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МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ
Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное
учреждение высшего профессионального образования
САНКТ-ПЕТЕРБУРГСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ
АЭРОКОСМИЧЕСКОГО ПРИБОРОСТРОЕНИЯ
Т. Е. Салье, М. Р. Проскуряков
WELCOME ТО HIGHER EDUCATION
ENGLISH FOR STUDENTS
OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS, ECONOMY, LAW,
AND CUSTOMS SERVICES
Учебное пособие
Под редакцией
доктора технических наук, профессора А. А. Оводенко
Санкт-Петербург
2011
УДК 811.112
ББК 81.2 Англ
W49
Рецензенты:
кандидат филологических наук, доцент заведующий кафедрой
английского языка СПбГУ М. Б. Шевяков;
кандидат филологических наук, доцент кафедры английского языка
Невского института языка и культуры А. В. Ширяева
Утверждено
редакционно-издательским советом университета
в качестве учебного пособия
Салье, Т. Е.
W49 Welcome to Higher Education: English for Students of International
Relations, Economy, Law and Customs Services: учеб. пособие /
Т. Е. Салье, М. Р. Проскуряков; под ред. А. А. Оводенко. – СПб.:
ГУАП, 2011. – 104 с.
ISBN 978-5-8088-0633-7
Учебное пособие соответствует государственному образовательному
стандарту и требованиям программ по английскому языку для специальностей
«Международные отношения», «Экономика», «Юриспруденция», «Таможенное
дело». Оно рассчитано на 2–4 семестра работы. Материал пособия составлен таким
образом, чтобы постепенно расширять словарный запас и закреплять навыки
профессиональной речи учащегося. В пособии освещены грамматические явления,
встречающиеся в профессиональной и деловой разговорной речи, в экономических
и юридических текстах и документах.
УДК 811.112
ББК 81.2 Англ
Учебное издание
WELCOME ТО HIGHER EDUCATION
ENGLISH FOR STUDENTS
OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS, ECONOMY, LAW,
AND CUSTOMS SERVICES
Учебное пособие
Отпечатано в авторской редакции
Верстальщик А. Н. Колешко
Сдано в набор 06.07.11. Подписано к печати 30.08.11. Формат 60×84 1/16.
Бумага офсетная. Усл.-печ. л. 6,04. Тираж 400 экз. Заказ № 343.
ISBN 978-5-8088-0633-7
Редакционно-издательский центр ГУАП
190000, Санкт-Петербург, Б. Морская ул., 67
© Санкт-Петербургский государственный
университет аэрокосмического
приборостроения (ГУАП), 2011
© Т. Е. Салье, М. Р. Проскуряков, 2011
2
Предисловие
Учебное пособие «Welcome to Higher Education» адресовано студентам
I – II курса специальностей «Международные отношения», «Экономика»,
«Юриспруденция» и «Таможенное дело». Оно может быть использовано как
в условиях языковой среды, так и вне еѐ, в рамках интенсивных
краткосрочных курсов и в программе академического года, в работе с
группой и при индивидуальном курсе.
Цель книги – подготовить студента к чтению специальной литературы
и обсуждению тем, связанных
с будущей профессией, а также с
многочисленными проблемами современного общества, такими как права
человека, гуманитарная деятельность, религия и свобода совести, и т.д.
Учебник ориентирован на развитие всех четырех видов речевой
деятельности, необходимых для реализации практических целей в
профессиональной международной коммуникации. Предполагается, что
студенты I курса владеют языком в рамках программы средней школы.
Поэтому из книги исключены такие темы, как «моя семья», «мой день» и
прочие бытовые темы, так как эти сюжеты уже в достаточной степени
знакомы студентам.
Грамматика, чтение, говорение и письмо представлены в пособии с
учѐтом постоянно растущего уровня владения языком, что позволяет активно
формировать и развивать соответствующие знания, навыки и умения
студента.
Методическая модель курса разработана на основе сознательнопрактического метода. Однако модульный принцип построения позволил
создать пособие, более полно соответствующее современным условиям.
Пособие состоит из 18 уроков и разделено на шесть частей.
«Избыточность» и модульная подача материала учебника позволяют
варьировать продолжительность курса, работать в группе с разноуровневым
составом студентов, менять структуру курса (набор лексико–грамматических
тем) в зависимости от индивидуальных способностей и потребностей
студентов.
Пособие построено на основе оригинальных текстов, взятых их
английских и американских научных, научно–популярных и общественно–
политических изданий. Ряд текстов посвящен будущей профессии студентов
– международным отношениям, правоведению, таможенному делу.
Включены также страноведческие материалы, связанные со становлением
правовых норм и законодательных органов, а также таможенной службы в
англоязычных странах.
Каждый текст в уроке сопровождается лексическим и грамматическим
комментарием. Работа с текстом предполагает
разбор трудностей,
встретившихся в данном тексте, ответы на вопросы, обсуждение затронутой
проблематики и пересказ. Каждый урок включает большое количество
упражнений на перевод с русского предложений по изучаемой тематике, а
3
также
включающих
лексический
и
грамматический
материал,
представленный в уроке. Одна из целей курса – научить студентов
переводить с русского на английский специальные и публицистические
материалы.
Совмещение лексико–грамматического и разговорного аспектов
продиктованы коммуникативной целесообразностью. Речевые задания и
тексты построены на грамматическом материале урока, что позволяет сразу
вывести в речь новые лексико–грамматические структуры. Благодаря этому
принципу темы профессиональной речи становятся прочным элементом
используемой при коммуникации базы студента.
Упражнения на развитие навыков устной речи представлены в виде тем
для сообщений или дискуссий по неоднозначным проблемам, затронутым в
книге. Цель этих упражнений – научить студентов вести беседу на темы,
связанные с профессией, и умению обсуждать общие, а не только бытовые
темы.
Каждый урок учебника содержит: новый грамматический материал с
заданиями для его усвоения, текст с вопросами и заданиями, задания для
практики устной речи, письменные задания.
Авторы
4
PART 1. LEARN HOW TO STUDY
UNIT 1. LEARN HOW TO LISTEN
Грамматика:
Конверсия;
Употребление различных времен в пассивном залоге;
Употребление инфинитивных конструкций при глаголах
со значением желания и требования;
Особенности значения существительных с суффиксом –er.
TEXT
Read and translate the text, paying close attention to the words in bold type
and the structures underlined. Below you will find special explanations and
exercises devoted to these words and structures.
Good Listening in Class
It is important to be a good listener in class. Much of what you will have to
learn will be presented verbally by your teachers. Just hearing what your teachers
say is not the same as listening to what they say. Listening is a cognitive act that
requires you to pay attention and think about and mentally process what you hear.
Here are some things you should do to be a good listener in class.
Be Cognitively Ready to Listen When You Come to Class. Make sure you
complete all assigned work and readings. Review your notes from previous class
sessions. Think about what you know about the topic that will be covered in class
that day.
Be Emotionally Ready to Listen When You Come to Class. Your attitude
is important. Make a conscious choice to find the topic useful and interesting. Be
committed to learning all that you can.
Listen with a Purpose. Identify what you expect and hope to learn from the
class session. Listen for these things as your teacher talks.
Listen with an Open Mind. Be receptive to what your teacher says. It is
good to question what is said as long as you remain open to points of view other
than your own.
Be Attentive. Focus on what your teacher is saying. Try not to daydream
and let your mind wander to other things. It helps to sit in the front and center of
the class, and to maintain eye contact with your teacher.
Be an Active Listener. You can think faster than your teacher can speak.
Use this to your advantage by evaluating what is being said and trying to anticipate
what will be said next. Take good written notes about what your teacher says.
While you can think faster than your teacher can speak, you cannot write faster
than your teacher can speak. Taking notes requires you to make decisions about
what to write, and you have to be an active listener to do this.
Meet the Challenge. Don't give up and stop listening when you find the
information being presented difficult to understand. Listen even more carefully at
5
these times and work hard to understand what is being said. Don't be reluctant to
ask questions.
Answer the following questions:
1. What must a student do to be a good listener?
2. Why is it important to listen attentively to what is being said?
3. Why is it important to maintain eye contact with your teacher?
4. What decisions do you have to make while taking notes?
VOCABULARY STUDY AND PRACTICE
Word Commentary
an open mind - to keep an open mind – воспринимать информацию без
предвзятости и укоренившихся стереотипов; быть восприимчивым к новым
взглядам.
Exercise 1. Find synonyms of the following words in the text: to predict, to
concentrate, to be inattentive, to demand.
Exercise 2. Translate the following into Russian paying attention to the
words in bold type. First, look these words up in the dictionary, keeping in mind
their various meanings; remember also that they may belong to different parts of
speech.
A. 1.Snow covered the hillside. 2. He laughed to cover his nervousness. 3. The
profit of the enterprise is so small it doesn't cover the expenses. 4. By sunset the
travellers had covered 30 miles. 5. His research covered a wide field. 6. The
newspaper story covered the Labour Party annual conference. 7. The accident
received front - page coverage. 8. The burglar broke into the house under cover
of darkness.
B. About 17% of all crime in 1938 was committed by people under 21. 2. He
committed suicide because he was in despair. 3. The company must commit its
entire resources into the project. 4. A sum of $6m would be committed to
research into drug misuse. 5. In 1973, when the OPEC oil embargo went into
effect, the Bell Telephone system committed itself to reducing energy
consumption. 6. The President emphasized his commitment to human rights
and religious freedom.
C. The story focused public attention on a serious problem. 2. The organization
undertakes research and action focused on preventing and ending grave abuses
of human rights. 3. The photograph was out of focus.
D. The needle of the compass points to the North. 2. All the evidence points to his
guilt. 3. I like the report in general, but there are points I object to. 4. Your
point of view will be discussed at the conference. 5. I must point out that you
are making a mistake. 6. The astronomer pointed his telescope to the Moon. 7.
At the museum, he pointed out the finest pictures to me. 8. There is no point in
asking him questions. He will not tell us anything. 9. She was not listening and
missed the point of the story. 10. The good lecturer probably repeat or
emphasize the significant points.
E. Mount Everest presented a challenge to people. 2. These ideas are open to
challenge.3. The general strike is a means of challenging the total authority of
6
the government. 4. U.S. business today is challenged by aggressive overseas
competitors. 5. The challenge of democracy is making difficult choices 6. She
likes her job to be a challenge. 7. She performed the most challenging tasks
without a mistake. 8. Your objectives should be challenging, but they must also
be attainable.
GRAMMAR STUDY AND PRACTICE
A. Be an Active Listener - слушайте активно;
to be a good listener - хорошо слушать.
В английском языке свойство предмета или человека часто передается
через отглагольное существительное с суффиксом - er. Например:
He is a heavy smoker - он много курит (он заядлый курильщик);
She is an early riser - она рано встает;
She is a poor sailor - она плохо переносит качку;
He is a quick learner - он быстро схватывает.
Exercise 3. Translate the following sentences into Russian, paying attention
to the nouns with the suffix –er. In the Russian phrase, use the verb.
1. Benjamin Franklin was a firm believer in the principles of democracy.
2. He was an outspoken supporter of the government.
3. My brother is a poor sailor.
4. Students are sometimes reluctant readers.
5. She is an occasional smoker.
6. Most students, like most other people, are poor listeners.
7. My family are kitchen eaters.
8. Business and medical schools are among the best users of computer technology
in the classroom.
9. I am a coffee drinker and my mother is a tea drinker.
B. what is being said - то, что говорится.
Обратите внимание на употребление пассивного залога в форме Present
Progressive. Такая форма широко употребляется и характерна для выпусков
новостей по радио и телевидению.
Exercise 4. A) find passive constructions in the text
b) Translate the following sentences into Russian:
1. A new round of Arab - Israeli negotiations is being held in Washington.
2. The businessman is being criminally prosecuted for tax evasion.
3. Negotiations are being conducted between the government and the opposition
leaders
4. The press must watch budgets and programs to see if the public’s tax money is
being spent properly.
5. As the 16th century began, printing presses were turning out thousands of
copies of books printed on paper. They were being published in all European
languages.
6. Active listening is when you listen carefully to make sure you understand and
learn the information that is being conveyed.
7
C. Listening is a cognitive act that requires you to pay attention – слушание
– познавательный акт, который требует, чтобы Вы были внимательны.
Обратите внимание на инфинитивную конструкцию при глаголе to
require – требовать. Инфинитив to pay attention имеет свой субъект you, а вся
конструкция служит дополнением к глаголу requires. Подобные конструкции
при глаголах с значением желания и требования наиболее удобно переводить
придаточным предложением с союзом «чтобы»
Exercise 5. Translate the following sentences into Russian:
1. Under this plan, the federal government would require all employers to provide
health insurance to their workers.
2. An ordinance by the city of San Francisco in 1983 required the employers to
provide separate areas for workers who smoke.
3. His job required him to stay in England for a year.
4. Some firms do not want their employees to know too much of the position and
the result of the business.
D. 1. Listening … requires you to think about and mentally process what
you hear. Слушание… требует, чтобы Вы обдумывали и перерабатывали в
уме то, что Вы слышите. 2. to question what is said - подвергать сомнению
то, что говорится.
Перед нами явление конверсии – свойства слова выступать в качестве
различных частей речи в зависимости от синтаксической функции. Так, в
примере 1, to process является глаголом, поскольку сопровождается
инфинитивной частицей to. В примере 2 to question также является глаголом
в форме инфинитива.
Exercise 6. Translate the following sentences into Russian. Point out which
parts of speech the words in bold type belong to. Explain why.
1. The idea that language mirrors thought goes back to the most ancient
philosophy.
2. There was a big full - length mirror in the bedroom.
3. Ethnic grievances and poverty fuel powerful nationalist passions in many parts
of the world.
4. The membership of this organisation numbers nearly half a million.
5. A student must use every opportunity to further her education.
6. These experiments give valuable information for further research.
7. This group thought that they could focus entirely on environmental activities.
8. As the Sierra Club (an environmental group in the USA) was fighting against
the flooding of the Great Canyon in 1966, its membership mushroomed.
TRANSLATION PRACTICE
(to be done at home in writing)
Exercise 7. Translate the following sentences into English using the words
and structures from the text and exercises:
1. Студент должен сосредоточиться на том, что говорит лектор. 2.
Слушатель может подвергать сомнению все, что говорится. 3. Язык отражает
мышление. 4. Бенджамин Франклин твердо верил в принципы демократии. 5.
8
Правительство требует, чтобы работодатели оплачивали медицинскую
страховку для своих работников. 6. Студенты иногда не любят читать. 7.
Этот политик всегда решительно поддерживал правительство. 8. Стрелка
компаса указывает на север. 9. Мне нравится этот доклад, но я возражаю
против некоторых моментов. 10. Бессмысленно его расспрашивать – он все
равно ничего не скажет. 11. Закон требует, чтобы граждане регулярно
платили налоги. 12. Очень важно перерабатывать информацию в уме. 13.Моя
сестра не переносит морскую качку.
UNIT 2. TAKING NOTES AT LECTURES
Грамматика:
Употребление частицы yet;
Союзы in order to и rather than;
Употребление герундия;
Значения пассивных форм глаголов to expect и
to suppose с инфинитивом.
TEXT
Read and translate the text, paying close attention to the words in bold type
and the structures underlined. Below you will find special explanations and
exercises devoted to these words and structures.
What to Write Down and What to Ignore
Most students write too much. Learning to listen more and write less not
only produces better lecture notes, but also improves memory and reduces stress.
Taking effective notes at lectures is a vital skill for college and university
students. Good notes improve memory, increase concentration, and help students
prepare for those all important exams. Yet, many students panic because they try to
write too much and end up missing the most valuable points. Learning to listen
actively can reduce the stress and result in relevant, more comprehensive notes.
What is Active Listening?
Active listening at lectures means trying to anticipate what will be said and
posing questions rather than passively writing down words without thinking about
them. Students can be active before, during and after a lecture by a) reading any
required material ahead of time; b) posing questions; and c) reviewing and
condensing their notes after the lecture is over.
Some questions to ask before a lecture include "What is the lecture about?",
"What do I already know about the topic?" Students who arrive at a lecture with
little or no idea about the subject often have difficulty deciding what to write
down. Being prepared by reading the required material or previous lecture notes
beforehand increases understanding and reduces the amount of writing needed.
Just going to class and sitting at your desk does not qualify as prepared. You
can be physically in class, but mentally on a vacation. Of course, to become
physically prepared to listen to a lecture, you need to be on time for class (probably
9
a few minutes early would allow you to become prepared in other ways), have all
materials you need (pen, pencil, paper, etc.), and discard all materials from your
desk that are not needed (cell phone, etc). Speaking of cell phones, you should
make sure that yours is turned off during class because it’s a distraction to others.
You also have to be mentally ready to listen to a lecture in order to get the
full message of the professor.
To be mentally ready, you have to be motivated to listen to the lecture.
For example, if you are taking notes during class, asking questions, and
being involved during lectures, you are engaging in active listening. Sometimes it
is hard to be an active listener because of things like distractions—which we
discuss next—but if you are focusing on the message and the important points of
the lecture, active listening will be easier than you think.
Listen Throughout. It is very tempting to close your notebook and start
putting your materials away 5 or 10 minutes before class ends, but lecture doesn’t
end until class does, and class doesn’t end until the lecturer dismisses you. Many
times professors will sum up the lecture at the end, and if you missed any major
points during the lecture (due to daydreaming or distractions), he or she might
repeat that information at the end.
College is a place where you are supposed to come into contact with ideas
and people who are different from you. Sometimes the content of the lectures will
be controversial and might offend you and your beliefs, which might affect the
way you think of the professor and the class.
Often when people feel offended during a lecture they either leave or just
stop listening. You have to remember that there will always be content that you
don’t agree with (religion, politics, etc.), but the information is part of the class. As
the saying goes, “Don’t shoot the messenger.” The professor is just the
messenger. What professors are teaching isn’t always what they believe, especially
in history and government classes. And sometimes the point can be to challenge
beliefs, thoughts, etc.
Answer the following questions:
1. Why do students write too much?
2. What must a student do before a lecture?
3. How can learning to listen actively help you?
4. What do some students do as the lecture draws to an end?
5. Why do students sometimes feel offended during a lecture?
6. Why is it important to learn to challenge beliefs and thoughts?
VOCABULARY STUDY AND PRACTICE
Word Commentary
Don’t shoot the messenger - не убивайте гонца, - цитата из трагедии
Шекспира «Генрих IV», ставшая поговоркой. В переносном смысле – не
направляйте свой гнев на того, кто приносит плохие известия.
Exercise 1.Find synonyms of the following words in the text: very important;
to enlarge; to diminish; ability; to make better, to develop.
10
Exercise 2. Translate the following into Russian paying attention to the
words in bold type. First, look these words up in the dictionary, keeping in mind
their various meanings; remember also that they may belong to different parts of
speech
A. 1. America's courts are deeply involved in the life of the country and its people.
2. Carrying large sums of money involves considerable risk of loss or theft. 3.
No teaching can take place if the person who is being taught is not involved in
it. 4. Reading involves getting the meaning from the printed page by relating it
to our own experience. 5. Research work involves the ability to observe
individual facts and draw conclusions. 6. We usually put off things that involve
tough decisions.
B. 1. She didn't like to speak of her health and changed the subject. 2. British
subjects are allowed to enter the country at all times. 3. He is subject to colds.
4. This area is subject to floods. 5. The police are - like the rest of us subject to the law. 6. The air bases were subjected to intense air attack. 7.
Matches imported from Sweden are subject to customs duty, whilst matches
produced in this country are charged with excise tax. 8. The subject is one of
the two main constituents of a sentence, according to a tradition that goes back
to Aristotle.
C. 1. Lectures are designed to help you find your way through rapidly extending
fields of knowledge. 2. A good lecturer will present his material in such a way
as to stimulate your interest in his subject. 3. There are different ways of
cooking fish. 4.When a person wants to say something he will find a way to say
it. 5. This problem can be solved in several ways. 6. Sociology is interested in
the way groups interact with one another and with the institutions they develop.
7. I never like the way doctors speak to you. 8. Thank you for helping my
brother the way you have. 9. The reporter changed the story the way the editor
wanted. 10. Much of what we do, even the way we think, is based on habit. 11.
The way you spend your time determines your life. 12. Technology has
strongly affected the way newspapers are published.
D. 1. The government is engaged in building infrastructure. 2. It is inappropriate
for government officials to engage in business. 3. Tom and Caroline are
engaged to be married. 4. They were deeply engaged in conversation. 5. France
and Britain engaged in a succession of wars in Europe and the Caribbean at
several intervals in the 18th century.
GRAMMAR STUDY AND PRACTICE
А. Good notes improve memory, increase concentration… Yet, many
students panic because they try to write too much.Хорошие записи улучшают
память, помогают сосредоточиться…Однако многие студенты волнуются,
так как пишут слишком много.
Частица yet может иметь противительное значение, примерно
соответствуя русскому «однако»,«все - таки».
Она также соответствует русскому «еще» не только в отрицательных,
«еще не», но и в вопросительных предложениях. Например:
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Have you read this book yet? Вы уже читали эту книгу?
Exercise 3. Translate the following sentences into Russian:
1. Mary knows Jack very well, but she hasn’t met his parents yet.
2. Have you had your lunch yet?
3. It will not be dark for half an hour yet.
4. The director managed the company with a firm yet gentle hand.
5. John’s Spanish was poor at the time, yet he tried to practice it as much as
possible.
6. We never have enough time, yet we have all the time there is.
B. You are supposed to come into contact with ideas and people who are
different from you. Вы должны будете встречаться с людьми, не такими как
Вы.
Обороты to be expected, to be supposed и to be required в сочетании с
инфинитивом могут иметь модальное значение долженствования,
обусловленного общественными нормами и требованиями, близкое к
русскому "полагается".
Exercise 4. Translate the following sentences into Russian:
1. One is not supposed to speak ill of the dead.
2. The first school opened in Pennsylvania in 1683; it was free to the poor, but
rich parents were required to pay tuition.
3. According to the rules of the school, the teacher was expected to prepare his
own material and to present it to the pupils in the form of a compromise
between a lecture and a lesson.
4. A naval officer isn't supposed to speculate about his orders. He's supposed to
execute them.
5. Before you can function effectively on your first job, you must find out what
you’re supposed to do, for whom and why.
6. Every evening, about an hour and a quarter, known as Quiet Hour, is set aside,
during which students are expected to study or prepare work for their teachers.
C.1. Learning to listen more and write less not only produces better lecture
notes, but also improves memory and reduces stress. Если Вы научитесь
побольше слушать и поменьше писать, у Вас будут не только хорошие
конспекты, но также улучшится память и уменьшится стресс.
2.Taking effective notes at lectures is a vital skill for college and university
students. Хорошо записывать лекции – это очень важный навык для
студентов колледжей и университетов.
В данных предложениях оборот с герундием выступает в функции
подлежащего предложения. При переводе удобно пользоваться придаточным
предложением (ср. пример 1) ли инфинитивным оборотом (пример 2)
Exercise 5. Translate the following sentences into Russian:
1. Knowing the religious conventions and traditions of a culture can help prevent
unintended errors.
2. Sending a thank - you note will make people more willing to help you in future.
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3. Upholding ethical standards in gathering, using and disseminating information
is very important in any type of research.
4. Knowing your audience means knowing what to say to them and how to say it.
5. Using a computer will enable you to write letters, memos and reports much
faster.
TRANSLATION PRACTICE
(to be done at home in writing)
Exercise 6. Translate the following sentences into English using the words
and structures from the text and exercises:
1. Если Вы знаете свою аудиторию, вы знаете, что и как сказать.. 2. Мы
всегда занимаемся в этой аудитории. 3. Умение вести конспекты жизненно
важно для студентов университетов. 4. Нельзя говорить плохо о мертвых. 5.
По правилам школы, учитель должен был сам готовить свой материал. 6.
Многие студенты пассивно записывают лекцию, не задумываясь о ее смысле.
7. Если вы ознакомитесь с темой лекции заранее, это будет способствовать
пониманию и сократит объем записей. 8. Профессора часто повторяют самые
важные моменты в конце лекции. 9. Ваш успех в университете зависит от
того, как Вы слушаете лекции.10. Студентам не полагается пользоваться
мобильным телефоном во время лекции. 11. Он плохо говорил по английски, однако старался как можно больше практиковаться. 12.
Журналист изменил свою статью так как хотел редактор. 13. Количество
углекислого газа, выбрасываемого в атмосферу, постоянно растет.
UNIT 3. LEARN HOW TO READ
Грамматика:
Инфинитивный оборот в функции подлежащего;
Инфинитивный оборот в функции обстоятельства цели;
Существительное в функции определения.
TEXT
Read and translate the text, paying close attention to the words in bold type
and the structures underlined. Below you will find special explanations and
exercises devoted to these words and structures.
Becoming a Flexible Reader
A primary means by which you acquire information is through reading. In
college you're expected to do much more reading than in high school. Don't
assume just because you've "read" the assignments that is the end of it. You must
learn to read with a purpose. The end result of reading is personal and social
development.
In studying, you may read the same assignment three or four times, each
time with a different purpose. You must know before you begin reading what your
purpose is, and read accordingly. To acquire good reading skills is very important
for your success in college.
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To become a flexible reader, you need to know how to select and use a
reading style that is consistent with your purpose for reading. There are three
important reading styles you should learn to use. Each has its own purpose.
Knowing when and how to use these three reading styles will make you a flexible
reader. Read to learn about the three reading styles used by flexible readers.
Study Reading is the reading style used by flexible readers when their
purpose is to read difficult material at a high level of comprehension. When using
the Study Reading style, you should read at a rate that is slower than your normal
reading rate. Further, as you read you must challenge yourself to understand the
material. Study Reading will often require you to read material more than once to
achieve a high level of comprehension. Sometimes, reading the material aloud will
also help you improve your comprehension.
Study reading involves the examination of ideas. Students should examine a
generalization, state it in their own words, note the evidence offered in support of
it, check it against their own experience and information, and finally give their own
appraisal of the statement.
Skimming is the reading style used by flexible readers when their purpose is
to quickly obtain a general idea about the reading material. The Skimming style is
most useful when you have to read a large amount of material in a short amount of
time. When using the Skimming style, you should identify the main ideas in each
paragraph and ignore the details. Because you are only looking for the main idea in
each paragraph you read, a lower level of comprehension is to be expected than
when using the Study Reading style.
Scanning is the reading style used by flexible readers when their purpose is
to quickly locate a specific piece of information within reading material. The piece
of information to be located may be contained in a list of names, words, numbers,
short statements, and sometimes even in a paragraph. Since you know exactly what
you are looking for, move your eyes quickly over the reading material until you
locate the specific piece of information you need to find. The end result of
scanning is finding specific information.
Before you begin your next reading assignment, identify your purpose for
reading. Decide if you are reading for a high level of comprehension, trying to get
a general idea about what you are reading, or looking for specific information.
Then use the reading style that is appropriate for your reading purpose.
Answer the following questions:
1. Why is it so important to acquire reading techniques?
2. What type of reading is most appropriate for foreign texts?
3. When is study reading desirable?
4. When is scanning most appropriate?
5. How can you identify the purpose of reading?
6. How do you usually read fiction?
VOCABULARY STUDY AND PRACTICE
Exercise 1.Find synonyms of the following words in the text: aim,
understanding, task, speed, to choose.
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Exercise 2. Translate the following into Russian paying attention to the
words in bold type. First, look these words up in the dictionary, keeping in mind
their various meanings; remember also that they may belong to different parts of
speech
A. 1. The report indicated the amount of potatoes and bread people buy. 2. The
amount of carbon dioxide discharged into the atmosphere is constantly
growing. 3. I was horrified by the amount of work I had to do. 4. Laser disks
are used to store data. They are cheap to manufacture and can hold an enormous
amount of information in any form - words, images, sound, video and so on.
5. The population of China amounts to 900 million people. 6. Acid rains have
caused a huge amount of environmental damage.
B. 1. I don't know what this word means. 2. I am sorry if I said anything rude, I
didn't mean to offend you. 3. He has bought a lot of books and means to read
them all. 4. Modern society needs a reliable means of communicating rapidly
over long distances. 5. The teacher must find means of presenting knowledge in
such a way as to minimize waste of time and effort in the process. 6. Before the
appearance of a cheap newspaper, the standard newspapers usually were edited
for people of means, and that can explain the preponderance of conservatism in
the press. 7. Payment for goods by means of cheques and credit cards is very
convenient 8. This problem is by no means easy. Reading is a means to
knowledge, not only about the foreign language but perhaps more importantly
about the world.
C. 1. The birth rate in the Third World is very high. The population in some Third
World countries is growing at an alarming rate. 2. There is a close link between
a rising rate of unemployment and a rising suicide rate. 3. The bank offers a
very good interest rate compared with other banks. 4. Any money earned in the
country is taxed at the rate of 15%. 5. The government is trying to bring down
the inflation rate. 6. He was rated by his colleagues as one of the best
geologists in the country. 7. The virtues of kindness and generosity are rated
above all others.
GRAMMAR STUDY AND PRACTICE
A.
The use of conjunctions. Since you know exactly what you are
looking for, move your eyes quickly over the reading material. Так как Вы
точно знаете, что Вы ищете, пробегайте глазами Ваш материал. Союз since
может иметь как временное (с тех пор, как), так и причинное (так как)
значение.
Exercise 3. Translate the following sentences into Russian:
1. The Gregorian calendar has been in use since the 16th century.
2. Since Irish Christianity had developed in isolation from Rome, it was
remarkable for certain peculiarities.
3. Since no point in England is more than 70 miles from the coast, a large
proportion of her inhabitants had some contact with the sea.
4. Since silent reading is the way people read at least 95% of the time, teachers of
reading devote most of their attention to silent reading.
15
B. To acquire good reading skills is very important for your success in
college. Приобретение хороших навыков чтения очень важно для успешных
занятий в колледже. To become a flexible reader, you need to know how to select
and use a reading style that is consistent with your purpose for reading. Чтобы
применять гибкие приемы чтения, Вы должны знать, как отбирать и
использовать стиль чтения, соответствующий Вашей цели. Инфинитив в
начале предложения может быть подлежащим (пример 1), так и
обстоятельством цели (пример 2) Отличить инфинитив - подлежащее от
инфинитива - обстоятельства цели позволяет отсутствие или наличие другого
подлежащего. Так, за инфинитивом - подлежащим в (1) сразу следует
сказуемое is very important; за инфинитивом - обстоятельством в (2) следует
подлежащее you. Подлежащее в таких предложениях имеет значение лица
или группы лиц.
Exercise 4. Translate the following sentences into Russian:
1. To reproach himself for his cousin’s death was only natural.
2. The woman’s eyes were on him. At this moment, to speak was more difficult
than to remain silent.
3. To inspect the big car from various angles, Sam used a torch.
4. To get the job done, Jean stayed up all night.
5. To see the cockpit of a modern airplane was very interesting.
6. To understand this process is very important for further research.
7. To understand this process, the scientist conducted a number of experiments.
8. To read her letter, he put on his glasses.
III. Обратите внимание на словосочетания:
reading material
Материал для чтения
reading style
Стиль чтения
end result
Конечный результат
Если два существительных следуют непосредственно одно за другим,
первое служит определением ко второму.
Exercise 5. Translate the following sentences into Russian, paying attention
to attributive phrases.
1. The Gallup Poll is the best known public opinion survey organisation in the
USA.
2. The experimenter traced the eye movements of children in the process of
reading.
3. Phonetics is a branch of linguistics studying speech sounds.
4. Since World War II, newspaper circulation has increased, but didn’t keep pace
with population growth.
5. Television is primarily an entertainment medium, while a newspaper is
primarily an information medium.
6. In 1990, the first multi - party elections were held in Mongolia.
7. Reading requires an understanding of the language structure.
IV. When you have to read a large amount of material in a short amount of
time. … когда Вам придется читать большой объем материала за короткое
16
время. Глагол to have в сочетании с инфинитивом имеет значение
вынужденного долженствования (ср. русское «приходится»).
Exercise 6. Translate the following sentences into Russian:
1. The private lives of young people are now so well documented on the internet
that many will have to change their names on reaching adulthood.
2. Both sides will have to compromise to reach an agreement.
3. The political parties will have to declare the names of any donors giving more
than €4500 to their parties.
4. About 10000 homes will have to be demolished, while another 100000 will
need repairs after the earthquake.
5. Some politicians say taxes will have to go up.
TRANSLATION PRACTICE
(to be done at home in writing)
Exercise 7. Translate the following sentences into English using the words
and structures from the text and exercises:
1. Чтобы приобрести нужные навыки чтения, Вы должны
проанализировать цель Вашего чтения. 2. Приобрести навыки чтения очень
важно для студента колледжа. 3. Вам придется прочитать большой объем
материала. 4. Учебное чтение требует анализа материала. 5. Рождаемость в
этой стране очень высока. 6. Чтение требует понимания структуры языка. 7.
Чтение – это главное средство приобретения новой информации. 8.
Конечный результат чтения – личное и социальное развитие. 9. Некоторые
политики говорят, что налоги придется повышать. 10. На лазерных дисках
можно хранить огромное количество информации.
SPEAKING PRACTICE
Exercise 8. Discuss your own reading habits. Work in pairs.
Exercise 9. Comment on the following statements.
1. Reading is to the mind what exercise is to the body.(Sir Richard Steele 1672 1729).
2. Education has produced a vast population able to read but unable to distinguish
what is worth reading.
17
UNIT 4. LEARN HOW TO READ CRITICALLY
Грамматика:
Инфинитивный оборот в функции
именной части сказуемого;
Слово - заместитель that;
Употребление герундия.
TEXT
Read and translate the text, paying close attention to the words in bold type
and the structures underlined. Below you will find special explanations and
exercises devoted to these words and structures.
Critical Reading
Critical reading applies to non - fiction writing in which the author puts
forth a position or seeks to make a statement. Critical reading is active reading. It
involves more than just understanding what an author is saying. Critical reading
involves questioning and evaluating what the author is saying, and forming your
own opinions about what the author is saying. Critical reading involves the
examination of ideas. You should examine a generalization, state it in your own
words, note the evidence offered in support of it, check it against your own
experience and information, and finally give your own appraisal of the statement.
Critical reading involves getting the meaning from the printed page by
relating it to our experience and background.
To read critically is to grasp implied meanings and interpret the author’s
words. The purpose of this text is to teach you to read critically.
Here are the things you should do to be a critical reader.
A. Consider the context of what is written. You may be reading something that
was written by an author from a different cultural context than yours. Or, you
may be reading something written some time ago in a different time context
than yours. In either case, you must recognize and take into account any
differences between your values and attitudes and those represented by the
author.
B. Question assertions made by the author. Don’t accept what is written at face
value. Before accepting what is written, be certain that the author provides
sufficient support for any assertions made. Look for facts, examples, and
statistics that provide support. Also, look to see if the author has integrated the
work of authorities.
C. Compare what is written with other written work on the subject. Look to
see that what is written is consistent with what others have written about the
subject. If there are inconsistencies, carefully evaluate the support the author
provides for the inconsistencies.
D. Evaluate the sources the author uses. In doing this, be certain that the sources
are credible. For example, Einstein is a credible source if the author is writing
about landmark achievements in physics. Also be certain that the sources are
18
relevant. Einstein is not a relevant source when the subject is poetry. Finally, if
the author is writing about a subject in its current state, be sure that the sources
are current. For example, studies done by Einstein in the early 20th century
may not be appropriate if the writer is discussing the current state of knowledge
in physics.
E. Identify any possible author bias. A written discussion of American politics
will likely look considerably different depending on whether the writer is a
Democrat or a Republican. What is written may very well reflect a biased
position. You need to take this possible bias into account when reading what
the author has written. That is, take what is written with "a grain of salt."
By being a critical reader, you will become better informed and may change
your views as appropriate.
Answer the following questions:
1. How must we evaluate the sources of our reading materials?
2. Why are old books sometimes unreliable?
3. How can we say whether our sources are relevant?
4. What context factors must be taken into account?
VOCABULARY STUDY AND PRACTICE
Words to revise: to involve, subject.
Word Commentary
To take something at face value - to accept someone or something just as it
appears; ср. русское: принимать за чистую монету.
"a grain of salt" To take a statement with 'a grain of salt' or 'a pinch of salt'
means to accept it but to maintain a degree of skepticism about its truth.
To take into account –принимать во внимание.
Обратите внимание на отрицательную частицу in в слове inconsistency.
Отрицательная частица может служить для образования антонимов от
многих прилагательных, причем ее форма может быть разной.
Сравните антонимические пары:
possible
impossible
regular
irregular
moral
immoral
legal
illegal
visible
invisible
certain
uncertain
rational,
irrational
appropriate
inappropriate
satisfactory
unsatisfactory
biased
unbiased
Exercise 1.Find synonyms of the following words in the text: sure, to
estimate, to give, very important, view, prejudice.
19
Exercise 2. Find antonyms to the following words in the text: irrelevant,
inconsistent, unbiased, inappropriate, uncertain.
Exercise 3. Find words in the text meeting the following definitions:
1. capable of being believed.
2. the set of circumstances or facts that surround a particular event or situation.
Exercise 4. Translate some sentences with the words from the earlier units:
1. The report investigated the impact of the new law on the crimes involving
handguns. 2. The North American Free Trade Agreement, involving Canada, the
US and Mexico, has brought a trade boom for Canada.3. Public relations involves
deciding what to tell, whom to tell it to, how to tell it and through what media to
communicate. 4. Traffickers in hard drugs would be subject to a minimum seven year sentence and their assets would be seized. 5. When Palestine was a part of the
Ottoman Empire, Muslims considered themselves to be Ottoman subjects. 6. This
subject can be argued about endlessly.
Exercise 5. Translate the following into Russian paying attention to the
words in bold type. First, look these words up in the dictionary, keeping in mind
their various meanings; remember also that they may belong to different parts of
speech
A. 1. The journalist described the economic background of the current political
crisis. 2. The epidemic broke out against a background of poor housing
conditions. 3. The artist depicted a group of people against a background of
trees. 4. Mary always keeps herself in the background. 5. The company
inquired onto the family and social background of the new employees. 6. A PR
practitioner working in industry needs a strong background in the social
sciences and business.
B. 1. Don't go into the river: the current is very strong. 2. The current
government is unlikely to undertake comprehensive economic reforms. 3. There
was a powerful electric current running through the wires. 4. The World
Health Organisation is currently holding its annual conference in Geneva. 5.
He has a current account with the bank.
C. 1.The value of the coin is stamped on its face. 2. This book will be of great
value to him in his work. 3. Different generations have different systems of
values. 4. You mustn’t take his words at face value: he doesn’t always tell the
truth. 5. Everyone must learn to value one’s time. 6. Do you value her as a
secretary? 7. This oil painting is very valuable. 8. Western values are
unacceptable in many Islamic countries.
D. 1. I didn’t recognize David in the street: he was so ill. 2. When I heard this tune
I recognized it at once. 3. The new government was recognized by all major
states. 4. Joshua recognized that he was not qualified for the post.
5. Everyone recognized Dr. Gibson to be the greatest living authority on
ancient Roman coins. 6. His services to the State were recognized and he was
made a knight. 7. Recognition of the new state is unlikely. 8. Are qualifications
obtained in Britain recognized in other European countries? 9. She is a
recognized authority on artificial intelligence.
20
E. 1. Readers said the paper was biased towards the Conservatives. 2. Ideally,
judges should have no political bias. 3.Witnesses may forget details or may be
biased. 4. Newspapers have biased people against the defendant. 5. Some
institutions still have a strong bias against women.
GRAMMAR STUDY AND PRACTICE
A. The purpose of this text is to teach you to read critically. Назначение
этого текста состоит в том, чтобы научить Вас критическому чтению.
To read critically is to grasp implied meanings and interpret the author’s
words. Читать критически – это значит понимать подразумеваемые смыслы и
истолковывать слова автора
Перед нами инфинитив в функции именной части составного именного
сказуемого. Такой оборот удобно переводить при помощи слов ‖состоит в
том, чтобы; заключается в том, чтобы‖.
Exercise 6. Translate the following sentences into Russian paying attention
to the infinitive as a part of the predicate.
1. Mary’s plan was to leave London at once.
2. The purpose of this organization is to provide humanitarian aid for the residents
of the slum.
3. Christopher Columbus’ original purpose was to find an ocean route to India.
4. The duty of the mass media is to inform the public about the events.
5. The function of a PR practitioner is to create a positive image of the
organization.
6. The purpose of the poll was to find out how many teen - agers were addicted to
drugs.
B.
…any differences between your values and attitudes and those
represented by the author. …любые различия между Вашими ценностями и
ценностями автора. Обратите внимание на слово - заместитель those (ед.
число that), использованное здесь во избежание повторения слова values.
Exercise 7. Translate the following sentences into Russian, repeating or
omitting the noun replaced by the pronoun that.
1. No task is more important today than that of stopping terrorism.
2. The field of sociology is especially close to those of psychology and
anthropology.
3. Females in modern society have an average life span of 7 years longer than that
of males.
4. One of the language teacher’s major problems is that of forming groups for
instruction.
5. The US wage levels are many times more than those of workers in other parts
of the world.
6. The first telephone invented by Alexander Bell bore little resemblance to those
found now in every country in the world.
7. England has always been part of Europe, and her history is inseparable from
that of continental Europe.
8. In high school, reading interests of girls differ greatly from those of boys.
21
C.
1. Critical reading involves questioning and evaluating what the
author is saying. При критическом чтении мы подвергаем сомнению и
оцениваем то, что говорит автор. 2. Critical reading involves getting the
meaning from the printed page by relating it to our experience and background.
Читать критически – это значит извлекать смысл из печатной страницы,
соотнося его с нашим предыдущим опытом. 3. Before accepting what is
written, be certain that the author provides sufficient support for any assertions
made Прежде чем поверить тому, что написано, удостоверьтесь, что автор
достаточно обосновывает свои утверждения.
Обратите внимание на употребление герундия – формы глагола,
имеющей некоторые свойства существительного. Выше (урок 2, GRAMMAR
STUDY AND PRACTICE, II) Вы видели герундиальный оборот в функции
подлежащего. Герундий может также употребляться в функции
второстепенных
членов
предложения:
дополнения
(пример
1),
обстоятельства образа действия (пример 2), обстоятельства времени (пример
3). При переводе можно пользоваться инфинитивными и деепричастными
оборотами и придаточным предложением.
Exercise 8. Translate the following sentences into Russian:
1. In the seventeenth century, English judges and prison authorities offered
convicts a chance to migrate to colonies like Georgia instead of serving prison
sentences.
2. In the first American colonies, natural conditions promoted tough individualism
and people became used to making their own decisions.
3. The company aided the community by attracting new industry to the town.
4. This program was aimed at preventing the collapse of the bank system
5. Scribes in monasteries kept literacy alive by transcribing ancient literary and
religious works onto parchment.
6. You must not think that listening means passively writing down what your
lecturers say. The librarian of the school was very skilful in choosing suitable
books, in setting up many attractive displays, in acquainting students with the
use of the library and in helping those who needed guidance.
7. In interpersonal communication, hearing denotes perceiving sounds. Listening
means decoding and interpreting them correctly.
TRANSLATION PRACTICE
(to be done at home in writing)
Exercise 9. Translate the following sentences into English using the words
and structures from the text and exercises:
1. Критическое чтение подразумевает анализ идей. 2. Цель этой
программы – научить студентов читать специальную литературу. 3. Очень
важно принимать во внимание культурный контекст. 4. Сегодня нет более
важной задачи, чем борьба с терроризмом. 5. Когда пионеры двигались на
запад, они старались как можно быстрее строить школы. 6. Англия всегда
была частью Европы и ее история неотделима от европейской. 7. Новое
22
государство было признано крупными странами. 8. Сьюзан является
признанным авторитетом в ихтиологии. 9. Он был не в настроении
разговаривать. 10. Цель опроса состояла в том, чтобы выяснить, что читают
студенты. 11. Мы должны научиться ценить свое время. 12. Разные культуры
имеют разные ценности. 13. В американских колониях люди привыкли
принимать самостоятельные решения.
SPEAKING PRACTICE
Exercise 10. Based on units 3 and 4, describe the reading styles which are
appropriate for reading:
1. Newspapers;
2. Books of fiction;
3. Textbooks;
4. Papers on science and humanities.
Exercise 11. A topic for a group discussion:
Is fiction worth reading?
PART 2.
WELCOME TO THE PROFESSION
UNIT 5. LEARN TO PRACTICE DIPLOMACY
Грамматика:
Сочетания некоторых глаголов с инфинитивом
в функции дополнения.
TEXT
Read and translate the text, paying close attention to the words in bold type
and the structures underlined. Below you will find special explanations and
exercises devoted to these words and structures.
DIPLOMACY
Diplomacy is often confused with foreign policy, but the terms are not
synonymous. Diplomacy is the chief, but not the only, instrument of foreign
policy, which is set by political leaders, though diplomats (in addition to military
and intelligence officers) may advise them. Foreign policy establishes goals,
prescribes strategies, and sets the broad tactics to be used in their accomplishment.
It may employ secret agents, subversion, war, or other forms of violence as well as
diplomacy to achieve its objectives. Diplomacy is the principal substitute for the
use of force in statecraft; it is how comprehensive national power is applied to the
23
peaceful adjustment of differences between states. It may be coercive (i.e., backed
by the threat to apply punitive measures or to use force) but is overtly nonviolent.
Its primary tools are international dialogue and negotiation, primarily conducted by
accredited envoys (a term derived from the French envoyé, meaning ―one who is
sent‖) and other political leaders. Unlike foreign policy, which generally is
enunciated publicly, most diplomatic negotiations are conducted in confidence,
though both the fact that they are in progress and their results are almost always
made public in contemporary international relations.
The purpose of foreign policy is to further a state’s interests, which are
derived from geography, history, economics, and the distribution of international
power. Safeguarding national independence, security, and integrity—territorial,
political, economic, and moral—is viewed as a country’s primary obligation,
followed by preserving a wide freedom of action for the state. The political leaders,
traditionally of sovereign states, who devise foreign policy, pursue what they
perceive to be the national interest, adjusting national policies to changes in
external conditions and technology. Primary responsibility for supervising the
execution of policy may lie with the head of state or government, a cabinet, the
staff of the country’s leader, or a minister who presides over the foreign ministry,
directs policy execution, supervises the ministry’s officials, and instructs the
country’s diplomats abroad.
The purpose of diplomacy is to strengthen the state, nation, or organization it
serves in relation to others by advancing the interests in its charge. To this end,
diplomatic activity endeavours to maximize a group’s advantages without the risk
and expense of using force and preferably without causing resentment. It
habitually, but not invariably, strives to preserve peace; diplomacy is strongly
inclined toward negotiation to achieve agreements and resolve issues between
states. Even in times of peace, diplomacy may involve coercive threats of
economic or other punitive measures or demonstrations of the capability to impose
unilateral solutions to disputes by the application of military power. However,
diplomacy normally seeks to develop goodwill toward the state it represents,
nurturing relations with foreign states and peoples that will ensure their
cooperation or—failing that—their neutrality.
When diplomacy fails, war may ensue; however, diplomacy is useful even
during war. Diplomacy builds and tends the coalitions that deter or make war. It
disrupts the alliances of enemies and sustains the passivity of potentially hostile
powers. It contrives war’s termination, and it forms, strengthens, and sustains the
peace that follows conflict. Over the long term, diplomacy strives to build an
international order conducive to the nonviolent resolution of disputes and
expanded cooperation between states.
Diplomats are the primary—but far from the only—practitioners of
diplomacy. They are specialists in carrying messages and negotiating adjustments
in relations and the resolution of quarrels between states and peoples. Their
weapons are words, backed by the power of the state or organization they
represent. Diplomats help leaders to understand the attitudes and actions of
24
foreigners and to develop strategies and tactics that will shape the behavior of
foreigners, especially foreign governments. The wise use of diplomats is a key to
successful foreign policy.
Answer the following questions:
1. What is the purpose of diplomacy?
2. What methods does diplomacy employ?
3. Is diplomacy always conducted openly?
4. Do diplomats prefer violent or nonviolent methods?
VOCABULARY STUDY AND PRACTICE
Word Commentary
Unilateral - односторонний;
Bilateral - двусторонний;
Multilateral - многосторонний;
Unanimous –единодушный, единогласный;
Unicameral – однопалатный (парламент);
Bicameral двухпалатный парламент;
Uniform - форма (одинаковая для всех) единообразный;
Латинский корень uni - , un - , - один, Bi – два, Multi - много.
Beware of false friends of the translator:
Intelligent – разумный;
Intelligence 1. интеллект 2. Информация (разведка);
Intelligence Service - разведывательная служба в Великобритании;
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) Центральное разведывательное управление
США (ЦРУ);
Интеллигентный – cultured, educated;
Интеллигенция - Intelligentsia (заимствование из русского языка)ю
Exercise 1. Find synonyms of the following words and phrases in the text: to
try, purpose, to recommend, to declare, to support, to work out, to use.
Exercise 2. Find words in the text meeting the following definitions:
1. A group of countries or political parties who are formally united and working
together because they have similar aims.
2. Information that is gathered by the government or the army about their
country’s enemies and their activities.
Exercise 3. Translate the following sentences into Russian, paying attention
to the words in bold type. First, look these words up in the dictionary, keeping in
mind their various meanings; remember also that they may belong to different
parts of speech.
A. 1. Modern practitioners have learned a lot by studying the strategies employed
by earlier experts. 2. The factory employs 40 people. 3. The scripts employed
for Semitic languages were descendants of the Aramaic alphabet. 4. The
government employs every legal tool at its disposal to hold the prisoners as
long as possible. 5. How do you employ your spare time? 6. You will need to
employ a a great deal of tact and diplomacy in your work. 7. It is prohibited to
25
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
employ weapons or methods of warfare which cause unnecessary losses or
excessive suffering.
1. He was recruited as a translator for the U.S. military intelligence. 2.
Artificial intelligence is the study of how to make computers work in an
intelligent way. 3. Are their intelligent life forms on other planets? 4. The boy
was intelligent and his father tried to give him a good education.
1. George was particularly respected for his integrity. 2. She had the integrity
to refuse to compromise on matters of principle. 3.They are trying to preserve
the cultural integrity of the community. 4. The government is obliged to
preserve the state’s territorial integrity.
The china was displayed in a glass cabinet. 2. You will find cotton wool and
iodine in the bathroom cabinet. 3. The room contained a couch, a glass cabinet
and a desk. 4. The Prime Minister held an emergency cabinet meeting. 5. In
cabinet, Benn was criticized for undermining the government. 6. The Cabinet
and independent federal agencies are responsible for the day - to - day
enforcement and administration of federal laws.
1. The UN General Assembly has adopted, in 2007 and 2008, non - binding
resolutions calling for a global moratorium on executions. 2. He has failed in
the execution of his duties. 3. Some countries that retain the death penalty for
murder and other violent crimes do not execute offenders for drug - related
crimes. 4. I was sure I would be able to execute my plans. 5. The power of the
Executive Branch in the USA is vested in the President of the United States,
who also acts as head of state and Commander - in - Chief of the armed forces.
6. The role of the executive power is to enforce the law as written by the
legislature and interpreted by the judicial system.
1. The police was pursuing the car which had not stopped at the red light.
2.The president is pursuing a policy of restraint. 3. After 12 years at school, he
was free to pursue his fortune. 4. Animal rights activists will go to great
extremes to pursue their goals, even at the expense of human welfare. 5.
Canada pursues a foreign policy that is distinct from that of the US.
The WTO (World Trade Organization) issued a resolution on Saturday to force
member countries to cut farm subsidies. 2. There was resolution in her voice.
3. It was hard for them to agree to this resolution, but at that time there was no
alternative course open to them. 4. The legal system provides a necessary
structure for the resolution of many disputes. 5. High resolution photos are
required for sharp reproduction in our publications otherwise the printing
quality is very poor.
GRAMMAR STUDY AND PRACTICE
A.
both the fact that they are in progress and their results are almost
always made public как то, что они (переговоры) проходят, так и их результат
почти всегда становится достоянием гласности.
Обратите внимание на английский сложный союз both … and,
примерно соответствующий русскому как… так и
Exercise 4. Translate the following sentences into Russian:
26
1.
2.
3.
4.
Both reporters and editors must know where to go to get the news.
These are diseases that threaten both children and adults
This journalist’s stories are published both in the USA and abroad.
When the opinion poll was conducted, the respondents were interviewed both
personally and over the telephone.
5. The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) looks out for the rights of both investors
and consumers.
6. When you write business letters, you must be both complete and sensitive to
the image your words convey to your business partner.
7. A PR practitioner must appeal to various publics, both inside and outside the
organization.
B.
1. Diplomacy … seeks to develop goodwill toward the state it
represents дипломатия… стремится добиваться хорошего отношения к
государству, которое она представляет. 2. Diplomacy strives to build an
international order conducive to the nonviolent resolution of disputes.
Дипломатия…
стремится
выстроить
международный
порядок,
способствующий ненасильственному разрешению споров
Ряд глаголов в сочетании с инфинитивом изменяют свое значение,
приобретая значения возможности, желания, долженствования и попытки
осуществить действие
Exercise 5. Translate the following sentences into Russian:
1. As the pioneers moved to the West, they sought to build schools almost as soon
as they established new towns.
2. Mankind has always sought to improve ways of communicating and recording
thoughts.
3. At the great library at Alexandria, scholars seeking to codify the knowledge of
the ages accumulated more than half a million scrolls.
4. During the Civil Rights movement, African Americans sought to secure their
voting rights.
5. Newspaper editors all strive to be the first with the story.
6. Transportation officials strive to eliminate highway fatalities.
7. U.S. human rights groups strive to improve China's legal system
8. The UN managed to prevent the conflict.
9. All the hotels in the city were overcrowded, but the tourists managed to find a
room.
10.David was very anxious to get back to his farm, to see his horses and his dogs.
11.A PR officer is in a good position to assist the company management in
planning strategies.
12.Benjamin was in no mood to talk to his brother.
13.I am dying to see your new book.
TRANSLATION PRACTICE
(to be done at home in writing)
Exercise 5. Translate the following sentences into English using the words
and structures from the text and exercises:
27
1. Цель дипломатии состоит в том, чтобы укреплять государство. 2.
Первоначальная цель Колумба заключалась в том, чтобы найти морской путь
в Индию. 3. Дипломатия как правило использует ненасильственные средства
для достижения своих целей. 4. Эта страна проводит мирную внешнюю
политику. 5. Дипломаты стремятся разрешать споры ненасильственным
путем. 6. Дипломаты стремятся максимально увеличить преимущества
своего государства без применения силы. 7. Дипломаты часто используют
разведывательные данные. 8. Полиция преследовала машину, которая
проехала на красный свет. 9. Цель дипломатии – мирное разрешение
конфликтов.
UNIT 6. ABOUT THE HISTORY OF DIPLOMACY
Грамматика:
Пассивные конструкции, образованные от глаголов,
эквиваленты которых в русском языке непереходны;
Косвенное дополнение в качестве подлежащего пассивной конструкции;
Союз rather … than;
Инфинитив в функции определения
при сочетаниях the first, the last;
Выделительная конструкция it is… that.
TEXT 1.
Read and translate the text, paying close attention to the words in bold type
and the structures underlined. Below you will find special explanations and
exercises devoted to these words and structures.
Diplomacy in the ancient world
Some elements of diplomacy predate recorded history. Early societies had
some attributes of states, and the first international law arose from intertribal
relations. Tribes negotiated marriages and regulations on trade and hunting.
Messengers and envoys were accredited, sacred, and inviolable; they usually
carried some emblem, such as a message stick, and were received with elaborate
ceremonies.
Greece
The tradition that ultimately inspired the birth of modern diplomacy in
Europe and that led to the present world system of international relations began in
ancient Greece. The earliest evidence of Greek diplomacy can be found in its
literature, notably in Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey. Otherwise, the first traces of
interstate relations concern the Olympic Games of 776 bc.
Greek diplomacy took many forms. Heralds, references to whom can be
found in prehistory, were the first diplomats and were protected by the gods with
an immunity that other envoys lacked. Their protector was Hermes, the messenger
of the gods, who became associated with all diplomacy. The herald of Zeus,
Hermes was noted for persuasiveness and eloquence but also for knavery,
28
shiftiness, and dishonesty, imparting to diplomacy a reputation that its
practitioners still try to live down.
Because heralds were inviolable, they were the favored channels of contact
in wartime. They preceded envoys to arrange for safe passage. Whereas heralds
traveled alone, envoys journeyed in small groups, to ensure each other’s loyalty.
They usually were at least 50 years old and were politically prominent figures.
Because they were expected to sway foreign assemblies, envoys were chosen for
their oratorical skills. Although such missions were frequent, Greek diplomacy was
episodic rather than continuous. Unlike modern ambassadors, heralds and envoys
were short - term visitors in the city - states whose policies they sought to
influence.
The Greeks developed archives, a diplomatic vocabulary, principles of
international conduct that anticipated international law, and many other elements
of modern diplomacy. Their envoys and entourages enjoyed diplomatic immunity
for their official correspondence and personal property. Truces, neutrality,
commercial conventions, conferences, treaties, and alliances were common. In one
25 - year period of the 4th century bc, for example, there were eight Greco Persian congresses, where even the smallest states had the right to be heard.
Rome inherited what the Greeks devised and adapted it to the task of
imperial administration. As Rome expanded, it often negotiated with
representatives of conquered areas, which were granted partial self - government
by way of a treaty. Treaties were made with other states under Greek international
law. During the Roman Republic the Senate conducted foreign policy, though a
department for foreign affairs was established. Later, under the Empire, the
emperor was the ultimate decision maker in foreign affairs. Envoys were received
with ceremony and magnificence, and they and their aides were granted immunity.
Roman envoys were sent abroad with written instructions from their
government. Sometimes a messenger, or nuntius, was sent, usually to towns. For
larger responsibilities a legatio (embassy) of 10 or 12 legati (ambassadors) was
organized under a president. The legati, who were leading citizens chosen for their
skill at oratory, were inviolable. Rome also created sophisticated archives, which
were staffed by trained archivists. Paleographic techniques were developed to
decipher and authenticate ancient documents. Other archivists specialized in
diplomatic precedents and procedures, which became formalized. For centuries
these archive - based activities were the major preoccupation of diplomacy in and
around the Roman Empire.
Roman law, which stressed the sanctity of contracts, became the basis of
treaties. Late in the Republican era, the laws applied by the Romans to foreigners
and to foreign envoys were merged with the Greek concept of natural law, an ideal
code applying to all people, to create a ―law of nations.‖ The sanctity of treaties
and the law of nations were absorbed by the Roman Catholic church and preserved
in the centuries after the Western Roman Empire collapsed, and a foundation was
thus provided for the more sophisticated doctrines of international law that began
to emerge along with the European nation - state a millennium later.
29
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Answer the following questions:
What elements of diplomacy existed in prehistoric times?
What issues did tribes negotiate?
Which Greek god was the protector of diplomats?
What qualities did he possess?
What kind of negotiations were held in ancient Rome?
What skills did an ambassador have to possess?
What techniques were developed to decipher and authenticate ancient
documents?
VOCABULARY STUDY AND PRACTICE
Word Commentary
The use of prefixes;
To predate предшествовать (во времени);
Prehistory доисторический период (буквально: предыстория);
To precede предшествовать;
Precedent прецедент (случай, служащий примером, основанием для
принятия решений в похожих случаях в дальнейшем);
Основным
значением
приставки
preявляется
значение
предшествования;
Dishonesty нечестность.
Обратите внимание на отрицательную приставку dis, придающую
слову противоположное значение. Запомните следующие антонимические
пары слов:
advantage
disadvantage
to agree
to disagree
to appear
to disappear
to approve
to disapprove
Exercise 1. Explain the meaning of the following words:
1. pre - war, pre - revolutionary , prejudice, to predict, preface;
2. to disagree, to disappear, to disapprove, to disarm, to dislike.
Exercise 2. Find synonyms of the following words in the text: to organize,
important, sign, to appear
Exercise 3. Find words in the text meeting the following definitions:
1. A set of principles or rules of behavior that are generally accepted by society or
a social group;
2. a formal written agreement between two people or groups;
3. a collection of historical records relating to a place, organization or family;
4. a period of a thousand years.
Exercise 4. Translate the following into Russian paying attention to the
words in bold type. First, look these words up in the dictionary, keeping in mind
their various meanings; remember also that they may belong to different parts of
speech
30
A. 1. If the government is to deal with the problems of the country, it must enjoy
the confidence of the people. 2. The idea of liberty enjoyed great popularity in
France 3. Although they were British subjects, the American colonists in the
eighteenth century enjoyed a degree of freedom denied to most people in the
world. 4. In 1902, President Theodore Roosevelt provided a special room in the
White House for reporters, and the press had special access to the presidency.
In fact, reporters enjoyed informal personal relationship with the president as
late as the Truman administration. 5. In the last century, women did not enjoy
the same rights as men. 6. In the 18th century, America had no single
established church. Even the Church of England enjoyed little influence in
America, although it was established in every southern colony. 7. The company
enjoyed greater market penetration and greater sales than its competitors
B. 1. Mary learned modern management techniques in college. 2. William
Caxton, the first English printer, learned the technique of printing in Cologne.
3. Techniques of book marketing and promotion have been refined over the
years, but at the base they still include complimentary copies of new titles to
critics and book editors in the hope of gaining a review or a recommendation. 4.
A promotion technique that has been used with considerable success is the
prepublication serialization of a book in magazines or newspapers. 5. The
rebels learned bomb - making techniques from the Irish Republican Army. 6.
People adopt certain techniques for getting along in life. 7. The technique of
extracting information from lectures differs from the technique of reading. 8.
As early as 2500 B.C., archaic Indians developed sophisticated fishing
techniques in Boston, Massachusets.
C. 1. I saw this program on Channel 19. 2. The government decided to channnel
the oil revenues into education. 3. The English Channel separates England
from France and joins the Atlantic Ocean and the North Sea. 4. The tourists
wanted to see the canals of Venice. 4. In 1870 Giuseppe Verdi began work on
Aida, given at Cairo Opera House at the end of 1871 to mark the opening of the
Suez Canal for navigation, which occurred in 1869.
D. 1. The vaccination gives you immunity against the disease. 2. The spy was
granted immunity from prosecution because he disclosed the names of the
other spies. 3. Ambassadors and envoys enjoy diplomatic immunity.
GRAMMAR STUDY AND PRACTICE
A.
Rome also created sophisticated archives, which were staffed by
trained archivists. В Риме были созданы сложные архивы, в которых
работали профессиональные архивисты.
Пассивный залог в английском языке может образовываться от
глаголов, эквиваленты которых в русском языке непереходны. В таких
случаях
его
целесообразно
переводить
неопределенно-личным
предложением или иной синтаксичеcкой структурой:
Exercise 5. Translate the following sentences into Russian:
1. The achievements of US scientists are known and admired throughout the
world.
31
2. This plant was owned by General Motors.
3. The print media (newspapers and magazines) are privately owned in the
Western democratic countries, but the broadcast media usually are not.
4. By the end of the colonial period, the American Colonies were inhabited by
500,000 slaves, 15 000 Huguenots (French Protestants), 100,000 Germans and
the Scotch - Irish.
5. Living among other ethnic groups, the Germans were admired for their hard
work and thrift.
6. These offices are reached by a private elevator.
7. This newly developed method was followed by a number of others.
8. The revolution was followed by a long civil war.
9. The demand for a good is affected not only by its own price, but also by the
prices of related goods.
10.The press conference was well attended by print, television and radio reporters.
11.When a child is born, he is dominated by selfish desires and primitive emotions.
B.
…they and their aides were granted immunity. Им и их помощникам
предоставлялась неприкосновенность.
…the conquered areas … were granted partial self - government by way of a
treaty. …завоеванные области… получали право частичного самоуправления
по договору.
Подлежащим страдательного оборота может быть не только прямое
дополнение, фигурировавшее в действительном залоге, но и косвенное
дополнение, указывающее на адресата действия.
Exercise 6. Translate the following sentences into Russian:
1. The visitors were shown a collection of old manuscripts.
2. The journalists were told that the Prime minister would hold a press conference.
3. After an anti - war rally in front of the Capitol in Washington, D.C., newspaper
readers were given various estimates of the size of the crowd.
4. During the Great Depression, when the U.S. faced a crisis of confidence,
President Roosevelt was given a carte blanche by the Congress.
5. In 1600, the East India Company was granted a monopoly of trade with Asia,
Africa and America.
6. The police were issued an order to patrol the city.
7. Before the civil rights campaign in the USA, African Americans in many states
were denied the right to vote.
8. When the Gregorian Calendar was being created for religious purposes,
clergymen were assisted by astronomers.
C.
Greek diplomacy was episodic rather than continuous. Греческая
дипломатия носила эпизодический, а не постоянный характер. Обратите
внимание на союз rather than, примерно соответствующий русскому «а не».
Exercise 7. Translate the following sentences into Russian:
1. In 1522, Martin Luther introduced public worship with liturgy in German rather
than Latin. Reformation spread.
2. Hebrew is written from right to left, rather than left to right as in English.
32
3. Medieval monks sought to preserve rather than advance knowledge.
4. Many respondents said that if they watched commercials at all, they focused
their attention on the commercial itself, rather than on the product advertised.
TRANSLATION PRACTICE
(to be done at home in writing)
1. Послы пользовались дипломатическим иммунитетом. 2. Этим людям
помогает ООН. 3. На продовольственные цены влияет множество факторов.
4. Достижениями российских ученых восхищается весь мир. 5. К концу
ледникового периода (Ice Age) в Австралии жили различные первобытные
племена. 6. На пресс - конференции присутствовали многие журналисты.7. К
мирной демонстрации присоединились студенты. 8. Ост - Индская компания
получила монополию на торговлю с Азией, Африкой и Америкой. 9. Моему
другу предложили интересную работу. 10.. Во многих южных штатах
чернокожие американцы были лишены избирательного права. 11.
Правительство имеет свои каналы информации. 12. Туристы хотели увидеть
каналы Венеции. 13. Это племя выработало сложные приемы охоты. 14. Эта
идея пользуется большой популярностью. 15. Ветераны войны пользуются
некоторыми льготами (benefits) 16. Римское право было основано на святости
договора. 17. Первое международное право выросло из отношений между
племенами. 18. Первые приемы дипломатии в Греции были выработаны во
время Олимпийских игр. 19. Герольды предшествовали посланникам,
обеспечивая им безопасный путь. 20. К сожалению, я не согласен с вами. 21.
Дипломаты должны изучать дипломатические прецеденты.
TEXT 2
Read and translate the text, paying close attention to the words in bold type
and the structures underlined. Below you will find special explanations and
exercises devoted to these words and structures.
A Brief History of Diplomacy in Europe
The ability to practice diplomacy is one of the defining elements of a state,
and diplomacy has been practiced since the formation of the first city - states.
Originally diplomats were sent only for specific negotiations, and would return
immediately after their mission concluded. Diplomats were usually relatives of the
ruling family or of very high rank in order to give them legitimacy when they
sought to negotiate with the other state.
One notable exception involved the relationship between the Pope and the
Byzantine Emperor. Papal agents, called apocrisiarii, were permanently resident in
Constantinople. After the 8th century, however, conflicts between the Pope and the
Emperor led to the breaking down of these close ties.
Modern diplomacy's origins are often traced to the states of Northern Italy in
the early Renaissance, with the first embassies being established in the thirteenth
century. Milan played a leading role, especially under Francesco Sforza who
established permanent embassies to the other cities states of Northern Italy. It was
33
in Italy that many of the traditions of modern diplomacy began, such as the
presentation of an ambassador's credentials to the head of state.
The practice spread from Italy to the other European powers . Milan was the
first to send a representative to the court of France in 1455. Milan however refused
to host French representatives fearing espionage and possible intervention in
internal affairs. As foreign powers such as France and Spain became increasingly
involved in Italian politics the need to accept emissaries was recognized. Soon all
the major European powers were exchanging representatives. Spain was the first
to send a permanent representative when it appointed an ambassador to the Court
of England in 1487. By the late 16th century, permanent missions became the
standard.
Many of the conventions of modern diplomacy developed during this
period. The top rank of representatives was an ambassador. An ambassador at this
time was almost always a nobleman - the rank of the noble varied with the
prestige of the country he was posted to. Certain standards emerged for
ambassadors, requiring that they have large residences, host lavish parties, and
play an important role in the court life of the host nation. In Rome, the most
important post for Catholic ambassadors, the French and Spanish representatives
sometimes maintained a retinue of up to a hundred people. Even in smaller posts,
ambassadors could be very expensive. Smaller states would send and receive
envoys who were one level below an ambassador.
Ambassadors at that time were nobles with little foreign or diplomatic
experience and needed to be supported by a large embassy staff. These
professionals were sent on longer assignments and were far more knowledgeable
about the host country. Embassy staff consisted of a wide range of employees,
including some dedicated to espionage. The need for skilled individuals to staff
embassies was met by the graduates of universities, and this led to an increase in
the study of international law, modern languages, and history at universities
throughout Europe.
At the same time, permanent foreign ministries were established in almost
all European states to coordinate embassies and their staffs. These ministries were
still far from their modern form. Many had extraneous internal responsibilities.
Britain had two departments with frequently overlapping powers until 1782. These
early foreign ministries were also much smaller. France, which boasted the largest
foreign affairs department, had only 70 full - time employees in the 1780s.
Answer the following questions:
1. What kind of people were diplomats before permanent embassies were
established?
2. Did the early diplomats stay abroad for a long time?
3. What was unusual in the relationship between the Pope and Byzantium?
4. Why did the close ties between the Pope and Byzantium break down?
5. When and where did the first permanent embassies established?
6. Why is it expensive to keep an embassy in a foreign state?
7. What must an ambassador do?
34
VOCABULARY STUDY AND PRACTICE
Word Commentary:
Ambassador - посол;
Envoy – посланник, эмиссар, уполномоченный. Как правило, находится
в стране для выполнения определенного поручения.
Exercise 1. Find synonyms of the following words and phrases in the text:
status, constant (adjective), custom, to appear.
Exercise 2. Find words in the text, meeting the following definitions:
1. A senior official who lives in a foreign country and represents his or her
country there;
2. The building in which the ambassador lives and works.
3. A group of people who travel with an important person to provide help and
support.
Exercise 3. Translate the following sentences into Russian, paying attention
to the words in bold type. First, look these words up in the dictionary, keeping in
mind their various meanings; remember also that they may belong to different
parts of speech.
A. 1.The paper is rich in new and original ideas. 2. Reading books in the original
is much more interesting than reading translations. 3. They will restore the
house to its original state. 4. I stayed at the party later than I originally
intended. 5. This building was originally a toy factory. 6. New York was
originally named New Amsterdam. It became a part of British colonies in
1644.
B. 1. There were only three of us in the house – my host, his father and me. 2.
Which country is hosting the next Olympic games? 3. If you love talking, hold
strong opinions and have a charming personality, being a talk show host is most
likely an excellent choice. You can talk about any issue and have celebrities and
VIPs as your guests. 4. Rolf Harris is a musician and television host.
C. 1. In the 16th century, Spain was a major military and foreign power. 2.
Separation of powers safeguards liberty by ensuring that all government power
does not fall into the hands of a single person or group of people. 3. The
military regime took power in 1964. 3. I'll do everything in my power to help
you. 4. Steam power was first used by James Watt in a machine pumping water
from mines. 5. The President asked the Congress for extraordinary powers. 6.
Faced with pollution caused by burning coal, oil, and gas, people are looking
for new sources of power. 7. The parliament wanted to form a government with
sharply defined powers.
D. 1. A lot of usual conventions are ignored when you go on holiday.
2. The Geneva convention requires that prisoners of war be treated humanely.
3. The annual convention of the Union was being held in Chicago.
E. 1. His mission in life was to educate the rich about the suffering of the poor. 2.
He has repeatedly been on confidential missions to Britain. 3. He was the head
of the British mission in Uganda. 4. The plane was on a bombing mission.
35
F. 1.His general state of health is satisfactory at the moment. 2. The Government
proclaimed a state of emergency. 3. Many heads of state attended the
inauguration ceremony. 4. American citizens pay local taxes, state taxes and
federal taxes. 5. The government stated quite definitely that we are going to see
changes. 6. As Secretary of State, Hillary Rodham Clinton carries out the
President's foreign policies through the State Department and the Foreign
Service. 7. The official website of the state of California contains a
comprehensive online directory of services provided by state government.
GRAMMAR STUDY AND PRACTICE
A.
It was in Italy that many of the traditions of modern diplomacy began,
Именно в Италии родились многие традиции современной дипломатии.
Перед нами эмфатическая (выделительная) конструкция, где самый
главный в информационном плане элемент располагается между
местоимениями it и that. При переводе можно выносить эту часть
предложения в конец; можно также пользоваться частицами «именно» и
«это».
Exercise 4. Translate the following sentences into Russian:
1. The dinosaurs were very big and it was their size that finished them.
2. I rang the bell. It was Hester who opened the door.
3. It was in 1920 that I first met Helena Meredith.
4. He was a member of a social club in the East End of London. It is there that he
first met Rachel Constam.
5. The innocent should not suffer and it is to end the suffering of the innocent that
I am investigating this crime.
B. Spain was the first to send a permanent representative when it appointed
an ambassador to the Court of England in 1487. Испания первой послала своего
постоянного представителя в Англию.
Предложения, включающие the first, the last с инфинитивом, указывают
на то, кто первым или последним совершил данное действие.
Exercise 6. Translate the following sentences into Russian:
1. The Vikings were the first Europeans to visit North America.
2. In a shipwreck, the captain is the last to abandon ship.
3. The leader of the expedition was the first to see the danger.
4. British industry was the first to harness the power of steam.
5. After the burglary the police asked who had been the last to leave the office.
6. Cook was the first European to visit New Zealand.
TRANSLATION PRACTICE
(to be done at home in writing)
Exercise 7. Translate the following sentences into English using the words
and structures from the text and exercises:
1. Испания первой отправила своего постоянного представителя к
английскому двору. 2. Папские послы постоянно находились в
Константинополе. 3. В 16 веке Испания была крупной морской державой. 4.
Первыми послами были аристократы, у которых практически не было
36
дипломатического опыта. 5. Женевская конвенция требует, чтобы с
военнопленными обращались гуманно. 6. В 2014 году Россия будет
принимать у себя Олимпийские игры. 7. Джеймс Ватт был первым, кто
использовал энергию пара. 8. Президент попросил парламент предоставить
ему чрезвычайные полномочия. 9. Военный режим захватил власть в 1964
году. 10. Эта работа связана с большим риском.
UNIT 7. INTERNATIONAL HUMANITARIAN LAW
Грамматика:
Модальные глаголы с пассивной формой инфинитива.
TEXT
Read and translate the text, paying close attention to the words in bold type
and the structures underlined. Below you will find special explanations and
exercises devoted to these words and structures.
War and International Humanitarian Law
Armed conflict is as old as humankind itself. There have always been
customary practices in war, but only in the last 150 years have States made
international rules to limit the effects of armed conflict for humanitarian reasons.
The Geneva Conventions and the Hague Conventions are the main examples.
Usually called international humanitarian law (IHL), it is also known as the law of
war or the law of armed conflict.
International humanitarian law is part of the body of international law that
governs relations between States. IHL aims to limit the effects of armed conflicts
for humanitarian reasons. It aims to protect persons who are not or are no longer
taking part in hostilities, the sick and wounded, prisoners and civilians, and to
define the rights and obligations of the parties to a conflict in the conduct of
hostilities.
Because it is law, IHL imposes obligations on those engaged in armed
conflict. Not only must they respect the law, they have an obligation to ensure
respect as well. It is not acceptable to turn a blind eye.
These rules are codified in the Geneva Conventions. The first was ratified
by 16 countries in 1864. For centuries before then, rules had applied to the conduct
of war, but they were based on custom and tradition, were local or just temporary.
1864 changed all that and began a process of building a body of law that is still
evolving today.
The initiative for the first convention came from five citizens of Geneva.
One of them, Henry Dunant, had, by chance, witnessed the battle of Solferino in
1859. He was horrified by the absence of help for the wounded and organized
local residents to come to their aid. Out of this act came one of the key elements of
the first convention – the humane treatment of those no longer part of the battle,
regardless of which side they were on.
37
It was at this time, too, that a neutral protective sign for those helping the
victims of conflict was adopted; a red cross on a white background, the exact
reverse of the Swiss flag.
In the century and a half that followed, the body of international
humanitarian law grew. The Geneva Convention was extended, in 1906 and 1929
so as to improve the conditions of sick and wounded soldiers in the field and to
define new rules on the protection of prisoners of war. In 1899 and 1907, the
Hague Conventions, mainly aimed at regulating the conduct of warfare, were also
adopted. In August 1949, the four Geneva Conventions as we know them today
were adopted and ratified. They were later modified with three protocols.
This time they also included the protection of civilians, reflecting the
terrible experience of World War II.
Protocols were added to the Geneva Conventions in 1977 and 2005, and a
range of other international conventions and protocols covering specific areas such
as conventional weapons, chemical weapons, landmines, laser weapons, cluster
munitions and the protection of children in armed conflicts has extended the reach
of IHL. So too has the codification of customary law.
The core, however, remains the Geneva Conventions and their additional
protocols. They combine clear legal obligations and enshrine basic humanitarian
principles.
Soldiers who surrender or who are hors de combat (outside the battle) are
entitled to respect for their lives and their moral and physical integrity. It is
forbidden to kill or injure them.
The wounded and sick must be collected and cared for by the party to the
conflict which has them in its power. Protection also covers medical personnel,
establishments, transports and equipment. The emblem of the red cross, red
crescent or red crystal is the sign of such protection and must be respected.
Captured combatants are entitled to respect for their lives, dignity, personal
rights and convictions. They must be protected against all acts of violence and
reprisals. They must have the right to correspond with their families and to receive
relief.
Civilians under the authority of a party to the conflict or an occupying
power of which they are not nationals are entitled to respect for their lives, dignity,
personal rights and convictions.
Everyone must be entitled to benefit from fundamental judicial guarantees.
No one must be sentenced without previous judgment pronounced by a regularly
constituted court. No one must be held responsible for an act he has not
committed. No one must be subjected to physical or mental torture, corporal
punishment or cruel or degrading treatment.
Parties to a conflict and members of their armed forces do not have an
unlimited choice of methods and means of warfare. It is prohibited to employ
weapons or methods of warfare which cause unnecessary losses or excessive
suffering.
38
Parties to a conflict must at all times distinguish between the civilian
population and combatants in order to spare civilian population and property.
Adequate precautions shall be taken in this regard before launching an attack.
The International Committee of the Red Cross is regarded as the ―guardian‖
of the Geneva Conventions and the various other treaties that constitute
international humanitarian law. It cannot, however, act as either policeman or
judge. These functions belong to governments, the parties to international treaties,
who are required to prevent and put an end to violation of IHL. They have also an
obligation to punish those responsible of what are known as ―grave breaches‖ of
IHL or war crimes.
Answer the following questions:
1. When was the first Geneva convention signed?
2. How was it extended and modified later?
3. Who initiated the adoption of the Geneva convention?
4. How does the Geneva convention protect prisoners of war?
5. How does the Geneva convention protect civilians?
6. How were Geneva conventions modified?
VOCABULARY STUDY AND PRACTICE
I. Word formation
Суффикс –fy (ify) служит для образования от прилагательных и
существительных глаголов, от которых, в свою очередь, могут быть
образованы существительные.
clear
to clarify
clarification
just
to justify
justification
class
to classify
classification
mode
to modify
modification
satis (Lat.) сытый
to satisfy
satisfaction
enough)
To codify
codification
code
To modify
Modification
Mode
To horrify
Horror
Word Commentary
Human - человеческий, относящийся к человеку.
Humane - человечный (гуманный).
Humanitarian - гуманитарный (в соч. гуманитарная помощь, гуманитарное
право).
Sentence – 1. предложение; 2. приговор.
Предложение (фраза) – sentence
Предложение (идея) proposal
Предложение (в магазине) offer специальное предложение – special offer.
Words to revise: to commit, to engage, to employ, means.
Exercise 1. Find synonyms of the following words and phrases in the text: to
develop, to describe, to forbid, to defend, to use, duty, weapons
39
Exercise 2. Find words or phrases in the text meeting the following
definitions
1. A person who fights in a war.
2. A country or person that doesn’t officially support anyone in a disagreement or
war (adjective).
3. A formal agreement between two or more states formally approved and signed
by their leaders.
Exercise 3. Translate some sentences with the words from the earlier units:
1.The authors of this report found no evidence that this law had reduced
number of crimes often committed by drug users. 2. The contract commits the
company to finishing the bridge by next fall. 3. She covered her head with a scarf.
4. The bird may cover thousands of miles during its migration 5. Your insurance
doesn’t cover accidents. 6. The information which you give will be employed for
your own good and for the welfare of the company. 7. These scholars are engaged
in Middle Eastern, Islamic and North African studies. 8. For much of the last
decade, the City of Manila, one of Metro Manila's semi - autonomous
municipalities, has engaged in a campaign against modern birth control. 9. This
organization is currently engaged in a campaign designed to raise awareness about
children's rights and the problems that children are facing on a daily basis 10. The
opinions of the critics mean nothing to him. 11. You ought to live within your
means.
Exercise 4. Translate the following into Russian, paying attention to the
words in bold type. First, look these words up in the dictionary, keeping in mind
their various meanings; remember also that they may belong to different parts of
speech
A. 1. They had no children of their own, so they adopted a little girl. 2. There are
many people in the West now willing to adopt handicapped children. 3. After
the Revolution, they adopted a more open policy towards the West. 4.
European dress has been adopted by people in many parts of the world. 5. This
program is aimed at helping people adopt healthy lifestyles. 6. The Human
Rights Council adopted a resolution on the human rights situation in the Syrian
Arab Republic. 7. This program is aimed at helping people adopt healthy
lifestyles. 8. The Greeks adopted the Phoenician alphabet and adapted it to
their language.
B. 1. People nowadays are becoming accustomed to using legal means of
regulating their relations with each other. 2. A journalist doesn’t have to be a
lawyer, but he often has to seek legal advice. 3. Divorce is legal in most
western countries, but illegal in Malta. 4. Defendants who can’t afford to pay a
lawyer are entitled to legal aid from the government. 5. The book is devoted to
comparing British and Continental legal systems.
C. 1. This animal’s body is about the size of a rabbit. 2. Her mind was floating
somewhere apart from her body. 3. The students went in a body to the
Assembly Hall. 4. There is a growing body of evidence pointing to these
effects. 5. The government has set up a new body to inspect secondary schools.
40
D.
E.
F.
G.
6. There is a large body of people who would use public transport if fares were
cut. 7. Susan had to take two jobs just to keep body and soul together.
1. The verdict satisfied all the interested parties. 2. He is a member of the
Labor party. 3. Most museums give a discount to school parties. 3. The UN
called on all parties in the conflict to stop the violence. 4. After a road accident,
it is often difficult to establish who the guilty party is. 5. Jack invited his
friends to his birthday party.
1. The first British periodical was the "London Gazelle", a bi-weekly court
paper. It started as the "Oxford Gazette" in 1665 when the King and the court
moved to Oxford because of London plague. 2. The 1954 landmark decision of
the Supreme Court of the United States called for racial integration of public
schools. Black and white children were to go to school together. 3. It is
impossible to use this evidence in court. 4. She had to appear in court to give
evidence. 5. Jack courted Theresa for 3 years before she marries him. 6. Our
customers should always receive courteous treatment. 6. A new tennis court
was built in the neighborhood.
1. Most of them could read a simple sentence in English. 2. He put the phone
down before she could finish the sentence. 3. If they are found guilty they will
face a sentence of ten years in prison. 4. Human rights activists were seeking a
reprieve for a woman sentenced to death by stoning in Nigeria.
1. I’d love to come to your party, but I’m afraid I can’t spare the time. 2.
We’ve got no time to spare if we want to finish the article by tomorrow. 3. All
you need to take is a spare shirt and a spare set of underwear. 4. Although the
cyclone was severe, the city was spared major damage. 5. The shop sells spare
parts for cars.
GRAMMAR STUDY AND PRACTICE
1. The wounded and sick must be collected and cared for by the party to the
conflict which has them in its power. Раненых и больных должна подбирать и о
них должна заботиться та сторона конфликта, в чьей власти они
находятся. 2. The emblem of the red cross, red crescent or red crystal must be
respected. Эмблему Красного Креста, Красного полумесяца и Красного
Кристалла необходимо уважать. 3. They must be protected against all acts of
violence. Их следует защищать от актов насилия. 4. Adequate precautions
shall be taken in this. Следует принять соответствующие меры
предосторожности.
При переводе сочетаний модальных глаголов с пассивным
инфинитивом удобно пользоваться модальными словами «можно, нужно,
нельзя, следует». В тех случаях, когда назван субъект действия, выраженного
инфинитивом, можно использовать активную конструкцию (ср. пример 2).
Exercise 5. Translate the following sentences into Russian:
1. As you analyze your time problems, some solutions will be obvious and can be
implemented immediately.
2. Through effective time management, the constant interruptions in our day can
be minimized and controlled, but they can never be completely eliminated.
41
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
The European constitution must be ratified by each of the 25 EU member states.
This subject can be argued about endlessly.
Research can be divided into two categories: qualitative and quantitative.
Some pesticides in fruit and vegetables can be removed with washing.
Interviews should be conducted face to face, but this is not always possible.
This kind of research can be conducted only in the laboratory.
TRANSLATION PRACTICE
(to be done at home in writing)
Exercise 6. Translate the following sentences into English using the words
and structures from the text and exercises:
1.Первые положения международного гуманитарного права были
закреплены в Женевской конвенции. 2. Международное Движение Красного
Креста и Красного Полумесяца старается предотвращать или облегчать
страдания человека. 3. Международное гуманитарное право – это
совокупность международно - правовых норм и принципов, регулирующих
защиту жертв войны, а также ограничивающих методы и средства ведения
войны. 4. Международное гуманитарное право содержит нормы,
охраняющие журналистов во время войны. 5. Женевская конвенция
накладывает обязательства на участников военных конфликтов. 6. Анри
Дюнана ужаснуло отсутствие медицинской помощи раненым. 7. Женевская
конвенция требует человечного обращения с ранеными и военнопленными.
8. В 1899 и 1907 годах были приняты гаагские конвенции. 9. Гражданские
лица в зоне конфликта (the conflict area) имеют право на уважение к их
жизни, достоинству и религиозным убеждениям. 10. Женевская конвенция
была дополнена протоколами, запрещающими и ограничивающими
использование некоторых видов оружия. 11. Эти протоколы охватывают
новые виды вооружений. 12. Первая женевская конвенция была принята в
1864 году. 13. Сьюзан должна давать показания в суде. 14. Король и его двор
переехали в Оксфорд из-за эпидемии чумы. 15. Никто не может быть
подвергнут телесному наказанию или пытке. 16. Парламент рассмотрел
предложения оппозиции. 17. Я не могу перевести это предложение.
SPEAKING PRACTICE
Topics for presentations:
1. The founding of the Red Cross.
2. Geneva Conventions and additional protocols.
3. Geneva Conventions and the second World War.
42
PART 3.
FROM THE HISTORY OF CULTURE
UNIT 8. THE HISTORY OF THE CALENDAR
Грамматика:
Причастие в функции определения;
Модальные глаголы с перфектным инфинитивом;
Объектная конструкция с инфинитивом при глаголах с значением знания;
Объектная конструкция с инфинитивом при глаголе to have;
Причастие в функции обстоятельства.
TEXT
Read and translate the text, paying close attention to the words in bold type
and the structures underlined. Later you will find special explanations and
exercises devoted to these words and structures.
THE CALENDAR
The solar calendar, based on the cycle of the sun, has been used in Europe
since the first century B.C., when the Julian calendar was introduced by Julius
Caesar in 45 B.C. It is the prototype of our modern calendar. In 1581, it was
replaced by the Gregorian calendar, which is a more precise modification of the
Julian calendar.
Solar calendars were preceded by lunar calendars, based on the phases of the
Moon.
The word ―calendar‖ itself has been derived from the Latin ―calends‖, the
day of the new moon and the first day of the ancient Roman month. The history
moves back farther still to the Egypt of the pharaohs, Babylon, Sumer, and beyond,
when an unknown person dressed in reindeer skin and clutching a club gazed at the
sky and got an idea to use the moon to measure time. Though in early days
calendar was required primarily for religious observance, it was used for secular
purposes as well. The calends were also the days for paying debts.
Calendars are normally based on astronomical events, and the two most
important astronomical objects are the sun and the moon. Their cycles are very
important in the construction and understanding of calendars. Calendars based on
the phases of the moon are called lunar calendars and calendars based on the cycle
of the sun are called solar calendars. The phases of the moon are easier to watch
than the cycle of the sun, and that is why the lunar calendar appeared first.
Our concept of a year is based on the earth's motion around the sun. The
time from one fixed point, such as a solstice or equinox, to the next is called a
solar year. Its length is 365.24 days. There is a leap year every four years which
has 366 days and makes up for approximately six hours which accumulate each
year.
Our concept of a month is based on the moon's motion around the earth,
although this connection has been broken in the calendar commonly used now. The
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time from one new moon to the next is called a lunar month, and its length is 29.5
days.
Our seven day week has been used for millennia by the Christian, Jewish,
Islamic, and Chinese calendars, yet its origins are most uncertain. The first pages
of the Bible explain how God created the world in six days and rested on the
seventh. This seventh day became the Jewish day of rest, the sabbath, Saturday.
The week was known in Rome, however, before the advent of Christianity. The
seven - day week may have been chosen because its length approximates one moon
phase
Besides watching the sun and the moon, primitive people were intrigued by
other celestial phenomena which displayed themselves in the clear night skies.
They had recognized stars long before written records were invented. Principal
stars were grouped into patterns which people identified with familiar animals or
with the gods, goddesses, heroes, heroines or creatures of mythology. Since the
appearance of the predominant constellations coincided with the natural
phenomena, it was possible to trace the path of the moon and that of the sun
through the sky. Those constellations were visible just before sunrise, or just after
sunset, so primitive man naturally watched them as he rose with the dawn or ―went
to bed‖ at sundown. The risings and settings of stars allowed to derive the position
of the sun among the stars and thus by means of long and careful measurement, the
calendrical year was ultimately obtained.
Answer the following questions:
If you can’t find the answers in the text, look elsewhere: consult
encyclopedias, try returning to your school textbooks, ask people who know
astronomy and physics.
1. What was the first calendar based on? How long does the full cycle of the moon
take?
2. What is the difference between the lunar calendar and the solar calendar?
3. What is the solar calendar based on?
4. What did ancient people need a calendar for?
5. Why was the solar calendar obtained later than the lunar calendar?
6. What do you know about Babylon and Sumer?
VOCABULARY STUDY AND PRACTICE
Remember the pronunciation of the following proper names and historical
words:
Julius Caesar [GHlIus 'sJZq]
Pharaohs ['fFqrou ]
Babylon ['bxbIlqn]
Sumer ['sjHmq]
Word Commentary
I. To take for granted – принимать как должное, как само собой
разумеющееся; не подвергать сомнению.
II. Lunar, solar эти латинские слова «лунный» и «солнечный»
употребляются в научных контекстах, в противоположность исконно
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английским словам moon и sun, sunny, употребляющихся в бытовых
ситуациях. Например: the solar system, solar energy, the lunar calendar, но a
sunny day, sun shadow, sun glasses, moonshine. Но: sundial – солнечные
часы.
III. Phase –Во многих словах, заимствованных из греческого языка, звук
[f] передается сочетанием ph. Ср.: photo, phonetics, philosophy, sphere,
phenomenon. Многие из этих слов являются интернациональными и имеют
русские аналоги. Они были образованы на основе древнегреческих корней и
вводились в научный обиход начиная с эпохи Возрождения.
IV. Millenia, phenomena - некоторые слова, заимствованные из
латыни (millenium) и древнегреческого (phenomenon) сохранили окончания
множественного числа языка - источника. Поскольку слова эти относятся в
языках - источниках к среднему роду, они во множественном числе
принимают окончание –а. Ср. русское окно – окна.
V. Обратите внимание на слова с корнем –duce - , duct, образованные от
латинского duco «тяну, тащу, веду»: to introduce, (introduction), to conduct
(conductor), to reduce (reduction).
Exercise 1. Find common elements in the two groups of words
1. introduction, solar, Sabbath, predominant, equinox.
2. кондуктор, солярий, солнце, шабаш, суббота, доминировать, эквивалент.
Exercise 2. Find common elements in the words below and try to explain
their meaning: equinox, equivalent, equator, value, nocturnal.
Exercise 3. Find synonyms of the following words and phrases in the text:
To look , old, exact, different, a group of stars, main, well known, a stick, to be
interested.
Exercise 4. Find words in the text meeting the following definition:
1. One of the two times of the year at which the sun reaches its highest or lowest
point in the sky at midday, marked by the longest and shortest days.
2. One of the two times of the year when the day and night are of equal length.
Exercise 5. Translate the following sentences into Russian, minding the
words in bold type. First, look these words up in the dictionary, keeping in mind
their various meanings; remember also that they may belong to different parts of
speech.
A. 1. We were playing jazz records. 2. The scientist usually records all the details
of the experiment on a computer. 3. I’d like to record some of your songs. 4.
This scholar has a very distinguished record. 5. The thief was caught red handed, but as he had no criminal record, the sentence was light. 6. This
remark is off the record. I don’t want to be quoted. 7. China and North Korea
have a terrible human rights record. 8. For the record, I'd just like to say that I
totally disagree with this decision. 9. Newspapers routinely carry stories about
record - breaking weather, such as rainfall (or the lack of it) and low and high
temperatures.
B. 1. I didn’t recognize David in the street: he was so ill. 2. When I heard this tune
I recognized it at once. 3. The new government was recognized by all major
45
states. 4. Joshua recognized that he was not qualified for the post.
5. Everyone recognized Dr. Gibson to be the greatest living authority on
ancient Roman coins. 6. His services to the State were recognized and he was
made a knight. 7. Recognition of the new state is unlikely. 8. Are qualifications
obtained in Britain recognized in other European countries? 9. She is a
recognized authority on artificial intelligence.
Exercise 6. Put in the missing words. Consult the text.
1.
The longest day in the northern hemisphere is the day of the summer
2. The … calendar is based on the phases of the moon. 3. Days and nights are
equal in length at the … 4. In ancient Rome, debts were paid during the …
5. Calendars were used both for religious and … purposes.
GRAMMAR STUDY AND PRACTICE
A.
1. Calendars based on the phases of the moon. Календари,
основанные на фазах луны. 2. Calendars based on the cycle of the sun.
Календари, основанный на солнечном цикле.
An unknown person dressed in reindeer skin and clutching a club gazed at
the sky. Неизвестный человек, одетый в оленью шкуру и держащий дубину,
посмотрел на небо…
Обратите внимание на причастие в функции определения.
Exercise 8. Translate the following sentences into Russian:
1. According to a recent estimate there are about forty calendars used in the world
today.
2. The Julian calendar, introduced by Julius Caesar in 45 B.C., was a solar
calendar with months of fixed lengths.
3. The Gregorian calendar, introduced by Pope Gregory XIII in the 16 th century,
serves as an international standard for secular use.
4. The recommendations of Pope Gregory's calendar commission were instituted
by the papal bull signed on February 24, 1582.
5. The lunisolar calendar has a sequence of months based on the lunar phase
cycle; but every few years a whole month is intercalated to bring the calendar
back in phase with the tropical year.
6. The Chinese calendar is a lunisolar calendar based on calculations of the
positions of the Sun and Moon.
7. In India…early allusions to a lunisolar calendar are found in the hymns from
the Rig Veda, dating from the second millennium B.C.
8. Three decades ago, the majority of students coming out of journalism schools
used their talents primarily at newspapers.
B.
The seven - day week may have been chosen because its length
approximates one moon phase … семидневная неделя, возможно, была выбрана
потому, что примерно соответствовала одной фазе луны.
Перфектный инфинитив при модальных глаголах may и must
указывает на вероятность какого - то события в прошлом.
Exercise 9. Translate the following sentences into Russian:
46
1. It is known that the Vikings visited the coasts of America. They may have
visited Nova Scotia and New England.
2. I can’t find my glasses. I must have left them at the office.
3. The criminal must have entered the house by the window.
4. I may have seen this woman somewhere. Her face seems familiar to me.
5. The first calendars must have been used both for religious and secular purposes.
6. At that time these tribes may not have been a very numerous.
TRANSLATION PRACTICE
(to be done at home in writing)
Exercise 10. Translate the following sentences into English using the words
and structures from the text and exercises:
1. Солнечная энергия будет широко использоваться в 21 веке. 2. В
такую погоду он всегда носит солнечные очки. 3. Сегодня солнечная погода.
4. Первые календари были основаны на фазах луны. 5. Все демократические
государства тотчас же признали новый режим. 7. Он является признанным
авторитетам по древним календарям. 8. Фазы луны легче наблюдать, чем
циклы солнца. 9. Календарь использовался как для религиозных, так и для
светских целей. 10. Человек научился распознавать основные созвездия.
11. Эти данные трудно найти. 12. С этим человеком интересно разговаривать.
12. Дети принимают родительскую любовь как должное. 13. Викинги,
должно быть, посещали эти места. 14. Я потеряла очки. Должно быть, я
оставила их в магазине. 15. Министр сказал это не для печати. 16. Все детали
эксперимента были аккуратно записаны.
SPEAKING PRACTICE
Exercise 11. Divide the following time intervals into natural and artificial.
Remember that natural time intervals are based on astronomical events, while
artificial time intervals have no such correlation:
An hour, a day, a week, а month, a year, a decade, a century, a millenium.
Some of the artificial time intervals used to be based on astronomical events.
Explain which ones.
TEXT 2
Read and translate the text, paying close attention to the words in bold type
and the structures underlined. Later you will find special explanations and
exercises devoted to these words and structures.
ERATOSPHENES: THE LIBRARIAN
WHO MEASURED THE EARTH
Can you accomplish anything practical by observing the sun’s shadow?
Well, Eratosthenes accomplished an astounding feat: observing the sun's shadow,
he measured the size of the earth, and proved it was round in the year 200 BC!
Eratosthenes was the head librarian in Alexandria, Egypt. He received a
letter from a friend in Syene, which lies on the Tropic of Cancer. His friend passed
on the remarkable fact that on the summer solstice the sun would climb to be
directly overhead at midday. The sun would shine to the bottoms of the deepest
47
wells, and the buildings would have no shadows.
In Alexandria, the sun was not directly overhead on the summer solstice. It
did not shine to the bottoms of wells and a vertical stick had a shadow. How could
this be? Thinking about this phenomenon, Eratosthenes figured that if the earth
were flat, shadows would be the same everywhere. So the surface must be curved:
a sphere.
The next year he went out and measured the midday shadow of a long
vertical pole on the summer solstice in Alexandria and it measured 7.2 degrees.
There are 360 degrees in a circle. He divided 360 by 7.2 and found that 7.2 degrees
was about one - fiftieth of a circle. He then had a special surveyor trained to walk
with equal steps measure the distance between Syene and Alexandria. Multiplying
the distance between Syene and Alexandria by 50, he calculated the circumference
of the earth to be 24,662 miles. This is only 200 miles off of the actual
circumference of the earth. All done with only sticks and shadows, careful
measuring, and a brilliant human mind in 200 BC!
VOCABULARY STUDY AND PRACTICE
I. Remember the pronunciation of the proper names:
Eratosphenes [I’rά:t∂sfi:ni:z]
Alexandria [ælig’zα:ndri∂]
Word Commentary
Earth – земля в значении «небесное тело». В значении «территория,
земельные угодья» употребляется слово land. В значении «почва» – soil. В
значении «низ, земная поверхность» –ground.
The tropic of Cancer – тропик Рака. Это латинское слово
употребляется в английском языке в значении «рак» для обозначения
тропика и заболевания.
Рак (живое существо) – crab, crawfish
Тропик Козерога - The tropic of Capricorn.
Exercise 11. Find words in the text meeting the following definition:
1. a difficult and impressive act or achievement;
2. a hole in the ground from which a supply of water is extracted.
Exercise 12. Translate the following sentences into Russian, paying
attention to the words in bold type. First, look these words up in the dictionary,
keeping in mind their various meanings; remember also that they may belong to
different parts of speech.
A. 1.Mary never eats sweets. She watches her figure2. Recent government figures
show that the unemployment in the country is going down. 3. Susan brought a
torch as she figured she might need it.
B. 1. The Earth rotates round the Sun. 2.The refugees had to sleep on the ground.
3. Many wars have been fought for land. 4. The boat turned away from land
and headed out to sea. 5. The soil in this region is very fertile
48
GRAMMAR STUDY AND PRACTICE
A.
He calculated the circumference of the earth to be 24,662 miles Он
вычислил, что окружность Земли равна 24 662 милям.
Обратите внимание на объектную конструкцию с инфинитивом при
глаголах умственной деятельности. Удобным способом перевода такого
оборота на русский язык служит придаточное предложение: «знает, что…
считает, что…»
Exercise 13. Translate the following sentences into Russian:
1. We know the reputation of your newspaper to be very good.
2. Some scholars consider this theory to be a mistake.
3. The shop clerk… appeared unsure of himself and nervous. The customer judged
him to be new to his job.
4. The new employee knew himself to be raw, inadequately trained and capable of
making mistakes.
5. Doctors know some forms of cancer to become static for many years and even
to improve.
B. He then had a special surveyor ….measure the distance Он велел
специальному землемеру… измерить расстояние.
Объектная инфинитивная конструкция при глаголе have (без частицы
to) как правило описывает ситуацию «начальник - подчиненный» или
«хозяин - слуга» и сам глагол имеет значение «распорядиться, чтобы,
«добиться, чтобы».
Exercise 14. Translate the following sentences into Russian:
1. I’ll have my driver take you to another bank.
2. The manager had the cashier write out the bill.
3. I’ll have my secretary bring you a fax - machine.
4. Instead of going out to lunch, they had the restaurant send some food to the
office.
5. The Jewish calendar is a combined solar/lunar calendar. It strives to have its
years coincide with the tropical year and its months coincide with the synodic
months.
C.
1. Observing the sun's shadow, he measured the size of the earth,
and proved it was round. Наблюдая за тенью от солнца, он измерил Землю и
доказал, что она круглая. 2. Thinking about this phenomenon, Eratosthenes
figured Размышляя об этом явлении, Эатосфен понял…
Причастие в функции обстоятельства в английском языке примерно
синонимично русскому деепричастному обороту. Его можно переводить при
помощи деепричастного оборота или придаточного предложения, если в
русском языке нельзя образовать соответствующее деепричастие.
Exercise15. Translate the following sentences into Russian:
1. Watching the sun and the moon, primitive people learned to measure time.
2. Covering a news event, the journalist must check the spelling of all the proper
names.
49
3. Writing press - releases, PR practitioners must avoid difficult words and
technical jargon.
4. Buying products advertised in the media we pay for our ―free‖ television and
cheap newspapers.
TRANSLATION PRACTICE
(to be done at home in writing)
Exercise 16. Translate the following sentences into English using the words
and structures from the text and exercises:
1. Эратосфен велел землемеру измерить расстояние между Сиеной и
Александрией. 2. В день летнего солнцестояния солнце в Сиене заглядывало
в самые глубокие колодцы. 3.Эратосфен подсчитал, что диаметр Земли равен
24,662 милям. 4. В Ирландии большая часть земли принадлежала
англичанам. 5. После длительного плавания моряки увидели землю. 6. Не
сиди на земле! Ты простудишься. 7. Земля здесь очень плодородная. 8.
Наблюдая за фазами Луны, человек научился измерять время.
SPEAKING PRACTICE
Exercise 17. Comment on the following statement:
To every time there is a season, and a time to every purpose under the
heaven (Old Testament: Ecclesiastes ch.3 v.1).
UNIT 9. CHRISTMAS: HISTORY AND TRADITIONS
Грамматика:
Значения модально - вспомогательного глагола would;
Субъектная конструкция с инфинитивом (простая и перфектная формы);
Объектная конструкция с причастием при глаголе to have.
TEXT
Read and translate the text, paying close attention to the words in bold type
and the structures underlined. Later you will find special explanations and
exercises devoted to these words and structures.
THE HISTORY OF CHRISTMAS
The word Christmas comes from the old English "Cristes maesse" meaning
Christ's Mass. The Holiday celebrates the birth of Jesus Christ. The actual birthday
of Jesus is not known; therefore, the early Church Fathers in the 4th century fixed
the day around the old Roman Saturnalia festival (17 - 21 December), a
traditional pagan festivity. The first mention of the birthday of Jesus is from the
year 354 AD. Gradually all Christian churches, except the Russian Orthodox
Church, accepted the date of December 25th.
In American/English tradition, Christmas Day itself is the day for opening
gifts brought by jolly old St. Nicholas. Many of our current American ideals about
the way Christmas ought to be, derive from the English Victorian Christmas
The caroling, the gifts, the feast, and the wishing of good cheer to all these ingredients came together to create that special Christmas atmosphere.
50
The custom of gift - giving on Christmas goes back to Roman festivals of
Saturnalia and Kalends. Romans are known to have exchanged gifts at the time of
the winter solstice. The very first gifts were simple items such as twigs from a
sacred grove as good luck emblems. Soon that escalated to food, small items of
jewelry, candles, and statues of gods. To the early Church, gift - giving at this time
was a pagan holdover and therefore severely frowned upon. However, people
would not part with it, and some justification was found in the original gift giving
of the Magi, and from figures such as St. Nicholas. By the Middle Ages gift giving
was accepted. Before then it was more common to exchange gifts on New Year's
Day or Twelfth Night.
Santa Claus is known in Britain as Father Christmas. Father Christmas, these
days, is quite similar to the American Santa Klaus, but his direct ancestor is a
certain pagan spirit who regularly appeared in medieval mummer's plays. The old fashioned Father Christmas was depicted wearing long robes with sprigs of holly
in his long white hair. Children write letters to Father Christmas detailing their
requests, but instead of dropping them in the mailbox, the letters are tossed into the
fireplace. The draft carries the letters up the chimney, and theoretically, Father
Christmas reads the smoke. Gifts are opened Christmas afternoon.
The hanging of greens, such as holly and ivy, is a British winter tradition
with origins far before the Christian era. Greenery was probably used to lift
sagging winter spirits and remind the people that spring was not far away. The
custom of kissing under the mistletoe is descended from ancient Druid rites. The
decorating of Christmas trees, though primarily a German custom, has been widely
popular in England since 1841 when Prince Albert had a Christmas tree set up in
Windsor Castle for his wife Queen Victoria, and their children.
It is from Scandinavia that most of our Yule log traditions derive. The dark
cold winters inspired the development of traditions concerned with warmth and
light. Yuletide, meaning the turning of the sun or the winter solstice, has
traditionally been a time of extreme importance in Scandinavia - a time when
fortunes for the coming year were determined and when the dead were thought to
walk the earth. For a long time, it was considered dangerous to sleep alone on
Christmas Eve. The extended family, master and servant, alike would sleep
together on a freshly spread bed of straw.
The popularity of the Nativity scene, one of the most beloved and enduring
symbols of the holiday season, originated in Italy. St. Francis of Assisi asked a
man named Giovanni Vellita of the village of Greccio to create a manger scene. St.
Francis performed mass in front of this early Nativity scene, which inspired awe
and devotion in all who saw it. The creation of the figures or pastori (shepherds)
became an entire genre of folk art.
Answer the following questions:
1. What does Christmas celebrate?
2. Why is Christmas celebrated on December 25?
3. Why did the early Church disapprove of Christmas gift - giving?
4. What do people usually do on Christmas?
51
5.
6.
7.
8.
What pagan holdovers can be seen in Christmas celebrations?
Where does the Christmas tree tradition come from?
When is Christmas celebrated by the Russian Orthodox church and why?
What pagan rites are preserved in Christmas celebrations?
VOCABULARY STUDY AND PRACTICE
Word Commentary
Pagan – языческий, нехристианский.
Слово происходит от латинского pagus – сельская местность. Когда в
Риме уже было принято христианство, а в сельских местностях еще
поклонялись местным божкам, ―paganus‖ обозначало одновременно
сельского жителя и язычника. Буквально «деревенщина». Отсюда же и
русское «поганый», изначально обозначавшее «инородец, захватчик »
Exercise 1. Find synonyms of the following words in the text: Holiday, holy,
clothes, merry, present - day.
Exercise 2. Translate the following sentences into Russian, paying attention
to the words in bold type. First, look these words up in the dictionary, keeping in
mind their various meanings; remember that these words usually have several
meanings and may belong to different parts of speech.
A. 1. Human communication has been a concern of scholars since the beginning
of social sciences. 2. Where children were concerned, he was very strict. 3. The
head of the business must be able at any time to have correct and complete
information about all matters concerned with the firm. 4. The President
expressed concern over the growing crime rate. 5. Most countries of the world
have signed international agreements concerning the rights of the individuals.
6. The Committee is mainly concerned with the problems of development and
rational utilisation of natural resources in developing countries.
B. 1. Don’t make any decision until you have considered the matter. 2. We must
consider the feelings of other people. 3. I consider this decision quite fair. 4.
Please give the matter your careful consideration. 5. The proposals are still
under consideration. 6. When marking Tom's examination paper the teacher
took Tom's long illness into consideration. 7. Several considerations have
influenced my decision. 8. Carrying large sums of money involves
considerable risk of loss or theft 9. He is very considerate to his parents. He
writes letters to them every week. 10. It was very considerate of you not to
play the piano while I was sleeping.
GRAMMAR STUDY AND PRACTICE
A.
THE USE OF MODALS AND AUXILIARIES
1. However, people would not part with it. Однако, люди не хотели
расставаться с этим обычаем
2. The extended family, master and servant, alike would sleep together on a
freshly spread bed of straw. Вся патриархальная семья, как хозяева, так и
слуги, обычно спали на свежерасстеленной соломе.
Глагол would, имеет следующие значения:
1. будущее в прошедшем;
52
2. нереальное действие;
3. действие, осуществленное (или неосуществленное) вопреки препятствиям
(ср. пример 1);
4. Обычное действие в прошлом.(ср. пример 2).
Exercise 3. Translate the following sentences into Russian:
1. I could not and would not believe that he was becoming interested in me.
2. Soames would often come down to watch with secret pride the building of the
house.
3. The chief of the tribe and his wife would sleep on a dais or in an upper gallery;
other members of the tribe slept about anywhere.
4. Space travel would be impossible without computers.
5. Mary said she would come later.
6. Mrs. Renfold did not – or would not – understand that her husband was dying.
B.
The dead were thought to walk the earth – Считалось, что
мертвые ходят по земле.
Перед нами субъектная инфинитивная конструкция. Внутри этой
конструкции субъектом инфинитива служит подлежащее предложения, а
личный глагол в составе сказуемого указывает на отношение действия к
действительности - на его известность, предсказуемость, вероятность. При
переводе удобно пользоваться безличным предложением «известно, что…»,
«считается, что…» и т.п., а также вводными словами «по - видимому,
вероятно, и т.п.
Exercise 4. Translate the following sentences into Russian:
1. President Franklin Roosevelt was said to rule the country from the newspapers’
front pages.
2. Every discipline seems to develop its own terminology; sometimes, the same
term is used in different ways by people in different disciplines and professions.
3. Increased use of computer technology is likely to decrease the number of
practitioners working at lower - level jobs and increase the number working at
professional levels.
4. Levels of stress in the family have been shown to change with changing
economic circumstances.
5.
Human character is known to be influenced both by hereditary and
environmental factors.
C.
Romans are known to have exchanged gifts at the time of the winter
solstice. Известно, что римляне обменивались подарками во время зимнего
солнцестояния.
Внутри субъектной инфинитивной конструкции действие, выраженное
перфектным инфинитивом, предшествует действию, выраженному
сказуемым.
Exercise 5. Translate the following sentences into Russian:
1. The Bishop of Myra, St.Nicholas is considered to have been the prototype of
Santa Claus.
53
2. Dressed in bishop’s garb, St.Nicholas is supposed to have left good children
presents on his feast day, December 6.
3. The custom of hanging stockings on a mantel in anticipation of small presents
is believed to have started as a homage to St. Nicholas.
4. Candles are known to have been used for religious purposes as far back as
Biblical times.
D. Prince Albert had a Christmas tree set up in Windsor Castle for his
wife Queen Victoria, and their children. Принц Альберт распорядился
установить елку в Виндзорском дворце.
Сочетание причастия с глаголом to have, как правило, обозначает
действие, совершенное по приказанию или по заказу.
Exercise 6. Translate the following sentences into Russian:
1. The governor could no longer tolerate the journalist’s satirical barbs and had
him thrown into prison on a charge of seditious libel.
2. I rescued her and had her admitted to the local hospital.
3. The editor had the story printed on the front page.
4. The mayor had all the roads in the city repaired.
5. Every Aryan (Indo - European) people had its legendary history crystallized in
bardic recitations, epics, sagas and Vedas as they were variously called.
TRANSLATION PRACTICE
(to be done at home in writing)
Exercise 7. Translate the following sentences into English using the words
and structures from the text and exercises:
1. Рождество празднуется через несколько дней после зимнего
солнцестояния. 2. В Эрмитаже имеются две картины «Рождество» известных
итальянских художников.. 3. Обычай дарить на рождество подарки – это
древняя языческая традиция. 4. Многие элементы рождественских
праздников имеют языческое происхождение. 5. Принц Альберт велел
устроить елку для королевы Виктории и детей. 6. Эта работа связана с
значительным риском. 7. Том очень внимателен к своим родителям. 8.
Известно, что некоторые антибиотики опасны для детей. 9. В сочельник дети
вешают чулки в камин, ожидая рождественских подарков. 10. Здесь опасно
купаться. Течение слишком сильное. 11. У меня текущий счет в этом банке.
12. Премьер - министр выразил озабоченность по поводу роста безработицы.
13. Первоначально в этом здании размещалась школа.
SPEAKING PRACTICE
Exercise 9. Comment on the following statement:
Tradition means giving votes to the most obscure of all classes - - - our
ancestors. It is the democracy of the dead. Tradition refuses to submit to the small
and arrogant oligarchy of those who merely happen to be walking around.(G.K.
Chesterton).
Exercise 9. Compare the celebration of Christmas and the New Year Eve in
Russia.
Try to answer the following questions:
54
1.
2.
3.
4.
How do these traditions differ?
Which holiday is more popular in Russia and why?
Does western Christmas (December 25) mean anything to you?
Do you give presents to your family and friends for New Year Eve or for
Christmas?
WRITING PRACTICE
Exercise 10. Look at some examples of Christmas cards. Write a Christmas
card to your classmates, combining season greetings with some personal
information.
To Dorothy and Family.
With season’s Greetings and All good wishes for the New Year. With Love
& Best wishes From Anne, Charles and Claire Barton.
Love, Claire
Dear Mary,
Wishing to you a Merry Christmas and happy New Year.
Sorry I’ve been so lax at keeping in touch.
You and your family are far from forgotten, I assure you. I still use the cups
you gave me last X - mas every day.
Hope to hear from you soon.
Love, Brenda
55
PART 4.
MORE ABOUT YOUR PROFESSION
UNIT 10. BIRTH OF ENGLISH LAW
Грамматика:
Страдательные конструкции с глаголами
to precede и to follow (повторение);
Обозначение дат документов и исторических событий;
Формы сослагательного наклонения
при глаголах с значением волеизъявления.
TEXT
Read and translate the text, paying close attention to the words in bold type
and the structures underlined. Below you will find special explanations and
exercises devoted to these words and structures.
THE GREAT CHARTER OF LIBERTIES
The Magna Carta is an English legal document written in 1215, which had
a huge influence on the developing legal system of England. Because England's
legal system was used as a model by many former colonies when they developed
their own legal systems, the Magna Carta also had an impact on many other
governments. Many legal historians believe that the Magna Carta is one of the
most important documents of all time.
Magna Carta was originally issued in the year 1215 and reissued later in
the 13th century in modified versions, which included the most direct challenges
to the monarch's authority to date. The document set limits on royal powers. The
charter first passed into law in 1225. The 1297 version, with the long title
(originally in Latin) The Great Charter of the Liberties of England, and of the
Liberties of the Forest, still remains on the statute books of England and Wales.
The 1215 Charter required King John of England to proclaim certain
liberties, and accept that his will was not arbitrary, for example by explicitly
accepting that no "freeman" (in the sense of non - serf) could be punished except
through the law of the land, a right which is still in existence today.
Magna Carta was the first document forced onto an English King by a group
of his subjects, the feudal barons, in an attempt to limit his powers by law and
protect their privileges. It was preceded and directly influenced by the Charter of
Liberties issued in 1100, in which King Henry I had specified particular areas
wherein his powers would be limited.
Despite its recognized importance, by the second half of the 19th century
nearly all of its clauses had been repealed in their original form. Three clauses
remain part of the law of England and Wales, however, and it is generally
considered part of the uncodified constitution. It was described as "the greatest
constitutional document of all times – the foundation of the freedom of the
individual against the arbitrary authority of the despot".
56
The charter was an important part of the extensive historical process that led
to the rule of constitutional law in the English speaking world. In practice, Magna
Carta in the medieval period did not in general limit the power of kings, but later it
became an important symbol for those who wished to show that the King was
bound by the law. It influenced the early settlers in New England[4] and inspired
later constitutional documents, including the United States Constitution.[5]
Rebellion and creation of the document
Over the course of his reign a combination of higher taxes, unsuccessful
wars, and conflict with the Pope had made King John unpopular with his barons.
Some barons began to conspire against him in 1209 and 1212.
In 1215 some of the most important barons engaged in open rebellion
against their King. This was not unusual; every king since William the Conqueror
had faced rebellions. However, in every previous case there had been an obvious
alternative monarch around whom the rebellion could rally. In 1215, however,
John had no obvious replacement. In January 1215, the barons made an oath that
they would "stand fast for the liberty of the church and the realm", and they
demanded that King John confirm the Charter of Liberties.
John prevaricated. During negotiations between January and June 1215, a
document was produced seven of the articles of which would later appear in the
'Articles of the Barons' and the Runnymede Charter.[9] The Barons forced King
John to agree to a document later known as the 'Articles of the Barons', to which
his Great Seal was attached in the meadow at Runnymede on 15 June 1215
Clause 61
The 1215 document contained a large section that is now called clause 61
(the original document was not actually divided into clauses). This section
established a council of 25 barons who could at any time meet and overrule the
will of the King if he defied the provisions of the Charter, seizing his castles and
possessions if it was considered necessary. The members of the council were
elected by the barons. The Great Council evolved later into the Parliament of
England.
Answer the following questions:
1. Why is Magna Carta so important?
2. What is the symbolic meaning of the document?
3. When was the document originally issued?
4. When was it passed into law?
5. Why was King John unpopular with his subjects?
6. Why is clause 61 so important?
7. How could the King be punished if he defied the provisions of the Charter?
VOCABULARY STUDY AND PRACTICE
Word Commentary
Magna Carta Великая хартия вольностей. В английском языке
сохранилось латинское название документа.
Serf – крепостной.
57
Words to revise: subject (unit 2), challenge (unit 1), original (unit 6), power
(unit 6).
Exercise 1. Find synonyms of the following words and phrases in the text:
Influence, revolt, freedom, promise, property
Exercise 2. Find words or phrases in the text meeting the following
definitions.
1. To state officially that a law has ended.
2. Something not done or decided according to any law or system (adjective).
3. A period of time during which a king or a queen rules.
4. Belonging to or connected with a king or a queen (adjective).
5. A formal statement which describes the rights of a group of people.
Exercise 3. Translate some sentences with the words from the earlier units:
1. Harry Potter was a young boy who had magic powers. 2. Separation of
powers safeguards liberty by ensuring that all government power does not fall into
the hands of a single person or group of people. 3. King Henry VIII challenged the
church by requesting a divorce from his first wife Catherine of Aragon. 4. Finding
qualified people has become a challenge for American corporations. Even a
college diploma doesn’t guarantee a high level of education. 5. The 1689 Bill of
Rights was designed to control the power of kings and queens and to make them
subject to laws passed by Parliament. 6. Magna Carta subjected the king to law. 7.
The significance of clause 61 of the original Magna Carta is very great. 8. The
king taxed his subjects into poverty.
Exercise 4. Translate the following sentences into Russian, paying attention
to the words in bold type. First, look these words up in the dictionary, keeping in
mind their various meanings; remember also that they may belong to different
parts of speech.
A. 1. Respect for the authority of the State is everywhere reduced. 2. The trade
union continued to seek dialogue with the authorities. 3. She is the greatest
authority on African fish. 4. The Health authorities are making diphtheria
vaccinations compulsory. 6. An officer exercises authority over the soldiers
under him. 7. New England colonies succeeded in becoming self - governing
simply by asserting that they were beyond any governmental authority. 8. The
authority of the Great Council to govern was limited until 1258, when King
Henry III became indebted while fighting in Sicily. In order to help clear the
debt, the barons agreed to accept a tax in exchange for reform.
B. 1. In 1100, Henry I issued a coronation charter guaranteeing the rights of free
English folk. 2. The article was published in the previous issue of the
newspaper. 3. The management of the company issued a press release. 4. The
committee members opposed the president’s position on the issue. 5. The town
council makes decisions on road repairs, building maintenance and other town
issues. 6. A political agenda is a list of issues that need government attention. 7.
The WTO (World Trade Organization) issued a draft resolution on Saturday to
force member countries to cut farm subsidies.
58
C. The concept of sentence in linguistics defies exact definition. 2. The
commander defied a direct order to surrender. 3. They are wrong to defy the
order of the court. Court orders should be obeyed. 4. This theory helps to
explain a number of phenomena that otherwise defy analysis. 5. I defy you to
produce one shred of evidence. 6. The term ―culture‖ defies precise definition.
D. 1. She believed that the voters would rally to the Conservatives if an election
were held. 2.The actress was invited to address a big anti - war rally in New
York City. 3. When a country goes to war, the public rallies around its leader.
GRAMMAR STUDY AND PRACTICE
Revision
A.
It (the Charter) was preceded and directly influenced by the Charter of
Liberties issued in 1100
Ей (хартии) предшествовала Хартия вольностей, изданная в 1100
году, которая оказала на нее большое влияние.
Вернитесь к уроку 6 (GRAMMAR STUDY AND PRACTICE, I) и
повторите пассивные конструкции с глаголами, эквиваленты которых в
русском языке непереходны. Обратите внимание, что пассивные формы
глаголов to precede и to follow употребляются для описания более ранних
или более поздних событий.
Exercise 5. Translate the following sentences into Russian:
1. The concert was preceded by a lecture.
2. The crisis was preceded by an increase in oil prices.
3. The stock market crash of 1929, usually cited as the beginning of the Great
Depression, was preceded by the Roaring '20s, a period of an economic boom.
4. Record warmth on Sunday was followed by severe weather in some areas of
Kansas.
5. The revolution was followed by a long civil war.
B.
The 1297 version - редакция 1297 года
The 1215 document - документ 1215 года
Обратите внимание, что даты создания документов, заключения
международных договоров и исторических событий стоят в английском
языке перед названием документа или события. При переводе на русский
язык порядок слов меняется.
Exercise 6. Translate the following sentences into Russian:
1. The 2012 presidential campaign gets under way in earnest next year.
2. The 1956 Japan - Soviet Joint Declaration states that the Soviet Union would
hand over two islands, Habomai and Ikotan after the conclusion of a peace
treaty.
3. Israel received security guarantees after the 1956 war with Egypt, The 1979
Egypt–Israel Peace treaty was signed in Washington, D.C.
C.
…they demanded that King John confirm the Charter of Liberties.
Они потребовали, чтобы Король Иоанн подтвердил Хартию вольностей.
Глагол to confirm стоит в форме сослагательного наклонения. После
глаголов с значением волеизъявления (требовать, приказывать, настаивать и
59
т.д.) употребляется сослагательное наклонение глагола. В формах
сослагательного наклонения окончание –s в третьем лице единственного
числа отсутствует. Глагол to be имеет форму be для всех лиц. При отрицании
употребляется частица not без вспомогательного глагола.
Exercise 7. Translate the following sentences into Russian:
1. The Customs officers insisted that the box be opened.
2. The former hostage … asked that her last name not be used.
3. They demanded that he not resign.
4. The judge demanded that journalists walk out of the courtroom
5. Learning an academic discipline requires that the student master its vocabulary.
6. Miss Rose suggested that Florentyna take a new course, something she might
never have another chance to study in depth.
7. King John of England agreed, in 1215, to the demands of his barons and
authorized that handwritten copies of Magna Carta be prepared on parchment.
8. Standard English requires that each sentence have a subject and verb and that
the subject and verb agree.
TRANSLATION PRACTICE
(to be done at home in writing)
Exercise 8. Translate the following sentences into English using the words
and structures from the text and exercises:
1. Бароны потребовали, чтобы король издал Хартию. 2. Бывшая
заложница просила, чтобы ее имя не называли. 3. Таможенный офицер
настоял на том, чтобы ящики открыли. 4. Великой Хартии предшествовал
более ранний документ, изданный в 1100 году. 5. Этот документ ограничивал
королевскую власть. 6. Хартия 1215 года требовала чтобы король
провозгласил некоторые вольности. 7. Ни один свободный человек не мог
быть наказан иначе как по закону. 8. Великая хартия была навязана королю
группой его подданных. 9. Высокие налоги и неудачные войны сделали
короля Иоанна Безземельного непопулярным среди своих подданных.10.
Бароны потребовали, чтобы король подтвердил Хартию. 11. Некоторые
статьи Хартии существуют по сей день. 12. Хартия составила основу более
поздних английских законов.
SPEAKING PRACTICE
Topics for presentations:
1. The 1100 Coronation Charter as a precedent for Magna Carta.
2. Clauses of Magna Carta in modern Constitutions.
3. The importance of clause 61.
60
UNIT 11. INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS
Грамматика:
Герундиальные конструкции при глаголах
со значением «запретить, помешать»;
Объектно - инфинитивная конструкция
при глаголах с значением умственной деятельности.
TEXT
Read and translate the text, paying close attention to the words in bold type
and the structures underlined. Below you will find special explanations and
exercises devoted to these words and structures.
The United Nations Organization
The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims
are facilitating cooperation in international law, international security, economic
development, social progress, human rights, and achievement of world peace. The
UN was founded in 1945 after World War II to stop wars between countries, and to
provide a platform for dialogue. It contains multiple subsidiary organizations to
carry out its missions.
There are currently 192 member states, including every sovereign state in
the world but the Vatican City. From its offices around the world, the UN and its
specialized agencies decide on substantive and administrative issues in regular
meetings held throughout the year. The organization has six official languages:
Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, and Spanish.
The founders of the UN had envisaged that the organization would act to
prevent conflicts between nations and make future wars impossible, but the
outbreak of the Cold War made peacekeeping agreements extremely difficult
because of the division of the world into hostile camps. Following the end of the
Cold War, there were renewed calls for the UN to become the agency for achieving
world peace, as there are several dozen ongoing conflicts that continue to rage
around the globe.
A 2005 study found the UN to be successful in two out of three
peacekeeping efforts. Also in 2005, the Human Security Report documented a
decline in the number of wars, genocides and human rights abuses since the end of
the Cold War, and presented evidence, albeit circumstantial, that international
activism—mostly spearheaded by the UN—has been the main cause of the decline
in armed conflict since the end of the Cold War. Situations where the UN has not
only acted to keep the peace but also occasionally intervened include the Korean
War (1950–1953), and the authorization of intervention in Iraq after the Persian
Gulf War in 1990. The UN, after approval by the Security Council, sends
peacekeepers to regions where an armed conflict has recently ceased or paused to
enforce the terms of peace agreements and to discourage combatants from
resuming hostilities. Since the UN does not maintain its own military,
peacekeeping forces are voluntarily provided by member states of the UN. The
forces, also called the "Blue Helmets", who enforce UN accords, are awarded
61
United Nations Medals, which are considered international decorations instead of
military decorations. The peacekeeping force as a whole received the Nobel Peace
Prize in 1988.
One of the central reasons for creating the UN was the pursuit of human
rights. World War II atrocities and genocide led to a ready consensus that the new
organization must work to prevent any similar tragedies in the future. The UN
Charter obliges all member nations to promote "universal respect for, and
observance of, human rights" and to take "joint and separate action" to that end.
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights was adopted by the General
Assembly in 1948 as a common standard of achievement for all. The Assembly
regularly takes up human rights issues.
Answer the following questions:
1. When was the UN founded?
2. What are the stated aims of the UN?
3. How many member states does the UN include?
4. What are the results of the UN activity?
5. What is the purpose of sending peacemaking forces to various regions?
6. What awards do the ―Blue Helmets‖ receive?
7. Why are human rights issues so important for the UN?
8. What are the working languages of the UN?
VOCABULARY STUDY AND PRACTICE
Word Commentary
Beware of false friends of the translator:
Nation – народ, государство.
National –общенациональный.
Nationality гражданство.
Национальность, национальная принадлежность – ethnicity, ethnic
background.
Exercise 1. Find synonyms of the following words and phrases in the text:
Independent, unfriendly, permission, quarrel, purpose, agreement.
Exercise 2. Find words in the text meeting the following definitions:
1. The murder of a whole group of people, especially a whole nation, race or
religious group;
2. Armed forces which prevent or stop fighting in an area.
Exercise 3. Translate the following sentences into Russian, paying attention
to the words in bold type. First, look these words up in the dictionary, keeping in
mind their various meanings; remember also that they may belong to different
parts of speech.
A. 1.She always held herself erect. 2.The prisoner was held in a cell. 3. She was
one of the greatest Prime Ministers who ever held office. 4.The President
promised he would hold elections in June. 4. The UN called for the holding of
multilateral talks. 5. They held me personally responsible for the accident. 6.
This scholar holds that people are all naturally creative.7. The lecturer found it
difficult to hold the students’ attention. 8. Members of ethnic minorities in this
62
country usually hold jobs of lower status. 9. People hold different opinions
about the merits of government policies. 10. The UN Secretary General held a
Security Council emergency meeting devoted to the terrorist attack.
B. 1. I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where
they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their
character. (Martin Luther King) 5. The Constitution listed the powers of the
national government. 6. During the 50s and 60s, the national government in
the USA assumed the task of promoting social equality by combating racism
and poverty. 7. The leaders of western nations protested against the violent
suppression of the protests by the Libyan authorities. 8. While America was
prospering in the 1920's, European nations were struggling to rebuild
themselves after the damage of the first world war.
C. 1. I wanted to maintain my friendship with her. 2. It is the duty of the
government to maintain law and order. 3. The role of The UNO in
maintaining peace can't be overestimated. 4. For this process to go on, one has
to maintain the temperature at a very high level. 5. I need the money to
maintain my family for at least the next month, until I start a job. 6. The cost of
maintaining the equipment is rising. 7. The police maintained that the
criminal acted alone in the shooting. 8. Who is responsible for the maintenance
and care of the buildings?
GRAMMAR STUDY AND PRACTICE
A.
Revision A study found the UN to be successful in two out of three
peacekeeping efforts. Исследование показало, что ООН успешно проводит две
из трех миротворческих операций.
Вернитесь к уроку 8 (текст 2, Grammar study and practice, A) и
повторите объектно-предикативную конструкцию с инфинитивом.
Exercise 4. Translate the following sentences into Russian:
1. Many scientists consider this hypothesis to be a mistake.
2. Some parents want their children to read well, but don't set them a good
example.
3. Many studies have found stress and negative emotions to weaken the
effectiveness of the immune system.
4. There are still many countries today where ten families share a single telephone
and people consider a television set to be a luxury.
5. Readers expect all business documents to be well-designed and error-free.
B. Discourage combatants from resuming hostilities помешать воюющим
сторонам возобновить военные действия.
Глаголы to keep, to prohibit, to prevent, to bar, to discourage указывают
на препятствие к осуществлению действия, выраженного герундием, т.е.
конструкции с ними содержат имплицитное (не выраженное частицами
no/not) отрицание.
Exercise 5. Translate the following sentences into Russian:
1. Journalists were barred from covering the protests, so no one really knows how
many people have been killed.
63
2. The UN has worked to prevent conflicts from breaking out.
3. Some people believe that Christians should be discouraged from celebrating
Christmas publicly, to avoid offending other religious groups.
4. Before the Civil Rights Campaign, the southern states tried to keep their black
citizens from voting, no matter what the federal government said.
5. The First Amendment to American Constitution prohibits Congress from
abridging the freedom of the press.
6. A number of factors prevent the country from liberalizing its labor market.
7. Some politicians consider that high income taxes prevent the rich from
investing in new industrial enterprises.
8. The Spanish Catholicism was sufficiently strong to keep the sects of
Protestantism from taking root in Iberia.
TRANSLATION PRACTICE
(to be done at home in writing)
Exercise 6. Translate the following sentences into English using the words
and structures from the text and exercises:
1. Миротворцы мешают воюющим сторонам возобновлять военные
действия. 2. Парламент хотел сформировать правительство с четко
определенными полномочиями. 3. Декларация о правах человека была
принята Генеральной Ассамблеей в 1948 году. 4. Правительство стало
проводить более открытую политику по отношению к западу. 4. Долг
правительства – поддерживать закон и порядок. 5. Полиция утверждала, что
преступник действовал один. 6. Президент обещал провести выборы в
следующем году. 7. Проблемы прав человека чрезвычайно важны для ООН.
8. Все независимые государства являются членами ООН. 9. ООН провела
несколько конференций по правам человека.
SPEAKING PRACTICE
Topics for presentations:
1. The humanitarian activity of the UN
2. The UN’s peacekeeping missions
3. The UN Subsidiary organizations
UNIT 12. THE CUSTOMS SERVICE
Грамматика:
Бессоюзное придаточное предложение
TEXT
Read and translate the text, paying close attention to the words in bold type
and the structures underlined. Below you will find special explanations and
exercises devoted to these words and structures.
64
The Role of the Customs Service in the Economy
One of the little rituals all international travelers go through is customs. To
most people, this is just another stop in an airport or a minor inconvenience at a
country's borders. But when you go through customs, you are actually taking part
in a key component of the global economy.
In this article, we'll find out what customs is for and how it operates. We'll
also look at some of the major obstacles customs agents face and the equipment
they use to meet those challenges. When you see everything that customs agencies
do, it's clear that they are one of the most essential pieces of a nation's government.
A nation's customs service has many responsibilities. At its most basic level,
its purpose is to regulate what comes into and goes out of a country. The foremost
element of this regulation is controlling international trade. The concept of trade is
as old as civilization itself. If my tribe has a huge supply of bananas, and your
tribe has a huge supply of fur, we will trade goods so that both our tribes can eat
and both can keep warm. In the modern world, international trade is based on
money, but it works in pretty much the same way. My country may produce more
televisions than the population needs, but not enough cars. In order to have
everything the population needs, businesses in my country will export TVs (sell
them to people in other countries) and import cars (buy them from other
countries).
Any nation wants its own businesses to do well, so most of the time they
prefer their people buy domestic goods over competing foreign goods. But in many
cases, goods are available cheaper in another country than in your country, and
people naturally want to buy them at the lower price. To tilt the balance in favor of
domestic businesses, governments impose tariffs, also called duty, on foreign
goods coming into the country.
In addition to encouraging domestic trade, duty also gives the nation a share
of the profit when somebody buys something produced overseas. Customs
agencies are often major sources of revenue for the government. The U.S.
Customs Service, for example, brings in more money than any other government
office except the Internal Revenue Service. To control specific sorts of trade, a
government may impose a higher tariff on certain types of goods (alcohol, for
example). Certain countries may join together to work out mutually beneficial
trade agreements, enabling businesses in those nations to trade more freely with
each other than they can with businesses in other nations. This gives an advantage
to nations that a country has a good relationship with.
Answer the following questions:
1. What must all international travelers do when they enter a foreign country?
2. What are the responsibilities of the customs service?
3. How do governments control international trade?
4. What is the purpose of customs duties and tariffs?
5. Why do people sometimes prefer imported goods?
6. What is the role of customs service in the economy?
65
VOCABULARY STUDY AND PRACTICE
Word Commentary
To face - сталкиваться.
Demand and supply – спрос и предложение - базовые понятия
рыночной экономики
Revenue доход (государства или предприятия). Когда речь идет о
доходе частного лица, употребляется слово income.
Exercise 1. Find synonyms of the following words and phrases in the text:
firm, important, element, commerce
Exercise 2. Find words in the text meeting the following definitions:
1. A place where travelers’ belonging can be inspected when they are leaving or
entering a country.
2. The dividing line between two countries.
3. The process of buying, selling or exchanging goods.
Exercise 3. Translate the following sentences into Russian, paying attention
to the words in bold type. First, look these words up in the dictionary, keeping in
mind their various meanings; remember also that they may belong to different
parts of speech.
A. 1. Social customs and traditions vary greatly from country to country. 2. At
Kennedy airport I went through the customs. 3. Custom - built cars are very
expensive. 4. There were two customers in the shop.
B. 1. James met his future wife on the train from the Hague. 2. The government’s
policies were meeting mounting criticism. 3. I am meeting my parents at the
airport today. 4. The government met in the morning to discuss the situation. 5.
Education in private schools must meet certain standards. 6. I am meeting an
important deadline and my computer broke down. 7. The machinery doesn’t
meet the international safety standards. 8. While Janice was looking for a job
she made ends meet as a waitress in a large restaurant. 9. Customs agencies test
food imports, and if the samples do not meet the government’s standards, the
goods are destroyed or turned away from the port. 10. Most local libraries…
purchase government documents to meet the most common information needs
of their users.
C. 1.There may be some minor changes in the schedule. 2. The young actress was
given a minor part in the new play. 3. Selling alcohol to minors is an offence.
4. In this accident, some people suffered minor injuries.
D. 1. Major American corporations are involved in numerous projects to improve
the level of teaching in American schools. 2. There have been major changes in
the country’s economy. 3. The student was asked to write a short list of the
major courses she took. 4. The book describes the major political roles of the
news media. 5. Thomas Hartnell was a major in the US army. 6. John decided
to major in journalism. 7. Steve Jandrell is a third year English major. 8.
Jessica graduated with a major in public relations from Northern Illinois
university. 9. Many reporters at newspapers majored in history, political
science or another field.
66
E. 1. He was a leading industrialist with business interests in Germany. 2. He set
up a small travel business. 3. Many small businesses went bankrupt during the
crisis. 4. The company directors actually run the business. 5. There are good
profits to be made in the hotel business. 6. It’s no business of mine what you
choose to read. 7. Please phone during business hours. 8. 50% of these shops
were not in business five years ago. 9. Businesses owned by women more
often adopt innovative personnel policies, especially policies important to
women.
F. 1.The policeman demanded to see their identity card. 2. The workers are
demanding higher wages. 3. Detective stories are widely read and are always
in great demand. 4. In market economy, prices are determined by demand and
supply. 5. A person who wants to buy something, but can’t afford it, doesn’t
create demand for this good. 6. In late 15th - century Europe, there was a great
demand for spices, textiles and dyes from Asia.
G. 1. Germany is supplying much of the steel for the new pipeline. 2. This town is
supplied with electricity by a nuclear power plant. 3. There are very large
supplies of oil in the North Sea. 4. The world’s food supply is limited. 5. Most
houses now have indoor lavatories and a hot water supply. 6. In some
countries, petrol is in short supply. 7. Economic stability can only be reached if
demand and supply are in approximate balance.
H. 1.As a doctor, it was his duty to preserve life. 2. When the riot started, there
were only two policemen on duty. 3. Jeremy was the chief of local police force.
He had many duties to perform. 4. The government imposed customs duties to
protect domestic industries. 5. We bought this wine at a duty - free shop. 6. He
has an extraordinary sense of honor and duty.
GRAMMAR STUDY AND PRACTICE
…some of the obstacles customs agents face and the equipment they use
…некоторые препятствия, с которыми сталкиваются работники
таможни и оборудование, которое они используют.
Придаточное определительное в английском языке может
присоединяться бессоюзно. При переводе на русский язык необходима
подстановка союзного слова ―который‖ (ср. предложенные варианты
перевода)
Exercise 4. Translate the following sentences into Russian:
1. The people I spoke to told me about their problems.
2. The land the Vikings discovered was covered with forests.
3. The language this tribe spoke was unfamiliar to the explorer.
4. The wine they serve here is grown in the south of France.
5. The roses they grow in this garden are sold everywhere.
TRANSLATION PRACTICE
(to be done at home in writing)
Exercise 5. Translate the following sentences into English using the words
and structures from the text and exercises:
67
1. Таможенная служба часто является важным элементом повышения
государственного дохода. 2. Зарплата - единственный источник его дохода.
3. В рыночной экономике цены определяются спросом и предложением. 4.
Рабочие требовали повышения зарплаты. 5. Спрос на этот товар растет. 6. В
конце 15 века в Европе был большой спрос на пряности и ткани. 7. В
расписании могут быть незначительные изменения. 8. Многие мелкие
предприятия обанкротились во время кризиса. 9. В экономике страны
произошли крупные изменения. 10. Образование в частных школах должно
удовлетворять определенным критериям. 11. Я делаю срочную работу. 12.
Чтобы контролировать торговлю, правительство может вводить тарифы и
таможенные пошлины. 13. Это государство вывозит машины и ввозит ткани.
14. Оборудование, которое они используют, - абсолютно новое.
68
PART 5.
THE EARLY HISTORY OF THE NEW WORLD
UNIT 13.
Грамматика:
Субъектная конструкция с перфектным инфинитивом (повторение);
Модальный глагол to be в прошедшем времени.
TEXT
Read and translate the text, paying close attention to the words in bold type
and the structures underlined. Below you will find special explanations and
exercises devoted to these words and structures.
THE DISCOVERY OF AMERICA
The first Europeans to arrive in North America – at least the first for whom
there is solid evidence – were Norse, traveling west from Greenland where Eric the
Red had founded a settlement around the year 985. In 1001 his son Leif Ericson is
thought to have explored the northeast coast of what is now Canada and spent at
least one winter there.
They landed at a place they called Vinland. Remains of a Viking settlement
have been found in the Canadian province of Newfoundland. The Vikings may
also have visited Nova Scotia and New England. They failed, however, to establish
any permanent settlements, and they soon lost contact with the new continent.
Five hundred years later, the need for increased trade and an error in
navigation led to another European encounter with America. In late 15th - century
Europe, there was a great demand for spices, textiles and dyes from Asia.
Christopher Columbus, a mariner from Italy, mistakenly believed that he could
reach Far East by sailing 4000 miles (6 400 kilometers) west from Europe. In
1492, he persuaded the king and queen of Spain to finance such a voyage.
Columbus sailed west, but he did not reach Asia. Instead he landed on one of
the Bahama Islands in the Caribbean Sea. Columbus never saw the mainland
United States, but the first explorations of the continent were launched from the
Spanish possessions that he helped establish.
He eventually explored most of the Caribbean area. He returned home with
some gold and within 40 years treasure - hungry Spanish adventurers had
conquered a huge empire in South and Central America. The Spanish also
established some of the earliest settlements in North America - St. Augustine in
Florida (1565), Santa Fe in New Mexico (1609) and San Diego in California
(1769)
Because of Spanish and Portuguese conquests, the inhabitants of Central and
South America speak Spanish and Portuguese. That is why this part of the world is
referred to as Latin America.
In 1497, just five years after Christopher Columbus landed in the Caribbean,
a Venetian sailor named John Cabot arrived in Newfoundland with a mission for
69
the British king. Although fairly quickly forgotten, Cabot’s journey was later to
provide the basis for British claims to North America.
The Europeans were initially drawn to the New World in search of wealth.
When Columbus and later Spanish explorers returned to Europe with stories of
abundant gold in the Americas, each European sovereign hastened to claim as
much territory as possible in the New World - along with whatever wealth might
be extracted from it.
Enforcing these claims could only be accomplished by establishing
settlements of Europeans on the territory. This requirement - combined with the
zeal of Spanish priests to convert the indigenous inhabitants of the Americas to
Christianity, the need of European religious and political dissenters for refuge from
persecution in their homelands, and the thirst for adventure in some individuals fueled the drive for the establishment of colonies.
From: Cincotte H. (ed.) An outline of American History. Washington, 1994.
Answer the following questions. If you can’t find the answer in the text,
look elsewhere.
1. When did Europeans first reach the New World?
2. What do you know about Leif Erickson? What was his father’s name?
3. What country was Christopher Columbus looking for?
4. How are the indigenous inhabitants of America called? Why?
5. What attracted the first adventurers to the New World?
6. Why were European settlements established?
7. What kind of stories did Spanish adventurers tell at home?
8. What branch of Christianity did Spanish priests convert Indians to?
9. Why are South and Central America called Latin America?
10.What languages are spoken in Latin America?
VOCABULARY STUDY AND PRACTICE
Word Commentary
1. Norse – an adjective, referring to people, language and culture of an
early period in the history of Scandinavia
2. to sail - to swim - to float плавать
Обратите внимание, что глагол to sail относится к лодке или кораблю,
to swim – к человеку или животному, to float – к неодушевленному предмету.
Например:
Columbus sailed to the New World.
The children are swimming in the lake.
Ice floats on water.
3. Глагол to fail с инфинитивом может указывать не только на
неудачную попытку совершить действие, но и просто на неосуществление
действия, т.е. имеет значение отрицания. Например:
The Fourteenth Amendment in 1868 failed to secure full legal rights to the
freed slaves. Четырнадцатая поправка к американской конституции не
обеспечила всех прав недавно освобожденным рабам.
70
Exercise 1. Find synonyms of the following words in the text: large,
monarch, to set up, shelter, a mistake
Exercise 2. Find words in the text meeting the following definitions
1. A long journey, especially by boat.
2. A place where people have come to live permanently.
Exercise 3. Translate the following sentences into Russian, paying attention
to the words in bold type. First, look these words up in the dictionary, keeping in
mind their various meanings; remember also that they may belong to different
parts of speech.
A. 1. Indigenous peoples in many countries claim back the land lost by their
forefathers. 2. The terrorist organization claimed responsibility for the attack..
3.The accident claimed ten lives. 4. Television news programs claim far larger
audiences than magazines and newspapers. 5. The freedom fighters claim to
control the city. 6. He claimed to be a Scot, but had a powerful Liverpool
accent. 7. The settlers claimed that they had paid the government for the land.
8. When Columbus and later Spanish explorers returned to Europe with stories
of abundant gold in the Americas, each European sovereign hastened to claim
as much territory as possible in the New World. 9. The guerillas claim to have
shot down 22 planes. 10. This organization claimed responsibility for the
terrorist attack.
B. 1. Catholics, who were facing religious persecution in Anglican England,
settled along the Potomac River in what became known as Maryland. 2. They
haven’t yet settled when the wedding is going to be. 3. The details of the
contract have not yet been settled. 4. If you don’t settle this account, nobody
will lend you money any more. 5. Settlement of the island of Manhattan began
in the early 1620s. 6. In the 1630s, a Swedish trading company with ties to the
Dutch, attempted to set up its first settlement along the Delaware River. 7. A
speedy settlement of the strike by the new government helped to avoid
violence. 8. The parties reached an out - of - court settlement. 9. The two
countries must use the chance for a peaceful political settlement.
C. 1. These protest marches seldom failed to attract attention. 2. He had set his
alarm clock for 7 a.m., but either he slept through its warning or it failed to go
off. 3. Let it not be said that at any point we failed to respect the law.
4. Whatever criticism might be leveled at the manager, no one could complain
that he had failed to make his viewpoint clear. 5. Through the entire evening
the Duke and the Duchess had failed to leave their hotel room.
D. 1. This case drew intense publicity. 2. Local drug action teams have drawn up
coordinated action plans. 3. Their wedding day was drawing nearer all the
time. 4. The meeting was drawing to an end. 5. They drew electricity from the
national power network. 6. Research work involves the ability to observe
individual facts and draw conclusions. 7. He drew fifty pounds from his
current account. 8. Anna drew water from the well.
E. 1. This ship was launched two years ago. 2. The first manned spaceship was
launched in 1961. 3. The government has launched a massive anti - drug
71
campaign. 4. The guerillas launched an attack against the police and military
barracks. 5. The new range of products launched last summer is already selling
well. 6. The newspaper was already selling millions of copies just one year after
the launch. 7. He launched into a long speech about the dangers of taking
drugs. 8. Sometimes a first job can serve as a launching pad for starting a
career. 9. South Dakota in the early 1980s launched its own anti - drunk driving campaign and had already sharply reduced the number of young people
involved in drunk driving fatalities
GRAMMAR STUDY AND PRACTICE
Revision
A. The Vikings may also have visited Nova Scotia Викинги, возможно,
посещали Новую Шотландию.
Вернитесь к уроку 8 (Text 1, Grammar study and practice , B) и повторите
употребление модальных глаголов may и must с перфектным инфинитивом.
Exercise 4. Translate the following sentences into Russian
1. These tribes must have followed several migration routes along the California
coast. They must have gathered wild plants and fished.
2. The indigenous people of Greenland must have developed unique hunting
techniques and tools to survive in the remarkably harsh climate.
3. Asian tribes must have pushed eastwards across the land bridge that is now
covered by the waters of the Bering strait pursuing the caribou, mammoths, and
other great beasts that were their game.
4. Before Columbus, English fishermen from Bristol may have touched on North
American shores.
B. Leif Ericson is thought to have explored the northeast coast of what is
now Canada Считается, что Лейф Эриксон исследовал северо - восточное
побережье нынешней Канады.
Вернитесь к уроку 9 (Grammar study and practice, C) и повторите
субъектно - предикативную конструкцию с перфектным инфинитивом.
Exercise 5. Translate the following sentences into Russian:
1. Paleo - Indians are considered to have settled in all the unglaciated corners of
North and South America.
2. The population of Native peoples in Central Mexico in 1518 is estimated to
have been 25 million.
3. Ninety percent of the populations the Spaniards encountered in America are
believed to have been eliminated by epidemics of measles, chicken pox and
smallpox to which the natives had no immunities.
4. In medieval Italy people who dissected dead bodies in order to study anatomy
were considered to have sold their souls to the devil.
C. Cabot’s journey was later to provide the basis for British claims to North
America. Путешествие Кэбота позднее дало основание англичанам
претендовать на земли в Северной Америке.
Глагол to be в модальном значении иногда имеет значение
исторической детерминированности «предстоять».
72
Exercise 6. Translate the following sentences into Russian:
1. In a print shop in Mainz, Germany, Johannes Gutenberg invented the movable
type printing press that was to revolutionize the process of spreading
information.
2. The invention of movable type in Germany in the 15th century spurred a
printing revolution that was to shatter social structures and encourage the
spread of information among varied social classes.
3. The state was small, isolated, decadent and torn by feuds which were to leave it
an easy prey to the conquerors.
4. The city of London, which was to play so great a part first in English and then
in the world history, attained its original importance under the Roman rule.
D. Columbus never saw the mainland United States. Колумб так и не
увидел материковую часть США.
Never в сочетании с глаголом в прошедшем времени, обозначающим
единичное действие, обозначает запланированное или предполагаемое, но не
осуществленное действие (так и не).
Exercise 7. Translate the following sentences into Russian:
1. Richard I went to France to defend his Angevin inheritance. He never returned
to England.
2. The government planned economic reforms, but never conducted them.
3. John left his home town at the age of eighteen and never returned to it.
4. The unprovoked attack by two unknown men sent the reporter to a hospital. The
attackers were never found.
TRANSLATION PRACTICE
(to be done at home in writing)
Exercise 8. Translate the following sentences into English using the words
and structures from the text and exercises:
1. Помимо Лейфа Эриксона, другие викинги, возможно, плавали к
берегам Америки. 2. Он не умеет плавать. 3. Дерево плавает в воде, а железо
тонет. 4. Этот корабль был спущен на воду 3 года назад. 5. Английские
колонисты устраивали поселения на Атлантическом побережье Америки. 6.
Обе стороны (parties) должны пытаться достичь мирного урегулирования
конфликта. 7. Будильник не позвонил, и я проспал (overslept). 8. Локальные
войны каждый день уносят новые жизни. 9. Рабочие требуют повышения
зарплаты. 10. Партизаны утверждают, что контролируют деревню. 11.
Правительство утверждает, что уровень безработицы падает. 12. Эта
организация взяла на себя ответственность за взрыв в ресторане. 13. В этой
аварии погибло 10 человек. 14. Научная работа требует способности
наблюдать отдельные факты и делать выводы. 15. Первые поселенцы
надеялись найти в Америке убежище от религиозных преследований. 16.
Колумб так и не посетил американский материк, но исследовал острова
Карибского моря.
SPEAKING PRACTICE
Exercise 10. Topics for presentations:
73
1. The settlement of North America by British colonists.
2. The settlement of Alaska by Russian colonists.
3. African Americans and their history.
Exercise 11. Discuss in your group:
What would have happened if Europeans had not come to the new World?
Keep in mind the possible answers:
1. Native Americans would have a rich and original civilization now.
2. Forests would stand where New York City, Washington and Philadelphia are
now. Nomadic tribes with Neolithic culture would be wandering about the
continent.
UNIT 14. THE BIRTH OF THE UNITED STATES
Глагол to come в сочетании с инфинитивом;
Сочетание to be able с инфинитивом.
TEXT
Read and translate the text, paying close attention to the words in bold type
and the structures underlined. Below you will find special explanations and
exercises devoted to these words and structures.
THE FIRST BRITISH COLONIES IN AMERICA
A year before the French founded Quebec (a French colony in Canada), the
English established their first lasting settlement in Virginia. The colony,
Jamestown, was funded by a joint - stock company, a group of private investors
who pooled their money to support big projects. These investors, along with others
in business and government, saw colonies as sources of raw materials and markets
for English goods.
Plymouth Colony
Not all settlers came for economic gain. King James was persecuting a
group of Puritans who were called Separatists because they wanted to form their
own congregations separate from the Anglican Church, the official church of
England. Fleeing religious persecution in their native England, a group of
Separatists sailed to the New World, hoping to be able to worship freely in
America.
In 1620 a small band of Separatists, who came to be known as Pilgrims,
headed for Virginia on the Mayflower. A storm blew their ship off its course. The
Pilgrims finally dropped anchor off the coast of Cape Cod, territory without an
English government. They did not settle, however, until they arrived at Plymouth,
which had been named by Captain John Smith in 1614. It was there that the
Pilgrims decide to settle.
Believing themselves outside of any organized government, the settlers
drew up a plan for self - government called the Mayflower Compact. It guaranteed
equality to all the settlers.
74
The Pilgrims began to build their settlement during the winter. The winter
was devastating. Nearly half the colonists died of exposure and disease. Of the 110
Pilgrims and crew who left England, less that 50 survived the first winter. But
neighboring Wampanoag people provided information that was to sustain them:
how to grow maize.
The following autumn, the Pilgrims joined with the Wampanoag in a harvest
celebration— the first Thanksgiving.
Ten years later, after increasing persecution of Puritans, another group of
Puritans arrived in Massachusetts Bay bearing a grant from King Charles I to
establish a colony and a charter for a new colony. They founded several towns,
including Boston. A depression of England’s wool industry drew more people to
Massachusetts.
Massachusetts was virtually independent of Britain. Its government was
representative, with an elected assembly to make laws, although the voting rights
were restricted to church members, because government and religion were closely
intertwined. Non-Puritans were allowed to reside in the colony but were forbidden
participation in the government.
The Massachusetts Bay Colony was to play a significant role in the
development of the entire nation in part because its leaders were able to bring their
charter with them. Thus, the authority for the colony’s government resided in
Massachusetts, not in England.
Answer the following questions:
1. Why did the Separatists leave England?
2. How was their ship called?
3. What document did they draw?
4. Why did they drop anchor off the coast of Cape Cod?
5. Where did the Pilgrims finally settle?
6. Who founded and who financed the colony in Virginia?
7. What religious views did the Pilgrims hold?
8. Were they tolerant to other religious practices?
9. What was the status of non - Puritans?
10.What kind of government did the colonists finally establish?
VOCABULARY STUDY AND PRACTICE
Words to revise: charter (unit 10), to settle, settlement (unit 13) to draw (unit
13), authority (unit 10).
Exercise 1. Find synonyms of the following words in the text: Important, to
live, festival, to carry.
Exercise 2. Find words in the text meeting the following definitions:
1. A group of people gathered together in a religious building for worship and
prayer.
2. To treat cruelly and cause to suffer, especially for political or religious beliefs.
Exercise 3. Translate some sentences with the words from the earlier units:
They got married and settled near Manchester. 2. George settled his debts
before leaving the country. 3. The government drew its support from moderate
75
conservatives. 4. The presidential electoral campaign is drawing to an end. 5. The
information contained in the AP News report may not be published, broadcast,
rewritten or redistributed without the prior written authority of The Associated
Press. 6. The Charter of the United Nations was signed on 26 June 1945, in San
Francisco and came into force on 24 October 1945.
Exercise 4. Translate the following sentences into Russian, paying attention
to the words in bold type. First, look these words up in the dictionary, keeping in
mind their various meanings; remember also that they may belong to different
parts of speech.
A. 1. A new wave of immigrants arrived on the shores of Massachusetts Bay in
1630, bearing a grant from King Charles I to establish a colony.
2. Women are granted a year’s maternity leave after giving birth. 3. It is taken
for granted that every child should learn mathematics. 4. Thank you very much
for granting me so much of your valuable time. 5. At last he was granted an
exit visa. 5. The government granted concessions to the rebels. 6. After the
Civil War in the USA, slaves were granted freedom, but not equality. 7. The
Mayflower was originally bound for the mouth of the Hudson River, the land
granted in a patent from the Crown to the London Virginia Company
B. 1. Exposure to high level of radiation in Chernobyl accounts for a high number
of deaths among fit young men. 2. After the accident, 75.000 people were
treated for injuries sustained from exposure to the gas. 3. A study conducted
during the 1940 presidential election showed that many voters had limited
exposure to the mass media, but obtained most of their information from other
people who had received it firsthand. 4. The group leader died of exposure in
the mountains, because the weather was very cold. 5. At this age, youngsters
receive maximum exposure to new ideas.
Exercise 5. Replace the words and phrases in bold type by the words and
phrases from the text:
1. A group of separatists traveled to the New World. 2.The Pilgrims
dropped anchor near the coast of Cape Cod. 3. They believed themselves outside
the authority of any organized government. 4. The settlers developed a plan for
self - government. 5. Some colonists died of cold and disease. 6. Less than fifty
colonists lived through the winter. 6. Hopes for a better life attracted people to
Massachusetts. 7. Government and religion were closely linked. 8. Non - Puritans
were allowed to live in the colony.
GRAMMAR STUDY AND PRACTICE
A. … a small band of Separatists, who came to be known as Pilgrims
…маленькая группа сепаратистов, позднее известными как пилигримы.
Глагол to come в сочетании с инфинитивом обозначает постепенное
становление действия или признака или более позднее действие
Exercise 5. Translate the following sentences into Russian:
1. She came to love the old house.
2. South African English has come to comprise a range of varieties.
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3. The rule of law, as it developed in the medieval England, came to encompass a
parliament and a court system
4. During the colonial era, Protestant peoples came to dominate the area that
would become the United States.
5. In the 70's feminism came to be perceived as simply anti - family, anti marriage, anti - children, and perhaps even anti - religion, not to mention anti men.
B. … its leaders were able to bring their charter with them. Ее лидеры
смогли привезти с собой хартию.
Для обозначения однократной реализованной возможности совершить
действие как правило используется сочетание to be able с инфинитивом.
Exercise 6. Translate the following sentences into Russian:
1. The rain had stopped and they were able to continue their journey.
2. He was able to see for himself that Florentyna had achieved tremendous
success.
3. President Roosevelt… was able to inspire public confidence as Hoover(his
predecessor) could not.
4. Martin Luther King’s killer was able to purchase his weapon in a shop.
TRANSLATION PRACTICE
(to be done at home in writing)
Exercise 7. Translate the following sentences into English using the words
and structures from the text and exercises:
1. Женщины получают годичный отпуск по уходу за ребенком. 2. Ост Индская компания получила монополию на торговлю с Азией, Африкой и
Америкой. 3. Многие колонисты умерли от холода и болезней. 4. Поселенцы
составили соглашение, которое стало планом самоуправления. 5.
«Мэйфлауэр» бросил якорь около Мыса Код. 6. Колонии Массачусеттской
бухты суждено было сыграть важную роль в развитии всей страны. 7. После
Гражданской войны в Америке рабы получили свободу. 8. Пуритане бежали
от религиозных преследований. 9. Правительство сделало уступки
повстанцам. 10. Коренные американцы научили поселенцев сажать кукурузу.
11. Пуритане бежали от религиозных преследований.
SPEAKING PRACTICE
Topics for presentations:
1. Thanksgiving celebration and its origin.
2. The relationship between Native Americans and the colonists.
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UNIT 15. A ROAD TO INDEPENDENCE
Грамматика:
Герундий и герундиальные обороты;
Инфинитивные конструкции
при глаголах чувства и восприятия и глаголов с значением «заставить»;
Независимая причастная конструкция;
Отрицательные предложения с союзом until.
Герундиальные обороты с предлогом without
TEXT
Read and translate the text, paying close attention to the words in bold type
and the structures underlined. Below you will find special explanations and
exercises devoted to these words and structures.
“No taxes without representation”
Although many people believe that the history of American Revolution
began long before the first shots were fired in 1775, England and America didn’t
begin an open conflict until 1773, more than a century and a half after the founding
of the first permanent settlements. Occasional conflicts broke out earlier, however.
The British government, which needed more money to support the growing
empire, adopted a new financial policy. The government imposed new taxes and
introduced unpopular customs regulations.
Colonial merchants objected to new tax policies imposed by the British
Parliament. The British government had learned that the colonists were smuggling
goods without paying customs duties — taxes on imports and exports. Britain
tightened customs control and began introducing other unpopular measures. To
bring in new revenue, the Sugar Act of 1764 raised taxes on imports of raw sugar
and molasses. It also placed new taxes on silk, wine, coffee, and indigo. To make
the colonists contribute to their own defense, the Quartering Act of 1765 obligated
them to provide shelter for British troops. Nothing, however, outraged the colonists
more than the Stamp Act of 1765. The act required stamps to be bought and
placed on most printed materials, from newspapers to playing cards. This was a
direct tax—the first Britain had ever placed on the colonists.
Editorials, pamphlets, and speeches poured out against it. Groups calling
themselves the Sons of Liberty organized protests and tried to intimidate stamp
distributors.
A Nation is Born
In October 1765 representatives from nine colonies met for what became
known as the Stamp Act Congress. They issued the Declaration of Rights and
Grievances, arguing that only representatives elected by the colonists, not
Parliament, had the right to tax them.
―No taxation without representation‖ became a popular catch - phrase.
On November 1, when the Stamp Act took effect, the colonists ignored it
and began to boycott all goods made in Britain. People made do with local
78
products. Colonists wore homespun clothes and found substitutes for tea. They
used homemade paper and their houses went unpainted. Merchants in England saw
sales plunge, and thousands of workers lost their jobs. Under pressure, British
lawmakers repealed the Stamp Act in 1766.
The Townshend Acts
With British financial problems worsening, Parliament passed new measures
in 1767 to raise money from the colonies. These came to be called the Townshend
Acts, after Charles Townshend, the head of Britain’s treasury. The Townshend
Acts put new customs duties on glass, lead, paper, paint, and tea imported into the
colonies. They also gave customs officers new powers to arrest smugglers. The
Townshend Acts led to a great outcry. In Massachusetts, Sam Adams and James
Otis led the resistance. In Virginia, Patrick Henry, George Washington, and
Thomas Jefferson organized opposition. When both colonies passed statements
challenging Britain’s right to tax them, Parliament dissolved their assemblies.
On March 5, 1770, anger turned to violence in Boston. A crowd of colonists
began taunting a British soldier guarding a customs house. He called for help, and
during the commotion, the British troops opened fire on the crowd, killing five
colonists. The Boston Massacre, as the incident became known, might well have
initiated more violence. Within weeks, though, tensions were calmed by news that
the British had repealed almost all of the Townshend Acts.
Parliament kept one tax—on tea—to uphold its right to tax the colonies. At
the same time, it allowed the colonial assemblies to resume meeting. Peace and
stability returned to the colonies, at least temporarily.
Answer the following questions:
1. Which policies pursued by Great Britain were unpopular with the colonists?
2. What taxes did the Parliament introduce?
3. What goods did the colonists pay customs duties on?
4. How did the colonists respond to new customs duties?
5. What did the Stamp Act require people to do?
6. Why did Parliament keep the tax on tea?
7. What did Parliament do when the colonies challenged its authority to tax them?
VOCABULARY STUDY AND PRACTICE
Word Commentary
Contribute - способствовать, содействовать;
distribute - распределять, распространять;
Эти слова, заимствованные из латыни, имеют общий корень trib (от
латинского tribus – племенная община.) Ср. англ. tribe – племя;
Запомните другие английские слова с этим корнем: Tribune, tribunal,
tribute (дань) attribute (признак, свойство);
Policy – politics;
Policy - политика, курс, линия поведения (не только в политике);
система страхования (отсюда - insurance policy);
Политика (область деятельности) – politics. Слово также имеет
значения «межпартийная борьба» и «система политических взглядов».
79
Exercise 1. Find synonyms of the following words and phrases in the text:
protest, episode, to tease, to begin again,
Exercise 2. Find words or phrases in the text meeting the following
definitions
1. A refusal to do business with a firm or individual as an expression of
disapproval or a means of coercion.
2. An amount of money that citizens have to pay to the government so that it can
provide public services.
3. Someone who takes things or people across a border illegally.
Exercise 3. Translate the following sentences into Russian, paying attention
to the words in bold type. First, look these words up in the dictionary, keeping in
mind their various meanings; remember also that they may belong to different
parts of speech.
A. 1. The President assured the government there would be no change in policy. 2.
The government was criticized for pursuing a policy of reconciliation with the
extremists' groups. 3. After 1985, the Soviet Union adopted a more open policy
towards the West. 4. She had no interest in politics. 5. His politics at that time
could be described as radical. 6. In a series of friendly radio broadcasts ―fireside chats‖ - president Roosevelt explained his policies to the public.7.
The company specialized in selling cheap insurance policies to local residents.
8. Because American society has changed greatly since the Constitution was
written and the government formed, politics today is vastly different from
politics two hundred years ago.
B. 1. The chairman raised a hand for silence. 2. The family raises beans, wheat
and sugar beet at their farm. 3. George began to raise his voice in protest. 4.
The purpose of this campaign is to raise money for building housing. 5. The tax
system must raise enough money to finance the government activity. 6. The
king raised an army to fight the rebels. 7. His children were raised in Catholic
faith. 8. The Foreign Office raised no objection to these measures. 9. Important
questions were raised at this conference.
C. 1. Don’t argue with me, George, just do as you are told. 2. Some politicians
argued against giving women the vote 3. Some people argue that the existence
of nuclear weapons has helped to maintain peace 4. The children were arguing
over which program they should watch on television.
D. 1.The evening was cold and raw. 2. Raw vegetables are good for health. 3. The
colonies exported raw materials and imported glass, textiles, paper and other
products. 4. John was still a raw beginner.
E. 1. Newton's contribution to physics was great. 2. The students contributed
stories and poems to the class magazine. 3. This experiment contributes useful
information for our research. 4. From birth to old age, each period of life makes
its contribution to the development of abilities and interests. 5. Reading
contributes directly to personality development. 6. Carbon dioxide emission
contributes to the greenhouse effect. 7. Minor political parties have not
80
enjoyed much electoral success in America, although they have contributed
ideas to the Democratic and Republican programs.
GRAMMAR STUDY AND PRACTICE
A.
England and America didn’t begin an open conflict until 1773, more
than a century and a half after the founding of the first permanent settlements
Англия и Америка вступили в открытый конфликт только в 1773 году.
Отрицательное предложение с союзом until указывает на то, что
событие произошло позже, чем ожидалось. В русском переводе на это
указывает частица «только», а отрицание снимается.
Exercise 4. Translate the following sentences into Russian:
1. Paper was a Chinese invention and it didn’t reach the western world until the
ninth century A.D.
2. Indians were not given U.S. citizenship until 1924.
3. Printing was introduced in Europe in the late 1400s, but early forerunners of the
newspaper didn’t begin to appear until 1621, nearly a century and a half later.
4. Women had to fight long and hard to win the right to vote. They began to
organize to obtain suffrage in mid - 1800s. Their first victory didn’t come until
1869, when Wyoming granted women the right to vote.
5. With a few exceptions (see the example above) women in the USA were not
allowed to vote until 1920.
6. In Switzerland, women didn’t gain the right to vote on equal terms with men
until 1971.
7. Though Christian missionary work among the Maori began from 1814, the
official colony in New Zealand was not established until 1840.
8. Not until the invention of the printing press in the 15th century did priests,
political elites, scholars and scribes begin to lose their monopoly on reading and
writing.
B.
…the colonists were smuggling goods without paying customs
duties—taxes on imports and exports. …колонисты контрабандой
переправляли грузы через границу, не платя таможенных пошлин.
Обратите внимание на оборот с герундием (paying) и предлогом
without. Такие обороты содержат отрицание (действие, выраженное
герундием, не осуществляется). Их удобно переводить пи помощи
деепричастного оборота или придаточного предложения.
Exercise 5. Translate the following sentences into Russian:
1. Mary left the office without closing the window.
2. We cannot communicate knowledge without to some extent modifying
character and to that extent educating.
3. The research worker starts by simply gathering all available data, without
attempting to interpret it.
4. If you have a plastic card, you can buy what you want, when you want, without
having to carry around loose cash.
5. The thief left the building without being stopped by the police.
81
C.
Merchants in England saw sales plunge Английские торговцы
увидели, что продажи падают. Инфинитивные конструкции при глаголах с
значением чувства и восприятия (to see, to hear, to feel, to watch)
употребляется без частицы to
Exercise 6. Translate the following sentences into Russian:
1. We see environmental issues become increasingly important in political terms.
2. Before television appeared, friends often gathered around a radio to hear the
president make an important address.
3. Ferdinand (the king of Spain) disliked Christopher Columbus from the first, but
paid some notice when he heard the Genoan mention the gold of the Indies.
4. They saw Robert leave the group, pass through the gate and disappear.
5. You have no doubt seen children whisper to themselves when they are
beginning to read.
6. We see environmental issues become increasingly important in political terms.
D. …to make the colonists contribute to their own defense - чтобы
заставить колонистов участвовать в расходах на оборону
При глаголе to make – заставить – инфинитивная конструкция тоже
употребляется без частицы to
Exercise 7. Translate the following sentences into Russian:
1. The warm rays of sun make people take off their winter garments and eagerly
hunt railway timetables for summer resorts.
2. If he’s forgotten me, I’ll make him remember me.
3. Parliament wanted to make the colonists pay new taxes.
E. With British financial problems worsening, Parliament passed new
measures. Когда финансовое положение Британии ухудшилось, парламент
принял новые меры.
Перед нами независимая причастная конструкция. Причастие worsening
имеет свой субъект problems, а вся конструкция служит в предложении
обстоятельством времени. Эта конструкция иногда присоединяется к
предложению при помощи предлога with.
Exercise 8. Translate the following sentences into Russian:
1. (School time being short), it is necessary for the teacher to use every minute in
teaching with definite ends in view.
2. Among the eleven members of the Security Council there are five permanent
members, each having a veto power.
3. Scotland and Ireland were joined to England in legislative and economic union,
their members sitting in parliament at Westminster, their traders selling and
buying freely in the English market.
4. The carnival celebrations are going on as normal, with some streets packed with
drunken revelers following samba bands.
TRANSLATION PRACTICE
(to be done at home in writing)
Exercise 9. Translate the following sentences into English using the words
and structures from the text and exercises:
82
1. Открытый конфликт между Англией и колониями начался только в
1773 году. 2. Англия стала проводить новую финансовую политику. 3.
Парламент ввел новые налоги и таможенные пошлины. 4. Колонисты
возражали против новой налоговой политики. 5. Закон 1765 г. о гербовом
сборе, обязывал колонистов платить налоги в королевскую казну за любые
почтовые отправления и печатные издания, даже за игральные карты. 6.
Колонисты утверждали, что только представители, избранные ими, имеют
право вводить налоги. 7. Когда закон о гербовом сборе вступил в силу,
колонисты стали бойкотировать английские товары. 8. Люди обходились
местными продуктами. 9. В 1766 г. Акт о гербовом сборе был отменѐн. 10.
Они видели, как Роберт вошел в комнату. 11. Англия обложила
таможенными пошлинами ввозимые в американские колонии стекло, свинец,
бумагу, краски и чай. 11. Парламент распустил колониальные
законодательные собрания. 12. Группа колонистов дразнила английского
солдата, охраняющего здание таможни. 13. Эти стычки способствовали
эскалации конфликта. 14. Правительство проводило агрессивную налоговую
политику. 15. Его политические взгляды консервативны.
SPEAKING PRACTICE
Discuss taxes and representation. Tips for discussion:
1. Find out what taxes your parents pay;
2. Find out what public services are paid for with the tax money;
3. Find out how you are represented in the Duma and the local Legislative
Assembly.
83
PART 6.
THE MODERN WORLD
DIVERSITY: PROBLEMS AND TRADITIONS
UNIT 16. CULTURAL DIVERSITY
Грамматика:
Распознавание герундия и причастия в начальной позиции;
Отрицательное предложение и приемы его перевода.
TEXT
Read and translate the text, paying close attention to the words in bold type
and the structures underlined. Below you will find special explanations and
exercises devoted to these words and structures.
CROSS - CULTURAL COMMUNICATION
The term culture, in the sense of a group of people unified by shared
characteristics, defies precise definition. Members of a culture are united by a
number of demographic, psychographic and geographic traits. Beyond clearly
discernible demographic characteristics, professionals identify eight elements that
can help distinguish one culture from another: attitudes about time; formality;
individualism; rank and hierarchy; religion; taste and diet; colors, numbers and
symbols; and assimilation and acculturation.
ATTITUDES ABOUT TIME
Different cultures have different attitudes about time. In some Latin
American countries, a dinner party scheduled for 8.00 may not really begin until
near midnight. In other cultures, arriving later than 8.00 would insult your hosts. In
some cultures, a designated time is a flexible guideline; in others, it is a specific
target.
ATTITUDES ABOUT FORMALITY
Should you address a new business associate from another nation by his or
her first name? Should you hug? Bow? Shake hands? The answers depend, of
course, upon cultural preferences. As a rule, however, formality is safer than
informality in new business relationships.
Syrians often embrace new acquaintances. Pakistanis shake hands, though
never a man with a woman. Zambians shake hands with the left hand supporting
the right. Norwegians rarely use first names until relationships are well established.
Japanese almost never use first names in business settings.
A warm handshake and even an accompanying pat on the back would be
acceptable if you greet a Spanish visitor. The Spanish make no distinction about
shaking hands with men or women. With a Japanese guest, however, be prepared
to bow, even though he or she may offer to shake hands. You can flatter your
Japanese guest by bowing first. In Japan, the person who initiates a bow is
84
acknowledging the high social status of the other person. If you exchange a
business card with your Japanese visitor, bow slightly and exchange it with both
hands. You should accept your visitor’s card in the same manner and should look
at it respectfully after receiving it.
ATTITUDES ABOUT RELIGION
Knowing the religious conventions and traditions of a culture can help
prevent unintended errors that can hamper cross - cultural communication. For
example, Muslims fast from dawn to sunset during the holy month of Ramadan.
Inviting an Islamic business associate to a working lunch during that time would
inadvertently suggest a lack of respect for his or her religious beliefs. The Jewish
Sabbath extends from Friday evening to Saturday evening and, in Judaism, is a day
of rest. Scheduling a Friday business dinner in Israel, where Judaism is the
dominating religion, could be a serious cultural fault.
In October 1998, the frantic pace of round - the - clock U.S. - sponsored
negotiations between the Palestine Liberation Organization and Israel was due in
part to the need to sign a pact before sundown on a Friday. The delegations had
met for nine days, and negotiators feared that a 24 - hour delay for the Sabbath
might stall the momentum. An earlier cross - cultural mistake, in fact, had made
the U.S. negotiators very aware of the Jewish Sabbath: A week earlier, the Israeli
prime minister and his entire delegation had declined to attend a Friday evening
dinner meeting hosted by the U.S. secretary of state.
Religion and other cultural influences often prohibit the consumption of
certain foods. Hindus don’t eat beef; cattle are exalted in that religion, which
encompasses the belief that souls return to Earth again and again as different life
forms. Strict Judaism and Islam forbid the consumption of pork, which is
considered unclean. Muslims don’t drink wine – their religion forbids alcohol.
GESTURES AND CLOTHING
Our broad definition of communication applies to interpersonal
communication. Our gestures, clothing, and expressions can be every bit as
communicative as our words. In Taiwan, blinking at someone is considered an
insult. In the Islamic faith, shoes are absolutely forbidden on the grounds of
mosques. In many Asian cultures, shoes are removed and left at the front doors of
residences. The A - OK expression made by forming a circle of the thumb and
forefinger and raising the other three fingers is, like thumbs - up, a sign of
approval in the United States. But in Japan, it’s a symbol for money. In Australia
and some Latin American countries, it’s an obscene gesture.
Because people from almost every culture use their hands when they speak,
gestures – more so than clothing or expressions – can send unintended messages
during cross - cultural communication. Speaking to a group of journalists in the
Central Asian nation of Kyrgyzstan, one of your authors illustrated a point by
bringing one fist down on the other two or three times. Halting in mid - sentence,
his shocked interpreter leaned over and hissed in his ear that that he was signaling,
in the crudest possible manner, that he wanted to make love to his audience.
Fortunately, your author’s stricken expression led his audience to forgive him with
85
friendly laughter. That story has two morals: Cross - cultural mistakes can be very
embarrassing – and people can be very forgiving if they sense your good will.
Answer the following questions: If you can’t find the answers in the text,
look elsewhere. You will find the answers in encyclopedias and reference books:
1. How do greetings vary between cultures?
2. Why is it important to know about religious attitudes of your associates?
3. How can you show respect to a Japanese visitor accepting his/her business
card?
4. Suppose you are ordering a dinner for Islamic visitors. Are you going to order
wine?
5. Suppose you’re organizing a business lunch for Indian visitors. What food will
you order and why?
6. Suppose you take your visitors to a Russian Orthodox church. How are you
going to dress and what will you advise your visitors to wear?
7. How do you think you should address the teacher in an American classroom?
VOCABULARY STUDY AND PRACTICE
Word Commentary
Don’t confuse two adjectives:
Cultural - belonging to a culture;
Cultured – educated;
Host/hostess хозяин/хозяйка (принимающие гостей);
To host - принимать у себя;
Другие английские эквиваленты слова «хозяин»:
Master - хозяин собаки;
Owner – владелец, собственник, хозяин;
Landlord/landlady – землевладелец, владелец недвижимости (в том
числе и хозяин сдаваемого внаем жилья);
Employer – владелец предприятия, нанимающий работников.
Exercise 1. Find synonyms of the following words in the text: To refuse,
wide, to take, to offend, a mistake, to know, indecent.
Exercise 2. Find words in the text meeting the following definitions:
The customs, beliefs, art, way of life and social organization of a particular
country or group a period over which people do not eat, especially for religious
reasons.
Exercise 3. Translate the following sentences into Russian, paying attention
to the words in bold type. First, look these words up in the dictionary, keeping in
mind their various meanings; remember also that they may belong to different
parts of speech.
A. 1. The children had shared the same room for years. 2. They traveled by car
together and shared the petrol costs. 3. There are a growing number of women
who want to share some of the traditional male roles. 4. The children were
being taught to share. 5. China and Japan share many characteristics. 6. I can't
share your opinion. 7. A steadily increasing share of the work is over to
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B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
computers. 8. He tried to rob her of her share of her father's estate. 9. The
shares of the company have gone up in price.
1. The station was an easy target for an air attack. 2. In October 2001,
American warplanes bombed military targets in Afghanistan. The American
planes targeted government buildings, army barracks and communications
units. 3. The government program sets a target for economic growth in excess
of 4% a year. 4. Her proposal was a target of much criticism 5.The company
conducted market research to target potential customers. 6. Before starting a
magazine, the publishers must study their target audience. 7. High - school
students and recent graduates who might become college freshmen are target
publics for university recruitment.
1. The chairman raised a hand for silence. 2. The family raises beans, wheat
and sugar beet at their farm. 3. George began to raise his voice in protest. 4.
The purpose of this campaign is to raise money for building housing. 5. The tax
system must raise enough money to finance the government activity. 6. The
king raised an army to fight the rebels. 7. His children were raised in Catholic
faith. 8. The Foreign Office raised no objection to these measures. 9. Important
questions were raised at this conference.
1. A number of measures must be taken to stop air and water pollution. 2. A
number of people brought their children to the protest march. 3. In the 18th
century, a number of small newspapers were published in New England. They
were expensive and their circulation was limited. At that time a number of
publishers experimented with the idea of a cheap newspaper that could be sold
to urban masses. 4. A number of studies investigated the influence of industrial
noise upon animal life. 5. Environmental problems, despite their relatively short
history, have already been an object of a number of international discussions.
7. The number of computers owned by individuals is constantly growing. 8. We
were all saddened when one of our number was killed. 9. 861 is a three - figure
number.10.I got on a number 61 bus. 11. The army numbered almost a
quarter of a million men. 12. His days are numbered. 13. Many people are
suspicious of statistics and feel that numbers neglect the human side of the
story.
1. Because the public relations practitioner is so dependent on the media, he
must be aware of what is happening to the media. 2. As far as I am aware,
attention was first drawn to this phenomenon by American researchers. 3. He
was surprised by his students’ political awareness. 4. Public awareness of the
need for conservation is necessary for environmental protection.
1. The ground all round was very wet and marshy. 2. This is one of the world’s
best fishing grounds. 3. Muslims don’t eat pork on religious grounds.
4. The ideas of human rights are gaining ground everywhere. 5. The pilot was
grounded because of his health. 6. These accusations are groundless.
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GRAMMAR STUDY AND PRACTICE
A. 1. Knowing the religious conventions and traditions of a culture can help
prevent unintended errors. Знание религиозных обычаев и условностей
поможет избежать случайных ошибок.
2. Arriving later than 8.00 would insult your hosts Если вы придете после
восьми, вы обидите хозяев.
В данных предложениях герундий выступает в функции подлежащего.
При переводе возможно как употребление отглагольного существительного
(1), так и придаточное предложение (2).
3. Speaking to a group of journalists,… one of your authors illustrated a
point by bringing one fist down on the other two or three times. Выступая перед
группой журналистов… один из Ваших авторов, в подкрепление свoих слов
ударил одним кулаком о другой.
4. Halting in mid - sentence, his shocked interpreter leaned over and hissed
in his ear. Остановившись в середине предложения, смущенный переводчик
зашептал ему на ухо.
В примерах (3) и (4) начальная - ing форма, является причастием и
служит в предложении обстоятельством. Показателем синтаксической
функции такой формы служит наличие/отсутствие в предложении другого
подлежащего. Так, в примере (3) подлежащее one of your authors
показывает, что оборот Speaking to a group of journalists является
обстоятельством, следовательно, speaking – причастие.
Exercise 4. Translate the following sentences into Russian:
1. Upholding ethical standards in gathering, using and disseminating information
is very important in any type of research.
2. Interviewing a job applicant, the manager asked her about her family.
3. Deciding which research data are relevant and which are irrelevant is critical for
objective thinking.
4. Knowing your target publics means knowing what to say to them and how to
say it.
5. Using a computer will enable you to write letters, memos and reports much
more quickly.
6. Using a computer, Jane found the data she needed very fast.
7. Sending a thank - you note will make people more willing to help you in future.
8. Covering news, reporters must take care to spell all the names correctly.
9. Watching the conflict from their living rooms, televiewers criticized the police
for using excessive force.
B. The Spanish make no distinction about shaking hands with men or
women. Испанцы одинаково пожимают руки мужчинам и женщинам.
Обратите внимание, что в английском языке отрицание может стоять
при любом члене предложения: дополнении (пример из текста) подлежащем
(предл.1,2,7,8); обстоятельстве (3). В русском языке обязательно отрицание
при сказуемом.
Exercise 5. Translate the following sentences into Russian:
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No teacher can ever teach a student who doesn’t want to learn.
No task is more important for a woman than bringing up her children.
At no time was the opposition to the government so strong.
A civil war knows no winners.
The book is rich in factual material, but it contains no new ideas.
Living organisms have two characteristics that no dead matter has: they can
assimilate other matter into themselves and make it part of themselves and they
can reproduce themselves. They eat and they breed.
7. No day of the Prime Minister began later than six o'clock.
8. In the 18th century, no transportation moved faster than a horse.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
TRANSLATION PRACTICE
Exercise 6. Translate the following sentences into English using the words
and structures from the text and exercises:
1. Собака слушается только хозяина. 2. Хозяин этого ресторана любил
обслуживать студентов. 3. Рабочие боялись своего хозяина. 4. Уходя из
гостей, мы поблагодарили хозяев. 5. Мой друг снимает квартиру. Хозяйка не
разрешает ему принимать гостей. 6. В 1936 г. Мюнхен принимал
олимпийские игры. 7. Все культурные люди знают этого композитора. 8.
Культурные различия часто препятствуют общению. 9. В этом театре
красивый зрительный зал. 10. У этого писателя десятимиллионная
читательская аудитория. 11. Когда преподаватель пришел, студенты уже
сидели в аудитории. 12. Она попросила аудиенции у министра. 13. Эта книга
не содержит новых идей. 14. Гражданская война не знает победителей.
15. Оппозиция правительству никогда не была так сильна.
SPEAKING PRACTICE
Exercise 7. Act out the dialogue:
Student A:
You are a cross - cultural consultant hired by a foreign executive to do
business for the first time in your country or a country you know well. Prepare
some advice that you would give your client about business practices. Use the
following topics to help you.
Use of language: Is there a special way of addressing (or greeting) people?
Formal? Informal?
Non - verbal communication: What are the various roles played by
handshaking, gestures, and silence.
Business negotiations: How important is punctuality and respecting the
agenda? What kind of negotiating styles are preferred? (Direct? Indirect?) When is
the right moment to mention money?
Socialising: What are the attitudes towards gift giving, eating and humour?
What kind of conversation topics are avoided? (Religion? Politics? Salariea?)
Student B:
You are a business person going to negotiate in a foreign country. As part of
your preparation for your trip, you have arranged to meet a consultant (Student A),
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who is an expert on the culture of this country. Draw up a list of the questions that
you would ask him/her.
UNIT 17. CULTURAL DIVERSITY AND HUMAN RIGHTS
Грамматика:
Герундий в функции обстоятельства образа действия;
Инфинитивная конструкция с предлогом for.
TEXT
Read and translate the text, paying close attention to the words in bold type
and the structures underlined. Below you will find special explanations and
exercises devoted to these words and structures.
HUMAN RIGHTS
In 1960, Peter Berenson, a British lawyer, read about two students who had
been sentenced to seven years’ imprisonment for drinking a toast to freedom
during the Salazar dictatorship in Portugal. He joined with others to start a
campaign for prisoners of conscience – people who had never used or advocated
violence and were simply in prison for their political or religious beliefs. This was
the beginning of Amnesty International, the largest of many organizations in the
world which put pressure on governments to observe human rights. By gathering
information, creating publicity and writing letters, Amnesty has helped to speed up
the release of such prisoners all over the world. Amnesty International also
campaigns for the rights of people who are arrested and kept in custody for
peacefully exercising their constitutional rights – taking part in protest marches,
pickets, boycotts and other acts of non - violent civil disobedience.
It campaigns for fair trials for political prisoners, an end to torture and
inhumane treatment and the abolition of death penalty. AI also campaigns for
humane treatment of all prisoners.
Human rights are different from constitutional rights. A constitutional right
is one that a state guarantees its own citizens; a human right is one to which people
all over the world are entitled, whatever their nationality and wherever they live.
Human rights transcend political divisions. They are basic minimum
standards of freedom and security for all. When governments fail to meet these
standards, they are criticized by their own citizens, individuals in other countries
and even foreign governments. Alleging human rights violations, some countries
impose sanctions against others. Many countries restricted trade with South Africa
because of its policy of apartheid. In 1999, the NATO bombed Yugoslavia because
of its policy of ethnic cleansing, conducted against Kosovo Albanians.
Cultural differences
Is criticism of or even intervention against, another country justified?
Opponents of interference argue that moral standards are the products of different
cultures and it is wrong for one culture to impose its values on another. The
governments of some Islamic states have defended the veiling of women and
cutting off the hands of thieves as practices founded in their religion and which
90
ensure a safe society. On the legal side, some have claimed that the independence
of nation states is the basis of the United Nations, and that when one country
interferes in the affairs of another it is because its economic and military power,
not its human rights policies, is superior.
On the other hand, human rights activists argue that basic moral standards
should not depend upon where a person lives.
Most countries of the world have signed international agreements
concerning the rights of the individuals. The Universal Declaration of human rights
was adopted by the UN General assembly in 1948 without a dissenting vote. It sets
out basic rights and freedoms to which all men and women are entitled - among
them the right to life, liberty and nationality, to freedom of thought, conscience and
religion, to work, to be educated, to take part in government.
The UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, who co - ordinates all UN
human rights activities, is working with Governments to improve their observance
of human rights, seeking to prevent violations and investigating human rights
abuses.
When the laws of a country violate human rights, groups like Amnesty
International protest to the government on moral and legal grounds. But despite
these protests and the development of legally binding national and international
conventions, millions of people in the world still do not enjoy human rights.
Answer the following questions:
1. How did Amnesty International appear?
2. What kind of people does Amnesty International protect?
3. What do you think is more important – the human rights or the independence of
a nation state?
4. Do you feel that you can exercise your human rights?
5. There is unemployment in some regions of Russia. Do you think it is a violation
of the right to work?
6. How would you describe the limits of personal freedom?
VOCABULARY STUDY AND PRACTICE
I. Remember some phrases concerning human rights:
Human rights groups
Правозащитные группы
Human rights activists
Правозащитники
The UN High Commissioner for
Верховный комиссар ООН по
Human Rights (UNHHR)
правам человека
Words to revise: argue, enjoy, legal
Exercise 1. Find synonyms of the following words and phrases in the text: to
free,to fight, to say, just, to defend
Exercise 2. Find words in the text meeting the following definitions
1. A series of planned activities that are intended to achieve a particular
social, commercial or political aim;
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2. a person who works to achieve political or social change, especially as a
member of an organization with particular aims.
Exercise 3. Translate some sentences with the words from the earlier units:
1. From 1945 until 1970, the United States enjoyed a long period of
economic growth, interrupted only by brief and fairly mild recessions. 3. You and
your family have an annual income that allows you to enjoy various goods and
services, to live in a particular neighbourhood, and to maintain a certain standard
of living. 4. He was well aware of the privileges he enjoyed. 5. Newspapers argue
that Google's news service violates copyright law. 6. Some scientists argue that
carbon dioxide emissions and climate changes aren’t linked, while others urge
immediate concerted global action to reduce the flow of emissions into the
atmosphere. 7. Many well - known writers, philosophers, legal scholars, and
political figures have made forceful pleas for a policy of freedom of speech. 8.
Reporters and editors should know enough about legal aspects of journalism to
know when to consult a lawyer.
Exercise 4. Translate the following into Russian, paying attention to the
words in bold type. First, look these words up in the dictionary, keeping in mind
their various meanings; remember also that they may belong to different parts of
speech
A. 1. Nearly a year after his release from prison he was still unable to sleep
properly. 2. I wish to be released from my contract 3.The release of staff for
training purposes is actively encouraged. 4. The statement was delivered to the
public relations officer, who released it to the press. 5. The company issued a
press release.
B. 1. She has long and fair hair. 2. The sun’s rays can be very harmful, beating on
unprotected fair skin. 3. The judge was very fair, looking at problems from
both sides before reaching any conclusion. 4. It was a fair mid - June evening.
5. The film received fair to good reviews. 6. The information was fairly
accurate. 7. Every person is entitled to a fair trial.
C. 1. Government officials must not abuse their power. 2. Violence and child
abuse are urgent problems of our society. 3. The child’s parents were found
guilty of child abuse. 4. Amnesty International seeks to disclose human rights
abuses accurately, quickly and persistently. 5. Our mission is to undertake
research and action focused on preventing and ending grave abuses of the
rights to freedom of conscience and expression, and freedom from
discrimination.
D. 1. He walked to his office every day just for exercise. 2.The singer always
started his practice with scales and exercises. 3. They are carrying out fleet
exercises somewhere off the Cape of Good Hope. 4. These companies exercise
considerable influence in all western countries. 5. This pamphlet is designed to
help you exercise the right to receive free education. 6. Good citizens must
learn to perform their duties and to exercise their rights. 7. The attempt of the
management to exercise close control prompted resistance on the part of the
employees. 8. English monarchs, in their efforts to maintain political and
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religious control, exercised prior restraint (censorship) over all publishing. 9.
Republicanism is a form of government in which power resides in the people
and is exercised by their elected representatives. 10. The King James Bible,
also known as the Authorized Version of the Bible, published in 1611,
exercised enormous influence on the development of the language. 11. In
contemporary society, the family exercises a different kind of control than it
once did. 12. Organizations and authorities, family members and other people
you care about exercise leverage over you
E. 1. In the USA, a candidate for public office must campaign first to win the
party nomination, then to win the general election. 2. An anti - drug campaign
should be targeted primarily at children. 3. There has been a campaign by local
fishermen to ban imported cod. 4. The prisoners’ families and friends
campaigned for their release.
GRAMMAR STUDY AND PRACTICE
A. By gathering information, creating publicity and writing letters,
Amnesty has helped to speed up the release of such prisoners. Собирая
информацию, создавая огласку и отправляя письма, Международная
Амнистия способствовала освобождению таких заключенных.
Герундий с предлогом by выступает в функции обстоятельства образа
действия. При переводе удобно пользоваться деепричастием или
придаточным предложением.
Exercise 5.Translate the following sentences into Russian:
1. The residents of the town protested against building a nuclear power plant in
their district by mounting protest marches, picketing the Town Hall and writing
letters to the Mayor.
2. When you are at fault you may build goodwill by admitting that fact
forthrightly.
3. Successful companies make money by offering high - quality products and
services their customers want
4. Scribes in monasteries kept literacy alive by transcribing ancient literary and
religious works onto parchment.
B. It is wrong for one culture to impose its values on another. Нельзя,
чтобы одна культура навязывала свои ценности другой.
Перед нами инфинитивная конструкция с предлогом for. Внутри этой
инфинитивной конструкции субъект инфинитива вводится предлогом for.
Сама конструкция может служить различным членом предложения, и для
перевода ее удобнее всего пользоваться придаточным предложением. Иногда
при этом приходится перестраивать все предложение. (ср. предложенный
вариант перевода)
Exercise 6. Translate the following sentences into Russian:
1. In a crisis… it is often important for the organization to tell its story before the
news media develop it on their own.
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2. For society to exist, people must achieve some minimum level of agreement,
and this agreement is usually reached through interpersonal and group
communication.
3. It is common for reporters and editors to monitor not only other newspapers but
electronic news media as well.
4. It is not unusual in a democracy for a group to gather at a statehouse or city hall
to dramatize its position on an issue – say a tax increase.
TRANSLATION PRACTICE
(to be done at home in writing)
Exercise 7. Translate the following sentences into English using the words
and structures from the text and exercises:
1. Международная амнистия борется за отмену смертной казни.
2. Каждый человек имеет право на справедливый суд. 3. Мы должны
рассмотреть правовую сторону вопроса. 4. Международная амнистия
помогла освободить многих узников совести. 5. Развод в этой стране
запрещен. 6. Родителей признали виновными в дурном обращении с детьми.
7. Эта организация борется за освобождение политических заключенных.8.
Многие люди в России отстаивают необходимость смертной казни.
9.Международная амнистия призвала все страны соблюдать права человека.
10. Этот политик – сторонник смертной казни. 11. Члены этой организации
пользуются определенными привилегиями. 12. Правительство должно
пользоваться доверием народа. 13. Чиновники не должны пользоваться
своим положением. 17.Президент воспользовался своим правом вето. 18.
Граждане должны научиться пользоваться своими правами. 19. Можно мне
воспользоваться Вашим телефоном? 20. Канонический текст Библии,
опубликованный в 1611 году, оказал огромное влияние на развитие
английского языка. 21. Законы этой страны не удовлетворяют
международным стандартам в плане прав человека. 22. Нельзя, чтобы одна
культура навязывала свои ценности другой.
SPEAKING PRACTICE
Discuss the issue of human rights and cultural diversity. Focus on the
following points:
1. Women’s rights in Islamic countries.
2. Human rights and the principle of non - interference in internal affairs.
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UNIT 18. MODERN POLITICAL AND SOCIAL TRENDS
Грамматика:
Существительные с суффиксом –er (повторение);
Предлог by в составе определения
при отглагольных существительных;
Герундиальные конструкции.
TEXT
Read and translate the text, paying close attention to the words in bold type
and the structures underlined. Below you will find special explanations and
exercises devoted to these words and structures.
Liberals and Conservatives in the United States
Liberalism
In American politics today, people who call themselves liberals believe
several basic ideas. In general, liberals believe that the government should regulate
the economy to protect people from the power of large corporations and wealthy
elites. Liberals also believe that the government, particularly the federal
government, should play an active role in helping disadvantaged Americans, partly
through social programs and partly by putting more of society’s tax burden on
wealthier people.,
Although liberals favor government intervention in the economy, they are
suspicious of any attempt by the government to regulate social behavior. They are
strong supporters of free speech and privacy, and are opposed to the government
supporting or endorsing religious beliefs. They believe that a diverse society made
up of different races, cultures, and ethnic groups will be more creative and
energetic.
Liberals often support higher taxes on the wealthy, partly because they
believe that those with greater assets should shoulder more of the costs of
government and partly because it allows the government to redistribute wealth
through government programs and thereby make society more equal. Liberals
advocate welfare benefits, including food-stamp programs and school-lunch
programs.
Liberals oppose conservatives in being more tolerant to deviant lifestyles –
for example homosexual behavior; by promoting equality; by supporting laws
ensuring that homosexuals receive equal treatment in employment, housing and
education; by promoting laws requiring private businesses to hire and promote
women and members of minority groups; by requiring public facilities (museums,
universities, restaurants, etc.) to provide equal access to the handicapped; by
promoting and supporting welfare programs. Liberals in the USA are represented
by the Democrat party.
Conservatism
Unlike liberals, conservatives distrust the power of government. They are
strong advocates of economic freedom and believe governmental power should be
95
divided into different branches and split between the state and federal levels to
limit its ability to intrude into people’s lives. Conservatives believe that when
government regulates the economy, it makes the economy less efficient, resulting
in less wealth and more poverty. They believe that free enterprise is the best
economic system, and argue that if people and businesses are free to make their
own economic choices, there will be more wealth and a higher standard of living
for everyone. For this reason, conservatives generally oppose high taxes and
government programs that transfer wealth from the rich to those who are less
wealthy. They believe that taxes and government programs discourage investment,
take away people’s incentive to work hard, and reduce the amount of freedom in
society. The more the government regulates the economy, conservatives argue, the
more it will have to regulate every aspect of people’s behavior. Ultimately,
conservatives fear, the government will so restrict people’s economic freedom that
Americans will no longer be able to improve their standard of living and get ahead
in life.
Many conservatives believe that religious faith is vitally important in
sustaining society. They believe most social problems result from issues of
morality and character—issues, they argue, that are best addressed through
commitment to a religious faith and through the private efforts of churches,
individuals, and communities to help those in need. Despite this general belief,
conservatives do support the use of the governmental police powers to regulate
social behavior in some instances. Conservatives vote for the Republican party.
Difference Between Republicans and Democrats:
A political joke
A Republican and a Democrat were walking down the street when they came
to a homeless person. The Republican gave the homeless person his business card
and told him to come to his business for a job. He then took twenty dollars out of
his pocket and gave it to the homeless person.
The Democrat was very impressed, and when they came to another homeless
person, he decided to help. He walked over to the homeless person and gave him
directions to the welfare office. He then reached into the Republican's pocket and
gave the homeless person fifty dollars.
Now you understand the difference between Republicans and Democrats.
Answer the following questions:
1. What political views do Liberals hold?
2. Why do Liberals favor extensive welfare programs?
3. Why do liberals want to raise taxes?
4. Why do conservatives object to raising taxes?
5. What are the attitudes of liberals and conservatives to religion?
6. Which group advocates redistribution of wealth?
7. How do liberals and conservatives address the issue of poverty?
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VOCABULARY STUDY AND PRACTICE
Word Commentary
Beware of false friends of the translator!
Liberals in the USA hold views close to socialist. Their European
counterparts are social democrats.
Либерал in Russia - an advocate of free - market policies and an opponent
of government interference in the economy. An approximate English equivalent is
libertarian. The word либерал is used, however, to denote American liberals.
an advocate сторонник (какой - то идеи) to advocate - отстаивать
адвокат – lawyer.
To result from быть результатом чего – то.
To result in привести к чему – то.
Words to revise: amount (unit 3), business (unit 12), issue (unit 10), policy,
politics (unit 15).
Exercise 1.Find synonyms of the following words in the text: rich, opinion,
to employ.
Exercise 2. Find words or phrases in the text meeting the following
definitions:
1. Not having the things, such as education, or enough money, that people need in
order to succeed in life (adjective)
2. Practical or financial help that is provided by the government for people who
need it.
Exercise 3. Translate some sentences with the words from the earlier units:
1. The Democrats and Republicans have varying ideas on many issues. 2.
The trade union leader said that he disagreed with the government’s policy. The
concept of natural rights — which played a prominent role in the American and
French revolutions — was becoming a vital element in international politics. 3.
They were playing populist politics without considering the long term
consequences of their action. 4. These ideas and values are gaining importance in
American politics. 5. Although the International Monetary Fund proclaims its
commitment to capitalism, it has often promoted government regulation over
entrepreneurial initiative. 6. The tuition fees at this institute amount to $ 1000 a
year. The tuition fees at this institute amount to $ 1000 a year. 7. The Catholic
Church holds that abortion amounts to murder. 8. If people smoke indoors, no
amount of ventilation can remove all the toxic substances from the air.доступны
для инвалидов.
Exercise 4. Translate the following sentences into Russian, paying attention
to the words in bold type. First, look these words up in the dictionary, keeping in
mind their various meanings; remember also that they may belong to different
parts of speech.
A. 1.The weather favored the attacking army. 2. 6. The climate in this part of the
country favors agriculture. 3. They are in favor of reforming the tax laws. 4. I
think the company will look with favor on your plan 5. Their views are very
much out of favor now. 6. Do me a favor, give this book to Jane, please.
97
B. 1.Time is free – you don’t have to buy it. You receive 24 hours simply by
waking up each morning1. Free press prevents officials from abusing their
power. 2. Within the EEC there is of course free movement of labor. 3. The
uprising was an attempt to free the country of the dictator. 4. This law will give
the government a free hand to suppress the mass democratic movement in the
country 8. Are you employed by any newspaper? – No, I am a freelance
journalist. 8. In the early American colonies… the authorities expected all
citizens to be church members. Those who dissented were free to go
elsewhere. 9. You can’t get anything for free in this world. 10. Susan always
bought fat - free yogurt.
C. 1.The industrial age has brought innumerable benefits. 2. Under the system of
school segregation specific benefits enjoyed by white students were denied to
African students of the same educational qualifications. 3. For the benefit of
those who weren't here last week, I'll repeat everything again. 4. The family
moved to a better district, for the benefit of the children. 5. Families with many
children are entitled to child benefit. 6. A benefit concert was organized for the
refugees. 7. The firm benefited from his ingenuity. 8. We need a medical
service which will benefit the rich and the poor. 9. Your fringe benefits will
include free health insurance
D. 1.We spent the afternoon addressing invitations to all our friends. 2.The letter
was returned because it had been addressed incorrectly. 3. Before the awards
were given, the mayor addressed the crowd. 4. The drug abuse issue should be
addressed by all the society. 5. Surgeon general says obesity crisis should be
addressed together.
E. 1. She had no cooking facilities in her room. 2. The neighborhood is known for
the lack of play facilities for young children. 3. Only six countries had the
facilities and know - how to produce advanced weapon systems like this one. 4.
He began to learn German and, having a facility for languages, was soon fluent
in it. 5. Under the "separate but equal" doctrine, equality of treatment is
accorded when the races are provided substantially equal facilities, even though
these facilities be separate. 6. Canada has 11 heart surgery facilities, one for
every 2.3 million people.
GRAMMAR STUDY AND PRACTICE
A. They…are opposed to the government supporting or endorsing religious
beliefs. Они возражают против того, чтобы правительство поддерживало
или поощряло религиозные верования. Перед нами герундиальная
конструкция. Субъектом герундия supporting or endorsing служит
существительное government, а вся конструкция служит в предложении
дополнением.
Exercise 5. Translate the following sentences into Russian:
1. The business was facing bankruptcy. The owner was worried both about his
people losing their jobs and about himself losing face and credibility.
2. There is nothing new about police coming into schools to teach survival skills.
98
3. Globalization is reflected by most major companies having branches and
affiliates worldwide.
4. Jeremy walked the streets of his own city without anyone recognizing him.
5. He wanted to live his life without anyone else interfering in it.
6. I insist on a full report being made to the manager.
7. Do your parents mind my coming here every day?
8. Even a suspicion that the boxes were in any way unusual could result in their
being opened at the Customs.
B. The use of prepositions.
Attempt by the government to regulate social behavior. Попытки
правительства регулировать поведение общества
Определение при отглагольном существительном, указывающее на
лицо, или группу лиц осуществляющих действие, вводится предлогом by.
Exercise 6. Translate the following sentences into Russian:
1. Much of the bad publicity an organization gets can be attributed to errors by
management.
2. The report documents human rights abuses by the government.
3. The organization is concerned about numerous continuing allegations of torture
and ill - treatment by police throughout the country.
4. During World War II, a massive PR effort by government and industry co
nvinced the American public that the international situation made it appropriate
for large numbers of single and married women to enter the paid labor force.
5. Human rights lawyers in Spain have welcomed the decision by a Chilean court
to strip the former Chilean dictator General Augusto Pinochet of his immunity
from prosecution.
TRANSLATION PRACTICE
(to be done at home in writing)
Exercise 7. Translate the following sentences into English using the words
and structures from the text and exercises:
1. Консерваторы возражают против высоких налогов. Они считают, что
перераспределение богатства приводит к большей бедности. 3. Американские
либералы терпимо относятся к нетрадиционным стилям жизни. 4.
Консерваторы отстаивают экономическую свободу. 5. Они считают, что
государственное регулирование делает экономику менее эффективной. 6.
Либералы отстаивают личную свободу и право на частную жизнь. 7.
Правительство должно заняться проблемой коррупции. 8. Забастовка привела
к общенациональному кризису. 9. Консерваторы считают, что многие
проблемы возникают в результате лени и отсутствия религиозных
убеждений. 10. Чем больше правительство регулирует экономику, тем менее
эффективной она становится. 11. Либералы требуют, чтобы общественные
помещения были доступны для инвалидов. 12. Либералы поддерживают
программы государственных пособий.
99
SPEAKING PRACTICE
Discuss the differences between liberal and conservative views. Do your
own research in the Internet and focus on the following issues:
1. Women’s rights.
2. The rights of racial, ethnic and sexual minorities.
3. Economic development and creating jobs.
Comment on the following statement:
1. If people are assured that their basic needs will be taken care of, their incentive
to work is reduced.
2. Discuss the ways of helping the poor. Focus on the following points:
A. Extending welfare programs
B. Creating new jobs.
100
Лексика, изученная в пособии
Слово
Abuse
Account
Address
Adopt
Advocate
Amount
Argue
Authority
Aware/ awareness
Background
Benefit
Bias
Body
Business
cabinet
Campaign
Challenge
Channel
Charter
Claim
Commit/ commitment
Concern
Consider
Contribute
Convention
Court
Cover
Current
Custom/ customs
Defy
Demand
Draw
Duty
Employ
Engage
Enjoy
Execute/execution
Exercise
Expose/exposure
Fail/ failure
№ урока
17
4
18
11
18
3
15
10
16
4
18
4
7
12
5
17
1
6
10
13
1
9
9
6
7
1
4
12
10
12
13
12
5
2
6
5
17
14
13
101
повторение
18
17
14
10
14
7, 18
14
7
7
17
Слово
Facilities
Fair
Favor
Figure
Focus
Free
Grant
Ground
Hold
Host
Immunity
Intelligence
Integrity
Involve
Issue
To launch
Legal
Maintain
Major
Means
Meet
Minor
Mission
Nation
Number
Original
Party
Point
Policy/politics
Power
Process
Pursue
Raise
Rally
Rate
Raw
Recognize
Record
Release
Resolution
Sentence
Settle/settlement
№ урока
18
17
18
8
1
18
14
16
11
6
6
5
5
2
10
13
7
11
12
3
12
12
6
11
16
6
7
1
15
6
2
5
15
10
3
15
4
8
17
5
7
13
102
повторение
4
18
17
7
9
18
10
14
Слово
Share
Spare
State
Subject
Supply
Target
Technique
Way
№ урока
16
7
6
2
12
16
6
2
103
повторение
4, 10
СОДЕРЖАНИЕ
Предисловие
Part 1.
Learn How to Study
Unit 1. Learn How to Listen
Unit 2. Taking Notes at Lectures
Unit 3. Learn How to Read
Unit 4. Learn How to Read Critically
Part 2.
Welcome to the Profession
Unit 5. Learn to practice Diplomacy
Unit 6. About the History of Diplomacy
Unit 7. International Humanitarian Law
Part 3
From the History of Culture
Unit 8. The History of the Calendar
Unit 9. Christmas: History and Traditions
Part 4.
More about Your Profession
Unit 10. The Birth of English Law
Unit 11. International Organizations
Unit 12. The Customs Service
Part 5.
The Early History of the New World
Unit 13.
Unit 14. How it Started
Unit 15. A Road to Independence
Part 6.
The Modern World: Diversity, Problems and
Traditions
Unit 16. Cultural Diversity
Unit 17. Cultural Diversity and Human Rights
Unit 18. Modern Political and Social Trends
Лексика, изученная в пособии
104
3
5
5
9
13
18
23
23
28
37
43
43
50
56
56
61
64
69
69
74
78
84
84
90
95
101
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