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Министерство образования и науки российской федерации
Государственное образовательное учреждение
высшего профессионального образования
Методические указания
и учебные задания
Составитель О. В. Злобина
Рецензент канд. филол. наук доц. И. И. Громовая
Учебные задания составлены на основе аутентичных
английских и американских изданий и Интернет-ресурсов
и предназначены для студентов 1 курса ускоренной формы
обучения, а также студентов 3 курса специальности
Цель пособия – научить чтению и пониманию оригинальной
литературы, способствовать формированию лингвистических
навыков в данной отрасли знаний.
Пособие состоит из 4 частей: Часть 1 (Part 1) – тексты и
задания для изучения и усвоения лексики; Часть 2 (Part 2) –
дополнительные тексты по специальности для внеаудиторного
чтения и/или письменного перевода; Часть 3 (Part 3) –
отдельные грамматические темы для повторения; Часть 4
(Part 4) – тексты по основным разговорным темам.
Верстальщик А. Н. Колешко
Сдано в набор 15.10.10. Подписано к печати 21.12.10. Формат 60×84 1/16.
Бумага офсетная. Усл. печ. л. 2,79. Тираж 300 экз. Заказ № 595.
Редакционно-издательский центр ГУАП
190000, Санкт-Петербург, Б. Морская ул., 67
© Санкт–Петербургский государственный
университет аэрокосмического
приборостроения (ГУАП), 2010
Text 1
Before reading the text use the dictionary to translate the following
awareness, benefit, compete, consumer, involve, reach, worldwide
Given the increasing number of Internet users worldwide,
e-commerce is becoming important. This importance arises from the
fact that, with e-commerce, geographical and political barriers do not
exist in a business to reaching millions of consumers around the world.
Therefore, with a little technical awareness, the smallest company can
go on-line and compete with bigger companies. Nevertheless, in order
to go online a company needs to develop its own strategies.
Obviously, there are benefits to e-commerce and risks involved, and
there are elements to be considered in order to achieve success in this
Complete the sentences with appropriate word(s):
1) The number of Internet users is ____ worldwide. 2) I see no ____
in completing the task on time. 3) e-Commerce allows businesses to
___ millions of people around the world. 4) One of the main trends in
business today is personal ___ of employees.
Answer the questions:
1) Why is e-commerce so important for businesses worldwide?
2) How is e-commerce beneficial to small businesses? 3) What are the
benefits of e-commerce? 4) What are the possible risks involved?
Text 2
Try to think of your own definition of e-commerce. What are the
key elements (words) of it? Read the definitions below and say whether
they are similar to yours. If they are different, what is the difference?
Why is there a difference?
What is e-commerce?
Electronic commerce or ‘e-commerce’ is defined as doing business
electronically. Electronic commerce covers any form of business or
administrative transaction or information exchange that is executed
using any information and communications technology (ICT). In
addition, EC is also viewed as the process of buying and selling or
exchanging products, service and information through computer
networks including the Internet.
Text 3
Check up in the dictionary the meaning of the following words:
advanced, advertisement, application, divert, engage, experience,
failure, fund, range, stock, term, transfer
In description of doing business via the Internet, ‘B’ stands for
‘Business’, ‘C’, for ‘Customer’, and ‘G’, for Government. What kind of
business operations do the following abbreviations define: B2B, B2C,
B2G? Provide examples to illustrate such operations.
Historical review
Electronic commerce was first developed in the early 1970s.
Electronic funds transfer (EFT), which involved the transfer of funds
electronically, is often referred to as the start of e-commerce. Then
came the electronic data interchange (EDI) i.e. the electronic transfer
of documents between firms. This was followed by the advanced
applications of EC, ranging from stock trading to travel reservation
systems. Later, with the advance of Internet into commercial activities
in the 1990s, the term electronic commerce was introduced. Since 1995
many innovative applications were developed ranging from interactive
advertisements to virtual reality experiences. In 1999, EC activities
diverted from B2C to concentrate on B2B activities. Nowadays, given
the increasing number of Internet users, almost every organisation has
its own website. In addition, industry failures between the late 1990s
and 2001, have also led to a consolidation of organisations engaging
in EC.
Complete the sentences with appropriate word(s):
1) _____ of e-commerce dates back to 1970s. 2) e-Commerce
started as ___. 3) Electronic data were ___ between firms. 4) The term
‘e-commerce’ was introduced when the Internet ___ into commercial
activities. 5) Advertising on the Net is referred to as ____.
Answer the questions:
1) What is now considered to be the start of e-commerce? 2) What
does EDI stand for? Why is it referred to as a stage in e-commerce
growth? 3) What were the advanced applications of EC following
EDI? Are those still in use? 4) Could you give your own examples of
interactive advertisements and virtual reality experiences? 5) Why
was there a diversion from B2C to B2B operations in the late 1990s?
Text 4
Consult the dictionary to state the difference between:
benefits and costs; supplier and customer; administrative costs,
procurement costs, and transportation costs; partner and middleman.
Read the text about the benefits of e-commerce and get ready to
speak of those:
Benefits of e-commerce
The benefits of the e-commerce revolution are often expressed
as being equivalent to the benefits that resulted from the Industrial
Revolution. These benefits can be detailed as follows:
1. Benefits to organisations: by using e-commerce, a company can
expand its business worldwide with a minimum amount of capital,
locating customers, suppliers and the most suitable business partners.
As well, with the help of ecommerce, companies and organisations can
cut administrative costs by around 85%. Moreover, there is a major
benefit of reducing procurement costs through a simplified process of
finding the cheapest supplier and processing orders on-line, which is
far cheaper than traditional methods. Additionally, e-commerce makes
customer-business interaction easier and closer, which increases
customer loyalty. As stated in The Financial Times, EC is also of
great help to firms in cutting out the middlemen e.g. low cost airlines
have thrived by selling tickets on-line. The benefits of e-commerce
to organisations are numerous, to say the least, further including
improved customer service, increased productivity, reduced paper and
paper work, increased access to information, reduced transportation
costs and increased flexibility.
2. Benefits to consumers: e-commerce allows consumers to do
their shopping around the clock, in addition to providing them with
more choice i.e. they can select from many vendors and from more
products. e-Commerce also facilitates the quick location of products.
Other benefits of e-commerce to consumers include the availability of
cheaper products, as the result of strong competition, and facilitating
easy interaction between consumers, which allows the exchange of
ideas and experiences.
3. Benefits to society: The most important benefit of e-commerce
to society is that it keeps people in their homes, which reduces the
risk of traffic accidents and cuts pollution by reducing traffic on the
roads. In addition, e-commerce may give the less affluent groups of
the society a chance to improve their standard of living through lower
prices and other services. For example, people of third world countries
are now enjoying services, which were otherwise not available to them.
Moreover, public services such as education, healthcare, distribution
of social services etc. can be delivered on the Internet at reduced costs
and with improved levels of quality.
Text 5
Write down noun derivatives to the words given, translate both
into Russian:
e.g. secure – security
a) integrate, hack, emerge, limit, result, transact
b) reliable, compatible, suitable, private
Limitations of e-commerce
The limitations of e-commerce are both technical and nontechnical.
1. Technical limitations: these include problems pertaining to security,
reliability, telecommunications, software, integration of Internet and
EC software with existing databases, and incompatibility of EC software
with certain operating systems and components. The most sustained
problem is the security issue as the spectre of hackers snatching and
stealing information is always the main obsession to customers. Yet, with
the emergence of new technology over time, these limitations are reduced
or otherwise their impact is overcome by suitable planning.
2. Non-technical limitations: the main problem in this respect is
the cost of developing e-commerce at home, which might be very high
and mistakes due to inexperience might result in delays. Furthermore,
security and privacy are important issues when it comes to customerbusiness relationships. In fact the e-commerce industry has had very
hard time trying to convince customers that on-line transactions are
as secure as any other business transactions. Another issue lies in
finding ways of persuading customers to do business with machines,
as some customers like to touch items, such as clothes and to be sure of
the reliability of the product they are buying.
Answer the questions:
1) Why is security such important an issue to most Internet-users?
2) How is security on the Net provided? Give a few examples. 3) Who
do we call a hacker? Their actions are considered illegal, why is that?
4) What is the major non-technical problem of e-commerce, in your
opinion? How can it be overcome? 5) What stops many customers from
buying such items as clothes on-line? 6) Do you, personally, do a lot
of on-line shopping? What are the items you buy? How do you pay for
Text 6
Before reading the text, answer the following questions:
What are ‘dot-com’ companies? Can you name a few? What do they
deal in?
What is an auction? Do you know of any such companies on the
Read the texts about two famous ‘dot-com’ companies; answer the
questions; make a short written account on the history and strategy
of either: and and are two companies engaged in
e-commerce. Amazon is the biggest on-line provider of books, whereas
e-bay is one of the biggest on-line auctions dealing in different items,
including books. The success that both these two companies have
achieved in the field of e-commerce is far reaching.
Historical background of was founded in 1995 in Seattle, USA. By 1999 it evolved
into the biggest e-tailer with the world’s largest selection of books,
and its name has become the most recognised e-commerce brand in the
world. In the year 2000, the company changed its logo to communicate
the belief that it was one of the most customer-centric firms in the
world. Its customers are currently estimated at 16 million. In addition
to its base in the USA, Amazon has operations in Germany and the
UK, and each European operation has its own website. Recently the
company has expanded its business from selling books to include CDs,
toys, videos, electronics, software, e-cards and many other items.
The strategy of
Amazon has built a brand name that is well recognised both
off and on the Web. The company has been rated as the best in the
business in terms of security and safety of delivery, and there are
certain features to have contributed to the success of the firm. The
most important of these features is its infrastructure, especially its
network of distribution facilities. Moreover, Amazon is persistently
developing technology, which gives it a competitive edge on-line.
Additionally, Amazon always endeavours to find innovative ways to
meet customer expectations. Amazon customer service is based on
friendship and on keeping its promises. In this regard customers are
always guaranteed privacy and can quit at any time with no obligation
to use its facilities.
In order to expand its business, the firm frequently relies on
alliances, partnerships and acquisitions. Amazon is diversifying its
business to include, along with books, other items such as CDs, gifts,
e-cards, automobiles and auctions. Moreover, Amazon is aiming at
being the Internet shopping destination for everything, while part of
its strategy is to be the only place where a person can find what they
are looking for on-line. Also Amazon is currently offering services
for international customers including a million titles in Japanese
Answer the questions:
1) What is a brand name? What are its main characteristics? 2) Why
is Amazon rated as the best in the business? 3) What does Amazon’s
network of distribution facilities consist of? 4) What allows the
company to get a competitive edge on-line? 5) How does the company
expand its business? 6) What is diversification? How do businesses
diversify their activities? 7) How does Amazon achieve its aim of being
the Internet shopping destination for everything?
Historical background of e-bay
e-bay was launched in 1995, and since then independent customers
have used e-bay to buy and sell items in more than 4320 categories
including books. They refer to the fact that buyers are compelled to
trade on e-bay due to the large number of items available. This large
gathering of buyers makes e-bay the destination of sellers as well. As
a matter of fact, more than 450,000 items are posted for sale on e-bay
every day. In its B2B market, e-bay is also starting to attract large
electronic manufacturers such as Sun Microsystems, IBM and Dell
Computers who are selling products on e-bay.
The elimination of many the inefficiencies of traditional commerce
is referred to as being the essence of e-bay’s vision, and to e-bay as
a rendezvous for both buyers and sellers, where they can meet and
exchange information about goods and prices at minimum costs.
The strategy of e-bay
e-bay has harnessed the Internet to secure two million registered
customers. Treating customers with respect, besides providing the
proper tools to customers to overcome the complexities of the Internet,
is the most important part of e-bay strategy. Despite being famous for
its B2C activities, e-bay has got the tools, the methods and the clients
to make it successful in B2B activities as well. In this regard one should
refer to its established brand, and its ability to pair buyers, sellers and
suppliers, as being the ingredients of success.
The main aim of e-bay is to become the largest ever on-line personto-person auction company. Its general strategy to reach that end is
outlined as follows:
– Expanding the user base.
– Strengthening its brand.
– Expanding its trade by increasing and promoting its products.
– Caring for the community.
– Enhancing its site features and functionality.
In its long history, the company has heeded well that success or
failure depends on whether a company listens to or ignores its users’
Answer the questions:
1) How is e-bay different from Amazon? 2) What compels buyers
to trade on e-bay? 3) What is the essence of e-bay’s vision? 4) How
many customers make the audience of the company? 5) Why has the
company’s strategy been so successful? 6) What are the strategy core
points? 7) What is e-bay’s aim? How can it be achieved? 8) Why is
‘Caring for the community’ considered an important means in reaching
the company’s end?
Make a short (about 110-120 words) written report on one of
Russian ‘dot-com’ companies.
Text 7 (part 1)
Before reading the text use the dictionary to translate the following
words and phrases:
add value, be under review, business executives, directory,
intermediary, niche, prospective buyer, search engine, shift, target
The key elements of successful e-commerce
There are certain strategies, which should be adopted by business
executives in order to achieve success in the field of e-commerce. These
strategies include the following:
Add value:
As in the case of traditional business, adding value is also always
critical to the success of on-line business. This can be achieved in the
following ways:
• Convenience: providing convenience has always been the key area
of competition among Internet service providers.
• Information value: some on-line companies target information
as a means of attracting customers. for instance, has
achieved great success in this field. Reviews of books purchased by
users constitute part of the information, which prospective buyers can
• Disintermediation: this implies the removal of some intermediaries
(brokers) in the chain, in order to reduce costs.
• Reintermediation: due to the huge amount of information on the
Internet, infomediaries such as search engines, directories etc. became
a necessity.
• Price: competition based on price is usually rare in the on-line
business. As a matter of fact prices on-line, in most cases, are slightly
higher due to additional costs such as delivery costs.
• Choice: giving a customer a variety of products to choose between
is one of the most value adding strategies to achieve success on-line.
Focus on a niche... Then expand
When doing e-commerce, it always advisable to start with a small
area and then to expand. This is because it is not possible to compete
with many others doing exactly the same thing. For example, Amazon.
com started its business selling books only and then expanded to
include other products such as videos, gifts, CDs, and e-cards as well
as auctions.
Maintain flexibility
For a business to achieve success on-line, it has to maintain
flexibility. This implies that strategies should always be under review.
Most successful Internet firms have had to make one radical shift in
their strategies somewhere along the line.
Complete the sentences with appropriate word(s):
1) ___ of certain strategies by business executives allows them to
achieve success in the field of e-commerce. 2) To ___ ___ is to make
your customer believe your product/service is valuable to them. 3) A
person who may become your customer is referred to as ___ ___. 4) The
Internet has always attracted and is still attracting users as a means to
___ ___. 5) A middleman and an ___ are practically the same. 6) To ___
means to remove some intermediaries in the chain, in order to reduce
costs. 7) To ___ is to provide some infomediaries such as search engines,
directories etc. 8) Nowadays almost every store, both physical and online, offers their customers a ___ of products. 9) Starting with a small
area (at a start-up of a business) means ____ on a ___. 10) ____ ____
implies continuous review of business strategies.
Text 7 (part 2)
Consult the dictionary to define the following notions:
brand image, duties, marketplace, promotion, rent, shipping costs,
Segment geographically
When a firm considers the whole world as its marketplace, it implies
the need for promotional material to be adapted to local conditions.
That means some aspects, such as language and culture, should be
taken into consideration. Things such as duties and taxes and even
shipping costs must be figured into the prices.
Get the Technology right
When a firm engages in e-commerce, there are three stages involved.
These are the basic, the interactional and the transactional stages.
As the company moves from one stage to another, things become
more complicated with regards to the technical challenges involved.
Therefore, managers should be aware of these challenges and should
not underestimate the cost and the technical resources needed as
the firm moves from one stage to another. Some of these challenges
• Rent versus own: As the company moves on, it needs to have its
own equipment and staff.
• Security management: As the company moves up in the business
chain more security awareness is needed.
• Scalability: It is important that the system is occasionally scaled
up so as to cope with the increasing demand of customers.
Manage critical perceptions
When it comes to business on the Internet, perceptions matter
greatly. There are three types of perceptions to be considered:
• Presence: customers should be made to feel that the existence of
the firm is real and not virtual.
• Brand: developing a brand image on the Web is very important.
• Trust: building trust on the Web is of vital importance to firms.
The most effective ways to generate trust are:
– Making it easy for customers to make contact e.g. simple free
telephone numbers (0800)
– Effective use of e-mail
– Making customers feel secure
– Clear information on returned goods policy
– Always being clear with customers.
Answer the questions:
1) Why should such aspects as language and culture be taken into
consideration when doing business on-line? 2) How does it apply to
the need for promotional material to be adapted to local conditions?
3) What are three stages involved in e-commerce? What challenges
may encounter when moving through these stages? 4) What is
scalability? Why should e-business consider it? 5) Why is it crucial for
an e-business to build trust with their customers?
Text 8
Read the text and speak on the benefits and risks of e-commerce:
The benefits and risks of e-commerce
e-Commerce is performing business activities via the Internet.
These activities include buying and selling, and refer to information
exchange as well as product exchange. Since its introduction in the
1970s, e-commerce has developed progressively. Nowadays almost
every business organisation has its own website so as to meet the
demand of the increasing number of Internet users.
e-Commerce has benefited organisations by cutting administrative
costs and improving customer services, whereas at the customer level
it provides a variety of products from different vendors. e-Commerce
has also benefited the society at large by keeping people at home, thus
reducing traffic and pollution.
However, the risks pertaining to e-commerce include both technical
and nontechnical ones. As to the technical, security is the main risk in
this regard and the spectre of computer hackers is always an obsession
to customers. The non-technical risks, on the other hand, include doing
business with machines, which is not a task that can win customers’
trust. Yet, with the advance of modern technology, these risks can be
effectively dealt with.
Text 9 (part 1)
Read the text below and prioritise the top 3 ones. Why are these
important, in your opinion?
Which are the 3 least important ones? Why?
Key elements of successful e-commerce
The most important strategies that need to be followed by a firm in
order to achieve success in the field of e-commerce include:
• Adding value by providing convenience and information.
• Always starting with a small area of business and then expanding
• Maintaining flexibility with regular reviews of strategies.
• Always adapting material to match local conditions, such as
culture, language etc.
• Maintaining an awareness of challenges and costs associated with
• Maintaining an awareness of critical perceptions of customers.
• Providing exceptional customer service.
• Using the major search engines.
• Understanding Internet culture.
Text 9 (part 2)
Before reading the text give you opinion on the following points:
• What kind of service would you, as a customer, like to receive? Is
it similar to the one you get in traditional commerce?
• If the business goes on-line, why is it worthy to get registered with
all major search engines?
• What is Internet culture?
For achieving success in e-commerce the old experience of traditional
commerce is also always useful. and are two
good material examples of success in e-commerce, for new companies
with similar objectives to follow, whose success can be directly linked
to their strategies.
Provide exceptional customer service
To win customers’ trust on the Web, a firm should always offer
a fast and effective service. This service can either be on the Web
or otherwise e.g. by telephone. As Jeff Benzos of puts
it, contrary to offline business, most of the resources should go to
customer service in the case of on-line business.
Create effective connections
In order to promote the business on the Web, the firm needs to make
sure that its Website is registered with all major search engines such
as Yahoo, Alta Vista etc.
Understanding Internet culture
Understanding Internet culture is necessary to a firm on the Web.
The firm should always avoid things that irritate customers, or make
them feel unhappy such as:
• Unwanted information when advertising for products on-line.
• Asking for registration prior to access to its website.
• A too many graphics.
• Lack of a FAQ page.
• Secondary browsers.
Explain why a firm should avoid things that irritate customers,
or make them feel unhappy: unwanted information, asking for
registration, overly graphics, no FAQ page, and secondary browser.
Text 10
Use the dictionary to translate the following words and phrases:
address (a problem), at large, blend, pertain risk, traffic accident
Without consulting the dictionary, translate the text into Russian
in writing:
A blend of old and new experience is of endless benefit to a firm that
decides to go on-line. e-Commerce provides customers as well as firms
and the society at large, with a lot of opportunities. As for customers
it provides them with a variety of products and services at low prices,
whereas it gives the business a chance to promote its products and services
to as many customers as possible. The society, on the other hand, will enjoy
the benefits of reduced traffic on the roads with the immediate effects
of cutting pollution and traffic accidents. However, there are some risks
pertaining to on-line business. The issue of security is the main obsession
of customers and yet, with the advance of technology these problems can
be overcome. To maintain success in e-commerce a firm has to address
some key issues, such as adding value to products, understanding the
Internet culture and maintaining flexibility. In this regard
and are firms that have achieved considerable success in the
field of e-commerce. These two companies are good examples of success,
which can be followed by others in the business.
Text 1
In the global economy, e-commerce and e-business have become a
necessary component of business strategy and economic development.
The integration of information and communications technology
(ICT) in business has revolutionized relationships both within
organisations and between organisations and individuals – it has
increased productivity and customer participation, besides reducing
With developments in the Internet and Web-based technologies,
distinctions between traditional markets and the global electronic
marketplace are gradually being reduced. Central to the process
is strategic positioning, the ability of a company to determine
profitable business opportunities and employ the necessary human
capital skills (such as intellectual resources) to make the most of
these opportunities through an e-business strategy that is simple,
workable and practicable within the global information and new
economic environment. e-Commerce enables small and medium scale
enterprises to compete with large and capital-rich businesses.
Text 2
Electronic commerce or e-commerce refers to a wide range of online
business activities for products and services. It also pertains to ‘any
form of business transaction in which the parties interact electronically
rather than by physical exchanges or direct physical contact.’
e-Commerce is usually associated with buying and selling
over the Internet, or conducting any transaction involving the
transfer of ownership or rights to use goods or services through a
computer-mediated network. Though popular, this definition is not
comprehensive enough to capture recent developments in this new
and revolutionary business phenomenon. A more complete definition
is: e-Commerce is the use of electronic communications and digital
information processing technology in business transactions to create,
transform, and redefine relationships for value creation between or
among organisations, and between organisations and individuals.
e-Commerce and e-business
While some use e-commerce and e-business interchangeably, they
are distinct concepts. In e-commerce, information and communications
technology (ICT) is used in inter-business or inter-organisational
transactions (transactions between and among firms/organisations)
and in business-to-consumer transactions (transactions between
firms/organisations and individuals).
In e-business, on the other hand, ICT is used to enhance one’s
business. It includes any process that a business organisation (either
a for-profit, governmental or non-profit entity) conducts over a
computer-mediated network. A more comprehensive definition of
e-business is: ‘The transformation of an organisation’s processes
to deliver additional customer value through the application of
technologies, philosophies and computing paradigm of the new
Text 3
Different types of e-commerce
The major different types of e-commerce are: business-to-business
(B2B); business-to-consumer (B2C); business-to-government (B2G);
consumer-to-consumer (C2C); and mobile commerce (m-commerce).
B2B e-commerce
B2B e-commerce is simply defined as e-commerce between
companies. This is the type of e-commerce that deals with relationships
between and among businesses. About 80% of e-commerce is of this
type, and most experts predict that B2B e-commerce will continue to
grow faster than the B2C segment. The B2B market has two primary
components: e-frastructure and e-markets.
B2C e-commerce
Business-to-consumer e-commerce, or commerce between
companies and consumers, involves customers gathering information;
purchasing physical goods (i.e. tangibles such as books or consumer
products) or information goods (or goods of electronic material or
digitized content, such as software, or e-books); and, for information
goods, receiving products over an electronic network.
It is the second largest and the earliest form of e-commerce. Its
origins can be traced to online retailing (or e-tailing). Thus, the more
common B2C business models are the online retailing companies such
as,,, Barnes and Noble
and ToysRus. Other B2C examples involving information goods are
E-Trade and Travelocity.
The more common applications of this type of e-commerce are
in the areas of purchasing products and information, and personal
finance management, which pertains to the management of personal
investments and finances with the use of online banking tools (e.g.
B2C e-commerce reduces transactions costs (particularly search
costs) by increasing consumer access to information and allowing
consumers to find the most competitive price for a product or service.
B2C e-commerce also reduces market entry barriers since the cost of
putting up and maintaining a Web site is much cheaper than installing
a ‘brick-and-mortar’ structure for a firm. In the case of information
goods, B2C e-commerce is even more attractive because it saves firms
from factoring in the additional cost of a physical distribution network.
Moreover, for countries with a growing and robust Internet population,
delivering information goods becomes increasingly feasible.
B2G e-commerce
Business-to-government e-commerce or B2G is generally defined
as commerce between companies and the public sector. It refers to the
use of the Internet for public procurement, licensing procedures, and
other government-related operations. This kind of e-commerce has
two features: first, the public sector assumes a pilot/leading role in
establishing e-commerce; and second, it is assumed that the public
sector has the greatest need for making its procurement system more
Web-based purchasing policies increase the transparency of the
procurement process (and reduces the risk of irregularities). To date,
however, the size of the B2G e-commerce market as a component of
total e-commerce is insignificant, as government e-procurement
systems remain undeveloped.
C2C e-commerce
Consumer-to-consumer e-commerce or C2C is simply commerce
between private individuals or consumers.
This type of e-commerce is characterized by the growth of electronic
marketplaces and online auctions, particularly in vertical industries
where firms/businesses can bid for what they want from among
multiple suppliers. It perhaps has the greatest potential for developing
new markets.
This type of e-commerce comes in at least three forms:
• auctions facilitated at a portal, such as eBay, which allows online
real-time bidding on items being sold in the Web;
• peer-to-peer systems, and
• classified ads at portal sites such as eWanted (an interactive
online marketplace where buyers and sellers can negotiate).
Consumer-to-business (C2B) transactions involve reverse auctions,
which empower the consumer to drive transactions. An example of
this: when competing airlines give a traveller best travel and ticket
offers in response to the traveller’s post that they want to fly from
New York to San Francisco.
M-commerce (mobile commerce) is the buying and selling of goods
and services through wireless technology – i.e. handheld devices such
as cellular telephones and personal digital assistants (PDAs). Japan is
seen as a global leader in m-commerce.
As content delivery over wireless devices becomes faster, more
secure, and scalable, some believe that m-commerce will surpass
wireline e-commerce as the method of choice for digital commerce
transactions. This may well be true for the Asia-Pacific where there
are more mobile phone users than there are Internet users.
Industries affected by m-commerce include:
• Financial services, including mobile banking (when customers
use their handheld devices to access their accounts and pay their bills),
as well as brokerage services (in which stock quotes can be displayed
and trading conducted from the same handheld device);
• Telecommunications, in which service changes, bill payment and
account reviews can all be conducted from the same handheld device;
• Service/retail, as consumers are given the ability to place and pay
for orders on-the-fly; and
• Information services, which include the delivery of entertainment,
financial news, sports figures and traffic updates to a single mobile
Text 4
Forces fuelling e-commerce
There are at least three major forces fuelling e-commerce: economic
forces, marketing and customer interaction forces, and technology,
particularly multimedia convergence.
Economic forces One of the most evident benefits of e-commerce is
economic efficiency resulting from the reduction in communications
costs, low-cost technological infrastructure, speedier and more
economical electronic transactions with suppliers, lower global
information sharing and advertising costs, and cheaper customer
service alternatives.
Economic integration is either external or internal. External
integration refers to the electronic networking of corporations,
suppliers, customers/clients, and independent contractors into one
community communicating in a virtual environment (with the Internet
as medium). Internal integration, on the other hand, is the networking
of the various departments within a corporation, and of business
operations and processes. This allows critical business information
to be stored in a digital form that can be retrieved instantly and
transmitted electronically. Internal integration is best exemplified
by corporate intranets. Among the companies with efficient corporate
intranets are Procter and Gamble, IBM, Nestle and Intel.
SESAMi.NET is Asia’s largest B2B e-hub, a virtual exchange
integrating and connecting businesses (small, medium or large) to
trading partners, e-marketplaces and internal enterprise systems for the
purpose of sourcing out supplies, buying and selling goods and services
online in real time. The e-hub serves as the center for management
of content and the processing of business transactions with support
services such as financial clearance and information services.
Market forces Corporations are encouraged to use e-commerce in
marketing and promotion to capture international markets, both big
and small. The Internet is likewise used as a medium for enhanced
customer service and support. It is a lot easier for companies to
provide their target consumers with more detailed product and service
information using the Internet.
Brazil’s Submarino
Brazil’s Submarino is a classic example of successful use of the
Internet for improved customer service and support. From being a local
Sao Paulo B2C e-commerce company selling books, CDs, video cassettes,
DVDs, toys, electronic and computer products in Brazil, it expanded to
become the largest company of its kind in Argentina, Mexico, Spain
and Portugal. Close to a third of the 1.4 million Internet users in Brazil
have made purchases through this site. To enhance customer service,
Submarino has diversified into offering logistical and technological
infrastructure to other retailers, which includes experience and
expertise in credit analysis, tracking orders and product comparison
Technology forces The development of ICT is a key factor in the
growth of e-commerce. For instance, technological advances in
digitizing content, compression and the promotion of open systems
technology have paved the way for the convergence of communication
services into one single platform. This in turn has made communication
more efficient, faster, easier, and more economical as the need to set up
separate networks for telephone services, television broadcast, cable
television, and Internet access is eliminated. From the standpoint
of firms/businesses and consumers, having only one information
provider means lower communications costs.
Text 5
The Internet and e-commerce
The Internet allows people from all over the world to get connected
inexpensively and reliably. As a technical infrastructure, it is a global
collection of networks, connected to share information using a common
set of protocols. Also, as a vast network of people and information, the
Internet is an enabler for e-commerce as it allows businesses to showcase
and sell their products and services online and gives potential customers,
prospects, and business partners access to information about these
businesses and their products and services that would lead to purchase.
Before the Internet was utilized for commercial purposes,
companies used private networks – such as the EDI or Electronic Data
Interchange – to transact business with each other. That was the early
form of e-commerce. However, installing and maintaining private
networks was very expensive. With the Internet, e-commerce spread
rapidly because of the lower costs involved and because the Internet is
based on open standards.
Intranet and e-commerce
An intranet aids in the management of internal corporate information
that may be interconnected with a company’s e-commerce transactions
(or transactions conducted outside the intranet). Inasmuch as the
intranet allows for the instantaneous flow of internal information,
vital information is simultaneously processed and matched with data
flowing from external e-commerce transactions, allowing for the
efficient and effective integration of the corporation’s organisational
processes. In this context, corporate functions, decisions and processes
involving e-commerce activities are more coherent and organised.
The proliferation of intranets has caused a shift from a
hierarchical command-and-control organisation to an informationbased organisation. This shift has implications for managerial
responsibilities, communication and information flows, and workgroup
Text 6
Customers, workers, suppliers, distributors and competitors linked
by e-commerce
e-Commerce facilitates organisation networks, wherein small firms
depend on ‘partner’ firms for supplies and product distribution to
address customer demands more effectively.
To manage the chain of networks linking customers, workers,
suppliers, distributors, and even competitors, an integrated or
extended supply chain management solution is needed. Supply
chain management (SCM) is defined as the supervision of materials,
information, and finances as they move from supplier to manufacturer
to wholesaler to retailer to consumer. It involves the coordination and
integration of these flows both within and among companies. The goal
of any effective supply chain management system is timely provision
of goods or services to the next link in the chain (and ultimately, the
reduction of inventory within each link).
There are three main flows in SCM, namely:
• The product flow, which includes the movement of goods from
a supplier to a customer, as well as any customer returns or service
• The information flow, which involves the transmission of orders
and the update of the status of delivery; and
• The finances flow, which consists of credit terms, payment
schedules, and consignment and title ownership arrangements.
Some SCM applications are based on open data models that support
the sharing of data both inside and outside the enterprise, called the
extended enterprise, and includes key suppliers, manufacturers, and
end customers of a specific company. Shared data resides in diverse
database systems, or data warehouses, at several different sites and
companies. Sharing this data ‘upstream’ (with a company’s suppliers)
and ‘downstream’ (with a company’s clients) allows SCM applications
to improve the time-to-market of products and reduce costs. It also
allows all parties in the supply chain to better manage current resources
and plan for future needs.
Text 7
Buying and paying online
The payment schemes for online transactions are the following:
A. Traditional payment methods
• Cash on delivery Many online transactions only involve submitting
purchase orders online. Payment is by cash upon the delivery of the
physical goods.
• Bank payments After ordering goods online, payment is made by
depositing cash into the bank account of the company from which the
goods were ordered.
B. Electronic payment methods
• Innovations affecting consumers include credit and debit cards,
automated teller machines (ATMs), and e-banking.
• Innovations enabling online commerce are e-cash, e-checks, smart
cards, and encrypted credit cards. These payment methods are not too
popular in developing countries. They are employed by a few large
companies in specific secured channels on a transaction basis.
• Innovations affecting companies pertain to payment mechanisms
that banks provide their clients.
Text 8
Electronic payment system
An electronic payment system (EPS) is a system of financial
exchange between buyers and sellers in the online environment that is
facilitated by a digital financial instrument (such as encrypted credit
card numbers, electronic checks, or digital cash) backed by a bank, an
intermediary, or by legal tender.
EPS plays an important role in e-commerce because it closes
the e-commerce loop. In developing countries, the underdeveloped
electronic payments system is a serious impediment to the growth of
e-commerce. In these countries, entrepreneurs are not able to accept
credit card payments over the Internet due to legal and business
concerns. The primary issue is transaction security.
The absence or inadequacy of legal infrastructures governing the
operation of e-payments is also a concern. Hence, banks with e-banking
operations employ service agreements between themselves and their
The relatively undeveloped credit card industry in many countries
is also a barrier to e-commerce. Only a small segment of the population
can buy goods and services over the Internet due to the small credit
card market base. There is also the problem of the requirement of
‘explicit consent’ (i.e. a signature) by a card owner before a transaction
is considered valid – a requirement that does not exist in the U.S. and
in other developed countries.
e-Banking includes familiar and relatively mature electronicallybased products in developing markets, such as telephone banking,
credit cards, ATMs, and direct deposit. It also includes electronic
bill payments and products mostly in the developing stage, including
stored-value cards (e.g. smart cards/smart money) and Internet-based
stored value products.
Payment methods and security concerns: the case of China
In China, while banks issue credit cards and while many use debit
cards to draw directly from their respective bank accounts, very few
people use their credit cards for online payment. Cash-on-delivery is
still the most popular mode of e-commerce payment. Nonetheless, online
payment is gaining popularity because of the emergence of Chinapay
and Cyber Beijing, which offer a city-wide online payment system.
Text 9
Online publishing
Online publishing is the process of using computer and specific
types of software to combine text and graphics to produce Web-based
documents such as newsletters, online magazines and databases,
brochures and other promotional materials, books, and the like, with
the Internet as a medium for publication.
Among the benefits of using online media are low-cost universal
access, the independence of time and place, and ease of distribution.
These are the reasons why the Internet is regarded as an effective
marketing outreach medium and is often used to enhance information
The problems in online publishing can be grouped into two
categories: management challenges and public policy issues.
There are two major management issues:
The profit issue, which seeks to address how an online presence can
be turned into a profitable one and what kind of business model would
result in the most revenue; and
The measurement issue, which pertains to the effectiveness of a
Web site and the fairness of charges to advertisers.
The most common public policy issues have to do with copyright
protection and censorship. Many publishers are prevented from
publishing online because of inadequate copyright protection. An
important question to be addressed is: How can existing copyright
protections in the print environment be mapped onto the online
environment? Most of the solutions are technological rather than legal.
The more common technological solutions include encryption for paid
subscribers, and information usage meters on add-in circuit boards
and sophisticated document headers that monitor the frequency and
manner by which text is viewed and used.
In online marketing, there is the problem of unsolicited commercial
e-mail or ‘spam mail.’ Junk e-mail is not just annoying; it is also costly.
Aside from displacing normal and useful e-mail, the major reason why
spam mail is a big issue in online marketing is that significant costs
are shifted from the sender of such mail to the recipient. Sending
bulk junk e-mail is a lot cheaper compared to receiving the same.
Junk e-mail consumes bandwidth (which an ISP, i.e. Internet service
provider, purchases), making Internet access clients slower and
thereby increasing the cost of Internet use.
1) Match a form in the left-hand column with a meaning in the
middle column and a grammar word in the right-hand column.
1 Sales increase every
a) Completed actions in a past simple
completed period of time.
2 Sales are increasing
b) Actions and situations past
at the moment.
repeated regularly over a continuous
long period of time.
3 Sales have increased c) Actions or situations
present simple
by 5% this year.
in progress from the past
up to the present.
4 Sales have been
d) Temporary actions and present
increasing rapidly
situations in progress
this year.
5 Sales increased
e) Actions or activities in present perfect
significantly last year. progress in the past.
6 Sales were increasing f) A past event or
present perfect
all through last year. situation that is
connected to the present.
Note: remember that some verbs are not normally used in a continuous
form. These include verbs of thinking (doubt, know, understand), the
senses (see, appear), feelings (like, want, hope), possession (belong to,
contain, have) and other verbs like cost, depend on, mean, need.
2) Write the time phrases from the box below in the column where
they are used most often. Some of the phrases can be used in more
than one column.
ago; already; always / often / never; at the moment; currently; ever;
every day; from time to time; in the nineties; just; last week; not yet;
now; nowadays; once a year; over the last few months; recently; so far
this year; these days; up to now; yesterday
Present simple
Present perfect
Past simple
(I do)
(I have done)
(I did)
(I am doing)
3) Complete the email by putting the verb in brackets into either
the present simple (I do), present continuous (I’m doing) or present
perfect (I’ve done). The time phrases will help you. Use contractions
where appropriate.
Every year around this time we ___ (interview) candidates for
functions across the company. This week I ___ (plan) that process, so
I ______ (need) an estimate of staffing needs from every department.
In past years we ___ (always / be able to) recruit the numbers asked
for, but this year will be different. At the moment we ___ (operate)
in a difficult market, and sales ___ (fall) considerably over the last
year. This ___ (mean) that we will have to reduce our staffing costs,
although I ___ (hope) it will only be temporary.
4) Complete the email by putting the verb in brackets into either the
present simple (I do), present perfect (I’ve done) or past simple (I did).
The time phrases will help you. Use contractions where appropriate.
I ___ (just / receive) an email from our subsidiary in Russia. They
___ (need) more brochures as they ___ (give out) their entire stock
over the last few months. They ___ (have) a stand at the Moscow Trade
Fair last week and ___ (distribute) hundreds of brochures. Now they
___ (want) us to send another 5,000 copies. ___ (already / contact)
Sales to see if they have any spare, but I ___ (think) we’ll need some
more. Can you get a quotation from the printers?
5) Complete the email by putting the verb in brackets into either
the present perfect (I’ve done), past simple (I did) or past continuous
(I was doing). The time phrases will help you. Use contractions where
Hi Isabel! Sorry I ___ (not / be) in touch recently. Hope you’re well.
Guess what! The other day I ___ (meet) Katia while I ___ (wait) at the
bus stop. Remember her? That girl from Russia who ___ (be) in our
English class last year. I almost ___ (not / recognise) her because she
___ (wear) sunglasses and she ___ (dye) her hair pink! Anyway, she
said that she ___ (go out) for a drink next Friday and she invited us.
Do you want to come?
6) Complete the email by putting the verb in brackets into the
present perfect (I’ve done) or the present perfect continuous (I’ve
been doing). Use contractions where appropriate.
Are you there? I ___ (phone) all week and there’s no answer! I
couldn’t email you because I ___ (wait) to get my computer fixed.
What’s your news? ___ (you / find) a job yet? As for me, I ___ (decide)
to get fit. Yes, really! I ___ (diet), and I ___ (start) yoga classes as
well. I ___ (go) for a couple of weeks now and I’m really enjoying it.
___ (you / ever / do) yoga? Anyway, get in touch when you have a
the fastest
the biggest
the easiest
the most/least
the best/worst
the furthest/
(one syllable
(ending in one
short vowel +
four syllable
1) Complete the words with the missing letters.
A is more expensive t___ B.
A is a lot / m___ more expensive than B.
A is a bit / a li___ more expensive than B.
A is о___ of our b___ selling models.
A costs 20% m___ t___ B.
It’s colder and colder / m___ and m___ difficult.
The be___ the quality, t___ m___ you pay.
It was the b___ meal I’ve e___ eaten.
A is cheap com___ to / in com___ with B.
A is (almost / twice / not) ____ expensive ____ B.
A is (exactly / almost / nearly / not) the s___ a___ B.
I don’t have as m___ friends as in England.
I don’t have as m____ time as I used to.
Bill is (exactly / just / quite / not) li___ his brother.
2) Complete the emails by writing word(s) in each gap.
Hi Yuko! I’m writing from an Internet cafe in the village of Dingle
on the west coast of Ireland. I got a week’s holiday from work so I came
over here for a short break. I’m having a great time. It’s so different
compared ___ England – even ___ if you can believe it!
I flew to Dublin first, and I spent a couple of days there – not as ___
time as you really need because there’s so much to see. The people are
some of the ___ I’ve ___ met.
I found the Irish accent quite difficult at first, but I’m getting
_____ used to it. It’s not cheap here – prices in Dublin were about the
same ___ London, but here on the coast they’re ___.
I arrived here yesterday, and I can promise you, the west coast of
Ireland is just ___ beautiful as they say – it’s so green. There’s live
music in the pubs at night, and the later it gets the ___ people come in.
That’s all for now – I’m off to hear some music! Write soon. Justine.
Thank you for your email inquiring about our products.
We have three optical pen scanners in our range, the 400C, 600C
and 800C. A pen scanner is ____ a hand-held scanner, you scan in text
from a page and download it into your PC or PDA later. The 800C is our
___ selling model, and has ___ widest range of functions, including a
translating dictionary. The 600C is similar ___ the 800C, but has ___
memory – it can only store 1,000 pages of text, ___ to 2,000 pages for
the 800C. The 400C is cheaper ___ the other two models, and doesn’t
have as ___ memory or functionality. It’s a more basic model, but its
ability to scan text is just the ___. You will find full product and price
details in the attached document.
In your email you ask about our terms of payment for large orders.
Clearly, the bigger your order, the ___ discount we can give. Our
normal minimum order is 500 units, but for a first-time customer we
would accept an order ___ small as 200 units. It would be better to
discuss all this in more detail at a later date, but I’m sure you’ll find
our terms are very competitive in comparison ___ other suppliers.
We’re confident that these pens will sell very well in your market, and
customer feedback on the 800C is amongst the best we have ____ had.
If you have any ____ questions, please do not hesitate to contact me.
3) When we write or speak it can sound strange to give a very
exact figure. Which phrases from the box correspond to the amounts
a little over 50%; almost 50%; a lot more than 50%; around 50%;
far less than 50%; considerably more than 50%; much less than
50%; nearly 50%; slightly more than 50%; roughly 50%
70%; 54%; 48-52%; 46%; 30%
4) Complete the words in each sentence with the missing letters.
1) This year’s sales were €5.5m – that’s a li___ o___ last year’s
figure of €5.2m.
2) This year’s sales were €3.9m – that’s mu__ l__ th__ last year’s
figure of €5.2m.
3) This year’s sales were €7.9m — that’s a__d 50% up on last year’s
4) This year’s sales were €7.6m – that’s n__y 50% up on last year’s
5) This year’s sales were €5.5m – that’s sl__ m__ t__ last year’s
figure of €5.2m.
6) This year’s sales were€5.1m – that’s r__ the same ___ last year’s
Study the information about sentence structure.
A simple affirmative sentence in English typically has the order
Subject + Verb + Object. Each part can be a phrase rather than a single
This report
will analyse
last year’s budget.
There can be an adverb phrase as well, and it often comes at the end.
Adverbs say how (quickly), where (at our offices) or when (next week)
something happens. If we have several adverbs together, the usual
word order is HOW – WHERE – WHEN. Look at these examples:
our meeting
am looking forward to
by over 10%
(‘rise’ does not
take an object)
Adv (how)
in Munich
next month
Adv (where) Adv (when)
in Hungary
last year.
Adv (where) Adv (when)
1) Rewrite sentences in the correct order.
me / you may / remember. we / business cards / last week / at the
Trade Fair / exchanged.
well / is going / our advertising campaign. we should / until
June / consider / extending it.
about availability of rooms / in July / to ask / I am writing. I
need / for 3 nights / a single room.
next weekend / to my parents / I am going. for a long time / I
haven’t / them / seen.
2) Study the information on making complex sentences.
I can’t accept your
am sorry
invitation on this ocI
to say
hope to make
another trip to Paris
when I have more time
later this year
Adv (when)
There are two main clauses, joined by the linking word ‘but’.
The phrase I can’t ... occasion is a full clause, with a subject, verb,
object and adverb.
The phrase I have ... year is a full clause, with a subject, verb, object
and adverb.
Rewrite sentences with the correct word order.
I am writing / to let you know / from Head Office in Munich / I am
coming to visit / next month that / your offices in Moscow.
This will be / in Central Europe / part of a visit / to all our
subsidiaries / that / I am making.
to consult with you / will take the opportunity / about our strategic
plan / for Central Europe, which / for some time / we have been
working on.
I would also like / our production facility / while I am in Moscow / to
visit / and if there is time, as well / some of the local suppliers.
I will contact you again / when / I can travel / the exact dates / as
soon as I know.
3) Put the lines in the emails below into the correct order.
Email 1
Email 2
1) I am writing to thank you
a) Thank you for taking the time
2) The meetings were very proto attend
ductive, and
b) Unfortunately, we have to
3) As well as the business side of inform you that
c) As we mentioned in the inter4) The next time that you are in view, we had
d) While we were impressed with
5) Please give my regards
your interview,
6) for your hospitality
e) We appreciate your interest in
7) during my recent trip to
f) many applicants for this posiParis.
8) I really appreciated the time
you took
9) I am sure that they lay the
basis for
10) to show me Notre Dame, and
11) to your colleagues in the
Paris office,
12) the wonderful meal that we
had afterwards.
13) a good long-term business
14) it will be my pleasure to
return your kindness.
15) it was a great pleasure to
meet them all.
g) your application has not been
h) an interview with us last week.
i) we did not feel
j) working with us,
k) that you have the necessary
l) and we would like to take this
m) and experience for the position.
n) and the standard of candidates
was very high.
o) to wish you every success in the
1. Memorise the following words and word combinations.
higher educational institution (establishment), higher school –
высшее учебное заведение
in honour of – в честь
to erect – сооружать, возводить
be enrolled – быть внесенным в список; быть зачисленным
post-graduate students – аспиранты; post-graduate course –
to carry out – выполнять, осуществлять
to train (specialists) – готовить (обучать) специалистов
academic year – учебный год; academic work – учебная работа
tuition – обучение; плата за обучение
curriculum (pl. curricula) –
учебная программа, план
programme – программа курса, предмета
to master a specialty – овладевать профессией (специальностью)
Faculty Board – Совет факультета
associate professor – доцент
senior teaching instructor – старший преподаватель
scholarship (grant) – стипендия
dormitory – общежитие
department – отделение; кафедра
extra-mural (distant) – заочный
to award a scientific degree – присваивать ученую степень
2. Read the text about the SUAI and do the exercises.
My University
The University of Aerospace Instrumentation (SUAI) is one of
the finest country’s higher educational institutions. Studying at
our University gives profound knowledge and prepares for practical
The University was established in January 1941. The first building
was the Chesma Palace, a ‘stagecoach’¹ palace built not far from the
memorial to the Russian fleet and the victory at Chesma, the Church
of St John the Baptist², erected in 1780, in honour of the brilliant
victory of the Russian Fleet under the command of Count Alexei Orlov
over Turkey in 1770. Catherine II rested in this palace on her way to
her summer residence at Tsarskoe Selo.
Our University is a large higher educational establishment where
a few thousands of students are currently enrolled. They are full-time
and part-time students. For some specialties our University offers
both the Bachelor’s Degree and the Master’s Degree.
The course of study in our University lasts for four or five years.
The academic year is divided into autumn and spring semesters. After
each semester students pass examinations and have vacations. The
course of studies is concluded by state exams and the presentation of
the diploma paper or project.
Lectures on theory are combined with practical classes. Practical
work is done in laboratories and studies equipped with cable television,
local and international networks and computer-aided devices.
Professors, associate professors and instructors help students to
master their specialty.
Rector heads the University. Vice-Rector is in charge of academic
and scientific work. Deans head faculties. The dean is in charge
of students and educational matters. Faculty Board – including
professors, associate professors and senior teaching instructors assists
the dean.
Tuition is mostly free, and many students receive state scholarships.
Out-of-town students are provided with dormitories.
There are over 10 faculties and about 100 departments at
our University. Students of Faculty One specialise in aerospace
instruments, devices and systems. Faculty Two trains specialists for
radio engineering and electronics. Faculty Three is divided into the
department of Artificial Intelligence Systems and department of
Nanotechnologies. Faculty Four is the faculty of Computing Systems
and Programming. Faculty Five trains specialists in Data Processing
Systems and Information Security. There is also the Faculty of
Innovations and Masters’ training, the Military Faculty. Faculty Six
is the Faculty of Arts. Faculty Eight trains students of Management
and Economics; Faculty Nine, of Law. For those who cannot study fulltime or already have degrees there are Faculties Ten and Eleven – the
Part-time and Extra-mural Faculty and the Faculty of Retraining and
Additional Education.
Notes: 1stagecoach – почтовая карета, зд. путевой дворец; 2John
the Baptist – Иоанн Креститель
3. Study the word formation and complete the sentences.
special (adj.) – special(i)ty (n.) – to specialise (v.) – specialised
1. What’s your …? – I’m a manager. 2. Our company … in designing
and constructing remote control systems. 3. There are a lot of … schools
in St Petersburg. 4. We can do that research only with the help of some
… devices.
4. Study the examples and fill in the missing words.
learn – учить, выучить
e.g. She learns typing at school. He learnt to read when he was five.
You shouldn’t learn the poem by heart.
study– изучать, учиться
e.g. He studies at SUAI. BUT: He goes to school. He is a first-year
student. He learnt English at school.
do / get on well – хорошо учиться
e.g. How is he getting on at school? He’s doing well at college.
teach – преподавать, обучать
e.g. He teaches for a living. Who teaches you English? (= Who do
you have for English?)
train – готовить, обучать, тренировать
e.g. SUAI trains about 1,000-1,500 students a year. She is a trained
instruct – научить, обучить практическим навыкам
e.g. Mr Smith instructs him how to drive.
education (general), training (more practical), tuition (fee, costs
for teaching)
1. Is he … well at school? 2. He … to high school. 3. He is a first
… student. 4. The … is smaller at state universities. 5. They … girls
to be nurses. 6. Higher … in rather expensive. 7. Mr Bell … me how
to ride a horse. 8. She went to France for a year to … French there.
9. Who do you … for physics? 10. When did you … to swim? 11. We …
math every day. 12. He is a … driver. 13. You may get vocational … at
special colleges. 14. The most famous professors … at SUAI. 15. It’s
very difficult to … and work at the same time.
5. Consult the dictionary to find out the difference in meaning and
usage of the nouns ‘occupation’, ‘trade’ and ‘profession’, then complete
the sentences and translate them into Russian.
Notes: to choose a trade (profession) to one’s liking – выбрать
профессию по желанию; blind alley occupation – бесперспективное
занятие; Jack of all trades (and master of none) – За все берущийся,
но ничего не умеющий делать человек; He works best who knows his
trade. – Дело мастера боится; Two of a trade never (or seldom) agree.
– Два медведя в одной берлоге не уживаются.
1. Opinion was greatly divided about his … . When questioned, he
explained very carefully that he was an ‘experimental investigator’.
2. We should choose an … according to our abilities and with great
care. 3. In the last few years you have changed about four different …
. I advise you to stick to one … and qualify in it. 4. There are a lot of
posters advertising for all the … in this town. 5. She is at a loss whether
to choose the … of a manager or that of an accountant. 6. The former
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Margaret Thatcher is a chemist
by… . 7. When he was a boy he was taught the … of a shoemaker and a
6. Find synonyms in B to the words in A.
A. 1) establishment; 2) receive; 3) finish; 4) differ; 5) term;
6) standards; 7) select; 8) end-of-the year; 9) vacations; 10) engineering;
11) award; 12) concentrate on
B. a) final; b) semester; c) choose; d) obtain; e) graduate; f) holidays;
g) requirements; h) vary; i) institution; j) specialise in; k) technology;
l) give
7. Insert prepositions or post verbals.
1) One … the buildings … our University occupies the Chesma
Palace, a ‘stage-coach’ palace in which Catherine II liked to rest on
her way to Tsarskoe Selo. 2) Students specialise … different general
and special subjects. 3) Tuition is organised so that lectures … theory
are combined … practical classes. 4) Practical work is done … the
laboratories and studies … up-to-date equipment. 5) …the end … each
term students take examinations … subjects … the curriculum.
8. Match the words and their definitions given below.
higher educational establishment, graduate from, standards, term,
tuition fee, vacations, part-time students, department, scholarship,
dormitory, Bachelor’s degree, a graduate
1) place for higher education; 2) successfully complete an academic
course; 3) academic requirements; 4) when a person combine study
with work; 5) period during which universities stop work; 6) one
of the periods into which the academic year is divided; 7) payments
for teaching; 8) first university degree, for example, in business
administration; 9) yearly grant given to a student; 10) one of the several
divisions of a university; 11) place where out-of-town students live;
12) person who has completed the course at an educational institution
9. Do you know
1) when your University was established?
2) where the SUAI is located?
3) what the faculties at your University are?
4) what subjects are taught at the University?
5) who heads the University?
6) what the Vice-Rector’s responsibilities are?
7) who helps students to master their specialty?
8) what professions the future graduates can get?
9) how long the course of studies lasts?
10) what scientific degrees are awarded at the University?
10. Translate the following sentences from Russian into English.
1. СПб ГУАП дает молодым людям возможность получить
современное высшее образование. 2. Курс обучения в университете
продолжается 5 лет. 3. Профессора, доценты и преподаватели
помогают студентам овладеть их будущей профессией. 4. Студенты
имеют прекрасные возможности для обучения и научного роста.
5. Практические занятия и семинары проводятся в современных
лабораториях и компьютерных классах. 6. По окончании курса
обучения студенты сдают государственные экзамены и представляют
дипломное сочинение (дипломный проект). 7. Иногородним
студентам предоставляется общежитие. 8. Проректор отвечает за
учебную и научную работу университета, а деканы – за учебную
работу на факультетах. 9. Ученый совет факультета помогает
декану решать организационные вопросы и вопросы успеваемости
11. Speak about the University you study at.
12. Test yourself.
1. Define the following nouns (Who is … or What is…)
a dean, an undergraduate, a school-leaver, a diploma, a degree
2. Explain the difference between a full-time and a part-time
3. Think of the proper words to complete the translation.
The SUAI consists of several faculties, and each faculty includes
some (кафедры). Each faculty (возглавляет) by the (декан), and at the
head of each (кафедра) is the Professor.
(Расписание) of the SUAI provides for computer-aided (подготовку)
at all faculties. Students are taught different computer languages so
that they were able (решить любую задачу и создать программное
Laboratories (оборудованы) with (современными) devices,
computers and mechanical facilities which give students an opportunity
(проводить научные исследования).
Each (учебный год) is divided into two (семестра), the student
have exams twice a year. The results of exams influence the amount of
(стипендия) paid to the students.
Read the text, answer the questions, get ready to speak on the
The Russian Federation is the largest country in the world. It
occupies about one-seventh of the earth’s surface. It covers the eastern
part of Europe and the northern part of Asia. Its total area is about 17
million square kilometres. The country is washed by 12 seas of 3 oceans:
the Pacific, the Arctic and the Atlantic. In the south Russia borders on
China, Mongolia, Korea, Kazakhstan, Georgia and Azerbaijan. In the
West it borders on Norway, Finland, the Baltic States, Belorussia, the
Ukraine. It also has a sea-border with the USA.
There is hardly a country in the world where such a variety of scenery
and vegetation can be found. We have steppes in the south, plains and
forests in the midland, tundra and taiga in the north, highlands and
deserts in the east.
There are two great plains in Russia: the Great Russian Plain and
the West Siberian Lowland. There are several mountain chains on the
territory of the country: the Urals, the Caucasus, the Altai and others.
The largest mountain chain, the Urals, separates Europe from Asia.
There are over two million rivers in Russia. Europe’s biggest river,
the Volga, flows into the Caspian Sea. The main Siberian rivers — the
Ob, the Yenisei and the Lena — flow from the south to the north. The
Amur in the Far East flows into the Pacific Ocean.
Russia is rich in beautiful lakes. The world’s deepest lake (1,600
metres) is Lake Baikal. It is much smaller than the Baltic Sea, but there
is much more water in it than in the Baltic Sea. The water in the lake is
so clear that if you look down you can count the stones on the bottom.
Russia has one-sixth of the world’s forests. They are concentrated
in the European north of the country, in Siberia and in the Far East.
On the vast territory of the country there are various types of
climate, from arctic in the north to subtropical in the south. In the
middle of the country the climate is temperate and continental.
Russia is very rich in oil, coal, iron ore, natural gas, copper, nickel
and other mineral resources.
Russia is a parliamentary republic. The Head of State is the
President. The legislative powers are exercised by the Duma.
The capital of Russia is Moscow. It is its largest political, scientific,
cultural and industrial centre. It is one of the oldest Russian cities.
There are a lot of opportunities for Russia to become one of
the leading countries in the world. I’m sure that we, the younger
generation, can do very much to make Russia as strong and powerful
as it used to be.
1. Where is the Russian Federation situated?
2. What is the total area of the country?
3. What countries does Russia border on?
4. What mountain chain separates Europe from Asia?
5. How many rivers are there in Russia?
6. Which is the longest river in Europe?
7. What do you know about Lake Baikal?
8. Do you know what strait separates Russia from America?
9. What mineral resources is the Russian Federation rich in?
10. What is the climate like in Russia?
11. What can you say about the Russian economy?
12. What great Russians do you know?
Read the text, answer the questions, get ready to speak on the
St Petersburg is the second largest city in Russia and one of the
most beautiful cities in the world. It was founded in 1703 by Peter the
Great as the ‘Window on the West’.
Thousands of workmen were brought from all parts of Russia to
build a new city on the swampy land at the mouth of the Neva River.
Peter the Great was in a hurry. The work was fast and hard, and
workmen dropped dead by the hundreds. But the work went on.
In 1917 St Petersburg – the city of great beauty with its palaces,
cathedrals, churches, government buildings – became the capital.
Under later rulers the new capital of the Russian Empire grew rapidly
in wealth and beauty. Architects were brought from Western Europe
to lay out the city in harmonious squares. Buildings were constructed
of grey- and rose-coloured granite. The Winter Palace, the home of the
tsars, was equal to any in Europe.
When the First World War began in 1914, the German-sounding
name, St Petersburg, was changed to Petrograd. After the October
Revolution the city was renamed after Lenin.
During the Great Patriotic War the city suffered a great deal. The
German armies laid siege to it in 1941, and for the next year and a half
it was cut off from the rest of the country. No food could be brought in,
and people died of starvation. Daily shelling and air raids destroyed
parts of the city. Thousands of people were killed. Rebuilding took
Now St Petersburg is an important industrial, cultural and
educational centre. The population of the city is over 8 million.
St Petersburg is indeed a wonderful city: at every turn there is
something to catch your eye. The Hermitage, the Russian Museum,
St Isaac’s Cathedral, the Peter-and-Paul Fortress, the Admiralty
building attract thousands of tourists from every corner of the world.
Petersburg’s many museums house some of the world’s most
famous art collections. The Hermitage, for example, contains one of
the richest art collections in the world.
The city is called the Northern Venice because there are 65 rivers,
arms and canals there with artistically decorated bridges. It’s also
famous for its beautiful white nights.
1. How long have you lived in St Petersburg?
2. Is St Petersburg as old as Moscow?
3. Who was the city founded by and when did it become the capital
of the Russian Empire?
4. Peter I thought that Moscow looked provincial in comparison
with the capitals he had visited and decided to build a magnificent city
equal to any European capital. Did he succeed?
5. How many times has the city been renamed and why?
6. Did the city suffer a great deal during the Great Patriotic War?
7. What is St Petersburg famous for?
8. Have you been to the Russian Museum? the Hermitage?
9. What other places of interest in St Petersburg do you know?
10. Why is St Petersburg called the Northern Venice?
Read the text, answer the questions, get ready to speak on the
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is
situated on the British Isles. The British Isles consist of two large
islands, Great Britain and Ireland, and about five thousand small
islands. Their total area is over 244,000 square kilometres.
The United Kingdom is made up of four countries: England, Wales,
Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh,
Cardiff and Belfast respectively. Great Britain consists of England,
Scotland and Wales and does not include Northern Ireland. In everyday
speech Great Britain is used to mean the United Kingdom. The capital
of the UK is London.
The British Isles are separated from the European continent by the
North Sea and the English Channel. The western coast of Great Britain
is washed by the Atlantic Ocean and the Irish Sea.
The surface of the British Isles varies very much. The north of
Scotland is mountainous and is called the Highlands, while the south,
which has beautiful valleys and plains, is called the Lowlands. The
north and west of England are mountainous, but all the rest — east,
centre and south-east — is a vast plain. Mountains are not very high.
Ben Nevis in Scotland is the highest mountain.
There are a lot of rivers in Great Britain, but they are not very long.
The Severn is the longest river, while the Thames is the deepest and
the most important one.
The mountains, the Atlantic Ocean and the warm waters of Gulf
Stream influence the climate of the British Isles. It is mild the whole
year round.
The UK is one of the world’s smaller countries. Its population is
over 57 million. About 80% of the population is urban.
The UK is a highly developed industrial country. It is known as
one of the world’s largest producers and exporters of machinery,
electronics, textile, aircraft and navigation equipment. One of the
chief industries of the country is shipbuilding.
The UK is a constitutional monarchy. In law, the Head of State is the
Queen. In practice, the Queen reigns, but does not rule. The country is
ruled by the elected government with the Prime Minister at the head.
The British Parliament consists of two chambers the House of Lords
and the House of Commons.
There are several political parties in Great Britain: the Labour, the
Conservative and the Liberal.
1. The UK is an island state, isn’t it? Where is it situated?
2. What countries is the UK made of? What are their capitals?
3. What channel separates the British Isles from the European
4. The surface of the British Isles varies very much, doesn’t it?
5. What is the north of Scotland called? What is the south of
Scotland called?
6. What’s the highest mountain in Scotland?
7. Are there a lot of long and deep rivers in Great Britain?
8. Why is the climate of the British Isles mild?
9. Is the UK a large country?
10. What’s the UK’s population?
11. The UK is a highly developed industrial country. What does it
produce and export?
12. The UK is a constitutional monarchy. What does it mean?
Read the text, answer the questions, get ready to speak on the
London is the capital of Great Britain, its political, economic and
commercial centre.
It is one of the largest cities in the world and the largest city in
Europe. Its population is about 8 million.
London is one of the oldest and most interesting cities in the
Traditionally it is divided into several parts: the City, Westminster,
the West End and the East End. They are very different from each
other and seem to belong to different towns and epochs.
The heart of London is the City, its financial and business centre.
Numerous banks, offices and firms are situated there, including the Bank
of England, the Stock Exchange and the Old Bailey. Few people live here,
but over a million people come to the City to work. There are some famous
ancient buildings within the City. Perhaps the most striking of them is
St Paul’s Cathedral, the greatest of English churches. It was built in the
17th century by Sir Christopher Wren. The Tower of London was founded
by Julius Caesar and in 1066 rebuilt by William the Conqueror. It was
used as a fortress, a royal palace and a prison. Now it is a museum.
Westminster is the historic, the governmental part of London.
Westminster Abbey has more historic associations than any other
building in Britain. Nearly all English kings and queens have been
crowned here. Many outstanding statesmen, scientists, writers, poets
and painters are buried here: Newton, Darwin, Chaucer, Dickens,
Tennyson, Kipling etc.
Across the road from Westminster Abbey is Westminster Palace,
or the Houses of Parliament, the seat of the British Parliament. The
Clock Tower of the Houses of Parliament is famous for its big hour
bell, known as ‘Big Ben’.
Buckingham Palace is the official residence of the Queen.
The West End is the richest and most beautiful part of London. It is
the symbol of wealth and luxury. The best hotels, shops, restaurants,
clubs, and theatres are situated there. There are splendid houses and
lovely gardens belonging to wealthy people.
Trafalgar Square is the geographical centre of London. It was named
in memory of Admiral Nelson’s victory in the battle of Trafalgar in
1805. The tall Nelson’s Column stands in the middle of the square.
On the north side of Trafalgar Square is the National Gallery and the
National Portrait Gallery. Not far away is the British Museum — the
biggest museum in London. It contains a priceless collection of ancient
manuscripts, coins, sculptures, etc, and is famous for its library.
The East End used to be the poorest district of London. There were a
lot of factories, workshops and docks here. But now this part of London
is growing more beautiful and impressive with each year.
1. Is London the largest city in the world?
2. What’s the population of London?
3. Traditionally London is divided into several parts. Can you name
4. What do you know about the City?
5. Who was St Paul’s Cathedral built by?
6. Who founded the Tower of London? When was it rebuilt?
7. What is the historic, the governmental part of London?
8. What building has more historic associations than any other
building in London?
9. What is Big Ben?
10. Can you describe Trafalgar Square?
11. Where do the working people of London live?
12. What are the most famous London museums and art galleries?
Read the text, answer the questions, get ready to speak on the
The United States of America is the fourth largest country in the
world (after Russia, Canada and China). It occupies the southern part
of North America and stretches from the Pacific to the Atlantic Ocean.
It also includes Alaska in the north and Hawaii in the Pacific Ocean.
The total area of the country is about nine and a half million square
kilometres. The USA borders on Canada in the north and on Mexico in
the south. It also has a sea-border with Russia.
The USA is made up of 50 states and the District of Columbia, a
special federal area where the capital of the country, Washington, is
situated. The population of the country is about 250 million.
If we look at the map of the USA, we can see lowlands and mountains.
The highest mountains are the Rocky Mountains, the Cordillera and
the Sierra Nevada. The highest peak is Mount McKinley which is
located in Alaska.
America’s largest rivers are the Mississippi, the Missouri, the Rio
Grande and the Columbia. The Great Lakes on the border with Canada
are the largest and deepest in the USA.
The climate of the country varies greatly. The coldest regions are in
the north. The climate of Alaska is arctic. The climate of the central part
is continental. The south has a subtropical climate. Hot winds blowing
from the Gulf of Mexico often bring typhoons. The climate along the
Pacific coast is much warmer than that of the Atlantic coast.
The USA is a highly developed industrial country. It is the world’s
leading producer of copper and oil and the world’s second producer of
iron ore and coal. Among the most important manufacturing industries
are aircraft, car, textiles, radio and television sets, armaments,
furniture, and paper.
Though mainly European and African in origin, Americans are
made up from nearly all races and nations, including Chinese and
Native Americans.
The largest cities are: New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, Philadelphia,
Detroit, San-Francisco, Washington and others.
The United States is a federal union of 50 states each of which has
its own government. The seat of the central (federal) government is
Washington, DC. According to the US Constitution the powers of
the government are divided into 3 branches: the executive, headed
by the President, the legislative, exercised by the Congress, and
the judicial. The Congress consists of the Senate and the House of
There are two main political parties in the USA: the Republican and
the Democratic.
1. Where is the USA situated?
2. What’s the total area of the country?
3. What countries does the USA border on?
4. How many states does the USA consist of?
5. What is the capital of the country?
6. Can you name any other cities in the USA?
7. What is the population of the United States?
8. What mountains in the USA do you know?
9. What are the largest rivers?
10. What can you say about the climate of the country?
11. What does the USA produce?
12. According to the US Constitution the powers of the government
are divided into 3 branches. What are they?
13. How many chambers does the Congress of the USA consist?
14. What are the main political parties in the USA?
15. Who is the US President now?
Read the text, answer the questions, get ready to speak on the
Washington is the capital of the United States of America. It is
situated in the District of Columbia and is like no other city of the
USA. It’s the world’s largest one-industry city. And that industry
is government. The White House, where the US President lives and
works, the Capitol, the home of the US Congress, and the Supreme
Court, are all in Washington.
Washington was named after the first US President George
Washington. He selected the place for the capital and Pierre L’Enfant
(Ланфан), a French engineer, designed the city.
Washington was first settled in 1790 and since 1800 it has been the
Federal capital.
Washington is one of the most beautiful and unusual cities in the
United States. In the very centre of it rises the huge dome of the Capitol
— a big white dome standing on a circle of pillars. The 535 members of
the Congress meet here to discuss the nation’s affairs. It’s easy to get
lost in this huge building, full of paintings and statues.
Not far from the Capitol is the Library of Congress, the largest
library in the States. It contains more than 13 million books, more
than 19 million manuscripts, including the personal papers of the US
The White House is the official residence of the US President. He
works in the Oval Office.
One can hardly find a park, a square or an open area in Washington
without a monument or a memorial. The most impressive, and the
best-known ones, are the Lincoln Memorial and the Washington
There are some important museums in Washington where you can
see all kinds of things: famous paintings and sculptures, the dresses of
Presidents’ wives, the original of the Declaration of Independence, the
largest blue diamond in the world etc.
There are 5 universities in Washington.
There are no skyscrapers in Washington, because they would hide
the city’s many monuments from view. No building in the city may be
more than 40 metres tall.
Thousands of tourists visit Washington every day. People from all
parts of the United States come to see their capital.
1. Where is Washington situated?
2. Is Washington a typical American city?
3. It’s the world’s largest one-industry city, isn’t it? What kind of
industry is it?
4. What important government buildings are situated in
5. Where does the US president live and work?
6. Who selected the place for the capital of the USA?
7. Is there a monument to George Washington in the city?
8. When was Washington settled?
9. Who designed the capital of the USA?
10. What places of interest in Washington do you know?
11. How many universities are there in Washington?
12. Why aren’t there any skyscrapers in Washington?
PART 1................................................................................................... Text 1...................................................................................................... Text 2...................................................................................................... Text 3...................................................................................................... Text 4...................................................................................................... Text 5...................................................................................................... Text 6...................................................................................................... Text 7 (part 1)....................................................................................... Text 7 (part 2)....................................................................................... Text 8...................................................................................................... Text 9 (part 1)....................................................................................... Text 9 (part 2)....................................................................................... Text 10................................................................................................... PART 2................................................................................................... TextS FOR READING AND TRANSLATING............................ Text 1...................................................................................................... Text 2...................................................................................................... Text 3...................................................................................................... Text 4...................................................................................................... Text 5...................................................................................................... Text 6...................................................................................................... Text 7...................................................................................................... Text 8...................................................................................................... Text 9...................................................................................................... PART 3................................................................................................... GRAMMAR REVISION SECTION.................................................. VERB FORMS................................................................................. COMPARATIVES AND SUPERLATIVES
OF ADJECTIVES................................................................... SENTENCE STRUCTURE........................................................... PART 4................................................................................................... OUR UNIVERSITY........................................................................ THE SUAI........................................................................................ THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION................................................... ST PETERSBURG.......................................................................... GREAT BRITAIN........................................................................... LONDON.......................................................................................... THE USA.......................................................................................... WASHINGTON, DC...................................................................... 46
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