on the problem _______________________________________
–
Climate change policies and measures _______________________________
–
To submit an annual inventory of ___________________________________
–
To address climate change ________________________________________
–
To be contingent on ______________________________________________
–
Least developed countries _________________________________________
20. Translate the text into English. Use the vocabulary from 19.
РАМОЧНАЯ КОНВЕНЦИЯ ООН ОБ ИЗМЕНЕНИИ КЛИМАТА
Научные доказательства антропогенного воздействия на климат Земли
были впервые представлены международной общественности в 1979 г. на
Первой всемирной конференции по климату. На протяжении 1980-х гг., по
мере роста общественного интереса к экологическим проблемам и уровня
информированности о них, росла и озабоченность правительств
относительно изменения климата. В 1988 г. Генеральная Ассамблея ООН по
предложению правительства Мальты приняла резолюцию 43/53,
призывающую к «…охране глобального климата в интересах нынешнего
и будущих поколений человечества». В том же году руководящие органы
Всемирной метеорологической организации и Программы ООН по
окружающей среде объявили о создании новой организации –
Межправительственной группы экспертов по изменению климата
(МГЭИК) – с целью сбора и оценки научной информации по данной
проблеме. В 1990 г. МГЭИК опубликовала Первый оценочный доклад,
подтвердивший реальность угрозы глобального изменения климата.
30
Опираясь на эту информацию, Вторая всемирная конференция по
климату, состоявшаяся в том же году в Женеве, призвала к разработке
и подписанию глобального договора в этой сфере. Отвечая на призыв
конференции, Генеральная Ассамблея ООН приняла резолюцию 45/212,
положившую начало официальной работе над конвенцией об изменении
климата, для чего был создан Межправительственный переговорный
комитет (МПК).
МПК впервые собрался в феврале 1991 г., и всего через 15 месяцев,
9 мая 1992 г., представители правительств, входившие в его состав,
одобрили проект Рамочной конвенции ООН об изменении климата (РКИК
ООН). В июне 1992 г. на состоявшейся в Рио-де-Жанейро Конференции
ООН по окружающей среде и развитию (известной также как «Саммит
планеты Земля») новая Конвенция была открыта для подписания. Она
вступила в силу 21 марта 1994 г. Пятнадцать лет спустя участниками
Конвенции являются 191 государство, а также Европейское сообщество.
Практически всеобщее участие стран мира делает Конвенцию одним из
наиболее широко поддерживаемых международных природоохранных
соглашений.
С момента вступления документа в силу Стороны Конвенции – страны,
ее ратифицировавшие принимают участие в ежегодной Конференции
Сторон
(‘COP’).
Целями
Конференции
являются
содействие
осуществлению Конвенции и мониторинг процесса осуществления, а также
продолжение переговоров о наилучших способах борьбы с изменением
климата. Однако правительства, подписавшие Конвенцию, осознавали, что
сами по себе ее положения недостаточны для успешной борьбы
с изменением климата во всех его проявлениях. Поэтому на первой
Конференции Сторон (КС-1), состоявшейся в Берлине в начале 1995 г., был
начат новый раунд переговоров о принятии промышленно развитыми
странами более конкретных и подробных обязательств.
Согласно Берлинскому мандату, был подготовлен Киотский протокол
к РКИК
ООН,
который
явился
следующим
практическим
шагом
в глобальных усилиях по решению проблемы изменения климата [8].
31
21. Read the following text:
THE KYOTO PROTOCOL
The Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement linked to the United
Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, which commits its Parties
by setting internationally binding emission reduction targets.
Recognizing that developed countries are principally responsible for the
current high levels of GHG emissions in the atmosphere as a result of more than
150 years of industrial activity, the Protocol places a heavier burden on
developed nations under the principle of «common but differentiated
responsibilities.»
The Kyoto Protocol was adopted in Kyoto, Japan, on 11 December 1997 and
entered into force on 16 February 2005. The detailed rules for the implementation
of the Protocol were adopted at COP 7 in Marrakesh, Morocco, in 2001, and are
referred to as the «Marrakesh Accords.» Its first commitment period started
in 2008 and ended in 2012.
In Doha, Qatar, on 8 December 2012, the «Doha Amendment to the Kyoto
Protocol» was adopted. The amendment includes:
New commitments for Annex I Parties to the Kyoto Protocol who agreed
to take on commitments in a second commitment period from 1 January 2013 to
31 December 2020;
A revised list of greenhouse gases (GHG) to be reported on by Parties in the
second commitment period; and Amendments to several articles of the Kyoto
Protocol which specifically referenced issues pertaining to the first commitment
period and which needed to be updated for the second commitment period.
On 21 December 2012, the amendment was circulated by the SecretaryGeneral of the United Nations to all Parties to the Kyoto Protocol in accordance
with Articles 20 and 21 of the Protocol.
During the first commitment period, 37 industrialized countries and the
European Community committed to reduce GHG emissions to an average of five
percent against 1990 levels. During the second commitment period, Parties
committed to reduce GHG emissions by at least 18 percent below 1990 levels in
the eight-year period from 2013 to 2020; however, the composition of Parties in
the second commitment period is different from the first [7].
32
22. Find the definitions of these terms in an English-English dictionary and
write out examples:
(International) agreement
Protocol
Accords
Amendment
Commitment
23. Translate into Russian:
– To set binding targets _____________________________________________
– High levels of GHG emissions ______________________________________
– To place a heavier burden on smb / smth _______________________________
– Differentiated responsibilities _______________________________________
– The implementation of the Protocol __________________________________
– To take on commitments ___________________________________________
– To pertain to the first commitment period ______________________________
– To be circulated to all parties ________________________________________
– In accordance with smth ____________________________________________
24. Make a research (unfccc.int) and give a speech on:
1.
2.
3.
4.
BALI ROAD MAP
CANCUN AGREEMENTS
DURBAN OUTCOMES
DOHA CLIMATE GATEWAY
MEETINGS
25. Study the following introduction:
Warsaw Climate Change Conference – November 2013
The Warsaw Climate Change Conference 2013 concluded successfully! Key
decisions adopted at this conference include decisions on further advancing the
Durban Platform, the Green Climate Fund and Long-Term Finance, the Warsaw
Framework for REDD Plus*, the Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and
Damage and other decisions.
__________________________
*UN REDD – United Nations Collaborative Programme on Reducing Emissions from
Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries
33
26. Translate into English:
Варшавская конференция ООН по изменению климата 14 ноября
2013 г.
В Варшаве (Польша) проходит 19-я Конференция Сторон Рамочной
конвенции ООН об изменении климата (РКИК ООН) и 9-е Совещание
Сторон Киотского протокола (11–22 ноября 2013 года).
В работе участвует российская делегация, в состав которой входят
представители Росгидромета, Института глобального климата и экологии
Росгидромета и РАН, МИД России, Минприроды России, Рослесхоза,
Минобрнауки России, Центра по проблемам экологии и продуктивности
лесов РАН, а также эксперты Сбербанка и ряда других российских
организаций.
В мероприятии принимают участие около 15 тысяч участников
из 195 стран, из них свыше 100 представлены на уровне президентов
и председателей правительств.
Накануне начала переговоров руководитель российской делегации –
специальный
представитель
Президента
Российской
Федерации
по вопросам климата А. И. Бедрицкий сделал официальное заявление
о позиции Российской Федерации по основным вопросам повестки 19-й
Конференции Cторон Рамочной конвенции ООН об изменении климата /
9-го Совещания Cторон Киотского протокола.
Основной задачей конференции в Варшаве является определение
конкретных параметров нового глобального соглашения по климату
на справедливой основе для всех без исключения стран мира
и формирование дорожной карты по подготовке этого соглашения.
Согласно ранее принятым решениям, глобальное соглашение должно быть
подготовлено не позднее 2015 года с тем, чтобы вступить в силу
в 2020 году.
На сессиях Конференции Сторон планируется рассмотреть широкий
круг вопросов, вытекающих из обязательств стран по Конвенции
и Киотскому протоколу, в том числе, оценить ход выполнения странами
принятых обязательств, обсудить методологические вопросы отчетности,
ход реализации национальных планов по адаптации к изменению климата,
34
разработку и передачу технологий, финансовые механизмы, а также
вопросы повышения потенциала стран в области наблюдениям
и исследованиям климата и его изменений [9].
NATURAL DISASTERS
27. Read and translate the text and do the exercises below:
US faces record low temperatures with fresh cold blast
Parts of the US are braced for potentially record-breaking low
temperatures as an Arctic chill brings more freezing weather.
A winter storm has already blanketed areas of Canada and the north-eastern
US with up to 2ft (60 cm) of snow. It has been blamed for 16 deaths and the
cancellation of more than 5,000 flights since Wednesday. Forecasters say
temperatures in the US Mid-West could feel as low as –58F (–50C) with the
effect of wind chill. Authorities have warned residents to remain indoors, both for
their own safety and to keep roads clear for snow removal. In Canada, tens of
thousands of people on the island of Newfoundland remain without power due
to a transformer fire linked to heavy snow.
'Bitterly cold'
The coldest weather in years will be making its presence known from the
Upper Mid-West to the Mid-Atlantic region,» the US National Weather
Service said in a statement. The states of Ohio, South Dakota and Illinois are
among those set to be hit. The weather service said «an incredibly strong surge of
bitterly cold Arctic air» would sweep across the country from Saturday night
until Tuesday. It is set to continue to the north-east, where residents are still
digging out from the week's deadly snowstorm. It could bring some of the coldest
temperatures in two decades.
«The last really big Arctic outbreak was 1994,» Reuters news agency quoted
Bob Oravec, a forecaster with the National Weather Service, as saying.
«Outbreaks like this don't occur everyday.»
In Canada, the temperature dropped as low as –29C (–20F) in Toronto and –
38C in Quebec City with wind chill on Thursday – the lowest seen in at least two
decades there. Heavy snow has also affected US states including New York,
35
Connecticut and Massachusetts, with school closed, transport systems drawn
to a halt and residents told to stay at home. Boston was said to be the worst hit
with nearly 18in (45cm) of snow.
Wind chills
Sixteen deaths have been blamed on the wide-ranging storm, according to the
Associated Press news agency. A salt storage worker was killed in Philadelphia
when a 100-ft (30-metre) pile of road salt fell and crushed him. A woman
suffering from Alzheimer's disease in New York state froze to death after she
wandered away from her rural home. Some 1,200 flights were cancelled across
the US and about 6,000 flights delayed on Saturday, according to reports. This
followed more than 4,000 cancellations earlier in the week. Chicago's O'Hare
International Airport and Newark Liberty International Airport in New Jersey
were said to be among the worst affected.
Environment Canada issued a special warning about heavy snow for much of
Ontario on Sunday. It said «widespread dangerous wind chills» were likely
across the region in the first half of the week [5].
28. Discuss this question in pairs.
Have you ever been affected by the freezing weather? Tell your stories to
a partner.
29. Study the following patterns:
– To be braced for something – to get ready for something unpleasant, e.g.
Parts of the US are braced for potentially record-breaking low temperatures as
an Arctic chill brings more freezing weather. I braced myself for the results of my
Maths test. The city is bracing itself for the hurricane. Financial markets are
braced for another turbulent week.
– To blanket smth – to cover smth with a layer of smth, such as snow, e.g.
A winter storm has already blanketed areas of Canada and the north-eastern US
with up to 2ft (60 cm) of snow. The room was entirely blanketed in dust.
– To sweep – to stretch over a large area, especially in a long wide curve,
e.g. The weather service said «an incredibly strong surge of bitterly cold Arctic
36
air» would sweep across the country from Saturday night until Tuesday. The
scenery was beautiful with cool green forests sweeping down the hillside.
– Phrases with ‘sweep’: Sweep to / from power – to win or lose an election
by a very large number of votes, e.g. The party swept to power in elections last
year. Sweep to victory – to easily win a competition or an election, e.g. Johnson
swept to victory by one of the largest margins in American history.
– To draw to a halt – to move slowly to a temporary or permanent stop, e.g.
Heavy snow has also affected US states including New York, Connecticut and
Massachusetts, with school closed, transport systems drawn to a halt and
residents told to stay at home. A taxi was drawing to a halt outside the hotel.
30. Make a summary of the text.
31. Render the following text into English:
В ряде штатов температура может опуститься до неслыханно низких
отметок.
Похоже, пророчества сценаристов Голливуда, заморозивших США
в фильме «Послезавтра», начинают сбываться наяву. Северо-восток
страны готовится к небывалому снижению температуры – до минус
50 градусов Цельсия.
Жители штатов Среднего Запада, а также региона Новая Англия на
северо-востоке США готовятся к самым суровым за последние два
десятилетия морозам. Из-за холодного фронта с арктическими ветрами
ночью столбики термометров в некоторых районах могут опуститься до
минус 50 градусов Цельсия, передает ИТАР-ТАСС.
Самые низкие температуры ожидаются в штатах Северная Дакота,
Висконсин, Айова и Миннесота. Губернатор Миннесоты Марк Дэйтон
принял решение о закрытии школ в понедельник. Из-за холодов учащиеся
в этом штате пропустят занятия впервые за последние 17 лет. Согласно
прогнозу,
предстоящей
ночью
столбики
термометров
здесь
могут
опуститься до минус 45.
37
В Чикаго (штат Иллинойс) ожидается похолодание до минус 24 градусов. По данным экспертов, таких холодов в городе не было с 1994 года.
До минус 25 градусов опуститься ночью температура в самом северном
штате региона – Мэне и до 23 ниже ноля в самом южном – Коннектикуте.
Резкое понижение температуры связано с вторжением циклона с севера,
известного как полярный вихрь (polar vortex). Обычно полярный вихрь
находится над территорией Канады и редко добирается до США.
Ожидается, что экстремальные погодные условия продержаться до
середины следующей недели, передает РИА «Новости».
Ранее сообщалось, что на северо-восток США обрушился снежный
шторм, жертвами которого стали по меньшей мере 16 человек. По всему
региону были отменены более 2,3 тысячи рейсов, закрыты сотни школ,
перекрыты некоторые шоссе [10].
32. Read and translate the following text and do the exercises:
Quick Evacuation Efforts Help India Minimize Deaths From Cyclone
By GARDINER HARRIS
NEW DELHI – The powerful cyclone that struck India’s eastern coast this
weekend washed away thousands of mud homes, knocked down power lines,
blocked many of the region’s roads and damaged crops and fishing boats. Just
14 years ago, a cyclone in roughly the same place killed more than
10,000 people, and over the past century, the storms that have roared out of the
Bay of Bengal have left much death and destruction in their wake. But while an
accurate assessment of the damage caused by this weekend’s storm will probably
take weeks, the official death toll reported Sunday evening was 17, an
astonishingly low number considering that 12 million people live in the storm’s
path.
The success of the evacuation operation was possible largely because of vast
improvements in the country’s physical infrastructure and communication
systems, although the police found it necessary, at times, to coerce reluctant
38
villagers to leave their mud and thatch homes, which were vulnerable to high
winds and drenching rain, local officials said.
Most of the deaths were attributed to falling trees and collapsed houses,
officials said. The cyclone, named Phailin, was expected to drop up to 10 inches
of rain over two days in some areas. By late Sunday night, it had been
downgraded from a cyclone to a depression, with sustained winds of 25 miles per
hour and gusts of 34 miles per hour.
As the cyclone approached, many villagers tried to stay behind to safeguard
their land and livestock during the worst of the storm, according to local news
reports, but almost none were unaware of the coming danger. And that is a huge
change. Another crucial change has been a boom in the construction of cement
houses, schools and businesses that provide crucial shelter in even the remotest
areas. Villagers who stayed until the last moment had somewhere to go for
safety.
Dr. Jibanananda Mohanty, a retired veterinary surgeon from Bhubaneswar in
the state of Odisha, said by telephone on Sunday that he had spent a harrowing
night listening to howling winds and crashing trees outside, and that his home
remained without electricity and water. But he had days to store enough water,
milk, vegetables and other supplies to carry him through. «Because of the
advanced warning, we were prepared for this situation,» Dr. Mohanty said.
«I haven’t heard of any loss of life in my neighborhood.»
India’s state and central governments spent days preparing for the worst.
Prime Minister Manmohan Singh said in a statement on Saturday that he had
been briefed on preparations for the storm and had directed the central
government to extend all needed assistance to state officials.
Service members from the country’s army, air force and navy were deployed
to help with rescue and relief operations, said A. K. Antony, India’s defense
minister, and hundreds of shelters were set up.
The Bay of Bengal region is among the most vulnerable in the world to the
effects of climate change, and experts have predicted that storms are likely to
become more intense. India and Bangladesh together have more people at risk
from rising sea levels than any other place in the world. So the government’s
39
relatively effective response to the most recent storm is an encouraging
sign [11].
a. Answer the following questions:
b. What damage did the powerful cyclone cause in India?
c. Why was the successful evacuation operation possible?
d. What changes in the life of the country saved many people?
e. What preparatory measures did the government undertake to brace for the
cyclone?
f. Why is the climate change so harmful for the Bay of Bengal region?
33. Translate the following phrases into Russian and study them:
–
To wash away thousands of mud homes _______________________________
–
To knock down power lines _________________________________________
–
To block roads ____________________________________________________
–
To damage crops and fishing boats ___________________________________
–
To live in the storm’s path __________________________________________
–
To coerce reluctant villagers ________________________________________
–
To be vulnerable to high winds ______________________________________
–
To safeguard the land and livestock ___________________________________
–
To be unaware of the coming danger __________________________________
–
To provide crucial shelter ___________________________________________
–
To deploy the army, air force and navy ________________________________
34. Match the following noun combinations. Refer back to the text if
necessary. Then translate the phrases into Russian and study them:
1. death
a. night
2. drenching
b. winds
3. sustained
c. toll
4. rescue and relief
d. operations
5. howling
e. rain
6. harrowing
f. winds
40
35. Translate the following text into English:
В Европе то пекло, то потоп
На смену жаркой засушливой погоде в Западную Европу пришли ливни
и наводнения. Первыми удар стихии приняли Румыния, Босния и Болгария.
В эти дни в результате проливных дождей и ураганного ветра десятки
населенных пунктов оказались затопленными и полностью отрезанными
от внешнего мира. По меньшей мере 9 человек считаются погибшими.
В начале недели стихия обрушилась на Францию, Бельгию и Голландию.
Сильные дожди, которые сопровождались ветром и градом, привели
к подтоплению десятков городов. В Лилле и его окрестностях некоторые
улицы превратились в бурные реки. На севере Франции и в Голландии
больше всего не повезло туристам, которые приехали в отпуск на
собственных машинах и остановились в кемпингах. Отдыхающих пришлось
эвакуировать в ближайшие населенные пункты и временно размещать
в спортзалах местных школ. Покинуть затопленные районы смогли далеко
не все: из-за проливных дождей на скоростных автострадах образовались
многокилометровые пробки. Вчера циклон, заметно ослабев, покинул
территорию Франции, Бельгии и Голландии и переместился на восток,
в соседнюю Германию [12].
36. Read and translate the following text:
Chinese Province Is Hit by a Series of Earthquakes
By KEITH BRADSHER
HONG KONG – A series of earthquakes in Gansu Province in northwestern
China set off landslides and building collapses in an impoverished mountainous
region Monday, killing at least 89 people, injuring more than 600, damaging tens
of thousands of homes and prompting President Xi Jinping to order «all-out
rescue efforts.»
The Gansu Provincial Seismological Bureau estimated the magnitude of the
main earthquake at 6.6. The United States Geological Survey listed three fairly
41
strong earthquakes in Gansu Province on Monday morning but none quite that
powerful, with preliminary magnitudes of 5.9, 5.6 and 4.7.
The quakes took place along the border between Minxian County and
Zhangxian County, both in the south of Gansu Province. Most of the deaths and
injuries occurred in Minxian County, and all of the missing were there.
At the Lee Yuan Hotel in Minxian County, a woman who identified herself
as Ms. Zhao said she had been terrified when the building shook and the ceiling
lights swayed. She reached her mother by phone in their home village later
in the morning, and was relieved to learn that she had survived unscathed. «She
and all our neighbors ran out of their homes right away when they felt the first
quake hit – a lot of the village homes were destroyed by the earthquakes,»
Ms. Zhao said by telephone.
Stung by criticisms that they responded too slowly in 2008 to a massive
earthquake in adjacent Sichuan Province and to several nearby earthquakes after
that, Chinese officials and government organizations made a point of rushing to
Gansu Province. The seismological bureau said in the late afternoon that both of
the province’s top officials – the Communist Party chief, Wang Yun, and Gov.
Liu Weiping – had arrived in the disaster area, as had 35,000 police officers,
firefighters and rescue workers. An additional 8,500 workers were sent to repair
and reopen roads and highways.
The earthquake-affected area lies about 140 miles south of Lanzhou, which is
not only the provincial capital but also the headquarters of an important Chinese
regional military command. That command sent 1,322 active-duty soldiers and
1,428 members of militia and reserve units, the provincial seismological bureau
said in a statement on its Web site. In addition to President Xi’s authorization of
all-out rescue efforts, Prime Minister Li Keqiang authorized emergency response
measures and sent rescue teams, Xinhua reported.
The participation of both leaders was significant. One criticism in China in
2008 was that when Prime Minister Wen Jiabao rushed to Sichuan and saw the
extent of the damage, he was unable to approve the immediate mobilization of
nearby military units because, unlike President Hu Jintao then and Mr. Xi now,
he did not run the Central Military Commission, which oversees the People’s
Liberation Army.
42
Provincial weather officials were forecasting thunderstorms and nearly
certain rain in the area Monday evening, conditions that could complicate the
rescue of survivors.
The 2008 earthquake in Sichuan Province was initially reported as having
killed a half-dozen people, but the final figure reached 87,000. That earthquake
was far more powerful, however, with a magnitude of 7.9, meaning that the
Sichuan earthquake had 100 times the force of the initial United States estimate
for the most powerful of the three earthquakes Monday.
One of the biggest issues after the 2008 earthquake lay in the substandard
construction of many schools and other buildings that collapsed, and there were
allegations that developers had cut corners in collusion with local officials. Gansu
is one of the poorest provinces in China, with many older buildings of simple
construction [11].
37. Translate the following phrases into Russian and study them:
1. all-out rescue efforts _______________________________________________
2. disaster area _____________________________________________________
3. earthquake-affected area ____________________________________________
4. active-duty soldiers _______________________________________________
5. members of militia and reserve units __________________________________
6. the extent of the damage ___________________________________________
7. to set off landslides and building collapses ____________________________
8. to estimate the magnitude of the earthquake ___________________________
9. to survive unscathed ______________________________________________
10. to repair and reopen roads and highways ______________________________
11. to authorize emergency response measures ____________________________
12. to send rescue teams ______________________________________________
13. to approve immediate mobilization of military units _____________________
14. to complicate the rescue of survivors _________________________________
15. to cut corners in collusion with local officials _________________________
38. Mark the statements as True or False. Correct those which are false.
1. The top Chinese officials made a point of rushing to Gansu province to
estimate the magnitude of the earthquake.
43
2. The 2008 earthquake in Sichuan Province was much stronger than 2013
earthquake in Gansu Province.
3. The 2008 biggest issue of substandard construction and developers cutting
corners in collusion with local officials was still relevant in 2013.
39. Render the following text into English:
КНР: землетрясение
В результате мощного землетрясения в провинции Сычуань на югозападе Китая погибли более 180 человек, 24 числятся пропавшими без
вести. Как сообщает Би-би-си, пострадали 11,5 тыс. жителей, из них 960
серьезно. Очаг произошедшего в субботу землетрясения магнитудой 6,6
находился в 50 км от города Линьцун на глубине 12 км. В мае 2008 года
землетрясение магнитудой 8,0 в Сычуане унесло жизни почти 90 тыс.
человек. По информации Интерфакса, в пострадавшие районы Китая вчера
должны были вылететь сибирские спасатели.
Президент
России
Владимир
Путин
направил
телеграмму
соболезнования председателю КНР Си Цзиньпину в связи с землетрясением
в провинции Сычуань, повлекшим многочисленные человеческие жертвы,
сообщает в субботу пресс-служба Кремля.
«Российский лидер заверил в готовности Российской Федерации
в случае необходимости оказать содействие в ликвидации последствий
этого разрушительного стихийного бедствия», – говорится в сообщении.
По последним данным, не менее 72 человек погибли в результате
землетрясения в провинции Сычуань на юго-западе Китая, сообщает
в субботу местный телеканал ССTV. Землетрясение магнитудой 6,6
произошло около восьми утра по местному времени (4:00 мск) [12].
44
MODULE 3 THE EUROPEAN UNION
1. Discuss the following questions:
What do you know about the EU? What is it? When was it formed? Why?
What are the symbols of the EU?
What do you know about the European Union integration?
How can you describe the relations between the EU and Russia?
2. Prepare a report on profiles of one or two EU countries. Full profiles
provide a guide to history, politics and economic background and
background on key institutions. You may include the following information:
1. Formal and short names of the country;
2. Term for citizen(s);
3. Capital and other major cities;
4. Public holidays;
5. Flag;
6. Historical background in brief;
7. Geography (location, size, land boundaries, climate, natural resources, land
use, time zones);
8. Society (population, demography, ethnic groups, languages, religion, welfare)
9. Economy (overview, gross domestic product, government budget, inflation,
agriculture, forestry, mining and minerals, industry and manufacturing, energy,
foreign economic relations, currency and exchange rate);
10. Transportation and telecommunications (overview, roads, railroads, ports,
civil aviation and airports, telecommunications);
11. Government and politics (overview, executive branch, legislative branch,
judicial branch, administrative divisions, provincial and local government,
judicial and legal system, electoral system, politics and political parties, foreign
relations, membership in international organizations, major international treaties);
12. National security (armed forces overview, foreign military relations, external
threat, defense budget, major military units, major military equipment, military
service, military forces abroad, police, internal threat, terrorism, human
rights).
45
3. Having collected necessary information about countries, organize an EU
club and share the information with others.
4. Match the headlines with parts of the text:
EU PROFILE
1. Monetary travails
2. History of the EU
3. Maastricht and beyond
4. Family of the EU states
A. The organisation oversees co-operation among its members in diverse
areas, including trade, the environment, transport and employment. On 1 May
2004 the EU took in 10 new members, most of them former communist countries,
in a huge step along the road towards dismantling the post-World War II division
of Europe. The new joiners were the Czech Republic, Cyprus, Estonia, Hungary,
Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia. However, plans to
introduce a constitution – intended to ensure the smooth running of the enlarged
EU – faltered repeatedly at various national referendums until the revised
«Lisbon» reform treaty was adopted. It came into force in December
2009.
B. Over half a century earlier, it was the devastation caused in Europe by
World War II which underlay the imperative to build international relationships
to guard against any such catastrophe recurring. French statesmen Jean Monnet
and Robert Schuman are regarded as the architects of the principle that the best
way to start the European bonding process was by developing economic ties. This
philosophy was the foundation for the Treaty of Paris which was signed in 1951.
It established the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) which was joined
by France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg. Under
the Treaty of Rome which came into force in 1958, these six countries founded
the European Economic Community and European Atomic Energy Community
46
to work alongside the ECSC. In 1967 the three communities merged to become
collectively known as the European Communities (EC) whose main focus was
on cooperation in economic and agricultural affairs. Denmark, Ireland and the
UK became full EC members in 1973, Greece joined in 1981, Portugal and Spain
in 1986, Austria, Finland and Sweden in 1995.
C. The Treaty on European Union, signed at Maastricht in 1991, formally
established the European Union as the successor to the EC. At the same time,
Maastricht expanded the concept of European union into new areas. It introduced
a Common Foreign and Security Policy and moved towards an EU coordinating
policy on asylum, immigration, drugs and terrorism. EU citizenship was brought
into being for the first time, allowing people from member countries to move
freely between member states. The treaty included a Social Chapter, from which
the UK opted out, laying down EU policies on workers' rights and other social
issues. Crucially, Maastricht established the timetable for economic and monetary
union and specified the economic and budgetary criteria which would determine
when countries were ready to join. The subsequent Stability and Growth Pact
tightened up the approach to these criteria, stressing that strict fiscal discipline
and coordination would be vital to the success of economic and monetary union.
It also laid down penalties for members failing to control budget deficits.
D. The single European currency, the euro, was officially adopted by
11 member states in 1999. Greece, which took longer to meet convergence
criteria, joined two years later. Denmark, Sweden and the UK chose not to join.
The failure of many eurozone countries to stick to the self-imposed rules on
government debt triggered a major financial crisis in 2009. By the end of that
year, Greece was burdened with debt amounting to 113% of GDP – nearly double
the eurozone limit of 60%. Following a 110bn-euro bail-out package for Greece
agreed in May 2010 by other eurozone members and the IMF, other heavilyindebted EU member states – notably Ireland, Portugal and Spain – started to
come under close scrutiny. In November 2010, an EU/IMF bail-out package
totalling 85bn euros was agreed on for Ireland, and in May 2011 a 78bn-euro
bail-out was approved for Portugal. By the end of the summer the indebtedness of
47
Spain, Italy and Cyprus was also becoming a cause for concern. Signs that the
debt contagion was spreading beyond the periphery of the eurozone gave rise to
a clamour of calls for urgent action, and at an emergency summit in October
2011, Europe's leaders agreed on a package of measures that included boosting
the eurozone's main bailout fund to 1tn euros [5].
5. Suggest the Russian translation for the following phrases and study
them:
1. To oversee cooperation among members in diverse areas
2. To dismantle the post-WWII division of Europe
3. To introduce a constitution
4. To falter repeatedly at national referendums
5. To adopt a reform treaty
6. To ensure the smooth running of the enlarged EU
7. To come into force
8. To start the European bonding process
9. To develop economic ties
10. To establish the EU
11. To coordinate policy on asylum, immigration, drugs and terrorism
12. To move freely between member states
13. To opt out from the treaty
14. To specify the economic and budgetary criteria
15. To stick to the self-imposed rules
16. To trigger a major financial crisis
17. To be burdened with debt
18. To agree on a bail-out package
19. To become a cause for concern
20. To give rise to calls for urgent actions
6. Read the text again and make a list of five fact-finding questions to the
text.
48
7. Make a summary of the text. Try to use as many phrases studied above
as possible.
PROJECT WORK: THE EU IN SLIDES
8. Make Powerpoint presentations on the following topics:
(Taken from: http://europa.eu )
№
The name of the
presentation
1
The Basis for the
Union
2
Some Key Figures
About Europe
3
EU Activities and
Achievements 1
4
EU Activities and
Achievements 2
Points to include and cover upon
 What the EU is
 Founders
 The EU symbols
 Enlargement: from 6 to 28 countries
 Candidate and potential candidate countries
 The treaties – basis for cooperation built on law
 The EU Charter of fundamental rights
 The EU population in the world
 The area of the EU compared to the rest of the world
 How rich is the EU compared to the rest of the world
 How big are the EU countries
 GDP per inhabitant: the spread of wealth
 Europe 2020 – Europe growth strategy
 The five targets for the EU in 2020
 Europe’s response to the economic crisis
 How does the EU spend its money?
 Climate change – a global challenge
 Energy sources in a changing world
 Research – investing in the knowledge society
 The Euro – a single currency for the Europeans
 The single market – freedom of choice
 Beating inflation
 Free to move
 Going abroad to learn
 Improving health and the environment
 The EU: an exporter of peace and prosperity
 The EU – a major trading power
 The EU – the biggest provider of development aid in
the world
49
№
5
The name of the
presentation
How It Works
Points to include and cover upon
 The EU institutions
 How EU laws are made
 The EU Parliament – voice of the people
 The European political parties
 The EU Commission – promoting common interests
 The Court of Justice – upholding the law
 The EU Central Bank – managing the euro
 The European Economic and Social Committee –
voice of civil society
 The European Court of Auditors – getting value for
your money
9. Organize a conference on the EU and assess your presentations.
10. Read and translate the text:
Q & A: EU-RUSSIA BATTLEGROUND
A battle for the hearts and minds of Ukrainians overshadowed an
«Eastern Partnership» summit between the European Union and six former
Soviet states in late November.
Ukraine abruptly decided not to sign a far-reaching trade and association
agreement with the EU, triggering an angry exchange between the EU and
Russia. The summit failed to break the deadlock.
What is at stake? The EU wants to forge closer ties with Ukraine, Moldova,
Belarus and three states in the Caucasus – Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia. All
these former Soviet states have remained to some extent in Russia's sphere of
influence since the Cold War ended. Years of negotiations led up to the summit
in Vilnius, Lithuania, on 28–29 November. Ukraine deflated EU hopes – and
earlier Armenia had also pulled out of an association agreement, saying it would
join Russia's customs union instead. The EU initialled similar agreements with
Georgia and Moldova – they are not yet ready to be signed.
The EU launched the partnership in May 2009 – less than a year after Russia
defeated Georgia in a brief war, pushing Georgian forces out of two breakaway
50
regions. Favourable access to the huge EU single market and the lifting of visa
restrictions are on offer – but in return the EU insists that the six play by EU trade
rules, which means bringing many of their laws into line with the 28-nation bloc's
standards. The EU also describes the partnership as «based on a community of
values and principles of liberty, democracy, respect for human rights and
fundamental freedoms, and the rule of law». That is more an aspiration than a
reality, as EU politicians have criticised major human rights abuses in Azerbaijan
and Belarus in particular. The EU allocated nearly 2.5bn euros (£2bn; $3.4bn)
to Eastern Partnership projects for 2010–2013.
Will these countries join the EU? Not yet. But association agreements are
seen as a key step towards EU membership. That was the case for several former
Soviet bloc countries which are now in the EU, and the same process is under
way in the former Yugoslavia. Once on the path towards EU membership,
countries like Turkey, for example, get millions of euros in EU funding for
various development projects. But the partnership is also about long-term
geostrategic interests.
Azerbaijan is now a significant oil and gas exporter to the EU. So creating
a stable economic partnership with the Caucasus is strategically important for the
EU. In future, the Caucasus is set to be a transit route for bigger volumes
of energy from Central Asia.
How has Russia reacted? The Ukraine decision soured EU-Russia ties,
which were already difficult. Russia's President Vladimir Putin accused the EU of
using «pressure and blackmail» against Ukraine. EU leaders directed similar
accusations at Russia, saying they «strongly disapprove of the Russian position
and actions» towards Ukraine. Critics have accused Russia of using strong-arm
tactics to steer some neighbouring states away from the EU and towards its own
rival customs union, often barring foreign imports on health grounds. Russia has
in the past cut Ukrainian gas supplies in mid-winter, and recently raised another
dispute over unpaid bills.
It has also increased border checks with Ukraine and banned imports of
sweets from a big Ukrainian firm, Roshen, over alleged health concerns. Russia
has banned imports of Moldovan wine – a key industry for the country blighted
with the label «poorest country in Europe», and made a veiled threat to cut
51
Moldova's gas supplies in winter. Since the early 1990s Russia has been backing
separatists in Trans-Dniester, a region that broke away from Moldova. In the past
Russia has also banned imports of Georgian wine and mineral water.
Is Ukraine really the big prize? Yes, potentially. Ukraine has a population
of 45 million and is one of Europe's biggest countries, dwarfing the other five
partner states. Vital Russian gas export pipelines cross Ukraine to supply EU
customers – the EU gets about a quarter of its gas from Russia. Poland and
Lithuania are strong voices in the EU arguing that independent Ukraine must be
brought firmly into the European fold after centuries of domination from
Moscow. But Ukraine is still a long way off becoming an EU member and there
is much talk in the EU of «enlargement fatigue» after the bloc's big eastward
expansion and the expense of that. Ukraine lags far behind many of its European
neighbours economically and has a high corruption rating. Ukraine's trade
volumes in goods with the EU and Russia are similar. In 2012, about 26% of its
exports went to Russia and 25% to the EU. For imports, 32% came from Russia
and 31% from the EU, the World Trade Organization reports. In 2012 EU
imports from Ukraine amounted to 14.6bn euros, and exports to Ukraine totalled
23.8bn euros [5].
11. Look at the expressions in italics as they are used in the article. True or
false?
1. If something triggers an angry exchange between somebody, it causes them
to have angry feelings or memories;
2. If something fails to break the deadlock, it manages to end a situation in
which neither group involved in a disagreement is willing to change their
positions or opinions;
3. If someone wants to forge closer ties with somebody, they want to prevent
them from continuing by creating a problem;
4. If someone deflates somebody’s hopes, they make them come true.
5. If the EU lifts visa restrictions, it ends them.
6. If ties or relationships sour, they stop being successful or satisfactory.
7. If a country bars foreign imports, it officially says that they are not allowed.
8. If an industry is blighted with something, it is damaged or harmed by it.
52
12. Match 1–7 with a)–g) to make expressions used in the article:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
association
customs
breakaway
human
unpaid
visa
transit
g) rights
a) bills
b) agreement
c) route
d) union
e) restrictions
f) regions
13. Now match the expressions in L with their meanings:
1. A definite path that is established to something from one way to another;
2. A treaty between countries that creates a framework for cooperation between
them;
3. A written statement showing how much money you owe that you haven’t
paid yet;
4. Fundamental rights to which a person is inherently entitled to simply because
he or she is a human being;
5. Limitations not allowing you to enter or leave the country for a specific
purpose or period of time;
6. Territories that have decided to separate from a larger group;
7. Agreement between countries to remove trade barriers and reduce or
eliminate customs duty on mutual trade.
14. Render the following text into English:
Западные СМИ: Путин одерживает победу над Западом в борьбе
за Украину
Что пообещал Янукович России взамен финансовой помощи
Западные СМИ обсуждают соглашения, подписанные 17 декабря
Украиной и Россией в рамках заседания Российско-украинской
межгосударственной комиссии. «The Washington Post» пишет, что
митингующие в Киеве на майдане Независимости требуют от украинской
53
властей информации, на каких условиях президент Виктор Янукович
заключил с Россией сделку. Протестующие, отмечает газета, крайне
подозрительно относятся к России и к истинным планам своего президента.
Между тем главный вопрос, по мнению «The Washington Post», заключается
в следующем: продолжит ли Украина вести переговоры с ЕС или же
недавняя пауза в них была спровоцирована, чтобы привлечь внимание
Владимира Путина?
«The Wall Street Journal» отмечает, что Россия одерживает победу над
Западом в холодной войне и продолжает держать Украину на своей орбите.
Издание сообщает, что пресс-секретарь Белого дома Джеймс Карни уже
осудил сделку России и Украины. «The Wall Street Journal» цитирует его
слова: «Мы призываем украинское правительство прислушаться к своему
народу и найти способ восстановить путь к… демократическому
и экономически процветающему европейскому будущему». «The Guardian»
сообщает, что членство Украины в Таможенном союзе вряд ли будет на
повестке дня в ближайшее время. Однако существует мнение, что в обмен
на полученные кредиты и торговые льготы, Янукович согласился не
подписывать соглашение об ассоциации с ЕС. «Berliner Zeitung» задается
вопросом, что Виктор Янукович пообещал России за пакет помощи?
Издание напоминает, что Владимир Путин намерен присоединить Украину
к Таможенному союзу. Однако пакет помощи оказался настолько щедрым,
что возникает вопрос, не было ли это тайным планом Кремля? Издание
отмечает, что 15 млрд. долл. – большие деньги не только для Украины, но
и для самой России.
В то же время «Die Tageszeitung» пишет, что Виктор Янукович тянет
время
со
вступлением
в
Таможенный
союз.
Слишком
явная
приверженность России рискованна, учитывая массовые протесты в Киеве.
«Rzeczpospolita» пишет о гарантиях Владимира Путина, который отметил,
что не потребовал от Украины ничего взамен за оказанную этой стране
финансовую помощь. Газета также отмечает, что содержание дискуссии
остается в тайне. В частности, Янукович не хотел, чтобы после совещания
была созвана пресс-конференция. Путин, отмечает газета, напротив,
54
потребовал, чтобы момент его триумфа в борьбе с Брюсселем за влияние
в Украине получил широкую известность [12].
15. Look at the underlined words in the article. Give as many English
equivalents as you can think of.
16. Discuss the following questions in pairs or groups:
1. What advantages do you see for Ukraine and other former Soviet states
in joining the EU?
2. What disadvantages are there?
3. What, in your opinion, Russia’s reaction would be if they joined the
EU? Why?
4. How can all the parties resolve the issue?
17. Read and translate the following text:
Latvia: The country that fell for the euro
The single currency is supposedly doomed, weighed down by the parlous
state of the Greek economy and infighting between member states. So why
on Earth would a Baltic state with a strong economy want to board this
stricken ship?
The Latvian government has been accused of dragging the Baltic nation into
the eurozone «by force» this week, as it became the 18th member of the single
currency. «Latvians have been forced to adopt the euro and haven’t been allowed
their say,» said Andris Orols, the chairman of the Anti-Globalist Association.
«The majority of the population is opposed to the move». An opinion poll
conducted last month showed 50 per cent of Latvians were against joining, with
only a fifth in favour of their country swapping the old currency – the lat – for
the euro.
There is also widespread concerns that retailers will use the currency
transition as an excuse to push up prices. In the same poll 83 per cent expressed
concerns that the euro would trigger unwarranted price increases. However,
earlier this week the Prime Minister, Valdis Dombrovskis, insisted that, despite
the eurozone’s turmoil of recent years, accession to the currency union was
55
unequivocally the right economic course for Latvia. «It’s a big opportunity for
Latvia’s economic development» Mr Dombrovskis said, speaking at a ceremony
on New Year’s eve in Riga, at which he symbolically pulled a euro note out of
a cash machine. Mr Dombrovskis added a note of caution, warning Latvians that
euro membership was «not an excuse not to pursue a responsible fiscal and
macroeconomic policy». That warning was very much in keeping with the
country’s austere economic policy of recent years.
Latvia suffered the most extreme economic bust of any country in the world
during the global financial crisis of five years ago. In 2008 and 2009 it lost a full
quarter of its economic output – a shock equivalent to America’s Great
Depression. A decade-long boom fuelled by a vast surge of capital inflows from
abroad (which accelerated when the former Soviet state entered the European
Union in 2003) ended in a banking crash in 2008 and Latvia’s application for
a €7.5bn bailout from the International Monetary Fund and the European
Union.
Many countries experiencing a crash on that scale devalue their currencies in
order to boost exports and maintain unemployment – and indeed that was what
the IMF recommended. But the administration of Mr Dombrovskis refused to
sacrifice the country’s long-standing currency peg with the euro. Instead, it opted
to regain its international competitiveness and restore balance to the country’s
books by imposing massive fiscal austerity. In 2010 the government pushed
through a staggeringly large consolidation, equivalent to 4 per cent of GDP. This
ascetic policy approach thrust Latvia into the international limelight. The
European Commission sang its praises for embracing austerity and eschewing
devaluation – a policy combination it was demanding of the likes of Greece and
Portugal.
Attention intensified when the medicine seemed to work. The Latvian
economy bounced back quicker than anyone expected, growing by about 5.5 per
cent in both 2011 and 2012. The country is projected by the IMF to have
expanded by a further 4 per cent last year, faster than any other country in the
European Union and taking Latvia back to its 2007 GDP peak. The current
account swung from a 22 per cent deficit to virtual balance. The unemployment
rate, having hit 19 per cent in 2010, has since receded to 11.7 per cent, below the
56
eurozone’s 12.2 per cent average and well below the excruciating 27 per cent
rates in Greece and Spain.
However, some say the story of Latvia as a poster child for the merits of
austerity is overblown. They claim that its impressive return to growth (despite its
severe fiscal squeeze) is more attributable to its latent catch-up potential and
developmental momentum rather than the benefits of massive state budget cuts.
They reject comparisons with Greece, Spain, Portugal or Italy, pointing out that
the Baltic state has a considerably lower income per head and a much larger
export sector relative to GDP.
Critics also point out that an exodus of many young Latvians to find work
abroad has flattered the unemployment figure. Between 2008 and last year the
total population is estimated to have fallen by about 8.5 per cent. The IMF’s
chief economist, Olivier Blanchard, says he has been pleasantly surprised by
Latvia’s performance, but maintains that he is not convinced the government’s
front-loaded fiscal squeeze was either necessary or helpful to the economy.
Nevertheless, it is striking that Latvia’s growth rate in 2014 is forecast to be
four times higher than of the rest of the eurozone which it joins this week.
Latvia’s accession has shown that one of Europe’s most dynamic economies still
regards the eurozone as a club worth joining [3].
18. Read the whole article. Are these statements true, false or not stated?
a) According to the article, the euro has bright future.
b) The antiglobalists were against joining the EU.
c) To pursue a responsible fiscal and macroeconomic policy, the Latvian
government must keep to an austere economic policy.
d) When Latvia was experiencing extreme economic failure, it chose to impose
massive fiscal austerity.
e) There are some people who believe that the policy of fiscal squeeze was not
helpful for the economy.
19. Choose the best alternative to complete these statements:
1. To board the stricken ship means
1) To take an opportunity;
57
2) To be in a situation which is affected by serious problems;
3) To be just in time to board the ship;
2. Eurozone’s turmoil means
1) A state of a boom in the economy;
2) A state of uncontrolled activity;
3) A state of financial crisis;
3. Economic bust means
1) A recession in economy;
2) An economic event that helps economy to improve or grow;
3) The amount of something that an economy produces;
4. To restore balance to the country’s books means
1) To support publishing industry;
2) To improve major economic indicators;
3) To sell the same amount of books on Economics as in other countries;
5. To thrust something or someone into the limelight means
1) To put something or someone into a situation when they are getting a lot
of interest and attention from the newspapers, television, etc.;
2) To attack something or someone with a quick hard push;
3) To pay no attention to something or someone;
21. Find words in the article that are the synonyms of these expressions:
1. Dangerous / harmful / risky
2. Stern / ascetic / spartan
3. Unambiguously / definitely
4. Baseless / groundless / unjustifiable
5. Ill-fated / unlucky / unsaved
58
22. Match 1–7 with a)–g) to make expressions used in the article:
1. currency
a) rate
2. growth
b) potential
3. budget
c) machine
4. catch-up
d) transition
5. poster
e) cuts
6. banking
f) child
7. capital
g) crash
8. cash
h) inflow
23. Now match the expressions in T with their meanings:
1. The transition from national currency to single European currency;
2. A sudden crisis in banking sphere
3. A machine that gives you money when you put a bank card into it;
4. The ability to try to make as much progress as someone you are competing
with;
5. A person or an organization that represents or is identified with something;
6. A reduction in budget spending
7. Indicators that show an increase in the success of a country’s economy
8. An amount of money that comes into a place
24. Render the following text into English:
Латвия на финишной прямой к евро
Ожидаемые последствия введения в стране единой европейской валюты
В ходе финансово-экономического кризиса 2008–2009 годов
в прибалтийских республиках, в том числе в Латвии, проявился новый
общественный элемент – прослойка евроскептиков. Процесс формирования
латвийского евроскептицизма стал приобретать все более масштабный
характер с весны 2010 года, после вступления в острую фазу кризиса
суверенного долга в зоне евро.
Параллельно президент страны, правительство, Сейм усилили
пропаганду в пользу укрепления интеграции Латвии с ЕС, стараясь
неукоснительно
следовать
рекомендациям
МВФ, Еврокомиссии,
59
Европейского центрального банка (ЕЦБ), направленным на достижение
финансовой стабильности. Так, латвийские власти основные тяготы по
выходу из обоих кризисов возложили не на бизнес, представленный
главным образом иностранным капиталом, а занялись последовательным
секвестрированием социальных статей госбюджета. В результате в Латвии
на настоящий момент наблюдается довольно жесткое противостояние двух
факторов. С одной стороны – евроскептики, выражающие разочарование
членством в ЕС, с другой – евроатлантисты в лице латвийских правящих
партий и их сторонников. Сложившееся между ними соотношение сил
можно оценить по итогам июньских муниципальных выборов, на которых
относительное
большинство
получили
представители
социально
ориентированной экономики, а горечь непонимания испытали те, кто попрежнему ориентируется на так называемые евро-атлантические ценности.
В целом можно говорить о некотором равновесии сил, хотя если
рассматривать их в динамике, то бросается в глаза, что евроатлантисты
быстро теряют позиции.
В этом плане принятое 5 июня решение Комиссии ЕС о присоединении
Латвии к еврозоне можно расценить как попытку европейской элиты сбить
волну разочарования в латвийском обществе и закрепить Латвию
в Евросоюзе.
Однако
помимо
общественно-политического
подтекста
включение Латвии в орбиту зоны евро имеет и финансово-экономические
основания. Так, стремление Риги ввести евро продиктовано не столько
соображениями внутриэкономического характера, сколько причинами,
имеющими внешнее происхождение. Главным обстоятельством видится то,
что в финансовом секторе Латвии доминируют североевропейские банки,
которые заинтересованы в том, чтобы выданные ими в 2000-е годы
в Прибалтике долгосрочные кредиты на общую сумму около 60 млрд. долл.
были возвращены согласно графику, а проценты по ним выплачивались бы
в полном объеме.
Что касается непосредственно Латвии, то пока не просматривается
прямых экономических выгод, которые может принести введение евро.
Речь идет в основном о косвенных преимуществах. Их суть выражается
60
в следующем. Основное назначение зоны евро, которая в официальных
документах именуется как Экономический и валютный союз (ЭВС),
заключается в нейтрализации рисков обменов валют при выполнении
торгово-экономических сделок. Имеется в виду, что применение общей
валюты позволяет избежать потерь при валютном обмене. Объем
таких потенциальных потерь оценивается для Евросоюза на уровне
50–60 млрд. долл.
Следует иметь в виду и то, что введение евро создает для Латвии
материальные обязательства по соблюдению Маастрихтских нормативов,
таких как процент инфляции, дефицит бюджета, процентные ставки по
долгосрочным кредитам, несоблюдение которых влечет необходимость
уплаты штрафов. Для рядового латвийского потребителя введение евро
приведет к скачку цен: обычно в странах, которые становились членами
зоны евро, цены возрастали на 20–30%.
Учитывая неизбежные негативные проявления введения евро для
рядового потребителя, что будет происходить при примерно равном
балансе сил евро-скептиков и евроатлантистов, можно прогнозировать
усиление в 2014 году социального напряжения и политического
противостояния в Латвии. Это не украсит ее инвестиционную
привлекательность, и правомерно ожидать отлива иностранного капитала,
часть которого пришла в Латвию с откровенной целью получения
спекулятивной прибыли на разнице цен до и после введения евро.
Внутриполитическая ситуация может приобрести драматический оттенок
в свете предстоящих в 2015 году очередных парламентских
выборов. Введение евро в Латвии непосредственно Россию не затрагивает.
Оно затронет латвийских экспортеров, чьи товары станут менее
конкурентоспособными по сравнению с однотипными литовскими
и белорусскими [12].
61
Список использованных источников
1. www.problem-solving-techniques.com
2. www.readership.org.
3. www.independent.co.uk
4. www.washingtontimes.com
5. www.bbc.co.uk
6. www.wmo.int
7. www.unfccc.int
8. www.kzc.kz
9. www.meteorf.ru
10. www.mk.ru
11. www.nytimes.com
12. www.ng.ru
62
ANSWERS
Module 1
Ex.3. Answers: critical thinking, trustworthy/credible information, viral email,
daunting task, civic purpose, verified information, seasoned journalists,
democratic grass-roots
Ex.5. Answers: 1 c, 2d, 3f, 4 g, 5b, 6a, 7h, 8e
Ex.6. Answers: 1(to)d, 2(with)c, 3(with)a, 4(with)b
Ex.10. Answers: 4a, 1b, 5c, 3d, 2e
Ex.11. Answers: a4, b1, c2, d3, e1
Ex.13. 1. He means what he says. You have to take him at face value. 2. The
committee took the report at face value and approved the suggested
changes. 3. I don't know whether I can take her story at face value, but I will
assume that she is not lying. 4. Why do many people take evolution theory as
fact? 5. Let me think this through and call you in the morning. 6. We can't afford
a mistake, so think things through and make sure you have everything
ready. 7. We invested in Tom, and we have every right to expect a lot from him.
Newspaper Content
Ex.3. Answers: a1, b6, c5, d7, e3, f4, g2
Ex.4. Answers: A2, B4, C8, D5, E1, F6, G3, H7
Module 2
Ex.2. Answers: a frost, b cloud, c rain and drizzle, d rain, e milder air, f patches,
g. windy weather
Ex.8. Answers: B1, E2, D3, A4, F5, C6, G7
Ex.10. Answers: a) excessive focus on; excessive corporate power; excessive
consumption; excessive nervousness; excessive use; excessive smoker; b) fierce
storms; fierce criticism; fierce dispute; fierce fight; fierce heat; fierce opposition;
c) permanent employee; permanent place of residence; permanent place of work;
permanent teeth; permanent marker
Ex.11. Answers: 1F, 2F, 3F, 4F
Ex.15. Answers: 1 member states and territories; 2 play a unique and powerful
role; 3 the safety and welfare of humanity; 4 contribute substantially; 5 natural
63
disasters; 6 food security; 7 advanced warnings; 8 human-induced disasters; 9 be
vulnerable to natural hazards; 10 sensible to climate change; 11 emergency
response activities; 12 least developing countries (LCDs); 13 small island
developing States (SIDS); 14 strengthening capacity building; 15 building
partnerships; 16 strengthening good governance.
Ex.16. Answers: 1 специализированное учреждение ООН; 2 авторитетный
источник информации; 3 При руководстве со стороны ВМО и в рамках ее
программ; 4 сохранение окружающей среды; 5 в случае опасных явлений,
связанных с погодой, климатом и водой; 6 предоставлять жизненно важную
информацию; 7 химические и ядерные аварии; 8 вулканический пепел;
9 с учетом своей миссии; 10 пять стратегических направлений;
11 подчеркивает важность; 12 повышение качества обслуживания; 13 за
счет продвижения научных исследований и применений; 14 стратегический
план ВМО.
Ex.34. Answers: 1c; 2e; 3b/f; 4d; 5b/f; 6a
Module 3
Ex.11. Answers: a True, b False, c False, d False, e True, f True, g True, h True
Ex.12. Answers: 1b, 2d, 3f, 4g, 5a, 6e, 7c
Ex.13. Answers: a – 7c; b – 1b; c – 5a; d – 4g; e – 6e; f – 3f; g – 2d
Ex.18. Answers: a False; b Not stated; c Not stated; d True; e True
Ex.19. Answers: a2; b2; c1; d2; e1
Ex.20. Answers: a parlous; b austere; c unequivocally; d unwarranted; e doomed
Ex.21. Answers: 1d, 2a, 3e, 4b, 5f, 6g, 7h, 8c
Ex.22. Answers: a – 1d; b – 6g; c – 8c; d – 4b; e – 5f; f – 3e; g – 2a; h – 7h
64
СОДЕРЖАНИЕ
Предисловие ........................................................................................................ 3
Module 1 Media Literacy .................................................................................... 4
Module 2 Climate Change. Natural Disasters..................................................... 17
Module 3 The European Union ........................................................................... 45
Список использованных источников .............................................................. 62
Answers ............................................................................................................... 63
65
Учебное издание
Рудая Елена Алексеевна
NEWSPAPER ARTICLES
IN ENGLISH
Учебное пособие
Публикуется в авторской редакции
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