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Федеральное государственное автономное образовательное учреждение
высшего профессионального образования
Е. А. Рудая
Учебное пособие
УДК 811.112(075)
ББК 81.2(Англ.)
кандидат филологических наук, доцент О. М. Редкозубов (Вологодский гос. пед. ун-т);
кандидат филологических наук, доцент О. В. Акимова
(С.-Петербургский гос. ун-т аэрокосмического приборостроения)
редакционно-издательским советом университета
в качестве учебного пособия
Рудая, Е. А.
Р83 Education and Employment: учеб. пособие / Е. А. Рудая. – СПб.: ГУАП,
2012. – 64 с.
В основу данного учебного пособия легла коммуникативная методика
обучения английскому языку, которая предлагает такие формы работы на занятиях,
как дискуссионные игры, интеллектуальные викторины, ролевые игры, задания
творческого характера, разыгрывание реальных жизненных ситуаций, в которых
студенты выбирают для себя различные социальные роли. Такого рода
интерактивные занятия способствуют расширению общего кругозора,
социокультурных знаний, развивают самостоятельность мышления, а также
речевые навыки.
Пособие предназначено для студентов, обучающихся по направлению
«Международные отношения» и направлению «Экономика» профиля «Мировая
экономика» в качестве дополнительного материала.
УДК 811.112(075)
ББК 81.2(Англ.)
Учебное издание
Рудая Елена Алексеевна
Учебное пособие
В авторской редакции
Подписано к печати 09.10.12. Формат 60 × 84 1/8.
Бумага офсетная. Усл. печ. л. 7,5. Тираж 200 экз. Заказ № 526.
Редакционно­издательский центр ГУАП
190000, Санкт­Петербург, Б. Морская ул., 67
© Е. А. Рудая, 2012
© Санкт­Петербургский государственный
университет аэрокосмического
приборостроения (ГУАП), 2012
“Education and Employment” is a communicative supplementary course book for
university students of the Department of Economics and the Department of International
Relations as it offers wide-ranging issues related to these spheres varying from getting
education and working abroad to the description of unemployment rate and estimations
of tuition fees. The book consists of two parts - “Education” and “Employment”,
comprising seven and five units correspondingly. All units are based on up-to-date and
stimulating topics to get students talking and sharing views and opinions.
Each unit has a clear structure beginning with the starting point, or a Warm-Up
which sets the tone of the lesson and paves the way for the creation of a relaxed and at
the same time thought-provoking atmosphere.
Vocabulary activities lead to continuous expansion of the students' vocabulary in
topic-based lexical areas. Students learn to develop their ability to build new words with
the help of affixes as well as to form collocations. Topic-based vocabulary also includes
phrasal verbs, idioms and colloquial expressions which give them the opportunity to
work on and practice authentic, up-to-date colloquial speech.
Speaking activities offer key words and phrases necessary to discuss the topic.
Though speaking is always a challenging task, quite high-level learners will enjoy roleplays, debates, conferences, language games, quizzes and songs. These tasks are valuable
from the point of view of pedagogy and help to avoid dry and over-serious teaching.
Every class gives students a lot of opportunities to speak and put into practice the
vocabulary that has been studied earlier in the lesson.
Reading activities include texts that have been taken from a variety of different
sources: newspaper and magazines texts for students' work or academic studies and
Internet-based texts (e.g. message board comments) to read about other people's views
and ideas expressed in blogs, chatrooms and online forums. All texts have been chosen
for their interest so that they stimulate further classroom discussions and help to develop
students' reading skills.
Writing activities are divided into two categories: 1) Personal Writing (or
Internet-based writing, e.g. blogs) has been designed due to an ever-growing need of
young people to socialise and communicate via Internet; 2) Academic Writing (or Guided
writing), where students are usually given a model before doing the task, is intended to
make students consolidate all the material which has been worked on earlier in the lesson.
Review and Check sections in Part 1 and Part 2 will help to revise vocabulary
studied in each part and to measure students' progress in terms of competence.
For copyright reasons, all texts have references to the websites where they were
taken from. For the definitions used in the book, consult
The answers to the tasks are given at the end of the book.
Speaking /
Unit 1.
The Great Aim
Of Education
Discussing quotes
on education
Game “Who Wants
To Be A
Discussing aims of
Personal writing
“What we need
education for?”;
Facts about
famous people's
Verbs to speak
about education;
Adjectives to
speak about
Unit 2. Pick and
problems people
encounter at
college and giving
Discussing criteria
for choosing a
Personal writing
“The best
university for me
a prospectus
describing your
an article for the
advice column
'Message Board'
Words and phrases
to describe
universities and
Unit 3. The
Structure of the
Education System
In The USA
Discussing facts
and opinions about
the education
system in the US
Making a
presentation about
the system of
education in the
Making a flowchart / table
describing the
stages of the
education system
Text: “American
Words and phrases
Education System” to describe US
education system
Unit 4. The Pros
And Cons Of
Talking about
school time
A 200-word essay
opinions on home- on the pros and
cons of homeschooling
Text: “Homeschooling: Why
More Black US
Families Are
Trying It”
Words and phrases
to speak about
Unit 5. Does It
Ring A Bell?
Discussing the
importance of
school / university
Listening to
Discussing the
purpose of music
in education;
Organising a
Citing the lyrics
Creative writing verses for your
university hymn
Text: Washington
University Hymn;
An excerpt from a
fiction book
Words and phrases
to describe school
Unit 6. Is
Literacy A
Discussing quotes
about Africa
Giving a summary
of a text;
Listening to the
song “We Don't
Need No
Discussing the
A 250-word
essay “African
Education System:
Tackling Main
Text 1:
“Nigeria:Nine Out
Of Ten Nigerian
Mothers Are
Unable To Read
And Write”;
Text 2: High
Dropout Rate – A
Problem For South
Words and phrases
to speak about
illiteracy and
problems in
Unit 7. British
Discussing facts
Discussing the
and opinions about pros and cons of
education in GB
private and state
describing tables
and figures;
people's opinion
on getting higher
Describing charts
and tables;
Describing figures,
percentages and
Text 1: “Education
in Great Britain”;
Text 2: UK
Down As Fees
Words and phrases
to describe
education system
in GB;
Words to describe
an application
Words and phrases
to describe change
Review and
Check (p.33)
Speaking /
Unit 1. Chief
Cook and Bottle
Discussing quotes
professions and
on employment
professional duties and labour;
Discussing most
Personal writing:
Text: “Top Ten
“It's better to have Most Ridiculous
a job which...”;
Job Titles”
a 250-word essay
“Do politically
correct job titles
really offer any
business benefits
in productivity?”
Words to describe
professions and
duties at work;
Adjectives to
describe job titles;
Euphemistic job
Unit 2. A Real
Eager Beaver
Discussing what
Doing a
kind of people are questionnaire;
'real eager beavers' Discussing what
companies you'd
like to work for;
Discussing what
you've achieved to
get the best job
Personal writing:
Text: “20 Ways To
“The ideal job
Get The Job You
a 200-word
comment on “How
can people
succeed in job
Phrasal verbs to
talk about work;
Words and phrases
to speak about
ideal companies
and job
Unit 3. Bare Your Agreeing/Disagree Discussing how to
ing on quotes
get ready for a job
Ranking job tips;
Role-playing a job
Personal writing:
“I wish the job
Job interview
Text 1: “Job
Text 2: “Getting
Ready For A Job
Words and
expressions to talk
about job
Unit 4. Waiting In Discussing quotes
on unemployment
The Wings
Role-playing a
conference on
Personal writing: “
The way I'd
describe the
emotional state of
a 250-word
essay on “Why
people remain
Text: “Davos
2012: Youth
Words and phrases
to speak about
Discussing reasons
for working
Quotes on
emigration and
living abroad;
Characteristics for
overseas workers;
The pros and cons
of working abroad
Personal writing:
“Assessing your
suitability for
working abroad..”
a 250-word
opinion essay on
the pros and cons
of working abroad
Text 1: “Tales Of
Woe From The
Text 2: “Spanish
Job Crisis: Go
North, Young
Words and
expressions to
describe the pros
and cons of
working abroad
Unit 5. Offshore
Discussing the
problem of
working abroad
Review and
Check (p.57)
“In an economy where knowledge is the most valuable commodity
a person and a country have to offer, the best jobs will go to
the best educated whether they live in the United States
or India or China.” (U.S. President Barack Obama)
A. Discuss the quotations in pairs. Which ones do you agree and disagree with?
1. Education is what remains after one has forgotten everything he learned in school (Albert
Einstein, 1879-1955).
2. Education begins a gentleman, conversation completes him (Dr. Thomas Fuller, 16541734).
3. Genius is a nuisance, and it is the duty of schools and colleges to abate it by setting
genius-traps in its way (Samuel Butler, 1835-1902).
4. School is learning things you don't want to know, surrounded by people you wish you
didn't know, while working toward a future you don't know will ever come (Dave Kellett,
Sheldon, 10-09-11).
5. Education has produced a vast population able to read but unable to distinguish what is
worth reading (G.M. Trevelyan, 1876-1962).
6. He who opens a school door closes a prison (Victor Hugo, 1802-1885).
7. Bachelor's degrees make pretty good place-mats if you get 'em laminated (Jeph Jacques,
Questionable content, 01-04-07).
8. I have never let my schooling interfere with my education (Mark Twain, 1835-1910).
9. I am often amazed at how much more capability and enthusiasm for science there is
among elementary school youngsters than among college students (Dr. Carl Sagan, 19341996).
10. You better believe there will be times in your life when you'll be feeling like a stumbling
fool. So take it from me: you'll learn more from your accident than anything that you
could ever learn in school (Billy Joel, 1949).
B. Write some fresh ideas in your
blog on the following topic:
“What we need education for?”.
I think people need to be educated….
C. Test your general knowledge and play “Who wants to be a millionaire?” with your
partner. When you fail to give a correct answer, the game is over.
A Millionaire Test
1. F. Dostoevsky is not the author of
a) The Gambler b) The Cherry Orchard c) The Brothers Karamazov
2. How many continents are there on Earth?
a) 6 b) 5 c) 4
3. One of the types of Japanese poetry is
a) seiko b) haiku c) maiko
4. The Milky Way is shaped like
a) trapezium b) corkscrew c) sphere d) flattened spiral
5. What is the highest mountain on Earth?
a) Mt. Everest b) Mt. Kilimanjaro c) Mt. Elbrus
6. What did Pennsylvania become the first of the original colonies to outlaw?
a) imprisonment b) slavery c) British court rulings
7. The Mariana Trench is the deepest part of
a) the Atlantic ocean b) the Indian ocean c) the Pacific ocean
8. What electrical charge does a proton have?
a) no charge b) positive c) negative d) both positive and negative
9. An opposum is a
a) rodent b) marsupial c) of a squirrel family d) species that hybernates in winter ($500,000)
10. The “fizz” in soft drinks is caused by
a) hydrohen b) bacteria c) carbon dioxide d) neon
D. Explain the following expressions in English in your own words:
To deliver knowledge, to equip with knowledge, to empower smb, to provide smb with skills, to
see far beyond obvious things in life, to have high cognitive development, to contribute to better
quality of life, to be better equipped to handle everyday decisions, to have better problemsolving skills, to have higher self-esteem, to contribute positively to society, to broaden smb's
horizon, to have good insight into, to build an understanding of, to achieve smth
E. Write a 100-word argumentative comment which starts with the words:
“Education is intended to...”
“Education helps me...”
NB: Use as many expressions from D as possible.
Support your ideas with arguments.
F. With a partner complete the following statements:
1. Education is progressive when...
2. The teaching process is innovative if...
3. Schooling is only equal when..
4. Education is meaningful and beneficial if...
5. To make the process of teaching unique, the teacher should...
6. To deliver the knowledge which is relevant and valued, the teacher can...
7. To make the process of learning more productive, the students should...
G. Read some interesting facts about famous people's education:
1. George Washington (1732-1799)
By the time George was born to Augustine and Mary Washington, the family was part of the lower echelon of
Virginia's ruling class. When George was eleven years, his mother, a tough and driven woman, fought to hold home and hearth
together. She hoped to send George to school in England but these plans were aborted and the boy never received more than the
equivalent of an elementary school education. (
2. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791)
At the early age of four years Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart started to receive his musical education and was taught by
his father. At the age of five he was presented as a child prodigy and performed his first musical tour throughout Europe.
3. Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821)
Napoleon began his education at a boys' school in Ajaccio. Then, at age ten, he was allowed to enter French military
schools for aristocrats and was sent in 1779 to the College of Autun in Burgundy, France. Napoleon later transferred to the
College of Brienne, another French military school. While at school, he was made fun of by the other students for his lower
social standing and because he spoke Spanish and did not know French well. Despite this teasing, Napoleon received an
excellent education. ( )
4. Isaac Newton (1643-1727)
Isaac Newton was born in 1643 in England. His father was a wealthy uneducated farmer who died three months
before Newton was born. Newton's mother remarried and he was left in the care of his grandmother. He attended Free
Grammar school. Though Newton did not excel in school, he did earned the opportunity to attend trinity College Cambridge
where he wanted to study law. His mother refused to pay for his education, so while at college he worked as a servant to pay his
way. He became interested in Mathematics after buying a book at a fair and not understanding the math concepts it contained.
Newton graduated with a bachelor degree in 1665. (
H. Look at the texts again. Find the words and expressions which have a similar meaning to
the following.
1. one of the levels of status or authority (text 1)
2. the state of making yourself work or try very hard (text 1)
3. to stop smth before it is finished because it would be difficult or dangerous to continue
4. a young person who has a natural ability to do smth extremely well (text 2)
5. the status or reputation that smb has (text 3)
6. to stop studying at one school and go to another (text 3)
7. to say smth to smb in order to have fun by embarrassing or annoying them slightly in
either a friendly or an unkind way (text 3)
8. to do smth extremely well (text 4)
9. to get smth as a result of your efforts (text 4)
10. an event where people or companies bring their products for you to look at or buy (text 4)
I. Discuss the following questions.
1. Do you know any other facts about education of famous people?
2. Is there anyone whose education you admire?
3. Are you satisfied with the education which you are receiving (have already received)?
4. Do you know anyone who, in your opinion, lacks education? Why?
5. Do you think that famous people must get a very good education? Why?
J. Express your opinion on these statements by marking each one with one of the following
symbols. Discuss your answers.
A+ = I strongly agree
D + = I strongly disagree
A = I agree in most cases
D = I disagree in most cases
A - = I partially agree
D - = I partially disagree
1. People can judge other people's level of education by sheer appearance.
2. If people make mistakes in writing, they've received bad education.
3. People should only know what is studied at school.
4. Higher education is not for everyone.
5. Every child is a prodigy.
6. Education which people receive depends mainly on the educational institution they've
graduated. The more famous the school is, the better your education is.
7. Everybody should get equal education. Gymnasiums, lyceums and schools with profound
teaching of certain subjects should be eliminated.
It is our choices that show what we truly are
far more than our abilities (J.K. Rowling)
A. Discuss the questions.
1. When it was the right time for you to go to school, did your parents try to look for the
best option for you or you went to school which was the nearest to your house?
2. Who chose what university to enter, you or your parents?
3. Have you personally ever made important decisions that influenced your studies?
B. Write some fresh ideas in your blog.
Try to outline the criteria for choosing a university.
Give reasons for your choice.
The best university
for me is…
C. Read some of the “Yahoo! Message Board” comments. List the main problems related to
studying at college. Have you mentioned any of them in B? What advice can you give to
these people? Discuss with a partner.
1. So I'm in high school and really need to start narrowing down my choices of where I want to go to college and
what I want to do with my life. Here's my problem: I'm clueless. I am a really artsy person. I like thinking of
new things, drawing, painting, photoshop, acting, music. I think that I want to go into some art related major.
I've been really considering fashion design, acting, musical theatre or composition. So what majors do you
think would be worth looking into for me?
2. Hi everyone! I need some advice. I live in the studio style dorm with 2 roommates. So pretty much we're all in
the same area at one time which is driving me crazy. My question is: has anyone here ever bought or used a
bed tent in this kind of situation? I found one on and it looks like it will solve my issue.
3. What can one do if you are bullied by a principal?
4. What is the average cost for a 4-year degree these days?
5. I was wondering if anyone knows of any colleges near Dallas, TX that have on-site childcare?
6. My name is Justin and I'm a student at West Virginia State University. I am the first person in my family to go
to college. I come from a poor family where many haven't even graduated high school. I have had to work
since I was able to provide myself with everything I have now. I recently lost my job and have been living only
on unemployment. I fear I will soon have to drop out and take on a couple of low paid jobs to survive. No
student should have to be forced out of college due to living expenses being so high. I come to you in need of
D. Look at the messages again. Match the words and expressions used in them with their
1. narrow down
a. to frighten or hurt smb weaker
2. be clueless
b. a building near college where students live
3. be artsy
c. looking after children esp.when their parents are
working or studying
4. a major
d. to reduce the number of possibilities or choices
5. a dorm
e. showing a great interest in art
6. to bully
f. main subject at college / university
7. onsite childcare
g. not knowing
E. Below you will find detailed information about three universities in England taken from
Postgraduate Prospectuses. Study the profiles and discuss them. Which of the universities
seem most attractive for you? Why? Would you like to continue your education there?
Welcome to the University of East Anglia.
Our postgraduate community forms one of the central strengths of the University of East
Anglia. We have established a reputation as an internationally-recognized centre for research and
teaching. We maintain this reputation by selecting the most able and dedicated staff and students
from around the world, and challenging them to reach their full potential.
An ideal location. Built on 130 hectares of beautiful parkland on the outskirts of the
historic city of Norwich, our campus is one of the most innovative in the country, combining
natural beauty with architectural flare.
A safe and friendly campus. Virtually no part of our campus is more than a few minutes'
walk from anywhere else, and almost every student need is catered for on site – there's a large
food shop, a newsagent, a post office, two banks, two launderettes, a pharmacy, a Waterstone's
bookshop which is kept well-stocked with core texts, and even a travel agent.
Interdisciplinarity and innovation. The University is made up of four Faculties spanning
the Arts and Humanities, Health, Science and Social Sciences. Each Faculty comprises a number
of Schools of Study. Most Schools are interdisciplinary, so, for example, in the School of
Environmental Sciences, atmospheric scientists, biologists, geographers, economists, ecologists
and agrnomists often work together on research projects.
Student Life. We have around 3,500 student rooms available, including a small number
of two-bedroom units for students with families. A typical residence provides fully furnished,
centrally heated rooms grouped round a shared kitchen. Our ₤30 million Sportspark provides us
with one of the finest sports complexes in Britain. Facilities include: 50m Olympic pool, fitness
centre with state-of-the-art equipment, martial arts room, indoor climbing wall, air-conditioned
dance and aerobics studio.
Research. UEA is a centre of innovative research. Research degrees include the Doctor of
philosophy (PhD) and the Master of Philosophy (MPhil). As a research student, you will work
closely with a supervisory team who will guide and advise you throughout your period of study.
Abridged from:
Welcome to Royal Holloway University of London.
Royal Holloway is widely recognized on the world stage as one of the UK's leading
teaching and research university institutions. One of the larger colleges of the University of
London, we are strong across the sciences, social sciences, arts and humanities. Our 8, 500
students work with internationally renowned scholars in 18 academic departments. Our friendly
campus, just 19 miles west of central London, provides a unique environment for university
Campus life. Royal Holloway's campus life is a lively and friendly place where you will
find a strong sense of community. Surrounded by Surrey's beautiful countryside, it is home to an
impressive range of modern academic and social facilities. Elsewhere you will find academic
buildings, halls of residence, the Students' Union, and all the facilities and amenities you might
expect from a top class university institution – shops, restaurants and bars, a bank, the sports
centre and playing fields.
Accommodation. Our halls offer a safe and comfortable home throughout your stay. Data
cabling has been installed to provide you with Internet access for your studies. Many of our halls
include rooms that have been adapted to make them suitable for students with disabilities. Fulltime carers can be housed in a room adjacent to the room assigned to the student he / she is
supporting. A limited amount of accommodation is available for international postgraduates who
are married and wish to remain with their families.
Research. Our students join a community in which academic staff are working at the
frontiers of their subjects. Research degrees at Royal Holloway include: a PhD degree a
distinctive contribution to the knowledge of the subject and afford evidence of originality shown
by the discovery of new facts) and a n MPhil degree (a record of original work or an ordered and
critical exposition of knowledge). (Abridged from:
Welcome to University of Exeter.
The University of Exeter stands out from the crowd. The learning environment is superb.
You can access cutting edge knowledge and skills, which project your intellectual capacities
beyond an imaginable horizon.
Well-being. January 2012 will see the opening of our Student Services Centre on the
Streatham campus. This state-of-the-art facility will provide a one-stop-shop for a wide range of
student inquiries, from support for students with disabilities, immigration and visa advice for
international students. We offer services consisting of counselling practitioners and mental health
staff who offer support to students who may be experiencing difficulties. Our purpose-built
Family Centre provides nursery places for children from six weeks to school age. Our Chaplains
provide pastoral care and confidential counselling. Islamic students have their own prayer rooms
with separate facilities for both men and women. Our staff have expertise and experience in
supporting people with specific earning difficulties (including dyslexia), physical disabilities and
other disabilities such as chronic fatigue syndrome.
Exceptional Locations. The South West of England combines a relaxed lifestyle with
exceptional countryside, scenery and beaches, including two national parks.
Exeter Campuses. The University has around 18,000 students. The Streatham campus
offers a new Student Service Centre, a refurbished library, new technology-rich learning spaces,
a 400-seat lecture theatre, a new University reception and retail and catering outlets.
Research. A research degree involves carrying out an in-depth study of a particular topic.
At the University of Exeter we offer four types of research degree: MA or MS by Research (ideal
for those interested in pursuing a specific shorter-term research project); Master of Philosophy
(MPhil), Doctor of Philosophy (PhD); and professional doctorates (designed to help member of
specific professions develop both their academic and professional knowledge, e.g. educational
psychologists, clinical psychologists, lecturers). (Abridged from:
F. Read all texts again and find the words and phrases which can describe:
University location
University campus /
Research and research Names of scientists
Student life
Beautiful parkland
Refurbished library
Academic community
Clinical psychologists
G. Compare your table with other students. Test your memory to describe all four
categories without help.
H. Write a well-structured prospectus describing your university. Is it different from that
of your partner? In what way is it different from the prospectuses of English universities?
I. You are asked to contribute an article to the advice column in a local newspaper. Write
an article revealing all aspects which must be considered when choosing a college /
Our progress as a nation can be no swifter
than our progress in education. The human mind
is our fundamental resource (J. F. Kennedy)
A. Discuss the questions.
1. Would you like to study in the USA? Why / Why not?
2. Do you remember any movie scenes about American school or university life? What is
your opinion about it?
3. What facts do you already know about American educational system?
B. Study the text and draw a chart of the American education system:
The system of education in the United States is characterized by the following structure:
Primary school. American children start school at the age of five years. The first year at
school is called kindergarten. It is required of all American children enrolled in the American
education system. The second year at school is considered the first year of primary school and
is referred to as first grade. Primary school most commonly consists of five years of education,
referred to as first through fifth grades.
Secondary school. Upon completion of fifth grade (the last year of primary school),
American children advance to secondary school. Secondary school most commonly consists of
a total of seven years, referred to as sixth through twelfth grades. The ninth through twelfth
grades are most commonly referred to as high school. Upon completion of twelfth grade,
American students are awarded a certificate called the high school diploma. In the American
education system, students must obtain a high school diploma before they are admitted into
college or university. Foreign students who would like to attend an American college or
university must complete a coursework that is equivalent to what is taught at an American high
Undergraduate school. Students who have completed high school and would like to
attend college or university must attend what is referred to as an undergraduate school. These
are schools that offer either a two-year degree (called an associate degree) or a four-year degree
(called a bachelor's degree) in a specific course of study. That course of study is called the major.
While most schools that offer a four-year degree will admit students who have not yet chosen a
major, all students are required to select (or declare) a major by their second year at school.
Students who complete an associate degree can continue their education at a four-year school
and eventually complete a bachelor degree.
Graduate school. Students who have obtained a bachelor's degree can continue their
education by pursuing one of two types of degrees. The first is a master's degree. This is
usually a two-year degree that is highly specialized in a specific field. Students are sometimes
admitted to a master's degree program only if they have a bachelor's degree in a closely
related field. However, there are many exceptions to this, such as with students who want to
pursue a Master's in Business Administration (MBA) degree. Students who want to advance
their education even further in a specific field can pursue a doctorate degree, also called a PhD.
A PhD degree can take between three and six years to complete, depending on the course of
study chosen, the ability of the student, and the thesis that the student has selected. The thesis is
a very intensive research paper that must be completed prior to earning the degree. It is always
required of students pursuing a PhD, and may sometimes be required of students pursuing a
master's degree (depending on the school). USA High School Diplomas. The USA high school
system is unlike that of many other countries. There is little national standardization in the
typical USA high school (or secondary school) curriculum. Individual states have great control
over what coursework is taught in the schools within their borders, as well as in the
requirements that students must meet in order to graduate with a high school diploma.
Therefore, what courses and subjects are offered will vary depending on where the high school is
The coursework will also vary depending on whether the high school is public or private.
US public high schools are operated by the government and are financed by public funds. These
schools are free to all students, even foreigners. The quality of education can vary greatly
between different public high schools, primarily because of differences in the amount of funding
that different schools receive. Private US high schools are operated by private individuals and
are financed by private funds. These private high schools are not controlled by any government
agency, but their students must still meet the minimum graduation requirements set by the state.
All private high school students must pay tuition, regardless of their nationality. Private USA
high schools are popular because they offer options that are not available at public high schools.
These may include
advanced math and science courses, a broader selection of foreign languages, and better art,
music and athletic programs.
The types of academic courses that students take in high school are proven to be a crucial
factor in getting students admitted into top colleges and universities. The rigor, or level of
difficulty, of students' high school coursework affects their likelihood of admission into a
competitive college. For example, many four-year colleges and universities require advanced
mathematics courses for admission, and students who have completed a rigorous high school
math curriculum are more likely to enroll in the college of their choice than those students who
have not.
In addition to rigorous coursework, studies have shown that students' eventual college
enrollment goals are consistent with those of their peers. In other words, students who are
surrounded by other students with aspirations to attend highly-rated, competitive colleges and
universities will themselves decide to pursue similar aspirations. Assistance from teachers and
other school staff is also extremely beneficial. Students who receive help from their educators in
preparing for entrance exams, in writing their admissions essays, and in completing their
college applications are usually more successful at gaining admission to the colleges of their
College courses are assigned a value in what are called "credits" or "units." The number
of units assigned to a course corresponds to the number of hours that a student will attend class
for that course. For example, a course that consists of three class sessions per week, and where
each class session last for 50 minutes, will be assigned a value of three units. Typically, colleges
require that students complete a minimum number of units in order to graduate, rather than a
minimum number of courses. This gives students more flexibility in what courses they decide to
take to complete their graduation requirements.
Most colleges and universities follow either a quarter-based calendar system or a
semester-based calendar system. In a quarter system, the academic year is divided into three
sessions called quarters. Each quarter lasts about 12 weeks. In a semester system, the academic
year is divided into two sessions called semesters. Each semester lasts 16 weeks. There may be
an optional session during the summer. Students who have registered for at least 12 units in a
session (either a quarter or semester) are said to be "full-time" students. Students who have
registered for fewer than 12 units in a session are called "part-time" students.
The Associate Degree. The associate degree is a two year degree given by US colleges.
The degree is awarded to students who have completed all the requirements of the program.
There are three classes of these degrees in the USA: the associate of arts degree (also called the
A.A. degree), the associate of applied science degree (the A.A.S. degree), and the associate of
science degree (A.S. degree). These degrees are awarded by two types of colleges: community
colleges, which are operated by the local government and financed by public funds, and junior
colleges, which are generally privately run. Both are excellent options.
There are three general groups of students who will enroll in community or junior
college. The first are students who do not want to pursue a bachelor degree, but prefer instead to
complete an associate degree program. The second are students who eventually want to earn a
bachelor degree, but choose to complete the first two years of their education at a community
college before transferring to a four-year college or university. The third are members of the
local community who want to take classes in various subjects without pursuing any type of
degree or enrolling in a formal program (this is called "continuing education").
The Bachelor Degree. A bachelor degree is the most traditional degree given by US
colleges and universities. It normally requires at least four years but not more than five years of
full-time college-level coursework. The two most common classes of bachelor degrees awarded
by US schools are the bachelor of science degree (also called the B.S.) and the bachelor of arts
degree (also called the B.A.). Some schools offer only the B.A. degree, even for science majors
(such as aB.A. in biology). Other schools offer both the B.A. and the B.S.
A bachelor's degree is what most students pursue when enrolling in a US university or
college. In fact, people with a bachelor's degree earn substantially more than those who don't
have one. More and more jobs and careers today require applicants to posses one. Some would
argue that a bachelor's degree is the first step to success. At the very least, it helps open doors of
All students pursuing a bachelors degree must select a major, usually by the end of their
second year. Students must complete a required number of courses (or units) within their major
in order to graduate with a degree in that major. They may also be required to complete a number
of courses in closely related fields in order to satisfy other requirements. For example, a student
who is majoring in chemistry will not only have to complete chemistry courses, but also
mathematics, biology, and physics courses in order to graduate with a bachelor of science degree
in chemistry. In addition to the requirements for the major, students must also complete a series
of courses outside of their major. These requirements will apply to all students attending the
college, regardless of major. For example, all students may be required to complete courses in
writing, foreign language, communications, and American history. Without it, they cannot
graduate. (Abridged from:
1. Kindergarten
It is required of all American
children enrolled in the American
education system
B. Explain the meaning of the highlighted words:
entrance exams, grade, primary school, secondary school, high school, high school diploma,
undergraduate school, graduate school, a PhD, public school, private school, pay tuition, the
rigor, a quarter-based (semester-based) calendar system, full-time (part-time) students, “credits”
C. Study the expressions and write their equivalents in your language. With a partner take
turns to test your knowledge of them. Correct if necessary:
to be admitted into college / university ___________________________________________
to gain admission to the college / university _______________________________________
one's likelihood of admission into a competitive college _____________________________
to enroll in the college ________________________________________________________
to select / declare a major ______________________________________________________
to be admitted to a program ____________________________________________________
to write an admission essay ____________________________________________________
to complete a college application ________________________________________________
to attend a college / university __________________________________________________
to be assigned units ___________________________________________________________
to meet the requirements _______________________________________________________
to pursue aspirations ___________________________________________________________
to be consistent with smth _______________________________________________________
to complete a coursework _______________________________________________________
to complete one's graduation requirements __________________________________________
to advance one's education ______________________________________________________
to obtain a degree _____________________________________________________________
to earn substantially more than...__________________________________________________
to open doors of opportunity _____________________________________________________
D. Using the chart and the active vocabulary prepare a short presentation about the
education system in the USA. Use the following expressions to help you:
1. Previewing the talk: I'd like to talk to you about... / I'm going to talk to you about...
2. Signalling structure: The presentation is organized into three sections/ I've divided my
presentation into two parts./ First I'll give you an overview of.../ Then I'll talk about... /
After that I'll move on to.../ Finally... / If you don't mind we'll leave questions to the end.
3. Moving from one point to another: Let's turn our attention to.../ A further point to
mention is.../ Turning to the next part.../ Let's now look at...
4. Referring backwards: As I mentioned earlier.../ ...which I referred to earlier.
5. Concluding: In conclusion I would like to say that.../ To summarise...
E. After each presentation rate the following aspects according to the 5-point scale:
Presentation 1
Presentation 2
Presentation 3
Presentation 4
The presentation
and clear
The presentation
The presentation's
ending made an
Active vocabulary
There is no school equal to a decent home
and no teacher equal to a virtuous parent (Mahatma Gandhi)
A. With a partner discuss the following statements:
What age did you start school? Were you enthusiastic about leaving kindergarten and
going to school?
Why do so many students hate school?
Would you prefer to be home-schooled rather than going to school? Why / Why not?
B. Read the quotes and say whether you agree or disagree with them. Give your reasons.
1. The home is the first and most effective place to learn the lessons of life: truth, honour, virtue,
self control, the value of education, honest work, and the purpose and privilege of life.
Nothing can take the place of home in rearing and teaching children (David O. McKay)
2. Knowledge which is acquired under compulsion has no hold on the mind. Therefore do
not use compulsion, but let early education be a sort of amusement; you will then be
better able to discover the child's natural bent (Plato).
3. What we want to see is the child in the pursuit of knowledge, not knowledge in the
pursuit of the child (George Bernard Shaw).
C. Read the text:
Home schooling: Why more black US families are trying it
Until recently, home schooling in the US was mostly practiced by white families, but a
growing number in the black community are now also turning their back on the public school
system and educating their children at home. Why?
"There were lots of fights and people getting shot," says Sonya Barbee. "It was just too
much. To me, it's not a good environment for a kid and even though I work full time, so it's really
hard for me, I still feel like it's the right decision." Sonya has not made life easy for herself. A
single mother, who works for the US government, she now has the added burden of being a
teacher to her 11-year-old son, Copeland. It was not the violence, or even the fact that he was
being bullied, that finally led to the decision to remove Copeland from his public school in
what she describes as a "really bad area" of Washington DC, but the fact that he was "losing his
love of learning".
Now, with the help of her mother, who looks after Copeland two days a week while he
works online, and a home schooling co-operative, she is hoping to "rekindle the fire". She
herself teaches him after work and in the holidays. Her only regret so far is that Copeland is not
more enthusiastic, saying he misses the "madness" of the classroom - although, she stresses, it is
early days. Until recently, Sonya's story would have been highly unusual in the United States.
About two million, or 4%, of American children are home-schooled, according to the National
Home Education Research Institute (NHERI) - a rough estimate, as families do not have to
register with the authorities in some states. But home-schooling has traditionally been
dominated by white Christian families in the rural south, who object to what they see as the
public schools' liberal agenda on sex education and Darwinism.
Famous home-schoolers:
• Inventor Thomas Edison was taken out of his public school by his mother and taught at
• US presidents including Abraham Lincoln, George Washington and Franklin Delano
Roosevelt were home-schooled
• Home-schooled showbiz figures include Charlie Chaplin, Whoopi Goldberg and Louis
The number of inner-city parents choosing to educate their children at home, for educational
rather than religious reasons, has been growing for a while, but until recently few black families
were thought to be among them, according to NHERI director Dr Brian Ray. "For the AfricanAmerican community there was a huge amount of pressure against it, because in America, the
grandparents of today's home-schooled children fought for desegregation of schools. But Dr
Ray, who regularly interviews black home-schoolers as part of his research, says attitudes are
changing fast - and it's also a lot easier today for black families to try it than it was 20 years ago,
he points out.
Despite the desegregation of schools, the attainment gap between African-American and
white students in American schools has barely changed since the 1960s. The problem is
particularly acute among black boys. According to a 2008 study by the Schott Foundation: "Over
the last 25 years, the social, educational and economic outcomes for black males have been more
systematically devastating than the outcomes for any other racial or ethnic group or gender."
Monica Utsey, who runs a home schooling co-operative for African American children in
Washington DC, says: "African-American mothers, especially those who have boys, have a lot of
trouble in the school system. The way the classroom is designed is more conducive for girls."
Home-schoolers are scathing about the way public schools teach to the test, at the expense of
providing what they see as a rounded education. Another common complaint is that teachers
are too ready to blame behavioral problems on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
(ADHD), and encourage them to medicate their children with drugs. "The teachers are always
telling the parents they have to drug their kids, like they have some kind of problem. It's just
crazy." says Sonya Barbee. "You don't want your kid to be a zombie."
Is home best? Home-schooled children regularly win national spelling bees and get into top
universities. But, argues Prof Rob Reich of Stanford University, nobody really knows how well
the average home-schooled child measures up academically because it is hard to take a large
enough random sample. "We have little evidence to conclude home schools are better than public
schools," he says. He says home-schooled children should be tested annually "to discover
whether or not they are making even rudimentary progress" - and that public schools often
produce better citizens because children are exposed to a greater diversity of beliefs and
"What you are looking to avoid is either the tyranny of the state in standardising every child
in its own image - or the tyranny of the parent controlling every aspect of a child's socialisation.
Only the most committed parents, who want to be involved in every aspect of their child's
development and enjoy spending time with them, can make it work. Not all parents can keep up
with the demands of the curriculum, particularly if they want their offspring to go to college.
Many children who are home-schooled in their early years return to the class room when they
reach secondary school age. Joyce Burges believes the day could soon be approaching when the
local home-schooling co-operative, run by a group of committed parents, could be a real
alternative to the public school, for children of all ages and ethnicities. The demand certainly
appears to be there.» I get emails and phone calls from people all the time who want to know if
there is someone that can home-school their child," says Monica Utsey. "I tell them that it
doesn't work like that. It's really the parents' responsibility."
by Brian Wheeler
(Abridged from:
D. Find the highlighted phrases in the article which mean:
1. to reject, to deny; 2. something oppressive and worrisome; 3. to be habitually cruel to others
who are weaker; 4. to change school; 5. to cause to glow again, to flare up, to become animated;
6. an enterprise or cooperation owned by and operated for the benefit of those using its services;
7. to teach one's children at home; 8. a rough or approximate calculation; 9. not bound by
authoritarianism or traditional forms; 10. to free of any law, provision, or practice requiring
isolation of the members of a particular race in separate units; 11. the condition of being attained,
gained, achieved; 12. abuse, attack; 13. fully developed; 14. people with this disorder have
trouble paying attention, controlling impulsive behaviors (might act without thinking about what
the result will be), and in some cases, are overly active; 15. a spelling contest in which
contestants are eliminated as soon as they misspell a word; 16. to have necessary or fitting
qualifications; 17. consisting in first principles; imperfectly developed; 18. open to view; 19. to
obligate, to pledge oneself ; 20. to keep adequately informed or up-to-date; 21. the courses
offered by an educational institution; 22. child.
E. Fill in the table and study the forms:
to commit
F. With a partner fill in the table (you may add your own ideas):
Arguments “for” home-schooling
1. Home-schoolers regularly win spelling bees
Arguments “against” home-schooling
G. You have 25-30 minutes to do the task. Write a 200-word essay on the pros and cons of
home-schooling. Follow the plan:
1. Introduction (state the problem)
2. Arguments “for” home-schooling
3. Arguments “against” home-schooling
4. Conclusion (say which side is right in your opinion)
NB: Use these expressions to help you connect your ideas logically:
To my mind; It is my firm belief that; In my opinion; I reckon/I believe;
To start with; Firstly; Secondly; Finally;
In addition; What is more; Moreover;
However; Nevertheless; On the one hand; On the other hand; Despite this;
In conclusion; To sum up; To conclude..
Words make you think. Music makes you feel.
A song makes you feel a thought (Yip Harburg)
A. Discuss the questions with a partner.
1. Why do mothers sing songs to their babies?
2. What was your favourite children song? Why?
3. Do you know the words of the national anthem? How do you feel when listening to it?
4. Did the school where you studied have a school song? What was it about? When did you
sing it?
5. If you were asked to write the words for a school / university song, what ideas would you
try to express in it?
B. Read the text and do the exercises.
“Gaudeamus” is the title of a popular academic hymn which is often referred to as
the archetypal university song: Its Latin form suggests a classical origin and indeed it
appears in the earliest printed students' song-books. Gaudeamus igitur gave rise to the word
“gaudy” for academic reunions in the colleges of Oxford University and their imitators and
its melody features prominently in several musical creations including Johannes Brahms'
Akademische Fest-Overture (“Academic Festival Overture”, opus 80) of 1881, and Sigmund
Romberg's very popular operetta “The Student Prince” of 1924. The text presents a rather
light-hearted poem poking fun at university life, and yet it is sung at solemn academic
occasions. The very university life reflected in the poem – an all-male hard-drinking
companionship – is rather dated, and yet the song continues to be recognised throughout the
world as an academic hymn
C. Find expressions in the text which mean the following:
1. a religious song which is usually sung in churches
2. very typical of a particular type of person or thing
3. happy and not worried about anything
4. to make jokes about smth in an unkind way
5. involving serious behaviour or serious attitude
6. an important event related to education
7. no longer modern or fashionable
D. Read “Gaudeamus” lyrics translated into English. The translation is a mere
undertaking of the meaning of the Latin lyrics.
Gaudeamus igitur
Juvenes dum sumus (bis)
Post jucundam juventutem
Post molestam senectutem
Nos habebit humus.
Let us therefore rejoice,
While we are young;
After our youth,
After a troublesome old age
The ground will hold us.
Ubi sunt, qui ante nos
In mundo fuere? (bis)
Vadite ad superos,
Transite ad inferos.
Ubi jam fuere!
Where are those who before us
Existed in the world?
You may go up to the gods
You may cross into the underworld
If you wish to see them!
Vita nostra brevis est,
Brevi finietur. (bis)
Venit mors velociter,
Rapit nos atriciter,
Nemini parcetur!
Our life is brief,
It will shortly end;
Death comes quickly,
Cruelly snatches us;
No one is spared.
Vivat Academia!
Vivant professores! (bis)
Vivat membum quodlibet!
Vivant membra quaelibet!
Semper sint in flore!
Long live the university,
Long live the teachers,
Long live each male student,
Long live each female student;
May they always flourish!
Vivant omnes virgines,
Graciles, formosae! (bis)
Vivant et mulieres
Tenerae, amabiles,
Bonae, laboriosae!
Long live all young women,
Easy and beautiful!
Long live wives as well,
Tender, loveable,
Honest, hardworking.
Vivat et respublica
Et qui illam regit! (bis)
Vivat nostra civitas,
Maecenatum caritas,
Quae nos hic protegit!
Long live the state
And those who rule it.
Long live our city,
And the charity of benefactors
Which protects us here.
Prerat tristitia,
Pereant osores! (bis)
Pereat diabolus,
Quivis antiburschius
Atque irrisores!
Perish sadness,
Perish haters.
Perish the devil,
Whoever is against the student
As well those who mock us!
E. Listen to the hymn, sung in Latin (, and express your opinion about it.
1. Did you enjoy it? Why / Why not?
2. Is it light-hearted or solemn? Serious or funny?
3. Do you think that every student should learn the words of the hymn? Why / Why not?
4. Can we judge about the students' life in medieval times by this song? What was it like? In
what way is it different or alike now?
F. Read the introduction to the lyrics of the Washington University hymn.
In 1907, the director of the W.U. Glee Club, Arthur Lieber, proposed to his students that
they write an Alma Mater and suggested that it be based on the traditional German song, "How
Can I Leave Thee". Two glee club members, Milton Rosenheim and George Logan, both class of
1908, wrote verses to the song - Rosenheim wrote the first verse; Logan the second. The lyrics
were printed in Student Life and the song quickly became accepted as the University's Alma
Mater. The words are:
Dear Alma Mater, thy name is sweet to me
Our hearts are all for thee, fair Washington
Thy halls shall honored be throughout this great country
For all eternity, our Washington
Those days of youth which all of us spent with thee
Form a dear history, fair Washington
Could they renewed be, we'd live our days with thee
For all eternity, our Washington
G. Match the phrases and their definitions (one of the phrases has two meanings):
1. glee club
a. a group of words that form one section of a poem or song
2. alma mater
b. the words of a song
3. verses
c. the school college or university where you were a student
4. lyrics
d. a small organization for people who enjoy singing together
e. the official anthem of a school, college, university
H. Do a literary translation of the verses and compare it with with the translation made by
other students.
I. Read an excerpt from “Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone” by J.K. Rowling about
Hogwarts - a School of Witchcraft and Wizardry.
‘And now, before we go to bed, let us sing the school song!’cried Dumbledore. Harry noticed that the
other teachers’ smiles had become rather fixed. Dumbledore gave his wand a little flick as if he was trying
to get a fly off the end and a long golden ribbon flew out of it, which rose high above the tables and
twisted itself snake-like into words.
‘Everyone pick their favourite tune,’ said Dumbledore, ‘and off we go!’
And the school bellowed:
‘Hogwarts, Hogwarts, Hoggy Warty Hogwarts,
Teach us something please,
Whether we be old and bald
Or young with scabby knees,
Our heads could do with filling
With some interesting stuff,
For now they’re bare and full of air,
Dead flies and bits of fluff,
So teach us things worth knowing,
Bring back what we’ve forgot,
Just do your best, we’ll do the rest,
And learn until our brains all rot.’
Everybody finished the song at different times. At last, only the Weasley twins were left singing
along to a very slow funeral march. Dumbledore conducted their last few lines with his wand, and when
they had finished, he was one of those who clapped loudest.
‘Ah, music,’ he said, wiping his eyes. ‘A magic beyond all we do here! And now, bedtime. Off you trot!’
(Taken from: “Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone” by J. K. Rowling, Bloomsbury Publishing Plc, 2004)
J. Read the text again and answer the questions. Use a dictionary to help you.
1. What does the name “Hogwarts” imply? What is your opinion of the name?
2. How do young wizards describe themselves? Why?
3. What do they ask Hogwarts for?
4. How do you understand the last phrase “And learn until our brains all rot”?
K. Work in groups. Organise a brainstorming session and make a list of nouns and
adjectives to describe:
a) your university
b) your life as students
c) why you like studying there
d) benefits you'll have after graduation
L. Try to write the verses for your university anthem or for the anthem of your group
(class). Double-check grammar and spelling. Organise a poets' competition.
“I love Africa in general, South Africa and West Africa.
They are both great countries” Paris Hilton
A. Discuss the following question in pairs.
Segun Rasaki is the author of the poem “Africa”. Do you agree with his description of his
country: “Africa, beautiful, yet unappreciated,..”,
“Africa, raped and left desolate, yet richly blessed”?
B. Discuss the quotes about Africa. Express your opinion on each of them.
1. “The darkest thing about Africa has always been our ignorance of it” (George Kimble).
2. “Africa is a cruel country; it takes your heart and grinds it into powdered stone and no
one minds” (Elspeth Huxley).
3. “Last year I built a Courage Machine, but I thought it might be noisy and was too afraid
to turn it on. So I coated it with glue, covered it with cat hair and started claiming it was
an exotic animal I killed on a Safari in Africa” (Jarod Kintz).
4. “You know you're truly alive when you're living among lions” (Karen Blixen).
C. Read the text and fill in the gaps with the expressions given after it. What do these
phrases mean?
Nigeria: Nine Out of Ten Nigerian Mothers Are Unable to Read and Write
The head of a body regulating university education in Nigeria has said the country must
retain to roots to tackle 1.________________________, amidst claims that nine out of every ten
women are unable to read and write. Executive secretary of National Universities Commission
Julius Okojie said, "We must address the issue of 2.__________________from the basis," citing
primary school education and preschool-age children. He noted that Nigerian children 3.
_______________________in other countries in achievements at little ages.
"In developed countries, before a child is five, he is already learning models of planes
and putting models of plastic engines together. "But here, ninety-five percent of our mothers
are illiterate. So the 4._______________________has to be emphasised." He argued that
educated parents were better able to help their children at home with work and in turn helped
the system too. "When a child comes back home in primary school and says 'mummy, help me
[with homework]' and the mother doesn't know how to assist, it can be frustrating," said Okojie.
Along the lines of mass literacy, he said, was a N1 billion programme to educate at least
20 million illiterate adults over the next five years courtesy of the United Nations Educational,
Scientific and Cultural Organisation. He added, "The fact that parents are able to assist at home,
it will make it easy for us."
Nearly 34.8 million adults in Nigeria are considered illiterate, according to 2009 data
from UNESCO, ranking it the highest in sub-Saharan Africa. Illiterate females 5.
______________ _________________nearly 2 to 1--there are at least 12.3 million males
without schooling, compared with 22.4 million females. Analysts, pointing to differing levels of
adult literacy in different parts of the country, say serious commitment will be needed to
change it.
Care must also been taken to not to generalise the entire country into one stereotype,
said 6. ________________Bola Fasanye, noting differing attitudes toward education in
predominantly east, west and northern regions of the country. "Where I live, I still have women
who go to hide their children so that they will not be vaccinated--the vaccination against
polio," she cites neighbours in Niger state as example. "They said the government wants to
bring in family planning secretly so that when their girls grow up they will not be able to have
many children." In other areas, it is the attitude of growing children that is more crucial. "I
marked WAEC English language from the east," recalled Fasanye. "There was question that said
write a letter to somebody about what you plan to do after leaving school. Majority of students
in those [examination] centres wrote that they would like to go into business. The girls, they
want to go into hairdressing; the boys, they want to sell spare parts."
OCTOBER 2011 (
A. school principal
B. lagged behind their counterparts
C. poor quality education
D. declining quality of education
E. outnumber males by
F. mass literacy programme
D. Give a short summary of the text.
NB: When summarising a text, identify the key points in every paragraph. Then paraphrase the
important points to express them in a different or shorter way. Use the following expressions:
The main / key idea of this article is...
What the author wants to point out is...
The author of the article believes / states / reckons...
Another idea worth mentioning is...
What I find interesting is..
In conclusion / To sum up...
To my mind / In my opinion...
E. Read the text and do the exercises.
High Dropout Rate a Problem for South Africa
Since the nineteen nineties, education has been required for all South Africans from age
seven to fifteen. Last December, the government announced that seventy percent of students
passed their final examination to finish high school. In two thousand eight the passage rate was
about sixty-three percent. There have been increases each year since then. Professor Shireen
Motala at the University of Johannesburg says access to basic education is no longer the problem
in South Africa. She says most children stay in school until they are about sixteen. The problem
now, she says, is that large numbers of them leave without completing high school.
Students take an examination known as the matric in grade twelve, their final or
"matriculation" year. Professor Motala notes that less than half the children who started school in
two thousand sat for the matric last year. Shireen Motala: "Only, I think, around forty-five
percent survived, which means that a large number of children are falling by the wayside. And
the concern is that where do those learners actually go to."
South Africa has a twenty-four percent unemployment rate. Those who drop out must
compete with better educated people for jobs. Educational researchers also point to another
problem. They say South African schools do not produce enough students with the skills for
higher education in math and science.
One of those researchers is Graeme Bloch. He says many schools are not well-equipped.
Graeme Bloch: "The reality of poverty and resources, is that children do not see laboratories and
as a result, or partly as a result, their science marks are not very good. They do not have libraries
at school. Ninety-two percent of the schools do not have libraries."
Also, education specialists say in many cases, teachers and school principals do not have
the skills or training to do their jobs. In other cases, they are simply not doing their duty to
provide an education. Professor Motala says a number of teachers were poorly trained during the
system of apartheid, or racial separation in South Africa. Apartheid ended in nineteen ninetyfour. Secondly, she says, teachers have been confused by the many educational reform efforts in
the last fifteen years. And, finally, she thinks language differences in the classroom have not
gotten as much attention as they should. Shireen Motala: "There is the big issue of language,
which we have not taken enough cognizance of, which I think is a huge problem." Subjects such
as math and science are taught in English starting at about age ten. But South Africa has eleven
official languages and many more unofficial ones. South Africa's minister of basic education
promises a number of improvements. Angie Motshega says teacher development efforts will
focus on subject and content knowledge, and making sure the correct teachers are in the correct
jobs. (
F. Match the words and their definitions:
1. drop out
A. to concentrate on smth and pay particular attention to
2. sit for
B. to consider smth before you take action or make a decision
3. take cognizance of
C. to leave school, university before you have finished
4. focus on
D. to take an examination
G. Choose the correct alternative:
1. According to the text, since 1990s
A. the obligatory period of staying at school has increased; B. the more students pass their final
exams, the higher the passage rate is; C. education has become compulsory for all children from
the age of seven
2. According to Professor Motala,
A. the majority of students who sit for the matric have no idea of what to do in the future; B. in
the matriculation year most students start working; C. most of the children can't pass their final
school exams.
3. According to Graeme Bloch,
A. school graduates are ba at maths and science exams because schools are not well-equipped; B.
labour market in South Africa lacks specialists in maths and science; C. better-educated people
have obligatorily studied maths and science.
4. According to education specialists,
A. since 1994 teachers have been trained properly; B. teachers will be trained in eleven
languages; C. educational reform efforts haven't been to the advantage of teacher development
H. Write a 250-word essay “African Education System: How To Tackle The Main
I. Listen to the song “We Don't Need No Education” by Pink Floyd and discuss the
1. What is the main message of the song?
2. What is your opinion about this problem?
“It should be our national mission to be number one
in the world in education” (Gordon Brown)
A. Discuss the following questions.
1. What do you already know about education in Great Britain?
2. What associations come to your mind when you hear the expression “education in the
3. Do you know anything about the education of famous English people (e.g. W.
Shakespeare, A. Christie, the royal family, etc.? )
4. Have you got an experience of studying in the UK? Would you like to study there? Why
B. Match the texts and their headlines. There is one extra headline.
A. Underpinning vocational knowledge
B. Different administrations
C. A focus on standards
D. The broader education
E. Types of schools
F. Work and play together
G. Academic year
H. Further and higher education
I. Motivation to continue studies
1. Over 90 per cent of British children attend state-supported schools between the ages of 5
and 16, when education is compulsory. While state-run primary schools (from age 5 to
11) are co-educational, state-supported secondary schools are both single-sexed and coeducational. About 7 per cent of school-age children attend fee-paying independent or
private schools (the larger of which are also rather confusingly known as 'public'
schools). Many independent schoolchildren are there as 'boarders', which means they
spend school terms living at the school and the holidays with their families.
2. There are three school terms in the educational year, which starts in September and ends
in July. Holidays are normally three weeks over Christmas and Easter and six weeks
during the summer. Independent schools have their own rules but tend to have slightly
longer holidays and shorter half-term breaks.
3. Those not staying in schools or going on to college are legally allowed to leave at 16,
when they have completed their General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE)
examinations. But lack of prospects in the job market for unskilled or poorly qualified
young people is a disincentive to leaving full-time education. This factor is encouraging
increasing numbers of 16 and 17 year-olds to pursue advanced qualifications at school or
college, or to take part in government-supported training programs.
4. In July 1997, the Government published a White Paper entitled Excellence in Schools,
which laid down six guiding principals that underpin education in the future: education
will be at the heart of government; policies will be designed to benefit the many, not just
the few; the focus will be on standards not structures; there will only be intervention in
underperforming schools, and celebration of successful schools; there will be zero
tolerance of underperformance; and government will work in partnership with all those
committed to raising standards.
5. The education service is administered separately in England and Wales, in Scotland, and
in Northern Ireland. In England and Wales, the National Curriculum for all pupils from
the age of 5 to 16 is designed to provide a balance of subjects to cater for academic as
well as practical abilities. From an early age, children learn English, mathematics,
science, technology, history, geography, art, music, and physical education (PE). In
Scotland, pupils aged 5 to 14 follow a common, broad-based curriculum consisting of
mathematics, English language, environmental studies, expressive arts, religious and
modern education, personal and social development. The system in Northern Ireland is
similar to England and Wales. The curriculum includes six educational themes: education
reform, mutual understanding, culture heritage, information and communication
technology, careers' education and economic awareness.
6. Through local authority funding, central government support, private fund-raising
campaigns by parents and the community, many schools have developed excellent
facilities, often used by the community as a whole, for sport, recreation and extracurricular activities. Teachers and parents together are involved in numerous programmes
that help to broaden young people's horizons outside school hours. These may include
taking part in environmental or community projects; taking part in dramatic productions
and musical performances; special scientific projects and inter-school competitions; and
educational visits and school exchanges with schools in the European Union.
7. In recent years, more vocational qualifications have been introduced in schools and
colleges. The purpose has been to ensure greater orientation towards skills which will
help to equip pre-16 year-olds for working life. This includes the development of General
National Vocational Qualifications (GNVQs) for this age group.
8. At the age of 16 and 17, about 75 per cent of young people currently go on to further
education in schools and colleges or join in training programs geared to work in specific
areas of the job market. Many study for GCE AS and A level qualifications. A levels are
taken in schools and colleges after two years of study. Students normally take two or
three subjects (some may even take four). AS examinations aim to broaden students'
studies by providing them with the opportunity to continue to study more of the subjects
they had taken up to the age of 16, or to take new ones. AS qualifications take half the
time of a full A level but demand the same standard of performance.
(Abridged from: Young People In Britain. London. UK.1999)
C. Match the phrases and their definitions.
1. school term
a. the subjects that students study
2. fee-paying schools
b. someone who lives in a boarding school
3. boarder
c. skills necessary for a particular job
4. curriculum
d. activity trying to persuade people to give money
for a specific purpose
5. fund-raising campaigns
e. one of the periods of time into which the year
is divided for students
6. vocational qualifications
f. schools which are less successful than people expect
7. underperforming schools
g. you have to give money to go to this school
D. Match these expressions with their definitions.
1. to lay down principals
a. to be an important basic part of smth allowing it to
2. to broaden horizons
b. to provide people with everything they need
3. to cater for academic abilities
c. to state officially what someone must do
4. to underpin education
d. to help you understand the world and make you
more able to accept other people's ideas and beliefs
E. In pairs, discuss these questions.
1. What can broaden people's horizons?
2. Who should cater more for academic abilities: teachers, parents, students?
3. What principals should be laid down to underpin education in your country?
F. With a partner discuss these statements and say if you agree or disagree with them. Give
your reasons.
A. “I don't want my children fed or clothed by the state but if I had to choose, I would prefer that
to their being educated by the state” (Max Victor Belz).
B. “Academies that are founded at public expense are instituted not so much to cultivate men's
natural abilities as to restrain them” (Baruch Spinoza).
C. “The education of all children, from the moment that they can get along without a mother's
care, shall be in state institutions at state expense” (Karl Marx).
(Taken from:
G. Read the text and do the exercises.
UK university applications down as fees rise
By Sean Coughlan, BBC News education correspondent
University applications from UK students for the first year of higher tuition fees are
down by 8.7%, according to figures from the admissions service. With fees rising to up to
£9,000 per year, the impact has been biggest for England's universities - down by 9.9%. In
Scotland, where Scottish students do not pay fees, there was a fall of 1.5%. Universities said the
"dip is far less dramatic than many were initially predicting". Universities Minister David
Willetts said school-leaver applications from the most disadvantaged areas had not been
disproportionately affected by the fees increase - with a decline of only 0.2%. "It is encouraging
that applications from people from some of the most disadvantaged backgrounds remain strong,"
said Mr Willetts.
But Sally Hunt, general secretary of the UCU lecturers' union, said the "figures are very
worrying and once again highlight the government's folly in raising tuition fees to as much as
£9,000 a year. "Applications in England are down over 50% more than in any other part of the
UK as a result of the government making it the most expensive country in the world in which to
gain a public degree." A breakdown of the UK figures show a 4% fall in applications in
Northern Ireland and 1.9% in Wales. The figures published by the Ucas admissions service show
that by the 15 January deadline there were 462,507 applications for courses beginning in
This represented a 8.7% drop in applications from students in the UK - but an increase
in overseas applications meant that the overall figure was 7.4% lower than at the same point
last year. Wendy Piatt, director general of the Russell Group of leading universities, says that the
underlying longer-term trend remains an increase in demand for university places - with these
latest figures considerably higher than three years ago.
"Despite all the hype, fee reforms are unlikely to cause a long-term decline in
applications. In the past a fall in applications in the first year of higher fees has been followed by
increases in subsequent years." But the gap between men and women going to university looks
set to widen. Women are already in a majority - and the application figures show a sharper fall
among men than women. When gender differences are combined with differences within the
UK, wide variations are revealed. Northern Ireland has a much higher rate of applications
among 18 year olds - and it means that women in Northern Ireland are more than twice as
likely to apply than men in Wales.
There is also a breakdown by age group - and this shows that among 18 year olds, across
the UK, a decline of 3.6%, compared with last year, with greater drops in applications among
older students. National Union of Students president, Liam Burns, expressed concern about this
"worrying drop in the number of those aged over 21 making applications". Universities UK's
Nicola Dandridge said the dip in applications from 18-year-olds was not as great as feared.
"These are likely to be unemployed people looking to gain skills for work, those who had been
shut out by student number controls, or those with a range of other financial commitments and
There had been much debate about whether students would be influenced by fee levels and the private BPP University College, which charges £5,000 per year for a three-year course, is
reporting that applications have more than doubled. The Ucas figures include an analysis
comparing applications from school leavers in the poorest and richest areas of England. In the
most disadvantaged areas, the steady increase of recent years has stopped, dipping by 0.2%. But
in the wealthiest areas, where youngsters are more than three times as likely to apply, there has
been a bigger fall, down by 2.5%. Ucas chief executive, Mary Curnock Cook, said: "Widely
expressed concerns about recent changes in higher education funding arrangements having a
disproportionate effect on more disadvantaged groups are not borne out by these data."
The 1994 Group of research intensive universities said that figures showed that some UK
students "have obviously been wary of applying this year". The group's chairman, Professor
Michael Farthing, said "the uncertainty caused by the government's haphazard approach to
reform has not helped". Nick Davy, higher education policy manager at the Association of
Colleges, said: "We are concerned by the drop in student applications, particularly at a time of
record levels of unemployment among young people." There have also been signs of an increase
in UK students applying overseas. Maastricht University in the Netherlands, where fees are
£1,500 per year, is reporting a surge in applications. The university is forecasting that they will
receive 600 applications from UK students during the current admissions cycle.
(Taken from:
H. Look at the highlighted expressions in the text. Put them in the correct column. Then
make your own sentences using them.
Your sentences:
an increase in
a decline of
I. Study the words in the box and make as many combinations using them as possible:
go down
go up
E.g.: a. a sharp rise
J. Look at the table below, summarise the information and describe the data in detail.
Make comparisons where relevant.
Young people in England in education and training, aged 16 to 18
(Figures in percentages)
(Taken from: Young People In Britain. London. UK.1999)
The table shows the number of...
K. Interview some of your classmates and fill in the table so that it shows attitude to
studying English among the students in your group:
The number of students
I enjoy studying English
I find studying English difficult
I plan to study English in the future
All students should study English
L. Summarise the information in your table, write sentences to describe the differences in
The table shows / gives information about..
The number of students who...
The first prominent aspect of the data is...
Another important feature of the data is...
A further noticeable aspect of the data is...
Finally, the number of ...
M. Read the text in G again and match these phrases with their definitions:
1. admissions service
2. admission cycle
A. a current change which is not obvious or directly stated
B. a written request for a place at the college which comes
from a country across the sea
overseas applications
C. period of time when permissions to become a student are
financial commitments
D. a way of dealing with smth that is not carefully planned
or organised
underlying trend
E. a duty or responsibility involving money
haphazard approach
F. a type of family, social position or education which is of
a lower level compared to other people
disadvantaged backgrounds G. board members who give permissions to join the
N. Read the following comments on the article in G. Discuss them with a partner. Which
one do you agree with most? Why?
30TH JANUARY 2012 - 19:41
I graduated a few years ago from the University of Aberdeen.
It cost English students £1,800 a year. In England its £3,000.
to be seen as smb who doesn't realise
Study the expressions:
be taken for mugs –
So for £9,000 you got a bog standard degree from English Universities.
that they are being tricked or treated badly
In Scotland it was £7,800 for an honours degree ie a better degree.
prevents or slows progress or improvement
A bog – a thing that
England, when are you going to realise you are being taken for mugs?
30TH JANUARY 2012 - 19:35
Thank goodness some astute youngsters are realising that
a university degree is not the "be-all-and-end-all" and that
judging situations; able to use the knowledge
a trade apprenticeship will give them a good headstart
with practical work experience that can be immediately
someone's early experience in a particular work
Study the expressions:
Astute – good at
Apprenticeship –
translated into the trade or job for which they have been
apprenticed. What's more is that tradesmen will be the
who sells goods or services
Tradesman – someone
fastest movers in restoring economic growth.
30TH JANUARY 2012 - 16:54
As a university applicant, I get frustrated by the fact that
Study the expressions:
anyone can get a degree. Putting the fees up would
and impatient because you are
eliminate the poorer deserving students and increase the
achieving something
Frustrated – feeling annoyed
prevented from
number of rich students who waste their time doing
worthless degrees. Why not invest more into training
smth that is not wanted or needed
Eliminate – to get rid of
for jobs that don't need degrees, and leave the universities
to select the hard working students who deserve to go to uni?
value; not useful
30TH JANUARY 2012 - 13:35
An inevitable consequence of pricing a large proportion of
people out of having the option to go to uni. Having worked
avoid or prevent
Worthless – not having any
Study the expressions:
Inevitable – impossible to
so hard to make sure it wasn't just the wealthy that go we are
right back there. A free uni education was unquestionably
can choose in a particular situation
Option – smth that you
beneficial to me, not just for the job that my qualification
allowed me to get but because of the positive change in my
A. Write words for the definitions:
c_____________ (noun) subjects that students study at a particular college
d_____________ (noun) the qualification you get after completing the course
l_____________ (noun) the ability to read and write
s_____________ (noun) the ability to do smth well esp. after training
i_____________ (noun) lack of knowledge on a particular subject
B. Complete the sentences with the correct form of the bold word.
1. In the past male and female students didn't have _____ rights in education. EQUALITY
2. I was surprised when I found out that I _________ into the university.
3. The school I went to developed an _______ approach
to education.
4. The language course that I applied for turned out to be __________.
5. Mr. Brown was the ____________ professor
I've ever met.
C. Circle the right word.
1. Alice was keen on Humanitarians / Humanities / Humanes.
2. He had to pay taxes / scholarship / tuition for his college education.
3. International students live in dorms / huts / cabins.
4. Mr. Jonson is the school chef / principal / chief.
5. Children who are educated at home are parent / house / home schoolers
D. Word groups. Underline the word that is different.
alma mater
drop out
E. Read the text and fill in the gaps with phrases below.
The school mission
The fundamental purpose of the school development plan is to improve 1._______________for
all the children in the school. 2.__________________will reflect the ethos of the school
community and encapsulate the aspirations, expectations, and traditions of the school. In
formulating this mission and in reflecting on its own ethos, the school community will build a
shared vision of how it can help each child towards 3. _________________. A school philosophy
that accommodates principles of equality, diversity, and the promotion of a positive self-concept
for each individual is likely to ensure 4.__________________________in which 5.
_________________________of all children can be met.
All schools have a sense of mission or vision. In some schools this will have been considered as
part of 6. _________________________and will be clearly articulated. Other schools may not
have reached a stage of formalising the mission statement but nonetheless may have a clear sense
of what the school is about. Therefore, in reviewing the school’s provision for the education of
all children 7. __________________________, evaluating the mission statement and
characteristic spirit of the school may be a good place to start.
(Taken from: )
A. the school mission
B. the particular educational needs
C. in an inclusive and intercultural school
D. the quality of teaching and learning
E. achieving his or her full potential
F. the school development process
G. a supportive environment
F. Fill in the gaps with the correct form of the bold word.
1. Culture does not define us or determine us. Within
the white Irish settled population there is great
diversity of values, 1._______ and ways of life. Other
ethnic and national groups also display a great deal
of diversity. 2. ____________ this
is important in overcoming stereotyping.
2. For young children, 3.____________ that humanity
contains great diversity and that there is no one way
of life that is ‘normal’ 4.______________ through the
exploration of the world around them, and through
being exposed to a rich and 5._______ mix
of images and cultural artifacts.
3. As children progress through
primary school they will become 6.__________ aware
of the rich mix of cultures
that 7. ______________ to
Irishness through their influence on our arts in both
the Irish and English languages (and in the interface
between the two), on our values, on our Mathematics,
on our technology and on the ways in which we
benefit from the inter- 8._____________ of
cultures. (Taken from: )
G. In some lines of this text there is a mistake. Mark these lines with a cross (Х) and correct
the mistakes. Put a tick (√) if the line is correct.
(1) The curriculum identifies that language has vital _____
(2) role to play in children’s development. Through the _____
(3) interaction language and experience, children ______
(4) learn to name events and ideas and, in doing so, ______
(5) learn how make sense of their world. Whether _____
(6) difference seen as normal or abnormal, or _____
(7) whether equality is seen a good thing or a _____
(8) problem can depend the language that children ____
(9) learn to apply to situations. ___
(10) The curriculum identifies that language central ____
(11) to the development of cognitive abilities, and of ____
(12) emotional and imaginative capacities. It notes that ____
(13) talk and discussion will a crucial context for the ____
(14) exploration of emotion throughout the child’s life in ____
(15) school. The development empathy for other ____
people, for those who live with the effects of
discrimination or inequality, and the development
of a positive response to diversity will be facilitated
through language use. (Taken from: )
Max 15
50 points
It is your work in life that is your
ultimate seduction (Pablo Picasso)
A. Match these job areas with job titles. Explain what people do at work.
1. Computer
2. Construction
3. Health and Medicine
4. Food Services
5. Education
6. Law Enforcement
7. Art
8. Broadcasting
On-air announcer, landscape architect, industrial hygienist, electrician, developer, waitstaff,
computer and information sciences teacher, investigator, data security analyst, roofer, clinical
product analyst, registered dietician, decoration assistant, senior academic advisor, TV video tape
operator, jail officer, pipe layer, executive chef, architectural designer, high school vocational
counselor, correctional officer specialist, event manager, software tester, director of nursing.
B. Discuss the following. Say if you agree or disagree.
1. Choose a job you love and you will never have to work a day in your life (Confucius).
2. Those who work the hardest get the least (Hiroshi Takeuchi).
3. The best work never was and never will be done for money (John Ruskin).
4. Don't be condescending to unskilled labor. Try it for a half a day first (Brooks Atkinson).
5. When you cease to make a contribution, you begin to die (Eleonor Roosevelt).
6. If you want creative workers give them enough time to play (John Cleese).
7. People are always good company when they are doing what they really enjoy (Samuel
(Quotes are taken from:
C. Discuss the following questions.
1. What is the most boring job?
Envelope stuffer / supermarket greeter / bank teller / nighttime security guard / assembly line
2. What is the most disgusting job?
Nursing home carer / crime scene cleaner / exterminator / garbage worker / grave digger;
3. What is the most rewarding and satisfying work?
School principal / artist / psychologist / financial manager / president / CEO.
4. What is the most weird job?
Pet food taster / dog walker / foley artist / breath odor evaluator
D. Write some fresh ideas in your
blog on the following topic:
“Which would you rather have:
a job that's boring and pays well or
a job that's fun but doesn't pay well?”.
Personally, I think it’s better
to have a job you…
E. Read the Internet comments on what the most rewarding job is. Which one do you most
agree with? Give reasons to support your opinion.
What do you think is the most rewarding job in the world?
For me being a parent is the hardest, but most rewarding job.
Posted by xukachan2ne1 on April 26, 2012.
I would say a pediatrician. There would be definite down sides, but having
sick children come to you and helping to heal them has to be one of the best
feelings in the world. I'm a teacher, and I find that very rewarding... I just
didn't want to vote for myself.
Posted by lentzk on April 26, 2012.
A teacher is the most rewarding job. Beyond parents, teachers can have the greatest
impact on an individual. For the most part, everyone in America goes to school. Here,
children can learn new things and be inspired to great things. A teacher sometimes
doesn't know when they have an impact, but there is no doubt that having the ability to
work with children of all abilities, all races and all socioeconomic classes is a great
honor and one that should not be taken lightly.
Posted by lffinj on April 27, 2012.
I would think that being a fireman or paramedic would have to be pretty high on that list. You're
almost always helping someone who needs and wants your help. I would say teacher, since I've
been one for fifteen years, but so many students don't want your help that it knocks the teaching
profession down a notch, although it's still more rewarding than most.
Posted by mwalter822 on April 27, 2012.
F. Read the article and do the exercises.
The top ten most ridiculous job titles
Lifeguards are no longer on hand to rescue swimmers in Ceredigion, Mid Wales –
after council bosses decided to term the employees "wet leisure assistants".
The absurd description is one of a raft of euphemistic job titles dreamt up by
modern managers desperate to attract a higher calibre of candidates, but which give little
insight into the position on offer.
In today's job market, a rubbish collector is a "waste management and disposal
technician" rather than a bin man, while nurses are known as "modality managers". These
are just two examples submitted by readers of an online BBC survey asking for examples
of ludicrous job advertisements.
One reader, who identified himself as Carl, from Hull, said: "Whilst at university I
worked as a lifeguard. However, my official title from Ceredigion County in Wales was a
wet leisure assistant, which always made my friends laugh." Brigitte, from Hove, said:
"I'm a modality manager in a hospital. Patients never know what that means, so I explain
that it's just a newfangled, politically correct title for a good old ward sister. "Patients
often get a bit worried when they first see my name badge and ask me what exactly a
mortality manager does."
A number of call centre employees submitted their job titles, including
"communications executive" and "collection and recoveries credit services adviser". One
of the most opaque submissions was from Gav in Sydney, Australia, who wrote: "I had
the rather uninspired job title of Head of Inspiration for a while. I failed to live up to it."
Here are ten of the most ridiculous job titles:
1. Wet leisure assistant – Lifeguard
2. Modality manager – Nurse
3. Waste management and disposal technician – Bin man
4. Information adviser – Librarian
5. Direct debit and membership and professional development stock and credit
administrator – Customer services administrator.
6. Family protection consultant – Insurance telesales worker
7. Investment development and research analyst – Technical helpdesk worker
8. Worldwide marine asset financial analyst – Accountant
9. Debt management officer / Field force agent – Tax collector
10. Coordinator of interpretive teaching – Museum tour guide
By Nick Collins ( )
G. Match the phrases with their definitions:
1. ludicrous
A. difficult to understand
2. new-fangled
B. not offensive
3. politically correct
C. describing things you don't like because
they are modern and complicated
4. opaque
D. not interesting or exciting
5. uninspired
E. extremely silly
6. euphemistic
F. used for talking about unpleasant
or embarassing subjects without mentioning
the things themselves
H. Match the job titles with their “improved” versions:
1. Head of studies
A. Network Digital Presentation Co-ordinator
2. Window tinter
B. Motor Technician
3. Dishwasher
C. Senior Head Art Director
4. Receptionist
D. Domestic Surveillance Engineer
5. Tea lady
E. Solar Control Technician
6. TV DJ
F. Assistant Director of Educational Programs
7. Garbage worker
G. Underwater Ceramics Technician
8. Hairdresser
H. Waste Disposal Engineer
9. Cleaning staff
I. Strategic Client Control Analyst Superviser
10. Mechanic
J. Environmental Services
H. Write a 250-word essay on the following topic: “Do politically-correct job titles
really offer any business benefits in productivity?”
If opportunity doesn't knock, build a door
(Milton Berle).
A. Discuss the following questions.
1. Who, in your opinion, can be called 'a real eager beaver'? Why?
2. To what extent is it advantageous to be 'an eager beaver'?
3. How can you characterise 'an eager beaver'?
B. Match the phrasal verbs with their definitions.
1. work against smth
A. start to spend much time and energy when doing smth
2. work around smth
B. to make adjustments to smb's schedule
3. take on smb
C. leave work earlier the end of the day
4. work at smth
D. struggle against smb or smth
5. lay off smb
E. do monotonous, hard work for a long time
6. look for smth
F. start to work less or work with less energy
7. slog away
G. have the right qualities for the job
8. beaver away
H. employ smb
9. get off
I. work hard at smth
10. easy off
J. tell smb to leave the job
11. cut out for smth
K. put a lot of effort into smth
12. fling into smth
L. try to find
13. apply for
M. make an official request for smth
C. Ask and answer with a partner. Ask for more information if necessary. Support your
answers with arguments.
1. Is it important to work at your foreign language
to advance in your career?
2. What's the right age to start looking for a job?
When did you do your first job?
3. What job are you cut out for?
4. When you're a newcomer in a company should
you fling yourself into work?
5. If your company was not doing well, would you
lay off workers?
6. When the company is growing, should it
necessarily take on more staff?
7. Is it crucial to work around your employees'
schedule so that they could spend more time
with their families?
8. When employees are easing off should they be
stimulated by the management or should they
be fired?
9. If your boss was not around and you had a
possibility to get off earlier, would you do that?
My partner
10. What advice would you give to people who
beaver away every day?
11. Whould you be able to slog away day after
day if you were well-paid?
12. When people are applying for the job, does
age work against them?
D. Write some fresh ideas in your blog.
Try to outline the criteria of an ideal job.
Give reasons for your choice.
I reckon I would love the job
E. Look at these features of an ideal company. Have you mentioned any of them in C?
Rank them in order of importance.
− salary / wages
− positive working environment
− friendly colleagues
− medical insurance
− being treated as special
− flexible schedule
− amiable boss
− perks (such as a company car)
− bonuses
− travel opportunities
F. Discuss the following:
What company (institution) would you like to work for? Why?
• Your own company
• Big international company
• The government
• Small private business
• State company
G. Read the text and do the exercises.
20 Ways to Get the Job You Want
By Marci G. Fox, Ph.D.
You can help make the job you want happen. The key is believing in you.
Plant your feet firmly on the path to the job you desire. Take the time to free
yourself of the shackles of doubt so you can see yourself in the most positive
accurate way. Confidence is what allows you to see the asset you are. Dream,
plan, try and stretch yourself to get that job you desire.
1. Stay Positive - Remind yourself of all the positive qualities and skills you bring
to any job by making a list.
2. Put Your Best Qualities Forward - Keep in mind that you are a composite of all those
wonderful qualities and be prepared to share them at your next possible job opportunity.
3. Inner Confident Shows - Inner confidence shines through on the outside and others
are attracted to it.
4. Cheer Yourself On - Be your own cheerleader and make it clear what you have to
5. No One is Perfect - Recognize everyone has short-comings and you don't have to be
perfect to be an asset.
6. Learning is Always a Possibility - If the job requires a new skill, confidently
acknowledge that you can gain that skill.
7. Eliminate Stress - Recognize new situations are likely to create stress but you can
handle the stress knowing you are capable and will get through it.
8. Open Your Mind - Be open-minded and try a new path and see where it takes you.
9. It's Not All Or Nothing - Don't overvalue the job you are applying for.
10. No Job is Perfect - There is no such thing as the one perfect job that got away.
11. New Opportunities Await - If one job does not work out, there will be others along
the way.
12. The Job Hunt is Your Job - Treat job hunting like a job and schedule specific hours
to work on it.
13. Everyone Needs Personal Time S0 Take A Break - It's important to schedule in time
for you to take time out to relieve stress through exercise, hobbies, or planned fun time
with family or friends.
14. Look For New Hobbies- Schedule in those pleasant activities which keep you feeling
15. Exercise Strengthens The Mind - Schedule in time to exercise as it is good for the
body and good for the head.
16. Discover Something New - Take the time to try something new and experience that
sense of accomplishment.
17. Ask Friends For Help - Don't isolate from your friends as you are not the first or the
last person to look for a job.
18. You Can Handle Anything Life Throws At You - Think back to all the difficult
situations and problems you have tackled and believe in the confidence you have
19. Keep Your Confidence - Don't let your confidence get rattled when the path gets
20. Celebrate Small Victories - Give yourself credit for every step you take and
celebrate each victory no matter how small.
Published on Psychology Today (
H. Match the verbs and nouns.
to plant
to earn
to have
to give oneself
a new path
to eliminate
to celebrate
to tackle
to schedule
to gain
to try
specific hours
I. Discuss these questions with a partner.
1. Do you try to discover something new? What new skills have you gained recently?
2. What shortcomings have you got that need to be eliminated so that you could climb the
career ladder to your advantage? How can you do it?
3. Are you self-confident? How can you earn confidence?
4. How can people relieve stress? Think about certain tips.
5. Do you have periods when you isolate yourself from friends? Why does it happen?
6. Do you agree that “inner confidence shines through on the outside”. How can one notice
7. Do you sometimes act as your own cheerleader? What exactly do you do for it?
8. Do you think that it is parents who teach their children to play their best qualities
forward? How can they do it?
9. Have you ever tried a new path in life? What made you do it?
10. How do you celebrate each of your victories however small they are?
J. Write a 200-word comment on the following topic: “How can people succeed in job
Communication works for those
who work at it (John Powell).
A. Discuss the following statements. Say if you agree or disagree. Give your reasons.
1. “Assumptions are termites of relationships” (Henry Winkler).
2. “Constantly talking isn't necessarily communicating” (Charlie Kaufman).
3. “The most important thing in communication is to hear what isn't being said” (Peter
4. “Talking much about oneself can also be a means to conceal oneself (Friedrich
5. “If you tell the truth you don't have to remember anything” (Mark Twain).
6. “Asking the right questions takes as much skill as giving the right answers” (Robert
7. “A clever, imaginative, humorous request can open closed doors and closed minds”
(Percy Ross).
B. Write some fresh ideas in your blog.
If you were to go to the job interview,
what kind of interviewer would you wish for yourself?
I wish the interviewer I’d
like to talk to…
C. With a partner, discuss the following.
1. Should people get ready for a job interview?
2. What factors should people consider when preparing for a job interview?
3. Work out some tips to pass a job interview.
D. Read the text and fill in the gaps with the phrases below:
Job Interview
The job interview is 1)__________________with a purpose. Your goal is to persuade the
employer that you 2)_______________to do the job and that you can comfortably fit into his/her
organization. At the same interview, you should also be gathering information about the job,
future career opportunities and the organization to determine if the position and work
environment are right for you.
You can strongly influence 3)________________if you realize that an interview is not an
objective process in which the employer offers the job to the best candidate
4)_________________ But rather, an interview is 5)________________in which the interviewer
offers the job to the qualified person whom he/she likes best. Personality, confidence,
enthusiasm, a positive outlook and excellent interpersonal and communication skills
One key to success is to use 7)___________________to develop effective interviewing skills:
selective presentation of your background, thoughtful answers to interview questions, well
researched questions about the organization, and an effective strategy to
8)____________________. There is no magic to interviewing: it is a skill that can be learned
and improved upon with practice. The Career Center offers the regularly scheduled workshop,
Effective Interviewing, and individual videotaped mock interviews for skill practice which can
be scheduled with career consultants by appointment. The Resource Room also has excellent
books and videotapes on interviewing.
A second key to success is careful research about the job and the organization, agency, or
company with whom you are having the interview. You can request printed materials such as
annual reports from the employer in advance or use library resources. You should also talk with
your contacts in the organization or use your 9)_____________________to discover the names
of current employees you might call 10)_____________________. Knowing about the job will
help you prepare a list of your qualifications so that you can show, point by point, why you are
the best candidate. Knowing about the employer will help you prepare an interview strategy and
appropriate questions and points to emphasize. To further assist you, the Career Center offers
workshops on techniques for researching organizations.
(Taken from:
A. market yourself
B. a highly subjective encounter
C. have the skills, background, and ability
D. prior to the interview
E. a strategic conversation
F. every means at your disposal
G. the interview outcome
H. based on merit alone.
I. personal network
J. count heavily
E. Rank the following tips in order of importance from 1 to 5, where 1 is the most
important tip. Compare your ranking with the ranking made by other students.
Because a job interview is a communication process, your skills will become more
polished over time. It is helpful to remember the following:
• Speak clearly and enthusiastically about your experiences and skills. Be professional, but
don't be afraid to let your personality shine through. Be yourself.
Listen carefully. During the interview you may be given hints by the interviewer that can
tip you on what the job entails and what characteristics they are looking for in prospects.
You will want to remember what you learn about the job, and you will certainly want to
answer the question that was asked.
Be positive. Employers do not want to hear a litany of excuses or bad feelings about a
negative experience. If you are asked about a low grade, a sudden job change, or a
weakness in your background, don't be defensive. Focus instead on the facts ( briefly)
and emphasize what you learned from the experience.
Pay attention to your non-verbal behavior. Look the interviewer in the eye, sit up straight
with both feet on the floor, control nervous habits (cracking knuckles, drumming fingers,
etc.), and smile as you are greeted.
Don't be afraid of short pauses. You may need a few seconds to formulate an answer. The
interviewer may need time to formulate an appropriate question. It is not necessary to fill
up every second with conversation.
(Taken from:
F. Read the text.
Getting ready for a job interview
Job interviewing never seems to get any easier - even when you have gone
on more interviews than you can count. You are meeting new people, selling
yourself and your skills, and often getting the third degree about what you
know or don't know. Here are job interview tips to help prepare you to
interview effectively. Proper preparation which help alleviate some of the stress
involved in job interviews.
Practice answering interview questions and practice your responses to the
typical job interview questions and answers most employers ask. Think of
actual examples you can use to describe your skills. Providing evidence of
your successes is a great way to promote your candidacy.
Prepare a response so you are ready for the question "What do you know
about our company?”. Know the interviewer's name and use it during the
job interview. If you're not sure of the name, call and ask prior to the
interview. Try to relate what you know about the company when
answering questions.
Make sure your interview attire is neat, tidy and appropriate for the
type of firm you are interviewing with. Bring a nice portfolio with copies
of your resume. Include a pen and paper for note taking.
Be on time for the interview. On time means five to ten minutes early.
If needed, take some time to drive to the office ahead of time so you
know exactly where you are going and how long it will take to get there.
During the job interview try to relax and stay as calm possible. Take a
moment to regroup. Maintain eye contact with the interviewer. Listen to
the entire question before you answer and pay attention - you will be
embarrassed if you forget the question!
Try to relate what you know about the company when answering
questions. When discussing your career accomplishments match them to
what the company is looking for.
Always follow-up with a thank you note reiterating your interest in the
(Taken from:
G. Find the expressions in the article which mean the following:
1. smth difficult that you succeeded in doing esp.after working hard over a period of time;
2. a long and detailed period of questioning;
3. to prepare to make a new attempt to achieve smth after having failed or been stopped;
4. at an earlier time than people expected;
5. to make smth less painful, severe or serious;
6. to give facts or physical signs that help to prove smth;
7. the clothes that smb is wearing;
8. to support smb who is a candidate at an election;
9. to repeat smth in order to emphasize or make it clear to people;
10. to emphasize smth that is real and not imaginary;
11. a collection of pictures, photos and documents that you use as examples of work you
have done.
H. Match these adjectives with their definitions:
1. reserved
A. determined to achieve success
2. coherent
B. smb who you can trust
3. imaginative
C. reasonable and sensible
4. hard-working
D. quick to react in the way that is needed or suitable
5. organised
E. willing to tell things to other people
6. enthusiastic
F. tends not to talk about or show feelings
7. motivated
G. puts a lot of effort into his work
8. decisive
H. involving new exciting ideas
9. cooperative
I. very interested in smth or excited by it
10. responsive
J. prepared for the activity
11. reliable
K. able to make choices
12. communicative
L. willing to do what you ask them to do
I. Discuss these questions:
1. What kind of personal qualities do people of these professions usually have? Why do you
think so?
Bank teller
Specialist in flower arrangement
2. Descibe your personality or your friend's personality.
3. What kind of people make best friends (roommates, travel companions, colleagues)? Why?
J. Make up at least two questions in the following 'areas' that job interviewers would like to
1. Career goals:
• Why do you want to leave your current position?
• _______________________________________
• _______________________________________
2. Experience:
• How does your experience qualify for this job?
• _______________________________________
• _______________________________________
3. Analytical skills:
• What steps do you take when analyzing complex problems?
• _______________________________________
• _______________________________________
4. Education:
• What training have you received that qualifies you for this job?
• _______________________________________
• _______________________________________
5. Interpersonal skills and teamwork:
• What are the characteristics of a successful team?
• ________________________________________
• ________________________________________
6. Customer service:
• What does good customer service involve?
• _________________________________________
• _________________________________________
7. Decision-making:
• What steps are involved in making a decision?
• _________________________________________
• _________________________________________
8. Discipline:
• Have you ever had any experience in disciplining an employee?
• _________________________________________
• _________________________________________
9. Leadership:
• What personal qualities should a leader have?
• _________________________________________
• _________________________________________
10. Motivation:
• How do you motivate yourself?
• _________________________________________
• _________________________________________
11. Weaknesses:
• What is your greatest weakness?
• _________________________________________
• _________________________________________
12. Personality:
• Tell us the passion in your life that relates to your work?
• _________________________________________
• _________________________________________
K. Role-play a job interview.
You have been looking for a job for three months already. By this time you have become
desperate. You have loads of unpaid bills and loans. Finally you have found a job advertisement
that you think you can respond to. In your opinion, you might be suitable for the position of a
greeting card writer. Get ready for the job interview. Think about the questions that job
interviewers can ask you and get ready with the arguments why you think you are the best person
for the job.
You are a director of “Creative Agency”. Recently you have placed a job ad for the
position of a greeting card writer in a local newspaper. Since then dozens of visitors have been
coming to your office and you have become irritated and desperate because nobody suits the
position. Today you've decided to organise some more job interviews. Get ready for the job
interview. Think of fact-finding and tricky questions for the applicants. Hold the interview. You
begin the conversation.
Any degree of unemployment worries me
(Gerhard Schroder).
A. Discuss the following statements. Say to what degree you agree or disagree with them?
1. The best social policy is a good job (Bill Clinton).
2. Unemployment insurance is pre-paid vacation for freeloaders (Ronald Reagan).
3. You take my life when you take the means whereby I live (William Shakespeare).
4. Unemployment diminishes people. Leisure enlarges them (Mason Cooley).
5. The trouble with unemployment is that the minute you wake up in the morning, you're on
the job (Slappy White).
(Quotes are taken from: )
B. Write some fresh ideas in your blog.
What do you think people feel when they
have been unemployed for more than
four months?
The way I’d describe the
emotional state of the
C. Read the text:
Davos 2012: Youth unemployment 'disaster'
By Tim Weber Business editor, BBC News website, Davos
Youth groups have been protesting in Spain, where almost half of young people are out or work
Davos is used to bluster from political leaders. But when usually quietly spoken company
bosses from all corners of the earth warn of "not a crisis, but a disaster," when they call
something a "cancer in society," you know we have a problem. The world, they say, is "sitting on
a social and economic time bomb". The world is plagued by youth unemployment. The numbers
are stark: In some countries of the Arab world, up to 90% of 16-24 year olds are unemployed. In
the United States the youth unemployment rate is 23%. In Spain nearly 50%. In the UK 22%.
Worldwide, some 200 million people are unemployed. 75 million are between 16 and 24 and
every year about 40 million young people are entering the workforce.
'Unemployment sucks'. The business leaders at the World Economic Forum (WEF) know
why it matters: Young people who were unemployed for a long time will earn less throughout
their whole lives. They will be less employable. They won't have the skills that business needs.
They are more likely to have long-term health problems. And it can cause social unrest. There's a
term for it: lost generation. Or as one business school professor puts it: "Unemployment sucks.
Youth unemployment sucks even more." "The youth has lost a line of sight to the future."
Running out of talent. And bosses really do care about these things, even the most coldhearted ones, because all of the above costs money - indirectly because of lower demand for their
products and services; directly in training and healthcare costs, and higher taxes. Then there is
demography. In Jordan, about 70% of the population is under the age of 30. If the youth is not fit
for the workplace, the country will run out of talent soon, said a participant. And, believe it or
not, many chief executives here really care passionately about the issue. Again and again during
the Davos meeting, executives raised the issue of youth unemployment. For politicians, the Arab
Spring is still fresh in people's minds. The uprisings started in Tunisia, when Mohamed Bouazizi
set himself on fire: "He killed himself not because he wanted to make a political protest, he
killed himself because he didn't have a job," said an investment fund manager from Pakistan.
Making a difference. The WEF's organisers love to demonstrate that their huge network a unique combination of big business, government, social entrepreneurs and non-governmental
organisations - can make a difference. A workshop was set up to pin down what causes youth
unemployment, and whether there might be some quick-win solutions to tackle the problem. In
line with Davos rules I can't quote people by name, but whoever spoke, it was obvious to
participants that the problem defies straightforward solutions.
Of course, all unemployment has one thing in common: a lack of demand for workers.
But every country, every region has different problems. Automation replaces many routine jobs,
not just in developed countries. There are structural problems, for example when it's just too
bureaucratic to hire somebody. The education system can be to blame, failing to give youngsters
the skills that are needed for jobs in advanced economies. In South Korea, it's the other way
round. So many people are university graduates, the country is running out of people to fill bluecollar jobs. Then there are life skills, or rather the lack of it. Some youngsters don't know the
basics, from getting on with co-workers to having basic entrepreneurial skills. Sometimes, better
schooling could have provided a fix: In China, most delivery drivers can read only Chinese,
which makes them unemployable for global logistics companies who deliver parcels and mail
arriving from around the world. Then there are cultural issues. Some countries educate large
numbers of women to university level, only for them to be denied work opportunities, wasting
their talents.
Search for solutions. So what to do? "The private sector could be a game changer in this,"
said a participant. But you're in Davos, that's what capitalists say, you may counter. Except that
the speaker is fairly left-wing and works for an education campaign group. And it's a theme that
comes up again and again: Businesses, universities and schools, governments and nongovernmental organisations fail to talk to each other about what they need and what they can
deliver. "Universities are just too slow," said one industrialist. "If I tell them that I need graduates
with different skills, it takes them two years or more to change their courses. By then technology
will be changing yet again."
Celebrating failure. However, another boss warned that "a good education does not
guarantee you a good life anymore." Whether they were from the Arab world, the North, from
Latin America or Asia, many executives bemoaned the lack of entrepreneurial drive and basic
business skills. Ultimately, though, the problem comes down to demand. The man in charge of a
firm with several hundred thousand staff around the world complained that, "we live in a world
where wealth creation is uncoupled from job creation. This once close connection is ruptured."
Big steps, small steps. While some suggested the creation of huge programmes, with
$50bn (£32bn) spent over 10 years to train young people around the world, others proposed
smaller steps with more guarantee of success. Too many young people were lacking role models
in their own families. Sending successful university graduates back to school to teach for a
couple of years would provide the inspiration that many teenagers were lacking. Some countries,
especially the United States, had shocking high school drop-out rates. Mentorship programmes
for entrepreneurs were proposed, as was help with job mobility. Too many companies also had
neither the resources nor the knowledge to grow their business at speed. And maybe the
incentives were not right. How about a tax system that rewards the creation of long-term jobs,
asked one participant. As the afternoon wore on, again and again Davos man and woman
remarked: "There's no simple solution."
Ten for ten. In a small way, the forum has indeed got the ball rolling. A working group of
forum members recently launched the Ten programme - "train, employ, nurture". Forum
members are encouraged to employ 10 young people aged between 18 and 24, and train them,
give them life skills, start-up skills, and - most importantly - give them a mentor to help them
shape their future. The programme is in its early stages, with two pilot projects in Indonesia and
Cambodia. And for now the companies are probably cherry-picking candidates. So far only
1,000 young people are in the programme. But on the upside some 80% go on to stay with the
company. But why just 10 youngsters per company, the organisers were challenged. Simple
psychology, they replied. Go beyond 10 people, and companies will find it too much of a
commitment to join the scheme. Once the first unemployed are in their placement, many
companies start asking for more. It's just another small step. But tackling youth unemployment,
said one executive, "is critical to all our futures".
(Taken from:
D. Answer the questions.
1. How does unemployment affect the future life of young people?
2. What social consequences does unemployment have? Give details.
3. Why does unemployment appear?
4. Who can tackle the problem of unemployment?
5. In what way has the Davos forum got 'the ball rolling'?
E. Guess the meaning of these expressions using the text. Learn them.
1. enter the workforce
2. be employable
3. fit the workplace
4. fill blue-collar jobs
5. get on with co-workers
6. entrepreneurial skills
F. Answer the following questions:
1. How can you characterise a social unrest? What are its specific features?
2. How do you understand the expression quick-win solutions?
3. What gamechanging solutions can you think of to tackle the problem of unemployment?
4. Who are role models for you? Why?
G. Match the following expressions with their definitions.
1. to bluster from smb
A. to give smth that solves a problem or corrects a mistake
2. to pin down
B. to provide conditions for smb or smth to grow and develop
3. to provide a fix
C. (AmE, infml) to be very bad and annoying
4. to bemoan smth
D. to understand and describe smth exactly
5. to get the ball rolling
E. to make smth start happening
6. to cherry-pick
F. to speak in an angry or threatening way
7. to nurture
G. to complain or say you are disappointed
8. to suck
H. to select and pick the best
H. Do the role-play.
Task: hold a youth conference on unemployment in the local employment center. Read your card
and take an active part in a discussion. Student B begins the conference. Student A finishes the
STUDENT A. You are a representative of the local government. You have come to the
conference to listen to university graduates speaking about reasons why they are staying
unemployed. Your task is to work out solutions or to provide necessary help, information, etc. to
the young people so that they could start a working life. You can give a round-up speech at the
end of the conference.
STUDENT B. You are an employment center specialist. Your task is to organise and chair
the conference. You have invited a representative of the local government, a reporter and
university graduates who are unemployed. You have to contribute to the conversation, listen to
the problems and together with the government representative figure out the solutions at the end
of the conference.
STUDENT C. You are a reporter from the local newspaper. You have been asked to come
to the youth unemployment conference and make a coverage of the event. Among the
participants are a representative of the local government, an employment center specialist and
university graduates who are going to speak about why they remain unemployed. Your task is to
contribute to the discussion or conversation, ask all the participants a lot of fact-finding (Why/
What) and / or tricky questions (How could it happen that...). You have to see a bigger picture to
make your story interesting.
STUDENT D. You are a Chinese university graduate. You have been looking for a job for
six months already but without any result. You have graduated from two most famous
universities in China and you have two Master's Degrees in IT and Economics. Your problem is
that you took a bank loan to get a higher education. Now you are indebted and your parents can't
help you with money. You wear scruffy old clothes because you don't have money to buy new
ones. In your opinion, every time when you come to a job interview the employers are unwilling
to take you because of your looks. You have come to the youth conference on unemployment to
speak about your problem and ask for help. You are desperate and you are not going to leave this
place without any real assistance!
STUDENT E. You are a Russian university graduate. You have been looking for a job in
a big city for four months already but without any result. The problem is you come from a
remote Russian village that nobody has never heard of. You are very clever and you graduated
from the University with a Diploma with Honors. But you are very shy and your self-esteem is
very low. When you come to the job interview and start speaking with the employers you cannot
answer difficult questions, you quickly get confused, your mind goes blank and you fail to
describe your skills and abilities properly. The employers don't believe that you are such a bright
and smart person. You have come to the youth conference on unemployment to speak about your
problem and ask for help. You are desperate and you are not going to leave this place without
any real assistance!
STUDENT F. You are a German university graduate. You have been looking for a job for
five months already but without any result. When you were a student all professors thought you
were the smartest person that has ever studied there. You got straight As for all tests and exams.
Your problem is that all positions that have been offered to you so far by so many employers
don't seem to meet your expectations. You believe that such smart people should be offered much
better positions. But the employers think you lack experience. You have come to the youth
conference on unemployment to speak about your problem and ask for help. You are desperate
and you are not going to leave this place without any real assistance!
I. Write a 250-word opinion essay on the following topic:
“Some people think that jobless people are jobless because they are lazy. Other people disagree
and say that unemployment is a social and economic problem”. Who do you agree with? Give
reasons to support your opinion.
Travel and change of place impart
new vigor to the mind (Seneca)
A. Discuss the following questions:
1. Would you like to work abroad? Why? Why not?
2. What type of experience would you like to look for?
3. What would be your expectations?
4. How long would you want to work abroad?
5. Do you agree with the statement that 'grass is always greener on the other side of the
B. Rank these reasons for working abroad from the most essential (1) to the least essential
(9). Compare your answers with a partner:
− explore new cultures
− love of new foods
− making new friends
− desire to travel
− learn new ways of living
− widening your professional experience
− improving your understanding of the world
− language immersion
− making change in the world
C. Express your opinion on the following statements:
1. 'I learned very quickly that when you emigrate, you lose the crutches that have been your
support; you must begin from zero, because the past is erased with a single stroke and no
one cares where you're from or what you did before' (Isabel Allende).
2. 'History shows that it is not only senseless and cruel, but also difficult to state who is a
foreigner' (Claudio Magris). (Taken from:
3. 'We shall be judged more by what we do at home than what we preach abroad' (J. F.
4. 'Usually speaking, the worst-bred person in company is a young traveller who just
returned from abroad' (Jonathan Swift). (Taken from: )
D. Write some fresh ideas in your blog.
“What characteristic features should people
who are going to work abroad have?”
Before you decide to take the
plunge you should assess your
E. Read this list of important characteristics for overseas workers.
Have you mentioned any of them in your personal writing?
General Traits:
Enjoy change, have a sense of adventure, desire for challenge, open mind, patience and curiosity;
Adaptation and Coping Skills:
Emotional stability and ability to deal with stress, understanding of culture shock, observation
and adaptation skills, flexibility, humour, self-knowledge;
Intercultural Communication Skills:
Tolerance, sensitivity, listening and observing skills, nonverbal communication skills, knowledge
of a second language;
Overseas Work Effectiveness Traits and Skills:
Independence and self-discipline, training experience, resourcefulness, versatility, persistence,
organizational and people skills, leadership, energy, project planning skills, writing skills, verbal
communication skills, loyalty and tenacity, tact, philosophical commitment to field of work;
Key Traits of an Effective Overseas Employee:
Interpersonal skills, assertiveness and sense of identity, realistic pre-departure expectations.
(Taken from: )
F. Match the words and their definitions. Then learn them by heart.
1. curiosity
A. being very determined and not willing to stop when achieving smth
2. observation
B. trying to continue to do smth in a determined way
3. resourcefulness C. being quick to express your opinions and feelings
4. versatility
D. wanting to find out about smth
5. persistence
E. having a wide range of skills and abilities
6. tenacity
F. the process of watching smb or smth very carefully
7. assertiveness
G. good at finding effective ways to deal with problems
G. Before you start reading the text, discuss this question with a partner. Make a list of
your ideas.
What problems do people encounter when they start working abroad? Think of as many
problems as you can.
H. Read the text.
Tales of woe from the roaming professionals
By Rebecca Marston, Business reporter, BBC News
The list of things that can cause headaches when moving countries for work is a very long one
Moving country for work was not a good move for Lieve Monnens-Cash - it prompted
the collapse of her marriage. Originally from Belgium, she had already experienced living and
working in another country: "We'd been in Macclesfield in the north of England, but after 10
years there I had only three friends. I thought if we moved it would kick-start our life and our
marriage. But after a year and a half the marriage had fallen apart." She and her two children had
moved to be with her husband, a photographer, in the US. She settled in Princeton, New Jersey,
but her marriage fell apart: "I was on all the antidepressants you can imagine. And I was seeing
a counsellor, sometimes you don't want to bother your friends."
More and more people are moving abroad for work. In a new series we will be looking at
the problems and successes of making your home abroad. Of all the things that can go wrong on
a placement, marriage breakdown is the most likely, says Scott Sullivan, executive vice-president
of Brookfield Global Recruitment Service. "Whether it is the refusal to take an assignment or the
failure to complete one, the obstacles in the path to a successful international assignment have
less to do with what is happening at the office and more to do with what is going on at home."
He points to Brookfield's recent Global Relocation Trends Report which indicates that 62% of all
refusals to accept an international posting are family related. They include a range of issues;
children's education, family adjustment, partner resistance, partner's career, host location, quality
of life, lack of practical support and personal security. Of these issues, he says 34% of expatriates
return from assignment prematurely because of family concerns.
'Shrivelling'. Lieve Monnens-Cash says her marriage was suffering anyway. Her husband
was already working in the US and she thought the move would mean they could be together
more. That didn't happen: "I was on his visa so I couldn't work. That meant he had to work even
harder because there was only one income. "When the marriage broke up it was terrible. We'd
sold everything, but because I was on his visa we couldn't split up as I would have had to leave
the country. "It was so difficult to find work. I have a communications degree, something that in
Europe was very useful. But in the US it wasn't special enough. "My husband was classed as an
'alien of extraordinary ability' - someone unusual, and valuable. Not only did it mean he could
work, it also did a lot for his ego, while mine was shrivelling as someone who had always
worked, but was now a kept wife."
But there doesn't have to be a big drama to make an overseas placing an unhappy affair.
Alexis Crowe followed her husband from the Southern United States when he was posted to the
UK by his firm, a software specialist company: "Whenever you move to a new culture there are a
million small things that in and of themselves aren't a big deal, but when you're constantly
bombarded with them they become one."
Glitch sequence. It didn't begin well: "We had a terrible send-off. My husband came out
from the US in advance and myself and the kids, then aged two and three, prepared to follow
once the container with all our things had arrived so we could move straight in. "The fun then
really began to start. The first glitch was an email telling us a pipe had burst in our old home in
the south which had flooded our house - and we had to pay for it. At the same time, the house in
the UK that we'd chosen suddenly became unavailable when the landlord decided he wanted to
stay in it so we had no home to go to. "Then the volcano in Iceland started erupting and there
were no flights over in any case. We finally got on a plane we were told could be going
anywhere - even Africa - but we decided it was time to hope for the best and just get going. "It
ended up landing in Ireland at Shannon - at least it was the British Isles." Various problems
continued to dog the move. Alexis was unable to find any schooling for the children for six
months, finally she did, and she set about trying to make friends. But that was another venture
that didn't go well: "The other mums didn't speak to me for five months - we stood out there
outside the school every day, and no-one spoke - even the neighbours didn't even look at me
when I said hello. "Sometimes I just thought 'My god, I hate this place'."
Crime. Children were the biggest headache for another family, who moved for work to
Sao Paulo in Brazil. This family did not want to be named as they were afraid of offending
acquaintances. All the children were at least a year ahead of their Brazilian counterparts. The
amount of homework was tiny and the standard of that very low. Of more concern was the
discipline at the school. Compared to the private UK and the US system, there was more
disrespect of teachers, disruption in the classroom, including bad language and rudeness - even
the children were shocked by it. The last straw for the family was that their primary-school aged
child was released at the end of the school day into the care of the domestic help of another
parent who the child's parents didn't even know - for the second time.The high crime rate and
violence in the city underlined the parents' fears. They decided the children would be better
off at boarding school thousands of miles away in the UK.
Delayed pay. Brookfield's Scott Sullivan says companies can do a lot to address
challenges posed by dangerous surroundings: "Traditional, softer benefits, like spousal transition
assistance, cross-cultural training, and mentoring programmes, take on even more importance in
higher-risk locations and should be a mandatory provision for the family." Alexis Crowe says her
husband's company had little experience in relocating people and a better package would have
helped enormously. They received $3,000 (about £2,000) which was mostly taken up by just the
cost of the oven, fridge and washing machine. But it wasn't just the financial side: "It would have
been really nice to have been met with a car at the airport, just to take off some of the shock of
arrival and the stress. Because there was lots of that - on top of dozens of other things, my
husband's first pay cheque didn't come through on time." Barbara West of Culture Works, says
cultural problems are often not anticipated by those moving from one English speaking country
to another, as in the case of Alexis Crowe. One of her clients, who did not want to be named,
said his wife decided her move from London to Melbourne in Australia was not a good one. His
company was one that provides wide-ranging support for their placements, but even this did not
help. Barbara West explains: "His company only provided cultural training for the couple after
she started having troubles, which was much too late because she'd already made up her mind
and started the process of going back without him. "As is often the case, she assumed that
moving to another English speaking country would be easy and if she had any problems she
could simply ask the locals. But every country has its differences, differences in child-rearing
practices, education systems, friendship patterns, hierarchy at work, and when people don't
understand this they think it's the people around them, rather than the system. "This escalates the
spiral downward as the once helpful and sympathetic locals start to ignore and ostracise the
'foreigner' - who seems to hate everything about where they are living."
Hanging on. Alexis Crowe has kept her chin firmly up, even though she experienced
such coldness. She says part of the problem for her was the very nature of the placement: "We
took it because it was temporary, but because it was for a set period of time people felt it wasn't
worth getting to know us. "It takes 18 months to get close to fitting in, even things like finding
what you like in the grocery store, I'm just getting used to it - and finally so is my son - after well
over a year suddenly last week he said he liked his school. "My motto to myself was just keep
swimming - just keep swimming - finally a year in I found a new quote: 'Bloom wherever you're
planted' - I just had to get on with it." Lieve Monnens-Cash hung on in Princeton. After a
struggle which involved her returning to her home country of Belgium to wait for a new visa leaving the children with her husband in the US, she made it back and through starting small by
voluntary work, has now a paid job - and a new husband: "If your marriage is shaky, moving
countries is like having a baby to make it work - it puts a lot of stress on you, a lot of pressure.
"If you're having issues it's not going to help you at all - you have to really work together to
make such a move."
(Taken from:
I. Answer the following questions about the text.
1. Why was Lieve Monnens-Cash on antidepressants when her family moved country for
2. What are the refusals to accept an international posting usually related to?
3. Why does Lieve Monnens-Cash say that 'her ego was shrivelling'?
4. What troubles did Alexis Crowe's family have when they moved country for work?
5. Why did Alexis Crowe decide to separate from the children?
6. What can companies do to take off the first stress and shock of the expatriates?
7. Why do English-speaking people assume that moving to an English-speaking country
would be easy? Are they right?
8. How can one hang on for success in a foreign country?
J. Work with a dictionary and mark these phrases as positive or negative in meaning. Then
learn them.
to prompt smth
a glitch
to be a headache for
to kick-start smth
to be bombarded by smth
to shrivel
the last straw
to hope for the best
to dog smth
a struggle
to underline smb's fears
to fall apart
to be better off (doing smth)
to break down
to address challenges
to suffer
to keep one's chin firmly up
to go wrong
big drama
to escalate the spiral downward
K. Describe all the problems mentioned in the text that people who move countries for
work had.
L. Read the text and match the headlines to the passages. There is one extra headline.
Spanish job crisis: Go north, young workers
A. Spain's high unemployment rate of around 23% means many Spaniards, young people
in particular, are leaving the country to find work elsewhere. One popular destination is
Germany, where the jobless rate is under 7%. But starting afresh in a new country is
challenging. Munich's airport shuttle bus is dropping off newly arrived passengers in the city
centre. Among those getting off are Spaniards Jose Sandino and Juan Alberto Fuente. Sandino
and Fuente are thirty-something industrial engineers from Malaga, in southern Spain. Each has
more than a decade of experience under his belt. But Spain's economic crisis has left them
jobless. And now it's turned them into immigrants. The two clean-cut, shivering men make their
way to an information desk at Munich's main train station, and try out their beginner's German.
After a long ride on the underground, and getting lost a couple of times on the street, they find
their new temporary home. It's a giant youth hostel, filled mostly with young backpackers. Their
room is small and bare, with two wooden beds, a desk and a wardrobe.
B. It's hard to believe now, says Sandino, but not long ago his consulting firm back in
Spain was paying him a big salary. Then the Spanish housing sector collapsed and so did his
business. Sitting on his bed, he says he can't believe that just this morning he was saying
goodbye to his girlfriend and family. "This move has been complicated," he says "because my
girlfriend is pregnant and alone now. Our baby is due in July. They will come and join me here,
where we don't know anything or anyone!" He knows just one other person here - his travelling
pal, Juan Alberto Fuente. They met during an intensive German language course in Malaga, and
decided to take the plunge together. Fuente says he could have gone on living indefinitely with
his parents, knowing he'd be taken care of, but that was not his goal in life. "If you send out tons
of CVs and no-one even calls you for an interview, you have to go out and find work. You can't
just sit on your hands," he says. In their first couple of weeks in Germany, the two Spaniards
say German companies are impressed with their CVs, but have told them to call back when they
can speak German. So right now, they are learning the language as fast as they can.
C. Spain's unemployment problem is driving highly educated people like Fuente and
Sandino abroad by the tens of thousands. More people are now leaving Spain than moving there
for the first time in more than a generation. And Germany is a principal destination. But it's not
an easy one. "Coming north is hardly a waltz through the edelweiss," says Cristina Rico, a longtime Spanish resident of Munich. The unprepared, she says, usually fail. Having tea in a Munich
café, she says a lot of Spaniards heard how German Chancellor Angela Merkel called last year
for workers to come to Germany, without fully understanding the implications.
D. "Spaniards have a distorted idea of finding work here in Germany," Rico says. "That
it's easier than it is. I've seen people come here and turn around and go straight back home. They
had diplomas but didn't speak English or German." Cristina says that over the past year she has
been bombarded with so many emails from unemployed Spaniards curious about Germany that
she's started a Facebook page, called Spaniards in Munich. Every day people log on with
questions about jobs, housing, healthcare, German language courses and diplomas. In Germany,
with its strong vocational schooling, even so-called unskilled jobs require a certificate of study.
For example, Rico says, even to work in a pet shop you have to show you've been properly
trained for that particular job.
Patricia Cigala is a 22-year-old Spaniard from the southeastern city of Murcia. She moved to Germany three months ago and found a job with a catering
company. She says one challenge has been adapting to how Germans interact with each other.
"Sometimes you find yourself in a German acquaintance's neighbourhood and you want to just
pop by unannounced," she says shaking her head. "Don't do it!" Cigala says in Spain friends and
neighbours constantly drop by without warning. Not only are they welcome, but it's a given that
they'll be served coffee, a beer, whatever's on hand. "Here, you have to have a date, an
appointment," she says. "And you have to set it up days, sometimes weeks, in advance." Ana
Abad, a 20-year-old nanny from Madrid, has a head start on Cigala. She's been in Munich for a
year and says she's made strong German friendships. "Germans seem very closed off at first,"
she says. "But in the end you realise they're not cold at all. I've made true, good friends here."
E. American economist Marten Olsen has studied the employment market across Europe. He
says the cost of hiring in Spain has risen 24% in recent years, because of wage and benefit increases.
At the same time, he says, productivity has stayed nearly flat. In Germany, it's been the opposite.
"Spanish workers have only become a little more productive but wage compensation has gone up a
lot. Germans are a lot more productive and wage compensation has only gone up a little." The effect,
he says, is that it has become relatively cheaper to hire people in Germany than in Spain. In the old
days, Olsen says, Spain could have devalued its currency, the peseta, to stay competitive. That would
help stem the exodus of workers now. But as part of the euro, that option is not on the table.
By Gerry Hadden (Taken from: )
M. Match the expressions with their meanings.
1. To start afresh
A. to make a short visit
2. to get smth under your belt
B. to finally do smth important after thinking of it
3. to take the plunge
C. begin in a new or different way
4. to sit on your hands
D. to go somewhere quickly or for a short time
5. to pop by
E. to get an advantage over other people
6. to drop by
F. to stop people from leaving
7. to have a head start
G. to fail to act
8. to stem the exodus
H. to achive smth that is important or useful
N. Organise a discussion with a partner.
Task: You and your friend have just graduated from the university. You are thinking of a
possibility to go abroad and start your career there. Student A is for the move. Student B is
against the move.
- Discuss the problem
- Be active (invite your partner to come up with ideas, ask for his / her suggestions, attitudes)
- Be polite
- You don't have to come to an agreement but you have to persuade your friend that you are right.
O. Write a 250-word opinion essay on the following topic:
“ Is it better to work in your own country but without any perspectives or to move to a foreign
Follow the plan:
− introduction (state the problem)
− body 1 (express your opinion and reasons for your opinion)
− body 2 (express a different point of view and reasons for it)
− conclusion (sum up)
A. Write words for the definitions:
1. s___________a fixed amount of money that you earn each month or year from your job;
2. p_________ an extra payment or benefit that you get in your job;
3. w________ an amount of money that you earn for working usu.according to how many
hours or days you work each week or month;
4. e___________ a________ a business that helps people to find jobs or companies to find
5. c__________ a job or series of related jobs that you do;
B. Complete the sentences with the correct form of the bold word.
Our company is looking for highly _________ teachers.
You need ____________ skills to enter this business.
___________ team players are welcome in all companies.
Alice can work as childminder. She's ___________.
____________ people are reasonable and sensible.
C. Circle the right word.
1. He hopes to start-kick / kick-start / start the kick of his career by getting this job.
2. She's going to work at / around / in / over this project.
3. When workers violate company's rules, they must be laid off / got off / eased off /
4. They have to organise / time-table / schedule / flex specific hours for working mothers.
5. Proper preparation helps to alleviate breakdowns / problems / accomplishments / stress.
6. Reiterate / repeat / reckon again your interest in this position.
7. Your interview suit / attire / robes should be neat.
8. Promote / advance / put forward your candidacy.
9. You are not fit for this work market / workshop / workplace.
10. People with good sign / nonverbal / gesture communication skills are required for this
Max 10
D. Read the text and fill in the gaps with phrases below.
Welcoming Your Employee
Take time on the first day 1) ________________ and get the relationship off to a good start. Do
all you can to make the employee feel welcome.
Personalize the workspace. Ask whether your employee has suggestions for making his or her
workspace more comfortable. Encourage your employee 2) ___________________ if that's
feasible and appropriate in your business.
Show your employee the ropes. Explain how workplace equipment works and describe any 3)
________________ that must be followed.
Make introductions. Chances are that your business is part of a community of several small
businesses, so help make sure your employee becomes 4) ____________________________.
Introduce your new employee to people in nearby businesses who are likely to see him or her
come or go each day.
Do lunch. To show that this is an auspicious day for both of you, offer to take your employee to
lunch. It doesn't have to be at a fancy restaurant. The mere act of 5) _______________, even in a
modest eatery, can help 6) __________________.
Provide business cards. An especially welcoming touch is to give your employee 7)_______
______________ with his or her name on them. You can print these cards using your computer
or, for a modest charge, get them from a print shop or office supply store.
(Taken from:
A. breaking bread together
B. to set the right tone
C. a batch of business cards
D. you and your employee bond
E. to personalize the surroundings
F. specific procedures
G. a recognized part of that community
E. Fill in the gaps with the correct form of the bold word.
Advantages of Using Contracts
Employment contracts can be very useful if you want control over
the employee's ability to leave your business. For example, if finding
or training a replacement will be very 1)_____ or time-consuming for
your company, you might want a 2_______ contract. It can lock the
employee into a specific term (for example, two years) or require
the employee to give you enough notice to find and train a suitable
replacement (for example, 90 days' notice). While you can't force
someone to keep working for you, an employee is likely to comply
with the agreement's terms if there's a penalty for not doing so.
3)_________ contracts might also make sense if the employee will
be learning confidential and sensitive information about your business.
You can insert 4)____________ clauses that prevent the employee
from disclosing the information or using it for personal gain. Similarly, a
contract can protect you by preventing an employee from competing
against you after leaving your company.
Sometimes, you can use an employment contract to entice a highly
5)_______ candidate to come work for you instead of the competition.
By promising the individual job security and 6)________ terms in an
employment contract, you can "7)___________the deal."
Finally, using an employment contract can give you greater control
over the employee. For example, if the contract specifies standards
for the employee's 8)_________ and grounds for termination, you
may have an easier time terminating an employee who doesn't live
up to your standards.
(Taken from: )
F. In some lines of this text there is a mistake. Mark these lines with a cross (Х) and correct
the mistakes. Put a tick (√) if the line is correct.
(1)Writing job descriptions is one of those tasks managers tend put off_____
(2)or handle half-heartedly. The temptation is continue using outdated_____
(3)descriptions or grab a generic template off the Internet. In the crush _____
(4)of day-to-day deadlines and emergencies, it can hard to find the time____
(5) for what might appear to be exercise in paperwork. But carefully _____
(6)drafted job descriptions aren't just pieces of paper: They are the
(7)cornerstone to hiring effectively, communicating expectations to new____
(8)employees, evaluating performance, terminating employees can't ____
(9)meet your job requirements, and much more - all while keeping you ____
(10)and your company out legal trouble.
(11)The process of creating job description also offers a rare opportunity___
(12) to examine your team and your company as whole, and consider _____
(13)what human resources you will need succeed. Where are you now?____
(14)Where would you like to be in the future? And what kinds of skills and____
(15) abilities will your people need to help get your company from here to___
there? A carefully drafted job description positions and prepares your
group for the future.
(Taken from:
Max 15
50 points
Part 1 Education.
Unit 1.
C. 1 b, 2 a, 3 b, 4 d, 5 a, 6 b, 7 c, 8 b, 9 b, 10 c.
H. 1. echelon, 2. driven, 3. to abort, 4. prodigy, 5. standing, 6. be transferred, 7. make fun of, 8.
to excel, 9. earn the opportunity, 10. a fair.
Unit 2.
D. 1 d, 2. g, 3 e, 4 f, 5 b, 6 a, 7 c.
Unit 4.
D. 1. to turn back on, 2. burden, 3. to bully, 4. to remove from school, 5. to rekindle the fire, 6.
co-operative, 7. to home-school, 8. rough estimate, 9. liberal, 10. desegregation, 11. attainment,
12. scathe about, 13. rounded, 14. attention deficit hyperactive disorder, 15. spelling bees, 16. to
measure up academically, 17. rudimentary, 18. be exposed to, 19. to commit, 20. to keep up with,
21. curriculum, 22. offspring.
E. commitment-to commit-committed
education – to educate-educated
bully – to bully – bullied
attainment – to attain – attainable
demand – to demand – demanded / demanding
liberal – to liberate – liberal
diversity – to diversify – diverse
Unit 5.
C. 1.hymn, 2. archetypal, 3. light-hearted, 4. to poke fun at, 5. solemn, 6. academic occasions, 7.
G. 1 d, 2 c, e, 3 a, 4 b.
Unit 6.
C. 1 D, 2 C, 3 B, 4 F, 5 E, 6 A.
F. 1 C, 2 D, 3 B, 4 A.
G. 1 C, 2 C, 3 A, 4 C.
Unit 7.
B. 1 E, 2 G, 3 I, 4 C, 5 B, 6 F, 7 A, 8 H. Extra: D.
C. 1 e, 2 g, 3 b, 4 a, 5 d, 6 c, 7 f.
D. 1 c, 2 d, 3 b, 4 a.
M. 1 G, 2 C, 3 B, 4 E, 5 A, 6 D, 7 F.
Review and Check.
A. 1.curriculum, 2. degree, 3. literacy, 4. skill, 5 illiteracy.
B. 1. equal, 2. was enrolled, 3. innovative, 4. beneficial, 5. most dedicated.
C. 1. Humanities, 2. tuition, 3. dorms, 4. principal, 5. home-schoolers.
D. 1. degree, 2. campus, 3. drop out, 4. disadvantage, 5. faculty.
E. 1D, 2A, 3E, 4G, 5B, 6F, 7C.
F. 1. beliefs, 2. recognizing, 3. awareness, 4. develops, 5. diverse, 6. increasingly, 7. contributes,
8. penetration.
G. 1. a, 2. √, 3. of, 4. √, 5. to, 6. is, 7. as, 8. on, 9. √, 10. is, 11. √, 12. √, 13. be, 14. √, 15. of.
Part 2. Employment
Unit 1.
1. developer, data security analyst, software tester;
2. electrician, roofer, pipe layer;
3. industrial hygienist, clinical product analyst, director of nursing;
4. waitstaff, registered dietician, executive chef;
5. computer and information sciences teacher, senoir academic advisor, high-school
vocational counsellor;
6. investigator, jail officer, correctional officer specialist;
7. landscape architect, decoration assistant, architectural designer;
8. on-air announcer, TV video tape operator, event manager.
G. 1E, 2C, 3B, 4A, 5D, 6F.
H. 1F, 2E, 3G, 4I, 5D, 6A, 7H, 8C, 9J, 10B.
Unit 2.
B. 1D, 2B, 3H, 4K, 5J, 6L, 7E, 8I, 9C, 10F, 11G, 12A, 13M.
H. plant feet, have shortcomings, eliminate stress, tackle problems, gain skill, earn confidence,
give oneself credit, celebrate victory, schedule specific hours.
Unit 3.
D. 1E, 2C, 3G, 4H, 5B, 6J, 7F, 8A, 9I, 10D.
G. 1 career accomplishments, 2 getting the third degree, 3 regroup, 4 ahead of time, 5 alleviate, 6
actual examples, 7 attire, 8 promote candidacy, 9 reiterate interest, 10 provide evidence, 11
H. 1F, 2C, 3H, 4G, 5J, 6I, 7A, 8K, 9L, 10D, 11B, 12E.
Unit 4.
G. 1F, 2D, 3A, 4G, 5E, 6H, 7B, 8C.
Unit 5.
F. 1D, 2F, 3G, 4E, 5B, 6A, 7C.
J. Positive: to prompt, to kick-start, to hope for the best, to be better off, to address challenges, to
keep one's chin up.
Negative: to shrivel, to dog, to fall apart, to break down, to suffer, to go wrong, a glitch, the
last straw, to struggle, disruption, obstacles, concerns, big drama, to be a headache, to be
bombarded, to underline smb's fears, to escalate the spiral downward.
L. A5, B1, C6, D2, E3, Extra: 4
M. 1c, 2h, 3b, 4g, 5d, 6a, 7e, 8f.
Review and Check.
A. 1.salary, 2. perk. 3. wages, 4. employment agency, 5. career.
B. 1. motivated, 2. entrepreneurial, 3. resourceful, 4. reliable, 5. coherent.
C. 1. kick-start, 2. work at, 3. laid off, 4. schedule, 5. stress, 6. reiterate, 7. attire, 8. promote, 9.
workplace, 10. non-verbal.
D. 1b, 2e, 3f, 4g, 5a, 6d, 7c.
E. 1. costly, 2. written, 3. employment, 4. confidentiality, 5. skilled, 6. beneficial, 7. sweeten, 8.
F. 1. √, 2. to, 3. √, 4. be, 5. √, 6. √, 7. √, 8. who, 9. √, 10. of, 11. a, 12. a, 13. to, 14. √, 15. √.
INTRODUCTION ...........................................................................................................................3
BOOKMAP .....................................................................................................................................4
PART 1. EDUCATION ....................................................................................................................4
UNIT 1. THE GREAT AIM OF EDUCATION...............................................................................6
UNIT 2. PICK AND CHOOSE .......................................................................................................9
UNIT 4. THE PROS AND CONS OF HOME SCHOOLING ......................................................16
UNIT 5. DOES IT RING A BELL?...............................................................................................19
UNIT 6. IS LITERACY A LUXURY? ..........................................................................................23
UNIT 7. BRITISH SCHOOLING .................................................................................................27
PART 2. EMPLOYMENT .............................................................................................................37
UNIT 1. CHIEF COOK AND BOTTLE WASHER......................................................................37
UNIT 2. A REAL EAGER BEAVER ............................................................................................40
UNIT 3. BARE YOUR HEART ....................................................................................................44
UNIT 4. WAITING IN THE WINGS ............................................................................................49
UNIT 5. OFFSHORE ....................................................................................................................53
REVIEW AND CHECK ...............................................................................................................59
ANSWERS ....................................................................................................................................62
ANSWERS ....................................................................................................................................63
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