close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

VlasovaKudrina1

код для вставкиСкачать
МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ
Федеральное государственное автономное
образовательное учреждение высшего образования
САНКТ-ПЕТЕРБУРГСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ
АЭРОКОСМИЧЕСКОГО ПРИБОРОСТРОЕНИЯ
АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
Методические указания
по специальности «Таможенное дело»
Составители: О. В. Власова, С. А. Кудрина, В. О. Перминов, Е. В. Юдина
Рецензент – кандидат филологических наук, доцент В. В. Постникова
Содержат материал для аудиторной и внеаудиторной работы по развитию навыков профессионально-ориентированного чтения, предназначены для студентов 1 и 2 курса.
Подготовлены к публикации кафедрой иностранных языков по рекомендации методического совета гуманитарного факультета СанктПетербургского Государственного Университета Аэрокосмического
Приборостроения.
Публикуется под редакцией канд. филол. наук, доцента В. О. Перминова
Компьютерная верстка В. Н. Костиной
Сдано в набор 09.02.18. Подписано к печати 14.02.18. Формат 60 × 84 1/16.
Усл. печ. л. 1,4. Уч.-изд. л. 1,5. Тираж 50 экз. Заказ № 59.
Редакционно-издательский центр ГУАП
190000, Санкт-Петербург, Б. Морская ул., 67
© Санкт-Петербургский государственный
университет аэрокосмического
приборостроения, 2018
Unit 1
HISTORY OF CUSTOMS
Text A
The History of Russian Customs
The current Russian word for Customs, «tamozhnya», originated in
the times of the Mongol-Tatar yoke. The word «tamga», in Tatar, meant
«a Customs tax, the official who collected it, and the stamped seal or
statement verifying that it had been paid». Each market had its «tamozhnya», and the right to collect duties could be purchased from the State.
This right was often acquired by powerful merchants. The Russian Customs Service, however, predates even the Mongol Yoke. Some three centuries before, in Kievan Rus, taxes were collected for the transportation
of goods through the frontiers of its individual princedoms. Thus, Russia has had a Customs Service in some form for the past 1000 years. The
first Russian Customs statute was handed down in 1667. It was strict
towards foreigners, who were allowed to trade only in frontier towns under pain of confiscation. Every tzar, from Peter the Great to Nicolas II,
approved laws limiting the import of foreign goods and defending Russian producers. During the Soviet period foreign trade was strictly monopolized in the USSR and Customs neither had any significant function
in the economy or played any important role. Much was done to create
Customs legislation in Russia in the period from 1991–94. Two important laws were adopted: «The Customs Code of the Russian Federation»
and «On Customs Tariff» All provisions and regulations in these documents are of the world standard. Russia has the world’s longest border
to police, much of it newly created and has a modern, multi-functioning Customs Service. It carries out the same functions as the Customs
of other developed countries: fiscal functions, regulation of foreign
trade by means of tariff and non-tariff methods, law enforcement, collection and keeping of customs statistics concerning foreign trade, etc.
Text B
History of the UK Customs Service
In the Kingdom of England, customs duties were typically part of the
customary revenue of the king, and therefore did not need parliamentary consent to be levied, unlike excise duty, land tax, or other forms
of taxes. The Board of Customs, responsible for collecting His or Her
Majesty’s Customs, had a very long history. Originally, the term customs meant any customary payments or duties of any kind (for example,
3
to the king, or a bishop, or the church), but later became restricted to duties payable to the king on the import or export of goods. The centralized
English customs system can be traced to the Winchester Assize of 12034, in the reign of King John, from which time customs were to be collected and paid to the State Treasury. Legislation concerning customs can
be traced to King Edward I. The first Customs officers were appointed
in 1294, and later on included Geoffrey Chaucer, Thomas Paine, Robert Burns and Richard Whittington (also known as Dick Whittington).
A Board of Customs was effectively created by ordinance on 21 January
1643, under which the regulation of the collection of customs was entrusted to a parliamentary committee. Her Majesty’s Revenue and Customs, the part of Board of Customs, is a non-ministerial department of
the British Government primarily responsible for the collection of taxes
and the payment of some forms of state support.
Text C
The Customs in London
The first Custom House was built around 1275 to collect the dues for
Edward’s Great Custom. It was replaced by a larger building in 1378.
In 1559 it had to be rebuilt after a fire. This building perished in the
Great Fire of 1666. Like so much of the City, it was rebuilt by Christopher Wren. Wren’s fine building did not last long. In 1714 it was severely
damaged by a nearby explosion. It was rebuilt between 1715 and 1727
by Thomas Ripley, who reused Wren’s foundations. Ripley’s building
contained the famous Long Room, which is the most important and the
most striking part of the Custom House. All paperwork regarding duties
payable on cargoes was taken to the Customs officials there. This was
a complicated business. When there were almost 2000 dutiable goods,
and ships carried many different goods, calculating the necessary duties for each vessel was an immense task. After all the calculations were
completed and the dues paid, the Long Room officials would issue the
necessary receipts. Only then the goods could be unloaded. The Custom
House in the City was convenient for shipping. Once the docks were built,
the Customs Service set up posts at each of the major docks.
Text D
History of the U.S. Customs Service
The U.S. Customs Service has a long history. With ratification by
the necessary number of states, the Constitution of the United States
went into effect on March 4, 1789. A bit more than four months later,
on July 31 of that year, the U.S. Customs Service started operating,
4
among the very first of the federal agencies to come to life. It was given
a life-and-death mission. The young nation was then on the brink of
bankruptcy. The first Congress and President Washington agreed that
the collection of duties on imported goods was essential if the United
States were to survive.
5
Unit 2
CUSTOMS CONTROL
Text A
Passing through Customs Control
After passing through Immigration Control you must then pass
through Customs Control. A nation’s Customs Service has many responsibilities. At its most basic level, its purpose is to regulate what comes into
and goes out of a country. The most important element of this regulation
is controlling international trade. To make the balance in favor of domestic businesses, governments impose tariffs, also called duties on foreign
goods coming into the country. Customs agencies are often major sources
of revenue for the government. They also monitor what is being exported
from a country. Another responsibility is also to monitor persons who
enter or leave the country, checking for appropriate documentation and
trying to capture persons identified by international search warrants. Go
through the green channel if you have nothing to declare. Go through the
red channel if you have goods to declare. A traveler should go through the
blue channel if you have arrived from an airport within the EEA (European Economic Area) where your luggage has already been cleared through
Customs control. The notices in the Customs area will tell you if you need
to declare anything you have brought into the country. You can also check
with one of the customs officers before passing through Customs control.
Even if you pass through the green channel the Customs Officer may ask
you to open your luggage for checking.
Text B
Modern Airport
Business travel by air is increasing. Airport terminals are the cathedrals of our age – a huge public space where people gather, wait, eat,
sometimes sleep, and usually shop.
These are economically successful places where the main exchange
of people occurs, where Customs and control barriers exist, and where
passengers and baggage are separated and reunited.
As the airports are major gateways to continents and to countries
their border and security controls have tightened especially since the
tragic events of 11th September, 2001: the Customs, passport, health
and security checks have become more careful. Airport security refers
to the techniques and methods used in protecting airports and aircraft
from crime.
6
Travelers are usually quickly screened by a metal detector. More advanced explosive detection machines are being used in screening such
as X-ray machines. Explosive detection machines can also be used for
both carry-on and checked baggage.
Alternately, the passengers step fully shoed onto a device which
scans in under 1.2 seconds for objects as small as a razor blade.
Generally people are screened through airport security in the concourses. Sensitive areas in airports, including airport ramps and operational spaces, are restricted from the general public. These spaces
require special qualifications to enter. This area is often called a secure
or sterile area.
In some countries, specially trained officers may ask passengers
questions to detect threats. Some tests are done by undercover agents.
New to airport security systems are perimeter defenses. These systems are designed to minimize unauthorized intrusions from personnel or vehicles originating from outside airport.
Typical anti-personnel perimeter security systems include security
fences and security camera systems.
As a whole an airport is a multi-tasking multi-organization location,
prone to frequent technological changes, and where all agencies have to
perfectly be in-tandem with excellent communication among them.
Text C
Customs areas
The customs areas include the following:
1. Duty collection. The assessment and collection of duties and taxes
have always been one of the main functions of the customs service. In fact,
collection of the revenue is the responsibility with which the customs usually started. Throughout its history the customs has supplied the federal
budget with the revenue necessary for investment in the economy and
in the country’s basic infrastructure, i. e. new schools, roads, hospitals.
2. Classification. Merchandise classification is the foundation on which
duty collection occurs. All goods entering the country should be classified
by the use of the established numerical coding system. Most countries are
now adopting the Harmonized System of Classification which, in case of
uniform application, can help improve the classification of goods and prevent losses of duty collection.
3. Appraisement. Cargo shipments entering the country are to be supplied with the necessary documents, for example, commercial invoices.
This cargo declaration is a basis for goods valuation. Undervaluation can
result in underpayment of duties.
7
4. Passenger inspection. Effective passenger and baggage control is necessary to collect proper duty and to prevent smuggling. Baggage is checked
for concealment by X-ray or opening it.
5. Cargo inspection. Cargo shipments are to be inspected for duty
collection and anti-smuggling purposes. Various inspectional techniques and devices can help release merchandise quicker, with less
damage and also result in increased seizures of prohibited items.
6. Free trade zones. In order to encourage the development of the country and to promote its foreign trade free trade zones are usually set up.
A free zone is a part of the territory which is regarded as being outside the
Customs territory, and goods introduced into this part of the territory are
not subject to the usual Customs control. Relief from import duties and
taxes in respect of these goods is granted. The Customs carries out certain
control within the free zone to ensure that the operations are carried out in
accordance with the Customs regulations.
7. Bonded warehouses. Importers usually have to pay duties to the
government when they import goods. They declare goods and customs
officials collect duties. When the importer doesn’t pay the duty immediately, the goods are stored in a bonded warehouse. The importer has
to pay storage charges (cost of keeping the goods in the warehouse).
The goods cannot be taken out of the warehouse until the importer pays
the duties.
8. Canine enforcement. Use of dogs specially trained to smell drugs
helps accelerate customs examination process with less damage than
some more traditional methods of inspection may cause.
9. Smuggling information collection. Collection and analysis of various information on smuggling results in better understanding of smuggling trends and the modus operandi of individuals or organizations
breaking customs laws.
10. Investigation. Investigation of customs violations is performed to
target the more sophisticated violators of customs laws and regulations.
The full range of customs violations can be investigated: the smuggling
of merchandise, narcotics, arms and ammunition as well as commercial
fraud, currency violations and money laundering, internal corruption,
infringement of trademark and intellectual property rights (IPR) etc.
11. Laboratory procedures. Laboratory analyses are to be performed
in order to classify merchandise and collect the correct amount of duty.
The new Harmonized System of classification is much more dependent
on laboratory analysis than most prior classification systems.
12. Customs brokers. Brokers must pass an examination and obtain
a license from the Customs central administration to do business. Bro8
kers are to consult customs to determine the proper rate of duty or
basis for appraisement. Brokers are required to maintain strict confidence about business and transactions.
Text D
What you need to know when travelling
New airport security rules that went into effect around the world as
a result of terrorism threat may be temporary, but flying will clearly
be even less fun than usual in the foreseeable future. Here are some
tips for making the journey as painless as possible.
– Know the rules. The latest rules for international and domestic
flights in the United States and Britain prohibited carry-on beverages
and liquids, including shampoo, creams, toothpaste and hair gel. Exceptions to the no-beverage rule were being made for baby formula
and prescription drugs and insulin (make sure they’re properly labeled
in your name).
– Pack wisely. The items being banned from carry-ons are generally
allowed in checked luggage. Liquids, however, may leak during changes
in air pressure, so it’s a good idea to place them in sealed plastic bags or
specially made sacks. Leave room at the top of each bottle for expansion.
– Weight rules and fees vary by airline. Check with your carrier before you fly, and weigh your bags at home to avoid extra fees.
– Give yourself extra time at airports. The U.S. Transportation Security Administration were recommending that all passengers flying
domestically and internationally get to the airport three hours ahead
of flight time.
– Check refund policies with your carrier. If you have paid for air
ticket but would rather stay home, many airlines have eased flight
change and refund restrictions.
– Stay current. Get the latest updates about your local airports.
For info on carriers, check the airports’ web sites, which offer links to
carriers operating flights from their area.
Text E
At the Customs House
The moment a traveler crosses the border their luggage is taken to the
customs-house by porters. Every country has its own customs regulations, which stipulate what articles are liable to duty and what are dutyfree. Sometimes an article which falls under customs restrictions and
is liable to duty is allowed in duty-free if the traveler does not exceed
a certain fixed quota. These are listed in a duty-free quota list. Customs
9
restrictions also include a prohibited articles list. This is a list of items
which may not be brought into a country or taken out of it. An official paper (from the proper authorities) giving permission to take items, which
fall under special customs restrictions, in or out of a country is known
as an import or export license. If the traveller has any item which comes
under customs restrictions he is asked to declare it. That is, he is asked
to name the item, stating its value and other particulars. The declaration is made either orally or in writing on a special form. The practice
seems to vary in different countries. Upon payment of duty the traveler
is given a receipt. As a rule personal effects are duty-free. It sometimes
happens that a passenger’s luggage is carefully gone through in order
to prevent smuggling. The formalities at the customs-house usually take
some time. Only after passing through the customs does one realize that
their journey is drawing to an end (or beginning, as the case might be).
Text F
The Story of Mr. Dang’s Camera Customs Clearance
When Vu Dang imported a camera from overseas this month, he
thought he would receive a letter from Customs saying that it had arrived and how much money he would need to pay. But that is not what
happened, and his problems were not resolved until he contacted customs broker Peter McRae of Platinum Freight Management. Mr. Dang
said he waited for four days to receive the Australian Customs / Australia Post letter and no letter was received, so he called up Customs
and was told he had to wait for the Customs notice, then would have to
complete the form B374 and then submit it by fax or email. Then they
would look at it and issue him with an invoice for taxes which he would
then pay by EFT or credit card – then they would wait for the money
to clear before releasing the camera to Australia Post who would then
send it on to him. That is when he sought Platinum Freight Management’s customs broking services. «I then contacted Peter McRae who
stepped in and the camera was cleared in one single day, even though
I had not received the notice from Customs yet, Peter was able to work
with my reference number from Customs». said Mr. Dang.
Mr. McRae says,»importing products worth over $1,000 without
a customs broker will almost always lead to delays of at least ten
days until the paperwork is processed, but if you contract a customs
broker, the paperwork will be done within 24 hours. The decreased
processing time is a result of Customs licensing customs brokers
who are directly linked to Customs and assist in reducing the processing of the parcel».
10
Mr. McRae says the cost of a customs broker is less than $100, but when
you need a product quickly, that can prove a big cost saving especially as
a good customs broker will also attempt to reduce the import duty.
As Mr. Dang said on Platinum Freight’s website: «Peter McRae was
very professional in dealing with me».
«To be fair,» said Mr. McRae, «while I would love to be a miracle worker, this is the way the system works. There are a huge number of small
packages coming into Australia on a daily basis and using a customs broker is the quickest and easiest way of making sure your package comes
through as quickly as possible».
Text G
The Airport
(by A. Hailey, adapted)
Inspector Standish was trying to clear up an important problem.
«Madam,» he said politely to the angry woman. Her American passport
showed that she was Mrs. Mossman who lived in Evanston, and had just
returned from a month in England. Her suitcases were open on the Customs inspection table between them, «Are you quite sure in your story?»
She answered, «You think I am lying, when I’ve already told you the truth».
«In that case, would you mind signing this form? If you like, I’ll
explain it to you».
Most of other passengers, who had arrived aboard a Scandinavian
Airlines DC-8 from Copenhagen, had cleared Customs and had left.
Only this well-dressed American woman posed a problem, insisting
that all she had bought in Europe was some perfume, jewelry, and
shoes. The total declared value was ninety dollars – ten dollars less
than the free exemption she was allowed.
«Why should I sign anything?» Mrs. Mossman asked. He answered
patiently. «To make things easier for yourself, madam. We’re asking
you to confirm in writing what you’ve already told us. You say the
dresses were bought..».
«How many times must I tell you? They were bought in Chicago and
New York before I left for Europe; so were the sweaters. The coat was
a gift – purchased in the United States. I received it six months ago».
Why, Harry Standish wondered, do people lie? All her statements,
he knew with certainty, were lies.
To begin with, the dresses – six, of good quality – had had their
labels removed».
Mrs. Mossman asked, «What happens if I sign the form?» «Then you
may go, madam».
11
«And take my things with me? All my things?»
«Yes».
«Suppose, I refuse to sign?»
«Then we shall be obliged to detain you here while we continue the
investigation».
Then was the briefest hesitation, then: «Very well. You fill out the
form; I’ll sign».
«No, madam; you fill it out. Now here, please describe the items,
and alongside where you say they were obtained.
Please give the names of the stores; also from whom you received
the fur coat as a gift..».
He waited while Mrs. Mossman completed the form and signed it.
Text H
Pat’s experiences at the airport
Pat arrived at the airport two hours ago to catch her plane to Tokyo.
At the check-in-counter, a ticket agent looked at her ticket and her passport and her baggage was checked in (weighted on the scales). Pat’s suitcases were very heavy, so she had to pay an excess baggage charge (amount
of money for additional weight). Next she was given a boarding pass (a
ticket that allows her to get on the plane). The boarding pass has a seat
number written on it, and Pat was given a window seat in the non-smoking
section. Her suitcases were labeled and sent off to be loaded into the hold
of the airplane. While waiting for the flight to be called, Pat goes to the
newsstand to buy a newspaper. Then she goes through the security check,
where her carry-on luggage (the bags she is keeping with her on the plane)
is searched. Then Pat goes into the duty-free shop where she has a chance
to buy some things cheaply. The goods she buys here are cheap because
they are not taxed.
Text I
Modern Identification Technologies. Airport Tests Passenger Eye Ids
Heathrow Airport is testing a new hi-tech identity system which examines a passenger’s eye, rather than their passport as they go through immigration control. Heathrow is the first UK airport to carry out a largescale trial of the iris recognition technology, which was unveiled at the
airport last Friday. The aim is to speed up the movement of passengers
through the terminal and detect illegal immigrants. A total of 2,000 passengers who frequently fly from North America to Heathrow on Virgin
and British Airways flights are taking part in the five-month trial. Each
passenger will have an image of one of their eye’s iris stored on comput12
er. Instead of showing their passport on arrival they will go into a kiosk
where in seconds a camera will check that the pattern of their iris matches
computer records. If so a barrier will automatically open. The trial will
test the technology and gauge passenger reaction.
13
Unit 3
CUSTOMS OFFICER JOBS
Text A
Contraband detection equipment
Every country is aware that its territorial integrity and national existence to much extent rests on its ability to police its land and
sea borders, and to control its air space. That is why in the developed
world, most major international airports have technology for verifying identification, checking for criminal records, and inspecting
passengers’ luggage and commercial cargo to prevent contraband and
dangerous goods from entering the country. The use of contraband
detection technology enables customs officers to conduct effective,
non-intrusive inspections, and allows them to focus on high-risk individuals and goods.
– x-ray systems, including baggage, mobile and roll-in cargo systems;
– mobile Vehicle and Cargo Inspection Systems (VACIS, gammaray systems), used to scan marine containers, rail cars, or trucks;
– biometric scanning technology, used to scan either fingerprints
or iris for comparison to criminal record;
– spectrometry technology systems, used for identifying trace
amounts of narcotics residue;
– Remote Operated Vehicles (ROV) for under-vessel detection;
– (submersible) pole cameras, used at marine ports and major commercial border crossings to inspect ships, containers and tractor trailers;
– miniature pole cameras, used at major international airports to inspect aircrafts;
– specimen isolation toilets, used for recovery of banned substances
at airports, ship terminals and border crossings;
– density meters, used to determine the density of a surface or object, which help to discover hidden walls or contraband concealed
in car tires;
– flexible fiberscopes, used to view areas that are inaccessible by the naked eye due to obstructions;
– laser range finders, used to measure the inside of commercial containers;
– mirror kits, used to inspect the undercarriage of vehicles and other hard to reach areas.
These are the latest of innovative state-of-the-art technologies and
they will be continually refined and upgraded.
14
Text B
Tips for Customs Officers
In dealing with any passenger, the single most important point to establish is «Why has this passenger travelled?» You should:
1) Establish reasons for travel.
2) Examine passport to ascertain previous and current journeys
from drug production or suspect areas. If the passenger is a frequent
traveler establish reasons for frequency of travel.
3) Examine ticket to ascertain method of payment and whether ticket matches the passenger’s journey. (Remember: Late booked or cash
tickets are often used by smugglers).
All the above should be carried out for all passengers stopped to satisfy you as to their reasons for traveling. Your basic questions are:
1) Is this all your baggage? Did you pack it yourself?
2) Do you know what the baggage contains?
3) Are you carrying any items for anyone else? Are you traveling alone?
4) Do you know what the Customs allowances are? (Check that the passenger has correct baggage reclaim tags).
Text C
Customs officer (UK)
If you want to use your detection skills and want to protect the UK,
this job could be ideal for you. Customs officers prevent banned items
from entering or leaving the country, and collect taxes and duties (payments).To join at officer grade you will need five GCSEs (General Certificate of General Education) at A-C level including English and math.
You would be trained on the job through a combination of in-house (internal) training and learning from experienced staff. Training usually
lasts around nine months, and may include some residential training
courses. You will normally start as an administrative assistant or assistant officer and earn promotion to customs officer or detection officer. To become a customs officer, you will need to have good judgement.
You will need to be firm but fair. You will also need to be honest in applying rules and regulations.
Text D
Customs officer (the USA)
Customs officers are federal law enforcement professionals whose focus
is on border security. These professionals work for the U.S. Department
of Homeland Security. Customs officers usually have bachelor’s degrees
15
in any field and complete a training program prior to beginning work. If
they have no degree then they should have a 3 year experience. They should
communicate easily, be leaders, have good judgment and be able to fulfill
many tasks at a time. They should be able to use various databases such as
Law Enforcement Information databases, the National Crime Information
Center database and Treasury Enforcement. They should possess the ability to handle firearms and handcuffs, and to use x-ray examination equipment and radiation detectors. The applicants should be physically strong.
Customs officers are required to pass fitness tests.
Step 1: Earn a Bachelor’s Degree. No specific degree field is required for
the applicants to the customs officer position, however, programs in criminal justice are advisable. Criminal justice programs offer courses relevant
to applicants interested in careers such as customs officers. They usually
include criminal law, criminology, criminal investigation, and police administration. These programs typically take four years to complete.
Success Tips:
Study a foreign language.
Study a foreign language while completing an undergraduate program. It may be an asset for potential customs officers.
Customs officers often interact with people from all over the world
while working in airports. Knowledge of a foreign language can help
with communication.
Enter an internship program.
Some schools offer the opportunity to complete fieldwork in an internship program. Students may work in real world settings and gain
experience with state police, private detectives, and federal agencies.
Step 2: Apply for a Position and Meet Pre-Employment Requirements. Those graduates interested in customs careers should log onto
the U.S. Customs and Border Protection website of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (www.cbp.gov). While there, you can
search through customs-related jobs. To be considered for a position,
you need to follow the directions of the application. Pre-employment
requirements include a formal interview, background check, medical
examination, fitness test, and drug test.
Step 3: Complete Required Training. Custom officers are required to
fulfill an 18-week training program at the Federal Law Enforcement
Training Center in Georgia. They receive compensation and benefits
while completing this program. Training focuses on a variety of relevant areas such as firearm handling, anti-terrorism, and detection of
contraband. Trainees also receive instruction on effective communication, training in interviewing, and cross-cultural communication.
16
Text E
Customs Officer Jobs
There are various Customs officer jobs available ranging from border
control to commercial Customs inspectors. While each position requires
Customs officers to perform specific tasks, all Customs officer jobs are
relatively similar. Customs officers can be situated at border entries,
railway stations, airports, seaports, and many other entryways. Essentially, there are three main types of Customs officer jobs including commercial inspectors, traveler inspectors and postal inspectors.
Commercial inspectors are responsible for inspecting all cargo that
enters or leaves the country. These Customs professionals must board
boats, airplanes, and trucks in order to inspect cargo arriving from other countries. In addition, a commercial inspector must also inspect any
cargo that is leaving the country. These inspectors are also expected to
inspect cargo documents in order to ensure that all laws have been met.
Postal inspectors are similar to commercial inspectors, only postal
inspectors investigate parcels. All packages must be thoroughly inspected before leaving or arriving in the country. Postal inspectors
must also make sure that any shipper or receiver has filled out the appropriate documents.
Traveler inspectors are different from postal and commercial inspectors. A traveler inspector’s duty is to speak with any traveller who
attempts to enter or exit the country. These inspectors are often seen
in airports, train stations, and seaports. Traveler inspectors are responsible for ensuring the safety of the country by refusing entry to
anyone who seems suspicious. Even though all Customs officer jobs
are unique, many countries seek Customs officers who can speak a foreign language. Since Customs officers must communicate with people
from all over the world, those officers who can speak a second or third
language often secure top position. Additionally, any Сustoms officer
should be able to handle high-pressure situations calmly and rationally. Most of the Customs officer’s work involves processing various
paperwork for immigration documents. They are also heavily involved
in the inspection of cargo or baggage for prohibited items, as well as
collecting funds for taxable imported goods. Most of the general public
will see Customs officers when travelling between international destinations. A Customs officer is a position that requires the ability to deal
with many different types of people. Those who are at airports and borders will have to deal with a variety of personalities. Those who are at
seaports will deal with fewer people, but will have more extensive cargo
17
issues to pay attention to. This could include detailed examinations of
large containers.
Customs and excise officers are part of the civil service. They usually work at ports and airports. They fulfill administrative tasks such
as preparing and processing import and export documentation according to customs regulations, laws or procedures.
Customs Officers working at customs halls in ports and airports are
responsible for ensuring that passengers, baggage, freight
and mail are cleared for travel. They search vehicles and people’s
belongings, looking for illegal drugs and other prohibited items.
Work activities.
Clearing goods through customs.
Preparing and processing import and export documentation according to customs regulations, laws, or procedures.
Advising customers on import and export restrictions, tariff systems, quotas, or other customs-related matters.
Applying for tariff concessions or for duty drawbacks and other refunds.
Classifying goods according to tariff coding system.
Calculating duty and tariff payments owed on shipments.
Advanced technology tools that may detect explosives. They also
must clear and inspect individuals, often engaging in psychological
techniques to determine their intention.
Text F
Code of conduct
Customs has important public responsibilities and must demonstrate high ethical standards to inspire public confidence in the integrity of the service. The community has a right to expect that the behaviour of Customs staff will be in line with their expectations – that is courteous, efficient and above all, ethical. Ethics deals with the fundamental issues of practical decision-making, and its major concerns
include the nature of ultimate value and the standards by which human actions can be judged right or wrong. Ethics is a set of principles
which determines standards of personal and professional behaviour.
It is not just obeying the law, or sticking to rules and regulations; ethics goes beyond the law to include the way of making and justifying decisions when it is not completely clear what is the right or wrong thing to do.
While there is no set of rules capable of providing answers to all ethical questions which arise, a code of conduct may serve as a guide
to solving issues for those working in Customs, and those who have dealings with officers of Customs.
18
In many countries it provides the framework for appropriate conduct in a variety of contexts and establishes standards of behaviour expected of Customs officers.
«The Code of Ethics and Conduct Booklet» developed by the Australian Customs Service emphasizes the following issues: «...Personal Behaviour. Customs officers are to: perform official duties with skills,
care, diligence and impartiality, using authority in a fair and unbiased
way; observe acts, regulations, instructions and lawful directions; provide the public with service in a professional manner; not take improper advantage of any official information acquired in the course of official duties»
«Criminal offences. All officers of Customs must comply with the
law. Breaches of criminal law will lead to prosecution and/or disciplinary action... Offences relating to legislation which Customs administers are regarded most gravely when committed by Customs officers. Customs officers who commit offences involving prohibited
drugs, fraud, accepting bribes, or illegal importation or exportation
of goods will be subject to disciplinary action, in addition to any penalty applied as a result of criminal proceedings..».
«Gifts or Benefits. The offering of gifts and/or benefits may be seen as
an attempt to influence a decision which an officer is required to take...».
The Customs Service has no right to public recognition or trust if
its staff break the law habitually. Maintaining an environment that encourages ethical behaviour among all Customs staff must be a high priority for each officer.
Customs authorities need to promote a culture which includes such values as honesty, fairness, accountability, professionalism and integrity.
The CCC’s Arusha Declaration defines integrity as a science concerning discipline, professional ethics, courtesy, personal integrity
and strictness.
It is important that Customs officials establish a code of conduct
involving rewards and punishments which should lead to self-discipline and that all staff demonstrates an exemplary level of personal
ethics to project an image of Customs that is above reproach.
19
Unit 4
THE CUSTOMS REFORMS IN RUSSIA
Text A
Customs Reforms is Urgent in Russia
With the recent changes in Central and Eastern Europe one can’t but
agree that there is a special need in a reform of customs laws across those
countries to make it easier for major investors to trade effectively with
(and invest in) the region. Without a doubt, one country where reform is
most urgently needed is Russia. When we asked major multinationals
which countries in Central and Eastern Europe and the CIS have the most
straightforward customs procedures, Russia was not even registered.
In fact, Russian import procedures were given bottom marks, when it
came to the volume of paper work needed, the speed of processing, and the
prevalence of corruption, although competency of Russian officials was
rated relatively high. What are the roots of the customs problem in Russia? It cannot be easy for the State Customs Service to use customs to facilitate trade and foreign investment, while it is also under pressure from
the federal government to increase annual customs receipts of more than
$10 billion. Lowering import tariffs would raise customs revenue
(by increasing imports) and reduce corruption. But in the current economic climate Western investors have been confronted with an extra 3% emergency import duty. There is a real lack of understanding about business
needs, and a reluctance to meet major foreign investors halfway when it
comes to import rules and regulations. Once declarations are submitted,
customs officers often reject them in order to dictate a different tariff
that allows them to maximize revenue. Every declaration must be processed through a lengthy procedure of checks and physical inspections.
The way rules are interpreted can vary between different border posts,
and even between different customs inspectors. What is the solution?
The situation cannot be changed overnight. The Russian authorities have
appeared willing to review the customs code. First of all, there should be
officially recognized the concept of «air express»: by their very nature,
express shipments of such items as bank documents, computer disks with
information, medical samples, or spare parts required for the urgent repair of machinery should be treated differently from, say, a freight shipment of several hundred cars. Consequently, four simplified customs categories should be introduced for express shipments: documents, low-value
non-dutiable consignments, low-value dutiable consignments, high-value
consignments. The first three categories should be given «fast track»
20
clearance on the day of arrival. The high-value category would obviously
need extra documentation, but also could be cleared quickly if all VAT and
customs duties have been paid.
Text B
North-Western Customs
Russia’s Customs Service is a very effective organization. In the past
six years the North-Western Customs Administration has established
an optimal Customs infrastructure, but Chat does not mean changes will
not be introduced to it. The Head of the North-Western Customs Administration of the Russian Federation has pointed out: «We strive to promote and facilitate the economic development of the region through its
international trade connections». A large amount of freight crosses the
border on trains. Customs registration is carried out at 10 railway stations. The largest train-handling Customs offices are Vyborgskaya (25%
of total volume) and Sebezhskaya (14%). To better co-ordinate its activities the Administration has signed an agreement to co-operate with
the Oktyabrskaya Railway. The agreement is called «Customs and Railroad Transportation» and will be effective up to the year 2000.​«As part
of the agreement we will participate with the Railway in the construction of new Customs points. Our organization has had experience in such
projects – we have carried out the federal government’s programme to
set up Customs checkpoints at the borders with the Baltic states. In order
to facilitate the flow of freight, to have effective Customs control, and
to reduce the amount of lost freight, we have introduced up-to-date Customs technology. In co-operation with Finnish Customs we will transmit
and receive preliminary electronic information in order to speed up the
Customs process. We have access to fibre optics communications, which
were introduced as part of the «Russian Customs in the 21st Century»
project. We have complete information about freight, its transfer and its
storage». St. Petersburg has become one of the first cities in Russia with
a unified network of freight transport services. Agencies provide a full
package of services to Russian and foreign freight shippers. Clients are
now able to have their freight registered, expedited and passed through
Customs. All they have to do is fax their order. The all-embracing service
also takes care of everything between the train and warehouse.
Individuals are not subject to any Customs duties if the value of the
items they are bringing with them doesn’t exceed 200 dollars (US). Permanent residents of the Russian Federation who travel abroad and spend
over 6 uninterrupted months in a foreign country are permitted to bring
in goods valued up to 5,000 dollars. Individuals may leave the country
21
without having to pay any duties if the value of the goods doesn’t exceed
the value of 50 months’ worth of minimum wage. Also exempt from Customs duties are individuals who temporarily enter or leave the country
with goods not intended for productive or commercial purposes – items,
that is, which are intended for their personal use.
Text C
Pulkovo Airport Terminal One
Pulkovo International Airport has the only runway in Russia equipped
to serve the new Airbus A380. It is modern and relatively well equipped,
particularly with security equipment, baggage screening machines, Rapiscan and Heimann and security cameras from France and Germany. The
terminal consists of four levels designed to separate passenger flows. The
first level, handling arrivals and luggage, is divided into two sections: one
for international, the other for domestic flights. The second level also has
separate sections for domestic and international flights. This is where all
passengers and their luggage undergo preflight check-up. On the second
level there is a pharmacy, caf , post office, currency exchange office, book
shops and newsstands. The third and fourth levels house recreation areas
for travelers, a VIP lounge, a mother and child room, some bars (including an Irish bar called ‘One for the Road’), a restaurant, a hair salon, payphones, and Russian and CIS airline offices. There are also many wireless
internet hot spots at the terminal, which is also equipped with modern
computer facilities.
Text D
October 25 – Day of the Customs Officer of the Russian Federation
Customs officers of the Russian Federation celebrate the anniversary of their professional holiday on the 25th of October. It was introduced by the state in 1995.
The Russian Customs Service demonstrates its readiness to support
law-abiding and «transparent» participants of foreign trade.
Hi-tech technologies play an important role in ensuring Russia’s security. Therefore, the Russian Customs Service has some priorities in detecting contraband by search and screening. Customs revenues provide
the income to the federal budget.
In 2005, the system of electronic declaration was introduced. Customs Service activities related to protection of intellectual property
take on special significance.
22
Cписок литературы
1. Попова Л. М. Customs: учеб.-методич. пособие для студентов
специальности «Таможенное дело» / Л. М. Попова, Л. А. Глацкова,
В. И. Магу, Л. М. Тащилина, О. А. Терехова. – Иркутск: ИрГУПС,2006. –
105 с.
2. Моя специальность – таможенное дело (My Specialty is Customs):
учеб. пособие по английскому языку / Т. И. Матяр, О. Е. Ефимова,
Е. В. Князькова; Владим. гос. ун-т. – Владимир: Владим. гос. ун-т,
2011. – ... с.
3. Учебно-методические указания по самостоятельной работе
студентов заочной формы обучения факультета таможенного дела. –
М: Российская таможенная академия, 2009.
4. Веремейчик О. В. Английский для таможенников = English for
customs officers: учеб. пособие для студентов учреждений высшего
образования по специальности «Таможенное дело». – Минск: БНТУ,
2016. – 389, [1] с.: ил.
23
CONTENTS
Unit 1. History of customs..........................................................
Text A. The History of Russian Customs.................................. Text B. History of the UK Customs Service.............................. Text C. The Customs in London.............................................. Text D. History of the U.S. Customs Service............................. 3
3
3
4
4
Unit 2. Customs Control.............................................................
Text A. Passing through Customs Control................................ Text B. Modern Airport........................................................ Text C. Customs areas.......................................................... Text D. What you need to know when travelling........................ Text E. At the Customs House................................................ Text F. The Story of Mr. Dang’s Camera Customs Clearance........ Text G. The Airport (by A. Hailey, adapted)............................. Text H. Pat’s experiences at the airport................................... Text I. Modern Identification Technologies. Airport Tests
Passenger Eye Ids................................................................ 6
6
6
7
9
9
10
11
12
Unit 3. Customs Officer jobs.......................................................
Text A. Contraband detection equipment................................. Text B. Tips for Customs Officers........................................... Text C. Customs officer (UK)................................................. Text D. Customs officer (the USA).......................................... Text E. Customs Officer Jobs................................................. Text F. Code of conduct........................................................ 14
14
15
15
15
17
18
Unit 4. The customs Reforms in Russia.........................................
Text A. Customs Reforms is Urgent in Russia........................... Text B. North-Western Customs............................................ Text C. Pulkovo Airport Terminal One.................................... Text D. October 25 – Day of the Customs Officer
of the Russian Federation..................................................... 20
20
21
22
Cписок литературы..................................................................
23
12
22
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
0
Размер файла
855 Кб
Теги
vlasovakudrina1
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа