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МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ
Федеральное государственное автономное
образовательное учреждение высшего образования
САНКТ-ПЕТЕРБУРГСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ
АЭРОКОСМИЧЕСКОГО ПРИБОРОСТРОЕНИЯ
Е. А. Рудая
International Business Administration. Part I
LANGUAGE OF BUSINESS
ADMINISTRATION
Учебно-методическое пособие
Санкт-Петербург
2018
УДК 658(075)
ББК 65.268
Р83
Рецензенты:
кандидат филологических наук, доцент А. Н. Цветкова
кандидат филологических наук, доцент О. В. Акимова
Утверждено
редакционно-издательским советом университета
в качестве учебно-методического пособия
Рудая, Е. А.
Р83 International Business Administration. Part I. Language of
Business Administration: учеб.-метод. пособие / Е. А. Рудая. –
СПб.: ГУАП, 2018. – 44 с.
Пособие предназначено для студентов, обучающихся по направлениям «Международные отношения» и «Экономика» в качестве дополнительного материала для проведения занятий по дисциплине
«Иностранный язык (профессиональный английский)». Оно состоит
из трех модулей, помогающих сформировать целостное представление об обозначенных темах.
УДК 658(075)
ББК 65.268
©
©
Рудая Е. А., 2018
Санкт-Петербургский государственный
университет аэрокосмического
приборостроения, 2018
PREFACE
What is The Language of Business Administration and who is it
for?
The Language of Business Administration is a supplementary
course for students majoring in World Economics and International
Relations. It consists of three modules based on topics of great interest
to everyone involved in or studying business administration.
The Language of Business Administration is based on authentic
texts, mainly reflecting motivational ideas of forming innovative and
winning mindsets. The course is aimed at improving students’ communication skills that will help them succeed in a professional environment and become fluent speakers in various business-related contexts.
They will also broaden their knowledge of business principles and concepts that can have applicability to professional services providers,
would-be business owners and everyone striving for self-development.
The course consists of three modules. The first one is Developing
Entrepreneurial Mindset is based on the texts from the book “The
Art of Money Getting, or Golden Rules” by Barnum, P. T. which covers the major topics needed for developing a business-like mindset.
The second module “Practice makes Perfect” deals with a more practical approach to the topics in question. Students will learn more about
themselves, their personal and work values, principles and talk about
the way of life they would like to achieve. What’s more, they will imitate the process of making a business plan for their would-be business.
And the third module consists of authentic texts taken from English
quality press that will give the opportunity to improve reading skills
in the above-mentioned areas.
3
MODULE 1: DEVELOPING ENTREPRENEURIAL MINDSET
1. Answer the following questions:
1) What is “work”? Is professional activity of a king / pop singer /
shepard / writer / priest can be considered work? Do you agree that
“businessman” is a profession? Do businessmen work?
2) What personal and professional qualities do business people possess? You can choose from:
Intelligent bright sharp gifted ill-mannered introverted downto-earth sensitive cruel reliable arrogant unprincipled trustworthy
broad-minded assertive economical determined bossy stubborn
pushy inquisitive self-assured ambitious generous sociable
aggressive tense optimistic meticulous responsible
3) What is typical of their work? You can choose from:
Doing job share socializing with workmates being stuck behind
the desk
doing routine tasks working flexi-time meeting deadlines doing shift working having heavy workloads establishing
a good rapport
working irregular hours
delegating tasks
winning tenders
missing deadlines
failing to supply communicating taking risk making ends meet
2. Read the text. How is your day similar to or different from the day
of an effective general manager? What are the qualities of an ideal boss?
WHAT EFFECTIVE GENERAL MANAGERS REALLY DO
The daily behavior of the successful GMs generally conforms to
the following patterns:
– They spend most of their time with others. The average general
manager spends only 25% of his working time alone, and that time is
spent largely at home, on air-planes, or while commuting. Few spend
less than 70 % of their time with others, and some spend up to 90 % of
their work time this way.
– The breadth of topics in their discussions is extremely wide. GMs
do not limit their focus to planning, business strategy, staffing, and
other top-management concerns. They discuss virtually anything and
everything even remotely associated with their business.
– GMs ask a lot of questions. In a half-hour conversation, some will
ask literally hundreds of them.
– Their discussions usually contain a fair amount of joking and often concern topics that are not related to work. The humour is often
4
about others in the organization or industry. Non-work discussions
are usually about people’s families and hobbies.
– Nevertheless, GMs often attempt to influence others. Instead of
telling people what to do, however, they ask, request, cajole, persuade
and even intimidate.
– They work long hours. The average GM works 60 hours per week.
Although GMs can do much of their work at home, while commuting to
work, or while traveling, they spend most of their time at their places
of work.
(Kotter J.P. What Effective Managers Really Do//Business Harvard Review. March-April 1999 p.148).
3. Read the quotation. Do you agree or disagree? What do you understand by ‘the road that leads to poverty’?
People ought to be as sensible on the subject of money-getting as on
any other subject. Like causes produce like effects. You cannot accumulate a fortune by taking the road that leads to poverty…
(Barnum P.T. The Art of Money-getting, or Golden Rules for Making money//http://www.fourmilab.ch)
4. Read and translate TEXT A:
Don’t Mistake Your Vocation
The safest plan, and the one most sure of success for the young man
starting in life, is to select the vocation which is most congenial to his
tastes. Parents and guardians are often quite too negligent in regard
to this. It is very common for a father to say, for example: “I have five
boys. I will make Billy a clergyman; John a lawyer; Tom a doctor, and
Dick a farmer.” He then goes into town and looks about to see what he will do with
Sammy. He returns home and says “Sammy, I see watch making is
a nice, genteel business; I think I will make you a goldsmith.” He does
this, regardless of Sam’s natural inclinations, or genius.
We are all, no doubt, born for a wise purpose. Some are born natural
mechanics, while some have great aversion to machinery. Let a dozen
boys of ten years get together, and you will soon observe two or three
are “whittling” out some ingenious device; working with locks or complicated machinery.
When they were but five years old, their father could find no toy to
please them like a puzzle. They are natural mechanics; but the other eight
5
or nine boys have different aptitudes. I belong to the latter class; I never
had the slightest love for mechanism; on the contrary, I have a sort of
abhorrence for complicated machinery. I never had ingenuity enough to
whittle a cider tap so it would not leak. I never could make a pen that I
could write with, or understand the principle of a steam engine.
If a man was to take such a boy as I was, and attempt to make
a watchmaker of him, the boy might, after an apprenticeship of five
or seven years, be able to take apart and put together a watch; but all
through life he would be working up hill and seizing every excuse for
leaving his work and idling away his time. Watchmaking is repulsive
to him.
Unless a man enters upon the vocation intended for him by nature,
and best suited to his peculiar genius, he cannot succeed. I am glad to
believe that the majority of persons do find their right vocation. Yet
we see many who have mistaken their calling, from the blacksmith up
(or down) to the clergyman.
You will see, for instance, that extraordinary linguist the “learned
blacksmith,” who ought to have been a teacher of languages; and you
may have seen lawyers, doctors and clergymen who were better fitted
by nature for the anvil or the lapstone.
5. Put the underlined phrases into two columns depending on their
meaning:
Positive choice
Negative choice
a.
b.
…
a.
b.
…
6. Write a short text on whether your choice of vocation was
the right one. What alternatives did you have?
7. Read and translate TEXT B. Explain the meaning of the underlined expressions. Give your understanding of the last sentence in
the text.
Select The Right Location
After securing the right vocation, you must be careful to select
the proper location. You may have been cut out for a hotel keeper,
and they say it requires a genius to “know how to keep a hotel.” You
6
might conduct a hotel like clock-work, and provide satisfactorily for
five hundred guests every day; yet, if you should locate your house
in a small village where there is no railroad communication or public
travel, the location would be your ruin. It is equally important that
you do not commence business where there are already enough to meet
all demands in the same occupation.
I remember a case which illustrates this subject. When I was in
London in 1858, I was passing down Holborn with an English friend
and came to the “penny shows.” They had immense cartoons outside,
portraying the wonderful curiosities to be seen “all for a penny.” Being a little in the “show line” myself, I said “let us go in here.” We
soon found ourselves in the presence of the illustrious showman, and
he proved to be the sharpest man in that line I had ever met. He told us
some extraordinary stories in reference to his bearded ladies, his Albinos, and his Armadillos, which we could hardly believe, but thought it
“better to believe it than look after the proof.” He finally begged to call
our attention to some wax statuary, and showed us a lot of the dirtiest
and filthiest wax figures imaginable. They looked as if they had not
seen water since the Deluge.
“What is there so wonderful about your statuary?” I asked.
“I beg you not to speak so satirically,” he replied, “Sir, these are not
Madam Tussaud’s wax figures, all covered with gilt and tinsel and imitation diamonds, and copied from engravings and photographs. Mine,
sir, were taken from life. Whenever you look upon one of those figures,
you may consider that you are looking upon the living individual.”
Glancing casually at them, I saw one labelled “Henry VIII,” and
feeling a little curious upon seeing that it looked like Calvin Edson,
the living skeleton, I said: “Do you call that `Henry the Eighth?’”
He replied, “Certainly, sir; it was taken from life at Hampton
Court, by special order of his majesty, on such a day.”
He would have given the hour of the day if I had insisted; I said,
Everybody knows that `Henry VIII.’ was a great stout old king, and
that figure is lean and lank; what do you say to that?”
“Why,” he replied, “you would be lean and lank yourself, if you sat
there as long as he has.”
There was no resisting such arguments. I said to my English friend,
“Let us go out; do not tell him who I am; I show the white feather; he
beats me.”
He followed us to the door, and seeing the rabble in the street,
he called out, “ladies and gentlemen, I beg to draw your attention to
7
the respectable character of my visitors,” pointing to us as we walked
away. I called upon him a couple of days afterwards; told him who
I was, and said:
“My friend, you are an excellent showman, but you have selected
a bad location.”
He replied, “This is true, sir; I feel that all my talents are thrown
away; but what can I do?”
“You can go to America,” I replied. “You can give full play to your
faculties over there; you will find plenty of elbow-room in America;
I will engage you for two years; after that you will be able to go on your
own account.”
He accepted my offer and remained two years in my New York Museum. He then went to New Orleans and carried on a traveling show
business during the summer. To-day he is worth sixty thousand dollars, simply because he selected the right vocation and also secured
the proper location. The old proverb says, “Three removes are as bad as
a fire,” but when a man is in the fire, it matters but little how soon or
how often he removes.
8. Give a 1–2 minute speech on the following topic:
– Why is business location one of the most crucial points to consider?
– What factors should one consider when choosing a business venue?
– What is important when deciding to relocate your company?
Speak about checking access to transport systems and finding potential employees?
– What is good about the location of your company (or one that you
know of)?
– Would you mind moving to another country to work for your
company?
– Would you mind having a long journey to work?
9. Read and translate TEXT C:
Avoid Debt
Young men starting in life should avoid running into debt. There is
scarcely anything that drags a person down like debt. It is a slavish position to get in, yet we find many a young man, hardly out of his “teens,”
running in debt. He meets a chum and says, “Look at this: I have got
8
trusted for a new suit of clothes.” He seems to look upon the clothes as so
much given to him; well, it frequently is so, but, if he succeeds in paying
and then gets trusted again, he is adopting a habit which will keep him in
poverty through life. Debt robs a man of his self-respect, and makes him
almost despise himself. Grunting and groaning and working for what he
has eaten up or worn out, and now when he is called upon to pay up, he
has nothing to show for his money; this is properly termed “working for
a dead horse.” I do not speak of merchants buying and selling on credit,
or of those who buy on credit in order to turn the purchase to a profit.
The old Quaker said to his farmer son, “John, never get trusted; but if
thee gets trusted for anything, let it be for `manure,’ because that will
help thee pay it back again.”
Mr. Beecher advised young men to get in debt if they could to a small
amount in the purchase of land, in the country districts. “If a young
man,” he says, “will only get in debt for some land and then get married,
these two things will keep him straight, or nothing will.” This may be
safe to a limited extent, but getting in debt for what you eat and drink
and wear is to be avoided. Some families have a foolish habit of getting
credit at “the stores,” and thus frequently purchase many things which
might have been dispensed with. It is all very well to say, “I have got
trusted for sixty days, and if I don’t have the money the creditor will
think nothing about it.” There is no class of people in the world, who have
such good memories as creditors. When the sixty days run out, you will
have to pay. If you do not pay, you will break your promise, and probably
resort to a falsehood. You may make some excuse or get in debt elsewhere to pay it, but that only involves you the deeper.
A good-looking, lazy young fellow, was the apprentice boy, Horatio.
His employer said, “Horatio, did you ever see a snail?” “I–think–I–
have,” he drawled out. “You must have met him then, for I am sure you
never overtook one,” said the “boss.”
Your creditor will meet you or overtake you and say, “Now, my
young friend, you agreed to pay me; you have not done it, you must give
me your note.” You give the note on interest and it commences working
against you; “it is a dead horse.” The creditor goes to bed at night and
wakes up in the morning better off than when he retired to bed, because
his interest has increased during the night, but you grow poorer while
you are sleeping, for the interest is accumulating against you. Money
is in some respects like fire; it is a very excellent servant but a terrible
master. When you have it mastering you; when interest is constantly
piling up against you, it will keep you down in the worst kind of slavery.
9
But let money work for you, and you have the most devoted servant in
the world. It is no “eye-servant.” There is nothing animate or inanimate
that will work so faithfully as money when placed at interest, well secured. It works night and day, and in wet or dry weather.
I was born in the blue-law State of Connecticut, where the old Puritans had laws so rigid that it was said, “they fined a man for kissing
his wife on Sunday.” Yet these rich old Puritans would have thousands
of dollars at interest, and on Saturday night would be worth a certain
amount; on Sunday they would go to church and perform all the duties of a Christian. On waking up on Monday morning, they would
find themselves considerably richer than the Saturday night previous,
simply because their money placed at interest had worked faithfully
for them all day Sunday, according to law! Do not let it work against
you; if you do there is no chance for success in life so far as money is
concerned. John Randolph, the eccentric Virginian, once exclaimed in
Congress, “Mr. Speaker, I have discovered the philosopher’s stone: pay
as you go.” This is, indeed, nearer to the philosopher’s stone than any
alchemist has ever yet arrived.
10. Put the underlined expressions into two columns depending on
their meaning:
Bad debt
Good debt / Accumulating fortune
due to lending
11. Explain the meaning of the following phrases:
– There is no class of people in the world, who have such good memories as creditors.
– Money is in some respects like fire; it is a very excellent servant
but a terrible master.
– “Mr. Speaker, I have discovered the philosopher’s stone: pay as
you go.”
12. Read and translate TEXT D:
Persevere
When a man is in the right path, he must persevere. I speak of
this because there are some persons who are “born tired;” naturally
10
lazy and possessing no self-reliance and no perseverance. But they
can cultivate these qualities, as Davy Crockett said: “This thing remember, when I am dead, Be sure you are right, then go ahead.” It is
this go-aheaditiveness, this determination not to let the “horrors” or
the “blues” take possession of you, so as to make you relax your energies in the struggle for independence, which you must cultivate.
How many have almost reached the goal of their ambition, but, losing faith in themselves, have relaxed their energies, and the golden
prize has been lost forever. It is, no doubt, often true, as Shakespeare
says:
“There is a tide in the affairs of men,
Which taken at the flood, leads on to fortune.”
If you hesitate, some bolder hand will stretch out before you and get
the prize. Remember the proverb of Solomon: “He becometh poor that
dealeth with a slack hand; but the hand of the diligent maketh rich.”
Perseverance is sometimes but another word for self-reliance.
Many persons naturally look on the dark side of life, and borrow trouble. They are born so. Then they ask for advice, and they will be governed by one wind and blown by another, and cannot rely upon themselves. Until you can get so that you can rely upon yourself, you need
not expect to succeed. I have known men, personally, who have met
with pecuniary reverses, and absolutely committed suicide, because
they thought they could never overcome their misfortune. But I have
known others who have met more serious financial difficulties, and
have bridged them over by simple perseverance, aided by a firm belief
that they were doing justly, and that Providence would “overcome evil
with good.” You will see this illustrated in any sphere of life. Take
two generals; both understand military tactics, both educated at West
Point, if you please, both equally gifted; yet one, having this principle
of perseverance, and the other lacking it, the former will succeed in his
profession, while the latter will fail. One may hear the cry, “the enemy
are coming, and they have got cannon.”
“Got cannon?” says the hesitating general.
“Yes.”
“Then halt every man.”
He wants time to reflect; his hesitation is his ruin; the enemy passes unmolested, or overwhelms him; while on the other hand, the general of pluck, perseverance and self-reliance, goes into battle with a will,
and, amid the clash of arms, the booming of cannon, the shrieks of
the wounded, and the moans of the dying, you will see this man perse11
vering, going on, cutting and slashing his way through with unwavering determination, inspiring his soldiers to deeds of fortitude, valor,
and triumph.
13. Put the underlined phrases into two columns according to their
meaning:
Perseverance
Lack of perseverance
14. Give a 1–2 minute speech on the following topic using the phrases from the Table in 13:
“Perseverance
is a key to success
in business”
15.Read and translate TEXT E:
Whatever You Do, Do It With All Your Might.
Work at it, if necessary, early and late, in season and out of season,
not leaving a stone unturned, and never deferring for a single hour
that which can be done just as well now. The old proverb is full of truth
and meaning, “Whatever is worth doing at all, is worth doing well.”
Many a man acquires a fortune by doing his business thoroughly,
while his neighbor remains poor for life, because he only half does it.
Ambition, energy, industry, perseverance are indispensable requisites
for success in business. Fortune always favors the brave, and never
helps a man who does not help himself. It won’t do to spend your time
like Mr. Micawber, in waiting for something to “turn up.” To such men
one of two things usually “turns up:” the poor-house or the jail; for
idleness breeds bad habits, and clothes a man in rags. The poor spendthrift vagabond says to a rich man: “I have discovered there is enough
money in the world for all of us, if it was equally divided; this must
be done, and we shall all be happy together.” “But,” was the response,
“if everybody was like you, it would be spent in two months, and what
would you do then?” “Oh! divide again; keep dividing, of course!”
12
I was recently reading in a London paper an account of a like philosophic pauper who was kicked out of a cheap boardinghouse because
he could not pay his bill, but he had a roll of papers sticking out of his
coat pocket, which, upon examination, proved to be his plan for paying
off the national debt of England without the aid of a penny. People
have got to do as Cromwell said: “not only trust in Providence, but keep
the powder dry.” Do your part of the work, or you cannot succeed. Mahomet, one night, while encamping in the desert, overheard one of his
fatigued followers remark: “I will loose my camel, and trust it to God!”
“No, no, not so,” said the prophet, “tie thy camel, and trust it to God!”
Do all you can for yourselves, and then trust to Providence, or luck, or
whatever you please to call it, for the rest.
16. Discuss the following questions with a partner:
a) What does it mean ‘to work with all your might’? Use expressions from the text to help you.
b) Why is it that “Whatever is worth doing at all, is worth doing
well”?
c) How do you understand Cromwell’s words “not only trust in Providence, but keep the powder dry”?
17.Read and translate TEXT F:
Depend Upon Your Own Personal Exertions
The eye of the employer is often worth more than the hands of a dozen employees. In the nature of things, an agent cannot be so faithful to
his employer as to himself. Many who are employers will call to mind
instances where the best employees have overlooked important points
which could not have escaped their own observation as a proprietor.
No man has a right to expect to succeed in life unless he understands
his business, and nobody can understand his business thoroughly unless he learns it by personal application and experience. A man may be
a manufacturer; he has got to learn the many details of his business
personally; he will learn something every day, and he will find he will
make mistakes nearly every day.
And these very mistakes are helps to him in the way of experiences if he but heeds them. He will be like the Yankee tin-peddler, who,
having been cheated as to quality in the purchase of his merchandise,
said: “All right, there’s a little information to be gained every day; I
will never be cheated in that way again.” Thus a man buys his experi13
ence, and it is the best kind if not purchased at too dear a rate. I hold
that every man should, like Cuvier, the French naturalist, thoroughly
know his business. So proficient was he in the study of natural history, that you might bring to him the bone, or even a section of a bone
of an animal which he had never seen described, and, reasoning from
analogy, he would be able to draw a picture of the object from which
the bone had been taken.
On one occasion his students attempted to deceive him. They rolled
one of their number in a cow skin and put him under the professor’s
table as a new specimen. When the philosopher came into the room, some
of the students asked him what animal it was. Suddenly the animal said
“I am the devil and I am going to eat you.” It was but natural that Cuvier should desire to classify this creature, and examining it intently, he
said: “Divided hoof; graminivorous! it cannot be done.” He knew that
an animal with a split hoof must live upon grass and grain, or other kind
of vegetation, and would not be inclined to eat flesh, dead or alive, so
he considered himself perfectly safe. The possession of a perfect knowledge of your business is an absolute necessity in order to insure success.
Among the maxims of the elder Rothschild was one, an apparent
paradox: “Be cautions and bold.” This seems to be a contradiction in
terms, but it is not, and there is great wisdom in the maxim. It is,
in fact, a condensed statement of what I have already said. It is to say,
“You must exercise your caution in laying your plans, but be bold in
carrying them out.” A man who is all caution, will never dare to take
hold and be successful; and a man who is all boldness, is merely reckless, and must eventually fail.
A man may go on “’change” and make fifty or one hundred thousand
dollars in speculating in stocks, at a single operation. But if he has simple boldness without caution, it is mere chance, and what he gains to-day
he will lose to-morrow. You must have both the caution and the boldness, to insure success. The Rothschilds have another maxim: “Never
have anything to do with an unlucky man or place.” That is to say, never
have anything to do with a man or place which never succeeds, because,
although a man may appear to be honest and intelligent, yet if he tries
this or that thing and always fails, it is on account of some fault or infirmity that you may not be able to discover but nevertheless which must
exist. There is no such thing in the world as luck.
There never was a man who could go out in the morning and find
a purse full of gold in the street to-day, and another to-morrow, and
so on, day after day. He may do so once in his life; but so far as mere
14
luck is concerned, he is as liable to lose it as to find it. “Like causes produce like effects.” If a man adopts the proper methods to be successful,
“luck” will not prevent him. If he does not succeed, there are reasons
for it, although, perhaps, he may not be able to see them.
18. Choose one of the topics below and write an extended answer of
how you understand it.
1) No man has a right to expect to succeed in life unless he understands his business, and nobody can understand his business thoroughly unless he learns it by personal application and experience.
2) Like causes produce like effects.
19. Read these quotations about LUCK and say if you agree or disagree with them:
“I’m a greater believer in luck, and I find the harder I work the more
I have of it.” – Thomas Jefferson
“The sun doesn’t just hang on one family’s tree.” – Anchee Min
“Remember that sometimes not getting what you want is a wonderful stroke of luck.” – Dalai Lama XIV
“Luck always seems like it belongs to someone else.” – David Levien
“Ability is of little account without opportunity.” – Napoléon
Bonaparte
20. Do you agree with the Rothschild’s’ maxim “Never have anything to do with an unlucky man or place.” Why? Have you had any
experience of this?
21. Read and translate TEXT G:
DON’T GET ABOVE YOUR BUSINESS
Young men after they get through their business training, or apprenticeship, instead of pursuing their avocation and rising in their
business, will often lie about doing nothing. They say, “I have learned
my business, but I am not going to be a hire-ling; what is the object of
learning my trade or profession, unless I establish myself?”
“Have you capital to start with?”
“No, but I am going to have it.”
“How are you going to get it?”
“I will tell you confidentially; I have a wealthy old aunt, and she
will die pretty soon; but if she does not, I expect to find some rich old
15
man who will lend me a few thousands to give me a start. If I only get
the money to start with I will do well.”
There is no greater mistake than when a young man believes he will
succeed with borrowed money. Why? Because every man’s experience
coincides with that of Mr. Astor, who said, “it was more difficult for
him to accumulate his first thousand dollars, than all the succeeding
millions that made up his colossal fortune.” Money is good for nothing unless you know the value of it by experience. Give a boy twenty
thousand dollars and put him in business, and the chances are that he
will lose every dollar of it before he is a year older. Like buying a ticket
in the lottery, and drawing a prize, it is “easy come, easy go.” He does
not know the value of it; nothing is worth anything, unless it costs
effort. Without self-denial and economy, patience and perseverance,
and commencing with capital which you have not earned, you are not
sure to succeed in accumulating. Young men, instead of “waiting for
dead men’s shoes,” should be up and doing, for there is no class of persons who are so unaccommodating in regard to dying as these rich old
people, and it is fortunate for the expectant heirs that it is so. Nine
out of ten of the rich men of our country today, started out in life as
poor boys, with determined wills, industry, perseverance, economy
and good habits. They went on gradually, made their own money and
saved it; and this is the best way to acquire a fortune. Stephen Girard
started life as a poor cabin boy, and died worth nine million dollars.
A. T. Stewart was a poor Irish boy; and he paid taxes on a million and
a half dollars of income, per year. John Jacob Astor was a poor farmer
boy, and died worth twenty millions. Cornelius Vanderbilt began life
rowing a boat from Staten Island to New York; he presented our government with a steamship worth a million of dollars, and died worth
fifty millions. “There is no royal road to learning,” says the proverb,
and I may say it is equally true, “there is no royal road to wealth.” But
I think there is a royal road to both. The road to learning is a royal
one; the road that enables the student to expand his intellect and add
every day to his stock of knowledge, until, in the pleasant process of
intellectual growth, he is able to solve the most profound problems,
to count the stars, to analyze every atom of the globe, and to measure
the firmament–this is a regal highway, and it is the only road worth
traveling.
So in regard to wealth. Go on in confidence, study the rules, and
above all things, study human nature; for “the proper study of mankind is man,” and you will find that while expanding the intellect and
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the muscles, your enlarged experience will enable you every day to accumulate more and more principal, which will increase itself by interest and otherwise, until you arrive at a state of independence. You will
find, as a general thing, that the poor boys get rich and the rich boys
get poor. For instance, a rich man at his decease, leaves a large estate
to his family. His eldest sons, who have helped him earn his fortune,
know by experience the value of money, and they take their inheritance
and add to it. The separate portions of the young children are placed at
interest, and the little fellows are patted on the head, and told a dozen
times a day, “you are rich; you will never have to work, you can always
have whatever you wish, for you were born with a golden spoon in your
mouth.”
The young heir soon finds out what that means; he has the finest
dresses and playthings; he is crammed with sugar candies and almost
“killed with kindness,” and he passes from school to school, petted and
flattered. He becomes arrogant and self-conceited, abuses his teachers, and carries everything with a high hand. He knows nothing of
the real value of money, having never earned any; but he knows all
about the “golden spoon” business. At college, he invites his poor fellow-students to his room, where he “wines and dines” them. He is cajoled and caressed, and called a glorious good fellow, because he is so
lavish of his money. He gives his game suppers, drives his fast horses,
invites his chums to fetes and parties, determined to have lots of “good
times.” He spends the night in frolics and debauchery, and leads off
his companions with the familiar song, “we won’t go home till morning.” He gets them to join him in pulling down signs, taking gates
from their hinges and throwing them into back yards and horse-ponds.
If the police arrest them, he knocks them down, is taken to the lock-up,
and joyfully foots the bills.
“Ah! my boys,” he cries, “what is the use of being rich, if you can’t
enjoy yourself?”
He might more truly say, “if you can’t make a fool of your-self;”
but he is “fast,” hates slow things, and don’t “see it.” Young men loaded down with other people’s money are almost sure to lose all they inherit, and they acquire all sorts of bad habits which, in the majority of
cases, ruin them in health, purse and character. In this country, one
generation follows another, and the poor of today are rich in the next
generation, or the third. Their experience leads them on, and they become rich, and they leave vast riches to their young children. These
children, having been reared in luxury, are inexperienced and get
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poor; and after long experience another generation comes on and gathers up riches again in turn. And thus “history repeats itself,” and happy is he who by listening to the experience of others avoids the rocks
and shoals on which so many have been wrecked.
“In England, the business makes the man.” If a man in that country
is a mechanic or working-man, he is not recognized as a gentleman. On
the occasion of my first appearance before Queen Victoria, the Duke
of Wellington asked me what sphere in life General Tom Thumb’s parents were in.
“His father is a carpenter,” I replied.
“Oh! I had heard he was a gentleman,” was the response of His
Grace.
In this Republican country, the man makes the business. No matter
whether he is a blacksmith, a shoemaker, a farmer, banker or lawyer,
so long as his business is legitimate, he may be a gentleman. So any
“legitimate” business is a double blessing–it helps the man engaged in
it, and also helps others. The farmer supports his own family, but he
also benefits the mer-chant or mechanic who needs the products of his
farm. The tailor not only makes a living by his trade, but he also benefits the farmer, the clergyman and others who cannot make their own
clothing. But all these classes of men may be gentlemen.
The great ambition should be to excel all others engaged in the same
occupation.
The college-student who was about graduating, said to an old lawyer:
“I have not yet decided which profession I will follow. Is your profession full?”
“The basement is much crowded, but there is plenty of room upstairs,” was the witty and truthful reply.
No profession, trade, or calling, is overcrowded in the upper story.
Wherever you find the most honest and intelligent merchant or banker, or the best lawyer, the best doctor, the best clergyman, the best
shoemaker, carpenter, or anything else, that man is most sought for,
and has always enough to do. As a nation Americans are too superficial–they are striving to get rich quickly, and do not generally do their
business as substantially and thoroughly as they should, but whoever
excels all others in his own line, if his habits are good and his integrity
undoubted, cannot fail to secure abundant patronage, and the wealth
that naturally follows. Let your motto then always be “Excelsior,” for
by living up to it there is no such word as fail.
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22. Put the underlined expressions into two columns:
Be born with a golden spoon in your mouth
Be born to a family with low income
23. Read these quotes and write an essay explaining your point of
you.
The business makes the man or
The man makes the business
24. Make a presentation describing the life of a self-made millionaire.
25. Explain how you understand the following extract.
The college-student who was about graduating, said to an old lawyer:
“I have not yet decided which profession I will follow. Is your profession full?”
“The basement is much crowded, but there is plenty of room upstairs,” was the witty and truthful reply.
26. Read and Translate Text H:
ADVERTISE YOUR BUSINESS
We all depend, more or less, upon the public for our support. We
all trade with the public–lawyers, doctors, shoemakers, artists, blacksmiths, showmen, opera singers, railroad presidents, and college professors.
Those who deal with the public must be careful that their goods are
valuable; that they are genuine, and will give satisfaction. When you
get an article which you know is going to please your customers, and
that when they have tried it, they will feel they have got their money’s worth, then let the fact be known that you have got it. Be careful to advertise it in some shape or other, because it is evident that if
a man has ever so good an article for sale, and nobody knows it, it will
bring him no return. In a country like this, where nearly everybody
reads, and where newspapers are issued and circulated in editions of
five thousand to two hundred thousand, it would be very unwise if this
channel was not taken advantage of to reach the public in advertising.
A newspaper goes into the family, and is read by wife and children, as
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well as the head of the home; hence hundreds and thousands of people
may read your advertisement, while you are attending to your routine
business. Many, perhaps, read it while you are asleep. The whole philosophy of life is, first “sow,” then “reap.” That is the way the farmer
does; he plants his potatoes and corn, and sows his grain, and then goes
about something else, and the time comes when he reaps. But he never reaps first and sows afterwards. This principle applies to all kinds
of business, and to nothing more eminently than to advertising. If
a man has a genuine article, there is no way in which he can reap more
advantageously than by “sowing” to the public in this way. He must,
of course, have a really good article, and one which will please his
customers; anything spurious will not succeed permanently because
the public is wiser than many imagine. Men and women are selfish, and
we all prefer purchasing where we can get the most for our money and
we try to find out where we can most surely do so.
You may advertise a spurious article, and induce many people to
call and buy it once, but they will denounce you as an imposter and
swindler, and your business will gradually die out and leave you poor.
This is right. Few people can safely depend upon chance custom. You
all need to have your customers re-turn and purchase again. A man
said to me, “I have tried advertising and did not succeed; yet I have
a good article.”
I replied, “My friend, there may be exceptions to a general rule. But
how do you advertise?”
“I put it in a weekly newspaper three times, and paid a dollar and
a half for it.”
I replied: “Sir, advertising is like learning–`a little is a dangerous
thing!’”
A French writer says that “The reader of a newspaper does not see
the first mention of an ordinary advertisement; the second insertion
he sees, but does not read; the third insertion he reads; the fourth insertion, he looks at the price; the fifth insertion, he speaks of it to his
wife; the sixth insertion, he is ready to purchase, and the seventh insertion, he purchases.” Your object in advertising is to make the public understand what you have got to sell, and if you have not the pluck
to keep advertising, until you have imparted that information, all
the money you have spent is lost. You are like the fellow who told
the gentleman if he would give him ten cents it would save him a dollar. “How can I help you so much with so small a sum?” asked the gentleman in surprise. “I started out this morning (hiccupped the fellow)
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with the full determination to get drunk, and I have spent my only
dollar to accomplish the object, and it has not quite done it. Ten cents
worth more of whiskey would just do it, and in this manner I should
save the dollar already expended.”
So a man who advertises at all must keep it up until the public know
who and what he is, and what his business is, or else the money invested in advertising is lost.
Some men have a peculiar genius for writing a striking advertisement, one that will arrest the attention of the reader at first sight.
This fact, of course, gives the advertiser a great advantage. Sometimes
a man makes himself popular by an unique sign or a curious display in
his window. Recently I ob-served a swing sign extending over the sidewalk in front of a store, on which was the inscription in plain letters,
“DON’T READ THE OTHER SIDE.”
Of course I did, and so did everybody else, and I learned that the man
had made an independence by first attracting the public to his business
in that way and then using his customers well afterwards.
Genin, the hatter, bought the first Jenny Lind ticket at auction for
two hundred and twenty-five dollars, because he knew it would be a good
advertisement for him. “Who is the bidder?” said the auctioneer, as he
knocked down that ticket at Castle Garden. “Genin, the hatter,” was
the response. Here were thousands of people from the Fifth avenue, and
from distant cities in the highest stations in life. “Who is `Genin,’ the hatter?” they exclaimed. They had never heard of him before. The next morning the newspapers and telegraph had circulated the facts from Maine to
Texas, and from five to ten millions of people had read that the tickets
sold at auction for Jenny Lind’s first concert amounted to about twenty
thousand dollars, and that a single ticket was sold at two hundred and
twenty-five dollars, to “Genin, the hatter.” Men throughout the country
in-voluntarily took off their hats to see if they had a “Genin” hat on their
heads. At a town in Iowa it was found that in the crowd around the post
office, there was one man who had a “Genin” hat, and he showed it in triumph, although it was worn out and not worth two cents. “Why,” one
man exclaimed, “you have a real `Genin’ hat; what a lucky fellow you are.”
Another man said, “Hang on to that hat, it will be a valuable heir-loom in
your family.” Still another man in the crowd who seemed to envy the possessor of this good fortune, said, “Come, give us all a chance; put it up at
auction!” He did so, and it was sold as a keepsake for nine dollars and fifty
cents! What was the con-sequence to Mr. Genin? He sold ten thousand
extra hats per annum, the first six years. Nine-tenths of the purchasers
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bought of him, probably, out of curiosity, and many of them, finding that
he gave them an equivalent for their money, be-came his regular customers. This novel advertisement first struck their attention, and then, as he
made a good article, they came again.
Now I don’t say that everybody should advertise as Mr. Genin did.
But I say if a man has got goods for sale, and he doesn’t advertise them
in some way, the chances are that some day the sheriff will do it for
him. Nor do I say that everybody must advertise in a newspaper, or
indeed use “printers’ ink” at all. On the contrary, although that article
is indispensable in the majority of cases, yet doctors and clergymen,
and sometimes lawyers and some others, can more effectually reach
the public in some other manner. But it is obvious, they must be known
in some way, else how could they be supported?
27. Make a list of the underlined expressions with your translation
into Russian.
28. Study the following words on advertising:
point of sale commercials exhibitions mailshots public transport
posters billboards radio television Internet free samples
leaflets the press to persuade to endorse to publicise to promote
to place to launch a campaign to research to sponsor
29. Answer the following questions:
How would you define advertising? Do you prefer advertisements
on TV, in newspapers, on the radio, on the Internet or in the street?
Do you think advertising is an art?
What factors are essential in making a good advertisement?
Would you like to work in advertising?
Have you ever placed an ad in the classified section of a newspaper?
Would you like there to be no ads on TV?
Do pop-up ads on the Internet bother you?
What products depend most on advertising?
What adverts have you seen or heard that you particularly liked?
Do you think you are easily persuaded to buy things after seeing or
hearing an ad?
Have you ever been angry about an advert?
30. Think of some product or service you would like to advertise.
What are the best ways to do it?
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31. Read and translate TEXT I:
BE POLITE AND KIND TO YOUR CUSTOMERS
Politeness and civility are the best capital ever invested in business. Large stores, gilt signs, flaming advertisements, will all prove
unavailing if you or your employees treat your patrons abruptly.
The truth is, the more kind and liberal a man is, the more generous
will be the patronage bestowed upon him. “Like begets like.” The man
who gives the greatest amount of goods of a corresponding quality for
the least sum (still re-serving for himself a profit) will generally succeed best in the long run. This brings us to the golden rule, “As ye
would that men should do to you, do ye also to them,” and they will do
better by you than if you always treated them as if you wanted to get
the most you could out of them for the least return. Men who drive
sharp bargains with their customers, acting as if they never expected
to see them again, will not be mistaken. They will never see them again
as customers. People don’t like to pay and get kicked also.
One of the ushers in my Museum once told me he intended to whip
a man who was in the lecture-room as soon as he came out.
“What for?” I inquired.
“Because he said I was no gentleman,” replied the usher. “Never
mind,” I replied, “he pays for that, and you will not convince him you
are a gentleman by whipping him. I cannot afford to lose a customer. If
you whip him, he will never visit the Museum again, and he will induce
friends to go with him to other places of amusement instead of this,
and thus you see, I should be a serious loser.”
“But he insulted me,” muttered the usher.
“Exactly,” I replied, “and if he owned the Museum, and you had
paid him for the privilege of visiting it, and he had then insulted you,
there might be some reason in your resenting it, but in this instance he
is the man who pays, while we receive, and you must, therefore, put up
with his bad manners.”
My usher laughingly remarked, that this was undoubtedly the true
policy, but he added that he should not object to an in-crease of salary
if he was expected to be abused in order to promote my interest.
(The Art of Money Getting, or Golden Rules for Making Money.
Barnum, P. T.)
32. Put the underlined phrases into two columns:
GOOD CUSTOMER CARE
BAD CUSTOMER CARE
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33. Answer the following questions:
1) Why is customer care important?
2) What is the best way to deal with customer complaints?
3) Have you ever experienced bad customer care?
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MODULE 2. PRACTICE MAKES PERFECT
1. Discovering your talents
A. Read the following quotes. Do you agree or disagree with them?
“Believe in yourself. You are braver than you think, more talented
than you know, and capable of more than you imagine.” – Roy T. Bennett
“Every artist was first an amateur.” – Ralph Waldo Emerson
“Everybody is talented because everybody who is human has something to express.” – Brenda Ueland
“Talent is cheaper than table salt. What separates the talented individual from the successful one is a lot of hard work.” – Stephen King
“If you ever find that you’re the most talented person in the room,
you need to find another room.” – Austin Kleon
B. Read the following text and translate it:
Discovering Your Talents by Brian Tracey
Benjamin Franklin wrote, “Do you value life? Then waste not time,
for that is the stuff of which life is made.” The value of anything that
you obtain or accomplish can be determined by how much of your time,
or your life, you spent to acquire it. The amount of yourself that you
use up in achieving the goals that are important to you is a critical factor to consider, even before you begin. Only by discovering your innate
strengths and developing and exploiting them to their highest degree
can you utilize yourself to get the greatest amount of satisfaction and
enjoyment from everything you do.
Deciding what you want to do, what you can do well, and what can
give you the highest rewards for your efforts is the starting point in
getting the best out of yourself.
When we do strategic planning for corporations, we begin with
the premise that the whole purpose of the exercise is to reorganize and
reallocate people and re-sources to increase the rate of return on equity or capital invested in the business. Invariably, this is done by emphasizing some areas and de-emphasizing others, by allocating more
resources to areas with higher potential return and by taking resources away from those areas that represent lower potential returns. By
developing or promoting newer and better products and services and
by discontinuing those products and services that are less profitable,
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the company and all the people in it can channel their resources to
maximize their returns.
In doing personal strategic planning, the first thing you want to
think about is increasing your personal “return on energy,” rather
than return on equity. You need to realize that the most essential and
valuable thing that you have to bring to your life and to your work is
your ability to think, to act, and to get results. Your earning ability–which is a function of your education, knowledge, experience and
talents–is your human capital, or your equity. And the way you use it
will largely determine the quality and quantity of your rewards, both
material and psychological, both tangible and intangible.
This first part of personal strategic planning is called “values clarification.” You ask yourself, “What values and virtues do I most admire and wish to practice in my life?” If you wanted to discover your
strengths in the work world, first you would define your values as they
apply to employment. The values that companies settle upon would be
similar to the values that you organize your work life around. Often,
both companies and individuals will choose values such as integrity,
quality, respect for others, service, profitability, innovation, entrepreneurship, market leadership, and so on.
There are dozens of values that you can pick from, but whichever
you choose, and the order of priority you place on your choices, will
determine your approach to your work.
Your next step is to create your personal mission statement. This is
a clear, written description of the person you intend to be in your work
life. I have often found that this is even more important than setting
specific financial or business or sales goals. Once you have decided how
much you want to earn, you need to write out a mission statement that
describes the kind of person you intend to become in order to earn that
amount of money. For example, you might say, “I’m an outstanding
salesperson, well-organized, hardworking, thoroughly prepared, positive, enthusiastic, and intensely focused on serving my customers better than anyone else can.”
Once you have defined your values and written out your mission
statement, the next step is to do what is called a “situational analysis.” Sometimes we call it a “performance audit.” This is the process of
analyzing yourself thoroughly before you begin setting specific goals
and planning certain activities. You begin your performance audit by
asking yourself some key questions. One of those questions should be,
“What are my marketable skills?”
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What can you do for which someone else will pay you? What can
you do particularly well? What can you do better than others? What
have you done particularly well in the past?
Finally, in personal strategic planning, the aim is always to achieve
leadership in your chosen market niche. Business leaders have the authority to determine the area of excellence in their business. Analogously, on a personal level, you can choose the thing at which you’re going to
become absolutely excellent and achieve extraordinary results.
You were put on this earth with a special combination of talents
and abilities that make you different from anyone who has ever lived.
The key to a happy and prosperous life is for you to regularly evaluate
your strengths and weaknesses, to become very good in the areas you
most enjoy, and then to throw your whole heart into what you’re doing.
C. Read the text again and answer the following questions:
1. What does Brian Tracey advise to do if you value your life? Why?
2. What’s the starting point in getting the best out of yourself?
3. What do we consider when doing strategic planning for corporations?
4. What’s the first thing to think about when doing personal strategic planning? What’s “human capital”?
D. Read the text again and write your ideas on the following questions:
1. What’s “values clarification”? What values are important for
you?
2. What’s “mission statement”? Write down the one for yourself.
3. What’s “performance audit”? Give a “situational analysis” about
yourself.
E. Read the following questions and write down your own answers:
1. Begin with your values; what are the three most important values, qualities, factors in your life today?
1)___________________________________________________
2)___________________________________________________
3)___________________________________________________
2. What would you do, how would you change your life, if you received $1,000,000 cash today?
1)___________________________________________________
2)___________________________________________________
3)___________________________________________________
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3. What sort of work or activity gives you your greatest feeling of
importance and personal satisfaction?
1)___________________________________________________
2)___________________________________________________
3)___________________________________________________
4. What have you always wanted to do but been afraid to attempt?
1)___________________________________________________
2)___________________________________________________
3)___________________________________________________
5. To achieve greatly in life, you need to be clear about your goals in
the seven main areas of life:
1) Personal
2) Family
3) Business and Career
4) Financial
5) Education
6) Health
7) Social
Describe them.
(“Discovering Your Talents” by Brian Tracey)
2. Business Planning
A. Read the following quotes about planning and strategy. Do you
agree or disagree with them?
“A goal without a plan is just a wish.” – Antoine de Saint-Exupéry
“By failing to prepare, you are preparing to fail.” – Benjamin Franklin
“If you don’t know where you are going, you’ll end up someplace
else.” – Yogi Berra
“Someone’s sitting in the shade today because someone planted
a tree a long time ago.” – Warren Buffett
“Let your plans be dark and impenetrable as night, and when you
move, fall like a thunderbolt.” – Sun Tzu
“The essence of strategy is choosing what not to do. ” – Michael E.
Porter
B. Read the following information and answer the questions by using the underlined phrases:
A business plan is a comprehensive, written description of the business of an enterprise. It is a detailed report on a company’s products
28
or services, production techniques, markets and clients, marketing
strategy, human resources, organization, requirements in respect of
infrastructure and supplies, financing requirements, and sources and
uses of funds.
The business plan describes the past and present status of a business, but its main purpose is to present the future of an enterprise. It
is normally updated annually and looks ahead for a period of usually
three to five years, depending on the type of business and the kind of
entity. It is a crucial element in any application for funding, whether
to a venture capital organization or any other investment or lending
source. Therefore, it should be complete, sincere, factual, well structured and reader-friendly.
QUESTION 1: What is a business plan? What information should it
include? What kind of document should it be?
There are many important reasons for drawing up a business plan.
Some of the most significant are the following:
– Getting an integrated view of your business. By preparing your
business plan, you get an integrated view of all issues regarding your
business. For example, it helps you to identify better your target clients, outline your market segment, shape your pricing strategy and
define the competitive conditions under which you must operate in order to succeed. Business planning ensures that all these considerations
are consistent and properly harmonized. Also, the business plan process often leads to the discovery of a competitive advantage or new opportunities as well as deficiencies in the plan. Committing your plans
to paper, ensures that your overall ability to manage the business will
improve.
– Mutual understanding within the management team. Reaching
mutual understanding among the members of the management of
the firm is particularly important in cases in which the recommended
policy of engaging as many managers as practically possible is applied
in the preparation of the business plan.
– Determining financial needs and applying for funds. Determining the amount, type and sources of financing and when it is required.
Using the business plan in the process of application for funds.
– Approval from board of directors/shareholders. Using it as a basis for getting approvals from the company board and shareholders.
– Recruiting. Using it in recruiting and introducing new members of
the management and staff.
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– Deriving objectives for employees. Deriving from the business
plan measures and objectives for units and individuals in the organization (management by objective).
– Informing employees. Using it as a means of informing/motivating employees about the objectives of the company.
– Informing lenders. Giving it to banks/investment funds that
have financed your business in the past and require periodical information for monitoring
– Informing partners. Using the business plan in informing business partners and other relevant organizations (How To Prepare Your
Business Plan by UNCTAD).
QUESTION 2: Speak about the most important reasons for drawing
up a business plan. Who would it be useful for?
The content and structure of a business plan contain five types of
information as follows:
– The mission of your business and the objectives you want to
achieve;
– Your targeted markets and clients, the products and/or services
you will provide and the position of your competitors;
– The qualitative and quantitative results you expect to achieve;
– The human resources, infrastructure, equipment, raw material
and financial resources you need in order achieve your goal in business;
– The technical, organizational and administrative processes you
will apply.
QUESTION 3: Speak about the basic elements of a business plan.
C. Form a team and think about a business you would like to run
together. Choose a product and /or a service you wish to create and
launch on the market. Now use the following questionnaire (“Business Strategic Planning Questionnaire” by Brian Tracey) to answer
the questions about your would-be business. Make a presentation
based on your ideas.
1. What business are you in? Define your business in terms of what
you actually do for your customers to improve their life or work.
1. ___________________________________________________
2. ___________________________________________________
3. ___________________________________________________
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2. What is the mission of your company? Define your mission in
terms of what you want to achieve, avoid, or preserve for your customers.
1. ___________________________________________________
2. ___________________________________________________
3. ___________________________________________________
3. How do you want your customers to talk about your company,
think about your company, or describe your company to others? What
words do you want them to use?
1. ___________________________________________________
2. ___________________________________________________
3. ___________________________________________________
4. Who is your perfect customer? Describe him or her in terms of
age, income, education, occupation, location, and whatever other factors are appropriate for your industry.
1. Age?_______________________________________________
2. Income? ____________________________________________
3. Occupation? _________________________________________
4. Need or problem? _____________________________________
5. What does your ideal customer consider value? What benefits
does your customer seek or expect in dealing with you?
1. ___________________________________________________
2. ___________________________________________________
3. ___________________________________________________
6. What are your company’s core competencies? What special
skills or abilities does your company possess that enable you to fulfill
the needs of your customers?
1. ___________________________________________________
2. ___________________________________________________
3. ___________________________________________________
7. What does your company do extremely well? In what areas do
you perform in an exceptional fashion? What makes you superior to
your competitors?
1. ___________________________________________________
2. ___________________________________________________
3. ___________________________________________________
8. Who are your biggest or main competitors?
1. ___________________________________________________
2. ___________________________________________________
3. ___________________________________________________
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9. What could you do to attract your competitors’ customers and
get them to buy from you?
1.___________________________________________________
2. ___________________________________________________
3. ___________________________________________________
10. Which customers should you phase out or abandon because
they are no longer worth the time and energy they take to satisfy?
1. ___________________________________________________
2. ___________________________________________________
3. ___________________________________________________
11. What should your brand be? What words or description would
you like to own in your customers’ minds? What kind of a reputation
would be most helpful for you to develop?
1. ___________________________________________________
2. ___________________________________________________
3. ___________________________________________________
12. What could you change or improve about your products, services, or business to begin creating a more favorable brand image in your
customers’ minds?
1. ___________________________________________________
2. ___________________________________________________
3. ___________________________________________________
32
MODULE 3. INTERNATIONAL SOCIO-ECONOMIC ISSUES
1. Read and translate the text. Use a dictionary to help you.
How to deal with the world’s most dangerous regime
Donald Trump grapples with his trickiest task
NORTH KOREA can be as confusing as it is alarming. It is a hereditary Marxist monarchy. It has the world’s youngest supreme leader
and also its oldest. The reigning tyrant, Kim Jong Un, is in his 30s;
and his grandfather, Kim Il Sung, is the “eternal president” despite
having died in 1994. To celebrate grandpa Kim’s birthday on April
15th, his grandson ordered warplanes to fly past in a formation spelling out his age: 105. He also ordered a gigantic parade, with goose-stepping soldiers and missiles on trucks. A male-voice choir belted out
“Peace is guaranteed by our arms”, even as the regime threatens to
rain nuclear destruction on its enemies and is building a missile designed to reach the continental United States.
Dealing with the bellicose junior god-king will be one of Donald
Trump’s trickiest tasks. It will also be the first big test of how he handles relations with China, which are shifting as the rising superpower
challenges the Pax Americana in Asia. There are no good options, but
arriving at the least-bad ones will require understanding both the regime and the Asian geopolitical jigsaw into which it fits. It will also require patience. Ominously, Mr Trump says he has little when it comes
to North Korea, and his vice-president, Mike Pence, says that “all options” are on the table.
Wanting to do something quickly is emotionally appealing. North
Korea is a vile, blood-drenched dictatorship where any hint of disloyalty is punishable by gulag or death. Mr Kim has children imprisoned
for their parents’ thought-crimes and his own relatives murdered on
a whim. The prospect of such a man threatening Los Angeles is harrowing. Yet a pre-emptive strike on North Korea would be reckless
beyond belief. Its nuclear devices are hidden, possibly deep underground. Its missiles are dispersed on mobile launchers. Tokyo is just
across the Sea of Japan. Seoul, the capital of peaceful, capitalist South
Korea, is only a few miles from the border. Northern artillery and conventional missiles could devastate it; a conflict could rapidly turn nuclear and kill millions.
Mr Trump cannot possibly want to start a war. His military actions in Syria and Afghanistan suggest that he is more cautious than
33
his bluster makes him sound. But even creating the impression that
he might strike first is dangerous. If Mr Kim were to believe that
an American attack is imminent, he might order his own pre-emptive
nuclear attack, with disastrous consequences. So Mr Trump should
cool his rhetoric immediately.
Dealmaker, meet deal-breaker
For all his eccentricities, Mr Kim is behaving rationally. He
watched Muammar Qadaffi of Libya give up his nuclear programme
in return for better relations with the West–and end up dead. He
sees his nuclear arsenal as a guarantee that his regime, and he, will
survive. (Though it would be suicidal for him to use it.) Mr Trump
can do little to change his mind. Economic sanctions that harm his
people will not spoil his lunch. Cyber-attacks, which may account
for the failure of some recent missile launches, can slow but not stop
him. America can solve the Korean conundrum only with China’s
help.
China has leverage over Mr Kim. It accounts for 85% of North Korea’s foreign trade and could shut off its oil supply. But its interests
are not the same as America’s. North Korea is its ally. China’s leaders do not like the Kim regime, but they do not wish to see it collapse
and North Korea reunite, German-style, with the democratic South.
That, China fears, would mean the loss of a valuable buffer. There are
28,500 American troops stationed in the South; China does not want
them on its border.
To contain North Korea–and to conduct a successful foreign policy more broadly–Mr Trump has to learn how to talk to China. His
instinct is to do deals. Last week he tweeted that he told Xi Jinping,
China’s president, that “a trade deal with the US will be far better for them if they solve the North Korean problem!” Later he explained that his decision not to label China a currency manipulator,
as he had threatened, was a quid pro quo for China helping out over
North Korea. Dropping the currency threat was the right policy, but
Mr Trump’s transactional approach to diplomacy is exactly the wrong
one.
China would love to carve up the world bilaterally into spheres of
influence, with the great powers dominating their regions and trading
favours elsewhere. America has long been the guardian of something
different: a rules-based order that applies to every country, big or
small, and which has underpinned the relative peace and remarkable
growth of the world since 1945. That Mr Trump appears to scorn this
34
rules-based global order is worrying. The world would become a more
dangerous place if America started letting China break the rules
(for example, in the South China Sea) in exchange for help to resolve
whichever issue happens to be in the news. A better response to China’s rise would be for America to strengthen the rules-based order and
invite China to join it more actively. Alas, Mr Trump is unlikely to do
this.
So the best hope is that he or his diplomats persuade China that
it is in its own interest to curb North Korea. And the way to do this
is to talk about North Korea itself, not the yuan or American steel
jobs.
Three generations of Kims are enough
China does not gain if North Korea destabilises East Asia, or starts
a regional arms race that leads Japan and South Korea to build their
own nuclear weapons. Mr Trump should reassure his allies in Tokyo and Seoul that they remain under Uncle Sam’s protection. But
he should also deal with China’s concerns. To that end, he could make
it clear that freezing and then rolling back the North’s nuclear programme is his goal rather than regime change. He could also guarantee that, were the North to collapse into the arms of the South, America would keep its troops south of the current north-south boundary.
China hates to admit that the Kim dynasty might not last, but it is
rash not to plan for that possibility.
The crucial message for Mr Kim as for his predecessors is that, if
the North were to use its nukes, the regime would be obliterated. In
the long run, reunification is inevitable and desirable. Meanwhile,
the junior god-king can be deterred.
Economist, Apr 22nd 2017
2. Answer the following questions by using as many underlined
phrases as possible:
1) According to the author, what kind of country is North Korea?
2) What are the trickiest tasks for Donald trump?
3) Why should Mr trump ‘cool his rhetoric’ immediately?
4) Why does the author think that Mr Kim is behaving rationally?
5) What’s China’s policy?
6) What does the author believe to be the best policy for the US and
why is Mr Trump “unlikely to do this”?
7) What sould Mr Trum “make clear and guarantee”?
8) What’s the crucial message for Mr Kim?
35
3. Read the text and translate it. Use a dictionary to help you.
Turkey is sliding into dictatorship
Recep Tayyip Erdogan is carrying out the harshest crackdown in
decades. The West must not abandon Turkey
TURKEY matters not just for its size, but also as a bellwether of
the political forces shaping the world. For centuries it was the seat of
a great empire. Today, as a frontier state, it must cope with the violence spewing out of war-ravaged Syria; it is a test case of whether
democracy can be reconciled with political Islam; and it must navigate between Western liberalism and the authoritarian nationalism
epitomised by Russia. In recent years under Recep Tayyip Erdogan,
Turkey has gone backwards. This weekend it can begin to put that
right.
On April 16th Turks will vote in a referendum over whether to abandon their parliamentary system for an executive presidency. A Yes is
likely, but far from certain. There is nothing wrong with a strong president, but Turkey’s new constitution goes too far. The country would
end up with a 21st-century sultan minimally curbed by parliament.
A Yes would condemn Turkey to the elected dictatorship of President
Erdogan. A No might just let Turks constrain him.
Authority figure
After Mr Erdogan came to power in 2003, he and his AK party did
a lot that was good. Encouraged by the IMF, he tamed inflation and
ushered in economic growth. Encouraged by the EU, he tackled the cabal of military officers and bureaucrats in the “deep state”, strengthened civil liberties and talked peace with the Kurds. He also spoke up
for working-class religious conservatives, who had been locked out of
power for decades.
But today Turkey is beset by problems. In the shadow of the Syrian civil war, jihadists and Kurdish militants are waging campaigns
against the state. Last summer the army attempted a coup–probably
organised by supporters of an American-based cleric, Fethullah Gulen, who had penetrated the bureaucracy, judiciary and army in their
tens of thousands. The economy, once a strength, is growing slowly,
plagued by cronyism, poor management and a collapse in tourism.
Mr Erdogan argues that, to put this right, Turkey needs a new
constitution that will generate political stability. He says that only
a strong president can galvanise the state and see off its enemies. Naturally, he is talking about himself.
36
The new constitution embodies the “illiberal democracy” of nationalists such as Viktor Orban of Hungary and Vladimir Putin of Russia,
to whom Mr Erdogan is increasingly compared. On this view, election
winners take all, constraints are obstacles to strong government and
the ruling party has a right to subvert institutions, such as the judiciary and the press.
Yet this kind of stability is hollow. The most successful democracies make a point of separating powers and slowing governments
down. The guiding idea of the American constitution is to stop presidents from acting as if they were monarchs, by building in checks and
balances. Even the British prime minister, untrammelled by a written
constitution, has to submit herself to the courts, a merciless press and
a weekly grilling in Parliament, broadcast live.
Turkey is especially ill-suited to winner-takes-all government. It
is divided between secular, religious and nationalist citizens, as well
as Turks, Kurds, Alevis and a few remaining Greeks, Armenians and
Jews. If the religious-conservative near-majority try to shut out everyone else, just as they were once shut out, Turkey will never be stable.
But the most important argument against majoritarian politics is
Mr Erdogan himself. Since the failed coup, he has been governing under
a state of emergency that demonstrates how cruelly power can be abused.
The state is entitled to protect its citizens, especially in the face
of political violence. But Mr Erdogan has gone far beyond what is
reasonable. Roughly 50,000 people have been arrested; 100,000 more
have been sacked. Only a fraction of them were involved in the coup.
Anyone Mr Erdogan sees as a threat is vulnerable: ordinary folk who
went to a Gulenist school or saved with a Gulenist bank; academics,
journalists and politicians who betray any sympathy for the Kurdish
cause; anybody, including children, who mocks the president on social
media. Whatever the result on April 16th, Mr Erdogan will remain in
charge, free to use–and abuse–his emergency powers.
During the campaign he accused the Germans and Dutch of “Nazi
practices” for stopping his ministers from pitching for expatriate
votes. EU voices want to suspend accession talks–which, in any case,
are moribund. Before long, the talk may even turn to sanctions. Some
in the West will point to Turkey’s experience to claim that Islam and
democracy cannot coexist. But to give up on that idea would be to give
up on Turkey itself.
The fault is not so much with political Islam–many AK members
and voters are uneasy with the new constitution. It is with Mr Erdo37
gan and his inner circle. Although he is a religious man, he is better
seen as an old-fashioned authoritarian than as a new-fangled Islamist. The distinction matters because AK, or an Islamist party like it,
is bound to feature in Turkey’s democracy. Mr Erdogan, however, will
one day leave the stage, taking his authoritarian instincts with him.
Hold him close
Hence the outside world should not give up on Turkey, but be patient. Partly, this is self-interest. As a NATO member and a regional
power, Turkey is too important to cut adrift. It will play a vital part
in any peace in Syria. Driving it into Russia’s arms makes no sense.
Turkey has also been a conduit for refugees into the EU as well as vital
in controlling their inflow. The refugee situation is in flux: the EU
will need to keep talking to Turkey about how to cope with the resulting instability.
Engagement is also in Turkey’s interests. The EU is its biggest trading partner. Contact with it bolsters the Western-leaning Turks who
are likely to be Mr Erdogan’s most potent opposition. NATO membership can moderate the next generation of officers in its armed forces.
Although Turkey will not join the EU for many years, if ever, a looser
EU, with several classes of member or associate country, might one
day find room for it.
Turkey will remain pivotal after April 16th. If Mr Erdogan loses,
Turkey will be a difficult ally with a difficult future. But if he wins,
he will be able to govern as an elected dictator.
Economist, Apr 15th 2017
4. Read the text again and answer the following questions by using
as many highlighted expressions as possible:
1) According to the author, what kind of country is Turkey?
2) What steps did Mr Erdogan take when he came to power?
3) What kind of problems is Turkey beset by?
4) What are Mr Erdogan’s main arguments?
5) How does the author describe the new Turkish Constitution and
why does he compare it with the US Constitution?
6) Why, in the author’s opinion, is Turkey “ill-suited to winnertake-it-all government”?
7) According to the article, how does Mr Erdogan abuse his power?
And how does the world react to it?
8) Why is Turkey “too important to cut it adrift”?
9) What might be the future for Turkey?
38
5. Read the text and translate it. Use a dictionary to help you.
Women In Technology
Silicon Valley’s sexism problem
Venture capitalists are bright, clannish and almost exclusively male
“BOOBER” is the nickname Travis Kalanick, the boss of Uber, used
to describe the effect that the ride-hailing startup had on his attractiveness to the opposite sex. Mr Kalanick’s wisecrack seems to have
been emblematic of a deeply macho culture. An investigation is under
way into allegations from a former employee that Uber refuses to promote capable women or to take complaints about harassment seriously. The results are due to be released in the coming weeks.
Uber is not the only technology star in the spotlight for its treatment of women. Google has been accused by America’s Department of
Labour of paying female employees significantly less than male ones
. Google flatly denies the charge. But that technology in general, and
Silicon Valley in particular, has a gender problem is not in doubt.
A survey of 210 women in the valley found that 60% had experienced
unwanted sexual advances and that two-thirds felt excluded from
important social and networking opportunities. PayScale, a research
firm, has found that only 21% of American tech executives are female
(the figure in other industries is 36%). Women in tech are paid less
than men, even after controlling for experience, education and responsibilities.
Not all these problems can be laid at the door of Silicon Valley.
Plenty of people are worried about the small number of girls taking
science, technology, engineering and mathematics courses. Only 18%
of bachelor’s degrees in computer science in America were awarded to
women in 2013, down from 37% in 1985. Pay gaps are pervasive, too.
But that shouldn’t let the valley off the hook. It prides itself on
solving difficult problems and on being a meritocracy. Being as bad as
everywhere else in its treatment of women falls disappointingly short.
More to the point, the valley suffers from a distinctive form of sexism
which is in its power to fix.
Venture capitalists are the technology industry’s demigods.
Through their cheques, connections and advice, they determine which
startups succeed and which languish. They are bright, clannish and
almost exclusively male. Only around 6% of partners at venture-capital firms are women, down from 10% in 1999. Less than 40% of
the top 100 venture-capital firms have a female partner charged with
39
investing. Many of the most highly regarded funds, including Benchmark and Andreessen Horowitz, have none.
For a set of people who finance disruptive firms, venture capitalists
are surprisingly averse to disrupting their own tried-and-tested way
of doing things. They sit in small groups, meet entrepreneurs and repeat a single formula for investing whenever possible. John Doerr, who
backed companies like Google, summed up his philosophy thus: “Invest
in white male nerds who’ve dropped out of Harvard or Stanford.”
Defenders of the valley have two retorts. One is that throwing
stones at the most successful business cluster on Earth makes no sense.
Market forces ensure that the best ideas win funding, irrespective of
gender. The data suggest a different story. Only 7% of the founders
of tech startups in America that raised $20m or more are women, according to recent research by Bloomberg. Yet nobody would argue that
men make the best founders nine times out of ten. On average, firms
founded by women obtain less funding ($77m) than those founded by
men ($100m). The VC industry has been successful enough to ward off
the pressure to change. That does not make it perfect.
A second defence is that VCs rely on tight-knit relationships, in
which trust is essential. Call this the “dinner with Mike Pence” gambit,
after the American vice-president’s reported refusal to eat alone with
a woman other than his wife. On this argument, any outsider, particularly one lacking a Y chromosome, is liable to upset the club’s precious
dynamic. Venture capital is indeed a strange mix of capital and contacts,
and peculiarly hard to industrialise as a result. But as a justification for
sexism, clubbiness is an argument that is as old as it is thin.
Y combinator, X chromosomes
Plenty of studies show that diverse teams are more productive. Hiring more women in venture capital seems to increase the odds of finding
and funding those elusive female entrepreneurs. Venture capitalists
play a vital role in shaping the culture of startups: investors who value
diversity are likelier to guide them away from the reputational and legal risks that beset offices full of “brogrammers”. Silicon Valley is a remarkable place. But it is time for the boy’s club to grow up.
Economist, Apr 15th 2017
6. Read the text again and answer the following questions by using as many highlighted expressions as possible:
1) What does the author say of Mr Kalanick’s behavior and
the policy of his company?
40
2) What are other examples of companies which are “in the spotlight for their treatment of women”? Give examples and statistics.
3) What are the areas where men outnumber women? Why do you
think it is so?
4) Why shouldn’t the Valley “be let off the hook”?
5) What proof does the author give of the venture capitalists’ sexist behavior?
6) What are the two retorts of the defenders of the Valley?
7) What conclusion does the author make?
7. Read the text and translate it:
IKEA GOES TO SERBIA
Sweden’s favourite shop reaches Belgrade
EUROPEAN integration takes different forms. For governments
like Serbia’s it means struggling with thousands of instructions from
the EU on how to build a modern state. Yet for thousands of ordinary
Serbs, since IKEA opened in Belgrade on August 10th, it means spending the weekend like millions of other EU citizens: buying furniture
from the Swedish megastore and struggling with the instructions on
how to put it together.
If it had been anywhere else in Europe, the opening of the 400th
IKEA store would hardly have been news, let alone an occasion for national soul-searching led by Serbia’s president, Aleksandar Vucic. In
a newspaper article he penned an ode of praise for IKEA and Ingvar
Kamprad, its founder. In his youth, wrote the president, Mr Kamprad
had been a member of a wartime Swedish fascist party, but he had
redeemed himself. No one in the Balkans needed to scratch their head
and wonder what Mr Vucic was alluding to here. The president spent
16 years as a leading member of an extreme nationalist party whose
men were infamous for murdering and looting their way across Bosnia
and Croatia.
Mr Vucic says he no longer believes in the ideas that motivated him
then. He says his aim is to create a modern Serbia, but that the problem
is that Serbs are lazy and constantly waiting for someone to tell them
what to do. Mr Vucic has often talked of his admiration for northern
Europeans and their Protestant work ethic. “Wouldn’t it be great”,
mocked Dejan Anastasijevic, a columnist, “if Serbia could simply be disassembled, repaired, packed into a flat box and delivered to the president.” Or even better, have Serbs “replaced by Scandinavians”.
41
IKEA in Belgrade is a story rich in symbol. The firm opened a small
outlet in 1991, only to close a year later as Yugoslavia collapsed. Its return is a tale of the country’s delayed transition. Slobodan Milosevic,
Serbia’s wartime leader, fell 17 years ago. So why did it take so long?
In 2008 when the country was led by the pro-European Boris Tadic,
an attempt by IKEA to return was thwarted by bureaucracy and corruption. Many liberal Serbs hate Mr Vucic for his authoritarianism
and cronyism: the fact that a symbol of European normality has reopened on his watch is a bitter pill for them to swallow.
Economist Aug 2017
8. Read the text again and anser the following questions by using as
many highlighted expressions as possible:
1) What does European integration mean for Serbia?
2) Why did the 400th opening of IKEA store become breaking news?
3) Why can’r Mr Vucic create “ a modern Serbia”? How did Dejan
Anastasijevic, a columnist, react to the president’s words?
4) Why was Ikea a long story in Serbia?
42
СОДЕРЖАНИЕ
PREFACE................................................................................ 3
MODULE 1: DEVELOPING ENTREPRENEURIAL MINDSET............ 4
MODULE 2. PRACTICE MAKES PERFECT.................................... 25
MODULE 3. INTERNATIONAL SOCIO-ECONOMIC ISSUES.............. 33
Учебное издание
Рудая Елена Алексеевна
International Business Administration. Part I
LANGUAGE OF BUSINESS
ADMINISTRATION
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